WorldWideScience

Sample records for forensic 3d scene

  1. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTLE, CHARLES Q.; PETERS, RALPH R.; RIGDON, J. BRIAN; SMALL, DANIEL E.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene

  2. Initial progress in the recording of crime scene simulations using 3D laser structured light imagery techniques for law enforcement and forensic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.; Monson, Keith L.

    1998-03-01

    Representation of crime scenes as virtual reality 3D computer displays promises to become a useful and important tool for law enforcement evaluation and analysis, forensic identification and pathological study and archival presentation during court proceedings. Use of these methods for assessment of evidentiary materials demands complete accuracy of reproduction of the original scene, both in data collection and in its eventual virtual reality representation. The recording of spatially accurate information as soon as possible after first arrival of law enforcement personnel is advantageous for unstable or hazardous crime scenes and reduces the possibility that either inadvertent measurement error or deliberate falsification may occur or be alleged concerning processing of a scene. Detailed measurements and multimedia archiving of critical surface topographical details in a calibrated, uniform, consistent and standardized quantitative 3D coordinate method are needed. These methods would afford professional personnel in initial contact with a crime scene the means for remote, non-contacting, immediate, thorough and unequivocal documentation of the contents of the scene. Measurements of the relative and absolute global positions of object sand victims, and their dispositions within the scene before their relocation and detailed examination, could be made. Resolution must be sufficient to map both small and large objects. Equipment must be able to map regions at varied resolution as collected from different perspectives. Progress is presented in devising methods for collecting and archiving 3D spatial numerical data from crime scenes, sufficient for law enforcement needs, by remote laser structured light and video imagery. Two types of simulation studies were done. One study evaluated the potential of 3D topographic mapping and 3D telepresence using a robotic platform for explosive ordnance disassembly. The second study involved using the laser mapping system on a

  3. Virtual reality and 3D animation in forensic visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Minhua; Zheng, Huiru; Lallie, Harjinder

    2010-09-01

    Computer-generated three-dimensional (3D) animation is an ideal media to accurately visualize crime or accident scenes to the viewers and in the courtrooms. Based upon factual data, forensic animations can reproduce the scene and demonstrate the activity at various points in time. The use of computer animation techniques to reconstruct crime scenes is beginning to replace the traditional illustrations, photographs, and verbal descriptions, and is becoming popular in today's forensics. This article integrates work in the areas of 3D graphics, computer vision, motion tracking, natural language processing, and forensic computing, to investigate the state-of-the-art in forensic visualization. It identifies and reviews areas where new applications of 3D digital technologies and artificial intelligence could be used to enhance particular phases of forensic visualization to create 3D models and animations automatically and quickly. Having discussed the relationships between major crime types and level-of-detail in corresponding forensic animations, we recognized that high level-of-detail animation involving human characters, which is appropriate for many major crime types but has had limited use in courtrooms, could be useful for crime investigation. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Efficient 3D scene modeling and mosaicing

    CERN Document Server

    Nicosevici, Tudor

    2013-01-01

    This book proposes a complete pipeline for monocular (single camera) based 3D mapping of terrestrial and underwater environments. The aim is to provide a solution to large-scale scene modeling that is both accurate and efficient. To this end, we have developed a novel Structure from Motion algorithm that increases mapping accuracy by registering camera views directly with the maps. The camera registration uses a dual approach that adapts to the type of environment being mapped.   In order to further increase the accuracy of the resulting maps, a new method is presented, allowing detection of images corresponding to the same scene region (crossovers). Crossovers then used in conjunction with global alignment methods in order to highly reduce estimation errors, especially when mapping large areas. Our method is based on Visual Bag of Words paradigm (BoW), offering a more efficient and simpler solution by eliminating the training stage, generally required by state of the art BoW algorithms.   Also, towards dev...

  5. Forensic 3D documentation of skin injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and precise documentation of injuries is fundamental in a forensic pathological context. Photographs and manual measurements are taken of all injuries during autopsies, but ordinary photography projects a 3D wound on a 2D space. Using technologies such as photogrammetry, it is possible...... methods (p > 0.05). The results of intra- and inter-observer tests indicated perfect agreement between the observers with mean value differences of ≤ 0.02 cm. This study demonstrated the validity of using photogrammetry for documentation of injuries in a forensic pathological context. Importantly...

  6. Forensic print extraction using 3D technology and its processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, Srijith; Shreyas, Kamath K. M.; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos S.

    2017-05-01

    Biometric evidence plays a crucial role in criminal scene analysis. Forensic prints can be extracted from any solid surface such as firearms, doorknobs, carpets and mugs. Prints such as fingerprints, palm prints, footprints and lip-prints can be classified into patent, latent, and three-dimensional plastic prints. Traditionally, law enforcement officers capture these forensic traits using an electronic device or extract them manually, and save the data electronically using special scanners. The reliability and accuracy of the method depends on the ability of the officer or the electronic device to extract and analyze the data. Furthermore, the 2-D acquisition and processing system is laborious and cumbersome. This can lead to the increase in false positive and true negative rates in print matching. In this paper, a method and system to extract forensic prints from any surface, irrespective of its shape, is presented. First, a suitable 3-D camera is used to capture images of the forensic print, and then the 3-D image is processed and unwrapped to obtain 2-D equivalent biometric prints. Computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of using 3-D technology for biometric matching of fingerprints, palm prints, and lip-prints. This system can be further extended to other biometric and non-biometric modalities.

  7. Dynamic Frames Based Generation of 3D Scenes and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern graphic/programming tools like Unity enables the possibility of creating 3D scenes as well as making 3D scene based program applications, including full physical model, motion, sounds, lightning effects etc. This paper deals with the usage of dynamic frames based generator in the automatic generation of 3D scene and related source code. The suggested model enables the possibility to specify features of the 3D scene in a form of textual specification, as well as exporting such features from a 3D tool. This approach enables higher level of code generation flexibility and the reusability of the main code and scene artifacts in a form of textual templates. An example of the generated application is presented and discussed.

