Sample records for forensic medicine age

  1. Evaluation of Cases Admitted for Age Estimation to Forensic Medicine Department Between 2006 and 2010 Years

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    Ali Yildirim


    Conclusion: In conclusion age determination continues to be one of the important issues of forensic medicine. In cases of age determination, more accurate estimates can be accomplished when radiologically determined age is considered in conjunction with clinical findings such as dental, mental, and psychologic development. [J Contemp Med 2011; 1(2.000: 56-61

  2. Virtual anthropology: useful radiological tools for age assessment in clinical forensic medicine and thanatology. (United States)

    Dedouit, Fabrice; Saint-Martin, Pauline; Mokrane, Fatima-Zohra; Savall, Frédéric; Rousseau, Hervé; Crubézy, Eric; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert


    Virtual anthropology consists of the introduction of modern slice imaging to biological and forensic anthropology. Thanks to this non-invasive scientific revolution, some classifications and staging systems, first based on dry bone analysis, can be applied to cadavers with no need for specific preparation, as well as to living persons. Estimation of bone and dental age is one of the possibilities offered by radiology. Biological age can be estimated in clinical forensic medicine as well as in living persons. Virtual anthropology may also help the forensic pathologist to estimate a deceased person's age at death, which together with sex, geographical origin and stature, is one of the important features determining a biological profile used in reconstructive identification. For this forensic purpose, the radiological tools used are multislice computed tomography and, more recently, X-ray free imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound investigations. We present and discuss the value of these investigations for age estimation in anthropology.

  3. Genomic applications in forensic medicine

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    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels


    Since the 1980s, advances in DNA technology have revolutionized the scope and practice of forensic medicine. From the days of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to short tandem repeats (STRs), the current focus is on the next generation genome sequencing. It has been almost a decad...

  4. Estimation of age in forensic medicine using multivariate approach to image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Belyaev, Ivan; Fominykh, Sergey


    approach based on statistical analysis of grey-level co-occurrence matrix, fractal analysis, wavelet transformation and Angle Measure Technique. Projection on latent structures regression was chosen for calibration and prediction. The method has been applied to 70 male and 63 female individuals aged from...... 21 to 93 and results were compared with traditional approach. Some important questions and problems have been raised....

  5. Forensic age assessment of asylum seekers in Finland. (United States)

    Metsäniitty, Mari; Varkkola, Olli; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Ranta, Helena


    In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays. Forensic age assessment is always performed by two forensic odontologists. In 2015, the total number of forensic age assessment examinations was 149, and the countries of origin of the asylum seekers were most commonly Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia. The current legislation on forensic age assessment has been well received and approved. Radiological and other examinations can be performed in different parts of Finland, but the forensic odontologist at the University of Helsinki is always involved in the process and ensures joint quality standards for the forensic age assessment.

  6. [Forensic age determination in living individuals at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Berlin (Charité): analysis of the expert reports from 2001 to 2007]. (United States)

    Schmidt, Sven; Knüfermann, Raidun; Tsokos, Michael; Schmeling, Andreas


    The analysis included the age reports provided by the Institute of Legal Medicine in Berlin (Charité) in the period from 2001 to 2007. A total of 416 age estimations were carried out, 289 in criminal and 127 in civil proceedings. 357 of the examined individuals were male, 59 were female. The vast majority of the individuals came from Vietnam. In 112 cases, there were no deviations between the indicated age and the estimated minimum age, while the actual age of the individuals was partly clearly above the estimated age. In 300 cases, there were discrepancies of up to 11 years between the indicated age and the estimated age. The study demonstrates that forensic age estimation in living individuals can make an important contribution to legal certainty.

  7. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM)


    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine


    The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC), international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc.), forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics), forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants), psychiatry and...

  8. [Applicability of non-invasive imaging methods in forensic medicine and forensic anthropology in particular]. (United States)

    Marcinková, Mária; Straka, Ľubomír; Novomeský, František; Janík, Martin; Štuller, František; Krajčovič, Jozef


    Massive progress in developing even more precise imaging modalities influenced all medical branches including the forensic medicine. In forensic anthropology, an inevitable part of forensic medicine itself, the use of all imaging modalities becomes even more important. Despite of acquiring more accurate informations about the deceased, all of them can be used in the process of identification and/or age estimation. X - ray imaging is most commonly used in detecting foreign bodies or various pathological changes of the deceased. Computed tomography, on the other hand, can be very helpful in the process of identification, whereas outcomes of this examination can be used for virtual reconstruction of living objects. Magnetic resonance imaging offers new opportunities in detecting cardiovascular pathological processes or develompental anomalies. Ultrasonography provides promising results in age estimation of living subjects without excessive doses of radiation. Processing the latest information sources available, authors introduce the application examples of X - ray imaging, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in everyday forensic medicine routine, with particular focusing on forensic anthropology.

  9. Teaching forensic pathology to undergraduates at Zhongshan School of Medicine. (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Wu, Qiu-Ping; Su, Terry; Zhao, Qian-Hao; Yin, Kun; Zheng, Da; Zheng, Jing-Jing; Huang, Lei; Cheng, Jian-Ding


    Producing qualified forensic pathological practitioners is a common difficulty around the world. In China, forensic pathology is one of the required major subspecialties for undergraduates majoring in forensic medicine, in contrast to forensic education in Western countries where forensic pathology is often optional. The enduring predicament is that the professional qualities and abilities of forensic students from different institutions vary due to the lack of an efficient forensic pedagogical model. The purpose of this article is to describe the new pedagogical model of forensic pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, which is characterised by: (a) imparting a broad view of forensic pathology and basic knowledge of duties and tasks in future careers to students; (b) educating students in primary skills on legal and medical issues, as well as advanced forensic pathological techniques; (c) providing students with resources to broaden their professional minds, and opportunities to improve their professional qualities and abilities; and (d) mentoring students on occupational preparation and further forensic education. In the past few years, this model has resulted in numerous notable forensic students accomplishing achievements in forensic practice and forensic scientific research. We therefore expect this pedagogical model to establish the foundation for forensic pathological education and other subspecialties of forensic medicine in China and abroad.

  10. Approach of forensic medicine to gossypiboma. (United States)

    Karakaya, M Arif; Koç, Okay; Ekiz, Feza; Ağaçhan, A Feran


    The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors and preventive measures for gossypibomas and their medico-legal implications in forensic medicine in the Turkish legal system. This study involved a retrospective analysis of the records of 39 patients with gossypiboma. Records were available from the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institution and were surveyed for faulty treatment between 2008 and 2012. Parameters such as distribution of the cases according to specializations, elective and emergency procedures, surgical procedures, radio-opaque sponge and fluoroscopy availability, routine sponge and instrument counting, number of nurses for counting, and control of the operative field by a second surgeon were investigated. All cases were evaluated by the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institute 3rd Expertise Committee. This committee comprised of specialists from the departments of forensic medicine, orthopedics and traumatology, general surgery, neurology, internal medicine, pediatrics, chest disease, and infectious diseases. All cases were considered as poor medical practice (malpractice) and surgeons were found to be responsible. In 16 of these 39 cases (41%) emergency procedures were performed. No unexpected event was reported in any procedure. In 16 cases (41%), sponge count was performed and was reported to be complete. Operation notes were available in 16 (41%) cases. Control of the operative field was performed by 1 surgeon, and sponge and instrument count was performed by 1 scrub nurse. Radio-opaque sponge and fluoroscopy were available in 9 (23%) centers in these cases. Gossypiboma can be prevented not only with surgeons' care but also with adequate support of medical device and material. However, it is considered as a poor medical practice. Presence of only 1 general surgeon in the expertise committee and ignorance of the working conditions by the surgeons should be questioned.

  11. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine


    Full Text Available The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC, international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc., forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics, forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants, psychiatry and hypnotics, forensic anthropology and archeology, forensic odontology, fingerprints and impressions, firearms and tool marks, white collar crimes (counterfeit and forgery; questioned documents, digital forensics; cyber-crimes, criminal justice and crime scene investigation, as well as many other disciplines where science and medicine interact with the law.

  12. Big data in forensic science and medicine. (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thomas


    In less than a decade, big data in medicine has become quite a phenomenon and many biomedical disciplines got their own tribune on the topic. Perspectives and debates are flourishing while there is a lack for a consensual definition for big data. The 3Vs paradigm is frequently evoked to define the big data principles and stands for Volume, Variety and Velocity. Even according to this paradigm, genuine big data studies are still scarce in medicine and may not meet all expectations. On one hand, techniques usually presented as specific to the big data such as machine learning techniques are supposed to support the ambition of personalized, predictive and preventive medicines. These techniques are mostly far from been new and are more than 50 years old for the most ancient. On the other hand, several issues closely related to the properties of big data and inherited from other scientific fields such as artificial intelligence are often underestimated if not ignored. Besides, a few papers temper the almost unanimous big data enthusiasm and are worth attention since they delineate what is at stakes. In this context, forensic science is still awaiting for its position papers as well as for a comprehensive outline of what kind of contribution big data could bring to the field. The present situation calls for definitions and actions to rationally guide research and practice in big data. It is an opportunity for grounding a true interdisciplinary approach in forensic science and medicine that is mainly based on evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference, ASFSFM 2017: Conference Report

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    Abdulsallam A. Bakdash


    Full Text Available The Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM at Naif Arab University for Security Sciences seeks to present the latest developments in all fields of forensic sciences through holding specialized scientific events and academic activities. This is also achieved through its periodic scientific peer-reviewed journal, the Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine. It also seeks to promote scientific research in all fields of forensic science and forensic medicine, and seeks actively to contribute in holding scientific meetings in accordance with advanced scientific standards, including the 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference. This important event was attended by scientists and experts from various fields of criminal and forensic sciences from both Arab and non-Arab countries. This conference was a significant scientific accomplishment that contributed to the advancement of forensic sciences and forensic medicine in the Arab world. The conference aimed, in accordance with the vision of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, to enhance peace, security and justice in Arab societies.  Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, represented by the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine, held the 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference on the University's campus during the period from 21st to 23rd November 2017. The event included the participation of more than 720 experts in forensic sciences and forensic medicine from 33 countries all over the world. Experts discussed and presented the latest developments in their fields. The conference provided a creative environment for students from both local and international universities to benefit from experts and specialists, and to access the most recent research.  On behalf of His Excellency the president of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, and the Arab Society for

  14. Forensic Experts′ Opinion Regarding Clinical Forensic Medicine Practice in Indonesia and Malaysia

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    Hanusha Nair Gopalakrishnan


    Full Text Available Clinical forensic medicine is a progressing branch. In Indonesia and Malaysia, there is inadequate information regarding this practice. It is always unclear about the job scopes and practitioners involved in this field. The study outlined in this article is aimed to explore the current clinical forensic medicine practice compared to existing systematic practice globally and hence analyzing for presence of difference in this practice between these two countries. A qualitative study was conducted by forensic experts in Indonesia and Malaysia from September to November 2015. In-depth interview was carried out to obtain data which were then validated using literature and legal documents in Indonesia and Malaysia known as the triangulation validation method. Data were presented in narrative form. In Indonesia, forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine were approached as one whereas in Malaysia separately. This practice was conducted by a general practitioner in collaboration with other specialists if needed in Indonesia; whereas, in Malaysia, this practice was conducted by forensic pathologists or medical officers in the absence of forensic pathologists. Both Indonesia and Malaysia followed the continental regimen in practicing clinical forensic medicine. There was still a lack of involvement of doctors in this field due to lack of understanding of clinical forensic medicine. The current clinical forensic medicine practice has not developed much and has no much difference in both countries. The gap between the current practice with systematic practice cannot be justified due to the absence of one standardized code of practice.

  15. 2nd Arab Forensic Science & Forensic Medicine Meeting, ASFSFM 2016: Meeting Report

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    Abdulsallam Bakdash


    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS is to enhance peace, security, and justice in Arab societies through education, research, and advanced professional training in various disciplines of security and forensic sciences. NAUSS strives to improve the academic and professional skills of forensic scientists and security personnel to combat crime and terrorism by utilizing all the available tools of modern technology. NAUSS also realizes the importance of scientific research in the social, economic, and technological development of a society and is, therefore, committed to encouraging and supporting research at every level. NAUSS has given the fields of forensic sciences and forensic medicine a top priority and the attention they deserve. In pursuit of its objectives, and in cooperation with other Arab member organizations, NAUSS launched the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM in 2013. The Society had the honour of being officially launched by His Royal Highness, Prince Mohammed bin Naif bin Abdul Aziz, Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister and the Minister of the Interior, Honorary President of the Council of Arab Ministers of Interior and Chairman of the Supreme Council of NAUSS. The 2nd Arab Forensic Science & Forensic Medicine Meeting (ASFSFM Meeting 2016 was yet another part of the efforts and concern of NAUSS to advance the skills and knowledge of Arab specialists and to facilitate cooperation among forensic scientists and institutions engaged in the practice, education and research of forensic sciences and forensic medicine at various levels.

  16. Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences (United States)

    Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.


    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955–1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 ± 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

  17. Forensic intelligence for medicine anti-counterfeiting. (United States)

    Dégardin, Klara; Roggo, Yves; Margot, Pierre


    Medicine counterfeiting is a crime that has increased in recent years and now involves the whole world. Health and economic repercussions have led pharmaceutical industries and agencies to develop many measures to protect genuine medicines and differentiate them from counterfeits. Detecting counterfeit is chemically relatively simple for the specialists, but much more information can be gained from the analyses in a forensic intelligence perspective. Analytical data can feed criminal investigation and law enforcement by detecting and understanding the criminal phenomenon. Profiling seizures using chemical and packaging data constitutes a strong way to detect organised production and industrialised forms of criminality, and is the focus of this paper. Thirty-three seizures of a commonly counterfeited type of capsule have been studied. The results of the packaging and chemical analyses were gathered within an organised database. Strong linkage was found between the seizures at the different production steps, indicating the presence of a main counterfeit network dominating the market. The interpretation of the links with circumstantial data provided information about the production and the distribution of counterfeits coming from this network. This forensic intelligence perspective has the potential to be generalised to other types of products. This may be the only reliable approach to help the understanding of the organised crime phenomenon behind counterfeiting and to enable efficient strategic and operational decision making in an attempt to dismantle counterfeit network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of forensic medicine in post reform Indonesia. (United States)

    Syukriani, Yoni Fuadah; Novita, Nita; Sunjaya, Deni K


    Forensic medicine practice in Indonesia was introduced through the Dutch colonial criminal justice system in the early twentieth century. After more than 70 years of national independence, the development of forensic medicine still faces fundamental challenges, including confusion in the distribution of responsibility with law enforcement agencies, difficulties in managing conflicts of interest, and impediments in scientific practice and professional development. Despite of the golden opportunity from the Indonesian Reform movement in the late 1990s, the impact on forensic medicine development has been less than expected. It is thus important to identify the scope of the problems plaguing the development of forensic medicine, as well as its causes. We conducted a qualitative study to explain the problems and propose solutions. The results show that the standards of practice have developed more slowly than those in many other branches of medicine, despite its increasing popularity from its role in counterterrorism and disaster victim identification. A strong thriving spirit exists in forensic science, although growth in forensic research activities should be facilitated more. The 2009 Health Law has included forensic medicine practice in the health system to cover the role of forensic medicine for health and medical education purposes. It also potentially provides a way to support the justice system without exposing forensic practitioners to possible conflicts of interest, for instance, by utilizing a tiered referral system. To this aim, an alternative is proposed: to place forensic medicine practice within the context of the health system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. What is legal medicine--are legal and forensic medicine the same? (United States)

    Beran, Roy G


    Some consider the terms "forensic" and "legal" medicine to be synonymous but this is counter to the title of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine or the dual strands for progression to fellowship of the Australian College of Legal Medicine. The paper examines a very brief historical background to legal medicine and develops a definition of the strands thereof, namely legal and forensic medicine. It demonstrates that the two are different components of the application of medical knowledge upon the legal system. Legal medicine has greater relevance to civil and tort law, impacting upon patient care, whereas forensic medicine relates to criminal law and damage to, or by, patients.

  20. Development of a clinical forensic medicine curriculum for emergency physicians in the USA. (United States)

    Smock, W S


    To address the forensic needs of living patients, the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Louisville School of Medicine in Louisville, Kentucky, USA initiated the first clinical forensic medicine training programme in the USA. In July 1991, formal training in clinical forensic medicine was incorporated into the core curriculum of the USA's second oldest academic emergency medicine training programme. The University of Louisville, in cooperation with the Kentucky Medical Examiner's Office, developed the curriculum to provide the emergency physician with the knowledge base and technical skills to perform forensic evaluations of living patients. Forensic lectures are given monthly by local and regional forensic experts including: forensic pathologists, prosecuting attorneys, firearm and ballistics examiners, law enforcement officers, forensic chemists and forensic odontologists. Topics which are presented include: forensic pathology, forensic photography, ballistics and firearms analysis, paediatric physical and sexual assault, crime scene investigation, forensic odontology, courtroom and expert testimony and the forensic evaluation of penetrating trauma. As a result of the introduction of clinical forensic medicine into the core curriculum of an emergency medicine training programme the residents are now actively addressing the forensic issues encountered in the Emergency department. Key, often short-lived forensic evidence, which was frequently overlooked or discarded while delivering patient care is now recognized, documented and preserved. The development and introduction of a clinical forensic medicine curriculum into emergency medicine training has greatly enhanced the emergency physician's ability to recognize, document and address the forensic needs of their patients who are victims of violent and non-fatal trauma.

  1. Law and forensic medicine in Scotland. (United States)

    Pounder, D J


    crimes are not covered by legislation. Scots law divides homicide into three classes: murder, culpable homicide (ie. murder under mitigating circumstances), and non-criminal homicide. The homicide rate is relatively low with approximately 60 murders and 40 culpable homicides each year for a population of 5.12 million. The commonest methods are stabbing/cutting (40%) and hitting/kicking (20%). Only 3% are by firearms. Organised forensic medicine began with the professorships in medical jurisprudence at Edinburgh in 1806 and at Glasgow in 1839. Today forensic pathology services are funded by the central government but are based in the universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dundee, and Aberdeen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  2. Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains. (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H; de Bruin, Karla G; van Gemert, Martin J C; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G


    Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time elapsed since the crime was committed is still not possible. From a criminalistic point of view, an accurate estimation of when the crime was committed enables to verify witnesses' statements, limits the number of suspects and assesses alibis. Despite several attempts and exploration of many technologies during a century, no method has been materialized into forensic practice. This review gives an overview of an extensive search in scientific literature of techniques that address the quest for age determination of bloodstains. We found that most techniques are complementary to each other, in short as well as long term age determination. Techniques are compared concerning their sensitivity for short and long term ageing of bloodstains and concerning their possible applicability to be used on a crime scene. In addition, experimental challenges like substrate variation, interdonor variation and environmental influences are addressed. Comparison of these techniques contributes to our knowledge of the physics and biochemistry in an ageing bloodstain. Further improvement and incorporation of environmental factors are necessary to enable age determination of bloodstains to be acceptable in court. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Between the Living and the Dead: Trauma Medicine and Forensic Medicine in the Mid-Qing. (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Li


    This paper analyzes the influence of forensic medicine on therapeutic medicine through a case study of Qian Xiuchang and Hu Tingguang, two Chinese doctors who specialized in treating traumatic injuries. During the early nineteenth century, both men compiled medical treatises that sought to improve on a scholarly model of "rectifying bones" articulated in 1742 by the Imperially-Compiled Golden Mirror of the Medical Lineage . Both texts also incorporated information from forensic medicine, including official inquest diagrams and checklists promulgated by the Qing government. I show that they drew on these forensic materials to help address two interlinked medical issues: understanding the effects of injury on different parts of the body, and clarifying the location and form of the body's bones. Overall, I suggest that the exchange of ideas between the realm of therapeutic medicine and forensic medicine was an important epistemological strategy that doctors and officials alike employed to improve their knowledge of the material body.

  4. Personalized Medicine Applied to Forensic Sciences: New Advances and Perspectives for a Tailored Forensic Approach. (United States)

    Santurro, Alessandro; Vullo, Anna Maria; Borro, Marina; Gentile, Giovanna; La Russa, Raffaele; Simmaco, Maurizio; Frati, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio


    Personalized medicine (PM), included in P5 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, Participative and Precision medicine) is an innovative approach to the patient, emerging from the need to tailor and to fit the profile of each individual. PM promises to dramatically impact also on forensic sciences and justice system in ways we are only beginning to understand. The application of omics (genomic, transcriptomics, epigenetics/imprintomics, proteomic and metabolomics) is ever more fundamental in the so called "molecular autopsy". Emerging fields of interest in forensic pathology are represented by diagnosis and detection of predisposing conditions to fatal thromboembolic and hypertensive events, determination of genetic variants related to sudden death, such as congenital long QT syndromes, demonstration of lesions vitality, identification of biological matrices and species diagnosis of a forensic trace on crime scenes without destruction of the DNA. The aim of this paper is to describe the state-of-art in the application of personalized medicine in forensic sciences, to understand the possibilities of integration in routine investigation of these procedures with classical post-mortem studies and to underline the importance of these new updates in medical examiners' armamentarium in determining cause of death or contributing factors to death. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  5. The Rise of Forensic Pathology in Human Medicine: Lessons for Veterinary Forensic Pathology. (United States)

    Pollanen, M S


    The rise of forensic pathology in human medicine has greatly contributed to the administration of justice, public safety and security, and medical knowledge. However, the evolution of human forensic pathology has been challenging. Veterinary forensic pathologists can learn from some of the lessons that have informed the growth and development of human forensic pathology. Three main observations have emerged in the past decade. First, wrongful convictions tell us to use a truth-seeking stance rather than an a priori "think dirty" stance when investigating obscure death. Second, missed homicides and concealed homicides tell us that training and certification are the beginning of reliable forensic pathology. Third, failure of a sustainable institutional arrangement that fosters a combination of service, research, and teaching will lead to stagnation of knowledge. Forensic pathology of humans and animals will flourish, help protect society, and support justice if we embrace a modern biomedical scientific model for our practice. We must build training programs, contribute to the published literature, and forge strong collaborative institutions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Forensic dental investigations and age assessment of asylum seekers. (United States)

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Di Vella, Giancarlo


    Age estimation is useful in forensic investigations to aid in the process of identifying unknown victims as well as living individuals. In many countries age estimation is commonly used to assist immigration authorities in deciding whether refugees or illegal migrants have reached that designated age that separates a juvenile from an adult. This is particularly important for the protection of unaccompanied minors. Italy is a country of great appeal for immigration as people from other Mediterranean countries can easily reach Italian coasts. In Italy, as in other western world countries, unaccompanied asylum seekers deemed to be under 18 face a very different path through the immigration system. They cannot be deported and are sent through a juvenile system where they have access to education programmes and may be granted a residence permit. The Section of Legal Medicine of the University of Bari was approached by Judges and Immigration Police with the question to assess the age of unaccompanied asylum seekers who claim to be below 18 years of age. The contribution of forensic odontologists for age estimation was recognised and since November 2006 age estimation of asylum seekers in Bari (Italy) relies on clinical and dental examination together with skeletal maturation as seen on radiographs of the left hand and wrist, the pelvis for iliac crests and root development and mineralisation of third molars as seen on an orthopantomogram.

  7. [New discoveries in forensic medicine. Hair analysis]. (United States)

    Kaempe, B


    A review of forensic chemical drug testing in hair is given. Applications for analysis of hair are described. The special problems linked to the determination of drugs in hair such as contamination, differences in sex and ethnic groups and cosmetic pretreatment of the hair are outlined. It is concluded that greater knowledge of hair analysis is needed before the results can be used for toxicological evaluation at the same level as blood. On the other hand, a chemical hair analysis might expose a (mis)use of drugs and follow it step by step up to half a year back in time. In this way, it may supplement a systematic toxicological analysis (STA) for 'a general unknown' for use by police and forensic pathologists.

  8. Mitochondria in anthropology and forensic medicine. (United States)

    Grzybowski, Tomasz; Rogalla, Urszula


    Mitochondria's role in crucial metabolic pathways is probably the first answer which comes to our minds for the question: what do these tiny organelles serve for? However, specific features of their DNA made them extremely useful also in the field of anthropology and forensics. MtDNA analyses became a milestone in the complex task of unraveling earliest human migrations. Evidence provided by these experiments left no doubts on modern humans origins pointing to Africa being our cradle. It also contributed to interpretation of putative ways of our dispersal around Asia and Americas thousands years ago. On the other hand, analysis of mtDNA is well established and valuable tool in forensic genetics. When other definitely more popular markers give no answer on identity, it is the time to employ information carried by mitochondria. This chapter summarizes not only current reports on the role of mitochondria in forensics and reconstruction of modern humans phylogeny, but also calls one's attention to a broad range of difficulties and constraints associated with mtDNA analyses.

  9. Getting to the core of medicine: Developing undergraduate forensic medicine and pathology teaching. (United States)

    Jones, Richard Martin


    Teaching and learning of forensic medicine and pathology in the undergraduate medical curriculum has been in decline for decades in the UK, and yet graduates are expected to be able to recognise, and protect, those who are most vulnerable in society - i.e. at risk of abuse or neglect - a matter highly relevant to the role of the forensic medical practitioner. When Cardiff University School of Medicine created a new 'learner-centred' undergraduate curriculum, championing case-based discussion in small groups, and earlier clinical contact, residual teaching on 'the pathology of trauma' disappeared. An opportunity to create a new course for the year 3 core curriculum, however, led to re-emergence of forensic medicine and pathology, with a focus on identification, and protection, of the 'vulnerable patient'. This paper describes the development process of the first two iterations of that course, and the influence of 'listening to the student voice'. Forensic medicine and pathology remain relevant in undergraduate medical education; effective, and ethical, safeguarding of the vulnerable is an essential 'core' skill of the modern medical graduate, and forensic medical practitioners can play an integral role in the preparation of medical students for their future clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Digital image processing as an aid in forensic medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Wenz, W.; Friedrich, G.


    Radiology plays an important role in the identification of unknown corpses. Positive radiographic identification by comparison with antemortem films is an established technique in this setting. Technical defects together with non-well-preserved films make it sometimes difficult or even impossible to establish a confident comparison. Digital image processing after secondary digitalization of ante- and postmortem films represents an important development and aid in forensic medicine. The application of this method is demonstrated on a single case. (orig.) [de

  11. Disturbances in Tooth Mineralization and Forensic Dental Age Estimations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Dyrgaard; Arge, Sára Oladóttir; Larsen, Sara Tangmose

    When performing a forensic dental age assessment, mineralization disturbances of the teeth and the possible consequences these may have upon the reliability of the assessment must be taken into consideration. Furthermore, mineralization disturbances of a general character in the teeth may be seen...... as an indicator of more systemic insults during tooth formation and thus supplement the examination performed by the forensic pathologist. At our department the forensic dental age assessment is based upon a dental panoramic image, intra oral images of the third molars as well as a clinical photograph...

  12. [The history of Polish criminalistics and forensic medicine and their links to Austrian science]. (United States)

    Widacki, Jan


    The institution of the medical expert was already known in the early Polish courts. The first Chair of Forensic Medicine on Polish soil was established in 1805 at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow and has existed until today. Among its most prominent forensic scientists are Prof. Fryderyk Hechell (1795-1851), Prof. Leon Blumenstock (1838-1895), who was the first to give regular lectures on forensic medicine for law students, and Prof. Leon Wachholz (1867-1941), who was a student of both Prof. Blumenstock and Prof. Eduard von Hofmann (1837-1897), under whose supervision he worked in Vienna. Under his guidance and supervision, he started to collect material for his habilitation. At that time, Hofmann was considered the pioneer of experimental research in forensic medicine. In Vienna, Wachholz was a guest scientist not only with Prof. von Hofmann, but also in the Psychiatric Hospital of Prof. Richard von Krafft-Ebing. After his return to Cracow, he was head of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the Jagiellonian University for several decades. Apart from forensic medicine in the strict sense of the word, he also worked in the fields now known as criminalistics, forensic psychiatry and criminology. In these latter fields, the influence of Krafft-Ebing was still noticeable. Three students of Wachholz became professors of forensic medicine: Jan Olbrycht, Stanislaw Horoszkiewicz and Włodzimierz Sieradzki. Their students founded a whole generation of forensic scientists. Today, all Polish forensic scientists are either directly or indirectly students of Professor Wachholz' successors.

  13. Student's perception about innovative teaching learning practices in Forensic Medicine. (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Parekh, Utsav N; Ganjiwale, Jaishree D


    Since decades, Forensic Medicine is mainly taught by didactic methods but in last couple of years some other teachinglearning and assessment methods are also introduced at some places which also lacks uniformity. Feedback from learners is most fundamental aspect to assess effectiveness of applied methods, but is not implemented in practice at most medical schools in India. Unfortunately, medical students are deprived of this practical empowerment and thus may not be efficient enough to contribute potentially to the justice system during their professional life. In order to improve their efficiency in the field, we introduced few innovative teaching-learning methods and documented their perceptions. This pilot study was carried out with students who had completed their second professional year (5th semester) of medical curriculum. Students were exposed to few innovative teaching-learning and assessment approaches in addition to conventional methods during their Forensic Medicine term. These approaches were interactivity in large group lecturing, small group activities, student led objective tutorial, court visit in real scenario, practical records book, surprise tests, structured theory question papers, model answers, objective structured practical examinations and structured oral viva. Their perceptions were documented later through structured questionnaire. Students reported all methods as 'interesting' except 'surprise tests'. Court visits were rated highest for generating interest (98%). Clarity of concept was experienced through all methods (range of 71-95%). Interactive large group lectures reported highest (by 95%students) for clarifying concepts, although this is not a typical characteristic of large group teaching. Enhanced learning experience was reported in 75-92.5% for different methods. Student Led Objective Tutorials seemed to facilitate enhance learning most (92.5%). Innovations in teaching-learning are need of hour especially in subject like Forensic

  14. [Research Progress of Carrion-breeding Phorid Flies for Post-mortem Interval Estimation in Forensic Medicine]. (United States)

    Li, L; Feng, D X; Wu, J


    It is a difficult problem of forensic medicine to accurately estimate the post-mortem interval. Entomological approach has been regarded as an effective way to estimate the post-mortem interval. The developmental biology of carrion-breeding flies has an important position at the post-mortem interval estimation. Phorid flies are tiny and occur as the main or even the only insect evidence in relatively enclosed environments. This paper reviews the research progress of carrion-breeding phorid flies for estimating post-mortem interval in forensic medicine which includes their roles, species identification and age determination of immatures. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  15. [Present possibilities of age determination in forensic medicine with emphasis on the importance of measurement of D- and L- forms of aspartic acid. I. An overview]. (United States)

    Pilin, A; Pudil, F; Gross, R; Herrmannová, M


    Evaluation of age of unknown deceased persons belongs to the most important ways to identification. For the time being, morphological methods are used, namely evaluation of age according to Gustafson's method from tooth grindings or by macroscopical estimation of abrasion, transparency of root dentine, alveolar atrophy and number of missing teeth. Evaluation of the data can be influenced by an individual failure and experience showed an age related decrease of precision. Recently, some papers occurred estimating a relation of D, L-forms of aspartic acid which depends on the age with a significant precision.

  16. Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; de Bruin, Karla G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.


    Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time

  17. [Forensic medicine as the cradle of toxicology in Russia]. (United States)

    Popov, V L; Grebeniuk, A N; Pigolkin, Iu I; Tolmachev, I A; Bozhchenko, A P; Timoshevskiĭ, A A


    Modern toxicology as a science and educational subject originated from forensic medicine in the middle of the XIXth century. In the beginning, selected toxicological problems were taught in the Emperor's Medical Surgical Academy (presently S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, Sankt-Peterburg) and at the Medical Faculty of the Moscow University (presently I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow). The greatest contribution to the development of toxicology was made by such outstanding scientists as professors S.A. Gromov, P.P. Pelekhin, P.P. Zablotsky-Desyatovsky, E.V. Pelikan, Ya.A. Chistovich, G.I. Blosfel'd, I.M. Sorokin, D.P. Kosorotov, A.V. Grigoriev, V.V. Andreev, A.A. Glebovich, A.N. Grigoriev, B.I. Predtechensky, V.M. Rozhkov, S.S. Vail, M.N. Lubotsky, etc. The works of these researchers predetermined the further development of toxicology in this country, its main purpose being provision of medical aid in case of poisoning and diseases of chemical etiology. Another line of toxicological research became industrial and environmental toxicology having the purpose of hygienic rating and prevention of poisoning. Nevertheless, all aspects of the multifaceted science of toxicology are related to forensic medicine as the cradle in which it originated, evolved, and turned into a self-consistent science.

  18. [Research Progress on Forensic Dentistry]. (United States)

    Liu, F; Dang, Y H


    Forensic dentistry is an interdiscipline of forensic medicine and stomatology, which provides legal information by collecting, testing and assessing the dental evidence scientifically. In this review, the present application of forensic dentistry has been described, such as the estimation of age, sex, species, occupation and living habit, as well as the identification of individual, domestic violence or abuse, which aims to enrich and improve forensic dentistry for making it be more useful in forensic medicine even in juridical practice. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  19. Forensic Medicine in South Africa: Associations between Medical Practice and Legal Case Progression and Outcomes in Female Murders (United States)

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Martin, Lorna J.; Mathews, Shanaaz


    Background Forensic medicine has been largely by-passed by the tide of health systems research and evidence based medicine. Murder victims form a central part of forensic medical examiners' case load, and women murdered by intimate partners are an important subgroup, representing the most severe form and consequence of intimate partner violence. Our aim was to describe the epidemiology of female murder in South Africa (by intimate and non-intimate partners); and to describe and compare autopsy findings, forensic medical management of cases and the contribution of these to legal outcomes. Methods We did a retrospective national study in a proportionate random sample of 25 medico-legal laboratories to identify all homicides in 1999 of women aged 14 years and over. Data were abstracted from the mortuary file and autopsy report, and collected from a police interview. Findings In 21.5% of cases the perpetrator was convicted. Factors associated with a conviction for the female murders included having a history of intimate partner violence 1.18 (95%CI: 0.16–2.20), weapon recovered 1.36 (95% CI:0.58–2.15) and a detective visiting the crime scene 1.57 (95% CI:0.14–3.00). None of the forensic medical activities increased the likelihood of a conviction. Conclusion The findings raise important questions about the role of forensic medicine in these cases. PMID:22194868

  20. Forensic medicine in South Africa: associations between medical practice and legal case progression and outcomes in female murders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemah Abrahams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forensic medicine has been largely by-passed by the tide of health systems research and evidence based medicine. Murder victims form a central part of forensic medical examiners' case load, and women murdered by intimate partners are an important subgroup, representing the most severe form and consequence of intimate partner violence. Our aim was to describe the epidemiology of female murder in South Africa (by intimate and non-intimate partners; and to describe and compare autopsy findings, forensic medical management of cases and the contribution of these to legal outcomes. METHODS: We did a retrospective national study in a proportionate random sample of 25 medico-legal laboratories to identify all homicides in 1999 of women aged 14 years and over. Data were abstracted from the mortuary file and autopsy report, and collected from a police interview. FINDINGS: In 21.5% of cases the perpetrator was convicted. Factors associated with a conviction for the female murders included having a history of intimate partner violence 1.18 (95%CI: 0.16-2.20, weapon recovered 1.36 (95% CI:0.58-2.15 and a detective visiting the crime scene 1.57 (95% CI:0.14-3.00. None of the forensic medical activities increased the likelihood of a conviction. CONCLUSION: The findings raise important questions about the role of forensic medicine in these cases.

  1. Discrete traits of the sternum and ribs: a useful contribution to identification in forensic anthropology and medicine. (United States)

    Verna, Emeline; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Bartoli, Christophe; Leonetti, Georges; Adalian, Pascal


    During forensic anthropological investigation, biological profile is determined by age, sex, ancestry, and stature. However, several individuals may share the same profile. Observation of discrete traits can yield useful information and contribute to identification. This research establishes the frequency of discrete traits of the sternum and ribs in a modern population in southern France, using 500 computer tomography (CT) scans of individuals aged 15-60 years. Only discrete traits with a frequency lower than 10% according to the literature were considered, a total of eight traits. All scans examined were three-dimensional (3D) volume renderings from DICOM images. In our population, the frequency of all the discrete traits was lower than 5%. None were associated with sex or age, with the exception of a single trait, the end of the xiphoid process. Our findings can usefully be applied for identification purposes in forensic anthropology and medicine. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. [Rape and transgression. Forensic medicine and sexual morality in Spain in the 19th century]. (United States)

    Carpena, Amalio Lorente


    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the contribution of the Spanish forensic medical discourse in the 19th century, and its application in cases of sexual harassment, to legitimize the sexual moral value of the time. For that reason we will analyse the main forensic medicine treaties edited in Spain during this century.

  3. [Use of entomologic findings in forensic medicine and criminology]. (United States)

    Franc, V; Hrasko, P; Snopko, M


    The submitted paper reacts to the unsatisfactory state as regards the literary treatment, and in particular the practical application of entomology in forensic medicine and criminology. The authors draw attention to the relatively wide perspectives of the application of entomological findings in the mentioned disciplines and define more accurately some terminological and oecological problems. The core of the work is a review of important species of necrophilous insects focused on Coleoptera. This part is introduced by an outline of oecological groups of necrophilous insects, whereby emphasis is given to their claims on habitat and food and their biotopical claims. The account of species is based on the chronological sequence as the insect invade the corpse in different stages of its destruction. Attention is paid also to abiotic (in particular climatic) factors which influence the rate of destruction. As to more extensive possible applications of entomology in the above disciplines, at least the following should be mentioned: 1. Application on the basis of the trophic relationship of insects and he corpses (time of death, possibly post-mortem transport based on investigation of the entomofauna of the corpse). 2. Information on restricted hygienic habits of the dead (the presence of ectoparasitic insects). 3. Passive intoxications, possibly active intoxications by poisonous insects. 4. Insects incidentally found on clothes, motor vehicles etc. during examination. In the conclusion the authors emphasize methodical problems of collection and processing of material and outline the prerequisites for extending and improving the application of entomological findings and methods in the mentioned disciplines.

  4. Vitreous humour - routine or alternative material for analysis in forensic medicine. (United States)

    Markowska, Joanna; Szopa, Monika; Zawadzki, Marcin; Piekoszewski, Wojciech


    Biological materials used in toxicological analyses in forensic medicine traditionally include blood, urine and vitreous humour. Forensic use of the vitreous body is mostly due to the need to assess the endogenous concentration of ethyl alcohol in the process of human body decomposition. The vitreous body is an underestimated biological material, even though its biochemical properties and anatomical location make it suitable for specific forensic toxicology tests as a reliable material for the preparation of forensic expert opinions. Based on the available literature the paper gathers information on the biochemical structure of the vitreous body, ways to secure the material after collection and its use in postmortem diagnostics. Specific applications of the vitreous humour for biochemical and toxicological tests are discussed, with a focus on its advantages and limitations in forensic medical assessment which are attributable to its biochemical properties, anatomical location and limited scientific studies on the distribution of xenobiotics in the vitreous body.

  5. [Histopathological analysis of organs submitted by legal medicine experts in Baojii City: 358 forensic identification cases]. (United States)

    Dong, Du-xuan; Shi, Ping-xia; Li, Yun-li; Tian, San-hu; Yang, Jia; Gao, Gang; Zheng, Yun; Jia, Le; Ju, Hong-ya; Sun, Lu-ying; Chen, Ni; Wang, Xiao-bao


    To analyze pathological characteristics of organs recovered during forensic autopsy submitted by legal medicine experts. From Baoji city, 358 cases of forensic autopsy specimens from a series of routine exams were collected. And histopathological diagnoses were reviewed. Majority of the 358 cases were young men. The major causes of death were trauma, sudden death and poisoning. The cause of death was determined with histology in 250 cases. No typical histological changes were noted in 101 cases. The tissue autolysis and decomposition were present in 7 cases. The major pathological diagnosis was cardiovascular disease, followed by diseases in respiratory, nervous, and digestive systems. Forensic autopsy with its professional characteristics, is different from regular autopsy. When diagnosing cause of death by histopathological examination, pathologists should collaborate with legal medicine experts to know the details of the cases, circumstances surrounding the death, and specific forensic pathological characteristics.

  6. [Biological characteristics of calliphoridae and its application in forensic medicine]. (United States)

    Zhao, Boa; Wen, Charn; Qi, Li-Li; Wang, He; Wang, Ji


    Diptera Calliphoridae is the first major kind of flies that appears on the decomposed corpses. In forensic entomology, according to the living characteristics of Calliphoridae flies, we could accurately estimate postmortem interval (PMI) in a murder or unidentified case and could provide useful clues to solve the case. This paper introduces the characteristics of the biology and morphology of Diptera Calliphoridae, and reviews the combined application of forensic entomology, molecular biology, mathematical morphology and toxicology.

  7. Forensic Emergency Medicine - Six-Year Experience of 13823 Cases in a University Emergency Department


    DEMİRCAN, Ahmet; KELEŞ, Ayfer; GÜRBÜZ, Neslihan; BİLDİK, Fikret


    Aims: Clinical forensic medicine deals with cases involving both the legal and medical aspects of patient care, such as motor vehicle trauma or poisoning. In this study, we aimed to draw attention to the forensic issues by retrospective investigation of 13823 emergency cases and to share our experiences on this topic. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in a university Emergency Department (ED) in Ankara, Turkey. The data were collected from official hospital polic...

  8. Rape and transgression. Forensic medicine and sexual morality in Spain in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente Carpena, Amalio


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the contribution of the Spanish forensic medical discourse in the 19th century, and its application in cases of sexual harassment, to legitimize the sexual moral value of the time. For that reason we will analyse the main forensic medicine treaties edited in Spain during this century.

    En este trabajo se examina la contribución del discurso médico-forense español del siglo XIX, a través de su aplicación en los casos de agresión sexual, a la legitimación del orden moral sexual de la época. Con este objetivo se analizan los principales tratados de Medicina Forense editados en nuestro país durante ese siglo.

  9. Mobile markerless augmented reality and its application in forensic medicine. (United States)

    Kilgus, Thomas; Heim, Eric; Haase, Sven; Prüfer, Sabine; Müller, Michael; Seitel, Alexander; Fangerau, Markus; Wiebe, Tamara; Iszatt, Justin; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Hornegger, Joachim; Yen, Kathrin; Maier-Hein, Lena


    During autopsy, forensic pathologists today mostly rely on visible indication, tactile perception and experience to determine the cause of death. Although computed tomography (CT) data is often available for the bodies under examination, these data are rarely used due to the lack of radiological workstations in the pathological suite. The data may prevent the forensic pathologist from damaging evidence by allowing him to associate, for example, external wounds to internal injuries. To facilitate this, we propose a new multimodal approach for intuitive visualization of forensic data and evaluate its feasibility. A range camera is mounted on a tablet computer and positioned in a way such that the camera simultaneously captures depth and color information of the body. A server estimates the camera pose based on surface registration of CT and depth data to allow for augmented reality visualization of the internal anatomy directly on the tablet. Additionally, projection of color information onto the CT surface is implemented. We validated the system in a postmortem pilot study using fiducials attached to the skin for quantification of a mean target registration error of [Formula: see text] mm. The system is mobile, markerless, intuitive and real-time capable with sufficient accuracy. It can support the forensic pathologist during autopsy with augmented reality and textured surfaces. Furthermore, the system enables multimodal documentation for presentation in court. Despite its preliminary prototype status, it has high potential due to its low price and simplicity.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 1, 2000 ... These doctors are at a disadvantage by the lack of administrative control, proper office space and large workload. All forensic cases are .... management approach should involve the doctors in all cases that are admitted to the ...

  11. Review of some recent techniques of age determination of blow flies having forensic implications


    Madhu Bala; Anika Sharma


    Forensic entomology can aid death investigation by using predictable developmental changes to estimate the age of flies associated with a body. Forensic entomologists use size and developmental stages to estimate blowfly age, and from those, a Postmortem Interval. Calliphorids are very interesting in forensic sciences from an applied point of view, because they provide relevant evidence for estimating the Postmortem Interval. Since such estimates are generally accurate but often lack precisio...

  12. Palaeomicrobiology meets forensic medicine: time as a fourth-dimension for the crime scene. (United States)

    Bazaj, A; Turrina, S; De Leo, D; Cornaglia, G


    The unrelenting progress of laboratory techniques is rapidly unleashing the huge potential of palaeomicrobiology. That bodies are often found in poor condition is common to both palaeomicrobiology and forensic medicine, and this might stimulate them towards a joint quest to extract reproducible data for reliable specimens.

  13. Palaeomicrobiology meets forensic medicine: time as a fourth-dimension for the crime scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bazaj


    Full Text Available The unrelenting progress of laboratory techniques is rapidly unleashing the huge potential of palaeomicrobiology. That bodies are often found in poor condition is common to both palaeomicrobiology and forensic medicine, and this might stimulate them towards a joint quest to extract reproducible data for reliable specimens.

  14. European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) accreditation of forensic pathology services in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangin, P; Bonbled, F; Väli, M


    in order to provide forensic reports of high quality. In this respect, there is a need for any private or public national or international authority including non-governmental organizations seeking experts qualified in forensic medicine to have at disposal a list of specialists working in accordance...... process, determining in a scientific way the cause(s) and manner of unexpected and/or unnatural death or bringing clinical evidence in case of physical, psychological, or sexual abuse in living people. From a legal perspective, these types of investigation must meet international standards, i...

  15. Supplementary value of functional imaging in forensic medicine. (United States)

    Mirzaei, Siroos; Sonneck-Koenne, Charlotte; Bruecke, Thomas; Aryana, Kamran; Knoll, Peter; Zakavi, Rasoul


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of functional imaging for forensic purposes. We reviewed a few outpatient cases that were sent to our department for examination after traumatic events and one case with neuropsychic disturbances. Functional imaging showed signs of traumatic lesions in the skeletal system, of brain metabolism and of renal failure. Functional disturbances following traumatic events are in some cases more important than morphological abnormalities. Targeted scintigraphic examinations could be applied for visualisation of traumatic lesions or evaluation of functional disturbances caused by traumatic events. These examinations can be used as evidence in the courtroom.

  16. [Racism of "Blood" and colonial medicine - Blood group anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine]. (United States)

    Jung, Joon Young


    This paper attempts to explore implications of Colonial medicine's Blood Type Studies, concerning the characteristics and tasks of racism in the Japanese Colonial Empire. Especially, it focuses on the Blood Group Anthropology Studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine. In Colonial Korea, the main stream of Blood Type Studies were Blood Group Anthropology Studies, which place Korean people who was inferior to Japanese people in the geography of the race on the one hand, but on the other, put Koreans as a missing link between the Mongolian and the Japanese for fulfillment of the Japanese colonialism, that is, assimilationist ideology. Then, Compared to the Western medicine and Metropole medicine of Japan, How differentiated was this tendency of Colonial Medicine from them? In this paper, main issues of Blood Group Anthropology Studies and its colonial implications are examined. The Korean Society for the History of Medicine.

  17. DNA typing in forensic medicine and in criminal investigations: a current survey (United States)

    Benecke, Mark

    Since 1985 DNA typing of biological material has become one of the most powerful tools for personal identification in forensic medicine and in criminal investigations [1-6]. Classical DNA "fingerprinting" is increasingly being replaced by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based technology which detects very short polymorphic stretches of DNA [7-15]. DNA loci which forensic scientists study do not code for proteins, and they are spread over the whole genome [16, 17]. These loci are neutral, and few provide any information about individuals except for their identity. Minute amounts of biological material are sufficient for DNA typing. Many European countries are beginning to establish databases to store DNA profiles of crime scenes and known offenders. A brief overview is given of past and present DNA typing and the establishment of forensic DNA databases in Europe.

  18. European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) accreditation of forensic pathology services in Europe. (United States)

    Mangin, P; Bonbled, F; Väli, M; Luna, A; Bajanowski, T; Hougen, H P; Ludes, B; Ferrara, D; Cusack, D; Keller, E; Vieira, N


    Forensic experts play a major role in the legal process as they offer professional expert opinion and evidence within the criminal justice system adjudicating on the innocence or alleged guilt of an accused person. In this respect, medico-legal examination is an essential part of the investigation process, determining in a scientific way the cause(s) and manner of unexpected and/or unnatural death or bringing clinical evidence in case of physical, psychological, or sexual abuse in living people. From a legal perspective, these types of investigation must meet international standards, i.e., it should be independent, effective, and prompt. Ideally, the investigations should be conducted by board-certified experts in forensic medicine, endowed with a solid experience in this field, without any hierarchical relationship with the prosecuting authorities and having access to appropriate facilities in order to provide forensic reports of high quality. In this respect, there is a need for any private or public national or international authority including non-governmental organizations seeking experts qualified in forensic medicine to have at disposal a list of specialists working in accordance with high standards of professional performance within forensic pathology services that have been successfully submitted to an official accreditation/certification process using valid and acceptable criteria. To reach this goal, the National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME) has elaborated an accreditation/certification checklist which should be served as decision-making support to assist inspectors appointed to evaluate applicants. In the same spirit than NAME Accreditation Standards, European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) board decided to set up an ad hoc working group with the mission to elaborate an accreditation/certification procedure similar to the NAME's one but taking into account the realities of forensic medicine practices in Europe and restricted to post

  19. Forensic age estimation in anti-piracy trials in Seychelles: Experiences and challenges faced. (United States)

    Gunawardena, S A; Liyanage, U A; Weeratna, J B; Mendis, N D N A; Perera, H J M; Jayasekara, R W; Fernando, R


    Forensic age estimation (FAE) was conducted using a multifactorial method on thirteen Somali detainees claiming juvenile status during the anti-piracy trials of the Seychelles Supreme Court in 2014/2015. A multidisciplinary team, comprising of four of the authors covering specialties in forensic medicine, forensic odontology and radiology, conducted the FAE using a five-stage protocol. Each detainee was interviewed with an interpreter and examined for disorders affecting dental/skeletal development and for assessment of genital development through Tanner staging. Dental maturity was assessed clinically and radiologically. Eruption stage was assessed using Olze et al. and mandibular third-molar maturity was assessed using Demirjian's classification. Skeletal maturity was assessed from hand-wrist X-rays according to Greulich & Pyle and from CT-clavicle according to Kellinghaus et al. and Schultz et al. Interpretation of findings was done using reference population data from similar ethnic and social backgrounds wherever possible. Final age-ranges were calculated by combining dental and clavicle maturity stages using the regression formula developed by Bassed et al. followed by a 10% correction factor. The team later testified on their findings under cross-examination. The protocol adopted by the authors increased the scientific validity of the findings and was useful in addressing cross-examination queries on exclusion of developmental disorders, ethnic/socioeconomic variability and maintaining chain of custody. Unforeseen jurisdictional and practical limitations were experienced but did not affect the outcome. Combining dental and clavicle developmental data provided the court with a much clearer picture on the likelihood of the detainees' juvenile status which emphasizes the importance of conducting more population studies using combinations of different developmental sites. The authors note that available reference data is mostly from affluent populations whereas

  20. Forensic individual age estimation with DNA: From initial approaches to methylation tests. (United States)

    Freire-Aradas, A; Phillips, C; Lareu, M V


    Individual age estimation is a key factor in forensic science analysis that can provide very useful information applicable to criminal, legal, and anthropological investigations. Forensic age inference was initially based on morphological inspection or radiography and only later began to adopt molecular approaches. However, a lack of accuracy or technical problems hampered the introduction of these DNA-based methodologies in casework analysis. A turning point occurred when the epigenetic signature of DNA methylation was observed to gradually change during an individual´s lifespan. In the last four years, the number of publications reporting DNA methylation age-correlated changes has gradually risen and the forensic community now has a range of age methylation tests applicable to forensic casework. Most forensic age predictor models have been developed based on blood DNA samples, but additional tissues are now also being explored. This review assesses the most widely adopted genes harboring methylation sites, detection technologies, statistical age-predictive analyses, and potential causes of variation in age estimates. Despite the need for further work to improve predictive accuracy and establishing a broader range of tissues for which tests can analyze the most appropriate methylation sites, several forensic age predictors have now been reported that provide consistency in their prediction accuracies (predictive error of ±4 years); this makes them compelling tools with the potential to contribute key information to help guide criminal investigations. Copyright © 2017 Central Police University.

  1. [Forensic age estimation in juveniles and young adults: Reducing the range of scatter in age diagnosis by combining different methods]. (United States)

    Schmidt, Sven; Schramm, Danilo; Ribbecke, Sebastian; Schulz, Ronald; Wittschieber, Daniel; Olze, Andreas; Vieth, Volker; Ramsthaler, H Frank; Pfischel, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Geserick, Gunther; Schmeling, Andreas


    The dramatic rise in the number of refugees entering Germany means that age estimation for juveniles and young adults whose age is unclear but relevant to legal and official procedures has become more important than ever. Until now, whether and to what extent the combination of methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics has resulted in a reduction of the range of scatter of the summarized age diagnosis has been unclear. Hand skeletal age, third molar mineralization stage and ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphyses were determined for 307 individuals aged between 10 and 29 at time of death on whom autopsies were performed at the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Berlin, Frankfurt am Main and Hamburg between 2001 and 2011. To measure the range of scatter, linear regression analysis was used to calculate the standard error of estimate for each of the above methods individually and in combination. It was found that combining the above methods led to a reduction in the range of scatter. Due to various limitations of the study, the statistical parameters determined cannot, however, be used for age estimation practice.

  2. Polish forensic medicine A.D. 2016 – report of the National Consultant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Teresiński


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present the current state and basis of functioning of an academic model of forensic expert activities in Poland and perspectives of their further development. The study material included information obtained from a preliminary survey among regional consultants within the ongoing activities of the national consultant team. The recently completed period of research infrastructure support within the policy of coherence of the European Union contributed to significant advances in scientific-educational potential of the majority of university forensic medicine centres. However, the improved educational base and purchases of new diagnostic devices were not associated with a considerable increase in staff resources of individual units, which finally decides about the renown of the entire discipline. It is necessary to undertake initiatives to highlight the importance of forensic medicine as a separate medical field and to increase the number of physicians starting specialist trainings. A highly profiled nature of the speciality necessitates cooperation with other centres and receptiveness to clinical fields. The establishment of various forms of cooperation is a measure of optimal use of equipment and stimulation of multi-centre research.

  3. Google Glass for documentation of medical findings: evaluation in forensic medicine. (United States)

    Albrecht, Urs-Vito; von Jan, Ute; Kuebler, Joachim; Zoeller, Christoph; Lacher, Martin; Muensterer, Oliver J; Ettinger, Max; Klintschar, Michael; Hagemeier, Lars


    Google Glass is a promising premarket device that includes an optical head-mounted display. Several proof of concept reports exist, but there is little scientific evidence regarding its use in a medical setting. The objective of this study was to empirically determine the feasibility of deploying Glass in a forensics setting. Glass was used in combination with a self-developed app that allowed for hands-free operation during autopsy and postmortem examinations of 4 decedents performed by 2 physicians. A digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera was used for image comparison. In addition, 6 forensic examiners (3 male, 3 female; age range 23-48 years, age mean 32.8 years, SD 9.6; mean work experience 6.2 years, SD 8.5) were asked to evaluate 159 images for image quality on a 5-point Likert scale, specifically color discrimination, brightness, sharpness, and their satisfaction with the acquired region of interest. Statistical evaluations were performed to determine how Glass compares with conventionally acquired digital images. All images received good (median 4) and very good ratings (median 5) for all 4 categories. Autopsy images taken by Glass (n=32) received significantly lower ratings than those acquired by DSLR camera (n=17) (region of interest: z=-5.154, P<.001; sharpness: z=-7.898, P<.001; color: z=-4.407, P<.001, brightness: z=-3.187, P=.001). For 110 images of postmortem examinations (Glass: n=54, DSLR camera: n=56), ratings for region of interest (z=-8.390, P<.001) and brightness (z=-540, P=.007) were significantly lower. For interrater reliability, intraclass correlation (ICC) values were good for autopsy (ICC=.723, 95% CI .667-.771, P<.001) and postmortem examination (ICC=.758, 95% CI .727-.787, P<.001). Postmortem examinations performed using Glass took 42.6 seconds longer than those done with the DSLR camera (z=-2.100, P=.04 using Wilcoxon signed rank test). The battery charge of Glass quickly decreased; an average 5.5% (SD 1.85) of its battery capacity

  4. Applications of physiological bases of ageing to forensic sciences. Estimation of age-at-death. (United States)

    C Zapico, Sara; Ubelaker, Douglas H


    Age-at-death estimation is one of the main challenges in forensic sciences since it contributes to the identification of individuals. There are many anthropological techniques to estimate the age at death in children and adults. However, in adults this methodology is less accurate and requires population specific references. For that reason, new methodologies have been developed. Biochemical methods are based on the natural process of ageing, which induces different biochemical changes that lead to alterations in cells and tissues. In this review, we describe different attempts to estimate the age in adults based on these changes. Chemical approaches imply modifications in molecules or accumulation of some products. Molecular biology approaches analyze the modifications in DNA and chromosomes. Although the most accurate technique appears to be aspartic acid racemization, it is important to take into account the other techniques because the forensic context and the human remains available will determine the possibility to apply one or another methodology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Age Estimation with DNA: From Forensic DNA Fingerprinting to Forensic (Epi)Genomics: A Mini-Review. (United States)

    Parson, Walther


    Forensic genetics developed from protein-based techniques a quarter of a century ago and became famous as "DNA fingerprinting," this being based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of high-molecular-weight DNA. The amplification of much smaller short tandem repeat (STR) sequences using the polymerase chain reaction soon replaced RFLP analysis and advanced to become the gold standard in genetic identification. Meanwhile, STR multiplexes have been developed and made commercially available which simultaneously amplify up to 30 STR loci from as little as 15 cells or fewer. The enormous information content that comes with the large variety of observed STR genotypes allows for genetic individualisation (with the exception of identical twins). Carefully selected core STR loci form the basis of intelligence-led DNA databases that provide investigative leads by linking unsolved crime scenes and criminals through their matched STR profiles. Nevertheless, the success of modern DNA fingerprinting depends on the availability of reference material from suspects. In order to provide new investigative leads in cases where such reference samples are absent, forensic scientists started to explore the prediction of phenotypic traits from the DNA of the evidentiary sample. This paradigm change now uses DNA and epigenetic markers to forecast characteristics that are useful to triage further investigative work. So far, the best investigated externally visible characteristics are eye, hair and skin colour, as well as geographic ancestry and age. Information on the chronological age of a stain donor (or any sample donor) is elemental for forensic investigations in a number of aspects and has, therefore, been explored by researchers in some detail. Among different methodological approaches tested to date, the methylation-sensitive analysis of carefully selected DNA markers (CpG sites) has brought the most promising results by providing prediction accuracies of ±3-4 years

  6. Epidemiology of gunshot bodies referred for forensic medicine in Tehran

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    Mazaher Ghorbani


    Conclusion: Based on results of this study, age of victims is higher than previously ob-served patterns, such as gender of victims, location of shots, type of weapon used is different with international reports due to differences in availability of Iranian weapons and cultural differences. The results of this study can be a base for other investigations’s changes in trends of total firearm death rates, mass fatal shooting incidents, rates of firearm homicide, suicide and unintentional firearm deaths, and of total homicides and suicides.

  7. Role of forensic medicine in evaluating non-fatal physical violence against women by their husbands in Jordan. (United States)

    Abedr-Rahman, Hasan; Salameh, Hafsah Omar; Salameh, Rakiz J; Alabdallat, Laith I; Al-Abdallat, Imad M


    Intimate partner violence against women is a major health problem in most nations, but to date, there has been little awareness of the extent or seriousness of this issue in Jordan. Forensic medical practitioners play a significant role in diagnosing, evaluating and reporting these cases. The Jordanian judicial system is dependent on forensic reports. This study aims to assess the role of forensic medicine in evaluating the physical injuries sustained by women who are abused by their husbands. A retrospective review of 158 forensic reports of Jordanian women alleging assault by their husbands and who were seen at Jordan University Hospital over the period 2010-2015. Of the 158 women who presented, 87 had multiple injuries. The majority of injuries were soft tissue injuries, but others included fractures, tympanic membrane perforation, burns and neck contusions. Twelve women were pregnant at the time of the assessment. The period of incapacity caused by these injuries (an important factor for the Jordanian judicial system) was between 1 and 14 days. Intimate partner violence can present with a range of injuries from relatively minor to potentially disabling or life threatening. Forensic medicine has a role in documenting and evaluating these injuries and advising the judicial system in these cases. These are all key elements in increasing the awareness of the nature and extent of this behavior and its impact on women (and men) and the wider society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. An overview of age estimation in forensic anthropology: perspectives and practical considerations. (United States)

    Márquez-Grant, Nicholas


    Information on methods of age estimation in physical anthropology, in particular with regard to age-at-death from human skeletal remains, is widely available in the literature. However, the practicalities and real challenges faced in forensic casework are not always highlighted. To provide a practitioner's perspective, regarding age estimation in forensic anthropology (both in the living as well as the dead), with an emphasis on the types of cases, the value of such work and its challenges and limitations. The paper reviews the current literature on age estimation with a focus on forensic anthropology, but it also brings the author's personal perspective derived from a number of forensic cases. Although much is known about what methods to use, but not always how to apply them, little attention has been given in the literature to the real practicalities faced by forensic anthropologists, for example: the challenges in different types of scenarios; how to report age estimations; responsibilities; and ethical concerns. This paper gathers some of these aspects into one overview which includes the value of such work and the practical challenges, not necessarily with the methods themselves, but also with regard to how these are applied in the different cases where age estimation is required.

  9. Envelhecimento funcional e condições de trabalho em servidores forenses Aging and work conditions in forensic workers

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    Silvia Meirelles Bellusci


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o envelhecimento funcional (capacidade para o trabalho associado às condições de trabalho. MÉTODOS: Responderam ao questionário "Índice de Capacidade para o Trabalho" (ICT, 807 servidores de uma instituição judiciária federal. As condições de trabalho foram analisadas através do método de análise ergonômica do trabalho. RESULTADOS: A maioria das funções estudadas tem predomínio de demandas cognitivas no trabalho. Os diagnósticos mais referidos foram: doenças músculo-esqueléticas (e lesões, neurológicas (incluindo distúrbio emocional, respiratórias, digestivas, dermatológicas e cardiovasculares. Os modelos de análise de regressão logística mostraram que as mulheres, aqueles com maior tempo de trabalho na instituição e os com cargo de auxiliar operacional de serviços diversos têm maiores chances de apresentar ICT baixo ou moderado. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados ressaltam a necessidade de melhorar as condições de trabalho. Sugere-se a implementação do Serviço Especializado em Engenharia de Segurança e Medicina do Trabalho, como exige a Lei 6.514 de 1977.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate aging associated to work conditions. METHOD: Eight hundred and seven forensic workers answered the questionnaire "Work Ability Index - WAI". The ergonomic conditions were analysed using a job analysis method - AET (Rohmert & Landau. RESULTS: The largest number of employees were mainly submitted to cognitive demands at work. The most reported diagnosed diseases were: muscleskeletal diseases (and lesions, neurological (including emotional disturbances, respiratory, digestive, skin and cardiovascular diseases. The analysis of the logistic regression models showed that: female workers, those with longer time on the job and job title of operational helper, increase the odds ratio to present low or moderate WAI. DISCUSSION: The results point out the need to improve the working conditions. It is

  10. Recommendations for teaching upon sensitive topics in forensic and legal medicine in the context of medical education pedagogy. (United States)

    Kennedy, Kieran M; Scriver, Stacey


    Undergraduate medical curricula typically include forensic and legal medicine topics that are of a highly sensitive nature. Examples include suicide, child abuse, domestic and sexual violence. It is likely that some students will have direct or indirect experience of these issues which are prevalent in society. Those students are vulnerable to vicarious harm from partaking in their medical education. Even students with no direct or indirect experience of these issues may be vulnerable to vicarious trauma, particularly students who are especially empathetic to cases presented. Despite these risks, instruction relating to these topics is necessary to ensure the competencies of graduating doctors to respond appropriately to cases they encounter during their professional careers. However, risk can be minimised by a well-designed and thoughtfully delivered educational programme. We provide recommendations for the successful inclusion of sensitive forensic and legal medicine topics in undergraduate medical curricula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of some recent techniques of age determination of blow flies having forensic implications

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    Madhu Bala


    Full Text Available Forensic entomology can aid death investigation by using predictable developmental changes to estimate the age of flies associated with a body. Forensic entomologists use size and developmental stages to estimate blowfly age, and from those, a Postmortem Interval. Calliphorids are very interesting in forensic sciences from an applied point of view, because they provide relevant evidence for estimating the Postmortem Interval. Since such estimates are generally accurate but often lack precision, particularly in the older developmental stages, so there is a need of some alternative aging methods. The range of techniques available for age grading of adult insects is reviewed, with particular emphasis on species of medical importance. The techniques described include pteridine fluorescence analysis, internal morphological analysis, cuticular hydrocarbon analysis, gene expression analysis, cuticular banding pattern analysis, volatile organic compounds analysis released by larvae and pupae.

  12. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community. (United States)

    van Asten, Arian C


    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Forensic Science Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of DNA typing as an accurate method in forensic medicine

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    Namazi H


    Full Text Available DNA typing is a new method with important applications in forensic medicine. In the present study, we evaluated application of DNA typing in Iran. Loci Hum LPL, Hum Tpox, Hum F13, Hum vw 31A, Hum TH01 and Hum FES/FPS of DNA short tandem repeats were studied. To determine sensitivity of the test, 85 mother-child couples (1020 chromosomes that were referred to DNA section of legal medicine organization of Iran were included and for determination of it's specificity 42 brother-sister couples (1200 chromosomes and 58 non-relative couples were examined. The results show lack of mutations in the studied loci and acceptable sensitivity of the test. Of 12 alleles of siblings, there were 2-6 differences, in contrast with 3-9 differences in non-relatives, so the test has 100% specificity in these loci. Considering polymorphism, power of exclusion of these 6 sites was 99%.

  14. Applied dendroecology and environmental forensics. Characterizing and age dating environmental releases: fundamentals and case studies (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Balouet; Gil Oudijk; Kevin T. Smith; Ioana Petrisor; Hakan Grudd; Bengt. Stocklassa


    Dendroecology, or the use of ring patterns to assess the age of trees and environmental factors controlling their growth, is a well-developed method in climatologic studies. This method holds great potential as a forensic tool for age dating, contamination assessment, and characterization of releases. Moreover, the method is independent of the physical presence of...

  15. Validation and evaluation of measuring methods for the 3D documentation of external injuries in the field of forensic medicine. (United States)

    Buck, Ursula; Buße, Kirsten; Campana, Lorenzo; Schyma, Christian


    Three-dimensional (3D) measurement techniques are gaining importance in many areas. The latest developments brought more cost-effective, user-friendly, and faster technologies onto the market. Which 3D techniques are suitable in the field of forensic medicine and what are their advantages and disadvantages? This wide-ranging study evaluated and validated various 3D measurement techniques for the forensic requirements. High-tech methods as well as low-budget systems have been tested and compared in terms of accuracy, ease of use, expenditure of time, mobility, cost, necessary knowhow, and their limitations. Within this study, various commercial measuring systems of the different techniques were tested. Based on the first results, one measuring system was selected for each technique, which appeared to be the most suitable for the forensic application or is already established in forensic medicine. A body of a deceased, a face and an injury of a living person, and a shoe sole were recorded by 11 people with different professions and previous knowledge using the selected systems. The results were assessed and the personal experiences were evaluated using a questionnaire. In addition, precision investigations were carried out using test objects. The study shows that the hand-held scanner and photogrammetry are very suitable for the 3D documentation of forensic medical findings. Their moderate acquisition costs and easy operation could lead to more frequent application in forensic medicine in the future. For special applications, the stripe-light scanner still has its justification due to its high precision, the flexible application area, and the high reliability. The results show that, thanks to the technological advances, the 3D measurement technology will have more and more impact on the routine of the forensic medical examination.

  16. The usefulness of CBF brain SPECT in forensic medicine: the civil law codes cases. A description of four cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskunowicz, M.; Lass, P.; Bandurski, T.; Krzyzanowski, M.


    The aim of this report was to assess the usefulness of cerebral blood flow (CBF) scanning utilising the SPECT technique in forensic medicine cases in the area of civil law cases. CBF SPECT scanning was performed in four patients utilising 99m Tc-ECD and a triple-head gammacamera. In the analysis both the asymmetry index and cerebellar normalisation were applied. Reference values were obtained by studying 30 healthy volunteers. In those cases CBF SPECT scanning played an important role in forensic argument. It influenced the sentence and the amount of financial compensation. CBF SPECT scanning may provide valuable information in forensic medicine argument in civil law cases, but only when taken together with psychometric tests and other neuroimaging methods (CT, MRI). The value of CBF SPECT scanning alone may be limited in judicial proceedings. (author)

  17. 15th Anniversary of the Molecular Techniques Unit at the Department of Forensic Medicine at Wroclaw Medical University. (United States)

    Pluta, Dominika; Tokarski, Miron; Karpiewska, Anna; Dobosz, Tadeusz


    Molecular Techniques Unit at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University has been operating since December 2003. Soon it will be 15 years since its establishment. This anniversary become an inspiration to write down the story of this institution whose origins illustrate the immense changes that have taken place in forensic genetics. The aim of our work was also to consolidate the professional achievements of Professor Tadeusz Dobosz, chief of the Unit, one of the pioneers of introducing DNA testing technology into Polish forensic medicine. The most important achievements of the Unit include participation in two EU research projects, the development of a non-destructive method of extraction of genetic material, research in field of gene therapy and certification of the Laboratory of the Molecular Techniques Unit by the Polish Accreditation Center (PCA) confirming compliance with the requirements of the PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 standard.

  18. Dismantling the justice silos: Flowcharting the role and expertise of forensic science, forensic medicine and allied health in adult sexual assault investigations. (United States)

    Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Bruenisholz, Eva; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi


    Forensic science is increasingly used to help exonerate the innocent and establishing links between individuals and criminal activities. With increased reliance on scientific services provided by multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational in the private and government sectors (health, justice, legal, police) practitioners, the potential for miscommunication resulting unjust outcomes increases. The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational information sharing is to prevent the 'justice silo effect'; where practitioners from different organisations operate in isolation with minimal or no interaction. This paper presents the findings from the second part of the Interfaces Project, an Australia-wide study designed to assess the extent of the justice silos. We interviewed 121 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians. The first paper published in 2013 presented two key findings: first investigative meetings were rare in adult sexual assault cases; second many medical practitioners were semi-invisible in case decision-making with this low level of visibility being due to lawyers, forensic scientists or police not being aware of the role/expertise medical practitioners offer. These findings led to the development of a flowchart model for adult sexual assault that highlights the range of agencies and practitioners typically involved in sexual assault. The rationale for the flowchart is to produce a visual representation of a typical sexual assault investigative process highlighting where and who plays a role in order to minimise the risk of justice silos. This is the second paper in a series of two. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Forensic age estimation from the clavicle using 1.0 T MRI—Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Jensen, Karl Erik; Villa, Chiara


    OBJECTIVES: As forensic age estimations in the living are performed without medical indication, there is a need for the development of non-ionizing methods. This study investigates the use of 1.0T MRI to visualize the ossification status of the medial end of the clavicle. MATERIAL AND METHODS: T2...

  20. Forensic medicine experts' opinion on medico-legal autopsies in hospital deaths: a questionnaire survey. (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepak Herald; Pant, Sadip; Menezes, Ritesh George


    Medico-legal autopsy is conducted routinely in some countries and selectively in others in hospital deaths. This study was conducted to evaluate the views of the forensic medicine experts regarding this matter. A questionnaire pro forma was sent to sixty-five forensic medicine experts practicing in different medical institutions all around India. Designations and experiences of the participants were noted by requests in the same questionnaire. Their specific experience in conducting medico-legal autopsy in hospital deaths was also requested for. Responses were charted in frequency distribution tables and analyzed using SPSS, version 17.0. One-third of the participants felt that a medico-legal autopsy was necessary in all the hospital death cases as defined in the present study. Ten percent of the participants opined that a medico-legal autopsy was unnecessary in hospital deaths. The majority of the experts mentioned finding the cause of death, followed by finding the manner of death and collecting the evidentiary materials, as the reasons for medico-legal autopsy in hospital deaths. Twenty percent of the participants felt that internal findings at autopsy poorly matched with the case records. All the experts agreed that external autopsy findings matched with the hospital case records. Nearly two-third of the participants felt that it was difficult in some cases to interpret the autopsy findings without case records from the hospital where the deceased was treated. Our findings suggest that the exercise of carrying out medico-legal autopsy routinely in every hospital death as evident in the Indian framework is often unnecessary as per the experts' opinion. Autopsy findings in hospital deaths often correlate with hospital case records.

  1. Violence in forensic medicine practice: a survey of legal medicine practitioners' views. (United States)

    Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Mehrzad, Kiani; Fakhredin, Taghaddosinejad


    : To survey the extent of abuse and violence directed toward legal medicine practitioners during the course of their professional duties and to categorize the characteristics of such aggression. : Retrospective survey of the views of a large sample of Tehran's legal medicine practitioners by using a piloted anonymous questionnaire. : In all, 105 (86.1%) of the responders had experienced verbal abuse during the previous 12 months, 79 (64.7%) had experienced some sort of verbal abuse at least once a month, 39 (32%) had experienced verbal abuse every week, and 13 (10.7%) had experienced verbal abuse every day. Of the 122 legal medicine physicians, 39 (32%) were exposed to specific threats, 8 (6.6%) were exposed to physical action without injury, and 7 (5.7%) had experience serious incidents including threats with a weapon or attacks leading to physical injury over the previous year. Even assuming that all the nonresponders did not experience any violence, the aggression by patients affected 75% of legal medicine practitioners in the Tehran province. : Violence toward Tehran's legal medicine practitioners is very common and may be increasing. Some of the participating factors of aggression are potentially avoidable and practices should make strenuous attempts to identify such factors and remedy them. Staff training in interpersonal skills and recognizing anxious patients are essential. Doctors should avoid delays for patients by rearranging the booking policies, visit times, and duration. Victims of aggression must be followed up.

  2. Skin Aging Remedies in Traditional Persian Medicine

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    Full Text Available Context Traditional persian medicine (TPM is an ancient temperamental medicine with a rich literature about aging mechanism. Temperament has an important function in maintaining the ideal healthy status of human body. Aging process and skin aging could be postponed by applying herbal medicine and some specific traditional rules. Evidence Acquisition The aim of this review study was gathering and discussing the mechanism of whole body aging and skin aging from perspective of TPM and introducing remedies to prevent it. Skin aging is caused by external and internal factors. According to TPM, loss of fat and water content in different skin layers is the main cause of skin aging and it could be avoided by considering simple essential commands. Results Skin aging begins with whole body aging process and entire body gets cold and dry in elderly. Wrinkle formation is highly associated with loss of “skin natural moisture”. In the management, specific food supplements, simple massage therapy as well as herbal drugs were suggested. The current investigation was performed to show the knowledge of ancient Iranian scientists on aging process and related interventions. Conclusions Reported herbal drugs might be beneficial for further studies for the management of skin aging and aging process.

  3. Forensic aspects of gene expression signatures for age determination in bruises as evaluated in an experimental porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, Kristiane; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Skovgaard, Kerstin


    Determining the age of bruises and the force used to inflict the trauma is of crucial importance in both human and veterinary forensic pathology. In the present study, the expression of more than 50 different genes in subcutaneous fat and muscle tissue from experimental bruises in pigs...... provide valuable information in human forensic science....

  4. Gene expression during blow fly development: improving the precision of age estimates in forensic entomology. (United States)

    Tarone, Aaron M; Foran, David R


    Forensic entomologists use size and developmental stage to estimate blow fly age, and from those, a postmortem interval. Since such estimates are generally accurate but often lack precision, particularly in the older developmental stages, alternative aging methods would be advantageous. Presented here is a means of incorporating developmentally regulated gene expression levels into traditional stage and size data, with a goal of more precisely estimating developmental age of immature Lucilia sericata. Generalized additive models of development showed improved statistical support compared to models that did not include gene expression data, resulting in an increase in estimate precision, especially for postfeeding third instars and pupae. The models were then used to make blind estimates of development for 86 immature L. sericata raised on rat carcasses. Overall, inclusion of gene expression data resulted in increased precision in aging blow flies. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. The use of interpreters in medical settings and forensic medical examinations in Australia: the relationship between medicine and linguistics. (United States)

    Schreiber, Jason R; Odell, Morris S


    Medical examinations are dependent on combining communication with professional competence. In the development of a global multicultural community with the use of multiple languages, doctors have become increasingly dependent on language facilitation such as interpreting and translation. Despite professional studies, the use of language facilitation with its associated problems has not been fully explored in graduate and post-graduate medical and forensic medical training. There may still be some lack of reciprocal understanding between the medical and linguistic fields, their ethics, obligations and limits although both fields and their ethical frameworks are closer related than might be expected. This article is a discussion that aims at providing a basic understanding of guidelines as to the origin and appropriate use of language interpretation in medical and forensic medical examinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. [Deaths from propofol abuse : Survey of institutes of forensic medicine in Germany, Austria and Switzerland]. (United States)

    Maier, C; Iwunna, J; Tsokos, M; Mußhoff, F


    Previous references suggesting a high mortality of propofol addiction in medical personnel were mostly based on surveys of the heads of medical departments or case reports; therefore, a questionnaire was sent to 48 forensic medicine departments in Germany, Austria and Switzerland concerning the number of autopsies carried out between 2002-2112 on medical personnel with the suspicion of abuse of propofol or other analgesics. The response rate was 67%. In 16 out of the 32 responding departments 39 deaths (27 males) were observed with previous connections to anesthesiology, intensive care or emergency departments of which 22 were physicians, 13 nurses, 2 other personnel and 2 were unknown. Propofol was the major cause of death in 33 cases (85%), in 8 cases including 7 with propofol, an unintentional accident was recorded and 29 were determined to be suicide. In 14 cases chronic abuse was denied but actually excluded by toxicological analysis in only 2 cases. In 11 cases involving suicide the question of abuse was not investigated. This survey confirmed previous data about the central role of propofol for the fatal outcome of addiction and suicide of anesthetists and other medical personnel. A dual prevention strategy with low-threshold offers for persons at risk and strategies for early detection is urgently needed including a stricter control of dispensing, improvement in forensic medical documentation and the use of toxicological investigations in every case of suspected abuse.

  7. Assessment of age and sex by means of DXA bone densitometry: application in forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Castillo, Rafael Fernández; Ruiz, Maria del Carmen López


    Today we are witnessing a genuine revolution in diagnostic imaging techniques. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) quantifies bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). This technique has rarely been used in Forensic Anthropology, although its practical application has been demonstrated by various authors. In this article, we look into the conduct of bone mineral density in the femoral neck, the trochanter, the intertrochanter, the proximal femur and Ward's triangle, in relation to anthropometric age and sex parameters. The research was carried out on 70 persons - 38 men and 32 women - and the results obtained show significant correlations between bone mineral density measurements and anthropometric values. The research demonstrates bone mineral density to be a useful technique for sex and age data in forensic anthropology, particularly in the measurements observed in the Ward's triangle area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Variation in SPC/STC Ratio as an Indicator of Age: A Computer-aided Forensic Odontology

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    Priyanka Debta


    Results: Pearson correlation between SPC/STC ratio with different age group was found to be statistically significant. So, measurement of amount of secondary dentin seems to be reliable and rapid method in forensic odontology.


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    Full Text Available This study explored medical students’ knowledge and attitude on the medico - legal autopsy demonstrations which formed part of their training in Forensic Medicine. 300 students of 2010, 2011 and 2012 batch of college were obtained by asking them to answer a questionnaire on the subject. The students were asked to respond anonymously to a questionnaire which dealt with their views on the autopsy practice, the knowledge of the procedure, attitude and perception towards medico legal autopsy. In present study majority of the students were aware of the situations where medico legal postmortem examination is mandatory as per Indian law and taking out of viscera for chemical analysis and histo - pathological examination for the purpose of medico - legal autopsy. 96% of the students agreed that autopsy is necessary in medical education. 37.95% of the students were very uncomfortable on the first exposure to postmortem examination. This study showed that medical students appreciate the medico - legal autopsy demonstration as a learning experience.

  10. Flexible regression models for estimating postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic medicine. (United States)

    Muñoz Barús, José Ignacio; Febrero-Bande, Manuel; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen


    Correct determination of time of death is an important goal in forensic medicine. Numerous methods have been described for estimating postmortem interval (PMI), but most are imprecise, poorly reproducible and/or have not been validated with real data. In recent years, however, some progress in PMI estimation has been made, notably through the use of new biochemical methods for quantifying relevant indicator compounds in the vitreous humour. The best, but unverified, results have been obtained with [K+] and hypoxanthine [Hx], using simple linear regression (LR) models. The main aim of this paper is to offer more flexible alternatives to LR, such as generalized additive models (GAMs) and support vector machines (SVMs) in order to obtain improved PMI estimates. The present study, based on detailed analysis of [K+] and [Hx] in more than 200 vitreous humour samples from subjects with known PMI, compared classical LR methodology with GAM and SVM methodologies. Both proved better than LR for estimation of PMI. SVM showed somewhat greater precision than GAM, but GAM offers a readily interpretable graphical output, facilitating understanding of findings by legal professionals; there are thus arguments for using both types of models. R code for these methods is available from the authors, permitting accurate prediction of PMI from vitreous humour [K+], [Hx] and [U], with confidence intervals and graphical output provided. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. International Conference on Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences 8th Cross Channel Conference- Forensic Sciences Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Günay Balcı


    Full Text Available International Conrefence on Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, 8th Cross Channel Conference (Uluslararası Adli Tıp ve Adli Bilimler Üzerine Konferans, 20-24 Nisan 2004 tarihleri arasında Belçika-Brugge'de yapıldı. Konferans ana başlığı “Adli Bilimler-Son Gelişmeler” şeklinde idi. Konferansı organize eden kuruluşlar; -\tBelçika Adli Tıp Topluluğu, -\tFransa Adli Tıp ve Kriminoloji Topluluğu, -\tFlollanda Adli Tıp Topluluğu, -\tIngiltere Adli Tabipler Birliği idi. Kongrenin ilk iki günü “Çalıştay (Workshop” şeklinde toplantılar vardı. Çalıştay konuları; -\tAntropoloji-Yanmış Kemikler ve Adli Antropolojide Mikroskobik Çalışma -\tAdli Tıp ve Adli Bilimlerde Kalite Güvencesi -\tMultidisipliner Ekip içinde Adli Diş Hekimliği -\tFasial rekonstrüksiyon ve Restorasyon idi. Bunlardan “Adli Tıp ve Adli Bilimlerde Kalite Güvencesi” başlıklı çalıştay katılım azlığı nedeniyle iptal edilmişti. “Antropoloji-Yanmış Kemikler ve Adli Antropolojide Mikroskobik Çalışma” konulu çalıştay uygulamalı olup, katılımcılar kemik dokusundan mikroskobik inceleme için manuel olarak, ucuz ve kısa sürede préparât hazırlamayı öğrendiler. Tüm katılanlar kendi hazırladıkları en az 3 preparatla ülkelerine ya da birimlerine döndüler. Yine katılımcılar elde ettikleri bu beceri ile kendi çalıştıkları birimlerde, oldukça ucuz maliyetle mikroskobik inceleme için kemik preparatı hazırlama laboratuvarı oluşturabilecek durumda olmanın sevincini yaşadılar. Kolay ve oldukça güzel sonuç alıcı bu yöntem kimliği belirsiz kemiklerde kemik yenilenme durumuna göre yaş tayini gibi adli kemik incelemeleri yanı sıra, örneğin ortopedi ameliyatlarında tümör özelliğinin belirlenmesi gibi kemikten acil mikroskobik inceleme gereken durumlarda da kullanılabilir. “Multididipliner Ekip içinde Adli Diş Hekimliği” konulu çahştayda adli diş hekimliğine yakla

  12. Oral medicine and the ageing population. (United States)

    Yap, T; McCullough, M


    The oral cavity is subject to age related processes such as cellular ageing and immunosenescence. The ageing population bears an increased burden of intraoral pathology. In oral medicine, the majority of presenting patients are in their fifth to seventh decade of life. In this review, we discuss the ageing population's susceptibility to mucosal disorders and the increased prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma, as well as dermatoses including oral lichen planus and immunobullous conditions. We also address the ageing population's susceptibility to oral discomfort and explore salivary secretion, ulceration and the symptoms of oral burning. Finally, we will describe orofacial pain conditions which are more likely encountered in an older population. This update highlights clinical presentations which are more likely to be encountered in the ageing population in a general practice setting and the importance of screening both new and long-term patients. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  13. Rib biomechanical properties exhibit diagnostic potential for accurate ageing in forensic investigations (United States)

    Bonicelli, Andrea; Xhemali, Bledar; Kranioti, Elena F.


    Age estimation remains one of the most challenging tasks in forensic practice when establishing a biological profile of unknown skeletonised remains. Morphological methods based on developmental markers of bones can provide accurate age estimates at a young age, but become highly unreliable for ages over 35 when all developmental markers disappear. This study explores the changes in the biomechanical properties of bone tissue and matrix, which continue to change with age even after skeletal maturity, and their potential value for age estimation. As a proof of concept we investigated the relationship of 28 variables at the macroscopic and microscopic level in rib autopsy samples from 24 individuals. Stepwise regression analysis produced a number of equations one of which with seven variables showed an R2 = 0.949; a mean residual error of 2.13 yrs ±0.4 (SD) and a maximum residual error value of 2.88 yrs. For forensic purposes, by using only bench top machines in tests which can be carried out within 36 hrs, a set of just 3 variables produced an equation with an R2 = 0.902 a mean residual error of 3.38 yrs ±2.6 (SD) and a maximum observed residual error 9.26yrs. This method outstrips all existing age-at-death methods based on ribs, thus providing a novel lab based accurate tool in the forensic investigation of human remains. The present application is optimised for fresh (uncompromised by taphonomic conditions) remains, but the potential of the principle and method is vast once the trends of the biomechanical variables are established for other environmental conditions and circumstances. PMID:28520764


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalov VV (Jr.


    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of cancer in recent years has increased significantly. It is therefore particularly important today is the issue of provision for patients with malignancies with drugs. It is important to research the level of organization of availability of the anesthetic therapy to ensure the availability of pharmacotherapy for cancer patients worldwide. Material and methods. For the purpose of the study analyzed legislation, regulations of some states in the US that provide availability of narcotic analgesic drugs for patients with malignant neoplasms. The paper used the following methods: comparative, documentary, legal, medical, pharmaceutical and graphical analysis. Results and discussion. Noted the increase in expenditure on pharmaceutical provision for patients with malignancies on an outpatient basis in the US. During the study of the legislative and regulatory acts of the USA found that payments for treatment possible by insurance companies as part of the agreement, which in turn depend on the patient’s age, number of family members, their total income and so on. Coupons can be used to pay for the cost of medicines, but not all pharmacies accept coupons. There are charities with funds which are partially covered for the cost of chemotherapy and adjuvant therapy (analgesics, antiemetic, antipsychotics, drugs. Found, that in New York doctor may prescribe analgesic medication to the patient without limitation in the frequency and dose. It is not therapeutic use of analgesics, their improper accounting, drug addiction patient has contraindications to the prescription of narcotic analgesic drugs with malignant neoplasms. Reviewed examples from forensic and pharmaceutical practice, pharmaceutical violation of the US laws that regulate the accessibility of patients with malignancies to narcotic analgesic drugs. So, there have been cases of fake prescriptions for narcotic drugs, selling drugs, the shelf life has expired. Police of

  15. Age onset of offending and serious mental illness among forensic psychiatric patients: A latent profile analysis. (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R; Prosser, Aaron; Simpson, Alexander I F


    Developmental typologies regarding age of onset of violence and offending have not routinely taken account of the role of serious mental illness (SMI), and whether age of onset of offending in relation to onset of illness impacts on the manifestation of offending over the life course. To test whether forensic psychiatric patients can be classified according to age of onset of SMI and offending, and, if so, whether subtypes differ by sex. Details of all 511 patients enrolled into a large forensic mental health service in Ontario, Canada, in 2011 or 2012 were collected from records. A latent profile analysis supported a 2-class solution in both men and women. External validation of the classes demonstrated that those with a younger age onset of serious mental illness and offending were characterised by higher levels of static risk factors and criminogenic need than those whose involvement in both mental health and criminal justice systems was delayed to later life. Our findings present a new perspective on life course trajectories of offenders with SMI. While analyses identified just two distinct age-of-onset groups, in both the illness preceded the offending. The fact that our sample was entirely drawn from those hospitalised may have introduced a selection bias for those whose illness precedes offending, but findings underscore the complexity and level of need among those with a younger age of onset. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Age estimation in forensic anthropology: quantification of observer error in phase versus component-based methods. (United States)

    Shirley, Natalie R; Ramirez Montes, Paula Andrea


    The purpose of this study was to assess observer error in phase versus component-based scoring systems used to develop age estimation methods in forensic anthropology. A method preferred by forensic anthropologists in the AAFS was selected for this evaluation (the Suchey-Brooks method for the pubic symphysis). The Suchey-Brooks descriptions were used to develop a corresponding component-based scoring system for comparison. Several commonly used reliability statistics (kappa, weighted kappa, and the intraclass correlation coefficient) were calculated to assess observer agreement between two observers and to evaluate the efficacy of each of these statistics for this study. The linear weighted kappa was determined to be the most suitable measure of observer agreement. The results show that a component-based system offers the possibility for more objective scoring than a phase system as long as the coding possibilities for each trait do not exceed three states of expression, each with as little overlap as possible. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Homicides with corpse dismemberment in the material collected by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Krakow, Poland. (United States)

    Konopka, Tomasz; Bolechała, Filip; Strona, Marcin; Kopacz, Paweł


    Aim of the study: To determine the circumstances which can be useful for offenders profiling in homicide cases with victim's body dismemberment. Material and methods: Study of all homicide cases with victim's corpse dismemberment examined in Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine over the last 50 years. Results: Within the past 50 years, a total number of 30 cases of homicides with dismembered bodies were examined in Krakow. 22 cases represent defensive mutilations performed by offender, 3 cases can be classified as offensive muti-lations and 3 cases represent aggressive mutilations - decapitation as a method of committing homicide. In this period the only 1 case of necrophilic mutilations was examined, when the body was dismembered without murder. In most cases the background of homicide was the family conflict, 6 was cause of mental illness of perpetrator and in 3 was sexual motive. Only in 3 cases (from 25 when the offender was known) perpetrator kill a stranger. In the other the offender belonged to the family or friends of the victim. In all cases where the perpetrator was determined, homicide and dismemberment was performed in his place of residence. The findings of the Police investigations indicate that in most cases homicides were not planned, occurred under the influence of emotion, only two have been previously scheduled. Conclusions: Homicides with corpses dismemberment usually are committed by offenders who is in close relationship with victim (family or friend). Dismemberment is almost always performed in the same place as murder - home of perpetrator. This type of homicide usually is not planned.

  18. Homicides with corpse dismemberment in the material collected by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Krakow, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Konopka


    Full Text Available Aim of the study : To determine the circumstances which can be useful for offenders profiling in homicide cases with victim’s body dismemberment. Material and methods: Study of all homicide cases with victim’s corpse dismemberment examined in Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine over the last 50 years. Results : Within the past 50 years, a total number of 30 cases of homicides with dismembered bodies were examined in Krakow. 22 cases represent defensive mutilations performed by offender, 3 cases can be classified as offensive muti­lations and 3 cases represent aggressive mutilations – decapitation as a method of committing homicide. In this period the only 1 case of necrophilic mutilations was examined, when the body was dismembered without murder. In most cases the background of homicide was the family conflict, 6 was cause of mental illness of perpetrator and in 3 was sexual motive. Only in 3 cases (from 25 when the offender was known perpetrator kill a stranger. In the other the offender belonged to the family or friends of the victim. In all cases where the perpetrator was determined, homicide and dismemberment was performed in his place of residence. The findings of the Police investigations indicate that in most cases homicides were not planned, occurred under the influence of emotion, only two have been previously scheduled. Conclusions : Homicides with corpses dismemberment usually are committed by offenders who is in close relationship with victim (family or friend. Dismemberment is almost always performed in the same place as murder – home of perpetrator. This type of homicide usually is not planned.

  19. Appraisal by Year Six French medical students of the teaching of forensic medicine and health law. (United States)

    Franchitto, Nicolas; Rougé, Daniel


    Legal medicine is a cross-sectional specialty in which medico-legal situations very frequently combine with routine medical practice. A total of 132 students in the last year of the second cycle of medical studies (Year 6) replied anonymously and voluntarily to a questionnaire corresponding to the topics in the curriculum for the national ranking examination: law relating to death and the dying, examination of assault victims, medical malpractice liability rules, writing death certificates, respect of medical confidentiality and the principles of medical deontology. The most frequently cited activities of the forensic physician were autopsy (87.9%), writing certificates (75.8%) and consultations with victims of violence (60.6%). Students did not often come into contact with a medico-legal situation during Years 2-6 of medical studies. Assiduity in attending lectures was low. Students preferred the standard textbooks available in specialized bookshops. They were severe in their appraisal of their own competence at the end of the second cycle, and did not feel ready to examine a corpse (95.5%) or to examine victims of assault (92.4%). Knowledge of the law and of the risks of medical practice was felt to be inadequate by 60.5% of students, and of the writing of a medical certificate by 56.8%. Training medical students in this field is a major challenge in view of the limited number of teaching hours and the need to acquire increasingly specialized knowledge. Complementary initiatives appear to be necessary, such as partnership with other clinical specialties which are frequently confronted with medico-legal situations.

  20. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.


    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  1. [Views of forensic medicine and criminology on the pathodynamics of homicide]. (United States)

    Kokavec, M; Dobrotka, G


    Trauma and violence represent the domains of forensic medical expertise. The objective finding on the victim of the homicide makes it possible to reconstruct the way and mechanism of the injury connected with it and thus to determine the cause of death. The traces of violence contain many indices pointing at specific personal characteristics of the culprit, his motivation to the crime and his state of mind at the time of the homicide. To judge the penal responsibility and the guilt of the culprit it is important for the court to have the analysis of the dynamics and of the causal background of the crime, especially the synthetic evaluation of subjective, situation, or eventually psychological factors of violence with the mortal effect. The interdisciplinary forensic-medical, forensic-psychological and psychophytological approach will make it possible to provide the court with a complex forensic expertise.