  8. STREAM PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR DYNAMIC 3D SCENE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-15

    PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR DYNAMIC 3D SCENE ANALYSIS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-14-2-0072 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62788F 6...of Figures 1 The 3D processing pipeline flowchart showing key modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2 Overall view (data flow) of the proposed...pipeline flowchart showing key modules. from motion and bundle adjustment algorithm. By fusion of depth masks of the scene obtained from 3D

  9. 3-D Scene Reconstruction from Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Equation 43 to Πip  a1 0 0 a2 0 a1 0 a3 0 0 1 a4 a2 a3 a4 a5  ΠTip ∼  f 2i 0 0 0 f 2i 0 0 0 1  (45) resulting the... icon along the properties bar (see label D), navigate to the dimension tab, and ensure your frame range starts with 1, terminates at the desired end...the sun in the 3D view represented by a small dot with eight rays radially emanating. (b) Select Object icon from the property bar (see label D) and set

  10. Ontology of a scene based on Java 3D architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén González Crespo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to make an approach to the class hierarchy of a scene built with the architecture Java 3D, to develop an ontology of a scene as from the semantic essential components for the semantic structuring of the Web3D. Java was selected because the language recommended by the W3C Consortium for the Development of the Web3D oriented applications as from X3D standard is Xj3D which compositionof their Schemas is based the architecture of Java3D In first instance identifies the domain and scope of the ontology, defining classes and subclasses that comprise from Java3D architecture and the essential elements of a scene, as its point of origin, the field of rotation, translation The limitation of the scene and the definition of shaders, then define the slots that are declared in RDF as a framework for describing the properties of the classes established from identifying thedomain and range of each class, then develops composition of the OWL ontology on SWOOP Finally, be perform instantiations of the ontology building for a Iconosphere object as from class expressions defined.

  11. Presentation of 3D Scenes Through Video Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacci, Andrea; Ganovelli, Fabio; Corsini, Massimiliano; Scopigno, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Using synthetic videos to present a 3D scene is a common requirement for architects, designers, engineers or Cultural Heritage professionals however it is usually time consuming and, in order to obtain high quality results, the support of a film maker/computer animation expert is necessary. We introduce an alternative approach that takes the 3D scene of interest and an example video as input, and automatically produces a video of the input scene that resembles the given video example. In other words, our algorithm allows the user to "replicate" an existing video, on a different 3D scene. We build on the intuition that a video sequence of a static environment is strongly characterized by its optical flow, or, in other words, that two videos are similar if their optical flows are similar. We therefore recast the problem as producing a video of the input scene whose optical flow is similar to the optical flow of the input video. Our intuition is supported by a user-study specifically designed to verify this statement. We have successfully tested our approach on several scenes and input videos, some of which are reported in the accompanying material of this paper.

  12. Radiative transfer model for heterogeneous 3-D scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Kirchner, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    A general mathematical framework for simulating processes in heterogeneous 3-D scenes is presented. Specifically, a model was designed and coded for application to radiative transfers in vegetative scenes. The model is unique in that it predicts (1) the directional spectral reflectance factors as a function of the sensor's azimuth and zenith angles and the sensor's position above the canopy, (2) the spectral absorption as a function of location within the scene, and (3) the directional spectral radiance as a function of the sensor's location within the scene. The model was shown to follow known physical principles of radiative transfer. Initial verification of the model as applied to a soybean row crop showed that the simulated directional reflectance data corresponded relatively well in gross trends to the measured data. However, the model can be greatly improved by incorporating more sophisticated and realistic anisotropic scattering algorithms

  13. 3D Traffic Scene Understanding From Movable Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Andreas; Lauer, Martin; Wojek, Christian; Stiller, Christoph; Urtasun, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel probabilistic generative model for multi-object traffic scene understanding from movable platforms which reasons jointly about the 3D scene layout as well as the location and orientation of objects in the scene. In particular, the scene topology, geometry, and traffic activities are inferred from short video sequences. Inspired by the impressive driving capabilities of humans, our model does not rely on GPS, lidar, or map knowledge. Instead, it takes advantage of a diverse set of visual cues in the form of vehicle tracklets, vanishing points, semantic scene labels, scene flow, and occupancy grids. For each of these cues, we propose likelihood functions that are integrated into a probabilistic generative model. We learn all model parameters from training data using contrastive divergence. Experiments conducted on videos of 113 representative intersections show that our approach successfully infers the correct layout in a variety of very challenging scenarios. To evaluate the importance of each feature cue, experiments using different feature combinations are conducted. Furthermore, we show how by employing context derived from the proposed method we are able to improve over the state-of-the-art in terms of object detection and object orientation estimation in challenging and cluttered urban environments.

  14. Integrated computer-aided forensic case analysis, presentation, and documentation based on multimodal 3D data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornik, Alexander; Urschler, Martin; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Bischof, Horst; Krauskopf, Astrid; Schwark, Thorsten; Scheurer, Eva; Yen, Kathrin

    2018-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) crime scene documentation using 3D scanners and medical imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are increasingly applied in forensic casework. Together with digital photography, these modalities enable comprehensive and non-invasive recording of forensically relevant information regarding injuries/pathologies inside the body and on its surface. Furthermore, it is possible to capture traces and items at crime scenes. Such digitally secured evidence has the potential to similarly increase case understanding by forensic experts and non-experts in court. Unlike photographs and 3D surface models, images from CT and MRI are not self-explanatory. Their interpretation and understanding requires radiological knowledge. Findings in tomography data must not only be revealed, but should also be jointly studied with all the 2D and 3D data available in order to clarify spatial interrelations and to optimally exploit the data at hand. This is technically challenging due to the heterogeneous data representations including volumetric data, polygonal 3D models, and images. This paper presents a novel computer-aided forensic toolbox providing tools to support the analysis, documentation, annotation, and illustration of forensic cases using heterogeneous digital data. Conjoint visualization of data from different modalities in their native form and efficient tools to visually extract and emphasize findings help experts to reveal unrecognized correlations and thereby enhance their case understanding. Moreover, the 3D case illustrations created for case analysis represent an efficient means to convey the insights gained from case analysis to forensic non-experts involved in court proceedings like jurists and laymen. The capability of the presented approach in the context of case analysis, its potential to speed up legal procedures and to ultimately enhance legal certainty is demonstrated by introducing a number of

  15. METRIC EVALUATION PIPELINE FOR 3D MODELING OF URBAN SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bosch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.