  2. Cranial thickness in relation to age, sex and general body build in a Danish forensic sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N


    thickness and these parameters. This study, thus, adds to other studies showing that cranial thickness cannot be used in aging or sexing human remains. Likewise, in a forensic pathological setting, cranial thickness cannot be inferred from the individuals stature and build, which may be an issue in cases......The cranial thickness was measured in 64 individuals (43 males, 21 females) autopsied at our institute. The thickness was measured by taking a biopsy with a trephine at four specific locations on the skull. Complete medical records and pathologic autopsy results were available. While none...

  3. The utility of the Samworth and Gowland age-at-death "look-up" tables in forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Passalacqua, Nicholas V


    Accurate age-at-death estimates are crucial to forensic anthropologists when onstructing biological profiles aimed at narrowing a missing-persons list and to allow for timely and efficient identification of an unknown victim. The present contribution evaluates the utility of three new age-at-death estimation techniques recently proposed by Samworth and Gowland (2007). Results indicate that, in the samples under study, the Samworth and Gowland estimates from the pubic symphysis and auricular surface perform similar to alternate phase methods. The combined method does not appear to further enhance either the precision or the accuracy of the single pubic symphysis age-at-death estimate. In conclusion, these new methods seem to be more robust to distribution deviations than originally proposed by Samworth and Gowland (2007). They are therefore suitable for immediate and reliable forensic usage in the United States and worthy of further research for their use in North American forensic contexts.

  4. Documentation and analysis of traumatic injuries in clinical forensic medicine involving structured light three-dimensional surface scanning versus photography. (United States)

    Shamata, Awatif; Thompson, Tim


    Non-contact three-dimensional (3D) surface scanning has been applied in forensic medicine and has been shown to mitigate shortcoming of traditional documentation methods. The aim of this paper is to assess the efficiency of structured light 3D surface scanning in recording traumatic injuries of live cases in clinical forensic medicine. The work was conducted in Medico-Legal Centre in Benghazi, Libya. A structured light 3D surface scanner and ordinary digital camera with close-up lens were used to record the injuries and to have 3D and two-dimensional (2D) documents of the same traumas. Two different types of comparison were performed. Firstly, the 3D wound documents were compared to 2D documents based on subjective visual assessment. Additionally, 3D wound measurements were compared to conventional measurements and this was done to determine whether there was a statistical significant difference between them. For this, Friedman test was used. The study established that the 3D wound documents had extra features over the 2D documents. Moreover; the 3D scanning method was able to overcome the main deficiencies of the digital photography. No statistically significant difference was found between the 3D and conventional wound measurements. The Spearman's correlation established strong, positive correlation between the 3D and conventional measurement methods. Although, the 3D surface scanning of the injuries of the live subjects faced some difficulties, the 3D results were appreciated, the validity of 3D measurements based on the structured light 3D scanning was established. Further work will be achieved in forensic pathology to scan open injuries with depth information. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of third molars: developing a protocol suitable for forensic age estimation. (United States)

    De Tobel, Jannick; Hillewig, Elke; Bogaert, Stephanie; Deblaere, Karel; Verstraete, Koenraad


    Established dental age estimation methods in sub-adults study the development of third molar root apices on radiographs. In living individuals, however, avoiding ionising radiation is expedient. Studying dental development with magnetic resonance imaging complies with this requirement, adding the advantage of imaging in three dimensions. To elaborate the development of an MRI protocol to visualise all third molars for forensic age estimation, with particular attention to the development of the root apex. Ex vivo scans of porcine jaws and in vivo scans of 10 volunteers aged 17-25 years were performed to select adequate sequences. Studied parameters were T1 vs T2 weighting, ultrashort echo time (UTE), fat suppression, in plane resolution, slice thickness, 3D imaging, signal-to-noise ratio, and acquisition time. A bilateral four-channel flexible surface coil was used. Two observers evaluated the suitability of the images. T2-weighted images were preferred to T1-weighted images. To clearly distinguish root apices in (almost) fully developed third molars an in plane resolution of 0.33 × 0.33 mm 2 was deemed necessary. Taking acquisition time limits into account, only a T2 FSE sequence with slice thickness of 2 mm generated images with sufficient resolution and contrast. UTE, thinner slice T2 FSE and T2 3D FSE sequences could not generate the desired resolution within 6.5 minutes. Three Tesla MRI of the third molars is a feasible technique for forensic age estimation, in which a T2 FSE sequence can provide the desired in plane resolution within a clinically acceptable acquisition time.

  6. An audit of a specialist old age psychiatry liaison service to a medium and a high secure forensic psychiatry unit. (United States)

    Shah, Ajit


    The elderly prison population is increasing and there is a significant amount of unidentified psychiatric morbidity among elderly prisoners. A sizeable number of elderly subjects are referred to regional forensic units. These units are able to provide advice but are reluctant to admit frail, physically ill and vulnerable elderly into their unit because the ward environment is considered inappropriate for them. A sizeable number of inpatients in medium and high secure units are elderly. This paper is an exploratory audit of referrals from a medium and high secure forensic psychiatry unit to a specialist consultation-only liaison old age psychiatry service, which was specifically developed to service the forensic unit. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients seen by this specialist service were similar to elderly inpatients in medium and high secure units. All referrals were judged to be appropriate and new management advice was provided in all cases. Main reasons for referral included diagnostic advice, placement advice and treatment advice. Establishing a diagnosis of dementia was considered important because Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia can be treated with cholinesterase inhibitors. Placement advice was the most difficult to provide because of paucity of residential and nursing homes able and willing to accept patients with a forensic history. There is a need for a comprehensive model of specialist forensic old age psychiatry service at a regional or supraregional level. A consensus needs to be reached on the exact configuration of such a service.

  7. The impact of witnessing other people's trauma: The resilience and coping strategies of members of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. (United States)

    Horvath, Miranda A H; Massey, Kristina


    The coping strategies, resilience and psychological distress of members of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine (FFLM) were measured in an attempt to establish how they are affected by, and accommodate potentially traumatic encounters with patients. Belief in a just world was also measured as it was deemed to be a mediating factor in the psychological distress exhibited in the medical practitioners who participated in this study. 120 members of the FFLM (65 females, 54 males and 1 undisclosed) volunteered to complete an online survey. Data was collected using Survey Monkey. Participants filled out the Personal Belief in a Just World Scale and General Belief in a Just World Scale, as well as the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 25, the COPE and the Brief Symptom Inventory. A multiple regression with stepwise entry was carried out. Personal belief in a just world, coping strategies and resilience were all identified as having a significant relationship with psychological distress. Although this is only a preliminary study into this phenomenon, findings suggest the personal belief in a just world, coping strategies and resilience are useful predictors of psychological distress amongst forensic medical practitioners. However they did not predict the majority of the variance and as such, more detailed investigations are needed to identify which other factors are important in order to design interventions and support for members of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine and other forensic medical practitioners. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Combining wrist age and third molars in forensic age estimation: how to calculate the joint age estimate and its error rate in age diagnostics. (United States)

    Gelbrich, Bianca; Frerking, Carolin; Weiss, Sandra; Schwerdt, Sebastian; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika; Tausche, Eve; Gelbrich, Götz


    Forensic age estimation in living adolescents is based on several methods, e.g. the assessment of skeletal and dental maturation. Combination of several methods is mandatory, since age estimates from a single method are too imprecise due to biological variability. The correlation of the errors of the methods being combined must be known to calculate the precision of combined age estimates. To examine the correlation of the errors of the hand and the third molar method and to demonstrate how to calculate the combined age estimate. Clinical routine radiographs of the hand and dental panoramic images of 383 patients (aged 7.8-19.1 years, 56% female) were assessed. Lack of correlation (r = -0.024, 95% CI = -0.124 to + 0.076, p = 0.64) allows calculating the combined age estimate as the weighted average of the estimates from hand bones and third molars. Combination improved the standard deviations of errors (hand = 0.97, teeth = 1.35 years) to 0.79 years. Uncorrelated errors of the age estimates obtained from both methods allow straightforward determination of the common estimate and its variance. This is also possible when reference data for the hand and the third molar method are established independently from each other, using different samples.

  9. Feasibility Study for the Development of Plutonium Reference Materials for Age Dating in Nuclear Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, M.; Richter, S.; Aregbe, Y.; Wellum, R.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Verbruggen, A.; Mayer, K.; Prohaska, T.


    Isotopic reference materials certified for the age of nuclear material (uranium, plutonium) are needed in the fields of nuclear forensics and environmental measurements. Therefore a feasibility study for the development of plutonium reference materials for age dating has been started recently at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EC-JRC-IRMM). The ''age'' of the material is defined as the time that has passed since the last chemical separation of the mother and daughter isotopes (e.g. 241 Pu and 241 Am). Assuming that the separation has been complete and all the daughter isotopes have been removed from the original material during this last separation, the age of the material can be determined by measuring the ratio of daughter and mother radio-nuclides, e.g. 241 Am/ 241 Pu. At a given time after the last separation and depending on the half lives of the radio-nuclides involved, a certain amount of the daughter radionuclide(s) will be present. For the determination of the unknown age of a material different ''clocks'' can be used; ''clocks'' are pairs of mother and daughter radio-nuclides, such as 241 Am/ 241 Pu, 238 Pu/ 234 U, 239 Pu/ 235 U, 240 Pu/ 236 U, and possibly 242 Pu/ 238 U. For the age estimation of a real sample, such as material seized in nuclear forensics investigations or dust samples in environmental measurements, it is advisable to use more than one clock in order to ensure the reliability of the results and to exclude the possibility that the sample under question is a mixture of two or more materials. Consequently, a future reference material certified for separation date should ideally be certified for more than one ''clock'' or several reference materials for different ''clocks'' should be developed. The first step of this study is to verify the known separation dates of different plutonium materials of different ages and isotopic compositions by measuring the mother ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu) and daughter

  10. [Development of forensic thanatology through the prism of analysis of postmortem protocols collected at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University]. (United States)

    Konopka, Tomasz


    When assessed based on the analysis of postmortem protocols, the successes of forensic thanatology appear to differ from those that might be assumed using as the foundation a review of publications and textbooks. The greatest achievements date back to as early as the 18th and 19th centuries, when the morphological changes observed in the majority of types of deaths resulting from disease-associated and traumatic causes were described. Within the past 130 years, however, or in other words, in the period when autopsy protocols were written that are today collected in the archives of the Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine, the causes and mechanisms of death became understood even when the said factors were associated with discrete postmortem changes only or no no such changes whatsoever were left. At the end of the 19th century and for a long time afterwards, a difficult problem was posed by sudden deaths, where the postmortem examinations demonstrated solely atherosclerosis and the cause of death was described as "heart palsy". As it turned out, a great portion of such deaths represented individuals with myocardial infarction; in spite of its evident macroscopic presentation, the diagnostic management of the disease was progressing very slowly. Myocardial infarction, known at least since 1912, was associated by forensic medicine with the phenomenon of sudden death only in the forties, and the ability to detect myocardial infarction in practice developed only in the fifties of the last century. The achievement of the present dissertation is the formulation of a theory ascribing such a long delay in macroscopic diagnostics of myocardial infarction to forensic medicine specialists being attached to and fond of employing the "in situ" autopsy technique, which was unfavorable from the viewpoint of heart examination, since the organ was not dissected free and removed from the body in the course of a postmortem examination. When autopsies started to concentrate on

  11. Testing inter-observer reliability of the Transition Analysis aging method on the William M. Bass forensic skeletal collection. (United States)

    Fojas, Christina L; Kim, Jieun; Minsky-Rowland, Jocelyn D; Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B


    Skeletal age estimation is an integral part of the biological profile. Recent work shows how multiple-trait approaches better capture senescence as it occurs at different rates among individuals. Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical framework of analysis provides more useful age estimates. The component-scoring method of Transition Analysis (TA) may resolve many of the functional and statistical limitations of traditional phase-aging methods and is applicable to both paleodemography and forensic casework. The present study contributes to TA-research by validating TA for multiple, differently experienced observers using a collection of modern forensic skeletal cases. Five researchers independently applied TA to a random sample of 58 documented individuals from the William M. Bass Forensic Skeletal Collection, for whom knowledge of chronological age was withheld. Resulting scores were input into the ADBOU software and maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were produced using the forensic prior. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability and agreement. Inaccuracy and bias were measured to gauge the magnitude and direction of difference between estimated ages and chronological ages among the five observers. The majority of traits had moderate to excellent agreement among observers (≥0.6). The superior surface morphology had the least congruence (0.4), while the ventral symphyseal margin had the most (0.9) among scores. Inaccuracy was the lowest for individuals younger than 30 and the greatest for individuals over 60. Consistent over-estimation of individuals younger than 30 and under-estimation of individuals over 40 years old occurred. Individuals in their 30s showed a mixed pattern of under- and over-estimation among observers. These results support the use of the TA method by researchers of varying experience levels. Further, they validate its use on forensic cases, given the low error overall. © 2017 Wiley

  12. Geographical distribution of torture: An epidemiological study of torture reported by asylum applicants examined at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Johannes Rødbro; Hansen, Steen Holger; Hougen, Hans Petter


    Using reports from 154 examinations of alleged torture victims among asylum applicants to Denmark conducted by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Univer- sity of Copenhagen, between 2001 and 2013, we have categorized the victims into four geographical regions, as well as according to the conflict...

  13. Burned bodies: post-mortem computed tomography, an essential tool for modern forensic medicine. (United States)

    Coty, J-B; Nedelcu, C; Yahya, S; Dupont, V; Rougé-Maillart, C; Verschoore, M; Ridereau Zins, C; Aubé, C


    Currently, post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) has become an accessible and contemporary tool for forensic investigations. In the case of burn victims, it provides specific semiologies requiring a prudent understanding to differentiate between the normal post-mortem changes from heat-related changes. The aim of this pictorial essay is to provide to the radiologist the keys to establish complete and focused reports in cases of PMCT of burn victims. Thus, the radiologist must discern all the contextual divergences with the forensic history, and must be able to report all the relevant elements to answer to the forensic pathologist the following questions: Are there tomographic features that could help to identify the victim? Is there evidence of remains of biological fluids in liquid form available for toxicological analysis and DNA sampling? Is there another obvious cause of death than heat-related lesions, especially metallic foreign bodies of ballistic origin? Finally, what are the characteristic burn-related injuries seen on the corpse that should be sought during the autopsy? • CT is highly useful to find features permitting the identification of a severely burned body. • PMCT is a major asset in gunshot injuries to depict ballistic foreign bodies in the burned cadavers. • CT is able to recognise accessible blood for tests versus heat clot (air-crescent sign). • Heat-related fractures are easily differentiated from traumatic fractures. • Epidural collections with a subdural appearance are typical heat-related head lesions.

  14. Insects (Diptera) associated with cadavers at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Pernambuco, Brazil: implications for forensic entomology. (United States)

    Oliveira, Tatiana Costa; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias


    Increasing rates of unsolved homicides in Brazil prompt the need for applied entomological data to be used as a complementary tool by criminal investigators. In that context, we analyzed the occurrence of forensically important insect species (Order Diptera) on 14 cadavers taken into the Institute of Legal Medicine (ILM), in Pernambuco, Brazil, according to the conditions of the body and the pattern of colonisation by insects. Simultaneously, we surveyed the diversity of insects in the surrounding environment using bait traps. Five species were present on cadavers: Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Cochliomyia macellaria (Calliphoridae), Oxysarcodexia riograndensis and Ravinia belforti (Sarcophagidae). A total of 4689 adult insects belonging to 24 species of seven dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae) was collected at the ILM premises. C. albiceps was the most frequent species on the corpses and the most abundant in the traps. Species referred to as of forensic importance, such as Lucilia eximia, Chrysomya putoria, Oxysarcodexia modesta and Ophyra chalcogaster were collected on traps, but not on cadavers. There seems to be a limited colonisation of cadavers at the scene of the death, despite the ubiquity of necrophagous species in the area. The results contribute to differentiate between species that are involved in decomposition and those found in and around the mortuary installations of the ILM, thus providing potential clues about the locality of death and the post-mortem interval.

  15. Determining 'age at death' for forensic purposes using human bone by a laboratory-based biomechanical analytical method. (United States)

    Zioupos, P; Williams, A; Christodoulou, G; Giles, R


    Determination of age-at-death (AAD) is an important and frequent requirement in contemporary forensic science and in the reconstruction of past populations and societies from their remains. Its estimation is relatively straightforward and accurate (±3yr) for immature skeletons by using morphological features and reference tables within the context of forensic anthropology. However, after skeletal maturity (>35yr) estimates become inaccurate, particularly in the legal context. In line with the general migration of all the forensic sciences from reliance upon empirical criteria to those which are more evidence-based, AAD determination should rely more-and-more upon more quantitative methods. We explore here whether well-known changes in the biomechanical properties of bone and the properties of bone matrix, which have been seen to change with age even after skeletal maturity in a traceable manner, can be used to provide a reliable estimate of AAD. This method charts a combination of physical characteristics some of which are measured at a macroscopic level (wet & dry apparent density, porosity, organic/mineral/water fractions, collagen thermal degradation properties, ash content) and others at the microscopic level (Ca/P ratios, osteonal and matrix microhardness, image analysis of sections). This method produced successful age estimates on a cohort of 12 donors of age 53-85yr (7 male, 5 female), where the age of the individual could be approximated within less than ±1yr. This represents a vastly improved level of accuracy than currently extant age estimation techniques. It also presents: (1) a greater level of reliability and objectivity as the results are not dependent on the experience and expertise of the observer, as is so often the case in forensic skeletal age estimation methods; (2) it is purely laboratory-based analytical technique which can be carried out by someone with technical skills and not the specialised forensic anthropology experience; (3) it can

  16. Insects on pig carcasses as a model for predictor of death interval in forensic medicine


    Sunny Wangko; Erwin G. Kristanto; Sonny J.R. Kalangi; Johannes Huijbregts; Dantje T. Sembel


    Background: Forensic entomology has not been acknowledged in Indonesia so far. Indonesian carrion insects are very rarely reported. The aim of this study was to obtain the types of insects on pig carcasses that could be used for the estimation of post-mortem interval.Methods: Four domestic pigs sacrificed with different methods were used as a model. The carcasses were observed twice daily (around 9 a.m and 4 p.m) during 15 days to assess the stages of decomposition and to collect insects, bot...

  17. External and Intrinsic Signatures in Human Teeth to Assist Forensic Identification Work


    Alkass, Kanar


    In forensic medicine, dead victim identification constitutes an important task for forensic professionals including forensic pathologists, anthropologists, and odontologists. If no clues are at hand regarding the identity of the deceased, whether it is a victim of a mass disaster or a suspect homicide case, it is vital to know when a person died, and to know the sex and age of the decedent in order to limit the search for possible matching persons. In paper I, teeth from ...

  18. As You Age: You and Your Medicines (United States)

    ... Relievers Understanding Over-the-Counter Medicines Medication Health Fraud Tips for Seniors Tips for Parents En Españ ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  19. Forensic medical examination of refugees who claim to have been tortured

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Banner, Jytte


    of 59 torture victims investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus, Denmark, 1996-2002, are presented and discussed. Variables including age, sex, education, health, torture methods, condition of confinement, torture aftereffects, and findings at the forensic examination...

  20. Age estimation in forensic sciences: application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis. (United States)

    Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L


    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ((14)C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R(2) = 0.66, p Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 +/- 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

  1. Age estimation in forensic sciences: Application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Ohtani, S; Yamamoto, T; Druid, H; Spalding, S L


    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster, since the age at death, birth date and year of death, as well as gender, can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this paper we analyze teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that above-ground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) which have been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel and ten of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2=0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 0.6 {+-} 04 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 {+-} 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

  2. [The analysis of the theses for the scientific degree in "forensic medicine" and related medical disciplines defended during the period from 2010 till 2014]. (United States)

    Fetisov, V A; Gusarov, A A; Kuprina, T A


    The objective of the present study was to analyze the results of research reported in the theses for the degree in "forensic medicine" defended in different dissertation committees during the 5 year period (from 2010 till 2014) and to summarize and compartmentalize the main research areas in which the authors carried out their study and thereby make the data obtained more readily available for the wide circles of readers. A total of 55 theses for the scientific degree in "forensic medicine" (14.03.05) were defended during the period from 2010 till 2014 including 18 (32.7%) ones for the degree in two disciplines, the second being either "pathological anatomy" (n=6) or "stomatology" (n=4). Despite the great variety of the problems resolved in the studies conducted during the five year period, the subject matter of most research was on the whole consistent with the main lines of activities of the institutions with which the degree-seeking workers were affiliated. The same refers to the choice of the tutors and scientific advisers. the authors emphasize the necessity of centralized planning of research in compliance with the list of priority investigations having practical significance and coordination of cooperative studies carried out based on the state bureau of forensic medical expertise (SBFME) and departments of forensic medical expertise of medical universities.

  3. The evaluation of forensic cases reported due to food poisoning

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    Beyza Urazel


    Full Text Available Objective: In this study it is aimed to examine forensic food poisoning cases and to evaluate the clinical presentation of food poisoning in people within the context of forensic medicine. Methods: In the study, 215 food poisoning cases are evaluated, which applied to the forensic medicine branch office in our city between 01.01.2007 and 31.12.2011. The forensic reports and forensic investigations of these cases are analyzed retrospectively. The cases are examined in terms of gender, age, the type of food consumed, the treatment applied and the result of the forensic report. Results: It is determined that in 83 cases (38.6% food poisoning was caused by chicken products, and in 178 cases (82.8% the poisoned people were students. In 3 cases (1.4% the poisoning was life threatening. For 75 cases (34.9% no forensic report was prepared in emergency service and among the 140 cases for which a forensic report was prepared, only 3 of the reports were prepared in a correct manner. Conclusions: It is determined that the demographic data of the cases complies with the city where the study was conducted. It is found out that in emergency services the food poisoning cases are usually misevaluated.

  4. DNA methylation-based forensic age prediction using artificial neural networks and next generation sequencing. (United States)

    Vidaki, Athina; Ballard, David; Aliferi, Anastasia; Miller, Thomas H; Barron, Leon P; Syndercombe Court, Denise


    The ability to estimate the age of the donor from recovered biological material at a crime scene can be of substantial value in forensic investigations. Aging can be complex and is associated with various molecular modifications in cells that accumulate over a person's lifetime including epigenetic patterns. The aim of this study was to use age-specific DNA methylation patterns to generate an accurate model for the prediction of chronological age using data from whole blood. In total, 45 age-associated CpG sites were selected based on their reported age coefficients in a previous extensive study and investigated using publicly available methylation data obtained from 1156 whole blood samples (aged 2-90 years) analysed with Illumina's genome-wide methylation platforms (27K/450K). Applying stepwise regression for variable selection, 23 of these CpG sites were identified that could significantly contribute to age prediction modelling and multiple regression analysis carried out with these markers provided an accurate prediction of age (R 2 =0.92, mean absolute error (MAE)=4.6 years). However, applying machine learning, and more specifically a generalised regression neural network model, the age prediction significantly improved (R 2 =0.96) with a MAE=3.3 years for the training set and 4.4 years for a blind test set of 231 cases. The machine learning approach used 16 CpG sites, located in 16 different genomic regions, with the top 3 predictors of age belonged to the genes NHLRC1, SCGN and CSNK1D. The proposed model was further tested using independent cohorts of 53 monozygotic twins (MAE=7.1 years) and a cohort of 1011 disease state individuals (MAE=7.2 years). Furthermore, we highlighted the age markers' potential applicability in samples other than blood by predicting age with similar accuracy in 265 saliva samples (R 2 =0.96) with a MAE=3.2 years (training set) and 4.0 years (blind test). In an attempt to create a sensitive and accurate age prediction test, a next

  5. Healthy aging: The ultimate preventative medicine. (United States)

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Martin, George M


    Age is the greatest risk factor for nearly every major cause of mortality in developed nations. Despite this, most biomedical research focuses on individual disease processes without much consideration for the relationships between aging and disease. Recent discoveries in the field of geroscience, which aims to explain biological mechanisms of aging, have provided insights into molecular processes that underlie biological aging and, perhaps more importantly, potential interventions to delay aging and promote healthy longevity. Here we describe some of these advances, along with efforts to move geroscience from the bench to the clinic. We also propose that greater emphasis should be placed on research into basic aging processes, because interventions that slow aging will have a greater effect on quality of life compared with disease-specific approaches. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Forensic Age Estimation of Chinese Malaysian Adults by Evaluating Occlusal Tooth Wear Using Modified Kim’s Index

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    Chai Kit Lu


    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Evaluation of dental attrition is an easy and relatively accurate approach to estimating the age of an adult either ante- or postmortem for some specific population. Dental attrition represents a progressive physiological age change that can be measured using variety of indices to aid as an adjunct in forensic age estimation. Some of the previously proposed indices have their own practical limitations. This paper focuses on using modified Kim’s criteria to score dental attrition to estimate the age of Chinese Malaysian adults and validate it. Methodology. Tooth wear was evaluated on 190 dental models of Chinese Malaysian adults (age range: 20–60 years using modified Kim’s index to custom-derive a population specific linear equation. The same equation was validated further on new 60 dental casts. Results and Conclusion. Regression analysis revealed good correlation between age and teeth wear and lower standard error of estimate. Test of regression on a test sample (n=30 pairs, age range: 20–60 years showed insignificant difference between predicted versus the actual age with statistically acceptable mean absolute difference. These data suggest that modified Kim’s index can be used effectively in forensic age estimation.

  7. Forensic medical examinations conducted on complainants of sexual assault in the Forensic Medicine Institute, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, between 2006 and 2013

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    Piotr Engelgardt


    Full Text Available A total of 46 cases of alleged sexual assault were analysed from the years 2006–2013 where forensic medical examinations were conducted. The material was compared with data from literature. All the victims were female. In 9 cases (20% a sexual assault by sexual touching was alleged, 67% of complainants (31 cases had alleged non-consensual sexual intercourse, 6 complainants (13% had no recollection of events. Genital area injuries were reported in 26% of sexual assault victims. Injuries of other parts of the body were found in 73% of victims. None of the subjects were positive for severe injuries such as fractures, wounds, and head trauma with loss of consciousness. The majority of complainants (29 cases, 63% were examined within 24 hours after the incident and 6 examinees (13% were assessed between 24 and 48 hours after the alleged sexual assault. Eleven forensic medical examinations (24% were conducted after the lapse of more than 48 hours since the alleged incident. Twenty nine complainants admitted that they had washed their genital area after the sexual assault. Forensic swabs were taken during all forensic medical examinations.

  8. Newspaper reports from the Coroners Court in Ireland are used to reveal the potential complexity and need for reform in forensic toxicology and medicine services. (United States)

    Tormey, William P


    Newspapers devote regular space to inquests in the public interest. Accuracy in determining the causes of death is important for public health. Expert opinion features prominently in press reports and is an important channel of public education. How expert are the experts and how complex are apparently simple cases? Toxicology cases involving cannabis and stroke, 'junk food' diet, unexplained sudden death, potential drug interactions, allergy during caesarean section, and ecstacy-type drugs are used to illustrate the complexities. A template for reform is suggested to reform the Coroners Laws in Ireland to recognise the complexity of forensic toxicology and medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Insects on pig carcasses as a model for predictor of death interval in forensic medicine

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    Sunny Wangko


    Full Text Available Background: Forensic entomology has not been acknowledged in Indonesia so far. Indonesian carrion insects are very rarely reported. The aim of this study was to obtain the types of insects on pig carcasses that could be used for the estimation of post-mortem interval.Methods: Four domestic pigs sacrificed with different methods were used as a model. The carcasses were observed twice daily (around 9 a.m and 4 p.m during 15 days to assess the stages of decomposition and to collect insects, both in mature and immature stages. The immature insects were reared and the mature insects were indentified in the Laboratory of Pests and Plant Diseases, University of Sam Ratulangi, Manado. Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies were identified both morphologically and with deoxyribose-nucleic acid (DNA techniques.Results: Five stages of decomposition (fresh, bloated, active decay, post-decay, and skeletonization were observed. A total of 11 Diptera and 8 Coleoptera species were found during a 15-days succession study. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and Hermetia illucens colonized in all carcasses.Conclusion: Insects found on four different pig carcasses consisted mainly of widespread Diptera and Coleoptera. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and Hermetia illucens seemed to be primary candidates for the estimation of the post-mortem interval.

  10. Medicine, madness and murderers: the context of English forensic psychiatric hospitals. (United States)

    McDonald, Ruth; Furtado, Vivek; Völlm, Birgit


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to add to the understanding of context by shedding light on the relationship between context and organisational actors' abilities to resolve ongoing challenges. Design/methodology/approach The authors used qualitative data collection (interviews and focus groups with staff and site visits to English forensic psychiatry hospitals) and the analysis was informed by Lefebvre's writings on space. Findings Responses to ongoing challenges were both constrained and facilitated by the context, which was negotiated and co-produced by the actors involved. Various (i.e. societal and professional) dimensions of context interacted to create tensions, which resulted in changes in service configuration. These changes were reconciled, to some extent, via discourse. Despite some resolution, the co-production of context preserved contradictions which mean that ongoing challenges were modified, but not resolved entirely. Originality/value The paper highlights the importance of viewing context as co-produced in a continuous manner. This helps us to delineate and understand its dynamic nature and its relationship with the everyday actions and beliefs of the organisational actors concerned.

  11. Dismantling the Justice Silos: avoiding the pitfalls and reaping the benefits of information-sharing between forensic science, medicine and law. (United States)

    Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Ross, Alastair


    Forensic science is increasingly relied on by police and the courts to exonerate the innocent and to establish links to crime. With this increased reliance the potential for unjust outcomes increases, especially in serious matters for two reasons. The more serious the matter, the more likely that evidence mishandling can lead to wrongful imprisonment, and the more likely the personnel involved will be multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational (Health, Justice, private legal/medical, police). The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational interactions was highlighted in the recent wrongful imprisonment of an Australian male for a sexual assault he did not commit. One factor that led to this unjust outcome was the justice silo effect: where forensic practitioners from different agencies operate in isolation (rarely communicating or sharing information/knowledge). In this paper we discuss findings from the Interfaces Project designed to assess the extent of the justice silos within Australia. We interviewed 103 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians Australian-wide. Five main themes were identified in the data: the silo effect was only partial and in each jurisdiction some form of inter-agency communication was actively occurring; inter-agency meetings were more common in homicide than sexual assault cases; forensic physicians were semi-invisible; there had been considerable momentum over the past ten years for practice improvement groups, and; practitioners gain more benefits than pitfalls from inter-agency information-sharing. Based on these findings, five recommendations are made for improving practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Injury Fatalities among Car Users; A Study Based on Forensic Medicine Data in East Azerbaijan of Iran (United States)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Samadirad, Bahram; Shahedifar, Nasrin; Golestani, Mina


    Objective: To study the epidemiology of car user road traffic fatalities (CURTFs) during eight years, in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: A total of 3051 CURTFs registered in East Azerbaijan forensic medicine organization database, Iran, during 2006-2014, were analyzed using Stata 13 statistical software package. Descriptive statistics (pinferential statistical methods such as Chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression with p<0.1 were applied.               Results: Of the 7818 road traffic injury (RTI) deaths, 3051 (39%) were car users of whom 71% were male (mean age of 36.7±18.5 years). The majority of accident mechanisms were vehicle-vehicle crashes (63.95%), followed by rollover (26.24%). Crash causing vehicle fall increased the pre-hospital death likelihood by 2.34 times. The prominent trauma causing death was head trauma (in 62.5%). In assessing the role of type of counterpart vehicle on pre-hospital mortality, considering the other cars to be the reference group for comparison, deceased victims were 1.83 times more likely to die before hospital when the counterpart vehicle was a truck and 1.66 times more for buses. Conclusion: Decreasing the car users’ fatalities using appropriate strategies such as separating the roads for heavy and light vehicles and improving the injury related facilitation may be effective. Male drivers with low education could be prioritized for being trained. PMID:29719846


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Stojanović


    Full Text Available This paper examines the causes of death in children and adolescents for a ten-year period (2003-2012 according to data from the autopsy records of the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Niš. The causes of death (natural or violent were analyzed in relation to sex, age, season, and environment (rural and urban areas, socio-economic and living conditions, and the number of children in the family. The results obtained were statistically analyzed, plotted and discussed in relation to data from the literature available. Regarding the autopsy cases of children and adolescents (194, 106 (54.63% were the cases of violent causes of death and 87 were the cases (44.84% of natural causes of death, while in one case the cause of death could not be determined due to late-stage decomposition alterations of the corpse. The most common natural causes of death were asphyxia, immaturity of the fetus and acute pneumonia. Most common causes of violent death were contusion of the brain, destruction of the brain and brainstem, polytrauma, and bleeding.

  14. The coming of age of artificial intelligence in medicine


    Patel, Vimla L.; Shortliffe, Edward H.; Stefanelli, Mario; Szolovits, Peter; Berthold, Michael R.; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Abu-Hanna, Ameen


    This paper is based on a panel discussion held at the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe (AIME) conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in July 2007. It had been more than 15 years since Edward Shortliffe gave a talk at AIME in which he characterized artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine as being in its “adolescence” (Shortliffe EH. The adolescence of AI in medicine: Will the field come of age in the ‘90s? Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 1993; 5:93–106). In this article, the ...

  15. Organ retention and communication of research use following medico-legal autopsy: a pilot survey of university forensic medicine departments in Japan. (United States)

    Tsujimura-Ito, Takako; Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshida, Ken-ichi


    This study investigated the circumstances and problems that departments of forensic medicine encounter with bereaved families regarding samples obtained from medico-legal autopsies. A questionnaire was posted to all 76 departments of forensic medicine performing medico-legal autopsies in Japan, and responses were received from 48 (63.2%). Of the respondents, 12.8% had approached and communicated with bereaved families about collecting samples from the deceased person during an autopsy and the storage of the samples. In addition, 23.4% of these had informed families that samples might be used in research. Eighteen departments had received enquiries and requests from families about the samples, with most requests concerning their return. The response to such requests varied according to the department. Few departments interacted with the bereaved families regarding the procedure for obtaining autopsy samples, and their methods for handling family concerns differed depending on the person within the department authorised to contact the family. Moreover, the procedures for engaging in such communication have long been unclear, and no legal or ethical consensus or agreement with the general public has been established. It is important for researchers to further discuss the correct way for forensic medicine departments to communicate with bereaved families. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  16. Forensic DNA barcoding and bio-response studies of animal horn products used in traditional medicine.

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    Dan Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal horns (AHs have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. But now parts of AHs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. The contradiction between the development of traditional medicine and the protection of wild resources has already become the common concern of zoophilists, traditional medical professionals, economists, sociologists. We believe that to strengthen the identification for threatened animals, to prevent the circulation of them, and to seek fertile animals of corresponding bioactivities as substitutes are effective strategies to solve this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A powerful technique of DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI was used to identify threatened animals of Bovidae and Cervidae, as well as their illegal adulterants (including 10 species and 47 specimens. Meanwhile, the microcalorimetric technique was used to characterize the differences of bio-responses when those animal specimens acted on model organism (Escherichia coli. We found that the COI gene could be used as a universal primer to identify threatened animals and illegal adulterants mentioned above. By analyzing 223 mitochondrial COI sequences, a 100% identification success rate was achieved. We further found that the horns of Mongolian Gazelle and Red Deer could be exploited as a substitute for some functions of endangered Saiga Antelope and Sika Deer in traditional medicine, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Although it needs a more comprehensive evaluation of bioequivalence in order to completely solve the problem of substitutes for threatened animals, we believe that the identification (DNA barcoding of threatened animals combined with seeking substitutions (bio-response can yet be regarded as a valid strategy for establishing a balance

  17. Hydrocarbon profiles throughout adult Calliphoridae aging: A promising tool for forensic entomology. (United States)

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Moore, Hannah; Drijfhout, Falko; Benbow, M Eric


    Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically the first insects to arrive at human remains and carrion. Predictable succession patterns and known larval development of necrophagous insects on vertebrate remains can assist a forensic entomologist with estimates of a minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin) range. However, adult blow flies are infrequently used to estimate the PMImin, but rather are used for a confirmation of larval species identification. Cuticular hydrocarbons have demonstrated potential for estimating adult blow fly age, as hydrocarbons are present throughout blow fly development, from egg to adult, and are stable structures. The goal of this study was to identify hydrocarbon profiles associated with the adults of a North American native blow fly species, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) and a North American invasive species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Flies were reared at a constant temperature (25°C), a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) (h), and were provided water, sugar and powdered milk ad libitum. Ten adult females from each species were collected at day 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 post-emergence. Hydrocarbon compounds were extracted and then identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 37 and 35 compounds were detected from C. macellaria and Ch. rufifacies, respectively. There were 24 and 23 n-alkene and methyl-branched alkane hydrocarbons from C. macellaria and Ch. rufifacies, respectively (10 compounds were shared between species), used for statistical analysis. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis and permutational multivariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the hydrocarbon profiles with significant differences (Pforensic practitioners and potentially increase the use of adult insects during death investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations

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    Welington dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is identify potential factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations. The forensic files of children under 12 years of age reporting sexual abuse at the Nina Rodrigues Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil between January 2008 and December 2009 were reviewed. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with finding evidence of sexual abuse in forensic examinations. The proportion of cases confirmed by the forensic physician based on material evidence was 10.4%. Adjusted analysis showed that the variables place of birth, type of abuse reported, family relationship between the child and the perpetrator, and the interval between the reported abuse and the forensic examination were not independently associated with finding forensic evidence of sexual abuse. A report of penetration was associated with a five-fold greater likelihood of confirmation, while the victim being 10-11 years of age was associated with a two-fold of abuse confirmation than younger children. These findings should be taken into consideration when drawing up guidelines for the multidisciplinary evaluation of children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse and in deciding whether to refer the child for forensic examination.

  19. Analysis of microsatellite markers D18S70 and d20S116 in DNA isolated from dentin: Use in forensic medicine

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    Puzović Dragana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Short tandem repeats and more specifically microsatellites represent a powerful tool in forensic medicine. In the past years, they have been extensively used in human identification and paternity testing. Objective The aim of the present study was to analyze two microsatellite markers in the Serbian population, i.e. to determine the number of alleles and the relevant forensic parameters. Methods. DNA was isolated from teeth samples using standard proteinase K digestion and phenol/chloroform alcohol extraction. PCR products were analyzed on polyacrilamide gels and visualized by AgNO3 staining. Forensic parameters were calculated using the Cervus software. Results. The loci D18S70 and D20S116 were analyzed on a sample of 70 unrelated, healthy adult individuals from Serbia. The number of alleles was determined and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium was confirmed for both loci. D18S70 and D20S116 demonstrated 6 and 8 alleles, respectively. The power of discrimination (PD and the power of exclusion (PE for the tested STR loci, D18S70 and D20S116 were 0.92 (PD, 0.41 (PE and 0.95 (PD, 0.480 (PE, respectively. Conclusion. According to the presented data, D18S70 and D20S116 are most informative markers. Based on allelic frequencies and statistical parameters for forensic testing, it may be suggested that these two microsatellites represent useful markers for individual identification and parentage analysis in the Serbian population.

  20. Overview of the frontal sinus anteroposterior size based on against lateral cephalometric radiographs chronological age as forensic identification

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    Georgiana Marsya


    Full Text Available Introduction: One part of the most important individual identification procedure is approximate age can be done on an individual living or dead. Judging from some of the methods that have been there, have not found a method forecasts age through the frontal sinuses, particularly research conducted in Indonesia. The frontal sinus can be used for identification because the frontal sinuses began to evolve and look at radiographs at the age of 7 years and did not change after the age of 20 years, it reveals the existence of differences in the size of the frontal sinuses with age. The onbjectives of this study was to asses of the frontal sinus anteroposterior size based on against lateral cephalometric radiographs chronological age as forensic identification. Methods: A number of samples are 502 lateral cephalometric patient data from secondary data of patients aged 7-20 years, 335 pieces of lateral cephalometric Purpose of study is to asses of the frontal sinus anteroposterior size chronological age as forensic identification. radiograph female patients and 167 pieces in male patients. Data anteroposterior size of the frontal sinus is obtained by pulling the longest line perpendicular to the line of Sh-Sl. Results: the results showed that at the age of 7 years the average size of the frontal sinus anteroposterior 4.20 mm and 5.05 mm which is the smallest size, while the average size of the biggest, by 8.46 mm in women and men at the age of 11.37 mm 20 years. Conclusions: In women, the fastest increase occurred at the age of 7-8 years, males at the age of 16-18 years. The frontal sinuses anteroposterior size increases with age, both men, and women.

  1. [Forensic anthropology]. (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels


    Forensic anthropology is the application of biological or physical anthropology in the service of justice. One main area is the analysis of human remains. Such analyses involve person identification by assessment of age and sex of the deceased, and comparison with ante-mortem data. Another major area is the analysis of surveillance pictures and videos. Such analyses may comprise facial and bodily morphological comparisons, multi-angle photogrammetry and gait analysis. We also perform studies of human remains for archaeologists.

  2. Forensic Science. (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.


    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  3. Examination of DNA methylation status of the ELOVL2 marker may be useful for human age prediction in forensic science. (United States)

    Zbieć-Piekarska, Renata; Spólnicka, Magdalena; Kupiec, Tomasz; Makowska, Żanetta; Spas, Anna; Parys-Proszek, Agnieszka; Kucharczyk, Krzysztof; Płoski, Rafał; Branicki, Wojciech


    Age estimation in forensic investigations may complement the prediction of externally visible characteristics and the inference of biogeographical ancestry, thus allowing a better description of an unknown individual. Multiple CpG sites that show linear correlation between age and degree of DNA methylation have been identified in the human genome, providing a selection of candidates for age prediction. In this study, we optimized an assay based on bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of 7 CpG sites located in the ELOVL2 gene. Examination of 303 blood samples collected from individuals aged 2-75 years allowed selection of the most informative site, explaining 83% of variation in age. The final linear regression model included two CpG sites in ELOVL2 and enabled age prediction with R(2)=0.859, prediction error=6.85 and mean absolute deviation MAD=5.03. Examination of a testing set of 124 blood samples (MAD=5.75) showed that 68.5% of samples were correctly predicted, assuming that chronological and predicted ages matched ± 7 years. It was found that the ELOVL2 methylation status in bloodstains had not changed significantly after 4 weeks of storage in room temperature conditions. Analysis of 45 bloodstains deposited on tissue paper after 5, 10 and 15 years of storage in room conditions indicated that although a gradual decrease of positive PCR results was observed, the general age prediction success rate remained similar and equaled 60-78%. The obtained results show that the ELOVL2 locus provides a very good source of information about human chronological age based on analysis of blood, including bloodstains, and it may constitute a powerful and reliable predictor in future forensic age estimation models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Orthopantomographic evaluation of canine and first premolar using Demirjian's stages in central India: new approach to forensic age estimation. (United States)

    Pathak, Hrishikesh V; Dixit, Pradeep; Shrigiriwar, Manish; Bardale, Rajesh


    Teeth development is widely used for age estimation in forensic science. The aims of this study were as follows: first, to establish Indian data on canine and first premolar development for age estimation and second, to investigate population differences in teeth development. Orthopantomograms of 340 Indian children aged between 5 and 14 years were analyzed. Demirjian's stages were recorded for the developmental evaluation of canine and first premolar and for further descriptive statistical analysis. A two-way ANOVA was performed to test the significance of difference in teeth development by sex and stage. A one-way ANOVA was performed to investigate population differences in teeth development. Results showed statistically significant differences in teeth development by sex and stage. Accordingly, teeth development was earlier in girls. No statistically significant differences were observed in timings of Demirjian's stages among different populations. In conclusion, the findings of this study could be used for age estimation of Indian children. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Voluntary termination of pregnancy (medical or surgical abortion: forensic medicine issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piras Mauro


    Full Text Available In Italy, Law 194 of 22 May 1978 provides for and regulates the voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTP. Medical abortion became popular nationwide after Mifepristone (RU-486 was authorized for the market by AIFA (Italian Drug Agency in July 2009. We searched articles in medical literature database with these terms: “medical abortion”, “RU486”, “surgical abortion”. We also searched laws and judgments concerning abortion in national legal databases. Ministerial guidelines were searched on official website of Italian Ministry of Health. We found many medical studies about medical and surgical abortion. We found also ministerial and regional guidelines, which were analyzed. From the point of view of legal medicine, the issues related to abortion with the pharmacological method consist in verifying compatibility and consistency with the safety principles and the parameters imposed by Law n. 194 of 1978, using off-label Misoprostol, what inpatient care should be used and informed consent. The doctor’s job is to provide the patient with comprehensive and clear information about how the procedure will be performed, any complications and the time period needed for both procedures.

  6. Ascertaining year of birth/age at death in forensic cases: A review of conventional methods and methods allowing for absolute chronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, H; Zweihoff, R


    Based on an actual case, where we were able to ascertain the year of birth of three dead babies found in a deep-freezer to within 1–2 years (1986, 1988 and 2004, respectively), we review the current state of forensic age determination/year of birth determination. The age of an individual (year...... of birth) is often a fundamental piece of data in connection with forensic identification of unidentified bodies. The methods most often used are based on determining various morphological, age-related, changes on the skeleton (or teeth, although odontological methods are not reviewed in this paper...

  7. The coming of age of artificial intelligence in medicine. (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L; Shortliffe, Edward H; Stefanelli, Mario; Szolovits, Peter; Berthold, Michael R; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Abu-Hanna, Ameen


    This paper is based on a panel discussion held at the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe (AIME) conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in July 2007. It had been more than 15 years since Edward Shortliffe gave a talk at AIME in which he characterized artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine as being in its "adolescence" (Shortliffe EH. The adolescence of AI in medicine: will the field come of age in the '90s? Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 1993;5:93-106). In this article, the discussants reflect on medical AI research during the subsequent years and characterize the maturity and influence that has been achieved to date. Participants focus on their personal areas of expertise, ranging from clinical decision-making, reasoning under uncertainty, and knowledge representation to systems integration, translational bioinformatics, and cognitive issues in both the modeling of expertise and the creation of acceptable systems.

  8. The Coming of Age of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine* (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L.; Shortliffe, Edward H.; Stefanelli, Mario; Szolovits, Peter; Berthold, Michael R.; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Abu-Hanna, Ameen


    Summary This paper is based on a panel discussion held at the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe (AIME) conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in July 2007. It had been more than 15 years since Edward Shortliffe gave a talk at AIME in which he characterized artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine as being in its “adolescence” (Shortliffe EH. The adolescence of AI in medicine: Will the field come of age in the ‘90s? Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 1993; 5:93–106). In this article, the discussants reflect on medical AI research during the subsequent years and attempt to characterize the maturity and influence that has been achieved to date. Participants focus on their personal areas of expertise, ranging from clinical decision making, reasoning under uncertainty, and knowledge representation to systems integration, translational bioinformatics, and cognitive issues in both the modeling of expertise and the creation of acceptable systems. PMID:18790621

  9. Optimized mtDNA Control Region Primer Extension Capture Analysis for Forensically Relevant Samples and Highly Compromised mtDNA of Different Age and Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eduardoff


    Full Text Available The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp. Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS of (multiplex PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes. Molecular genetic studies on archaeological remains that harbor more degraded aDNA have pioneered alternative approaches to target mtDNA, such as capture hybridization and primer extension capture (PEC methods followed by MPS. These assays target smaller mtDNA fragment sizes (down to 50 bp or less, and have proven to be substantially more successful in obtaining useful mtDNA sequences from these samples compared to electrophoretic methods. Here, we present the modification and optimization of a PEC method, earlier developed for sequencing the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome, with forensic applications in mind. Our approach was designed for a more sensitive enrichment of the mtDNA CR in a single tube assay and short laboratory turnaround times, thus complying with forensic practices. We characterized the method using sheared, high quantity mtDNA (six samples, and tested challenging forensic samples (n = 2 as well as compromised solid tissue samples (n = 15 up to 8 kyrs of age. The PEC MPS method produced reliable and plausible mtDNA haplotypes that were useful in the forensic context. It yielded plausible data in samples that did not provide results with STS and other MPS techniques. We addressed the issue of contamination by including four generations of negative controls, and discuss the results in the forensic context. We finally offer perspectives for future research to enable the validation and accreditation of the PEC MPS

  10. A Student Selected Component (or Special Study Module) in Forensic and Legal Medicine: Design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of an optional module as an addition to the medical undergraduate core curriculum. (United States)

    Kennedy, Kieran M; Wilkinson, Andrew


    The General Medical Council (United Kingdom) advocates development of non-core curriculum Student Selected Components and their inclusion in all undergraduate medical school curricula. This article describes a rationale for the design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of Student Selected Components in Forensic and Legal Medicine. Reference is made to the available evidence based literature pertinent to the delivery of undergraduate medical education in the subject area. A Student Selected Component represents an opportunity to highlight the importance of the legal aspects of medical practice, to raise the profile of the discipline of Forensic and Legal Medicine amongst undergraduate medical students and to introduce students to the possibility of a future career in the area. The authors refer to their experiences of design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of Student Selected Components in Forensic and Legal Medicine at their respective Universities in the Republic of Ireland (Galway) and in the United Kingdom (Oxford). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The effects of gender and age on forensic personal identification from frontal sinus in a Turkish population. (United States)

    Tatlisumak, Ertugrul; Asirdizer, Mahmut; Bora, Aydin; Hekimoglu, Yavuz; Etli, Yasin; Gumus, Orhan; Keskin, Siddik


    To define the dimensions of the frontal sinus in groups standardized for age and gender and to discuss the reasons and the effects of the variations. Methods: Frontal sinus measurements were obtained from paranasal CTscans of 180 males and 180 females in the Radiology Department of Dursun Odabas Medical Center of Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, which is located in Eastern Turkey, between February and March 2016. The width and height of sinuses were measured on a coronal plane, and the anteroposterior length was measured on an axial plane. Volumes were calculated using the Hospital Information Management Systems and Image Archiving and Management Systemprogram. The Statistical Package of the Social Science version 13 was used for statistical analyses.  Results: We determined differences in the frontal sinus measurements of different age groups in a Turkish adult population. Frontal sinus dimensions were usually higher in females and lower in males after 40-49 years of age than their younger counterparts, but the measurements were lower in females and higher in males in 70≤ years of age group than 60-69 years of age. Left frontal sinus was dominant in young age groups but right frontal sinus was dominant in groups 40-49 years of age or older.  Conclusion: We observed crossing of the measurements between the different age groups, which we could not find clear explanations. The results of such studies may affect forensic identification from frontal sinus measurements.

  12. Video gaming and sexual violence: rethinking forensic nursing in a digital age. (United States)

    Mercer, Dave; Parkinson, Denis


    This article reports findings from a qualitative study into how forensic nurses, and male personality disordered sexual offenders, talked about "pornography" in one U.K. high-security hospital. Research rationale was rooted in current professional and political debates, adopting a discourse analytic design to situate the project in a clinical context. Semistructured interviews, as co-constructed accounts, explored talk about sexual media, offending, treatment, and risk. Data were analyzed using a version of discourse analysis popular in healthcare research, identifying discursive repertoires, or collective language use, characteristic of the institutional culture. Findings revealed that masculine discourse marginalized female nurses and contradicted therapeutic goals, where men's talk about pornography, sex, and sexual crime represented discriminatory and gendered language. Nursing definitions of pornography were constructed in the context of the client group and an organizational need to manage risk. In a highly controlled environment, with a long-stay population, priority in respondent talk was given to mainstream commercial sexual media and everyday items/images perceived to have embedded sexual meaning. However, little mention was made of contemporary modes of producing/distributing pornography, where sex and sexual violence are enacted in virtual realities of cyberspace. Failure to engage with information technology, and globally mediated sex, is discussed as a growing concern for forensic health workers.

  13. The Diversity of REcent and Ancient huMan (DREAM): A New Microarray for Genetic Anthropology and Genealogy, Forensics, and Personalized Medicine. (United States)

    Elhaik, Eran; Yusuf, Leeban; Anderson, Ainan I J; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Arnellos, Dimitrios; Vilshansky, Gregory; Ercal, Gunes; Lu, Yontao; Webster, Teresa; Baird, Michael L; Esposito, Umberto


    The human population displays wide variety in demographic history, ancestry, content of DNA derived from hominins or ancient populations, adaptation, traits, copy number variation, drug response, and more. These polymorphisms are of broad interest to population geneticists, forensics investigators, and medical professionals. Historically, much of that knowledge was gained from population survey projects. Although many commercial arrays exist for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, their design specifications are limited and they do not allow a full exploration of biodiversity. We thereby aimed to design the Diversity of REcent and Ancient huMan (DREAM)-an all-inclusive microarray that would allow both identification of known associations and exploration of standing questions in genetic anthropology, forensics, and personalized medicine. DREAM includes probes to interrogate ancestry informative markers obtained from over 450 human populations, over 200 ancient genomes, and 10 archaic hominins. DREAM can identify 94% and 61% of all known Y and mitochondrial haplogroups, respectively, and was vetted to avoid interrogation of clinically relevant markers. To demonstrate its capabilities, we compared its FST distributions with those of the 1000 Genomes Project and commercial arrays. Although all arrays yielded similarly shaped (inverse J) FST distributions, DREAM's autosomal and X-chromosomal distributions had the highest mean FST, attesting to its ability to discern subpopulations. DREAM performances are further illustrated in biogeographical, identical by descent, and copy number variation analyses. In summary, with approximately 800,000 markers spanning nearly 2,000 genes, DREAM is a useful tool for genetic anthropology, forensic, and personalized medicine studies. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Paternity analysis based on NGM SElect system in the Medical and Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Lodz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Markiewicz-Knyziak


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the NGM SElect multiplex kit for paternity testing in the population of central Poland, and compare it with the IDENTIFILER system. The study material consisted of buccal swabs taken from individuals who reported to the Medical and Forensic Genetics Laboratory in Lodz. Samples from 450 trio cases of disputed paternity carried out in 2010–2014 were investigated. Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal swabs collected from 1,350 individuals using the Swab kit (A&A Biotechnology according to the manufacturer’s protocol. DNA amplification was performed using the AmpFℓSTR ® NGM Select TM PCR Amplification Kit (Life Technologies. PCR products were separated by capillary electrophoresis using HID 3500 Genetic Analyzer. In the analyzed cases with paternity confirmation in the NGM SElect system, the maximum value of PI was 3.9 × 10 12 , which corresponds to the probability of paternity W = 99.9999999999%. It was thus significantly higher than analogical parameters obtained in the IDENTIFILER system (PI = 6.0 × 10 10 , W = 99.99999999%. The NGM SElect kit was unable to resolve just one case out of 450, which represents only 0.2% of all analyzed disputed paternity cases. The study showed the SE33 (ACTBP2 locus to have the highest evidence value in paternity analysis out of all investigated autosomal STRs.

  15. Forensic anthropology and mortuary archaeology in Lithuania. (United States)

    Jankauskas, Rimantas


    Forensic anthropology (in Lithuania, as everywhere in Eastern Europe, traditionally considered as a narrower field--forensic osteology) has a long history, experience being gained both during exhumations of mass killings during the Second World War and the subsequent totalitarian regime, investigations of historical mass graves, identification of historical personalities and routine forensic work. Experts of this field (usually a branch of forensic medicine) routinely are solving "technical" questions of crime investigation, particularly identification of (usually dead) individuals. Practical implementation of the mission of forensic anthropology is not an easy task due to interdisciplinary character of the field. On one hand, physical anthropology has in its disposition numerous scientifically tested methods, however, their practical value in particular legal processes is limited. Reasons for these discrepancies can be related both to insufficient understanding of possibilities and limitations of forensic anthropology and archaeology by officials representing legal institutions that perform investigations, and sometimes too "academic" research, that is conducted at anthropological laboratories, when methods developed are not completely relevant to practical needs. Besides of answering to direct questions (number of individuals, sex, age, stature, population affinity, individual traits, evidence of violence), important humanitarian aspects--the individual's right for identity, the right of the relatives to know the fate of their beloved ones--should not be neglected. Practical use of other identification methods faces difficulties of their own (e.g., odontology--lack of regular dental registration system and compatible database). Two examples of forensic anthropological work of mass graves, even when the results were much influenced by the questions raised by investigators, can serve as an illustration of the above-mentioned issues.

  16. European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) principles for on-site forensic and medico-legal scene and corpse investigation. (United States)

    Cusack, D; Ferrara, S D; Keller, E; Ludes, B; Mangin, P; Väli, M; Vieira, N


    Forensic medical practitioners need to define the general principles governing procedures to be used for the on-site examination of a body where the death has occurred in unnatural, violent or suspicious circumstances. These principles should be followed whenever a medical expert is required to perform an on-site corpse inspection and should be utilised as a set of general guidelines to be adapted to the specific situation in hand and interpreted using common sense and scientific knowledge of the relevant procedures and facts of the case. The aim of these principles is to ensure that forensic evidence at the scene of a death is properly observed and assessed and all necessary relevant evidence gathered in order to ensure that a comprehensive report is available to the judicial authority (investigating judge or coroner) in the justice system. The on-site corpse inspection by a forensic practitioner is a mandatory and essential stage of the forensic and medico-legal autopsy, as it may provide important information for subsequent investigation stages.

  17. Multivariate methods for the analysis of complex and big data in forensic sciences. Application to age estimation in living persons. (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thomas; Chariot, Patrick; Chauvin, Pierre


    Researchers handle increasingly higher dimensional datasets, with many variables to explore. Such datasets pose several problems, since they are difficult to handle and present unexpected features. As dimensionality increases, classical statistical analysis becomes inoperative. Variables can present redundancy, and the reduction of dataset dimensionality to its lowest possible value is often needed. Principal components analysis (PCA) has proven useful to reduce dimensionality but present several shortcomings. As others, forensic sciences will face the issues specific related to an evergrowing quantity of data to be integrated. Age estimation in living persons, an unsolved problem so far, could benefit from the integration of various sources of data, e.g., clinical, dental and radiological data. We present here novel multivariate techniques (nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques, NLDR), applied to a theoretical example. Results were compared to those of PCA. NLDR techniques were then applied to clinical, dental and radiological data (13 variables) used for age estimation. The correlation dimension of these data was estimated. NLDR techniques outperformed PCA results. They showed that two living persons sharing similar characteristics may present rather different estimated ages. Moreover, data presented a very high informational redundancy, i.e., a correlation dimension of 2. NLDR techniques should be used with or preferred to PCA techniques to analyze complex and big data. Data routinely used for age estimation may not be considered suitable for this purpose. How integrating other data or approaches could improve age estimation in living persons is still uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Forensic odontology. (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal


    Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology.

  19. Apophyseal Ossification of the Iliac Crest in Forensic Age Estimation: Computed Tomography Standards for Modern Australian Subadults. (United States)

    Lottering, Nicolene; Alston-Knox, Clair L; MacGregor, Donna M; Izatt, Maree T; Grant, Caroline A; Adam, Clayton J; Gregory, Laura S


    This study contrasts the ontogeny of the iliac crest apophysis using conventional radiography and multislice computed tomography (MSCT), providing probabilistic information for age estimation of modern Australian subadults. Retrospective abdominopelvic MSCT data acquired from 524 Australian individuals aged 7-25 and surveillance radiographs of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients included in the Paediatric Spine Research Group Progression Study (n = 531) were assessed. Ossification scoring of pseudo-radiographs and three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered reconstructions using Risser (1958) quantitative descriptors indicate discrepancies in age estimates, stage allocation, and conflicting morphological progression. To mitigate visualization limitations associated with two-dimensional radiographs, we provide and validate a modified 3D-MSCT scoring tier of ossification, demonstrating complete fusion between 17.3-19.2 and 17.1-20.1 years in males and females. Legal demarcation for doli incapax presumption and age of majority (18 years) can be achieved using probability estimates from a fitted cumulative probit model for apophyseal fusion using the recalibrated standards. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Forensic Chemistry (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne


    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  1. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology]. (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan


    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue.

  2. Forensic entomology (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  3. Healing a Sick World: Psychiatric Medicine and the Atomic Age. (United States)

    Zwigenberg, Ran


    The onset of nuclear warfare in Hiroshima and Nagasaki had far-reaching implications for the world of medicine. The study of the A-bomb and its implications led to the launching of new fields and avenues of research, most notably in genetics and radiation studies. Far less understood and under-studied was the impact of nuclear research on psychiatric medicine. Psychological research, however, was a major focus of post-war military and civilian research into the bomb. This research and the perceived revolutionary impact of atomic energy and warfare on society, this paper argues, played an important role in the global development of post-war psychiatry. Focusing on psychiatrists in North America, Japan and the United Nations, this paper examines the reaction of the profession to the nuclear age from the early post-war period to the mid 1960s. The way psychiatric medicine related to atomic issues, I argue, shifted significantly between the immediate post-war period and the 1960s. While the early post-war psychiatrists sought to help society deal with and adjust to the new nuclear reality, later psychiatrists moved towards a more radical position that sought to resist the establishment's efforts to normalise the bomb and nuclear energy. This shift had important consequences for research into the psychological trauma suffered by victims of nuclear warfare, which, ultimately, together with other research into the impact of war and systematic violence, led to our current understanding of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

  4. [Injury pattern and identification after airplane catastrophies. Cooperation between forensic medicine and federal criminal investigations. An airplane accident in Mühlheim/Ruhr 8 February 1988]. (United States)

    Weiler, G; Risse, M


    On February 8th 1988, a two-motor passenger aircraft of Metroliner type with 21 people on board entered a front of heavy weather at an altitude of 900 m and crashed after being struck by lightning which led to complete breakdown of the electrical systems on board. The site of the crash was in the marshy Ruhr meadows. The formation of the terrain enabled a subdivision into plan squares for rescue. The identification of the 21 bodies was carried out in the Essen Institute of Forensic Medicine in collaboration with the identification commission of the Federal Criminal Investigation Office. The experience and recommendations for future (possibly larger-scale) disasters derived from this are described. Furthermore, the accident pattern in the casualties typical for this air crash is discussed.

  5. Forensic age estimation based on magnetic resonance imaging of third molars: converting 2D staging into 3D staging. (United States)

    De Tobel, Jannick; Hillewig, Elke; Verstraete, Koenraad


    Established methods to stage development of third molars for forensic age estimation are based on the evaluation of radiographs, which show a 2D projection. It has not been investigated whether these methods require any adjustments in order to apply them to stage third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which shows 3D information. To prospectively study root stage assessment of third molars in age estimation using 3 Tesla MRI and to compare this with panoramic radiographs, in order to provide considerations for converting 2D staging into 3D staging and to determine the decisive root. All third molars were evaluated in 52 healthy participants aged 14-26 years using MRI in three planes. Three staging methods were investigated by two observers. In sixteen of the participants, MRI findings were compared with findings on panoramic radiographs. Decisive roots were palatal in upper third molars and distal in lower third molars. Fifty-seven per cent of upper third molars were not assessable on the radiograph, while 96.9% were on MRI. Upper third molars were more difficult to evaluate on radiographs than on MRI (p third molars were equally assessable on both imaging techniques (93.8% MRI, 98.4% radiograph), with no difference in level of difficulty (p = .375). Inter- and intra-observer agreement for evaluation was higher in MRI than in radiographs. In both imaging techniques lower third molars showed greater inter- and intra-observer agreement compared to upper third molars. MR images in the sagittal plane proved to be essential for staging. In age estimation, 3T MRI of third molars could be valuable. Some considerations are, however, necessary to transfer known staging methods to this 3D technique.

  6. "Morphology is a witness which doesn't lie": diagnosis by similarity relation and analogical inference in clinical forensic medicine. (United States)

    Rees, Gethin


    In this paper, I utilise semi-structured interviews with Forensic Medical Examiners (FMEs) in Scotland in order to investigate their diagnostic work. Drawing upon classic medical sociological work on diagnosis (for instance, the work of Paul Atkinson and Michael Bloor), my understanding of diagnosis is as a subjective, but socially-constructed activity whereby medical practitioners are taught to identify (in this case) injury types, initially by ostension, then also by examination. I then extend the analysis postulated within the classic studies by outlining a mechanistic method for the actual cognitive process of diagnosis, drawn from a sociologically informed reading of the historian of science, Thomas Kuhn. It is argued that diagnosis is achieved by similarity relation (comparing new cases to those previously observed), and analogical reasoning (drawing inferences based on the analogy with previous cases). Given that new cases subtly alter the individual FME's classificatory schema, resulting in potential differences in diagnoses, the FME community are required to conduct much reparative work in order to construct their evidence as consensual and factual, as is required by law. The paper will conclude with some brief comments on the future of forensic medical examinations, particularly concerning the fact/opinion distinction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Applicability of Greulich and Pyle method for age assessment in forensic practice on an Italian sample. (United States)

    Tisè, Marco; Mazzarini, Laura; Fabrizzi, Giancarlo; Ferrante, Luigi; Giorgetti, Raffaele; Tagliabracci, Adriano


    The main importance in age estimation lies in the assessment of criminal liability and protection of unaccompanied minor immigrants, when their age is unknown. Under Italian law, persons are not criminally responsible before they reach the age of 14. The age of 18 is important when deciding whether juvenile or adult law must be applied. In the case of unaccompanied minors, it is important to assess age in order to establish special protective measures, and correct age estimation may prevent a person over 18 from benefiting from measures reserved for minors. Since the Greulich and Pyle method is one of the most frequently used in age estimation, the aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and accuracy of the method on a large Italian sample of teenagers, to ascertain the applicability of the Atlas at the critical age thresholds of 14 and 18 years. This retrospective study examined posteroanterior X-ray projections of hand and wrist from 484 Italian-Caucasian young people (125 females, 359 males) between 11 and 19 years old. All radiographic images were taken from trauma patients hospitalized in the Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti of Ancona (Italy) between 2006 and 2007. Two physicians analyzed all radiographic images separately. The blind method was used. In the case of an estimated age of 14 years old, the true age ranged from 12.2 to 15.9 years (median, 14.3 years, interquartile range, 1.0 years) for males, and 12.6 to 15.7 years (median, 14.2 years, interquartile range, 1.7 years) for females. In the case of an estimated age of 18 years, the true age ranged from 15.6 to 19.7 years (median, 17.7 years, interquartile range, 1.4 years) for males, and from 16.2 to 20.0 years (median, 18.7 years, interquartile range, 1.8 years) for females. Our study shows that although the GPM is a reproducible and repeatable method, there is a wide margin of error in the estimation of chronological age, mainly in the critical estimated

  8. [Advances of forensic entomology in China]. (United States)

    Lan, Ling-mei; Liao, Zhi-gang; Chen, Yao-qing; Yao, Yue; Li, Jian-bo; Li, Mao-yang; Cai, Ji-feng


    Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies studies of insects and arthropods to getting evidence for court and has an analogous advantage in the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) and other questions of forensic relevance. The paper expounds its definition and contents and reviews some progress of the studies in some aspects in China such as the constitution and succession of insect community on the different cadavers, the applications of morphological features of insects and the technology of analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in forensic entomology, and forensic entomological toxicology etc.

  9. Forensic age estimation based on development of third molars: a staging technique for magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    De Tobel, J; Phlypo, I; Fieuws, S; Politis, C; Verstraete, K L; Thevissen, P W


    The development of third molars can be evaluated with medical imaging to estimate age in subadults. The appearance of third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differs greatly from that on radiographs. Therefore a specific staging technique is necessary to classify third molar development on MRI and to apply it for age estimation. To develop a specific staging technique to register third molar development on MRI and to evaluate its performance for age estimation in subadults. Using 3T MRI in three planes, all third molars were evaluated in 309 healthy Caucasian participants from 14 to 26 years old. According to the appearance of the developing third molars on MRI, descriptive criteria and schematic representations were established to define a specific staging technique. Two observers, with different levels of experience, staged all third molars independently with the developed technique. Intra- and inter-observer agreement were calculated. The data were imported in a Bayesian model for age estimation as described by Fieuws et al. (2016). This approach adequately handles correlation between age indicators and missing age indicators. It was used to calculate a point estimate and a prediction interval of the estimated age. Observed age minus predicted age was calculated, reflecting the error of the estimate. One-hundred and sixty-six third molars were agenetic. Five percent (51/1096) of upper third molars and 7% (70/1044) of lower third molars were not assessable. Kappa for inter-observer agreement ranged from 0.76 to 0.80. For intra-observer agreement kappa ranged from 0.80 to 0.89. However, two stage differences between observers or between staging sessions occurred in up to 2.2% (20/899) of assessments, probably due to a learning effect. Using the Bayesian model for age estimation, a mean absolute error of 2.0 years in females and 1.7 years in males was obtained. Root mean squared error equalled 2.38 years and 2.06 years respectively. The performance to

  10. [Medicine in the digital age : Telemedicine in medical school education]. (United States)

    Kuhn, S; Jungmann, F


    The increasing digitization of our lives and work has also reached medicine and is changing the profession of medical doctors. The modern forms of communication and cooperation in everyday medical practice demand new skills and qualifications. To enable future doctors to comply with this digitally competent profile, an innovative blended learning curriculum was developed and first implemented at the University Medical Center Mainz in summer semester 2017-Medicine in the Digital Age. The teaching concept encompasses five modules, each consisting of an e‑learning unit and a 3-hour classroom course. This publication presents the teaching concept, the initial implementation and evaluation of the module "Telemedicine". The competency development in the field of telemedicine showed a significant increase for the subcomponents "knowledge" and "skills". The neutral attitude towards telemedicine at the beginning of the module could be changed to a positive opinion after the session. The teaching of digital skills is a relevant component of future curriculum development in medical studies and also a challenge for continuing medical education.

  11. Translational medicine in the Age of Big Data. (United States)

    Tatonetti, Nicholas P


    The ability to collect, store and analyze massive amounts of molecular and clinical data is fundamentally transforming the scientific method and its application in translational medicine. Collecting observations has always been a prerequisite for discovery, and great leaps in scientific understanding are accompanied by an expansion of this ability. Particle physics, astronomy and climate science, for example, have all greatly benefited from the development of new technologies enabling the collection of larger and more diverse data. Unlike medicine, however, each of these fields also has a mature theoretical framework on which new data can be evaluated and incorporated-to say it another way, there are no 'first principals' from which a healthy human could be analytically derived. The worry, and it is a valid concern, is that, without a strong theoretical underpinning, the inundation of data will cause medical research to devolve into a haphazard enterprise without discipline or rigor. The Age of Big Data harbors tremendous opportunity for biomedical advances, but will also be treacherous and demanding on future scientists. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Audit in forensic pathology. (United States)

    Burke, M P; Opeskin, K


    Autopsy numbers in Australian hospitals have declined markedly during the past decade despite evidence of a relatively static rate of demonstrable clinical misdiagnosis during this time. The reason for this decrease in autopsy numbers is multifactorial and may include a general lack of clinical and pathologic interest in the autopsy with a possible decline in autopsy standard, a lack of clinicopathologic correlation after autopsies, and an increased emphasis on surgical biopsy reporting within hospital pathology departments. Although forensic autopsies are currently maintaining their numbers, it is incumbent on forensic pathologists to demonstrate the wealth of important information a carefully performed postmortem examination can reveal. To this end, the Pathology Division of the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine has instituted a program of minimum standards in varied types of coroner cases and commenced a system of internal and external audit. The minimum standard for a routine, sudden, presumed natural death is presented and the audit system is discussed.

  13. Evaluation of forensic medical history taking from the child in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect. (United States)

    Drummond, Rachel; Gall, John A M


    Suspected child physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect are not uncommon presentations. As part of the assessment of these cases, a forensic medical history may be taken. This forensic history is used not only to determine the steps necessary to address the child's wellbeing but also to direct the forensic examination. Currently, there is no clear consensus on whether or not a forensic medical history should consistently be considered an integral element within the paediatric forensic evaluation. This study examines the value derived by the medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history rather than relying on hearsay evidence when a child presents for an assessment. A retrospective review of paediatric cases seen by the Victorian Forensic Paediatric Medical Service (VFPMS) between 2014 and 2015 was undertaken. 274 forensic case reports were reviewed and the data was entered into an Excel spread sheet and analysed using chi squared tests within STATA ® . With increasing age of the child, a forensic medical history is significantly more likely to be taken. Additional information is made available to the medical practitioner what would otherwise have been provided if the medical practitioner relied only on the interview conducted by the police. Discrepancies observed between the official third parties (police or child protection) report of what a child has said and what the child says to the medical practitioner decrease with age, as do discrepancies observed between the child's version of events and a third party's (eg. parents, caregivers, friends) version of events. The study showed that by taking a forensic medical history from the child additional information can be obtained. Further, that there is a value in the examining medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history from children in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. An introduction to computer forensics. (United States)

    Furneaux, Nick


    This paper provides an introduction to the discipline of Computer Forensics. With computers being involved in an increasing number, and type, of crimes the trace data left on electronic media can play a vital part in the legal process. To ensure acceptance by the courts, accepted processes and procedures have to be adopted and demonstrated which are not dissimilar to the issues surrounding traditional forensic investigations. This paper provides a straightforward overview of the three steps involved in the examination of digital media: Acquisition of data. Investigation of evidence. Reporting and presentation of evidence. Although many of the traditional readers of Medicine, Science and the Law are those involved in the biological aspects of forensics, I believe that both disciplines can learn from each other, with electronic evidence being more readily sought and considered by the legal community and the long, tried and tested scientific methods of the forensic community being shared and adopted by the computer forensic world.

  15. Dualism in medicine, Christian theology, and the aging. (United States)

    Keenan, J F


    Distinguishing a person's soul or mind from a person's body describes dualism, the philosophical premise that fails to integrate the person as one, but instead leaves the person as two, usually as souland body or as mindand body. In dualism, one tends to think of the soul or the mind as the person and the body as an appendage. I argue that 1) dualism is rampant in medicine; 2) that Christian theology has fundamentally opposed it, and 3) that cultural dualism today threatens the aging in particular. To deal with this threat, I argue that the moral task of being human is to become one in mind and body. That is, I argue that the unity of the person which is the unity of the mind and body is not really a metaphysical given, but rather the goal or end of being human.

  16. Application of statistical shape analysis for the estimation of bone and forensic age using the shapes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in a young Japanese population. (United States)

    Rhee, Chang-Hoon; Shin, Sang Min; Choi, Yong-Seok; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung; Son, Woo-Sung


    From computed tomographic images, the dentocentral synchondrosis can be identified in the second cervical vertebra. This can demarcate the border between the odontoid process and the body of the 2nd cervical vertebra and serve as a good model for the prediction of bone and forensic age. Nevertheless, until now, there has been no application of the 2nd cervical vertebra based on the dentocentral synchondrosis. In this study, statistical shape analysis was used to build bone and forensic age estimation regression models. Following the principles of statistical shape analysis and principal components analysis, we used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to evaluate a Japanese population (35 males and 45 females, from 5 to 19 years old). The narrowest prediction intervals among the multivariate regression models were 19.63 for bone age and 2.99 for forensic age. There was no significant difference between form space and shape space in the bone and forensic age estimation models. However, for gender comparison, the bone and forensic age estimation models for males had the higher explanatory power. This study derived an improved objective and quantitative method for bone and forensic age estimation based on only the 2nd, 3rd and 4th cervical vertebral shapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The use of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis in forensic medicine following incidents of sexual violence in Hamburg, Germany: a retrospective study. (United States)

    Ebert, Julia; Sperhake, Jan Peter; Degen, Olaf; Schröder, Ann Sophie


    In Hamburg, Germany, the initiation of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) in cases of sexual violence is often carried out by forensic medical specialists (FMS) using the city's unique Hamburg Model. FMS-provided three-day HIV PEP starter packs include a combination of raltegravir and emtricitabine/tenofovir. This study aimed to investigate the practice of offering HIV PEP, reasons for discontinuing treatment, patient compliance, and whether or not potential perpetrators were tested for HIV. We conducted a retrospective study of forensic clinical examinations carried out by the Hamburg Department of Legal Medicine following incidents of sexual violence from 2009 to 2016. One thousand two hundred eighteen incidents of sexual violence were reviewed. In 18% of these cases, HIV PEP was initially prescribed by the FMS. HIV PEP indication depended on the examination occurring within 24 h after the incident, no/unknown condom use, the occurrence of ejaculation, the presence of any injury, and the perpetrator being from population at high risk for HIV. Half of the HIV PEP recipients returned for a reevaluation of the HIV PEP indication by an infectious disease specialist, and just 16% completed the full month of treatment. Only 131 potential perpetrators were tested for HIV, with one found to be HIV positive. No HIV seroconversion was registered among the study sample. Provision of HIV PEP by an FMS after sexual assault ensures appropriate and prompt care for victims. However, patient compliance and completion rates are low. HIV testing of perpetrators must be carried out much more rigorously.

  18. Digital Forensics (United States)

    Harron, Jason; Langdon, John; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Cater, Scott


    The term forensic science may evoke thoughts of blood-spatter analysis, DNA testing, and identifying molds, spores, and larvae. A growing part of this field, however, is that of digital forensics, involving techniques with clear connections to math and physics. This article describes a five-part project involving smartphones and the investigation…

  19. Forensic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, E.


    Modern scientific technology now plays an increasingly important role in the process of law enforcement. Neutron activation, as developed for elemental analysis offers, in many cases, the suitable answer to forensic problems. The author discusses the use NAA has been put to in forensic science. (Auth.)

  20. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.


    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  1. [Criminal process record Winckelmann (Triest, 1768). Comments on the criminal process dealing with the murder of Johann Joachim Winckelmann from the forensic historical and legal medicine viewpoint]. (United States)

    Risse, M; Weiler, G


    Johann Joachim Winckelmann, German historian of ancient art and archaeologist, was born on 9 December 1717 in Stendal, a town in Saxony-Anhalt. At the age of 50 he was murdered on 8 June 1768 in a Trieste hotel. The voluminous original record of the criminal proceedings against his murderer, Francesco Arcangeli, was presumed lost for about 150 years. A new edition in the wording of the original text appeared in 1964. This long sought historical document gives cause for forensic-historical reflections under consideration of the autopsy protocol about Winckelmann, which is likewise a historical document. A considerable change of paradigm in comparison to current autopsy protocols is observed with regard to the evaluation of injuries and the circumstances of death.

  2. In vitro determination of the anti-aging potential of four southern African medicinal plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlovu, G


    Full Text Available southern African medicinal plants; Clerodendrum glabrum, Schotia brachypetala, Psychotria capensis and Peltophorum africanum, were investigated to assess their anti-aging properties....

  3. Is a CT-scan of the medial clavicle epiphysis a good exam to attest to the 18-year threshold in forensic age estimation? (United States)

    Houpert, Tyffanie; Rérolle, Camille; Savall, Frédéric; Telmon, Norbert; Saint-Martin, Pauline


    Computed tomography (CT) scan of the medial clavicular epiphysis is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics to estimate the age of living individuals. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between the skeletal maturation of the sternal end of the clavicle and the chronological age in a sample of French individuals, using a nine-stage classification. We retrospectively reviewed 319 chest CT-scans of individuals aged 15-30 years old (252 males, 67 females). Among males and females, all individuals with a complete fusion, or an ongoing fusion of more than one third of the total surface of the metaphysis were at least 18 years old. Our results were consistent with data in the literature indicating that individuals with a complete fused clavicle were at least 18 years old. Similar studies with the same methods allow for creating a database of samples from different countries to confirm the validity of this method and its excellent results in forensic age estimation of living individuals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. [Progress in Application of Measuring Skeleton by CT in Forensic Anthropology Research]. (United States)

    Miao, C Y; Xu, L; Wang, N; Zhang, M; Li, Y S; Lü, J X


    Individual identification by measuring the human skeleton is an important research in the field of forensic anthropology. Computed tomography (CT) technology can provide high-resolution image of skeleton. Skeleton image can be reformed by software in the post-processing workstation. Different skeleton measurement indexes of anthropology, such as diameter, angle, area and volume, can be measured on section and reformative images. Measurement process is barely affected by human factors. This paper reviews the literatures at home and abroad about the application of measuring skeleton by CT in forensic anthropology research for individual identification in four aspects, including sex determination, height infer, facial soft tissue thickness measurement and age estimation. The major technology and the application of CT in forensic anthropology research are compared and discussed, respectively. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  5. Forensic psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje


    Full Text Available The paper is a review of different issues that a forensic psychologists encounter at work. Forensic assessment might be needed in civil law cases, administrative procedures and in criminal law cases. The paper focuses on referrals in criminal law cases regarding matters such as assessing competence to stand trial, criminal responsibility and violence risk assessment. Finally, the role of expert testimony on eyewitness memory, which is not used in practice in Slovenia yet, is presented.

  6. The role of forensic anthropology in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI). (United States)

    Blau, Soren; Briggs, Christopher A


    This paper briefly describes Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) and reviews the history of the use of forensic anthropology in the identification process. The potential contributions made by forensic anthropology are illustrated through the presentation of a case study. In February 2009 the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia experienced the most devastating bushfires in its history, resulting in catastrophic loss of life and public and private property. Within 48h of the disaster, forensic teams including pathologists, odontologists and anthropologists assembled at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in Melbourne to begin the task of identifying the deceased. This paper reviews the part played by forensic anthropologists in the identification process and outlines the important contribution anthropologists can make to DVI, especially at the scene, in the mortuary and in the reconciliation process. The anthropologist's experience with differentially preserved human remains meant they played an important role identifying and recovering heavily fragmentary human skeletal remains, differentiating human from non-human remains, establishing basic biological information such as the sex and age of the individuals and confirming or denying the possibility of re-associating body parts for release to families. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiochronology in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.


    Nuclear forensics corresponds to the forensic analysis of nuclear materials. The samples analysed may either be those that are confiscated during any act of smuggling or that is retrieved from a postexplosion debris. The characterisation of the material is based on the isotopic composition, physical and chemical compositions, age and history of the material which are determined by suitable analytical techniques. The interpretation of the analytical results is necessary to understand the details of the material such as its provenance, the industrial history of the material as well as the implications of the probable use of the material

  8. The science and knowledge of forensic odontology: repositioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper was based on a survey of the knowledge of forensic odontology among professionals in medicine, dentistry, law and the law enforcement agents. The results show low level knowledge of forensic odontology among the professionals. It is recommended that forensic odontology be introduced as a course in dental ...

  9. Editorial: Challenges facing age-management/longevity medicine ||Free Paper||

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F Walker


    Full Text Available Richard F WalkerInternational Society for Applied Research in Aging (SARAPrior to the discovery of penicillin and production of antibiotics, extrinsic disease was the greatest threat to achieving maximum life potential (longevity. That single event increased life-span several decades for the majority of people living in first world nations. However, protection against lethal infection provided by antibiotics exposed older humans to a wide variety of life-threatening diseases resulting from disintegration of internal order during senescence. These intrinsic diseases including diabetes, stroke, heart attack, cancer, and a multitude of others, resulted in creation of medical subspecialties. Although each specialty focused upon different organs and systems, they all administered treatment in response to disease. In other words, the operative model for modern medicine which deals with intrinsic disease is the same as that which was used for extrinsic disease, ie, a disease occurs and then it is treated. However, unlike therapy for infection which generally cures disease, treatment of intrinsic diseases only provides symptomatic relief, rarely affecting the underlying causes. Also, because it targets specific symptoms, this approach treats the disease condition as an isolated entity, independent of other bodily functions. Thus, the cardiologist, neurologist, allergist, and dermatologist focus their attentions only upon problems occurring within the system(s limited by their training. Accordingly, they prescribe drugs that were created to specifically suppress or relieve symptoms directly related to the problem(s. Despite the fact that this approach rarely provides a cure, it is effective in extending life, if not necessarily its quality, because many of the symptoms of intrinsic disease such as extremely high blood pressure, severe hyperglycemia, or profound breathing difficulties can lead to fatal complications.

  10. Forensic experience of Saudi nurses; an emerging need for forensic qualifications. (United States)

    Alsaif, Dalia M; Alfaraidy, Maram; Alsowayigh, Kholoud; Alhusain, Awal; Almadani, Osama M


    Forensic nursing was recognized as a nursing subspecialty after the perceived need for forensic nurses to bring about their nursing duties while at the same time helping legal authorities to deliver justice. With the increased rate of cases that are presenting to the forensic centers in Saudi Arabia, there was a need for the presence of nurses to work side by side to physicians. This study was aimed at determining the forensic qualifications of nurses working in emergency departments in the area of Dammam and their knowledge about principles of forensic nursing. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to registered nurses who are working in Emergency departments of secondary hospitals in the area of Dammam. Questions included knowledge, awareness and attitude toward forensic nursing. A total of 96 participants responded to the questionnaire with females representing 78% (n: 75). Diploma was the highest earned nursing degree in 95% (n: 91) of participants. Only 33% (n: 32) were aware of the term forensic nursing and the majority of the respondents gave invalid or didn't know the answers to knowledge questions. A total of 77% (n: 74) agreed that they are not adequately trained for handling forensic cases. Saudi nurses need forensic education. The presence of qualified forensic nurses would help delivering optimal forensic services and would assist in bringing justice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear Forensics Technologies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, N.; Kimura, Y.; Okubo, A.; Tomikawa, H.


    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material to provide evidence for nuclear attribution by determining origin, history, transit routes and purpose involving such material. Nuclear forensics activities include sampling of the illicit material, analysis of the samples and evaluation of the attribution by comparing the analysed data with database or numerical simulation. Because the nuclear forensics methodologies provide hints of the origin of the nuclear materials used in illegal dealings or nuclear terrorism, it contributes to identify and indict offenders, hence to enhance deterrent effect against such terrorism. Worldwide network on nuclear forensics can lead to strengthening global nuclear security regime. In the ESARDA Symposium 2015, the results of research and development of fundamental nuclear forensics technologies performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency during the term of 2011-2013 were reported, namely (1) technique to analyse isotopic composition of nuclear material, (2) technique to identify the impurities contained in the material, (3) technique to determine the age of the purified material by measuring the isotopic ratio of daughter thorium to parent uranium, (4) technique to make image data by observing particle shapes with electron microscope, and (5) prototype nuclear forensics library for comparison of the analysed data with database in order to evaluate its evidence such as origin and history. Japan’s capability on nuclear forensics and effective international cooperation are also mentioned for contribution to the international nuclear forensics community.

  12. Integrative medicine: a bridge between biomedicine and alternative medicine fitting the spirit of the age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenders, H.J.R.; Appelo, M.T.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.


    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are increasingly used by people in first world countries, almost always in combination with biomedicine. The combination of CAM and biomedicine is now commonly referred to as "integrative medicine" (IM). In Groningen, The Netherlands, we founded a center

  13. Characterization of victims of aggression and transportation accidents treated at the Forensic Medicine and Dentistry Institute - Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil - 2010. (United States)

    d'Avila, Sergio; Campos, Ana Cristina; Cavalcante, Gigliana Maria Sobral; Silva, Carlos Jose de Paula; da Nóbrega, Lorena Marques; Ferreira, Efigenia Ferreira E


    The objective of this cross-sectional census study was to characterize agression and land-based transport accidents in a city in the Northeast of Brazil. Data was analyzed from live victims who were treated at a forensic service (N = 2.379). In the descriptive analysis, the majority of events were represented by aggression (71.6%); which occurred on weekdays (65%), with 35.1% at night. Trauma occurred to the whole body (63.6%) and to soft tissue (74.2%). On the basis of multiple correspondence analysis, two dimensions were formed: the first dimension (internal reliability = 0.654) was formed by the cause of the event, the trauma and the age group and the second dimension (reliability = 0.514), by age group, occupation and civil status. Three groups with distinct profiles were formed for accidents and aggression: young women who suffered aggression, with trauma to the face and soft tissues during the evening and at weekends; adult men who suffered car accidents, in the morning and on work days; and retired elderly widowers, who were run over.

  14. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics. (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair


    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Healing and medicine in the Aegean Bronze Age. (United States)

    Arnott, R


    Since the discovery of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations of Crete and Greek mainland, a systematic understanding has been gained of their material culture and social structures. Nevertheless, because of the absence of textual and pictorial evidence of medicine of the kind which exists in the contemporary societies of Egypt and the Near East, little work has been produced on the subject of disease and the practice of medicine in the period. However, new pathological evidence throws much light on this hitherto largely unknown aspect of their civilization.

  16. Systematic procedure for identifying the five main ossification stages of the medial clavicular epiphysis using computed tomography: a practical proposal for forensic age diagnostics. (United States)

    Wittschieber, Daniel; Schulz, Ronald; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Schmeling, Andreas; Schmidt, Sven


    In forensic age estimations of living individuals, computed tomography of the clavicle is widely used for determining the age of majority. To this end, the degree of ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis can be determined by means of two classification systems complementing each other: a 5-stage system and an additional 6-stage system that further sub-classifies the stages 2 and 3. In recent years, practical experience and new data revealed that difficulties and even wrong stage determinations may occur especially when following the short descriptions of the fundamental 5-stage system only. Based on current literature, this article provides a systematic procedure for identifying the five main ossification stages by listing important preconditions and presenting an algorithm that is comprised of four specific questions. Each question is accompanied by comprehensive and detailed descriptions which specify the criteria used for differentiation. The information is subdivided into "single-slice view" and "multi-slice view." In addition, illustrative case examples and schematic drawings facilitate application of the procedure in forensic practice. The pitfalls associated with the criteria of stage determination will be discussed in detail. Eventually, two general rules will be inferred to assign correct ossification stages of the medial clavicular epiphysis by means of computed tomography.

  17. The coming of age of artificial intelligence in medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, Vimla L.; Shortliffe, Edward H.; Stefanelli, Mario; Szolovits, Peter; Berthold, Michael R.; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Abu-Hanna, Ameen


    This paper is based on a panel discussion held at the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe (AIME) conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in July 2007. It had been more than 15 years since Edward Shortliffe gave a talk at AIME in which he characterized artificial intelligence (AI) in

  18. [Forensic entomology]. (United States)

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal


    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately.

  19. Forensic science in the context of Islamic law: A review. (United States)

    Alkahtani, Theeb; Aljerian, Khaldoon; Golding, Bartholomew; Alqahtani, Sakher


    Even though it is still in its nascent phase, forensic science has already encountered strong resistance in Saudi Arabia due to its incompatibility with their present legal system. What follow is a review on the status of forensic medicine and its future in terms of acceptance and use in legal action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. A collation of recently published Western European formulae for age estimation of subadult skeletal remains: recommendations for forensic anthropology and osteoarchaeology. (United States)

    Rissech, Carme; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas; Turbón, Daniel


    The aim of this study is to provide an effective and quick reference guide based on the most useful European formulae recently published for subadult age estimation. All of these formulae derive from studies on postnatal growth of the scapula, innominate, femur, and tibia, based on modern skeletal data (173 ♂, 173 ♀) from five documented collections from Spain, Portugal, and Britain. The formulae were calculated from Inverse Regression. For this reason, these formulae are especially useful for modern samples from Western Europe and in particular on 20th century human remains from the Iberian Peninsula. Eleven formulae were selected as the most useful because they can be applied to individuals from within a wide age range and in individuals of unknown sex. Due to their high reliability and because they derive from documented European skeletal samples, we recommend these formulae be used on individuals of Caucasoid ancestry from Western Europe. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. [Surprisingly old skeleton found at Bornheim-Uedorf (Rhein-Sieg-Kreis)--Research results in forensic medicine, anthropology and archaeology]. (United States)

    Zesch, Stephanie; Doberentz, Elke; Schmauder, Michael; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Madea, Burkhard


    On April 15th 2014, human skeletal remains were found during digging activities for constructing a new building at Bornheim-Uedorf (Rhein-Sieg-Kreis) near the river Rhine (about 20 meters) in a pit measuring 10 by 10 meters and having a depth of about 150 cm. The skeletal remains were preserved quite well considering the fact that they were located so near to the Rhine, although several skeletal parts were missing. The preserved skeletal remains comprised some skull fragments (including two ear bones of the right side), right scapula, both humeri, left ulna, left radius, left metacarpal bone 2, right metacarpal bones 1, 3 and 4, rib fragments, three thoracic vertebrae, all lumbar vertebrae, one sacral vertebra, pelvis fragments, left femur, proximal part of the left tibial diaphysis, right tibia and diaphysis of both fibulae. The anthropological analysis revealed that the skeletal remains belonged to a 20-to-30-year-old presumably male individual with a body height of about 163 to 173 cm (depending on the formula used for body height estimation). Evidence of intense physical activity and traumatological findings could not be detected on the preserved bones. Periosteal reactions on the bone surface caused by nonspecific bacterial infection were found on the right humerus close to the elbow and on both tibiae, especially the left one. Besides the skeletal remains, metal fragments were recovered--among them an arrowhead, which was typologically classified as an early medieval finding (6th to 7th century). Radiocarbon dating of a bone sample revealed an age of 1561 ± 19 a BP corresponding to a calibrated age of 436 to 540 AD (1 sigma). So, the archaeological classification of the recovered skeleton into the early medieval period was verified. Amongst the human remains, there was also a metatarsal bone of cattle with cut marks. The animal bone as well as the metal fragments indicated that the find was part of an early medieval burial with typical grave goods.

  2. [Realization of the modern educational concept for the organization of the teaching and learning activities at the Department of Forensic Medicine of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation]. (United States)

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Lomakin, Yu V; Leonova, E N

    The modern educational concept for the organization of the teaching and learning activities (continuous, free, and open education) implies the necessity for its implementation the development and introduction of the new approaches to the work with the students. This problem should be addressed based on the use of the up-to-date technologies for education of the adult subjects. Such technologies find the increasingly wider application at the Department of Forensic Medicine of the I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. It markedly contributes to the improvement of the quality of education.

  3. Digital Forensics to Intelligent Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Irons


    Full Text Available In this paper we posit that current investigative techniques—particularly as deployed by law enforcement, are becoming unsuitable for most types of crime investigation. The growth in cybercrime and the complexities of the types of the cybercrime coupled with the limitations in time and resources, both computational and human, in addressing cybercrime put an increasing strain on the ability of digital investigators to apply the processes of digital forensics and digital investigations to obtain timely results. In order to combat the problems, there is a need to enhance the use of the resources available and move beyond the capabilities and constraints of the forensic tools that are in current use. We argue that more intelligent techniques are necessary and should be used proactively. The paper makes the case for the need for such tools and techniques, and investigates and discusses the opportunities afforded by applying principles and procedures of artificial intelligence to digital forensics intelligence and to intelligent forensics and suggests that by applying new techniques to digital investigations there is the opportunity to address the challenges of the larger and more complex domains in which cybercrimes are taking place.