  16. Metric Evaluation Pipeline for 3d Modeling of Urban Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, M.; Leichtman, A.; Chilcott, D.; Goldberg, H.; Brown, M.

    2017-05-01

    Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.

  17. The capture and recreation of 3D auditory scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyun

    The main goal of this research is to develop the theory and implement practical tools (in both software and hardware) for the capture and recreation of 3D auditory scenes. Our research is expected to have applications in virtual reality, telepresence, film, music, video games, auditory user interfaces, and sound-based surveillance. The first part of our research is concerned with sound capture via a spherical microphone array. The advantage of this array is that it can be steered into any 3D directions digitally with the same beampattern. We develop design methodologies to achieve flexible microphone layouts, optimal beampattern approximation and robustness constraint. We also design novel hemispherical and circular microphone array layouts for more spatially constrained auditory scenes. Using the captured audio, we then propose a unified and simple approach for recreating them by exploring the reciprocity principle that is satisfied between the two processes. Our approach makes the system easy to build, and practical. Using this approach, we can capture the 3D sound field by a spherical microphone array and recreate it using a spherical loudspeaker array, and ensure that the recreated sound field matches the recorded field up to a high order of spherical harmonics. For some regular or semi-regular microphone layouts, we design an efficient parallel implementation of the multi-directional spherical beamformer by using the rotational symmetries of the beampattern and of the spherical microphone array. This can be implemented in either software or hardware and easily adapted for other regular or semi-regular layouts of microphones. In addition, we extend this approach for headphone-based system. Design examples and simulation results are presented to verify our algorithms. Prototypes are built and tested in real-world auditory scenes.

  18. Accident or homicide--virtual crime scene reconstruction using 3D methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ursula; Naether, Silvio; Räss, Beat; Jackowski, Christian; Thali, Michael J

    2013-02-10

    The analysis and reconstruction of forensically relevant events, such as traffic accidents, criminal assaults and homicides are based on external and internal morphological findings of the injured or deceased person. For this approach high-tech methods are gaining increasing importance in forensic investigations. The non-contact optical 3D digitising system GOM ATOS is applied as a suitable tool for whole body surface and wound documentation and analysis in order to identify injury-causing instruments and to reconstruct the course of event. In addition to the surface documentation, cross-sectional imaging methods deliver medical internal findings of the body. These 3D data are fused into a whole body model of the deceased. Additional to the findings of the bodies, the injury inflicting instruments and incident scene is documented in 3D. The 3D data of the incident scene, generated by 3D laser scanning and photogrammetry, is also included into the reconstruction. Two cases illustrate the methods. In the fist case a man was shot in his bedroom and the main question was, if the offender shot the man intentionally or accidentally, as he declared. In the second case a woman was hit by a car, driving backwards into a garage. It was unclear if the driver drove backwards once or twice, which would indicate that he willingly injured and killed the woman. With this work, we demonstrate how 3D documentation, data merging and animation enable to answer reconstructive questions regarding the dynamic development of patterned injuries, and how this leads to a real data based reconstruction of the course of event. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimized 3D Street Scene Reconstruction from Driving Recorder Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic region detection based method to reconstruct street scenes from driving recorder images. The driving recorder in this paper is a dashboard camera that collects images while the motor vehicle is moving. An enormous number of moving vehicles are included in the collected data because the typical recorders are often mounted in the front of moving vehicles and face the forward direction, which can make matching points on vehicles and guardrails unreliable. Believing that utilizing these image data can reduce street scene reconstruction and updating costs because of their low price, wide use, and extensive shooting coverage, we therefore proposed a new method, which is called the Mask automatic detecting method, to improve the structure results from the motion reconstruction. Note that we define vehicle and guardrail regions as “mask” in this paper since the features on them should be masked out to avoid poor matches. After removing the feature points in our new method, the camera poses and sparse 3D points that are reconstructed with the remaining matches. Our contrast experiments with the typical pipeline of structure from motion (SfM reconstruction methods, such as Photosynth and VisualSFM, demonstrated that the Mask decreased the root-mean-square error (RMSE of the pairwise matching results, which led to more accurate recovering results from the camera-relative poses. Removing features from the Mask also increased the accuracy of point clouds by nearly 30%–40% and corrected the problems of the typical methods on repeatedly reconstructing several buildings when there was only one target building.

  20. Acquiring 3D scene information from 2D images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Ping

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, people are becoming increasingly acquainted with 3D technologies such as 3DTV, 3D movies and 3D virtual navigation of city environments in their daily life. Commercial 3D movies are now commonly available for consumers. Virtual navigation of our living environment as used on a

  1. Application of 3D Laser Scanner to Forensic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Seong; Jeon, Hong-Pil; Choi, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jin-Pyo; Park, Nam-Kyu

    2018-05-01

    In the case of building collapses and overturned structures, a three-dimensional (3D) collapse or overturn model is required to reconstruct the accident. As construction sites become increasingly complex and large, 3D laser scanning is sometimes the best tool to accurately document and store the site conditions. This case report presents one case of a structure collapse and one case of an overturned crane reconstructed by a 3D laser scanner. In the case of structural collapse of a prefabricated shoring system, a 3D model reconstructed all the members successfully, a task that is nearly impossible using a scale such as a tape measure. The reconstructed prefabricated shoring system was verified through a structural analysis through comparison with the construction drawings to investigate faults in construction. In the case of the overturned crane, the jib angle and other major dimensions were successfully acquired through 3D laser scanning and used to estimate the working radius. As a result, the propriety of the working radius with the given lifting load was successfully determined. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Representations and Techniques for 3D Object Recognition and Scene Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Hoiem, Derek

    2011-01-01

    One of the grand challenges of artificial intelligence is to enable computers to interpret 3D scenes and objects from imagery. This book organizes and introduces major concepts in 3D scene and object representation and inference from still images, with a focus on recent efforts to fuse models of geometry and perspective with statistical machine learning. The book is organized into three sections: (1) Interpretation of Physical Space; (2) Recognition of 3D Objects; and (3) Integrated 3D Scene Interpretation. The first discusses representations of spatial layout and techniques to interpret physi