  4. A novel, comprehensive, and reproducible porcine model for determining the timing of bruises in forensic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, Kristiane; Jensen, Henrik Elvang


    Purpose Calculating the timing of bruises is crucial in forensic pathology but is a challenging discipline in both human and veterinary medicine. A mechanical device for inflicting bruises in pigs was developed and validated, and the pathological reactions in the bruises were studied over time......-dependent response. Combining these parameters, bruises could be grouped as being either less than 4 h old or between 4 and 10 h of age. Gross lesions and changes in the epidermis and dermis were inconclusive with respect to time determination. Conclusions The model was reproducible and resembled forensic cases...

  5. The ageing of HIV: implications for geriatric medicine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, Fiona


    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the over 50 age group is increasing as a consequence of younger adults ageing with HIV, in addition to new diagnoses in later life. We conducted searches in MEDLINE for English language studies published between January 1984 and January 2010 using search terms \\'HIV\\

  6. [Research Progress on the Detection Method of DNA Methylation and Its Application in Forensic Science]. (United States)

    Nie, Y C; Yu, L J; Guan, H; Zhao, Y; Rong, H B; Jiang, B W; Zhang, T


    As an important part of epigenetic marker, DNA methylation involves in the gene regulation and attracts a wide spread attention in biological auxology, geratology and oncology fields. In forensic science, because of the relative stable, heritable, abundant, and age-related characteristics, DNA methylation is considered to be a useful complement to the classic genetic markers for age-prediction, tissue-identification, and monozygotic twins' discrimination. Various methods for DNA methylation detection have been validated based on methylation sensitive restriction endonuclease, bisulfite modification and methylation-CpG binding protein. In recent years, it is reported that the third generation sequencing method can be used to detect DNA methylation. This paper aims to make a review on the detection method of DNA methylation and its applications in forensic science. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  7. Tattoos: forensic considerations. (United States)

    Byard, Roger W


    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  9. Astrology and medicine in antiquity and the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief


    date of onset of an illness or other important incident, on which information was needed. Egyptian astrological influence was limited but as from the 5th century BC onwards, Greek (including Hellenistic input became prominent. In addition to significant contributions to astronomy, Ptolemy made a major contribution to astrology as “science” in his Tetrabiblos. Rational Greek medicine as represented by the Hippocratic Corpus did not include astrology, and although a number of physicians did make use of astrology, it almost certainly played a minor role in total health care. Astrology based on the Babylonian-Greek model also moved to the East, including India where it became integrated with standard medicine. China, in the Far East, developed a unique, extremely complex variety of astrology, which played a major role in daily life, including medicine. During Medieval times in the West, astrology prospered when the original Greek writings (complemented by Arabic and Hebrew contributions were translated into Latin. In the field of medicine documents falsely attributed to Hippocrates and Galen came into circulation, boosting astrology; in the young universities of Europe it became taught as a science. It was, however, opposed by the theologians who recognised a mantic element of mysticism, and it lost further support when during the Renaissance, the spuriousness of the writings attributed to the medical icons, Hippocrates and Galen, became evident. Today Western standard medicine contains no astrology, but in countries like China and Tibet it remains intricately interwoven with health care. In common language we have a heritage of words with an astrological origin, like “lunatic” (a person who is mentally ill, “ill-starred”, “saturnine” (from Saturn, the malevolent plant and “disaster” (from dis, bad, and astra, star.

  10. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Manigandan


    Full Text Available Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  11. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  12. A history of forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H


    Forensic anthropology represents a dynamic and rapidly evolving complex discipline within anthropology and forensic science. Academic roots extend back to early European anatomists but development coalesced in the Americas through high-profile court testimony, assemblage of documented collections and focused research. Formation of the anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1972, the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 1977/1978 and other organizational advances provided important stimuli for progress. While early pioneers concentrated on analysis of skeletonized human remains, applications today have expanded to include complex methods of search and recovery, the biomechanics of trauma interpretation, isotopic analysis related to diet and region of origin, age estimation of the living and issues related to humanitarian and human rights investigations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Medicines (United States)

    Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to ...

  14. The socio-organizational age of artificial intelligence in medicine. (United States)

    Stefanelli, M


    The increasing pressure on Health Care Organizations (HCOs) to ensure efficiency and cost-effectiveness, balancing quality of care and cost containment, will drive them towards a more effective management of medical knowledge derived from research findings. The relation between science and health services has until recently been too casual. The primary job of medical research has been to understand the mechanisms of disease and produce new treatments, not to worry about the effectiveness of the new treatments or their implementation. As a result many new treatments have taken years to become part of routine practice, ineffective treatments have been widely used, and medicine has been opinion rather than evidence based. This results in suboptimal care for patients. Knowledge management technology may provide effective approaches in speeding up the diffusion of innovative medical procedures whose clinical effectiveness have been proved: the most interesting one is represented by computer-based utilization of evidence-based clinical guidelines. As researchers in Artificial Intelligence in Medicine (AIM), we are committed to foster the strategic transition from opinion to evidence-based decision making. Reviews of the effectiveness of various methods of guideline dissemination show that the most predictable impact is achieved when the guideline is made accessible through computer-based and patient specific reminders that are integrated into the clinician's workflow. However, the traditional single doctor-patient relationship is being replaced by one in which the patient is managed by a team of health care professionals, each specializing in one aspect of care. Such shared care depends critically on the ability to share patient-specific information and medical knowledge easily among them. Strategically there is a need to take a more clinical process view of health care delivery and to identify the appropriate organizational and information infrastructures to support

  15. The role of nutraceuticals in anti-aging medicine. (United States)

    Vranesić-Bender, Darija


    'Nutraceuticals' is a wide term including all kinds of food with health or medical effect. Regulations in the world on functional food and nutraceuticals are developed along with the development of new products. This nomenclature is not aligned across legal regulations in different countries. There are several theories trying to interpret the phenomenon of aging and the most interesting theory in terms of nutrition is free radical theory and the possible role of antioxidants in aging process. A large group of substances including vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids and minerals have in vitro or in vivo clinically significant antioxidant characteristics. There is great interest in anti-aging substances derived from food, and the most popular ingredients are antioxidants, especially coenzyme Q10, phytoestrogens, probiotics and omega-3 fatty acids. These substances have beneficial effect on digestive and immune systems, and modulate inflammatory and degenerative processes in the body. The challenge in the future will be strategic combining of cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals in order to intervene in biological aging processes and degenerative skin changes.

  16. Gait analysis in forensic medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter K; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels


    Recordings from video surveillance systems are used as evidence from crime scenes. It would be useful to perform comparisons between disguised perpetrators and suspects based on their gait. We applied functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge to analyze the gait of perpetrators, as record...

  17. Computed Tomography in Forensic Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind


    was not used. Autopsies were performed according to the Danish government's official guidelines. PMCT and autopsy findings were interpreted independent of each other. Diagnoses, including the cause of death and histology findings, were registered in a computer database (SPSS) together with information about...

  18. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics (United States)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  19. Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology? (United States)

    Turner, Bryan


    Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

  20. Death: clinical and forensic anthropological perspectives


    Etty Indriati, Etty Indriati


    All biological living beings inevitably die, and the ways to die vary although in essence death is a manifestation of the absence of Oxygen in the brain. After death, biological remains undertake proteolysis and decomposition. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical death, cerebral or medicolegal death, social death, phases of cerebral death, and biological process after death—which is important for forensic medicine and forensic anthropology. How long a person die, if the time elaps...

  1. Echoes from birth--mutual benefits for physical and forensic anthropology by applying increment counts in enamel of deciduous teeth for aging. (United States)

    Witzel, Carsten


    The present study aims to compare metrical and morphological features of skeletal and dental development in two skeletons of very young infants from different archeological sites in Syria with the results of the microscopic approach of age-at-death estimation based on the neonatal line (NNL). Here, the presence ofa NNL is used as an indicator of birth survival and the duration of the lifespan post partum is assessed by counting prism cross-striations (PCS) external to the NNL. In the literature, PCS have been determined to represent a circadian rhythm in human enamel formation. For both individuals, consistent results in terms of the presence of a NNL and the counts of prism cross-striations could have been obtained. In the younger individual evidence of a postnatal age at death of less than two weeks was documented. This study demonstrates that the use of the NNL as an individual landmark without the need for the reference to growth standards enables an estimation of age at death on skeletal remains of infants within much narrower ranges compared with metrical and morphological analyses. To date, presence of a NNL is the only way of documenting birth survival in skeletons of perinatal individuals. This method can be applied to forensic and bioarcheological skeletal material.

  2. Principal forensic physicians as educational supervisors. (United States)

    Stark, Margaret M


    This research project was performed to assist the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine (FFLM) with the development of a training programme for Principal Forensic Physicians (PFPs) (Since this research was performed the Metropolitan Police Service have dispensed with the services of the Principal Forensic Physicians so currently (as of January 2009) there is no supervision of newly appointed FMEs or the development training of doctors working in London nor any audit or appraisal reviews.) to fulfil their role as educational supervisors. PFPs working in London were surveyed by questionnaire to identify the extent of their knowledge with regard to their role in the development training of all forensic physicians (FPs) in their group, the induction of assistant FPs and their perceptions of their own training needs with regard to their educational role. A focus group was held at the FFLM annual conference to discuss areas of interest that arose from the preliminary results of the questionnaire. There is a clear need for the FFLM to set up a training programme for educational supervisors in clinical forensic medicine, especially with regard to appraisal. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

  3. Child abduction murder: the impact of forensic evidence on solvability. (United States)

    Brown, Katherine M; Keppel, Robert D


    This study examined 733 child abduction murders (CAMs) occurring from 1968 to 2002 to explore the influence of forensic evidence on case solvability in CAM investigations. It was hypothesized that the presence of forensic evidence connecting the offender to the crime would enhance case solvability in murder investigations of abducted children. This study examined the impact of CAM of different types of forensic evidence and the impact of the summed total of forensic evidence items on case solvability by controlling for victim age, victim race, victim gender, and victim-offender relationship. Time and distance theoretical predictors were also included. Binomial logistic regression models were used to determine whether forensic evidence was a critical solvability factor in murder investigations of abducted children. This research indicated that, while forensic evidence increased case solvability, the impact of forensic evidence on solvability was not as important as other solvability factors examined. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. [Polish forensic entomology--the past, present and future perspectives]. (United States)

    Skowronek, Rafał; Chowaniec, Czesław


    Forensic medicine increasingly more often benefits from the achievements of other biological sciences, which may be used in post mortem investigation. One of them is forensic entomology--the science based on the knowledge about biology of insects preying on cadavers. The objective of this article is to present the history of Polish forensic entomology, its present state and possibilities and directions of further development.

  5. What is the future of imaging in forensic practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Jamie J.W.


    The last two decades has seen increased use of imaging in forensic practice. Although radiography has been used historically, the evidence base for the use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in forensic practice appears to be growing. This article reviews the evidence base for the use of radiography, CT and MRI in an attempt to ascertain the future use of these imaging techniques in forensic medicine.

  6. Drinking alcohol for medicinal purposes by people aged over 75: a community-based interview study. (United States)

    Aira, Marja; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Sulkava, Raimo


    Physicians often encounter patients using alcohol as self-medication, but studies on community level are scarce. Because of alcohol-medicine interactions, it is important to know also all self-medication used. To describe alcohol use as self-medication by people aged over 75 years. The home-dwelling elderly (n = 699) among a random sample of 1000 subjects from the total population of individuals aged 75 years or more in the city of Kuopio, Finland, were interviewed about their alcohol consumption and use as self-medication and also about their lifestyle habits, medicaments and diseases. A geriatrician checked their medical records for medical conditions. Half of the subjects consumed alcohol, and 40% of them used alcohol for medicinal purposes. This was equally common in females and males. The quantity used was half a unit or less in 68% of cases. Brandy and other spirits were the most commonly used beverages, and heart and vascular disorders (38%), sleep disorders (26%) and mental problems (23%) were the commonest reasons for use. The study found altogether 84 persons who responded negatively to the question about alcohol consumption but later reported using alcohol as self-medication. Drinking alcohol for medicinal purposes is common among the aged in Finland. Some people, especially older women, may find it easier to discuss their alcohol consumption in the context of medicinal use. Physicians have to consider the possible risks of alcohol associated with concomitant medical conditions and interactions of alcohol with medicines.

  7. [Comment on the misappropriation of bibliographical references in science. The example of anti-aging medicine]. (United States)

    Cogan, E


    This work constitutes a argued analysis of the publication of the article of Hertoghe et al. "Anti aging medicine, a science based, essential medicine " whose full and unreviewed publication was forced in the framework of the Belgian law on the right of reply to an earlier publication entitled " Anti-Aging Medicine: Science or Marketing? ". We confirm the absence of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of hormonal treatments used in this approach by highlighting the different techniques allowing doctors who promote this approach to make believe in their effectiveness. This is clearly to mix in one sentence established truths and unproven facts, use references inappropriately especially by misappropriation of studies on groups of patients with hormone deficiency in order to justify treatment in healthy subjects, to ignore recent references undermining ancient literature, to betray the authors' conclusions. Our critical analysis is also considering compliance with the guidelines for integrity in scientific publications.


    Brkić, Hrvoje


    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world.

  9. Chronic alcoholism and bone remodeling processes: Caveats and considerations for the forensic anthropologist. (United States)

    Michael, Amy R; Bengtson, Jennifer D


    Clinical literature provides substantial information on the effects of chronic alcohol abuse on bone remodeling and related skeletal disease processes. This biomedical information is seldom considered in detail by forensic anthropologists, who often rely on normative macroscopic models of bone remodeling and traditional macroscopic age estimation methods in the creation of biological profiles. The case study presented here considers the ways that alcoholism disrupts normal bone remodeling processes, thus skewing estimations of age-at-death. Alcoholism affects bone macroscopically, resulting in a porous appearance and an older estimation of age, while simultaneously inhibiting osteoblastic activity and resulting in a younger microscopic appearance. Forensic anthropologists must also be cognizant of pathological remodeling stemming from alcoholism in cases where trauma analysis is critical to the reconstruction of events leading up to death, as fracture healing rates can be affected. Beyond the case study, we also consider how forensic anthropologists and practitioners can recognize and account for osteological signatures of alcoholism in medico-legal contexts. In order to best estimate age at death, a combined macroscopic and microscopic approach should be employed whenever possible alcohol and drug abuse is known or suspected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence. (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin


    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather


    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  12. [Clinical forensic valuation of school violence]. (United States)

    Delannoy, Y; Tournel, G; Tonnel, C; Turck, D; Hedouin, V; Gosset, D


    In recent years, the National Education in France has developed tools to identify acts of violence in schools. This has allowed adjusting government policies for the care of victims. School violence can also be measured from the perspective of clinical forensic medicine, a special discipline for observing a society's violence. This study summarized and compared three similar single-center, prospective, and descriptive studies conducted in 1992, 2002, and 2012 in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospital of Lille, via an evaluation form completed during consultations requested by victims in cases of school violence. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of victims, those of their perpetrators, the circumstances and reasons for school assaults, as well as their medical and administrative consequences. Each study had identified about 160 such attacks annually. The victims were younger, especially boys (the average age decreased from 14.8 to 13.6). The gender distribution showed an increase in female victims (the sex ratio decreased from 2.9/1 to 2.3/1). The location of attacks changed, with a marked increase of attacks on the way to school (from 10% to 27%). Recurrence of attacks also rose: victims with a previous history of attacks increased from 18.5% to 32.2% with a high proportion of violence resulting in a strong psychological impact, increasingly requiring psychological support (from 9 to 16%). The duration of school cases rose sharply, from 20 to 53% in 2012. The grade level of the perpetrator showed a significant increase in cases of violence at junior high school (from 40 to 67%), with a relative stability of violence in elementary and high schools. The parameters measured to characterize the aggressors remained stable: they were known to their victims in approximately 80% of cases and these attacks were for the most part related to previous disagreements. Since the 1990s, government policies for the prevention, measurement, and

  13. Oral Pathology in Forensic Investigation. (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal


    Forensic odontology is the subdiscipline of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Oral pathology is the subdiscipline of dentistry that deals with the pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. This subdiscipline is utilized for identification through oral and maxillofacial pathologies with associated syndromes, enamel rod patterns, sex determination using exfoliative cytology, identification from occlusal morphology of teeth, and deoxyribonucleic acid profiling from teeth. This subdiscipline is also utilized for age estimation studies which include Gustafson's method, incremental lines of Retzius, perikymata, natal line formation in teeth, neonatal line, racemization of collagen in dentin, cemental incremental lines, thickness of the cementum, and translucency of dentin. Even though the expertise of an oral pathologist is not taken in forensic investigations, this paper aims to discuss the role of oral pathology in forensic investigation.

  14. American Academy of Forensic Sciences (United States)

    ... Programs Courses in Forensic Odontology Choosing a Career What is Forensic Science? What Do Forensic Scientists Do? What’s a Forensic Scientist? ... ve Decided You Want a Career in Forensic Science … Now What? Young Forensic Scientists Forum (YFSF) Annual Meeting Events ...

  15. Forensic engineering of advanced polymeric materials Part IV: Case study of oxo-biodegradable polyethylene commercial bag - Aging in biotic and abiotic environment. (United States)

    Musioł, Marta; Rydz, Joanna; Janeczek, Henryk; Radecka, Iza; Jiang, Guozhan; Kowalczuk, Marek


    The public awareness of the quality of environment stimulates the endeavor to safe polymeric materials and their degradation products. The aim of the forensic engineering case study presented in this paper is to evaluate the aging process of commercial oxo-degradable polyethylene bag under real industrial composting conditions and in distilled water at 70°C, for comparison. Partial degradation of the investigated material was monitored by changes in molecular weight, thermal properties and Keto Carbonyl Bond Index and Vinyl Bond Index, which were calculated from the FTIR spectra. The results indicate that such an oxo-degradable product offered in markets degrades slowly under industrial composting conditions. Even fragmentation is slow, and it is dubious that biological mineralization of this material would occur within a year under industrial composting conditions. The slow degradation and fragmentation is most likely due to partially crosslinking after long time of degradation, which results in the limitation of low molecular weight residues for assimilation. The work suggests that these materials should not be labeled as biodegradable, and should be further analyzed in order to avoid the spread of persistent artificial materials in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology (United States)

    Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek


    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

  17. Aging and Adipose Tissue: Potential Interventions for Diabetes and Regenerative Medicine (United States)

    Palmer, Allyson K.; Kirkland, James L.


    Adipose tissue dysfunction occurs with aging and has systemic effects, including peripheral insulin resistance, ectopic lipid deposition, and inflammation. Fundamental aging mechanisms, including cellular senescence and progenitor cell dysfunction, occur in adipose tissue with aging and may serve as potential therapeutic targets in age-related disease. In this review, we examine the role of adipose tissue in healthy individuals and explore how aging leads to adipose tissue dysfunction, redistribution, and changes in gene regulation. Adipose tissue plays a central role in longevity, and interventions restricted to adipose tissue may impact lifespan. Conversely, obesity may represent a state of accelerated aging. We discuss the potential therapeutic potential of targeting basic aging mechanisms, including cellular senescence, in adipose tissue, using type II diabetes and regenerative medicine as examples. We make the case that aging should not be neglected in the study of adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine strategies, as elderly patients make up a large portion of individuals in need of such therapies. PMID:26924669

  18. Integrating Forensic Science. (United States)

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.


    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  19. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier


    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  20. Learning Android forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Tamma, Rohit


    If you are a forensic analyst or an information security professional wanting to develop your knowledge of Android forensics, then this is the book for you. Some basic knowledge of the Android mobile platform is expected.

  1. Analysis of 1202 orthopantograms to evaluate the potential of forensic age determination based on third molar developmental stages. (United States)

    Willershausen, B; Löffler, N; Schulze, R


    A total of 1202 orthopantograms of young dental patients were analyzed to assess the correlation of third molar root development with chronological age. The investigated patients were treated at a university dental clinic on an outpatient basis, included a variety of demographic characteristics (600 males and 602 females, 28% of other than central European background), and were 15-24 years old when the radiographs were obtained. Radiographs in which more than one third molar were either missing due to agenesia or extraction, or not evaluable because of deep destruction or marked tilting, were not included in the analysis. Our findings show that the growth patterns of third molars, based on seven defined stages of root development, did correlate with chronological age; age estimation when applied to a specific individual would involve a margin of error of +/- 2-4 years. There were no significant differences between the left and right jaw segments, but the stage of root development was generally more advanced in the upper than in the lower third molars. Root development was also more advanced among boys than among girls of the same age. There were no apparent differences in growth patterns based on national/ethnic background. While only 2.5% of 18-year-olds revealed fully developed third molars in all four quadrants, this percentage leaped to 38.4% among the 21-year-olds. To summarize, while the developmental stage of third molars is not per se a highly useful indicator of chronological age in juveniles and young adults, it is nevertheless a valuable supplementary parameter given the scarcity of other available age indicators.

  2. The Role of Forensic Autopsies in Diagnosis of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülden Çengel


    Full Text Available Background: Death from cancer is mostly considered as natural deaths. The role of cancer on the cause of death in forensic cases like sudden deaths, negligence or malpractice claims are being investigated. In a small amount of forensic cases, cancer is found incidentally at the autopsy. The aim of this study was to reveal characteristics of the cases in which cancer was diagnosed and types of malignancies in medicolegal autopsies. In addition, the role of forensic autopsies in determining oncological diseases was discussed. Methods: Forensic autopsies were performed in the Morgue Department of Forensic Medicine Council in İzmir for eight years were retrospectively reviewed. Cases that postmortem histopathological examination performed and malignant tumors diagnosed were included in the study. Data about age, sex, location of tumors, immediate causes of death and the potential relation between tumors and the primary cause of death were investigated. Results: In eight year period (between 2001 and 2009, 3722 medicolegal autopsies were done by postmortem histopathological examination. In 86 cases such kind of tumors were observed. In seven of 86 cases the tumors were determined as benign and excluded from the study. The remaining 79 cases with malignant tumors included in the study, 63 (79.7% were male and 16 (20.3% were female, mean age 54.96±20.35 (range: 7-88 years. The tumors were most frequently located in respiratory system (35.4%, gastrointestinal system (19%, genitourinary system (10.1% and central nervous system (8.9%. The males most frequently had tumors in the respiratory system (42.9% and the females in the endocrine system (25%. According to histopathological classification of the tumors, the most frequent tumors were epithelial tumors (65.8%, followed by hemopoetic (12.7%, mesenchymal (7.6%, glial (5.1% and neuroendocrine tumors (2.5% and timoma (1.3%. The tumors could not be histopathologically differentiated in 5.1% of the deaths

  3. Physical abuse of older people reported at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil A violência física contra a pessoa idosa revelada em serviço médico-legal, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella de Brito Abath


    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the profile of physical abuse against older people who underwent forensic examination at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The cases, with data from 1,027 forensic reports, were described according to characteristics of the incident, victim, and aggressor. Most cases of violence were produced by mechanical energy, either with blunt objects or by empty-handed attack; the most common day of the week was Sunday, most frequently in the evening, and in the victim's home; typical cases involved mild injuries on more than one part of the victim's body. The majority of the victims were men, 60 to 69 years of age, brown (mixed-race, married or living with a partner, and retirees/pensioners. The majority of the aggressors were men, known to the victim, and attacking alone. The social transcendence of violence against older people clearly calls for investment in programs to deal with the problem in order to ensure better quality of life for the elderly.Conduziu-se um estudo transversal com o objetivo de determinar o perfil da violência física em idosos submetidos à perícia traumatológica, entre 2004 e 2007, no Instituto de Medicina Legal do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Os casos, cujas informações procederam de 1.027 laudos, foram descritos segundo características do evento, da vítima e do agressor. Com maior freqüência, a violência foi produzida por energia mecânica, instrumento contundente e arma natural; ocorreu num domingo, turno noturno e residência da vítima; acometeu mais de uma parte do corpo e a lesão foi leve. Prevaleceram como vítimas os homens, com idade entre 60 e 69 anos, pardos, casados/união consensual e aposentados/pensionistas. A maioria dos agressores era homem, conhecido da vítima e a agrediu desacompanhado. A transcendência social do problema torna imperativo o investimento em programas para seu enfrentamento, possibilitando uma melhor

  4. [Analysis of the Injury-disease Relationship between Spondylolysis and Trauma in 26 Forensic Identifications]. (United States)

    Wang, L X; Zhu, G L; Qi, L Q; Sheng, Y Y


    To expound the injury-disease relationship between spondylolysis and trauma for the points of forensic identification. Total 26 cases of spondylolysis were collected and the characteristics of this disease such as age, accompanied symptoms, treatment and injury manner were discussed. The causal relationship existed between trauma and injury consequence in 2 appraised individuals and both of them aged less than 50 years old. The injury manners of both were high-energy injury with combined injury and these 2 patients were treated by operation. The analysis of injury-disease relationship between spondylolysis and trauma should be paid attention in the middle-young age under 50 years old. More importantly, the injury-disease relationship should be analyzed in the patients who chose operative treatment. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  5. [Professor Kazimierz Jaegermann--forensic pathologist--scientist--thinker]. (United States)

    Nasiłowski, Władysław


    Professor Kazimierz Jaegermann, a founder of the theory of medico-legal opinionating, passed away 20 years ago. Numerous specialists in forensic medicine and an ever increasing number of lawyers substantiate the importance and value of the creative thought and the entire research work of Professor Jaegermann that have been an inspiration of progress in forensic medicine and in the science of applied law. His unique ability to perform a scientific synthesis leading to recognizing forensic medicine as an applied bridging knowledge points to the eminently creative role played by Professor Jaegermann in development of forensic medicine. There is an urgent need to recall his research activities and to publish a complete collection of his articles and publications. With this idea in mind, I present below an article based on the text published in No. 1 of the Zeszyty Naukowe Katedry Medycyny Sadowej Slaskiej Akademii Medycznej in 1995.

  6. Ethical considerations in clinical research on herbal medicine for prevention of cardiovascular disease in the ageing. (United States)

    Koonrungsesomboon, Nut; Karbwang, Juntra


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the ageing is a major public health problem worldwide. The nature of most CVD is subclinical with pathological processes that can span over years. Use of preventive measures could be an appropriate approach to prevailing over CVD in the ageing, and herbal medicine is one of the promising preventive approaches and is currently of interest among medical societies. In the evidence-based era, herbal medicine is, however, often underestimated and approached with skepticism, mainly due to the paucity of scientific evidence. Properly designed clinical trials on herbal medicine for prevention of CVD in a geriatric population are thus of importance and of clinical value. To review ethical issues and discuss considerations when such research is proposed. Four ethical issues, including the scientific validity of research, risk-benefit assessments, subject selection and vulnerability, and informed consent, are structured and extensively discussed in this article. Ethical core considerations of prevention research of CVD on herbal medicine involve particular attention on the scientific validity of research, risk-benefit assessments, subject selection and vulnerability, and informed consent. These issues and considerations are keys, although they must be adapted to an individual research setting in which a clinical study is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Statistical aspects of forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben

    This PhD thesis deals with statistical models intended for forensic genetics, which is the part of forensic medicine concerned with analysis of DNA evidence from criminal cases together with calculation of alleged paternity and affinity in family reunification cases. The main focus of the thesis...... is on crime cases as these differ from the other types of cases since the biological material often is used for person identification contrary to affinity. Common to all cases, however, is that the DNA is used as evidence in order to assess the probability of observing the biological material given different...... of the DNA evidence under competing hypotheses the biological evidence may be used in the court’s deliberation and trial on equal footing with other evidence and expert statements. These probabilities are based on population genetic models whose assumptions must be validated. The thesis’s first two articles...

  8. [Forensic analysis of injuries in dentistry]. (United States)

    Heltai, Nóra; Baráth, Zoltán; Kereszty, Éva M


    Documentation and evaluation of dental injuries in forensic medicine are rather problematic. It needs a professional work up why dental injuries are out of focus, and how the diagnosis, pattern and treatment are influenced by novel approaches of dentistry. The aims of the authors were to characterize dental injuries, to compare their own findings to literature data concerning the type and characteristics of injuries, and propose a diagnostic workflow. Expert's reports between 2009 and 2013 at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Szeged were reviewed. Review of about 7000 reports revealed only 20 cases with dental injury, which is in contrast with literature data indicating a significantly higher frequency of dental injuries. Although the number of "dental cases" was low, there were several additional cases where the trauma probably affected the teeth but the injury was not documented. In future more attention is needed in forensic evaluation of the mechanism, therapeutic strategy and prognosis of dental injuries.

  9. Course constructions: A case-base of forensic toxicology. (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Wu, Yeda; Su, Terry; Zhang, Liyong; Yin, Kun; Zheng, Da; Zheng, Jingjing; Huang, Lei; Wu, Qiuping; Cheng, Jianding


    Forensic toxicology education in China is limited by insufficient teaching methods and resources, resulting in students with adequate theoretical principles but lacking practice experience. Typical cases used as teaching materials vividly represent intoxication and provide students with an opportunity to practice and hone resolving skills. In 2013, the Department of Forensic Pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine began to construct top-quality courses in forensic toxicology, with its first step, creating a base containing typical cases of intoxication. This essay reviews the construction process of said cases-base, which is intended to set an example of forensic toxicology education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroprotective and Anti-Aging Potentials of Essential Oils from Aromatic and Medicinal Plants


    Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul; Junaid, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Subhan, Fazal; Ahmed, Jawad


    The use of essential oils (EOs) and their components is known since long in traditional medicine and aromatherapy for the management of various diseases, and is further increased in the recent times. The neuroprotective and anti-aging potentials of EOs and their possible mechanism of actions were evaluated by numerous researchers around the globe. Several clinically important EOs and their components from Nigella sativa, Acorus gramineus, Lavandula angustifolia, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha pi...

  11. [Molecular mechanisms of autophagy in regulating renal aging and interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine]. (United States)

    Tu, Yue; Sun, Wei; Chen, Di-Ping; Wan, Yi-Gang; Wu, Wei; Yao, Jian


    Aging is the gradual functional recession of the living tissues or organs caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors together. Autophagy is a process of degrading cytoplasmic components mediated by lysosomes in eukaryotic cells. Kidney is a typical target organ of aging. Autophagy regulates renal aging. Decrease in autophagy can accelerate renal aging,whereas,increase in autophagy can delay renal aging. During the process of regulating renal aging,the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its related signaling pathways including the adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mTOR,the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/ serine-threonine kinase(Akt)/mTOR,the AMPK/silent information regulation 1 (Sirt1) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) play the important roles in renal aging. Regulating the key signaling molecules in these pathways in vivo can control renal aging. Some Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and their extracts with the effects of nourishing kidney or activating stasis, such as Cordyceps sinensis, curcumin and resveratrol have the beneficial effects on renal aging and/or autophagy. Therefore,revealing the pharmacological effects of CHM in anti-renal aging based on the molecular mechanisms of autophagy will become one of the development trends in the future study. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Forensic Computing (Dagstuhl Seminar 13482)


    Freiling, Felix C.; Hornung, Gerrit; Polcák, Radim


    Forensic computing} (sometimes also called digital forensics, computer forensics or IT forensics) is a branch of forensic science pertaining to digital evidence, i.e., any legal evidence that is processed by digital computer systems or stored on digital storage media. Forensic computing is a new discipline evolving within the intersection of several established research areas such as computer science, computer engineering and law. Forensic computing is rapidly gaining importance since the...

  13. Molecular Imprinting Applications in Forensic Science. (United States)

    Yılmaz, Erkut; Garipcan, Bora; Patra, Hirak K; Uzun, Lokman


    Producing molecular imprinting-based materials has received increasing attention due to recognition selectivity, stability, cast effectiveness, and ease of production in various forms for a wide range of applications. The molecular imprinting technique has a variety of applications in the areas of the food industry, environmental monitoring, and medicine for diverse purposes like sample pretreatment, sensing, and separation/purification. A versatile usage, stability and recognition capabilities also make them perfect candidates for use in forensic sciences. Forensic science is a demanding area and there is a growing interest in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in this field. In this review, recent molecular imprinting applications in the related areas of forensic sciences are discussed while considering the literature of last two decades. Not only direct forensic applications but also studies of possible forensic value were taken into account like illicit drugs, banned sport drugs, effective toxins and chemical warfare agents in a review of over 100 articles. The literature was classified according to targets, material shapes, production strategies, detection method, and instrumentation. We aimed to summarize the current applications of MIPs in forensic science and put forth a projection of their potential uses as promising alternatives for benchmark competitors.

  14. Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners. (United States)

    Edmond, Gary; Towler, Alice; Growns, Bethany; Ribeiro, Gianni; Found, Bryan; White, David; Ballantyne, Kaye; Searston, Rachel A; Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; Kemp, Richard I; Martire, Kristy


    Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Forensic Entomologists: An Evaluation of their Status (United States)

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian


    The National Academy of Sciences (2009) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists. PMID:24219583

  16. Forensic entomologists: an evaluation of their status. (United States)

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian


    The National Academy of Sciences ( 2009 ) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists.

  17. Forensic nursing in secure environments. (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah


    There are few well-designed studies of corrections or prison nursing roles. This study seeks to describe the corrections or prison role of forensic nurses in the United States who provide care in secure environments. National data detailing the scope of practice in secure environments are limited. This pencil and paper survey describes the roles of 180 forensic nurses from 14 states who work in secure environments. Descriptive statistics are utilized. A repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses was implemented. These nurses were older than average in age, but had 10 years or less experience in forensic nursing practice. Two significant roles emerged to "promote and implement principles that underpin effective quality and practice" and to "assess, develop, implement, and improve programs of care for individuals." Significant roles varied based upon the security classification of the unit or institution in which the nurses were employed. Access to information about these nurses and their nursing practice was difficult in these closed systems. Minimal data are available nationally, indicating a need for collection of additional data over time to examine changes in role. It is through such developments that forensic nursing provided in secure environments will define its specialization and attract the attention it deserves.

  18. Live forensic acquisition as alternative to traditional forensic processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, M


    Full Text Available The development of live forensic acquisition in general presents a remedy for some of the problems introduced by traditional forensic acquisition. However, this live forensic acquisition introduces a variety of additional problems, unique...

  19. Aging of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells: Implications on autologous regenerative medicine. (United States)

    Charif, N; Li, Y Y; Targa, L; Zhang, L; Ye, J S; Li, Y P; Stoltz, J F; Han, H Z; de Isla, N


    With their proliferation, differentiation into specific cell types, and secretion properties, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) are very interesting tools to be used in regenerative medicine. Bone marrow (BM) was the first MSC source characterized. In the frame of autologous MSC therapy, it is important to detect donor's parameters affecting MSC potency. Age of the donors appears as one parameter that could greatly affect MSC properties. Moreover, in vitro cell expansion is needed to obtain the number of cells necessary for clinical developments. It will lead to in vitro cell aging that could modify cell properties. This review recapitulates several studies evaluating the effect of in vitro and in vivo MSC aging on cell properties.

  20. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters


    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika


    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  1. Deaths from abdominal trauma: analysis of 1888 forensic autopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the epidemiological profile of deaths due to abdominal trauma at the Forensic Medicine Institute of Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil. Methods: we conducted a retrospective study of the reports of deaths due to abdominal trauma autopsied from 2006 to 2011. Results: we analyzed 1.888 necropsy reports related to abdominal trauma. Penetrating trauma was more common than blunt one and gunshot wounds were more prevalent than stab wounds. Most of the individuals were male, brown-skinned, single and occupationally active. The median age was 34 years. The abdominal organs most injured in the penetrating trauma were the liver and the intestines, and in blunt trauma, the liver and the spleen. Homicide was the most prevalent circumstance of death, followed by traffic accidents, and almost half of the cases were referred to the Forensic Medicine Institute by a health unit. The blood alcohol test was positive in a third of the necropsies where it was performed. Cocaine and marijuana were the most commonly found substances in toxicology studies. Conclusion: in this sample. there was a predominance of penetrating abdominal trauma in young, brown and single men, the liver being the most injured organ.

  2. Database Application Schema Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Quintus Beyers


    Full Text Available The application schema layer of a Database Management System (DBMS can be modified to deliver results that may warrant a forensic investigation. Table structures can be corrupted by changing the metadata of a database or operators of the database can be altered to deliver incorrect results when used in queries. This paper will discuss categories of possibilities that exist to alter the application schema with some practical examples. Two forensic environments are introduced where a forensic investigation can take place in. Arguments are provided why these environments are important. Methods are presented how these environments can be achieved for the application schema layer of a DBMS. A process is proposed on how forensic evidence should be extracted from the application schema layer of a DBMS. The application schema forensic evidence identification process can be applied to a wide range of forensic settings.

  3. Brain Food for Alzheimer-Free Ageing: Focus on Herbal Medicines. (United States)

    Hügel, Helmut M


    Healthy brain aging and the problems of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a global concern. Beyond 60 years of age, most, if not everyone, will experience a decline in cognitive skills, memory capacity and changes in brain structure. Longevity eventually leads to an accumulation of amyloid plaques and/or tau tangles, including some vascular dementia damage. Therefore, lifestyle choices are paramount to leading either a brain-derived or a brain-deprived life. The focus of this review is to critically examine the evidence, impact, influence and mechanisms of natural products as chemopreventive agents which induce therapeutic outcomes that modulate the aggregation process of beta-amyloid (Aβ), providing measureable cognitive benefits in the aging process. Plants can be considered as chemical factories that manufacture huge numbers of diverse bioactive substances, many of which have the potential to provide substantial neuroprotective benefits. Medicinal herbs and health food supplements have been widely used in Asia since over 2,000 years. The phytochemicals utilized in traditional Chinese medicine have demonstrated safety profiles for human consumption. Many herbs with anti-amyloidogenic activity, including those containing polyphenolic constituents such as green tea, turmeric, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Panax ginseng, are presented. Also covered in this review are extracts from kitchen spices including cinnamon, ginger, rosemary, sage, salvia herbs, Chinese celery and many others some of which are commonly used in herbal combinations and represent highly promising therapeutic natural compounds against AD. A number of clinical trials conducted on herbs to counter dementia and AD are discussed.

  4. Forensic radiology: An emerging tool in identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Kumar


    Full Text Available In any mass disaster condition, identification of the person is most important. For this purpose, the forensic investigators use different methods for identifying the dead. They consider skeletal remains of the dead as the initial step in identification. Radiographs carry great evidence to act as antemortem records and also assist in identifying the person, age, gender, race, etc. Forensic dentistry is also emerging as a new branch in forensics. So, the forensic dentist must be aware of different techniques, developments, and resources to incorporate the technology in order to achieve success in human identification. So, our aim of the present review is to focus on different radiological techniques and new developments available for successful identification of the dead.

  5. Plethora of Cyber Forensics


    N.Sridhar; Dr.D.Lalitha Bhaskari; Dr.P.S.Avadhani


    As threats against digital assets have risen and there is necessitate exposing and eliminating hidden risks and threats. The ability of exposing is called “cyber forensics.” Cyber Penetrators have adopted more sophistical tools and tactics that endanger the operations of the global phenomena. These attackers are also using anti-forensic techniques to hide evidence of a cyber crime. Cyber forensics tools must increase its toughness and counteract these advanced persistent threats. This paper f...

  6. The relevance of the Goudge inquiry to the practice of child protection/forensic paediatrics. (United States)

    Skellern, Catherine; Donald, Terence


    In 2008 Ontario, Canada the Goudge Inquiry arose following increasing concerns about practices surrounding forensic pathology and the investigation of paediatric deaths. Some of the considerations and recommendations have relevance to child protection/forensic paediatricians, particularly in relation to their responsibilities in opinion formulation and as expert witnesses. By examining the Inquiry recommendations, this paper applies them in relation to child protection/forensic paediatrics by discussing forensic medicine and its legal context, how interpretation of published reports and data should be used in opinion formulation; issues of 'diagnosis' versus 'opinion'; issues specific to child protection paediatrics; quality control; aspects of report writing and terminological considerations. It concludes with an adaptation of key recommendations directly from those of Goudge, applied to the context of paediatric forensic medicine undertaken in child protection assessments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.


    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab MissionEstablish and maintain a Digital...

  8. Family Medicine in a Consumer Age — Part 4: Preventive Medicine, Professional Satisfaction, and the Rise of Consumerism (United States)

    Warner, Morton M.


    In an attempt to find out if the physician perceives the same strengths and weaknesses in today's practice of family medicine as does the consumer, the Lay Advisory Committee of the College's B.C. Chapter initiated a survey of physicians' and consumers' attitudes. This article, the fourth and last in a series, presents some of the results of the survey as they relate to preventive-medicine, professional satisfaction and the rise of consumerism.

  9. Clinical criminology: a bridge between forensic professionals. (United States)

    Silfen, P; Ben-David, S


    In recent decades a new profession has developed--clinical criminology. The purpose of this article is to highlight its development. Criminology is defined as a interdisciplinary super-profession. We tend to view criminology as a basic profession with a number of specializations. Clinical criminology is one of these specializations. Forensic psychiatry and clinical criminology have common roots in psychiatry, law and behavioural sciences. They overlap in some fields. Members of both professions work in the same setting and share some of the tasks, but the formal and professional responsibilities differ significantly. We perceive clinical criminology and forensic psychiatry as complementary professions belonging to medicine. The multidisciplinary educated clinical criminologist is the only professional in the forensic system who is qualified to moderate between the mental health and legal expert.

  10. The Yang-Tonifying Herbal Medicine Cynomorium songaricum Extends Lifespan and Delays Aging in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ping Liu


    Full Text Available Aging is highly correlated with the progressive loss of physiological function, including cognitive behavior and reproductive capacity, as well as an increased susceptibility to diseases; therefore, slowing age-related degeneration could greatly contribute to human health. Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. (CS is traditionally used to improve sexual function and treat kidney dysfunction in traditional Chinese medicine, although little is known about whether CS has effects on longevity. Here, we show that CS supplementation in the diet extends both the mean and maximum lifespan of adult female flies. The increase in lifespan with CS was correlated with higher resistance to oxidative stress and starvation and lower lipid hydroperoxides (LPO levels. Additionally, the lifespan extension was accompanied by beneficial effects, such as improved mating readiness, increased fecundity, and suppression of age-related learning impairment in aged flies. These findings demonstrate the important antiaging effects of CS and indicate the potential applicability of dietary intervention with CS to enhance health and prevent multiple age-related diseases.

  11. [Analises of the mortality in aged in an Internal Medicine Department]. (United States)

    Cinza Sanjurjo, S; Cabarcos Ortiz de Barrón, A; Nieto Pol, E; Torre Carballada, J A


    To establish the characteristics of the deceased and the death causes. Transversal study descriptive, with intake patients elder than 65 years old in an Internal Medicine Department. The variables analized were: age, sex, intake date, discharge date, days of hospital stay, chronic disease previous, admission cause, deceased, diagnoses. The statistical analysis was performed with measures of central tendency and of standard deviation, Chi-cuadrado, Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis. During the revised year, there are 770 patients intaked in Internal Medicine Department and 128 exitus (16.6%). The global average death age was 78.3 +/- 1.3 years: 53.1% (0.44-0.62; p = 0.48) were men and 46.9% were women. The average death intake days was 13.3 +/- 1.7 days (p < 0.001), 3.9% died in less than forty-eight hours after hospitalization. The most frequent admission cause was: dyspnea (46.1%). The most frequent chronic diseases were: ischemic and hypertensive heart disease (18.8%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The most frequent death cause was respiratory tract infection (43.8%). The prevalence cardiac and pulmonary disease prevalence is high, these diseases are the of the most frequent causes hospital mortality.

  12. Forensic anthropology in Europe: an assessment of current status and application. (United States)

    Kranioti, Elena; Paine, Robert


    Forensic anthropology is the discipline that traditionally deals with the examination of human remains for legal purposes and it derives from the fields of anatomy, physical anthropology and forensic medicine. For more than a century, forensic anthropologists in the United States have been offering their services in the court of law complementing the medico-legal investigation of other forensic professionals. The current status in European countries is presented here. The development of forensic anthropology varies significantly among the countries of Europe. Whereas some countries show a long history of research activity in the forensic sciences, including forensic anthropology (i.e. France, Germany and Spain), others are exhibiting a recent, rapid development (i.e. United Kingdom). In some cases, forensic anthropologists are employed within the academic realm (i.e. U.K., Denmark, Portugal, Turkey), forensic institutions (Netherlands) or government organizations (Spain, Hungary), although the vast majority of them remain limited to freelance activities on a sporadic basis. Often, European scientists that deal with skeletal remains come from nonphysical anthropology disciplines such as archaeology, forensic medicine and biology. In many cases they do not have adequate training equivalent to the forensic anthropologists in the USA. Naturally, without common training and a common legal system, an accreditation system for Europe will be difficult to implement.

  13. Forensic Science Technician (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010


    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  14. Forensic Toxicology: An Introduction. (United States)

    Smith, Michael P; Bluth, Martin H


    This article presents an overview of forensic toxicology. The authors describe the three components that make up forensic toxicology: workplace drug testing, postmortem toxicology, and human performance toxicology. Also discussed are the specimens that are tested, the methods used, and how the results are interpreted in this particular discipline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Discrepancy between information reported by the victims of sexual assaults and clinical forensic findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels


    INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports made at the Department of Forensic Medicine, the University of Copenhagen, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), information about the assault, including both violence and the perpetrator's line of sexual...... action was extracted, analysed and compared to the observed lesions (LE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 184 girls and women were included in this retrospective study. RESULTS: 75.5% of the victims were under 30 years of age. Observed LE: 79% had observed LE. 41% had body LE only, 19% genito-anal LE...... by slight, blunt force. Information on line of sexual action was present in 148 cases. A total of 123 victims reported penetration: 94% vaginal, 16% anal and 20% oral. Three were exposed to anal penetration only. Eleven perpetrators used a condom. 50% of the cases with vaginal and/or anal penetration had...

  16. Preparing for the aged in investigative medicine in a General Hospital setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, P.A.C.


    Full text: The inequalities which exist today between the health of various sectors of society have grown partly out of the different rates of improvement experienced during the 18th, 19th and 20th Centuries. This is especially so for social class, racial and regional differences. Differential health problems between various age groups and disease groups have probably arisen for other reasons. People can now expect to live well into their 70s or early 80s. Many things have contributed to these health gains, including improved public health measures, high quality clinical treatment services, social and environmental conditions and lifestyle changes. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the major health problems of the community served by the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Launceston General Hospital (Northern Regional Health) with the following perspectives: (i) How an ageing population is impacting in the level of service; (ii) How the aged are to be managed during investigation, after care and follow-up; and (iii) Major areas of investigations and age group analysis

  17. Graduate forensic nursing education: how to better educate nurses to care for this patient population. (United States)

    Simmons, Barbara


    Nurses are often the first healthcare contact for those affected by violence. Despite the impact of violence on healthcare across specialties and ages, forensic nursing content is limited in undergraduate and graduate curricula. The purpose of this article is to provide background on forensic nursing and present a model of a graduate forensic nursing program that can be used as a curriculum guide.

  18. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels


    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics.......Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...