  3. Stereo Scene Flow for 3D Motion Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wedel, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This book presents methods for estimating optical flow and scene flow motion with high accuracy, focusing on the practical application of these methods in camera-based driver assistance systems. Clearly and logically structured, the book builds from basic themes to more advanced concepts, culminating in the development of a novel, accurate and robust optic flow method. Features: reviews the major advances in motion estimation and motion analysis, and the latest progress of dense optical flow algorithms; investigates the use of residual images for optical flow; examines methods for deriving mot

  4. A semi-interactive panorama based 3D reconstruction framework for indoor scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.K.; Worring, M.; Bui, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    We present a semi-interactive method for 3D reconstruction specialized for indoor scenes which combines computer vision techniques with efficient interaction. We use panoramas, popularly used for visualization of indoor scenes, but clearly not able to show depth, for their great field of view, as

  5. REAL-TIME CAMERA GUIDANCE FOR 3D SCENE RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schindler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a framework for operator guidance during the image acquisition process for reliable multi-view stereo reconstruction. Goal is to achieve full coverage of the object and sufficient overlap. Multi-view stereo is a commonly used method to reconstruct both camera trajectory and 3D object shape. After determining an initial solution, a globally optimal reconstruction is usually obtained by executing a bundle adjustment involving all images. Acquiring suitable images, however, still requires an experienced operator to ensure accuracy and completeness of the final solution. We propose an interactive framework for guiding unexperienced users or possibly an autonomous robot. Using approximate camera orientations and object points we estimate point uncertainties within a sliding bundle adjustment and suggest appropriate camera movements. A visual feedback system communicates the decisions to the user in an intuitive way. We demonstrate the suitability of our system with a virtual image acquisition simulation as well as in real-world scenarios. We show that when following the camera movements suggested by our system, the proposed framework is able to generate good approximate values for the bundle adjustment, leading to accurate results compared to ground truth after few iterations. Possible applications are non-professional 3D acquisition systems on low-cost platforms like mobile phones, autonomously navigating robots as well as online flight planning of unmanned aerial vehicles.

  6. Forensic neutron activation analysis - the Japanese scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Tohru.

    1986-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis/FNAA/ in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences /e.g.,paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks/ and drug sample differenciation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author)

  7. Coniferous Canopy BRF Simulation Based on 3-D Realistic Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-yun; Guo, Zhi-feng; Qin, Wen-han; Sun, Guo-qing

    2011-01-01

    It is difficulties for the computer simulation method to study radiation regime at large-scale. Simplified coniferous model was investigate d in the present study. It makes the computer simulation methods such as L-systems and radiosity-graphics combined method (RGM) more powerf ul in remote sensing of heterogeneous coniferous forests over a large -scale region. L-systems is applied to render 3-D coniferous forest scenarios: and RGM model was used to calculate BRF (bidirectional refle ctance factor) in visible and near-infrared regions. Results in this study show that in most cases both agreed well. Meanwhiie at a tree and forest level. the results are also good.

  8. Estimating 3D tilt from local image cues in natural scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Burge, Johannes; McCann, Brian C.; Geisler, Wilson S.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating three-dimensional (3D) surface orientation (slant and tilt) is an important first step toward estimating 3D shape. Here, we examine how three local image cues from the same location (disparity gradient, luminance gradient, and dominant texture orientation) should be combined to estimate 3D tilt in natural scenes. We collected a database of natural stereoscopic images with precisely co-registered range images that provide the ground-truth distance at each pixel location. We then ana...

  9. Qualitative spatial logic descriptors from 3D indoor scenes to generate explanations in natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir, Zoe; Kluth, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    The challenge of describing 3D real scenes is tackled in this paper using qualitative spatial descriptors. A key point to study is which qualitative descriptors to use and how these qualitative descriptors must be organized to produce a suitable cognitive explanation. In order to find answers, a survey test was carried out with human participants which openly described a scene containing some pieces of furniture. The data obtained in this survey are analysed, and taking this into account, the QSn3D computational approach was developed which uses a XBox 360 Kinect to obtain 3D data from a real indoor scene. Object features are computed on these 3D data to identify objects in indoor scenes. The object orientation is computed, and qualitative spatial relations between the objects are extracted. These qualitative spatial relations are the input to a grammar which applies saliency rules obtained from the survey study and generates cognitive natural language descriptions of scenes. Moreover, these qualitative descriptors can be expressed as first-order logical facts in Prolog for further reasoning. Finally, a validation study is carried out to test whether the descriptions provided by QSn3D approach are human readable. The obtained results show that their acceptability is higher than 82%.

  10. CarSim: Automatic 3D Scene Generation of a Car Accident Description

    OpenAIRE

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written accident report. The CarSim system processes formal descriptions of accidents and creates corresponding 3D simulations. A planning component models the trajectories and temporal values of every vehicle ...

  11. Integration of virtual and real scenes within an integral 3D imaging environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jinsong; Aggoun, Amar; McCormick, Malcolm

    2002-11-01

    The Imaging Technologies group at De Montfort University has developed an integral 3D imaging system, which is seen as the most likely vehicle for 3D television avoiding psychological effects. To create real fascinating three-dimensional television programs, a virtual studio that performs the task of generating, editing and integrating the 3D contents involving virtual and real scenes is required. The paper presents, for the first time, the procedures, factors and methods of integrating computer-generated virtual scenes with real objects captured using the 3D integral imaging camera system. The method of computer generation of 3D integral images, where the lens array is modelled instead of the physical camera is described. In the model each micro-lens that captures different elemental images of the virtual scene is treated as an extended pinhole camera. An integration process named integrated rendering is illustrated. Detailed discussion and deep investigation are focused on depth extraction from captured integral 3D images. The depth calculation method from the disparity and the multiple baseline method that is used to improve the precision of depth estimation are also presented. The concept of colour SSD and its further improvement in the precision is proposed and verified.