  19. Development and validation of carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) for forensic Veterinary Medicine. (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vagner; Hazarbassanov, Nicolle Queiroz; de Siqueira, Adriana; Florio, Jorge Camilo; Ciscato, Claudia Helena Pastor; Maiorka, Paulo Cesar; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; de Souza Spinosa, Helenice


    Agricultural pesticides used with the criminal intent to intoxicate domestic and wild animals are a serious concern in Veterinary Medicine. In order to identify the pesticide carbofuran and its metabolite 3- hydroxycarbofuran in animals suspected of exogenous intoxication a high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated in stomach contents, liver, vitreous humor and blood. The method was evaluated using biological samples from seven different animal species. The following parameters of analytical validation were evaluated: linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity, recovery and matrix effect. The method was linear at the range of 6.25-100μg/mL and the correlation coefficient (r 2 ) values were >0.9811 for all matrices. The precision and accuracy of the method was determined by coefficient of variation (CV) and the relative standard deviation error (RSE), and both were less than 15%. Recovery ranged from 74.29 to 100.1% for carbofuran and from 64.72 to 100.61% for 3-hydroxycarbofuran. There were no significant interfering peaks or matrix effects. This method was suitable for detecting 25 positive cases for carbofuran amongst a total of 64 animal samples suspected of poisoning brought to the Toxicology Diagnostic Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Sao Paulo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Digital forensics and its application to forensic audit


    Martinka, Jan


    This thesis aims to describe a process framework suitable for conducting digital forensics investigation projects as support for forensic audit. Selection of existing digital forensics investigation framework was a subject of criterial comparison. Described new framework is a result of combination and enhancement of those frameworks, which were suitable for the characteristics of forensic audit. Thesis also discusses digital forensics methods for fraud examination and risk assessment as a par...

  1. Belief in complementary and alternative medicine is related to age and paranormal beliefs in adults. (United States)

    Van den Bulck, Jan; Custers, Kathleen


    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread, even among people who use conventional medicine. Positive beliefs about CAM are common among physicians and medical students. Little is known about the beliefs regarding CAM among the general public. Among science students, belief in CAM was predicted by belief in the paranormal. In a cross-sectional study, 712 randomly selected adults (>18 years old) responded to the CAM Health Belief Questionnaire (CHBQ) and a paranormal beliefs scale. CAM beliefs were very prevalent in this sample of adult Flemish men and women. Zero-order correlations indicated that belief in CAM was associated with age (r = 0.173 P paranormal belief (r = 0.365 P paranormal. Paranormal beliefs accounted for 14% of the variance of the CAM beliefs (regression coefficient: 0.376; 95%: CI 0.30-0.44). The level of education (regression coefficient: 0.06; 95% CI: -0.014-0.129) and social desirability (regression coefficient: -0.023; 95% CI: -0.048-0.026) did not make a significant contribution to the explained variance (paranormal beliefs.

  2. Caring for Strangers: Aging, Traditional Medicine, and Collective Self-care in Post-socialist Russia. (United States)

    Chudakova, Tatiana


    This article explores how aging patients in Russia assemble strategies of care in the face of commercialization of medical services and public health discourses and initiatives aimed at improving the population's lifestyle habits. By focusing on how the formation of pensioner publics intersects with the health-seeking trajectories of elderly patients, it tracks an emerging ethic of collective self-care-a form of therapeutic collectivity that challenges articulations of good health as primarily an extension of personal responsibility or solely as a corollary of access to medical resources. By drawing on traditional medicine, these pensioners rely on and advocate for stranger intimacies that offer tactics for survival in the present through the care of (and for) a shared and embodied post-socialist condition of social, economic, and bodily precarity. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  3. Forensic entomology: applications and limitations. (United States)

    Amendt, J; Richards, C S; Campobasso, C P; Zehner, R; Hall, M J R


    Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the corpse. In addition, toxicological and molecular examinations of these insects may help reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim, by associating a larva with its last meal, for example, in cases where insect evidence is left at a scene after human remains have been deliberately removed. Some fly species can develop not only on corpses but on living bodies too, causing myiasis. Analysis of larvae in such cases can demonstrate the period of neglect of humans or animals. Without the appropriate professional collection of insect evidence, an accurate and convincing presentation of such evidence in court will be hampered or even impossible. The present paper describes the principles and methods of forensic entomology and the optimal techniques for collecting insect evidence.

  4. Forensic Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.


    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  5. Quality use of medicines in aged-care facilities in Australia. (United States)

    Roughead, Elizabeth E; Semple, Susan J; Gilbert, Andrew L


    Medication-related problems are most commonly reported in elderly patients. It is for this reason that the development of services supporting appropriate medication management in the elderly is paramount; particularly for those living in residential care facilities. In 1991, Australia had very limited services supporting the quality use of medicines for residents of aged-care facilities. Over 11 years, from 1991-2002, the range of services has expanded considerably. Federally funded medication review services are now available, with over 80% of residents provided with the service. Medication advisory committees, in accordance with national practice guidelines, have been established in many facilities to address issues concerning medication management. Fifty percent of Australian's pharmacies are registered to provide services, with over 10% of the country's pharmacists accredited to provide the service. National practice guidelines for medication management in aged-care facilities have been incorporated into accreditation standards for aged-care facilities, further integrating activity into the wider health system. The environment was created for these activities through the formation of the Pharmaceutical Health and Rational Use of Medicines (PHARM) Committee, an expert advisory committee, and the Australian Pharmaceutical Advisory Council (APAC), a representative council. Both groups had responsibility for advising the Federal Minister of Health. They both identified medication misadventure in residential aged care as a priority issue and through their recommendations the Government devoted funds to the development of best practice guidelines and research activity. Clinical pharmacy services in nursing-home and hostel settings were found to reduce the use of benzodiazepines, laxatives, NSAIDs and antacids leading to cost savings to the health system. Dose-administration aids were found to reduce error rates during medication administration, and the alteration of

  6. Uncertainty propagation in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommé, S.; Jerome, S.M.; Venchiarutti, C.


    Uncertainty propagation formulae are presented for age dating in support of nuclear forensics. The age of radioactive material in this context refers to the time elapsed since a particular radionuclide was chemically separated from its decay product(s). The decay of the parent radionuclide and ingrowth of the daughter nuclide are governed by statistical decay laws. Mathematical equations allow calculation of the age of specific nuclear material through the atom ratio between parent and daughter nuclides, or through the activity ratio provided that the daughter nuclide is also unstable. The derivation of the uncertainty formulae of the age may present some difficulty to the user community and so the exact solutions, some approximations, a graphical representation and their interpretation are presented in this work. Typical nuclides of interest are actinides in the context of non-proliferation commitments. The uncertainty analysis is applied to a set of important parent–daughter pairs and the need for more precise half-life data is examined. - Highlights: • Uncertainty propagation formulae for age dating with nuclear chronometers. • Applied to parent–daughter pairs used in nuclear forensics. • Investigated need for better half-life data

  7. Forensic DNA testing. (United States)

    Butler, John M


    Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques.

  8. A Mitochondrial Paradigm of Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases, Aging, and Cancer: A Dawn for Evolutionary Medicine (United States)

    Wallace, Douglas C.


    Life is the interplay between structure and energy, yet the role of energy deficiency in human disease has been poorly explored by modern medicine. Since the mitochondria use oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to convert dietary calories into usable energy, generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a toxic by-product, I hypothesize that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in a wide range of age-related disorders and various forms of cancer. Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is present in thousands of copies per cell and encodes essential genes for energy production, I propose that the delayed-onset and progressive course of the age-related diseases results from the accumulation of somatic mutations in the mtDNAs of post-mitotic tissues. The tissue-specific manifestations of these diseases may result from the varying energetic roles and needs of the different tissues. The variation in the individual and regional predisposition to degenerative diseases and cancer may result from the interaction of modern dietary caloric intake and ancient mitochondrial genetic polymorphisms. Therefore the mitochondria provide a direct link between our environment and our genes and the mtDNA variants that permitted our forbears to energetically adapt to their ancestral homes are influencing our health today. PMID:16285865

  9. Who dies at A&E? The role of forensic pathology in the audit of mortality in an emergency medicine department. (United States)

    Seow, E; Lau, G


    The authors reviewed a total of 481 deaths, which occurred in an accident and emergency (A&E) department of a major general hospital, over a 3-year-period, from 1 January, 1992 to 31 December, 1994. Of these, 428 (89.0%) were referred to the coroner, with full medico-legal autopsies being conducted in 236 (55.1%) of the latter. There was a marked preponderance of male subjects (male:female ratio = 1.86) and, not unexpectedly, the likelihood of an autopsy being performed decreased with the patient's age. Nevertheless, all patients who died from trauma (or unnatural causes) underwent autopsies, irrespective of age. In all, autopsies were conducted for 70 traumatic and 166 natural deaths, with the mean age (95% CI) of the former group being some 19 years less than that of the latter (33.2 (28.4-38.1) vs. 52.0 (48.6-55.4), (P audit and the enhancement of physicians' clinical acumen.

  10. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M


    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  11. Physics and forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.


    This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources

  12. Constitution of traditional chinese medicine and related factors in women of childbearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Yu Jiang


    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the constitution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM among women who want to be pregnant in one year and explores factors related to TCM constitution. Methods: This study was conducted on women who participated in free preconception check-ups provided by the Zhabei District Maternity and Child Care Center in Shanghai, China. The information regarding the female demographic characteristics, physical condition, history of pregnancy and childbearing, diet and behavior, and social psychological factors was collected, and TCM constitution assessment was performed. The Chi-square test, t-test, logistic regression analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to explore the related factors of TCM constitution. Results: The participants in this study were aged 28.3 ± 3.0 years. Approximately fifty-five women in this study had Unbalanced Constitution. Logistic regression analysis showed that Shanghai residence, dysmenorrhea, gum bleeding, aversion to vegetables, preference for raw meat, job stress, and economic stress were significantly and negatively associated with Balanced Constitution. Multinomial logistic analysis showed that Shanghai residence was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Yin-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; gum bleeding was significantly associated with Yin-deficiency, Stagnant Blood, Stagnant Qi, and Inherited Special Constitutions; aversion to vegetables was significantly associated with Damp-heat Constitution; job stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Phlegm-dampness, Damp-heat, Stagnant Blood, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; and economic stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions. Conclusion: The application of TCM constitution to preconception care would be beneficial for early identification of potential TCM constitution risks and be beneficial for early intervention (e.g., health

  13. Forensic psychiatry in Chile. (United States)

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu


    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. What is nuclear forensics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halevy, Itzhak


    Nuclear forensics is the investigation of nuclear materials to find evidence for example the source, the trafficking, and the enrichment of the material. The material can be recovered from various sources including dust from the vicinity of a nuclear facility, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion. Results of nuclear forensic testing are used by different organizations to make decisions. The information is typically combined with other sources of information such as law enforcement and intelligence information

  15. Mac OS X Forensics (United States)

    Craiger, Philip; Burke, Paul

    This paper describes procedures for conducting forensic examinations of Apple Macs running Mac OS X. The target disk mode is used to create a forensic duplicate of a Mac hard drive and preview it. Procedures are discussed for recovering evidence from allocated space, unallocated space, slack space and virtual memory. Furthermore, procedures are described for recovering trace evidence from Mac OS X default email, web browser and instant messaging applications, as well as evidence pertaining to commands executed from a terminal.

  16. Research in computer forensics


    Wai, Hor Cheong


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Computer Forensics involves the preservation, identification, extraction and documentation of computer evidence stored in the form of magnetically encoded information. With the proliferation of E-commerce initiatives and the increasing criminal activities on the web, this area of study is catching on in the IT industry and among the law enforcement agencies. The objective of the study is to explore the techniques of computer forensics ...

  17. Towards the application of precision medicine in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. (United States)

    Cascella, Raffaella; Strafella, Claudia; Caputo, Valerio; Errichiello, Valeria; Zampatti, Stefania; Milano, Filippo; Potenza, Saverio; Mauriello, Silvestro; Novelli, Giuseppe; Ricci, Federico; Cusumano, Andrea; Giardina, Emiliano


    The review essentially describes genetic and non-genetic variables contributing to the onset and progression of exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in Italian population. In particular, AMD susceptibility within Italian population is contributed to by genetic variants, accounting for 23% of disease and non-genetic variants, accounting for 10% of AMD. Our data highlighted prominent differences concerning genetic and non-genetic contributors to AMD in our cohort with respect to worldwide populations. Among genetic variables, SNPs of CFH, ARMS2, IL-8, TIMP3, SLC16A8, RAD51B, VEGFA and COL8A1 were significantly associated with the risk of AMD in the Italian cohort. Surprisingly, other susceptibility variants described in European, American and Asiatic populations, did not reach the significance threshold in our cohort. As expected, advanced age, smoking and dietary habits were associated with the disease. In addition, we also describe a number of gene-gene and gene-phenotype interactions. In fact, AMD-associated genes may be involved in the alteration of Bruch's membrane and induction of angiogenesis, contributing to exacerbate the damage caused by aging and environmental factors. Our review provides an overview of genetic and non-genetic factors characterizing AMD susceptibility in Italian population, outlining the differences with respect to the worldwide populations. Altogether, these data reflect historical, geographic, demographic and lifestyle peculiarities of Italian population. The role of epigenetics, pharmacogenetics, comorbities and genetic counseling in the management of AMD patients have been described, in the perspective of the application of a "population-specific precision medicine" approach addressed to prevent AMD onset and improve patients' quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How do we want to grow old? Anti-ageing-medicine and the scope of public healthcare in liberal democracies. (United States)

    Schweda, Mark; Marckmann, Georg


    Healthcare counts as a morally relevant good whose distribution should neither be left to the free market nor be simply imposed by governmental decisions without further justification. This problem is particularly prevalent in the current boom of anti-ageing medicine. While the public demand for medical interventions which promise a longer, healthier and more active and attractive life has been increasing, public healthcare systems usually do not cover these products and services, thus leaving their allocation to the mechanisms of supply and demand on the free market. This situation raises the question on which basis the underlying preferences for and claims to a longer, healthier life should be evaluated. What makes anti-ageing medicine eligible for public funding? In this article, we discuss the role of anti-ageing medicine with regard to the scope and limits of public healthcare. We will first briefly sketch the basic problem of justifying a particular healthcare scheme within the framework of a modern liberal democracy, focusing on the challenge anti-ageing interventions pose in this regard. In the next section, we will present and discuss three possible solutions to the problem, essentialistic, transcendental, and procedural strategies of defining the scope of public healthcare. We will suggest a procedural solution adopting essentialistic and transcendental elements and discuss its theoretical and practical implications with regard to anti-ageing medicine. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton. (United States)

    Bruce, Alease


    Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

  20. An historical skull collection and its use in forensic odontology and anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrsen, B; Lynnerup, N; Hejmadi, M


    The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Copenhagen, houses a collection of historical skulls of unclear origin, marked with a general geographic or "racial descriptor". Would these historical skulls be of any value for the forensic odontologist and anthropologist concerned with teaching and casework?...

  1. Analysis of forensic odontological examinations at the National Forensic Service of Korea from 2011 to 2015. (United States)

    Roh, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Won-Joon; Seo, Jeong-Uk; Lee, U-Young; Lee, Sang-Seob


    The National Forensic Service (NFS) of Korea is a government agency responsible for examining and evaluating evidence obtained at crime scenes. The Section of Forensic Odontology of the Medical Examiner's Office conducts forensic odontological analyses of human remains, and mainly criminal cases are handled. In this study, 588 forensic odontological cases referred to NFS during 2011-2015 were analyzed for referral pattern, evidence material, examination criteria, and other factors and were compared with respective data from 2007 to 2010. Majority of the requests were internal (further dental examinations after autopsy) rather than external (direct requests from other agencies such as police departments). Regarding evidence materials, "Teeth" (including teeth and resected jaws) were dominant evidences. Due to the seasonal effects in Korea, the highest number of requests was in September of each year, but the number of requests in April has recently increased. Evidence materials were mostly found in suburban and rural area, especially in mountainous area due to the geographic characteristics of Korea. Regarding specific examinations, profiling, including age estimation, accounted for majority of the requests; this number had increased relative to the findings of a previous study, whereas the number of requests for dental identification and bite mark analysis had decreased. With this analysis, trends in forensic odontology can be observed, and we expect that these trends would be served as a reference for designing study and making training protocol for forensic odontology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of Radiology in Forensic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Chandrasekhar


    Full Text Available Forensic radiology is a specialized area of medical imaging utilizing radiological techniques to assist physicians and pathologists in matter pertaining to the law. Postmortem dental radiographs are the most consistent part of the antemortem records that can be transmitted during the forensic examination procedures. Pathologists regularly use radiographic images during the course of autopsy to assist them in identification of foreign bodies or determination of death. Forensic radiology can be used in suspicious death or murder, in analysis of adverse medical events, solving legal matters, to detect child abuse, drug trafficking, body identification and disease identification. Using the possibilities of radiology, special characteristics of the internal structures of the dentomaxillofacial region can be revealed. We can also detect endodontic treatments, healing extraction sockets, implants or even tooth colored restoration. Therefore, we can give answers to problems dealing with identification procedures, mass disaster and dental age estimation.

  3. Computational intelligence in digital forensics forensic investigation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choo, Yun-Huoy; Abraham, Ajith; Srihari, Sargur


    Computational Intelligence techniques have been widely explored in various domains including forensics. Analysis in forensic encompasses the study of pattern analysis that answer the question of interest in security, medical, legal, genetic studies and etc. However, forensic analysis is usually performed through experiments in lab which is expensive both in cost and time. Therefore, this book seeks to explore the progress and advancement of computational intelligence technique in different focus areas of forensic studies. This aims to build stronger connection between computer scientists and forensic field experts.   This book, Computational Intelligence in Digital Forensics: Forensic Investigation and Applications, is the first volume in the Intelligent Systems Reference Library series. The book presents original research results and innovative applications of computational intelligence in digital forensics. This edited volume contains seventeen chapters and presents the latest state-of-the-art advancement ...

  4. Neuroprotective and Anti-Aging Potentials of Essential Oils from Aromatic and Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ayaz


    Full Text Available The use of essential oils (EOs and their components is known since long in traditional medicine and aromatherapy for the management of various diseases, and is further increased in the recent times. The neuroprotective and anti-aging potentials of EOs and their possible mechanism of actions were evaluated by numerous researchers around the globe. Several clinically important EOs and their components from Nigella sativa, Acorus gramineus, Lavandula angustifolia, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Jasminum sambac, Piper nigrum and so many other plants are reported for neuroprotective effects. This review article was aimed to summarize the current finding on EOs tested against neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer disease (AD and dementia. The effects of EOs on pathological targets of AD and dementia including amyloid deposition (Aβ, neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, cholinergic hypofunction, oxidative stress and glutamatergic abnormalities were focused. Furthermore, effects of EOs on other neurological disorders including anxiety, depression, cognitive hypofunction epilepsy and convulsions were also evaluated in detail. In conclusion, EOs were effective on several pathological targets and have improved cognitive performance in animal models and human subjects. Thus, EOs can be developed as multi-potent agents against neurological disorders with better efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness.

  5. Neuroprotective and Anti-Aging Potentials of Essential Oils from Aromatic and Medicinal Plants. (United States)

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul; Junaid, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Subhan, Fazal; Ahmed, Jawad


    The use of essential oils (EOs) and their components is known since long in traditional medicine and aromatherapy for the management of various diseases, and is further increased in the recent times. The neuroprotective and anti-aging potentials of EOs and their possible mechanism of actions were evaluated by numerous researchers around the globe. Several clinically important EOs and their components from Nigella sativa , Acorus gramineus, Lavandula angustifolia, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Jasminum sambac, Piper nigrum and so many other plants are reported for neuroprotective effects. This review article was aimed to summarize the current finding on EOs tested against neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia. The effects of EOs on pathological targets of AD and dementia including amyloid deposition (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), cholinergic hypofunction, oxidative stress and glutamatergic abnormalities were focused. Furthermore, effects of EOs on other neurological disorders including anxiety, depression, cognitive hypofunction epilepsy and convulsions were also evaluated in detail. In conclusion, EOs were effective on several pathological targets and have improved cognitive performance in animal models and human subjects. Thus, EOs can be developed as multi-potent agents against neurological disorders with better efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness.

  6. Immune physiology in tissue regeneration and aging, tumor growth, and regenerative medicine. (United States)

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Carson, Ray J; Gaytán, Francisco; Huleihel, Mahmoud; Kruse, Andrea; Schatten, Heide; Telleria, Carlos M


    The immune system plays an important role in immunity (immune surveillance), but also in the regulation of tissue homeostasis (immune physiology). Lessons from the female reproductive tract indicate that immune system related cells, such as intraepithelial T cells and monocyte-derived cells (MDC) in stratified epithelium, interact amongst themselves and degenerate whereas epithelial cells proliferate and differentiate. In adult ovaries, MDC and T cells are present during oocyte renewal from ovarian stem cells. Activated MDC are also associated with follicular development and atresia, and corpus luteum differentiation. Corpus luteum demise resembles rejection of a graft since it is attended by a massive influx of MDC and T cells resulting in parenchymal and vascular regression. Vascular pericytes play important roles in immune physiology, and their activities (including secretion of the Thy-1 differentiation protein) can be regulated by vascular autonomic innervation. In tumors, MDC regulate proliferation of neoplastic cells and angiogenesis. Tumor infiltrating T cells die among malignant cells. Alterations of immune physiology can result in pathology, such as autoimmune, metabolic, and degenerative diseases, but also in infertility and intrauterine growth retardation, fetal morbidity and mortality. Animal experiments indicate that modification of tissue differentiation (retardation or acceleration) during immune adaptation can cause malfunction (persistent immaturity or premature aging) of such tissue during adulthood. Thus successful stem cell therapy will depend on immune physiology in targeted tissues. From this point of view, regenerative medicine is more likely to be successful in acute rather than chronic tissue disorders.

  7. Clinical and forensic signs related to opioids abuse. (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Carvalho, Felix; Moreira, Roxana; Duarte, Jose Alberto; Proenca, Jorge Brandao; Santos, Agostinho; Magalhaes, Teresa


    For a good performance in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology it is important to be aware of the biological and non-biological signs and symptoms related to xenobiotic exposure. This manuscript highlights and analyzes clinical and forensic imaging related to opioids abuse critically. Particularly, respiratory depression, track marks and hemorrhages, skin "popping", practices of phlebotomy, tissue necrosis and ulceration, dermatitis, tongue hyperpigmentation, "coma blisters", intra-arterial administration, candidiasis, wounds associated with anthrax or clostridium contaminated heroin, desomorphine related lesions and characteristic non-biological evidences are some commonly reported findings in opioids abuse, which will be discussed. For this purpose, clinical and forensic cases from our database (National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, North Branch, Portugal), in addition to literature data, are reviewed.

  8. Emerging trends in forensic science with special emphasis on nuclear and radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Rukmani


    Forensic science uses the basic principles of all physical and natural science and have evolved many domain of its owns, like Anthropometry, fingerprint, Foot print, ballistics, documentation, Forensic Biology and Serology, Forensic Chemistry, Nuclear forensic science, Forensic Physic, Toxicology, Odontology, Forensic DNA, Cyber Forensic, Forensic Psychology, Forensic engineering etc., which provides a fool prove scientific aid to criminal justice administration. Nuclear forensic science is a fairly young discipline and only a small number of laboratories are active practitioners. However, the number of incidents of illicit trafficking reported and furthermore, the threat of nuclear terrorism calls for preparedness and for effective tools providing hints on the origin of the material and thus on the perpetrator. The determination of characteristic parameters is subject to ongoing research and development work in a number of nuclear measurement laboratories. Parameters like isotopic composition, chemical impurities, age of the material, macroscopic parameters and microstructure provide clues on the origin and on the intended use of the material. Today, nuclear forensics has reached a high degree of maturity and it is highly relevant in the areas of non-proliferation and of nuclear security. Continued development activities and strengthened international cooperation will be of key importance for the perfection of the discipline of nuclear forensics

  9. From Computer Forensics to Forensic Computing: Investigators Investigate, Scientists Associate


    Dewald, Andreas; Freiling, Felix C.


    This paper draws a comparison of fundamental theories in traditional forensic science and the state of the art in current computer forensics, thereby identifying a certain disproportion between the perception of central aspects in common theory and the digital forensics reality. We propose a separation of what is currently demanded of practitioners in digital forensics into a rigorous scientific part on the one hand, and a more general methodology of searching and seizing digital evidence an...

  10. Defense Forensics: Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring Expeditionary Forensic Capability (United States)


    forensic pathology, forensic anthropology, and forensic toxicology . 13DOD’s forensic directive defines DOD components as the Office of the...DEFENSE FORENSICS Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring Expeditionary Forensic ...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Forensics : Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring

  11. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM


    Full Text Available With the explosion of digital crime, digital forensics is more often applied. The digital forensic discipline developed rather rapidly, but up to date very little international standardization with regard to processes, procedures or management has...

  12. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore. (United States)

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd


    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Molecular pathology and age estimation. (United States)

    Meissner, Christoph; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie


    Over the course of our lifetime a stochastic process leads to gradual alterations of biomolecules on the molecular level, a process that is called ageing. Important changes are observed on the DNA-level as well as on the protein level and are the cause and/or consequence of our 'molecular clock', influenced by genetic as well as environmental parameters. These alterations on the molecular level may aid in forensic medicine to estimate the age of a living person, a dead body or even skeletal remains for identification purposes. Four such important alterations have become the focus of molecular age estimation in the forensic community over the last two decades. The age-dependent accumulation of the 4977bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA and the attrition of telomeres along with ageing are two important processes at the DNA-level. Among a variety of protein alterations, the racemisation of aspartic acid and advanced glycation endproducs have already been tested for forensic applications. At the moment the racemisation of aspartic acid represents the pinnacle of molecular age estimation for three reasons: an excellent standardization of sampling and methods, an evaluation of different variables in many published studies and highest accuracy of results. The three other mentioned alterations often lack standardized procedures, published data are sparse and often have the character of pilot studies. Nevertheless it is important to evaluate molecular methods for their suitability in forensic age estimation, because supplementary methods will help to extend and refine accuracy and reliability of such estimates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.



    Zawoad , Shams; Hasan , Ragib


    Part 5: CLOUD FORENSICS; International audience; The rapid migration from traditional computing and storage models to cloud computing environments has made it necessary to support reliable forensic investigations in the cloud. However, current cloud computing environments often lack support for forensic investigations and the trustworthiness of evidence is often questionable because of the possibility of collusion between dishonest cloud providers, users and forensic investigators. This chapt...

  15. [German medicine of the age of romanticism (1797-1848) as research problem]. (United States)

    Płonka-Syroka, B


    In the period between 1797 and 1848, German medicine was considerably influenced by philosophy. It absorbed ideas deriving from neo-Platonism and vitalism, as well as the modern philosophy of nature (Naturphilosophie), especially the ideas of Schelling. The article presents the main tendencies in the German medicine of that period: the distinct character of German medical thought as compared to the rest of Europe, the deductive character of medical theories, the grounding of medical thought in non-materialist philosophy and its close ties with the Protestant religion. The author's aim is investigate how German medicine of the period evolved away from European standards set by the model of medicine as an empirical science, based on the inductive method of research. The article presents the state of German medicine of the first half of the nineteenth century against the background of socio-cultural factors and relates German medical theory of the period to the social awareness of that time.

  16. The approach of prehospital health care personnel working at emergency stations towards forensic cases. (United States)

    Asci, Ozlem; Hazar, Guleser; Sercan, Isa


    The objective of this study is to determine the states of health care personnel, working at 112 emergency stations in the province of Artvin, to encounter with regarding forensic cases and determine their practices aimed at recognizing, protecting, and reporting the evidences that may affect the forensic process. This descriptive study was conducted with nurses and emergency medicine technicians working at 112 emergency stations in Artvin between January 2013 and February 2014. Of 141 health personnel that constituted sample of the study, 48.9% were nurses, 9.9% emergency medicine technicians, and 41.1% ambulance and emergency care technicians. The rate of feeling sufficient in coping with forensic cases and incidents was 20.6%. There was a lower rate of receiving education about the approach towards forensic cases (15.6%). In the study, the frequency of encountering with at least one forensic case was 88.7%. Traffic accidents (72.5%), suicides (41.5%) and assaults (41.5%) were among the most frequent reasons of forensic cases. The practices of nurses were more successful in woundings by firearms compared to other health personnel (p forensic cases. The personnel with higher educational level and nurses have more successful practices in forensic cases. Health personnel have approaches that may negatively affect the solution of forensic cases.

  17. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013


    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  18. My-Forensic-Loci-queries (MyFLq) framework for analysis of forensic STR data generated by massive parallel sequencing. (United States)

    Van Neste, Christophe; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip


    Forensic scientists are currently investigating how to transition from capillary electrophoresis (CE) to massive parallel sequencing (MPS) for analysis of forensic DNA profiles. MPS offers several advantages over CE such as virtually unlimited multiplexy of loci, combining both short tandem repeat (STR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci, small amplicons without constraints of size separation, more discrimination power, deep mixture resolution and sample multiplexing. We present our bioinformatic framework My-Forensic-Loci-queries (MyFLq) for analysis of MPS forensic data. For allele calling, the framework uses a MySQL reference allele database with automatically determined regions of interest (ROIs) by a generic maximal flanking algorithm which makes it possible to use any STR or SNP forensic locus. Python scripts were designed to automatically make allele calls starting from raw MPS data. We also present a method to assess the usefulness and overall performance of a forensic locus with respect to MPS, as well as methods to estimate whether an unknown allele, which sequence is not present in the MySQL database, is in fact a new allele or a sequencing error. The MyFLq framework was applied to an Illumina MiSeq dataset of a forensic Illumina amplicon library, generated from multilocus STR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on both single contributor samples and multiple person DNA mixtures. Although the multilocus PCR was not yet optimized for MPS in terms of amplicon length or locus selection, the results show excellent results for most loci. The results show a high signal-to-noise ratio, correct allele calls, and a low limit of detection for minor DNA contributors in mixed DNA samples. Technically, forensic MPS affords great promise for routine implementation in forensic genomics. The method is also applicable to adjacent disciplines such as molecular autopsy in legal medicine and in mitochondrial DNA research. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by

  19. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: broadening DNA investigative intelligence. (United States)

    Vidaki, Athina; Kayser, Manfred


    Human genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We envision future forensic applications of DNA methylation analysis that will broaden DNA-based forensic intelligence. Together with genetic prediction of appearance and biogeographic ancestry, epigenomic lifestyle prediction is expected to increase the ability of police to find unknown perpetrators of crime who are not identifiable using current forensic DNA profiling.

  20. Nuclear forensic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, B.S.


    In the present talk the fundamentals of the nuclear forensic investigations will be discussed followed by the detailed standard operating procedure (SOP) for the nuclear forensic analysis. The characteristics, such as, dimensions, particle size, elemental and isotopic composition help the nuclear forensic analyst in source attribution of the interdicted material, as the specifications of the nuclear materials used by different countries are different. The analysis of elemental composition could be done by SEM-EDS, XRF, CHNS analyser, etc. depending upon the type of the material. Often the trace constituents (analysed by ICP-AES, ICP-MS, AAS, etc) provide valuable information about the processes followed during the production of the material. Likewise the isotopic composition determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry provides useful information about the enrichment of the nuclear fuel and hence its intended use

  1. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel


    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  2. Efficacy of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Reshmi


    In a strange turn of history, the threat of global nuclear war has gone down, but the risk of a nuclear attack has gone up. The danger of nuclear terrorism and ways to thwart it, tackle it and manage it in the event of an attack is increasingly gaining the attention of nuclear analysts all over the world. There is rising awareness among nuclear experts to develop mechanisms to prevent, deter and deal with the threat of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear specialists are seeking to develop and improve the science of nuclear forensics so as to provide faster analysis during a crisis. Nuclear forensics can play an important role in detecting illicit nuclear materials to counter trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. An effective nuclear forensic and attribution strategy can enable policy makers, decision makers and technical managers to respond to situations involving interception of special nuclear materials

  3. Geoethics and Forensic Geology (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance


    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  4. Constitution of traditional chinese medicine and related factors in women of childbearing age. (United States)

    Jiang, Qiao-Yu; Li, Jue; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Guang-Hua; Wang, Jing


    This study investigates the constitution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) among women who want to be pregnant in one year and explores factors related to TCM constitution. This study was conducted on women who participated in free preconception check-ups provided by the Zhabei District Maternity and Child Care Center in Shanghai, China. The information regarding the female demographic characteristics, physical condition, history of pregnancy and childbearing, diet and behavior, and social psychological factors was collected, and TCM constitution assessment was performed. The Chi-square test, t-test, logistic regression analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to explore the related factors of TCM constitution. The participants in this study were aged 28.3 ± 3.0 years. Approximately fifty-five women in this study had Unbalanced Constitution. Logistic regression analysis showed that Shanghai residence, dysmenorrhea, gum bleeding, aversion to vegetables, preference for raw meat, job stress, and economic stress were significantly and negatively associated with Balanced Constitution. Multinomial logistic analysis showed that Shanghai residence was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Yin-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; gum bleeding was significantly associated with Yin-deficiency, Stagnant Blood, Stagnant Qi, and Inherited Special Constitutions; aversion to vegetables was significantly associated with Damp-heat Constitution; job stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Phlegm-dampness, Damp-heat, Stagnant Blood, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; and economic stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions. The application of TCM constitution to preconception care would be beneficial for early identification of potential TCM constitution risks and be beneficial for early intervention (e.g., health education, and dietary education), especially during the women who do

  5. Kindle Forensics: Acquisition & Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hannay


    Full Text Available The Amazon Kindle eBook reader supports a wide range of capabilities beyond reading books. This functionality includes an inbuilt cellular data connection known as Whispernet. The Kindle provides web browsing, an application framework, eBook delivery and other services over this connection. The historic data left by user interaction with this device may be of forensic interest. Analysis of the Amazon Kindle device has resulted in a method to reliably extract and interpret data from these devices in a forensically complete manner.

  6. La geomatica forense e il Forensic GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci


    Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali.AbstractIn the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings. 

  7. La geomatica forense e il Forensic GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci


    Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali. Abstract In the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings.

  8. Leveraging new information technology to monitor medicine use in 71 residential aged care facilities: variation in polypharmacy and antipsychotic use. (United States)

    Pont, Lisa G; Raban, Magda Z; Jorgensen, Mikaela L; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna I


    The aim of this study was to use routinely collected electronic medicines administration (eMAR) data in residential aged care (RAC) to investigate the quality use of medicines. A cross-sectional analysis of eMAR data. 71 RAC facilities in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, Australia. Permanent residents living in a participating facility on 1 October 2015. None. Variation in polypharmacy (≥5 medications), hyper-polypharmacy (≥10 medications) and antipsychotic use across facilities was examined using funnel plot analysis. The study dataset included 4775 long-term residents. The mean resident age was 85.3 years and 70.6% of residents were female. The median facility size was 60 residents and 74.3% were in metropolitan locations. 84.3% of residents had polypharmacy, 41.2% hyper-polypharmacy and 21.0% were using an antipsychotic. The extent of polypharmacy (69.75-100% of residents), hyper-polypharmacy (38.81-76.19%) and use of antipsychotic medicines (0-75.6%) varied considerably across the 71 facilities. Using eMAR data we found substantial variation in polypharmacy, hyper-polypharmacy and antipsychotic medicine use across 71 RAC facilities. Further investigation into the policies and practices of facilities performing above or below expected levels is warranted to understand variation and drive quality improvement.



    Çevik, Filiz Ekim; Balcıoğlu, Yasin Hasan; Karadayı, Şükriye; Çakan, Hüseyin


    Filiz Ekim ÇEVİK1, Yasin Hasan BALCIOĞLU1, Şükriye KARADAYI2, Hüseyin ÇAKAN1 1İstanbul University, Forensic Medicine Institute, TÜRKİYE 2İstanbul University, Public Health Directorate, TÜRKİYE

  10. A data model for clinical legal medicine practice and the development of a dedicated software for both practitioners and researchers. (United States)

    Dang, Catherine; Phuong, Thomas; Beddag, Mahmoud; Vega, Anabel; Denis, Céline


    To present a data model for clinical legal medicine and the software based on that data model for both practitioners and researchers. The main functionalities of the presented software are computer-assisted production of medical certificates and data capture, storage and retrieval. The data model and the software were jointly developed by the department of forensic medicine of the Jean Verdier Hospital (Bondy, France) and an bioinformatics laboratory (LIMICS, Paris universities 6-13) between November 2015 and May 2016. The data model was built based on four sources: i) a template used in our department for producing standardised medical certificates; ii) a random sample of medical certificates produced by the forensic department; iii) anterior consensus between four healthcare professionals (two forensic practitioners, a psychologist and a forensic psychiatrist) and iv) anatomical dictionaries. The trial version of the open source software was first designed for examination of physical assault survivors. An UML-like data model dedicated to clinical legal practice was built. The data model describes the terminology for examinations of sexual assault survivors, physical assault survivors, individuals kept in police custody and undocumented migrants for age estimation. A trial version of a software relying on the data model was developed and tested by three physicians. The software allows files archiving, standardised data collection, extraction and assistance for certificate generation. It can be used for research purpose, by data exchange and analysis. Despite some current limitations of use, it is a tool which can be shared and used by other departments of forensic medicine and other specialties, improving data management and exploitation. Full integration with external sources, analytics software and use of a semantic interoperability framework are planned for the next months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights

  11. Forensic Applications of LIBS (United States)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  12. Nuclear forensics case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedchenko, Vitaly


    The objective of this presentation is to share three case studies from the Institute of Transuranium Elements (ITU) which describe the application of nuclear forensics to events where nuclear and other radioactive material was found to be out of regulatory control



    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu


    Forensic Criminology – Fugitive Psychology, 2010 Security Summit (Regional Security Exhibition & Conference ) a forum hosted by Kenya Security Industry Association, Securi Fast Trainers & Consultants, Fidelity Security Limited at Desmond Tutu Conference Centre, Nairobi Kenya from 4th-5th March, 2010  

  14. Forensic importance of jealousy. (United States)

    Muzinić, Lana; Goreta, Miroslav; Jukić, Vlado; Dordević, Veljko; Koić, Elvira; Herceg, Miroslav


    The aim of the investigation is to define as clearly as possible specific forensic psychiatric characteristics of persons who committed homicide and or attempted due to jealousy (the nature and severity of psychopathology, the level of responsibility, danger for the community, intensity and nature of aggression, the victimologic dimension, the relation of alcohol and jealousy). A retrospective method based on forensic psychiatric expertises in the period 1975-1999 was used. They encompassed 200 examinees that committed murder or attempted it. The results show the connection of psychotic jealousy with the highest degree of danger in diagnostic categories of paranoid psychosis and paranoid schizophrenia. The time span from the first manifestations of jealousy until the actual commitment of a crime is the longest in personality disorders and the shortest in schizophrenia. Exogenous provoking situations were dominant for committing homicide due to jealousy in personality disorders. Acute alcohol intoxication has a specific significance in crime due to jealousy in the same diagnostic category. Clear criteria were designed for forensic psychiatric evaluation of murder and attempts of homicide caused by jealousy, which will be of help in everyday practice in the field forensic work and treatment.

  15. Forensic postmortem computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lundemose, Sissel; Banner, Jytte


    differences. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive in situ PMCT methods for organ measuring, as performed in this study, are not useful tools in forensic pathology. The best method to estimate organ volume is a CT-scan of the eviscerated organ. PMCT-determined CTR seems to be useless for ascertaining cardiomegaly...

  16. Soil Science Forensic Application


    Rēpele, M; Alksne, M


    The forensic potential of soil and geological evidence has been recognized for more than a century, but in the last 15 years these types of evidence have been used much more widely both as an investigative intelligence tool and as evidence in court.

  17. Nuclear Forensics' role in analyzing nuclear trafficking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrnecek, E.; Mayer, K.; Schubert, A.; Wallenius, M.


    Nuclear forensics aims at identifying origin and intended use of nuclear material using information inherent to the nuclear material.The information gathered in nuclear forensics include isotopic composition, elemental composition, impurities and age of the material, macroscopic appearance and microstructure. The information so collected helps to solve criminal cases and put the individuals involved in nuclear trafficking in jails. The information also helps to improve safeguards and physical protection measures at place of theft or diversion to prevent future thefts or diversions.

  18. When forensic odontology met biochemistry: Multidisciplinary approach in forensic human identification. (United States)

    Adserias-Garriga, Joe; Thomas, Christian; Ubelaker, Douglas H; C Zapico, Sara


    When human remains are found, the priority of the investigation is to ascertain the identity of the deceased. A positive identification is a key factor in providing closure for the family of the deceased; it is also required to issue the death certificate and therefore, to settle legal affairs. Moreover, it is difficult for any forensic investigation involving human remains to be solved without the determination of an identity. Therefore, personal identification is necessary for social, legal and forensic reasons. In the last thirty years forensic odontology has experienced an important transformation, from primarily involving occasional dental identification into a broader role, contributing to the determination of the biological profile. In the same way, "DNA fingerprinting" has evolved not only in terms of improving its technology, but also in its application beyond the "classical": helping with the estimation of sex, age and ancestry. As these two forensic disciplines have developed independently, their pathways have crossed several times through human identification operations, especially the ones that require a multidisciplinary approach. Thus, the aim of this review is to describe the contributions of both forensic odontology and molecular biology/biochemistry to human identification, demonstrating how a multidisciplinary approach can lead to a better and more efficient identification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Forensic learning disability nursing skills and competencies: a study of forensic and non-forensic nurses. (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne


    This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.

  20. The New Role of Biomedical Informatics in the Age of Digital Medicine. (United States)

    Martin-Sanchez, Fernando J; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo H


    To reflect on the recent rise of Digital Medicine, as well as to analyse main research opportunities in this area. Through the use of several examples, this article aims to highlight the new role that Biomedical Informatics (BMI) can play to facilitate progress in research fields such as participatory and precision medicine. This paper also examines the potential impact and associated risks for BMI due to the development of digital medicine and other recent trends. Lastly, possible strategies to place BMI in a better position to face these challenges are suggested. The core content of this article is based on a recent invited keynote lecture delivered by one of the authors (Martin-Sanchez) at the Medical Informatics Europe conference (MIE 2015) held in Madrid in May 2015. Both authors (Lopez-Campos and Martin-Sanchez) have collaborated during the last four years in projects such as the ones described in section 3 and have also worked in reviewing relevant articles and initiatives to prepare this talk. Challenges for BMI posed by the rise of technologically driven fields such as Digital Medicine are explored. New opportunities for BMI, in the context of two main avenues for biomedical and clinical research (participatory and precision medicine) are also emphasised. Several examples of current research illustrate that BMI plays a key role in the new area of Digital Medicine. Embracing these opportunities will allow academic groups in BMI to maintain their leadership, identify new research funding opportunities and design new educational programs to train the next generation of BMI scientists.

  1. Unexpected healers: Chinese medicine in the age of global migration (Lima and California, 1850-1930). (United States)

    Palma, Patricia


    The massive waves of Chinese migrants arriving in California and Lima in the second half of the nineteenth century played a crucial role in expanding Chinese medicine in both settings. From the late 1860s on, herbalists expanded their healing system beyond their ethnic community, transforming Chinese medicine into one of the healing practices most widely adopted by the local population. This article uses a comparative approach to examine the diverging trajectories of Chinese healers in Peru and the USA, as well as the social and political factors that determined how this foreign medical knowledge adapted to its new environments.

  2. The Wesselhoefts: A medical dynasty from the age of Goethe to the era of nuclear medicine. (United States)

    Davidson, Jonathan Rt


    For six generations, members of the Wesselhoeft family have practiced medicine in Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, Canada and/or the USA. In the early decades of the 19th century, two Wesselhoeft brothers left Europe to eventually settle in New England, where they and their progeny gave rise to a regional medical dynasty. The Wesselhoeft doctors became well-known practitioners of homeopathy, hydropathy, conventional medicine and surgery, in academic and general clinical settings. An additional connection was established to the literary worlds of Germany and the USA, either through friendships or as personal physicians.

  3. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.


    It may be useful to know if a meteorite was found at the site where it fell. For instance, the polymict ureilites North Haig and Nilpena were found 1100 km apart, yet are petrologically identical [1]. Could this distance represent transport from a single strewn field, or does it represent distinct fall sites? A meteorite may contain sufficient clues to suggest some characteristics of its fall site. If these inferences are inconsistent with the find site, one may infer that the meteorite has been transported. It will likely be impossible to determine the exact fall site of a transported meteorite. Data relevant to a meteorite's fall site may be intrinsic to the meteorite, or acquired at the site. For instance, an intrinsic property is terrestrial residence age (from abundances of cosmogenic radioisotopes and their decay products); a meteorite's terrestrial residence age must be the same or less than that of the surface on which it fell. After falling, a meteorite may acquire characteristic telltales of terrestrial geological, geochemical, and biological processes. These telltale clues may include products of chemical weathering, adhering geological materials, biological organisms living (or once living) on the meteorite, and biological materials adhering to (but never living on) the meteorite. The effects of chemical weathering, present in all but the freshest finds, range from slight rusting to extensive decomposition and veining The ages of weathering materials and veins, as with terrestrial residence ages above, must be less than the age of the fall surface. The mineralogy and chemistry, elemental and isotopic, of weathering materials will differ according to the mineralogy and composition of the meteorite, and the mineralogy, geochemistry, hydrology, and climate of the fall site. Weathering materials may also vary as climate changes and may vary among the microenvironments associated with a meteorite on the Earth's surface. Geological materials (rock, sediment

  4. Importance of electromyography and the electrophysiological severity scale in forensic reports. (United States)

    Bilgin, Nursel Gamsiz; Ozge, Aynur; Mert, Ertan; Yalçinkaya, Deniz E; Kar, Hakan


    Forensic reports on traumatic peripheral nerve injuries include dysfunction degrees of extremities, which are arranged according to the Turkish Penalty Code. The aim of this study is to discuss the role and importance of electromyography while preparing forensic reports in the cases of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries and the usefulness of scoring systems. A modified global scale, recommended by Mondelli et al., was used to assess the electrophysiological impairment of each peripheral nerve. Forensic reports of 106 patients, reported between 2002 and 2004, were evaluated. Thirty-four percent of the cases were reported as "total loss of function," 41.5% were reported as "functional disability," and there were no dysfunctions in the other cases in forensic reports that were prepared based on Council of Social Insurance Regulations of Health Processes and Guide prepared by the Council of Forensic Medicine and profession associations of forensic medicine. When we rearranged these forensic reports based on the electrophysiological severity scale (ESS), it was clearly found that all of the score 2 cases and 86.7% of the score 3 cases corresponded to "functional disability" and 91.4% of the score 4 cases correspond to "total loss of function." We found a significant correlation between the ESS and functional evaluation in peripheral nerve injury cases. Evaluation of functional disabilities in peripheral nerve injuries with the ESS represents a standardized and objective method used for forensic reports.

  5. In vitro determination of the anti-aging potential of four southern Africa medicinal plants: Poster

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlovu, G


    Full Text Available continent are exposed to the harsh sun and rarely use skin protective agents as they are expensive. It is for this reason that four southern African medicinal plants used indigenously as cosmetics agents and/or exhibited good antioxidant activity in previous...

  6. How to Use TCM Informatics to Study Traditional Chinese Medicine in Big Data Age. (United States)

    Shi, Cheng; Gong, Qing-Yue; Zhou, Jinhai


    This paper introduces the characteristics and complexity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) data, considers that modern big data processing technology has brought new opportunities for the research of TCM, and gives some ideas and methods to apply big data technology in TCM.