  12. Single-View 3D Scene Reconstruction and Parsing by Attribute Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobai; Zhao, Yibiao; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present an attribute grammar for solving two coupled tasks: i) parsing a 2D image into semantic regions; and ii) recovering the 3D scene structures of all regions. The proposed grammar consists of a set of production rules, each describing a kind of spatial relation between planar surfaces in 3D scenes. These production rules are used to decompose an input image into a hierarchical parse graph representation where each graph node indicates a planar surface or a composite surface. Different from other stochastic image grammars, the proposed grammar augments each graph node with a set of attribute variables to depict scene-level global geometry, e.g., camera focal length, or local geometry, e.g., surface normal, contact lines between surfaces. These geometric attributes impose constraints between a node and its off-springs in the parse graph. Under a probabilistic framework, we develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to construct a parse graph that optimizes the 2D image recognition and 3D scene reconstruction purposes simultaneously. We evaluated our method on both public benchmarks and newly collected datasets. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of achieving state-of-the-art scene reconstruction of a single image.

  13. CarSim: Automatic 3D Scene Generation of a Car Accident Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written

  14. Using 3D range cameras for crime scene documentation and legal medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnini, Gianluca; Sansoni, Giovanna; Trebeschi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Crime scene documentation and legal medicine analysis are part of a very complex process which is aimed at identifying the offender starting from the collection of the evidences on the scene. This part of the investigation is very critical, since the crime scene is extremely volatile, and once it is removed, it can not be precisely created again. For this reason, the documentation process should be as complete as possible, with minimum invasiveness. The use of optical 3D imaging sensors has been considered as a possible aid to perform the documentation step, since (i) the measurement is contactless and (ii) the process required to editing and modeling the 3D data is quite similar to the reverse engineering procedures originally developed for the manufacturing field. In this paper we show the most important results obtained in the experimentation.

  15. a Low-Cost Panoramic Camera for the 3d Documentation of Contaminated Crime Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, D.; Toschi, I.; Sturdy-Colls, C.; Remondino, F.

    2017-11-01

    Crime scene documentation is a fundamental task which has to be undertaken in a fast, accurate and reliable way, highlighting evidence which can be further used for ensuring justice for victims and for guaranteeing the successful prosecution of perpetrators. The main focus of this paper is on the documentation of a typical crime scene and on the rapid recording of any possible contamination that could have influenced its original appearance. A 3D reconstruction of the environment is first generated by processing panoramas acquired with the low-cost Ricoh Theta 360 camera, and further analysed to highlight potentials and limits of this emerging and consumer-grade technology. Then, a methodology is proposed for the rapid recording of changes occurring between the original and the contaminated crime scene. The approach is based on an automatic 3D feature-based data registration, followed by a cloud-to-cloud distance computation, given as input the 3D point clouds generated before and after e.g. the misplacement of evidence. All the algorithms adopted for panoramas pre-processing, photogrammetric 3D reconstruction, 3D geometry registration and analysis, are presented and currently available in open-source or low-cost software solutions.

  16. Signs of depth-luminance covariance in 3-D cluttered scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaccia, Milena; Langer, Michael S

    2018-03-01

    In three-dimensional (3-D) cluttered scenes such as foliage, deeper surfaces often are more shadowed and hence darker, and so depth and luminance often have negative covariance. We examined whether the sign of depth-luminance covariance plays a role in depth perception in 3-D clutter. We compared scenes rendered with negative and positive depth-luminance covariance where positive covariance means that deeper surfaces are brighter and negative covariance means deeper surfaces are darker. For each scene, the sign of the depth-luminance covariance was given by occlusion cues. We tested whether subjects could use this sign information to judge the depth order of two target surfaces embedded in 3-D clutter. The clutter consisted of distractor surfaces that were randomly distributed in a 3-D volume. We tested three independent variables: the sign of the depth-luminance covariance, the colors of the targets and distractors, and the background luminance. An analysis of variance showed two main effects: Subjects performed better when the deeper surfaces were darker and when the color of the target surfaces was the same as the color of the distractors. There was also a strong interaction: Subjects performed better under a negative depth-luminance covariance condition when targets and distractors had different colors than when they had the same color. Our results are consistent with a "dark means deep" rule, but the use of this rule depends on the similarity between the color of the targets and color of the 3-D clutter.

  17. APPROACH TO CONSTRUCTING 3D VIRTUAL SCENE OF IRRIGATION AREA USING MULTI-SOURCE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For an irrigation area that is often complicated by various 3D artificial ground features and natural environment, disadvantages of traditional 2D GIS in spatial data representation, management, query, analysis and visualization is becoming more and more evident. Building a more realistic 3D virtual scene is thus especially urgent for irrigation area managers and decision makers, so that they can carry out various irrigational operations lively and intuitively. Based on previous researchers' achievements, a simple, practical and cost-effective approach was proposed in this study, by adopting3D geographic information system (3D GIS, remote sensing (RS technology. Based on multi-source data such as Google Earth (GE high-resolution remote sensing image, ASTER G-DEM, hydrological facility maps and so on, 3D terrain model and ground feature models were created interactively. Both of the models were then rendered with texture data and integrated under ArcGIS platform. A vivid, realistic 3D virtual scene of irrigation area that has a good visual effect and possesses primary GIS functions about data query and analysis was constructed.Yet, there is still a long way to go for establishing a true 3D GIS for the irrigation are: issues of this study were deeply discussed and future research direction was pointed out in the end of the paper.

  18. Influence of 3D effects on 1D aerosol retrievals in synthetic, partially clouded scenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stap, F.A.; Hasekamp, O.P.; Emde, C.; Röckmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    An important challenge in aerosol remote sensing is to retrieve aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds and in cloud contaminated scenes. Satellite based multi-wavelength, multi-angular, photo-polarimetric instruments are particularly suited for this task as they have the ability to separate scattering by aerosol and cloud particles. Simultaneous aerosol/cloud retrievals using 1D radiative transfer codes cannot account for 3D effects such as shadows, cloud induced enhancements and darkening of cloud edges. In this study we investigate what errors are introduced on the retrieved optical and micro-physical aerosol properties, when these 3D effects are neglected in retrievals where the partial cloud cover is modeled using the Independent Pixel Approximation. To this end a generic, synthetic data set of PARASOL like observations for 3D scenes with partial, liquid water cloud cover is created. It is found that in scenes with random cloud distributions (i.e. broken cloud fields) and either low cloud optical thickness or low cloud fraction, the inversion algorithm can fit the observations and retrieve optical and micro-physical aerosol properties with sufficient accuracy. In scenes with non-random cloud distributions (e.g. at the edge of a cloud field) the inversion algorithm can fit the observations, however, here the retrieved real part of the refractive indices of both modes is biased. - Highlights: • An algorithm for retrieval of both aerosol and cloud properties is presented. • Radiative transfer models of 3D, partially clouded scenes are simulated. • Errors introduced in the retrieved aerosol properties are discussed.