  7. Forensic Facial Reconstruction: The Final Frontier. (United States)

    Gupta, Sonia; Gupta, Vineeta; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Tyagi, Nutan


    Forensic facial reconstruction can be used to identify unknown human remains when other techniques fail. Through this article, we attempt to review the different methods of facial reconstruction reported in literature. There are several techniques of doing facial reconstruction, which vary from two dimensional drawings to three dimensional clay models. With the advancement in 3D technology, a rapid, efficient and cost effective computerized 3D forensic facial reconstruction method has been developed which has brought down the degree of error previously encountered. There are several methods of manual facial reconstruction but the combination Manchester method has been reported to be the best and most accurate method for the positive recognition of an individual. Recognition allows the involved government agencies to make a list of suspected victims'. This list can then be narrowed down and a positive identification may be given by the more conventional method of forensic medicine. Facial reconstruction allows visual identification by the individual's family and associates to become easy and more definite.

  8. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dry, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Podlesak, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  9. Liforac - A Model For Live Forensic Acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM


    Full Text Available ways in which such an acquisition should take place to ensure forensic soundness. The study presents information on a relatively new field of expertise and considers the Digital Forensic discipline, forensic tools, practical problems experienced during...

  10. Music and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Lippi


    Full Text Available Donatella Lippi1, Paolo Roberti di Sarsina2, John Patrick D’Elios11History of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Health Local Unit, Department of Mental Health, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Healing sounds have always been considered in the past an important aid in medical practice, and nowadays, medicine has confirmed the efficacy of music therapy in many diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the curative power of music, in the frame of the current clinical relationship.Keywords: history of medicine, medical humanities, healing music

  11. The Implementation and Growth of an International Online Forensic Science Graduate Program at the University of Florida (United States)

    Grundmann, Oliver; Wielbo, Donna; Tebbett, Ian


    Forensic science education has evolved as an interdisciplinary science that includes medicine, chemistry, biology, and criminal justice. Therefore, multiple paths can lead to a career in forensic science. A formal education usually requires the student to attend a college or university to obtain a bachelor's or master's degree. In many cases,…

  12. Forensic geotechnical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, GL


    In this edited volume on advances in forensic geotechnical engineering, a number of technical contributions by experts and professionals in this area are included. The work is the outcome of deliberations at various conferences in the area conducted by Prof. G.L. Sivakumar Babu and Dr. V.V.S. Rao as secretary and Chairman of Technical Committee on Forensic Geotechnical Engineering of International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMGE). This volume contains papers on topics such as guidelines, evidence/data collection, distress characterization, use of diagnostic tests (laboratory and field tests), back analysis, failure hypothesis formulation, role of instrumentation and sensor-based technologies, risk analysis, technical shortcomings. This volume will prove useful to researchers and practitioners alike.

  13. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology. (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M


    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.



    Elfadil Sabeil; Azizah Bt Abdul Manaf; Zuraini Ismail; Mohamed Abas


    Lack of Cyber Forensics experts is a huge challenge facing the world today. It comes due to the fancy of Cyber Forensics training or education. The multidisciplinary nature of Cyber Forensics proliferates to diverse training programmes, from a handful day‟s workshop to Postgraduate in Cyber Forensics. Consequently, this paper concentrates on analyzing the Cyber Forensics training programmes in terms of Competency-Based Framework. The study proves that Cyber Forensics training or education h...

  15. Technical and legal perspectives on forensics scenario


    Solinas, Fabrizio


    The dissertation concerns digital forensic. The expression digital forensic (sometimes called digital forensic science) is the science that studies the identification, storage, protection, retrieval, documentation, use, and every other form of computer data processing in order to be evaluated in a legal trial. Digital forensic is a branch of forensic science. First of all, digital forensic represents the extension of theories, principles and procedures that are typical and importa...

  16. Forensic implications of rape


    Novaković Milan


    Introduction. Rape is a sexual act of violence in which physical strength is used. Criminal law imposes strict punishments for such crimes as rape. Psycho-pathologically, rape is among the gravest of crimes, often associated with extremely deviated behavior. This article deals with the forensic aspects of sexual violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2000-2004. We report about sexual assaults, personality of delinquents, motives and consequences of rape. Material and Methods. T...

  17. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.


    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  18. Dementia and cognitive disorder identified at a forensic psychiatric examination - a study from Sweden. (United States)

    Ekström, Anette; Kristiansson, Marianne; Björkstén, Karin Sparring


    Few studies have addressed the relationship between dementia and crime. We conducted a study of persons who got a primary or secondary diagnosis of dementia or cognitive disorder in a forensic psychiatric examination. In Sweden, annually about 500 forensic psychiatric examinations are carried out. All cases from 2008 to 2010 with the diagnoses dementia or cognitive disorder were selected from the database of the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. Out of 1471 cases, there were 54 cases of dementia or cognitive disorder. Case files were scrutinized and 17 cases of dementia and 4 cases of cognitive disorder likely to get a dementia diagnosis in a clinical setting were identified and further studied. There were 18 men and 3 women; Median age 66 (n = 21; Range 35-77) years of age. Eleven men but no women had a previous criminal record. There were a total of 38 crimes, mostly violent, committed by the 21 persons. The crimes were of impulsive rather that pre-meditated character. According to the forensic psychiatric diagnoses, dementia was caused by cerebrovascular disorder (n = 4), alcohol or substance abuse (n = 3), cerebral haemorrhage and alcohol (n = 1), head trauma and alcohol (n = 2), Alzheimer's disease (n = 2), Parkinson's disease (n = 1), herpes encephalitis (n = 1) and unspecified (3). Out of four persons diagnosed with cognitive disorder, one also had delusional disorder and another one psychotic disorder and alcohol dependence. An alcohol-related diagnosis was established in ten cases. There were only two cases of Dementia of Alzheimer's type, one of whom also had alcohol intoxication. None was diagnosed with a personality disorder. All but one had a history of somatic or psychiatric comorbidity like head traumas, stroke, other cardio-vascular disorders, epilepsy, depression, psychotic disorders and suicide attempts. In this very ill group, the suggested verdict was probation in one case and different forms of care in the remaining

  19. Epilepsy in popular Medicine from the Classic Age to the Modern Age: a study on elk hoof as an original treatment. (United States)

    Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna


    European people believed that epilepsy was both a sacred and demoniac disease in the pre- and post-Hippocratic Age, and this belief continued into the Christian era. Epilepsy was wrapped in mystery. The present work shows an epileptic treatment using elk (Alces alces) hoof, which was better known among Northern European people, and explains its historical and popular origins that lead to its importance and success within the Official Medicine in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries until its gradual decline as a specific treatment in the subsequent centuries. We study authors from both Antiquity and the Modern Age. The present work concludes by highlighting the relationship between epilepsy and its magic-religious inheritance. It could be considered a valid example showing how a popular treatment can earn honors in the Official Pharmacopoeia, but later be excluded.

  20. DNS in Computer Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Fowler Wright


    Full Text Available The Domain Name Service (DNS is a critical core component of the global Internet and integral to the majority of corporate intranets. It provides resolution services between the human-readable name-based system addresses and the machine operable Internet Protocol (IP based addresses required for creating network level connections. Whilst structured as a globally dispersed resilient tree data structure, from the Global and Country Code Top Level Domains (gTLD/ccTLD down to the individual site and system leaf nodes, it is highly resilient although vulnerable to various attacks, exploits and systematic failures. This paper examines the history along with the rapid growth of DNS up to its current critical status. It then explores the often overlooked value of DNS query data; from packet traces, DNS cache data, and DNS logs, with its use in System Forensics and more frequently in Network Forensics, extrapolating examples and experiments that enhance knowledge.Continuing on, it details the common attacks that can be used directly against the DNS systems and services, before following on with the malicious uses of DNS in direct system attacks, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS, traditional Denial of Service (DOS attacks and malware. It explores both cyber-criminal activities and cyber-warfare based attacks, and also extrapolates from a number of more recent attacks the possible methods for data exfiltration. It explores some of the potential analytical methodologies including; common uses in Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, as well as infection and activity tracking in malware traffic analysis, and covers some of the associated methods around technology designed to defend against, mitigate, and/or manage these and other risks, plus the effect that ISP and nation states can have by direct manipulation of DNS queries and return traffic.This paper also investigates potential behavioural analysis and time-lining, which can then be used for the

  1. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: Broadening DNA investigative intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vidaki (Athina); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)


    textabstractHuman genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We

  2. Statistical analysis of biomechanical properties of the adult skull and age-related structural changes by sex in a Japanese forensic sample. (United States)

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Takano, Tachio; Koizumi, Yoshinori; Makino, Yohsuke; Yajima, Daisuke; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Otsuka, Katsura; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Odo, Yuriko; Iwase, Hirotaro


    The purpose of this research was to investigate the biomechanical properties of the adult human skull and the structural changes that occur with age in both sexes. The heads of 94 Japanese cadavers (54 male cadavers, 40 female cadavers) autopsied in our department were used in this research. A total of 376 cranial samples, four from each skull, were collected. Sample fracture load was measured by a bending test. A statistically significant negative correlation between the sample fracture load and cadaver age was found. This indicates that the stiffness of cranial bones in Japanese individuals decreases with age, and the risk of skull fracture thus probably increases with age. Prior to the bending test, the sample mass, the sample thickness, the ratio of the sample thickness to cadaver stature (ST/CS), and the sample density were measured and calculated. Significant negative correlations between cadaver age and sample thickness, ST/CS, and the sample density were observed only among the female samples. Computerized tomographic (CT) images of 358 cranial samples were available. The computed tomography value (CT value) of cancellous bone which refers to a quantitative scale for describing radiodensity, cancellous bone thickness and cortical bone thickness were measured and calculated. Significant negative correlation between cadaver age and the CT value or cortical bone thickness was observed only among the female samples. These findings suggest that the skull is substantially affected by decreased bone metabolism resulting from osteoporosis. Therefore, osteoporosis prevention and treatment may increase cranial stiffness and reinforce the skull structure, leading to a decrease in the risk of skull fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of three cardiovascular nuclear medicine procedures for the study of ischemic heart disease in the aged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iio, M.; Nakai, K.; Murata, H.


    Three recent developments of cardiovascular nuclear medicine procedures were evaluated for the study of ischemic heart diseases in the aged. Regional analysis and global analysis was possible by the gated pool method and Tl-201 scanning. The temporal imaging method, even though limited to global function, was proven to be suitable for the dynamic analysis of the ejection fraction at rest and at stress. Therefore combination of these three procedures made it possible to analyse both regional and global functions of the left ventricle of the patient with IHD without any load on the patient and even under physiological conditions. (Auth.)

  4. New perspectives in forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A


    A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field.

  5. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective. (United States)

    Oakley, Kate


    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  6. Orthomolecular medicine: the therapeutic use of dietary supplements for anti-aging. (United States)

    Janson, Michael


    Dietary supplements at high doses as part of medical therapy have been controversial, but the evidence suggests that they play a significant role in prevention and treatment of diseases as well as protection from accelerated aging that results from oxygen free-radical damage, inflammation, and glycation. This literature review examines several supplements that have documented roles in medical therapy, including vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, L-carnitine, and quercetin. The evidence shows benefits in diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, age-related deterioration of brain function and vision, and immune function, as well as other age-related health problems.

  7. Towards automatic forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our

  8. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan


    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is

  9. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.


    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  10. Risk Factors for Fatal Hyperglycaemia Confirmed by Forensic Postmortem Examination - A Nationwide Cohort in Sweden (United States)

    Walz, Lotta; Jönsson, Anna K.; Zilg, Brita; Östgren, Carl Johan; Druid, Henrik


    Aims/Hypothesis The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. Methods A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem. The forensic findings stored in the National Forensic Medicine Database were linked to nationwide registers. Cases that died due to confirmed hyperglycemia with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were identified and living controls with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were randomly selected in the Swedish prescribed drug register and matched on age and sex. Information on comorbidities, dispensed pharmaceuticals, clinical data and socioeconomic factors were obtained for cases and controls. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors associated with fatal hyperglycaemia. Results During the study period 322 individuals, mostly males (79%) with the mean age of 53.9 years (SD.± 14) died due to confirmed hyperglycaemia. Risk factors for fatal hyperglycaemia included; insulin treatment (OR = 4.40; 95%CI,1.96, 9.85), poor glycaemic control (OR = 2.00 95%CI,1.23, 3.27), inadequate refill-adherence before death (OR = 3.87; 95%CI,1.99, 7.53), microvascular disease (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.84, 5.79), psychiatric illness (OR = 2.30; 95% CI,1.32, 4.01), substance abuse (OR = 8.85; 95%CI,2.34, 35.0) and/or living alone (OR = 2.25; 95%CI,1.21, 4.18). Conclusions/Interpretation Our results demonstrate the importance of clinical attention to poor glycaemic control in subjects with psychosocial problems since it may indicate serious non-adherence, which consequently could lead to fatal hyperglycaemia. PMID:27768720

  11. HOMED-homicides eastern Denmark: an introduction to a forensic medical homicide database. (United States)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels; Theilade, Peter


    An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because of a medico-legal homicide autopsy rate close to 100%. Regional differences might exist however, due to the fact that the catchment area of the department is dominated by the city of Copenhagen. The strength of the database includes a long running time, near complete regional coverage and an exhaustive list of registered variables it is useful for research purposes, although specific data limitations apply. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. Systems medicine approaches for the definition of complex phenotypes in chronic diseases and ageing. From concept to implementation and policies. (United States)

    Bousquet, Jean; Jorgensen, Christian; Dauzat, Michel; Cesario, Alfredo; Camuzat, Thierry; Bourret, Rodolphe; Best, Nicolas; Anto, Josep M; Abecassis, Frederic; Aubas, Pierre; Avignon, Antoine; Badin, Melanie; Bedbrook, Anna; Blain, Hubert; Bourdin, Arnaud; Bringer, Jacques; Camu, William; Cayla, Guilhaume; Costa, David J; Courtet, Philippe; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Demoly, Pascal; de la Coussaye, Jean-Emmanuel; Fesler, Pierre; Gouzi, Fares; Gris, Jean-Christophe; Guillot, Bernard; Hayot, Maurice; Jeandel, Claude; Jonquet, Olivier; Journot, Laurent; Lehmann, Sylvain; Mathieu, Gwenaelle; Morel, Jacques; Ninot, Gregory; Pelissier, Jacques; Picot, Marie-Christine; Radier-Pontal, Francoise; Robine, Jean-Marie; Rodier, Michel; Roubille, Francois; Sultan, Ariane; Wojtusciszyn, Anne; Auffray, Charles; Balling, Rudi; Barbara, Cristina; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Chavannes, Niels H; Chuchalin, Alexander; Crooks, George; Dedeu, Antoni; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Hajjam, Jawad; Melo Gomes, Elisabete; Palkonen, Susana; Piette, Francois; Pison, Christophe; Price, David; Samolinski, Boleslaw; Schunemann, Holger J; Sterk, Peter J; Yiallouros, Panayiotis; Roca, Josep; Van de Perre, Philippe; Mercier, Jacques


    Chronic diseases are diseases of long duration and slow progression. Major NCDs (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, rheumatologic diseases and mental health) represent the predominant health problem of the Century. The prevention and control of NCDs are the priority of the World Health Organization 2008 Action Plan, the United Nations 2010 Resolution and the European Union 2010 Council. The novel trend for the management of NCDs is evolving towards integrative, holistic approaches. NCDs are intertwined with ageing. The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) has prioritised NCDs. To tackle them in their totality in order to reduce their burden and societal impact, it is proposed that NCDs should be considered as a single expression of disease with different risk factors and entities. An innovative integrated health system built around systems medicine and strategic partnerships is proposed to combat NCDs. It includes (i) understanding the social, economic, environmental, genetic determinants, as well as the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying NCDs; (ii) primary care and practice-based interprofessional collaboration; (iii) carefully phenotyped patients; (iv) development of unbiased and accurate biomarkers for comorbidities, severity and follow up of patients; (v) socio-economic science; (vi) development of guidelines; (vii) training; and (viii) policy decisions. The results could be applicable to all countries and adapted to local needs, economy and health systems. This paper reviews the complexity of NCDs intertwined with ageing. It gives an overview of the problem and proposes two practical examples of systems medicine (MeDALL) applied to allergy and to NCD co-morbidities (MACVIA-LR, Reference Site of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing).

  13. Analysis - what is legal medicine? (United States)

    Beran, Roy G


    Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right.

  14. Computer forensics with FTK

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Fernando


    This tutorial contains detailed instructions with useful integrated examples that help you understand the main features of FTK and how you can use it to analyze evidence. This book has clear and concise guidance in an easily accessible format.This tutorial-based guide is great for you if you want to conduct digital investigations with an integrated platform. Whether you are new to Computer Forensics or have some experience, this book will help you get started with FTK so you can analyze evidence effectively and efficiently. If you are a law enforcement official, corporate security, or IT profe

  15. Forensic applications of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Ernesto N.


    Science and the law are considered to be the two main shaping forces in modern societies. The Regional Seminars on Forensic Physics are organized by (mostly CNEA) scientists in Bariloche with a twofold purpose: to increase the participation of researchers as experts witnesses in the solution of legal problems, and to make judges aware of facilities and techniques that might prove useful. Some of the contributions to the last seminar are discussed, ranging from the numerical simulation of mayor explosions to the behavior of snow avalanches, and from the proper control of a trace laboratory to the distribution of words in the plays of Shakespeare. (author)

  16. Defining a Forensic Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson G. Smith


    Full Text Available Disclosures about new financial frauds and scandals are continually appearing in the press.  As a consequence, the accounting profession's traditional methods of monitoring corporate financial activities are under intense scrutiny.  At the same time, there is recognition that principles-based GAAP from the International Accounting Standards Board will become the recognized standard in the U.S.  The authors argue that these two factors will change the practices used to fight corporate malfeasance as investigators adapt the techniques of accounting into a forensic audit engagement model.

  17. Pharmacogenetics and forensic toxicology. (United States)

    Musshoff, Frank; Stamer, Ulrike M; Madea, Burkhard


    Large inter-individual variability in drug response and toxicity, as well as in drug concentrations after application of the same dosage, can be of genetic, physiological, pathophysiological, or environmental origin. Absorption, distribution and metabolism of a drug and interactions with its target often are determined by genetic differences. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variations can appear at the level of drug metabolizing enzymes (e.g., the cytochrome P450 system), drug transporters, drug targets or other biomarker genes. Pharmacogenetics or toxicogenetics can therefore be relevant in forensic toxicology. This review presents relevant aspects together with some examples from daily routines. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Forensic Memories: After Testimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøndergaard, Johanne Helbo


    of writing that might in fact come “after” testimony. In this paper I attempt to describe a mode of writing in contemporary literature on memory and history, which allows later generations to address historical events to which they did not bear witness, challenging the testimonial mode while bearing its...... strategies and strengths in mind - “after” in both senses of the word. The central argument is that just as the legal concept of testimony was introduced into the cultural sphere to describe a particular genre or mode of writing, the legal concept of forensics will serve as a useful term for describing...

  19. An erroneous opinion on a cause of death in a forensic autopsy: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The quality of autopsies is always questioned in courts, especially in developing countries. Wrong decisions or misjudgments are undesirable in medicine, but they are very dangerous in forensic medicine. If a wrong opinion is given, either a culprit can be acquitted or an innocent person can be sentenced.

  20. Age, chronic non-communicable disease and choice of traditional Chinese and western medicine outpatient services in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeoh Eng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 Hong Kong reunified with China and the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM started with this change in national identity. However, the two latest discussion papers on Hong Kong's healthcare reform have failed to mention the role of TCM in primary healthcare, despite TCM's public popularity and its potential in tackling the chronic non-communicable disease (NCD challenge in the ageing population. This study aims to describe the interrelationship between age, non-communicable disease (NCD status, and the choice of TCM and western medicine (WM services in the Hong Kong population. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the Thematic Household Survey (THS 2005 dataset. The THS is a Hong Kong population representative face to face survey was conducted by the Hong Kong Administrative Region Government of China. A random sample of respondents aged >15 years were invited to report their use of TCM and WM in the past year, together with other health and demographic information. A total of 33,263 persons were interviewed (response rate 79.2%. Results Amongst those who received outpatient services in the past year (n = 18,087, 80.23% only visited WM doctors, 3.17% consulted TCM practitioners solely, and 16.60% used both type of services (double consulters. Compared to those who only consulted WM doctor, multinomial logistic regression showed that double consulters were more likely to be older, female, NCD patients, and have higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Further analysis showed that the association between age and double consulting was curvilinear (inverted U shaped regardless of NCD status. Middle aged (45-60 years NCD patients, and the NCD free "young old" group (60-75 years were most likely to double consult. On the other hand, the relationship between age and use of TCM as an alternative to WM was linear regardless of NCD status. The NCD free segment of the population was more inclined to use TCM alone

  1. The approach of prehospital health care personnel working at emergency stations towards forensic cases


    Ozlem Asci; Guleser Hazar; Isa Sercan


    Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the states of health care personnel, working at 112 emergency stations in the province of Artvin, to encounter with regarding forensic cases and determine their practices aimed at recognizing, protecting, and reporting the evidences that may affect the forensic process. Materials and methods: This descriptive study was conducted with nurses and emergency medicine technicians working at 112 emergency stations in Artvin between January 201...

  2. Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science. (United States)

    Cole, Simon A


    This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Forensic age assessment by 3.0T MRI of the knee: proposal of a new MRI classification of ossification stages. (United States)

    Vieth, Volker; Schulz, Ronald; Heindel, Walter; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Buerke, Boris; Schmeling, Andreas; Ottow, Christian


    To explore the possibility of determining majority via a morphology-based examination of the epiphyseal-diaphyseal fusion by 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a prospective cross-sectional study developing and applying a new stage classification was conducted. 344 male and 350 female volunteers of German nationality between the ages of 12-24 years were scanned between May 2013 and June 2015. A 3.0 T MRI scanner was used, acquiring a T1-weighted (T1-w) turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE) and a T2-weighted (T2-w) TSE sequence with fat suppression by spectral pre-saturation with inversion recovery (SPIR). The gathered information was sifted and a five-stage classification was formulated as a hypothesis. The images were then assessed using this classification. The relevant statistics were defined, the intra- and interobserver agreements were determined, and the differences between the sexes were analysed. The application of the new classification made it possible to correctly assess majority in both sexes by the examination of the epiphyses of the knee joint. The intra- and interobserver agreement levels were very good (κ > 0.80). The Mann-Whitney-U Test implied significant sex-related differences for most stages. Applying the presented MRI classification, it is possible to determine the completion of the 18th year of life in either sex by 3.0 T MRI of the knee joint. • Based on prospective referential data a new MRI classification was formulated. • The setting allows assessment of the age of an individual's skeletal development. • The classification scheme allows the reliable determination of majority in both sexes. • The staging shows a high reproducibility for instructed and trained professional personnel. • The proposed classification is likely to be adaptable to other long bone epiphyses.

  4. [Advantages of combined therapies in cosmetic medicine for the treatment of face aging: botulinum toxin, fillers and mesotherapy]. (United States)

    Braccini, F; Dohan Ehrenfest, D M


    Non surgical cosmetic medicine procedures for the face are developing considerably, as they deliver good results using simple, non invasive, atraumatic and reproducible techniques. Aesthetic mesotherapy, also known as anti-aging mesotherapy, uses intra-dermal injections of a nutritive and moisturizing solution to improve brightness, skin hydration and tonus, and also smooth out superficial wrinkles. Subcutaneous filler injections enable to fill wrinkles and folds; by using high density products it is also able to provide genuine facial volumetric reconstruction. Finally, botulinum toxin acts by reducing certain muscle contractions to smooth out expression lines and folds induced by facial dynamics. In this article, we explore the concept of combined therapy and describe our experience associating anti-aging mesotherapy (NCTF-135HA, Filorga, Paris, France), hyaluronic acid based fillers (X-HA3 and X-HA-Volume, Filorga, Paris, France) and botulinum toxin (Vistabel, Allergan, Irvine CA, USA). A therapy combining anti-aging mesotherapy, botulinum toxin and filler injections, offers full treatment of the 3 biological levels of the covering tissues. This non-invasive therapeutic strategy brings patient satisfaction through a global approach to facial aging.

  5. Nanoparticles in forensic science (United States)

    Cantu, Antonio A.


    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  6. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy


    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  7. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  8. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.


    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  9. Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry


    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO 2 (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO 2+x . Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxides materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, process history, or transport of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science required to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensics science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  10. The state of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.


    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  11. The state of nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristo, Michael J. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-186, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Tumey, Scott J., E-mail: [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-397, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)


    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  12. Police aspects of the forensic methods of the study of percentage of water content of the determine the age of the frescoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Vojkan M.


    Full Text Available The novels of the Criminal Procedure Code (CPC Republic of Serbia have introduced the concept of prosecutorial investigation in relation to that of evidence, special evidentiary actions and other software for the operation of the criminal prosecution. The meaning of novels is to conduct harmonization of standards with solutions of modern criminal law practice, particularly with regard to EU standards Serbia applying for membership in the Union. Preventing the most serious forms of crime is the focus of authorized bodies Serbia and in this context combating and preventing all forms of forgery, as is the case with forgeries frescoes and selling them on the world market. In exposed paper the method determining age of the frescoes is proposed. It is based on the use of closed Markov’s graphs with three cells. The measurements of contents of water molecules in surrounding area can be done only for the space in which the frescoes is located. This means that followed exposed method is non destructive.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34019

  13. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells: a new approach to anti-aging medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Amit N


    Full Text Available Abstract Endothelial dysfunction is associated with major causes of morbidity and mortality, as well as numerous age-related conditions. The possibility of preserving or even rejuvenating endothelial function offers a potent means of preventing/treating some of the most fearful aspects of aging such as loss of mental, cardiovascular, and sexual function. Endothelial precursor cells (EPC provide a continual source of replenishment for damaged or senescent blood vessels. In this review we discuss the biological relevance of circulating EPC in a variety of pathologies in order to build the case that these cells act as an endogenous mechanism of regeneration. Factors controlling EPC mobilization, migration, and function, as well as therapeutic interventions based on mobilization of EPC will be reviewed. We conclude by discussing several clinically-relevant approaches to EPC mobilization and provide preliminary data on a food supplement, Stem-Kine, which enhanced EPC mobilization in human subjects.

  14. Orthomolecular medicine: the therapeutic use of dietary supplements for anti-aging


    Janson, Michael


    Dietary supplements at high doses as part of medical therapy have been controversial, but the evidence suggests that they play a significant role in prevention and treatment of diseases as well as protection from accelerated aging that results from oxygen free-radical damage, inflammation, and glycation. This literature review examines several supplements that have documented roles in medical therapy, including vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, L-carnitine, and quer...

  15. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing. (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistical basis for positive identification in forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe; Adams, Bradley J; Konigsberg, Lyle W


    Forensic scientists are often expected to present the likelihood of DNA identifications in US courts based on comparative population data, yet forensic anthropologists tend not to quantify the strength of an osteological identification. Because forensic anthropologists are trained first and foremost as physical anthropologists, they emphasize estimation problems at the expense of evidentiary problems, but this approach must be reexamined. In this paper, the statistical bases for presenting osteological and dental evidence are outlined, using a forensic case as a motivating example. A brief overview of Bayesian statistics is provided, and methods to calculate likelihood ratios for five aspects of the biological profile are demonstrated. This paper emphasizes the definition of appropriate reference samples and of the "population at large," and points out the conceptual differences between them. Several databases are introduced for both reference information and to characterize the "population at large," and new data are compiled to calculate the frequency of specific characters, such as age or fractures, within the "population at large." Despite small individual likelihood ratios for age, sex, and stature in the case example, the power of this approach is that, assuming each likelihood ratio is independent, the product rule can be applied. In this particular example, it is over three million times more likely to obtain the observed osteological and dental data if the identification is correct than if the identification is incorrect. This likelihood ratio is a convincing statistic that can support the forensic anthropologist's opinion on personal identity in court. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Computer Forensics JumpStart

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Michael G; Tittel, Ed; Broom, Neil; Barrett, Diane


    Essential reading for launching a career in computer forensicsInternet crime is on the rise, catapulting the need for computer forensics specialists. This new edition presents you with a completely updated overview of the basic skills that are required as a computer forensics professional. The author team of technology security veterans introduces the latest software and tools that exist and they review the available certifications in this growing segment of IT that can help take your career to a new level. A variety of real-world practices take you behind the scenes to look at the root causes

  18. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists. (United States)

    Gaensslen, Robert E.


    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  19. [The efficiency of the application of the modern computed technologies in the clinical practice and the prospects for the further use of the biomechanical 3D-models in forensic medicine]. (United States)

    Makarov, I Yu; Svetlakov, A V; Sotin, A V; Shigeev, S V; Gusarov, A A; Smirenin, S A; Emelin, V V; Stragis, V B; Fetisov, V A


    To-day, the computer-assisted 3D-technologies for the mathematical simulation of the engineering facilities are extensively used for the purpose of technical calculations in all branches of industry and building. The positive experience gained with the application of the 3D-models finds wide application in the joined investigations on the topical problems of the prosthetic and surgical treatment of bones, teeth, joints, cardiac valves, blood vessels, etc. The objective of the present study was the analysis of the positive experience with the involvement of the specialists in the design and practical application of 3D-models for the solution of problems facing the medical prosthetics and the management of various pathological conditions. Another objective was to discuss the possible prospects for the interdisciplinary collaboration in these fields with a view to improving the quality of expert conclusions in the framework of forensic medical and criminalistics examinations. The data readily available from the official domestic and foreign Internet resources were used for the purpose of the study. The analysis of the published data has demonstrated the obvious advantages of the application of the mathematical 3D-models and the biomechanical studies for the solution of the concrete medico-biological problems. The currently available positive experience gained due to the participation of domestic specialists in biomechanics in the solution of the specific clinical problems gives hope that their collaboration between themselves and with the forensic medical experts will open up the promising prospects for the further investigations of the issues of common interest.

  20. Pediatric medicolegal autopsy in France: A forensic histopathological approach. (United States)

    Delteil, Clémence; Tuchtan, Lucile; Torrents, Julia; Capuani, Caroline; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique


    The aim of postmortem medicolegal examination in pediatric death is primarily to establish the circumstances and causes of death and to exclude child abuse. In France, pediatric death is systematically documented by medicolegal or medical autopsy. In case of medicolegal autopsy, the complementary examinations, requested and financed by justice, are rarely limited to a histopathological examination. However in medical autopsies other tools are available to the pathologist as toxicology, biochemistry and molecular biology. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the efficacy of forensic histopathology in pediatric forensic autopsies. We analyze the main causes of pediatric death in a forensic context. Between 2004 and 2015, 157 infant deaths were identified in Marseille university hospital. The forensic histopathology and autopsy reports of all 157 cases were available for systematic review. Medical or surgical causes represented 41,3% of deaths in our center, accidental causes 8.1% and child abuse 28,8%. The definitive diagnosis was made at autopsy in 30% of cases and at histopathological examination in 70% highlighting that forensic histopathology is an indispensable tool in pediatric medicolegal autopsies. Significant histological abnormalities may be detected in selected organs such as the brain, lungs, heart, liver, adrenal glands and kidneys in spite of macroscopically normal appearances. This justifies systematic sampling of all organs. Despite the implementation of the French sudden infant death protocol which recommends medical autopsies, too many pediatric autopsies are carried out in a medicolegal context. 30% of the cases remain without diagnosis at the end of the autopsy and histological examination. This number could be reduced by the contribution of others laboratory investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Biosensors in forensic sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederickx, C.


    Full Text Available A biosensor is a device that uses biological materials to detect and monitor the presence of specific chemicals in an area. Traditional methods of volatile detection used by law enforcement agencies and rescue teams typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. This concept of using dogs to detect specific substances is quite old. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. Thus, the possibility of using other organisms as biosensors including rats, dolphins, honeybees, and parasitic wasps for detecting explosives, narcotics and cadavers has been developed. Insects have several advantages unshared by mammals. Insects are sensitive, cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical-detection task. Moreover, insects might be a preferred sensing method in scenarios that are deemed too dangerous to use mammals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the biosensors used in forensic sciences.

  2. Professional convergence in forensic practice. (United States)

    Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J


    This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.

  3. Forensic historiography: narratives and science. (United States)

    Drukteinis, Albert M


    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  4. Forensic Science--A Proposal (United States)

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.


    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  5. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M


    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  6. [Continuous challenges in Japanese forensic toxicology practice: strategy to address specific goals]. (United States)

    Kageura, Mitsuyoshi


    In this paper, the status quo of forensic toxicology in Japan and the West is surveyed and a strategy to address future goals of Japanese forensic toxicology is proposed. Forensic toxicology in the West consists of three main areas--post-mortem forensic toxicology, human-performance forensic toxicology and forensic urine drug testing. In Japan, post-mortem forensic toxicology is practiced in university forensic medicine departments while most of the human-performance forensic toxicology is carried out in police laboratories. However, at least at present, strictly controlled workplace urine drug testing is not being performed, despite the abuse of drugs even by uniformed members of the National Defence Forces and police. For several years, the author has been introducing Western forensic toxicology guidelines and recommendations, translated into Japanese with the help of Western forensic toxicologists, to Japanese forensic toxicologists. Western forensic toxicology practice is at an advanced stage, whereas Japanese practice is in a critical condition and holds many problems awaiting solution, as exemplified by the urine drug testing in police laboratories. There is never any sample left for re-examination by the defence in all cases, though the initial volume of the urine sample available for examination is 30-50 ml. Only one organisation carries out everything from sampling to reporting and, in addition, the parent drug and its metabolites are not quantified. It is clear that the police laboratories do not work within good laboratory practice guidelines, nor do they have quality manuals or standard operating procedures manuals. A basic change in Japanese forensic toxicology practice is now essential. The author strongly recommends that, first of all, Japanese toxicologists should prepare forensic toxicology guidelines based on the Western models. The guidelines would progress the following objectives for forensic toxicology laboratories: 1) to have documented good

  7. Parasites in Forensic Science: a historic perspective (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    Parasites show a great potential to Forensic Science. Forensic Science is the application of any science and methodology to the legal system. The forensic scientist collects and analyses the physical evidence and produce a report of the results to the court. A parasite is an organism that lives at the expense of another and they exist in any ecosystem. Parasites are the cause of many important diseases. The forensic scientists can use the parasites to identify a crime scene, to determine the murder weapon or simply identify an individual. The applications for parasites in the Forensic Science can be many and more studies should be made in Forensic Parasitology. The most important parasites in Forensic Science are helminths specifically schistosomes. Through history there are many cases where schistosomes were described in autopsies and it was related to the cause of death. Here we review the applications of parasites in Forensic Science and its importance to the forensic scientist.

  8. Forensic hash for multimedia information (United States)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min


    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  9. Virtopsy: An integration of forensic science and imageology. (United States)

    Joseph, T Isaac; Girish, K L; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Kiran, M Shashi; Vidya, S


    In an era where noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques are heralding medical innovations and health science technology, necrological analysis is not bereft of this wave. Virtopsy is virtual autopsy. It is a new-age complimentary documentation approach to identify and analyze the details of demise. Utilizing virtual autopsy for orofacial forensic examination is an emerging specialty which holds a plethora of potential for future trends in forensic science. Being a noninvasive technique, it is a rapid method which facilitates the medicolegal process and aids in the delivery of justice. The present article is an overview of this emerging methodology.


    Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M; Sharma, Sanjay; Stein, Joshua D; Roth, Zachary; Campanella, Joseph; Beauchamp, George R


    Purpose To assess the quality-of-life loss and the macroeconomic financial consequences associated with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Methods Time tradeoff utility analysis was performed to assess the quality-of-life diminution caused by ARMD (both dry and neovascular) in cohorts consisting of (1) patients with ARMD, (2) ophthalmologists asked to assume they had various degrees of severity of ARMD, (3) healthcare providers asked to assume they had various degrees of severity of ARMD, and (4) participants from the general community asked to assume they had various degrees of severity of ARMD. ARMD was classified according to vision in the better-seeing eye as (1) mild: 20/20 to 20/40, (2) moderate: 20/50 to 20/100, (3) severe: ≤ 20/200, or (4) very severe: ≤ 20/800. Results Mild ARMD caused a 17% decrement in the quality of life of the average patient, similar to that encountered with moderate cardiac angina or symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus syndrome. Moderate ARMD caused a 32% decrease in the average patient’s quality of life, similar to that associated with severe cardiac angina or a fractured hip. Severe ARMD caused a 53% decrease in quality, more than that of dialysis, and very severe ARMD caused a 60% decrease in the average ARMD patient’s quality of life, similar to that encountered with end-stage prostate cancer or a catastrophic stroke that leaves a person bedridden, incontinent, and requiring constant nursing care. Patients with varying degrees of severity of ARMD were found to have quality-of-life impairment ranging from 96% to 750% greater than that estimated by treating ophthalmologists for the same condition. An economic analysis based upon losses to the gross domestic product suggests that ARMD has approximately a $30 billion annual negative impact. The return on investment is therefore potentially high for both treatment with current ARMD therapies and the research costs invested in the development of new ARMD treatment

  11. Forensic pharmacology: An important and evolving subspecialty needs recognition in India (United States)

    Malve, Harshad Onkarrao


    With training in pharmacology, a pharmacologist has an expert knowledge as well as working experience in the subjects of therapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology along with exposure to subjects such as forensic medicine during the medical education. All these knowledge domains can be applied and act as an interface to the forensic situations. The skills and expertise of a forensic pharmacologist can be useful in a large and diverse number of legal cases. With an ever increasing incidence of criminal and civil cases in India, the development and inclusion of forensic pharmacologist in the judicial system of India are the need of the hour. The research in pharmacology has witnessed great technological advancement that allows it to expand its scope beyond the domain of therapeutics, thus enabling Indian pharmacologists to explore the niche area of Forensic Pharmacology. Differing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in living and dead, drug interactions, abuse of drugs, personal injury or death due to drug exposure leading to medico-legal issues, environmental exposure to chemicals, and doping and forensic pharmacovigilance are the diverse aspects of Forensic Pharmacology. PMID:27134459

  12. Forensic pharmacology: An important and evolving subspecialty needs recognition in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Onkarrao Malve


    Full Text Available With training in pharmacology, a pharmacologist has an expert knowledge as well as working experience in the subjects of therapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology along with exposure to subjects such as forensic medicine during the medical education. All these knowledge domains can be applied and act as an interface to the forensic situations. The skills and expertise of a forensic pharmacologist can be useful in a large and diverse number of legal cases. With an ever increasing incidence of criminal and civil cases in India, the development and inclusion of forensic pharmacologist in the judicial system of India are the need of the hour. The research in pharmacology has witnessed great technological advancement that allows it to expand its scope beyond the domain of therapeutics, thus enabling Indian pharmacologists to explore the niche area of Forensic Pharmacology. Differing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in living and dead, drug interactions, abuse of drugs, personal injury or death due to drug exposure leading to medico-legal issues, environmental exposure to chemicals, and doping and forensic pharmacovigilance are the diverse aspects of Forensic Pharmacology.

  13. Use of images for human identification in forensic dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Suzana Papile Maciel; Lopes-Junior, Cesar; Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves da; Peres, Arsenio Sales


    The present systematic review article is aimed at describing radiological methods utilized for human identification in forensic dentistry. For this purpose, a literature review was undertaken, and out of 45 papers, 19 were selected in accordance with inclusion criteria. Several radiological techniques can be used to assist in both individual and general identification, including determination of gender, ethnic group and, mainly, age. The analysis of ante-mortem and post-mortem radiographic and tomographic images has become an essential tool for human identification in forensic dentistry, particularly with the refinement of techniques resulting from developments in the field of the radiology itself as well as the incorporation of information technology resources to the technique. It can be concluded that, based on an appropriate knowledge on the available methods, forensic dentists can choose the best method to achieve a successful identification with a careful application of the technique and accurate interpretation of data. (author)

  14. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from evidence material for investigative leads (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Soong Deok; Shin, Kyoung-Jin


    DNA methylation is emerging as an attractive marker providing investigative leads to solve crimes in forensic genetics. The identification of body fluids that utilizes tissue-specific DNA methylation can contribute to solving crimes by predicting activity related to the evidence material. The age estimation based on DNA methylation is expected to reduce the number of potential suspects, when the DNA profile from the evidence does not match with any known person, including those stored in the forensic database. Moreover, the variation in DNA implicates environmental exposure, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, thereby suggesting the possibility to be used as a marker for predicting the lifestyle of potential suspect. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of DNA methylation variations and the utility of DNA methylation as a forensic marker for advanced investigative leads from evidence materials. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 359-369] PMID:27099236

  15. No difference in stroke knowledge between Korean adherents to traditional and western medicine – the AGE study: an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Su-Yong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective stroke intervention and risk reduction depend on the general public's awareness and knowledge of stroke. In Korea, where both traditional Oriental medicine and Western medicine are practiced, estimates of the general public's awareness and knowledge of stroke are poor. The present study sought to describe the inception cohort of the Ansan Geriatric Study (AGE study and to determine baseline stroke awareness and preferred medical treatment for stroke in this Korean sample. Methods A total of 2,767 subjects selected randomly from the Ansan Geriatric Study in South Korea were questioned about stroke. Their answers were compared with their sociodemographic data and other variables. Results Only 44.8% of participants correctly identified stroke as a vascular disease in the human brain. Sudden numbness or weakness was the most frequently identified stroke warning sign (60.2%. Hypertension (66.7% and mental stress (62.2% were most frequently identified as stroke risk factors. The contributions of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease to stroke were underestimated; they were identified as risk factors by 28.3% and 18.6% of participants, respectively. The predictors for poor knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors were similar irrespective of preference for Western or Oriental medical treatment, and included those with lower levels of education and inaccurate definition of stroke. Television and radio (40.3% were the most frequent sources of stroke information for both groups. Conclusion This study shows that knowledge of stroke is similar among Koreans with preferences for either Western or Oriental medical treatment and that misunderstandings about stroke are common among the Korean elderly. In order to prevent and manage stroke effectively, public health education regarding basic concepts of stroke is necessary. This should target those with a lower level of education and a misunderstanding of the

  16. Cementum as a source of DNA in challenging forensic cases. (United States)

    Mansour, Hussam; Krebs, Oliver; Sperhake, Jan Peter; Augustin, Christa; Koehne, Till; Amling, Michael; Püschel, Klaus


    Each forensic case is characterized by its own uniqueness. Deficient forensic cases require additional sources of human identifiers to assure the identity. We report on two different cases illustrating the role of teeth in answering challenging forensic questions. The first case involves identification of an adipocere male found in a car submersed in water for approximately 2 years. The second scenario, which involves paternity DNA testing of an exhumed body, was performed approximately 2.8 years post-mortem. The difficulty in anticipating the degradation of the DNA is one of the main obstacles. DNA profiling of dental tissues, DNA quantification by using real-time PCR (PowerQuant™ System/Promega) and a histological dental examination have been performed to address the encountered impediments of adverse post-mortem changes. Our results demonstrate that despite the adverse environmental conditions, a successful STR profile of DNA isolated from the root of teeth can be generated with respect to tooth type and apportion. We conclude that cementocytes are a fruitful source of DNA. Cementum resists DNA degradation in comparison to other tissues with respect to the intra- and inter-individual variation of histological and anatomical structures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation on legal problems encountered by emergency medicine physicians in Turkey. (United States)

    Kayipmaz, Afsin Emre; Kavalci, Cemil; Gulalp, Betul; Kocalar, Ummu Gulsum; Giray, Tufan Akin; Yesilagac, Hasan; Ozel, Betul Akbuga; Celikel, Elif; Karagun, Ozlem


    Medicine is a profession that carries certain risks. One risky area of practice is the emergency department. Emergency physicians diagnose and treat a high volume of patients, and are also responsible for preparing reports for forensic cases. In this study, we aim to investigate emergency physicians' legal-administrative problems and reveal their level of understanding on forensic cases. An electronic questionnaire form was prepared after the approval of an ethical committee. This form was sent to the residents, specialists and academicians of emergency medicine by e-mail. The physicians were asked to fill out the form online. All the gathered data was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were presented as frequency percentages with mean and standard deviation. Chi-square tests were used to compare the groups. Correlation between number of complaint cases and age, sex, career, institution, and duration of service in emergency department were investigated. pmedicine and age. There was a significant difference between number of complaint reports and career (p<0.05). The physicians' level of awareness on forensic cases was found to be insufficient. Lack of legislation knowledge may be an important cause of complaint reports concerning emergency physicians, who have a high load of patients. Thus, we think that increasing the frequency of post-graduate education sessions and periodical reviews might be beneficial.

  18. Forensic Odontology: A Boon to Community in Medico-legal Affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Chidambaram


    Full Text Available Forensic odontology is a sub-discipline of dental science which involves the relationship between dentistry and the law. The specialty of forensic odontology is applied in radiographic investigation, human bite marks analysis, anthropologic examination and during mass disasters. Besides the fact that radiographs require pretentious laboratory, it is still claimed to be a facile, rapid, non-invasive method of age identification in the deceased. The budding DNA technology has conquered the traditional procedures and currently being contemplated as chief investigating tool in revealing the hidden mysteries of victims and suspects, especially in hopeless circumstances. Forensic odontology has played a chief role in solving cold cases and proved to be strong evidence in the court of law. Systematic collection of dental records and preservation of the same would marshal the legal officials in identification of the deceased. To serve the forensic operation and legal authorities, dental professionals need to be familiar with the basics of forensic odontology, which would create a consciousness to preserve the dental data. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the vital applications of forensic odontology in medico-legal issues. Conjointly the recent advancements applied in forensic human identification have been updated. Keywords: bite marks; dental records; forensic identification; mass disaster; medico-legal issues. | PubMed

  19. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry. (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja


    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  20. The relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in the Journal of Forensic odonto-stomatology from 2005 to 2012. (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal


    There is a paucity of information about the relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in the Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology. This study aimed to find the relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in the Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology from 2005 to 2012 over an 8-year period. Bibliometric analysis was performed using web-based search during December 2013. Out of the total 97 published articles, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (20) and community dentistry (20), followed by orthodontics (18), prosthodontics (15), and oral pathology and microbiology (8), pedodontics (7), oral and maxillofacial surgery (4) and conservative dentistry and endodontics (3). Among the articles published in Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology, mass disasters (10) and bite mark analysis (10), followed by sexual dimorphism (8) and dental fraud and malpractice (8), followed by craniofacial superimposition (6) and identification (6) form the major attraction of the contributors. This paper has tried to evaluate the new working classification proposed for forensic odontology based on its relationship with other dental specialties.

  1. Review: Taking care of yourself in later life: a qualitative study into the use of non-prescription medicines by people aged 60+. (United States)

    Leontowitsch, Miranda; Higgs, Paul; Stevenson, Fiona; Rees Jones, Ian


    The last 40 years have witnessed substantial changes to the experience of later life. Health and life expectancy have improved and the emergence of a putative third age has allowed post-working life to move beyond being a residual social category to become an arena in which later life lifestyles can be constructed. Greater emphasis is now placed on expectations of self-agency and choice. Allied to this is the growing role of consumerism as a way of organizing key aspects of social life. Not only do these changes place increased emphasis on individual responsibility for health, but they also engage individuals in various forms of health consumerism.This study draws on these aspects of contemporary society to provide an explanatory framework for understanding older people's engagement with, and consumption of non-prescription medicines. We present a qualitative study in which we interviewed 22 men and women aged 60 plus who were purchasing or interested in purchasing non-prescription medicines, including complementary and alternative medicines. Our findings suggest that the use of non-prescription medicines is both pluralistic and makeshift. Moreover, while this pluralism led to tensions with conventional bio-medicine, conventional bio-medicine still maintained the legitimacy of its knowledge base. Self-care using non-prescription medicines appeared more governed by hope than by evidence or knowledge of the treatments concerned.We conclude that such pluralism of approach reflects the growing consumerism in health and self-care and that older people may in fact be similar to other age groups in terms of their approach to such commodification.