  19. Multi-view 3D scene reconstruction using ant colony optimization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysostomou, Dimitrios; Gasteratos, Antonios; Nalpantidis, Lazaros; Sirakoulis, Georgios C

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new method performing high-quality 3D object reconstruction of complex shapes derived from multiple, calibrated photographs of the same scene. The novelty of this research is found in two basic elements, namely: (i) a novel voxel dissimilarity measure, which accommodates the elimination of the lighting variations of the models and (ii) the use of an ant colony approach for further refinement of the final 3D models. The proposed reconstruction procedure employs a volumetric method based on a novel projection test for the production of a visual hull. While the presented algorithm shares certain aspects with the space carving algorithm, it is, nevertheless, first enhanced with the lightness compensating image comparison method, and then refined using ant colony optimization. The algorithm is fast, computationally simple and results in accurate representations of the input scenes. In addition, compared to previous publications, the particular nature of the proposed algorithm allows accurate 3D volumetric measurements under demanding lighting environmental conditions, due to the fact that it can cope with uneven light scenes, resulting from the characteristics of the voxel dissimilarity measure applied. Besides, the intelligent behavior of the ant colony framework provides the opportunity to formulate the process as a combinatorial optimization problem, which can then be solved by means of a colony of cooperating artificial ants, resulting in very promising results. The method is validated with several real datasets, along with qualitative comparisons with other state-of-the-art 3D reconstruction techniques, following the Middlebury benchmark. (paper)

  20. Special effects used in creating 3D animated scenes-part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramescu, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    In present, with the help of computer, we can create special effects that look so real that we almost don't perceive them as being different. These special effects are somehow hard to differentiate from the real elements like those on the screen. With the increasingly accesible 3D field that has more and more areas of application, the 3D technology goes easily from architecture to product designing. Real like 3D animations are used as means of learning, for multimedia presentations of big global corporations, for special effects and even for virtual actors in movies. Technology, as part of the movie art, is considered a prerequisite but the cinematography is the first art that had to wait for the correct intersection of technological development, innovation and human vision in order to attain full achievement. Increasingly more often, the majority of industries is using 3D sequences (three dimensional). 3D represented graphics, commercials and special effects from movies are all designed in 3D. The key for attaining real visual effects is to successfully combine various distinct elements: characters, objects, images and video scenes; like all these elements represent a whole that works in perfect harmony. This article aims to exhibit a game design from these days. Considering the advanced technology and futuristic vision of designers, nowadays we have different and multifarious game models. Special effects are decisively contributing in the creation of a realistic three-dimensional scene. These effects are essential for transmitting the emotional state of the scene. Creating the special effects is a work of finesse in order to achieve high quality scenes. Special effects can be used to get the attention of the onlooker on an object from a scene. Out of the conducted study, the best-selling game of the year 2010 was Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2. This way, the article aims for the presented scene to be similar with many locations from this type of games, more

  1. Virtual animation of victim-specific 3D models obtained from CT scans for forensic reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, C; Olsen, K B; Hansen, S H

    2017-01-01

    Post-mortem CT scanning (PMCT) has been introduced at several forensic medical institutions many years ago and has proved to be a useful tool. 3D models of bones, skin, internal organs and bullet paths can rapidly be generated using post-processing software. These 3D models reflect the individual...

  2. 3D Aware Correction and Completion of Depth Maps in Piecewise Planar Scenes

    KAUST Repository

    Thabet, Ali Kassem

    2015-04-16

    RGB-D sensors are popular in the computer vision community, especially for problems of scene understanding, semantic scene labeling, and segmentation. However, most of these methods depend on reliable input depth measurements, while discarding unreliable ones. This paper studies how reliable depth values can be used to correct the unreliable ones, and how to complete (or extend) the available depth data beyond the raw measurements of the sensor (i.e. infer depth at pixels with unknown depth values), given a prior model on the 3D scene. We consider piecewise planar environments in this paper, since many indoor scenes with man-made objects can be modeled as such. We propose a framework that uses the RGB-D sensor’s noise profile to adaptively and robustly fit plane segments (e.g. floor and ceiling) and iteratively complete the depth map, when possible. Depth completion is formulated as a discrete labeling problem (MRF) with hard constraints and solved efficiently using graph cuts. To regularize this problem, we exploit 3D and appearance cues that encourage pixels to take on depth values that will be compatible in 3D to the piecewise planar assumption. Extensive experiments, on a new large-scale and challenging dataset, show that our approach results in more accurate depth maps (with 20 % more depth values) than those recorded by the RGB-D sensor. Additional experiments on the NYUv2 dataset show that our method generates more 3D aware depth. These generated depth maps can also be used to improve the performance of a state-of-the-art RGB-D SLAM method.

  3. Visual Object Recognition with 3D-Aware Features in KITTI Urban Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebes, J Javier; Bergasa, Luis M; García-Garrido, Miguel Ángel

    2015-04-20

    Driver assistance systems and autonomous robotics rely on the deployment of several sensors for environment perception. Compared to LiDAR systems, the inexpensive vision sensors can capture the 3D scene as perceived by a driver in terms of appearance and depth cues. Indeed, providing 3D image understanding capabilities to vehicles is an essential target in order to infer scene semantics in urban environments. One of the challenges that arises from the navigation task in naturalistic urban scenarios is the detection of road participants (e.g., cyclists, pedestrians and vehicles). In this regard, this paper tackles the detection and orientation estimation of cars, pedestrians and cyclists, employing the challenging and naturalistic KITTI images. This work proposes 3D-aware features computed from stereo color images in order to capture the appearance and depth peculiarities of the objects in road scenes. The successful part-based object detector, known as DPM, is extended to learn richer models from the 2.5D data (color and disparity), while also carrying out a detailed analysis of the training pipeline. A large set of experiments evaluate the proposals, and the best performing approach is ranked on the KITTI website. Indeed, this is the first work that reports results with stereo data for the KITTI object challenge, achieving increased detection ratios for the classes car and cyclist compared to a baseline DPM.

  4. Visual Object Recognition with 3D-Aware Features in KITTI Urban Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javier Yebes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Driver assistance systems and autonomous robotics rely on the deployment of several sensors for environment perception. Compared to LiDAR systems, the inexpensive vision sensors can capture the 3D scene as perceived by a driver in terms of appearance and depth cues. Indeed, providing 3D image understanding capabilities to vehicles is an essential target in order to infer scene semantics in urban environments. One of the challenges that arises from the navigation task in naturalistic urban scenarios is the detection of road participants (e.g., cyclists, pedestrians and vehicles. In this regard, this paper tackles the detection and orientation estimation of cars, pedestrians and cyclists, employing the challenging and naturalistic KITTI images. This work proposes 3D-aware features computed from stereo color images in order to capture the appearance and depth peculiarities of the objects in road scenes. The successful part-based object detector, known as DPM, is extended to learn richer models from the 2.5D data (color and disparity, while also carrying out a detailed analysis of the training pipeline. A large set of experiments evaluate the proposals, and the best performing approach is ranked on the KITTI website. Indeed, this is the first work that reports results with stereo data for the KITTI object challenge, achieving increased detection ratios for the classes car and cyclist compared to a baseline DPM.

  5. Optimising crime scene temperature collection for forensic entomology casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Ines M J; Hart, Andrew J; Martín-Vega, Daniel; Hall, Martin J R

    2017-01-01

    The value of minimum post-mortem interval (minPMI) estimations in suspicious death investigations from insect evidence using temperature modelling is indisputable. In order to investigate the reliability of the collected temperature data used for modelling minPMI, it is necessary to study the effects of data logger location on the accuracy and precision of measurements. Digital data logging devices are the most commonly used temperature measuring devices in forensic entomology, however, the relationship between ambient temperatures (measured by loggers) and body temperatures has been little studied. The placement of loggers in this study in three locations (two outdoors, one indoors) had measurable effects when compared with actual body temperature measurements (simulated with pig heads), some more significant than others depending on season, exposure to the environment and logger location. Overall, the study demonstrated the complexity of the question of optimal logger placement at a crime scene and the potential impact of inaccurate temperature data on minPMI estimations, showing the importance of further research in this area and development of a standard protocol. Initial recommendations are provided for data logger placement (within a Stevenson Screen where practical), situations to avoid (e.g. placement of logger in front of windows when measuring indoor temperatures), and a baseline for further research into producing standard guidelines for logger placement, to increase the accuracy of minPMI estimations and, thereby, the reliability of forensic entomology evidence in court. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Research on 3D virtual campus scene modeling based on 3ds Max and VRML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chuanli; Zhou, Yanliu; Liang, Xianyue

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid development of modem technology, the digital information management and the virtual reality simulation technology has become a research hotspot. Virtual campus 3D model can not only express the real world objects of natural, real and vivid, and can expand the campus of the reality of time and space dimension, the combination of school environment and information. This paper mainly uses 3ds Max technology to create three-dimensional model of building and on campus buildings, special land etc. And then, the dynamic interactive function is realized by programming the object model in 3ds Max by VRML .This research focus on virtual campus scene modeling technology and VRML Scene Design, and the scene design process in a variety of real-time processing technology optimization strategy. This paper guarantees texture map image quality and improve the running speed of image texture mapping. According to the features and architecture of Guilin University of Technology, 3ds Max, AutoCAD and VRML were used to model the different objects of the virtual campus. Finally, the result of virtual campus scene is summarized.

  7. Super-Segments Based Classification of 3D Urban Street Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of classifying 3D point clouds: given 3D urban street scenes gathered by a lidar sensor, we wish to assign a class label to every point. This work is a key step toward realizing applications in robots and cars, for example. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the classification of 3D urban scenes based on super-segments, which are generated from point clouds by two stages of segmentation: a clustering stage and a grouping stage. Then, six effective normal and dimension features that vary with object class are extracted at the super-segment level for training some general classifiers. We evaluate our method both quantitatively and qualitatively using the challenging Velodyne lidar data set. The results show that by only using normal and dimension features we can achieve better recognition than can be achieved with high-dimensional shape descriptors. We also evaluate the adopting of the MRF framework in our approach, but the experimental results indicate that thisbarely improved the accuracy of the classified results due to the sparse property of the super-segments.

  8. Motion field estimation for a dynamic scene using a 3D LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-09-09

    This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.

  9. Motion Field Estimation for a Dynamic Scene Using a 3D LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingquan Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.

  10. 3D Scene Reconstruction Using Omnidirectional Vision and LiDAR: A Hybrid Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Vlaminck

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel approach to obtain accurate 3D reconstructions of large-scale environments by means of a mobile acquisition platform. The system incorporates a Velodyne LiDAR scanner, as well as a Point Grey Ladybug panoramic camera system. It was designed with genericity in mind, and hence, it does not make any assumption about the scene or about the sensor set-up. The main novelty of this work is that the proposed LiDAR mapping approach deals explicitly with the inhomogeneous density of point clouds produced by LiDAR scanners. To this end, we keep track of a global 3D map of the environment, which is continuously improved and refined by means of a surface reconstruction technique. Moreover, we perform surface analysis on consecutive generated point clouds in order to assure a perfect alignment with the global 3D map. In order to cope with drift, the system incorporates loop closure by determining the pose error and propagating it back in the pose graph. Our algorithm was exhaustively tested on data captured at a conference building, a university campus and an industrial site of a chemical company. Experiments demonstrate that it is capable of generating highly accurate 3D maps in very challenging environments. We can state that the average distance of corresponding point pairs between the ground truth and estimated point cloud approximates one centimeter for an area covering approximately 4000 m 2 . To prove the genericity of the system, it was tested on the well-known Kitti vision benchmark. The results show that our approach competes with state of the art methods without making any additional assumptions.