  2. Ethanol Forensic Toxicology. (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Van Dyke, Priscilla


    Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure. Because of individual variability in ethanol pharmacology and toxicology, careful extrapolation and interpretation of the BAC is needed, to justify an arrest and assignment of criminal liability. This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol and the clinical effects of acute intoxication as they relate to common forensic questions. Concerns regarding the extrapolation of BAC and the implications of impaired memory caused by alcohol-induced blackouts are discussed. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  3. Forensic Physics 101: Falls from a height (United States)

    Cross, Rod


    The physics of falling from a height, a topic that could be included in a course on forensic physics or in an undergraduate class as an example of Newton's laws, is applied to a common forensic problem.

  4. Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lamont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Nuclear forensics assists in responding to any event where nuclear material is found outside of regulatory control; a response plan is presented and a nuclear forensics program is undergoing further development so that smugglers are sufficiently deterred.

  5. Drawbacks in the scientification of forensic science. (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Curran, J


    This letter to the Editor comments on the article On the limitations of probability in conceptualizing pattern matches in forensic science by P. T. Jayaprakash (Forensic Science International, [10]). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  7. Forensic seismology revisited (United States)

    Douglas, A.


    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  8. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness (United States)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  9. Methodology of Implementation of Computer Forensics


    Gelev, Saso; Golubovski, Roman; Hristov, Risto; Nikolov, Elenior


    Compared to other sciences, computer forensics (digital forensics) is a relatively young discipline. It was established in 1999 and it has been an irreplaceable tool in sanctioning cybercrime ever since. Good knowledge of computer forensics can be really helpful in uncovering a committed crime. Not adhering to the methodology of computer forensics, however, makes the obtained evidence invalid/irrelevant and as such it cannot be used in legal proceedings. This paper is to explain the methodolo...

  10. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 1: an overview. (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H


    Objectives This paper provides an overview for general and forensic psychiatrists of the complexity and challenge of working in the civil medico-legal arena. It covers expert evidence, ethics, core concepts in civil forensic psychiatry and report writing. Conclusions Civil forensic psychiatry is an important sub-speciality component of forensic psychiatry that requires specific skills, knowledge and the ability to assist legal bodies in determining the significance of psychiatric issues.

  11. [Coping with chronic illness and multiple medicines in older age: self-management support as an obligation in nursing]. (United States)

    Müller-Mundt, G; Schaeffer, D


    In later stages of chronic disease and especially in older age, chronically ill people are often dependent on multiple medicines. Coming to terms with complex medication regimes in everyday life is a challenging task. To provide the support actually needed, patient-centered interventions are essential, not only taking into account the patients' needs and preferences, but also promoting their ability to self manage their disease(s) and their medication regime. This paper outlines the results of a research project aimed at developing and evaluating an intervention to integrate self-management support into primary care, based on a qualitative exploration of the patients' and professionals' views. The findings stress that home care nurses should take an active part in self-management support but need to be prepared adequately. Therefore, a two-tier intervention was developed and evaluated in a prospective control study, consisting of a qualified training and guidelines for practice. The intervention serves to expand the nurses' professional competence to provide the needed individually tailored self-management support in home care.

  12. Menopause and work--the experience of middle-aged female teaching staff in an Egyptian governmental faculty of medicine. (United States)

    Hammam, Rehab A M; Abbas, Reem A; Hunter, Myra S


    There is a global trend of increasing numbers of older women in the workforce. However, limited information is available regarding the relationship between the menopause transition and work, especially in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between experience of the menopause transition and work and to examine the factors affecting how women cope, including the extent to which women disclosed their menopausal status. Using a cross-sectional single group design, 131 middle-aged female medical teaching staff working in Zagazig Faculty of Medicine completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Participants, particularly those who were postmenopausal, reported high average scores on depressed mood, memory/concentration, sleep problems, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual behavior subscales of the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ). Women reported that poor working environment and work policies and conditions, functioning as sources of work stress, aggravated their menopausal symptoms. Disclosure of their menopausal status was uncommon; limited time and socio-cultural barriers were the most commonly reported reasons for non-disclosure. It could be concluded that the menopause transition is an important occupational health issue especially for women in developing countries. Implementing health promotion programs, improving working environment and work policies, and raising awareness of menopause are recommended to help women to cope with the menopause transition and to maintain well-being and productivity at work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Omics in Ophthalmology: Advances in Genomics and Precision Medicine for Leber Congenital Amaurosis and Age-Related Macular Degeneration. (United States)

    den Hollander, Anneke I


    The genomic revolution has had a huge impact on our understanding of the genetic defects and disease mechanisms underlying ophthalmic diseases. Two examples are discussed here. The first is Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a severe inherited retinal dystrophy leading to severe vision loss in children, and the second is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of vision loss in the elderly. Twenty years ago, the genetic causes of these diseases were unknown. Currently, more than 20 LCA genes have been identified, and genetic testing can now successfully identify the genetic defects in at least 75% of all LCA cases. Gene-specific treatments have entered the clinical trial phase for three LCA genes, and for seven LCA genes gene-specific therapies have been tested in model systems. Age-related macular degeneration is a multifactorial disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Currently, more than 40 loci have been identified for AMD, accounting for 15%-65% of the total genetic contribution to AMD. Despite the progress that has been made so far, genetic testing is not yet recommended for AMD, but this may change if we move to clinical trials or treatments that are dependent on an individual's genotype. The identification of serum or plasma biomarkers using other "-omics" technologies may further improve predictive tests and our understanding of the disease mechanisms of AMD. Ultimately, it is anticipated that predictive tests will help to stratify patients for the most suitable therapy, which will enable the development of precision medicine, tailored to individual needs.

  14. General internal medicine at the crossroads of prosperity and despair: caring for patients with chronic diseases in an aging society. (United States)

    Larson, E B


    During the past quarter century, general internal medicine has emerged as a vital discipline. In the realm of patient care, it is the integrating discipline par excellence. Ironically, as general internists face the challenge of integrating advances of dizzying speed and complexity, and as their clinical practice becomes increasingly effective, it has become much more difficult for them to earn a living. General internists find themselves at the crossroads of prosperity and despair. Although general medicine research leads the research agenda in many departments of medicine, it is particularly vulnerable. The necessary multidisciplinary "programmatic" infrastructure is expensive, and results often take many years to obtain, particularly in the study of chronic disease. The educational environment in many institutions is particularly difficult for general medicine, both because the current emphasis on technical skills obscures patients' and learners' real needs and because complex patients on general medicine services are now so ill and their turnover so rapid. General internal medicine and geriatrics are synergistic, especially in today's marketplace. A focus on geriatric medicine could help general medicine continue to flourish. General internists are ideally suited to the integrated care of elderly patients with multiple problems, research opportunities are enormous in the geriatric population, and the teaching of geriatrics requires a high level of generalist skills. Problems that plague current generalist practice have unique significance to older patients. Organizations that represent general internists would do well to join forces with many other advocacy groups, especially those representing the interests of elderly patients and geriatric medicine.

  15. Home - Virginia Department of Forensic Science (United States)

    Collecting DNA Data Bank Samples Forensic Training Forensic Science Academy Short Course Schedule Forensic gross weights, marijuana food products and search warrant cases. Click anywhere on the image to open the -screen comparison software system to perform and document the comparison. Virginia DNA Data Bank


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and dental practitioners of the crucial role of dentist in victim's identification and ... role of forensic dental personnel in human identification following ... matrimonial, or financial reasons6. The first and .... chief physician during the systematic extermination of the Jews at ... of police officers with forensic pathologist and forensic.

  17. System Support for Forensic Inference (United States)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  18. Identical twins in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Morling, Niels


    The increase in the number of forensic genetic loci used for identification purposes results in infinitesimal random match probabilities. These probabilities are computed under assumptions made for rather simple population genetic models. Often, the forensic expert reports likelihood ratios, where...... published results accounting for close familial relationships. However, we revisit the discussion to increase the awareness among forensic genetic practitioners and include new information on medical and societal factors to assess the risk of not considering a monozygotic twin as the true perpetrator......, then data relevant for the Danish society suggests that the threshold of likelihood ratios should approximately be between 150,000 and 2,000,000 in order to take the risk of an unrecognised identical, monozygotic twin into consideration. In other societies, the threshold of the likelihood ratio in crime...

  19. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Traore, Issa; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens


    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  20. Digital forensics for handheld devices

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, Eamon P


    Approximately 80 percent of the world's population now owns a cell phone, which can hold evidence or contain logs about communications concerning a crime. Cameras, PDAs, and GPS devices can also contain information related to corporate policy infractions and crimes. Aimed to prepare investigators in the public and private sectors, Digital Forensics for Handheld Devices examines both the theoretical and practical aspects of investigating handheld digital devices. This book touches on all areas of mobile device forensics, including topics from the legal, technical, academic, and social aspects o

  1. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena


    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  2. Technological Innovations in Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin


    This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology...... expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage...

  3. Procedures for a harmonised digital forensic process in live forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G


    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a novel computing paradigm that presents new research opportunities in the field of digital forensics. Cloud computing is based on the following principles: on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid...

  4. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature. (United States)

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B


    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at Copyright © 2015 Central Police University.

  5. Medicine in the age of " Ulysses ": James Joyce's portrait of life, medicine, and disease on a Dublin day a century ago. (United States)

    Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M


    Over time, contemporary writing becomes part of the historical record. In medicine, it is an important learning tool, particularly for understanding the experience and context of disease and illness. Although a century has elapsed since the fictional events on a single day described in James Joyce's Ulysses, the work is still fresh with references and allusions to doctors, illnesses, and the human experience. Ulysses provides perspective on medical and social history and offers a biting commentary of continuing relevance to the doctor-patient relationship.

  6. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth. (United States)

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J


    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Forensic nursing and the palliative approach to care: an empirical nursing ethics analysis. (United States)

    Wright, David Kenneth; Vanderspank-Wright, Brandi; Holmes, Dave; Skinner, Elise


    A movement is underway to promote a palliative approach to care in all contexts where people age and live with life-limiting conditions, including psychiatric settings. Forensic psychiatry nursing-a subfield of mental health nursing- focuses on individuals who are in conflict with the criminal justice system. We know little about the values of nurses working in forensic psychiatry, and how these values might influence a palliative approach to care for frail and aging patients. Interviews with four nurses working on one of two forensic units of a university-affiliated mental health hospital in an urban area of eastern Canada. Three specific values were found to guide forensic nurses in their care of aging patients that are commensurate with a palliative approach: hope, inclusivity, and quality of life. When we started this project, we wondered whether the culture of forensic nursing practice was antithetical to the values of a palliative approach. Instead, we found several parallels between forensic nurses' moral identities and palliative philosophy. These findings have implications for how we think about the palliative approach in contexts not typically associated with palliative care, but in which patients will increasingly age and die.

  8. Forensic mental health evaluations of military personnel with traumatic life event, in a university hospital in Ankara, Turkey. (United States)

    Balandiz, Huseyin; Bolu, Abdullah


    The definition of psychological trauma has been rephrased with the DSM-5. From now on, witnessing someone else's traumatic event is also accepted as a traumatic life event. Therefore, the psychiatric examination of forensic cases gains importance for not overlooking a psychiatric trauma. This research aims to discuss the psychiatric examinations of military personnel who had a traumatic life event and to reveal psychiatric states of soldiers after trauma. The forensic reports prepared at Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA), Forensic Medicine polyclinic between January 1, 2011 and November 30, 2014 were examined, and among them the cases sent to GMMA Psychiatry polyclinic for psychiatric examination were analyzed retrospectively. There were a total of 2408 cases who applied for the arrangement of a judicial report and 167 of them required a psychological examination. Among 167 cases, 165 were male and 2 were female, and the mean age was 25.6 years. Anxiety disorder (53.9%) was the most common diagnosis as a result of the psychiatric examination, following posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (18.6%), and 3.6% had no psychopathology. It was determined that injuries caused by firearms (38.3%) and explosive materials (26.3%) had caused psychological trauma the most. On the other hand, 11 (6.6%) cases were determined to have undergone a psychological trauma on account of being a witness to their friends' injuries during the conflict without experiencing any physical injury. There were not any statistically significant relationships between the severity of physical injury and being PTSD or anxiety disorder. Development of PTSD risk is directly correlated with the nature of trauma. The trauma types of the cases in our study were in the high-risk group because of the military population. Our study is of importance in terms of putting forward the psychiatric disorders seen in the military population with traumatic life history associated with war (combat-related). In

  9. On the Development of Digital Forensics Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manghui Tu


    Full Text Available Computer Crime and computer related incidents continue their prevalence and frequency and result in loss of billions of dollars. To fight against those crimes and frauds, it is urgent to develop digital forensics education programs to train a suitable workforce to efficiently and effectively investigate crimes and frauds. However, there is no standard to guide the design of digital forensics curriculum for an academic program. In this research, we investigate the research works on digital forensics curriculum design and existing education programs.  Both digital forensics educators and practitioners were surveyed and the results are analyzed to determine what industry and law enforcement need. Based on the survey results and what the industry certificate programs cover, we identified topics that are desired to be covered in digital forensics courses. Finally, we propose six digital forensics courses and their topics that can be offered in both undergraduate and graduate digital forensics programs.

  10. Research in forensic radiology and imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalders, M. C.; Adolphi, N. L.; Daly, B.


    of America, and the Netherlands Forensic Institute. During this meeting, an international and multidisciplinary panel of forensic scientists discussed the current state of science in forensic radiology, and drafted a research agenda to further advance the field. Four groups for further research focus were...... identified: big data and statistics, identification and biological profiling, multimodal imaging, and visualization and presentation. This paper describes each of these research topics and thereby hopes to contribute to the development of this exciting new field of forensic medical science.......This paper presents the outcome of the first international forensic radiology and imaging research summit, organized by the International Society of Forensic Radiology and Imaging, the International Association of Forensic Radiographers, the National Institute of Justice of the United States...

  11. Offering a Forensic Science Camp to Introduce and Engage High School Students in Interdisciplinary Science Topics (United States)

    Ahrenkiel, Linda; Worm-Leonhard, Martin


    In this article, we present details of a one-week interdisciplinary science camp for high school students in Denmark, "Criminal Camp". We describe the use of forensic science and simulated crimes as a common foundation for teaching the theory and practice of concepts in chemistry, physics, and medicine or biology. The main goal of the…

  12. Analysis of dental injuries with clinical implications: A forensic case report. (United States)

    Tan, Si-Lei; Peng, Shu-Ya; Wan, Lei; Chen, Jie-Min; Xia, Wen-Tao


    Dental injuries, especially of the incisors, caused by punches in violent criminal attacks could be seen in daily forensic casework involving the identification of injuries to a living body. Sometimes, when there is neither circumstantial evidence nor information about the surrounding circumstances, it is difficult to discern the cause of these injuries and the manner in which they were inflicted. As an example of clinical forensic medicine, we present the case of a 58-year-old woman whose teeth were injured when fighting with her son-in-law over household affairs with no witnesses present. The two parties had conflicting stories about the cause of the woman's injury. The woman claimed that her teeth were lost while she was being beaten by her son-in-law, and the man argued that the damage to his mother-in-law's teeth was self-inflicted when she bit his fingers. The police attending the crime called for a forensic examination. Forensic practitioners analysed the mechanism of the tooth loss using multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) and imaging reconstruction technology. Local alveolar bone (medial alveolar) fracture and a small area of alveolar bone loss were found on MSCT. Thus, forensic medical experts speculated that the woman's lower central and lateral incisors were lost as a result of a violent attack and were not self-inflicted. Finally, forensic practitioners helped police in avoiding a miscarriage of justice and wrongful conviction.

  13. Forensic trace DNA: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.H. van Oorschot (Roland ); K. Ballantyne (Kaye); R.J. Mitchell (R. John)


    textabstractDNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so

  14. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.


    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  15. Peer review in forensic science. (United States)

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Edmond, Gary; Found, Bryan


    Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony. While peer review has considerable potential, and is a key component of modern quality management systems, its actual value in most forensic science settings has yet to be determined. In consequence, forensic practitioners should reflect on why they use specific review procedures and endeavour to make their actual practices and their potential value transparent to consumers; whether investigators, lawyers, jurors or judges. Claims that review increases the validity of a scientific technique or accuracy of opinions within a particular case should be avoided until empirical evidence is available to support such assertions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry (United States)

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie


    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  17. Selection effects in forensic science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, G.J.; Gennip, van Yves; Hochs, P.; Nuyens, M.; Palla, L.; Quant, C.; Trapman, P.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F.


    In this report we consider the following question: does a forensic expert need to know exactly how the evidential material was selected? We set up a few simple models of situations in which the way evidence is selected may influence its value in court. Although reality is far from a probabilistic

  18. Learning iOS forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Epifani, Mattia


    If you are a digital forensics examiner daily involved in the acquisition and analysis of mobile devices and want to have a complete overview of how to perform your work on iOS devices, this book is definitely for you.

  19. Contribution of forensic anthropology to identification process in Croatia: examples of victims recovered in wells. (United States)

    Slaus, Mario; Strinović, Davor; Petrovecki, Vedrana; Vyroubal, Vlasta


    To describe the contribution of forensic anthropology to the recovery, analysis, and identification of victims from the 1991-1995 war in Croatia recovered in wells. From 1996 to the present, human remains of a total of 61 individuals have been recovered from 13 wells. Six wells contained the remains of a single individual, one well contained the remains of 2 individuals, and 6 wells contained the remains 3 or more individuals. The majority of wells, containing 90.2% (55/61) of recovered individuals, were located within a 4 km radius of the Croatian-Serbian border. Forensic anthropologists re-individualized 26/61 (42.6%) individuals out of skeletonized and commingled remains, provided basic biological data on sex, age-at-death, and stature in all identifications (n=37), as well as established positive identification by recognizing unique skeletal features (antemortem fractures and skeletal evidence of antemortem surgical interventions) in 3/37 (8.1%) cases. Trauma analyses carried out by forensic anthropologists contributed to the determination of the cause of death in 38/61 (62.3%) individuals and to the probable cause of death in an additional 18/61 (29.5%) individuals. The most frequent (27/38, 71.0%) type of trauma causing death in individuals recovered from wells was a single gunshot wound. Forensic anthropologists, collaborating closely with forensic pathologists, forensic odontologists, forensic radiologists, criminologists, and molecular biologists contributed significantly to trauma analysis and identification of war victims recovered from wells.

  20. [The CSI effect and its impact on the perceptions of forensic science experts' work]. (United States)

    Stojer, Joanna


    The issue that has been analyzed in this work is the potential effect of crime films and TV series on people's perceptions of forensic medicine and science, and especially on the forming of expectations towards forensic science experts. This syndrome is being called the "CSI effect" after the popular franchise Crime Scene Investigation (CSI). Questionnaire surveys that have been conducted included "experts": 50 experts in various specialities, 77 prosecutors, 119 judges, 64 lay judges, 161 police staff and 80 members of general public. In-depth interviews have been conducted with 20 police staff, and also a focus group has been carried out with 15 law students. In the opinion of the respondents, people's perceptions and expectations of forensic science--as it can be observed during criminal trials--are largely inflated by the entertainment media. Among the surveyed persons, the category that declares watching crime series most rarely, is forensic science experts. Around half of the surveyed experts pointed out to excessive expectations towards they work instigated by TV crime series. The most common expectations towards forensic medicine experts are: immediate conclusiveness of post mortem examinations (going as far as indicating the cause of death at the crime scene), precision of death time estimation and a routine use of sophisticated methods known from TV.

  1. Child trafficking and the European migration crisis: The role of forensic practitioners. (United States)

    Obertová, Zuzana; Cattaneo, Cristina


    Trafficking in children is one of the worst forms of human rights violation and is categorised as a serious crime. Children at high risk of becoming victims of trafficking are runaways, children with a history of abuse, and migrant children. Internationally, cases of child trafficking are increasing the most in Europe, which is likely the result of the current migration crisis. In crises, preventing and combating human trafficking needs to be prioritized, considering that the aims of humanitarian action include saving lives, easing suffering and preserving human dignity. The involvement of forensic practitioners in investigations of cases of child trafficking mainly concerning the identification of victims may save lives and certainly alleviate suffering of the child victims and their families searching for them. Moreover, by aiding the prosecution process through thorough documentation and expert reporting forensic practitioners may contribute to the protection, rehabilitation and possibly compensation of the child victims, and thus to the restoration of their rights and dignity. So far, forensic practitioners were rarely specifically mentioned as actors in the counter-trafficking efforts in the multitude of policies, regulations, guidelines and recommendations concerning different aspects of child trafficking. This seems surprising considering that the expertise and experience of practitioners from forensic sciences including cyber forensics, document analysis, forensic biology, anthropology, and medicine can be utilised for gathering intelligence in cases of suspected human trafficking, for identifying the victims as well as perpetrators, and for securing evidence for legal proceedings as this paper shows. While this article mainly discusses the role of forensic pathologists and anthropologists, with a specific focus on the identification of child victims of trafficking in the context of the European migration crisis, the notions regarding the contribution of

  2. Forensic toxicology analysis of self-poisoning suicidal deaths in Tehran, Iran; trends between 2011-2015. (United States)

    Kordrostami, Roya; Akhgari, Maryam; Ameri, Maryam; Ghadipasha, Masoud; Aghakhani, Kamran


    Suicide ranks among the top ten causes of death in all age groups all over the world. There are many methods for committing suicide including self-poisoning, firearm and hanging. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of self-poisoning related suicidal deaths with special focus on forensic toxicology analysis results in Tehran, Iran from 2011 to 2015. All suspicious cases with the the history of self-poisoning were investigated to define the cause and manner of death under the supervision of forensic medicine practitioners. Postmortem samples were analysed in forensic toxicology laboratory to confirm the presence of drugs in cadaver of suicidal cases. Drugs and poisons were analysed using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, headspace gas chromatography and gas chromatography equipped with nitrogen phosphorus detector. Demographic data were collected from autopsy reports of all cases with confirmed self-poisoning suicidal cause of death. Results showed that 674 cases of self-poisoning deaths were investigated during a five-year study period, of which 68.55% were male. The most often used suicide method was self-poisoning in young population. Phosphine gas liberated from aluminum phosphide tablets was the most toxic substance detected in postmortem samples (619 cases) followed by opioids, methamphetamine, organophosphates, cyanide and strychnine. In conclusion self-poisoning suicidal death was predominant in young male population in Tehran, Iran. It seems that free access to suicide means such as drugs and poisons should be restricted by national and health authorities. Not applicable.

  3. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, Paul


    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating

  4. When disaster strikes; the role of the forensic radiographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Mary; Reeves, Pauline; Scott, Susan


    Forensic radiography is a vital tool utilised in the many facets of Forensic Medicine. This paper investigates the role of the forensic radiographer in a mass disaster situation; it also explores the psychological impact of this type of work on radiographers. A literature review indicated that limited work had been documented on the role of the radiographer in mass disasters. This ultimately creates doubt about whether or not the radiographer is acknowledged for the vital role he/she plays and if proper provisions were in place to assess any emotional damage in the aftermath of an emotionally and physically straining situation. A qualitative method of research was used (semi-structured interviews) in order to elicit radiographers' feelings and perceptions. This method is best suited to this research topic because it is a delicate subject. Four interviews were carried out and the responses are presented in themes including emergency versus mass grave experiences (including issues of time and preparation). Other themes include the role of the radiographer and interaction with other members of the team, as well as a discussion of the aftermath of their experiences, including the feelings of pride experienced

  5. Alterações decorrentes do envelhecimento podem impedir a indetificação de indivíduos submetidos a radiografias da coluna lombar? Potencial contribuição da avaliação radiológica para a atividade forense Can changes associated with aging hinder the identification of individuals submitted to lumbar spine radiography? A potential contribution of radiology to the forensic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Falcão de Oliveira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possibilidade de o exame radiológico da coluna lombar determinar a identificação correta dos indivíduos, apesar das alterações evolutivas do envelhecimento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi constituída amostra com 60 pares de radiografias de coluna lombar, feitas em épocas distintas, com intervalo mínimo de três anos, de pacientes de ambos os sexos, adultos e com idades diversas. Os pares foram misturados para que dois experientes radiologistas os reconstituíssem. As vértebras de cada par foram comparadas em relação a semelhanças e diferenças de detalhes anatômicos, sendo estabelecido, como critério de pareamento, o encontro de uma variação anatômica ou de uma particularidade específica, ou o encontro de duas ou mais igualdades entre os detalhes anatômicos, sem pontos de divergência. RESULTADOS: O correto pareamento de todas as radiografias foi alcançado por ambos os observadores, os quais apresentaram inúmeros pontos de coincidência em suas análises. O estudo estatístico demonstrou que a concordância entre os dois observadores foi considerada de boa a perfeita. CONCLUSÃO: A comparação radiográfica da coluna lombar é capaz de determinar a correta identificação dos indivíduos, apesar das alterações evolutivas do envelhecimento. Dessa forma, as radiografias representam potencial instrumento para uso em perícias de identificação forense.OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at evaluating the possibility of a radiological study of the lumbar spine determining the correct identification of an individual despite the changes associated with aging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample included 60 pairs of lumbar spine radiographic images of both male and female, adult patients of different ages, acquired at different times, at three-year minimum intervals. The pairs of images were mixed up so two experienced radiologists could put them back together. The vertebrae

  6. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. (United States)

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi


    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.

  7. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kand, Purushottam


    Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to examine organ function and structure. Nuclear medicine is older than CT, ultrasound and MRI. It was first used in patients over 60-70 years ago. Today it is an established medical specialty and offers procedures that are essential in many medical specialities like nephrology, pediatrics, cardiology, psychiatry, endocrinology and oncology. Nuclear medicine refers to medicine (a pharmaceutical) that is attached to a small quantity of radioactive material (a radioisotope). This combination is called a radiopharmaceutical. There are many radiopharmaceuticals like DTPA, DMSA, HIDA, MIBI and MDP available to study different parts of the body like kidneys, heart and bones etc. Nuclear medicine uses radiation coming from inside a patient's body where as conventional radiology exposes patients to radiation from outside the body. Thus nuclear imaging study is a physiological imaging, whereas diagnostic radiology is anatomical imaging. It combines many different disciplines like chemistry, physics mathematics, computer technology, and medicine. It helps in diagnosis and to treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease. The information provides a quick and accurate diagnosis of wide range of conditions and diseases in a person of any age. These tests are painless and most scans expose patients to only minimal and safe amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation received from a nuclear medicine procedure is comparable to, or often many times less than, that of a diagnostic X-ray. Nuclear medicine provides an effective means of examining whether some tissues/organs are functioning properly. Therapy using nuclear medicine in an effective, safe and relatively inexpensive way of controlling and in some cases eliminating, conditions such as overactive thyroid, thyroid cancer and arthritis. Nuclear medicine imaging is unique because it provides doctors with

  8. Using environmental forensic microscopy in exposure science. (United States)

    Millette, James R; Brown, Richard S; Hill, Whitney B


    Environmental forensic microscopy investigations are based on the methods and procedures developed in the fields of criminal forensics, industrial hygiene and environmental monitoring. Using a variety of microscopes and techniques, the environmental forensic scientist attempts to reconstruct the sources and the extent of exposure based on the physical evidence left behind after particles are exchanged between an individual and the environments he or she passes through. This article describes how environmental forensic microscopy uses procedures developed for environmental monitoring, criminal forensics and industrial hygiene investigations. It provides key references to the interdisciplinary approach used in microscopic investigations. Case studies dealing with lead, asbestos, glass fibers and other particulate contaminants are used to illustrate how environmental forensic microscopy can be very useful in the initial stages of a variety of environmental exposure characterization efforts to eliminate some agents of concern and to narrow the field of possible sources of exposure.

  9. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I.; Summerell, I.; Totland, M.; Jonkmans, G.; Whitlock, J.; El-jaby, A.; Inrig, E.


    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  10. Understanding Nuclear Forensics in 5 Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Forensic science, commonly referred to as forensics, is the examination of physical, biological, behavioural and documentary evidence. The goal of forensics is to discover linkages among people, places, things and events. A sub-discipline of forensic science, nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material, which can assist in law enforcement investigations as well as assessments of the potential vulnerabilities associated with the use, production and storage of these materials as part of a nuclear security infrastructure. The analysis of nuclear or other radioactive material seeks to identify what the materials are, how, when, and where the materials were made, and what their intended uses were. Nuclear forensics is an important tool in the fight against illicit trafficking in nuclear and radiological material

  11. Forensic Taxonomy of Android Social Apps. (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin


    An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I., E-mail: [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Summerell, I. [Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Totland, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jonkmans, G. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Whitlock, J. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); El-jaby, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Inrig, E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  13. Present status of R and D on nuclear forensics at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yoshiki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Sato, Kaneaki; Toda, Nobufumi; Shinoda, Yoshiharu; Okubo, Ayako; Magara, Masaaki; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke


    The national statement made by the Japan Government at 2010 Nuclear Security Summit (Washington D.C., U.S.A.) was to develop its nuclear forensics detection and analysis technologies in a three-year period and to share them with the international community to contribute to strengthening the nuclear security regime. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency, the organization that possesses analytical capabilities with the potential to fulfill this nuclear forensics mission, started R and D on nuclear forensics technology from JFY 2011. The main areas of development are isotopic ratio analysis, impurity analysis, uranium age determination, etc. The cooperation with US-DOE and EC-JRC were also started to effectively promote the technical development. In the presentation reported will be progress in R and D to establish nuclear forensics analytical capabilities and international cooperation. (author)

  14. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control (United States)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.


    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  15. Microbiome Tools for Forensic Science. (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Z; Bouslimani, Amina; Dorrestein, Pieter; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob


    Microbes are present at every crime scene and have been used as physical evidence for over a century. Advances in DNA sequencing and computational approaches have led to recent breakthroughs in the use of microbiome approaches for forensic science, particularly in the areas of estimating postmortem intervals (PMIs), locating clandestine graves, and obtaining soil and skin trace evidence. Low-cost, high-throughput technologies allow us to accumulate molecular data quickly and to apply sophisticated machine-learning algorithms, building generalizable predictive models that will be useful in the criminal justice system. In particular, integrating microbiome and metabolomic data has excellent potential to advance microbial forensics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Method Development in Forensic Toxicology. (United States)

    Peters, Frank T; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona


    In the field of forensic toxicology, the quality of analytical methods is of great importance to ensure the reliability of results and to avoid unjustified legal consequences. A key to high quality analytical methods is a thorough method development. The presented article will provide an overview on the process of developing methods for forensic applications. This includes the definition of the method's purpose (e.g. qualitative vs quantitative) and the analytes to be included, choosing an appropriate sample matrix, setting up separation and detection systems as well as establishing a versatile sample preparation. Method development is concluded by an optimization process after which the new method is subject to method validation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  17. A brief overview of forensic herpetology


    Baker, Barry


    The emerging field of forensic herpetology is reviewed. This research focus, defined here as the application of science to studies of reptiles and amphibians when these animals become the subject of legal investigations, has gained increasing attention in recent years. A diverse range of experts contributes to methods in forensic herpetology including forensic scientists, herpetologists, veterinarians, zookeepers, physicians, pathologists and toxicologists. The English language literature in ...

  18. Client-side Skype forensics: an overview (United States)

    Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner


    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

  19. Risk assessment of forensic patients: nurses' role. (United States)

    Encinares, Maxima; McMaster, Jeff James; McNamee, Jim


    One of the unique roles of forensic nurses is to conduct risk assessments. Establishing a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship helps forensic nurses perform accurate and useful risk assessments. Accurate risk assessments can facilitate formulation of individualized risk management plans, designed to meet patients' needs and ensure public safety. The importance of forensic nurses' knowledge and application of appropriate communication and proper documentation cannot be overemphasized.

  20. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling. (United States)

    Healey, Dan


    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice. © 2013.

  1. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in forensic toxicology. (United States)

    Van Bocxlaer, J F; Clauwaert, K M; Lambert, W E; Deforce, D L; Van den Eeckhout, E G; De Leenheer, A P


    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has evolved from a topic of mainly research interest into a routinely usable tool in various application fields. With the advent of new ionization approaches, especially atmospheric pressure, the technique has established itself firmly in many areas of research. Although many applications prove that LC-MS is a valuable complementary analytical tool to GC-MS and has the potential to largely extend the application field of mass spectrometry to hitherto "MS-phobic" molecules, we must recognize that the use of LC-MS in forensic toxicology remains relatively rare. This rarity is all the more surprising because forensic toxicologists find themselves often confronted with the daunting task of actually searching for evidence materials on a scientific basis without any indication of the direction in which to search. Through the years, mass spectrometry, mainly in the GC-MS form, has gained a leading role in the way such quandaries are tackled. The advent of robust, bioanalytically compatible combinations of liquid chromatographic separation with mass spectrometric detection really opens new perspectives in terms of mass spectrometric identification of difficult molecules (e.g., polar metabolites) or biopolymers with toxicological relevance, high throughput, and versatility. Of course, analytical toxicologists are generally mass spectrometry users rather than mass spectrometrists, and this difference certainly explains the slow start of LC-MS in this field. Nevertheless, some valuable applications have been published, and it seems that the introduction of the more universal atmospheric pressure ionization interfaces really has boosted interests. This review presents an overview of what has been realized in forensic toxicological LC-MS. After a short introduction into LC-MS interfacing operational characteristics (or limitations), it covers applications that range from illicit drugs to often abused prescription medicines and some

  2. Nuclear forensic analysis of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, K.J.; Grant, P.M.


    A comprehensive radiochemical isolation procedure and data analysis/interpretation method for the nuclear forensic investigation of Th has been developed. The protocol includes sample dissolution, chemical separation, nuclear counting techniques, consideration of isotopic parent-daughter equilibria, and data interpretation tactics. Practical application of the technology was demonstrated by analyses of a questioned specimen confiscated at an illegal drug synthesis laboratory by law enforcement authorities. (author)

  3. Systematic Digital Forensic Investigation Model


    Systematic Digital Forensic Investigation Model


    Law practitioners are in an uninterrupted battle with criminals in the application of digital/computertechnologies, and require the development of a proper methodology to systematically searchdigital devices for significant evidence. Computer fraud and digital crimes are growing day by dayand unfortunately less than two percent of the reported cases result in confidence. This paperexplores the development of the digital forensics process model, compares digital forensicmethodologies, and fina...

  4. Audit Log for Forensic Photography (United States)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  5. Particle Analysis in Forensic Science. (United States)

    Bisbing, R E; Schneck, W M


    Microscopic trace evidence includes particles from many sources such as biologicals, soil, building materials, metals, explosives, gunshot residues, and cosmetics. The particles are identified by morphological analysis, microscopy, and chemical analysis. Their identity is confirmed by comparison with reference materials or other comparison samples. The probative value of particles of forensic interest depends on their nature and the circumstances of their presence. Copyright © 2006 Central Police University.

  6. Forensic aspects of animal abusing


    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub


    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  7. Protecting victims of elder financial exploitation: the role of an Elder Abuse Forensic Center in referring victims for conservatorship. (United States)

    Gassoumis, Zachary D; Navarro, Adria E; Wilber, Kathleen H


    The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which an Elder Abuse Forensic Center protects financial exploitation (FE) victims through referral to the Office of the Public Guardian (PG) for investigation and possible conservatorship (called 'guardianship' in many states). Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center cases involving adults aged 65 and older (April 2007-December 2009) were matched using one-to-one propensity-score matching to 33,650 usual care Adult Protective Services (APS) cases. The final analysis sample consisted of 472 FE cases. Compared to usual care, Forensic Center cases were more likely to be referred to the PG for investigation (30.6%, n = 72 vs. 5.9%, n = 14, p Elder Abuse Forensic Center conceptual model and contribute to an emerging body of evidence on the role of the Forensic Center in addressing elder abuse.

  8. [Ethnic differences in forensic psychiatry: an exploratory study at a Dutch forensic psychiatric centre]. (United States)

    van der Stoep, T

    Compared to the percentage of ethnic minorities in the general population, ethnic minorities are overrepresented in forensic psychiatry. If these minorities are to be treated successfully, we need to know more about this group. So far, however, little is known about the differences between mental disorders and types of offences associated with patients of non-Dutch descent and those associated with patients of Dutch descent. AIM: To take the first steps to obtain the information we need in order to provide customised care for patients of non-Dutch descent. METHOD: It proved possible to identify differences between patients of Dutch and non-Dutch descent with regard to treatment, diagnosis and offences committed within a group of patients who were admitted to the forensic psychiatric centre Oostvaarderskliniek during the period 2001 - 2014. RESULTS: The treatment of patients of non-Dutch descent lasted longer than the treatment of patients of Dutch descent (8.5 year versus 6.6 year). Furthermore, patients from ethnic minority groups were diagnosed more often with schizophrenia (49.1% versus 21.4%), but less often with pervasive developmental disorders or sexual disorders. Patients of non-Dutch descent were more often convicted for sexual crimes where the victim was aged 16 years or older, whereas patients of Dutch descent were convicted of sexual crimes where the victim was under 16. CONCLUSION: There are differences between patients of Dutch and non-Dutch descent with regard to treatment duration, diagnosis and offences they commit. Future research needs to investigate whether these results are representative for the entire field of forensic psychiatry and to discover the reasons for these differences.

  9. Effects of safety warnings on prescription rates of cough and cold medicines in children below 2 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.F. Sen (Fatma); K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); M. Felisi (Mariagrazia); G.W. 't Jong (Geert); C. Giaquinto (Carlo); G. Picelli (Gino); A. Ceci (Adriana); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)


    textabstractAIM: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of national and international warnings on the prescription rates of cough and cold medicines (CCMs) in the youngest children (<2 years) in the Netherlands and Italy. METHODS: Analysis of outpatient electronic medical records of

  10. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future. (United States)

    Roewer, Lutz


    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting.

  11. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy. (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin


    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. The forensic aspects of sexual violence. (United States)

    Newton, Mary


    Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology. (United States)

    Black, Steve


    Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.

  14. Evaluation of Pediatric Forensic Cases in Emergency Department: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzer Korkmaz


    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the properties of pediatric forensic cases and to discuss the precautions in order to prevent the occurrence of these forensic events. Methods: The patient files and forensic reports of pediatric (age 0-18 years forensic cases, who were referred to the emergency department in our hospital between January 01, 2009 and December 31, 2011 were retrospectively investigated. Results: A total of 421 forensic pediatric cases with a median age of 9.9±5.5 years were included in the study. Off the cases, 61% (n=257 were male and 47.3% were in 5-14 age group. The type of the events were traffic accident (50.4%, fall (18.3%, stab injuries (10.9%, intoxication (5.9%, pounding (5.0% and other incidents (9.5%. There were nine cases of suicide attempt (all of them were above 14 years of age and four cases of physical abuse (three of them were under 15 years of age. After the observation period, 79.8% of the cases were discharged from the emergency department, whilst 20.2% of cases were hospitalized in one of the clinics. Conclusion: Because most of the cases were traffic accident, this situation show us that these injuries are preventable. Prevention and intervention strategies should be developed for providing a safe environment for children.

  15. Predicting discharge in forensic psychiatry: the legal and psychosocial factors associated with long and short stays in forensic psychiatric hospitals. (United States)

    Ross, Thomas; Querengässer, Jan; Fontao, María Isabel; Hoffmann, Klaus


    In Germany, both the number of patients treated in forensic psychiatric hospitals and the average inpatient treatment period have been increasing for over thirty years. Biographical and clinical factors, e.g., the number of prior offences, type of offence, and psychiatric diagnosis, count among the factors that influence the treatment duration and the likelihood of discharge. The aims of the current study were threefold: (1) to provide an estimate of the German forensic psychiatric patient population with a low likelihood of discharge, (2) to replicate a set of personal variables that predict a relatively high, as opposed to a low, likelihood of discharge from forensic psychiatric hospitals, and (3) to describe a group of other factors that are likely to add to the existing body of knowledge. Based on a sample of 899 patients, we applied a battery of primarily biographical and other personal variables to two subgroups of patients. The first subgroup of patients had been treated in a forensic psychiatric hospital according to section 63 of the German legal code for at least ten years (long-stay patients, n=137), whereas the second subgroup had been released after a maximum treatment period of four years (short-stay patients, n=67). The resulting logistic regression model had a high goodness of fit, with more than 85% of the patients correctly classified into the groups. In accordance with earlier studies, we found a series of personal variables, including age at first admission and type of offence, to be predictive of a short or long-stay. Other findings, such as the high number of immigrants among the short-stay patients and the significance of a patient's work time before admission to a forensic psychiatric hospital, are more clearly represented than has been observed in previous research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation on legal problems encountered by emergency medicine physicians in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsin Emre Kayipmaz

    Full Text Available Medicine is a profession that carries certain risks. One risky area of practice is the emergency department. Emergency physicians diagnose and treat a high volume of patients, and are also responsible for preparing reports for forensic cases. In this study, we aim to investigate emergency physicians' legal-administrative problems and reveal their level of understanding on forensic cases.An electronic questionnaire form was prepared after the approval of an ethical committee. This form was sent to the residents, specialists and academicians of emergency medicine by e-mail. The physicians were asked to fill out the form online. All the gathered data was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were presented as frequency percentages with mean and standard deviation. Chi-square tests were used to compare the groups. Correlation between number of complaint cases and age, sex, career, institution, and duration of service in emergency department were investigated. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.294 physicians participated in the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire, 170 of the physicians were reported to the patient communication units due to medical malpractice. Mean number of compliant reports was 3.20±3.5. 29 of the physicians received administrative penalties. 42 of the physicians were judged in the court for medical malpractice. 1 physician was fined 5000 Turkish Liras as a result of these judgments.We found that the number of complaint reports is negatively correlated with duration of service in emergency medicine and age. There was a significant difference between number of complaint reports and career (p<0.05. The physicians' level of awareness on forensic cases was found to be insufficient. Lack of legislation knowledge may be an important cause of complaint reports concerning emergency physicians, who have a high load of patients. Thus, we think that increasing the frequency of post-graduate education sessions and

  17. Toward generally accepted forensic assessment practices among clinical neuropsychologists: a survey of professional practice and common test use. (United States)

    LaDuke, Casey; Barr, William; Brodale, Donald L; Rabin, Laura A


    This study investigated professional practice and common test use among clinical neuropsychologists engaging in forensic assessment.  Doctorate-level psychologists active in the practice of neuropsychology and on the INS and NAN membership listings (n = 502) were surveyed about their demographics, professional practice, and common test use. Participants who reported engaging in forensic practice (n = 255) were further surveyed about their forensic practice. Forensic participants were more likely to be male and Caucasian, and reported higher ages, more years of professional experience, and a higher prevalence of board certification. While characteristics of their professional and forensic practice varied, forensic participants reported spending most of their professional time conducting neuropsychological assessments with adult clients in a private or group practice setting, focusing on civil referrals and civil legal questions involving older adult issues, developmental issues, head injury, and psychiatric issues. Common test use across neuropsychological assessment domains is presented for board-certified forensic participants (n = 77). An examination of these results reveals that the current pattern of test use is similar to the results of a more general survey of neuropsychological test use.  The findings provide insight into the practice of forensic neuropsychological assessment, and further establish the admissibility of neuropsychological evidence in the United States legal system. Results will be useful for clinical neuropsychologists, field leaders, and legal professionals hoping to gain insight into the role of clinical neuropsychology in civil and criminal legal decision-making.

  18. The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology. (United States)

    Joseph, Isaac; Mathew, Deepu G; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Vargheese, Geetha


    Forensic entomology is the study of insects/arthropods in criminal investigation. Right from the early stages insects are attracted to the decomposing body and may lay eggs in it. By studying the insect population and the developing larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index, any change in position of the corpse as well as the cause of death. Forensic odontologists are called upon more frequently to collaborate in criminal investigations and hence should be aware of the possibilities that forensic entomology have to offer and use it as an adjunct to the conventional means of forensic investigation.

  19. Status of nuclear forensic support in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Mohammedelmoez Eltayeb Abderahman


    The central problem investigated in this thesis is nuclear forensic support in Sudan, the thesis comprises five chapters, began with an introduction containing the art of forensic science, stated the importance of the it in criminal investigations. The forensic science was defined, and stated the principle of which it underlying, including: principle of individuality and principle of exchange, the divisions of this science has been clarified, then it discussed the crime scene and the collecting of evidence, where starting the forensic science at the crime scene, with clarifying the principle of crime scene investigation. Nuclear and other radioactive material was discussed: defining a radioactivity with the material source. It placed into 3 general categories: special nuclear materials, reactor fuel, and commercial radioactive sources, and mention each category and it characteristics. Radiation is part of our environment was clarified, and discussed what the effect on organisms and populations are. Nuclear forensics was presented,and how problem of the safeguarding of the nuclear material beginning. The emerging nature of the problem was discussed, the radiological crime scene management was explained, importance of securing the scene with an examples of equipment and instruments for on-scene radiation safety assessment and how the collection of evidence, storage forensic laboratory analysis was discussed and how set the designated nuclear forensic laboratory, also nuclear forensic interpretation, and the chain of custody was mentioned. The role of Regulating Authority in Nuclear forensic support was discussed, specifically in Sudan, International Cooperation have also been reminded, as well as memorandum of understanding was mentioned between SNRRA and the administration of forensic evidence, and one of it results is the radiological surveys unit in forensic administration, how the unit is configured, the role of the unit, finally conclusion of research was

  20. Forensics, radiology, society. X-rays. Tool and document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Beatrice; Vogel, Hermann


    During the last years, the individual specialities of forensic medicine and diagnostic imaging have increasingly cooperated to create the interdisciplinary entity of forensic radiology. The book demonstrates the potential of this speciality: It has become evident that the combination of diagnostic imaging and forensic medicine solves more cases of death of unknown cause than each alone, and that a radiograph can be read like a document describing forces of modern time and its effects on current society. The posters of 6 exhibitions demonstrate the actual cause of death and its preceding violence. They aim at the medical as well as the interested lay-public: Causes of natural and of violent death become visible. For instance, stab- and gunshot wounds into a person's rear are contradictory of self-defence. Stab wounds with penetration of ribs indicate great force and, therefore, intentional homicide. The same is valid for multiple stabs, stabs through silicon prosthesis of a mammoplasty, and stabs into the breast cage of a defenceless toddler. X-rays of the living can indicate preceding torture. X-rays are part of the security technology employed at airports and countries' borders. They help to detect drugs, explosives, and human stow-aways. The x-ray examination of the deceased visualises success and failure of the preceding therapy. After reanimation, the position of a tracheal tube, the effects of a vascular puncture, and potential fractures of the breast cage can be evaluated. After cardiac and aortic interventions, the procedure of choice and its effects can be seen. Concerning general or intensive care, diagnostic imaging shows the position of urinary catheters, gastric tubes and vascular catheters. Prenatal diagnostic imaging can determine the sex of the foetus and possible malformations; and in peri- and postnatal death, it may show the effects of iatrogenic actions, and later on, of child-abuse.