  11. The ART of CSI: An augmented reality tool (ART) to annotate crime scenes in forensic investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, J.W.; Houben, M.; Amerongen, P. van; Haar, F. ter; Dijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Forensic professionals have to collect evidence at crime scenes quickly and without contamination. A handheld Augmented Reality (AR) annotation tool allows these users to virtually tag evidence traces at crime scenes and to review, share and export evidence lists. In an user walkthrough with this

  12. Application for 3d Scene Understanding in Detecting Discharge of Domesticwaste Along Complex Urban Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninsalam, Y.; Qin, R.; Rekittke, J.

    2016-06-01

    In our study we use 3D scene understanding to detect the discharge of domestic solid waste along an urban river. Solid waste found along the Ciliwung River in the neighbourhoods of Bukit Duri and Kampung Melayu may be attributed to households. This is in part due to inadequate municipal waste infrastructure and services which has caused those living along the river to rely upon it for waste disposal. However, there has been little research to understand the prevalence of household waste along the river. Our aim is to develop a methodology that deploys a low cost sensor to identify point source discharge of solid waste using image classification methods. To demonstrate this we describe the following five-step method: 1) a strip of GoPro images are captured photogrammetrically and processed for dense point cloud generation; 2) depth for each image is generated through a backward projection of the point clouds; 3) a supervised image classification method based on Random Forest classifier is applied on the view dependent red, green, blue and depth (RGB-D) data; 4) point discharge locations of solid waste can then be mapped by projecting the classified images to the 3D point clouds; 5) then the landscape elements are classified into five types, such as vegetation, human settlement, soil, water and solid waste. While this work is still ongoing, the initial results have demonstrated that it is possible to perform quantitative studies that may help reveal and estimate the amount of waste present along the river bank.

  13. Usability of aerial video footage for 3-D scene reconstruction and structural damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusicanqui, Johnny; Kerle, Norman; Nex, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Remote sensing has evolved into the most efficient approach to assess post-disaster structural damage, in extensively affected areas through the use of spaceborne data. For smaller, and in particular, complex urban disaster scenes, multi-perspective aerial imagery obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles and derived dense color 3-D models are increasingly being used. These type of data allow the direct and automated recognition of damage-related features, supporting an effective post-disaster structural damage assessment. However, the rapid collection and sharing of multi-perspective aerial imagery is still limited due to tight or lacking regulations and legal frameworks. A potential alternative is aerial video footage, which is typically acquired and shared by civil protection institutions or news media and which tends to be the first type of airborne data available. Nevertheless, inherent artifacts and the lack of suitable processing means have long limited its potential use in structural damage assessment and other post-disaster activities. In this research the usability of modern aerial video data was evaluated based on a comparative quality and application analysis of video data and multi-perspective imagery (photos), and their derivative 3-D point clouds created using current photogrammetric techniques. Additionally, the effects of external factors, such as topography and the presence of smoke and moving objects, were determined by analyzing two different earthquake-affected sites: Tainan (Taiwan) and Pescara del Tronto (Italy). Results demonstrated similar usabilities for video and photos. This is shown by the short 2 cm of difference between the accuracies of video- and photo-based 3-D point clouds. Despite the low video resolution, the usability of these data was compensated for by a small ground sampling distance. Instead of video characteristics, low quality and application resulted from non-data-related factors, such as changes in the scene, lack of

  14. Forensic aerial photography: projected 3-D exhibits facilitating rapid environmental justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Robert A.

    2009-02-01

    Forensic stereoscopic analysis of historical aerial photography is successfully identifying the causes of environmental degradation, including erosion and unlawful releases of hazardous wastes into the environment. The photogrammetric evidence can successfully pinpoint the specific locations of undocumented hazardous waste landfills and other types of unlawful releases of chemicals and wastes into the environment, providing location data for targeted investigation, characterization, and subsequent remediation. The findings of these studies are being effectively communicated in a simple, memorable, and compelling way by projecting the three-dimensional (3-D) sequences of historical aerial photography utilizing polarized 3-D presentation methods.

  15. Automated Coarse Registration of Point Clouds in 3d Urban Scenes Using Voxel Based Plane Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Boerner, R.; Yao, W.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2017-09-01

    For obtaining a full coverage of 3D scans in a large-scale urban area, the registration between point clouds acquired via terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is normally mandatory. However, due to the complex urban environment, the automatic registration of different scans is still a challenging problem. In this work, we propose an automatic marker free method for fast and coarse registration between point clouds using the geometric constrains of planar patches under a voxel structure. Our proposed method consists of four major steps: the voxelization of the point cloud, the approximation of planar patches, the matching of corresponding patches, and the estimation of transformation parameters. In the voxelization step, the point cloud of each scan is organized with a 3D voxel structure, by which the entire point cloud is partitioned into small individual patches. In the following step, we represent points of each voxel with the approximated plane function, and select those patches resembling planar surfaces. Afterwards, for matching the corresponding patches, a RANSAC-based strategy is applied. Among all the planar patches of a scan, we randomly select a planar patches set of three planar surfaces, in order to build a coordinate frame via their normal vectors and their intersection points. The transformation parameters between scans are calculated from these two coordinate frames. The planar patches set with its transformation parameters owning the largest number of coplanar patches are identified as the optimal candidate set for estimating the correct transformation parameters. The experimental results using TLS datasets of different scenes reveal that our proposed method can be both effective and efficient for the coarse registration task. Especially, for the fast orientation between scans, our proposed method can achieve a registration error of less than around 2 degrees using the testing datasets, and much more efficient than the classical baseline methods.

  16. APPLICATION FOR 3D SCENE UNDERSTANDING IN DETECTING DISCHARGE OF DOMESTICWASTE ALONG COMPLEX URBAN RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ninsalam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In our study we use 3D scene understanding to detect the discharge of domestic solid waste along an urban river. Solid waste found along the Ciliwung River in the neighbourhoods of Bukit Duri and Kampung Melayu may be attributed to households. This is in part due to inadequate municipal waste infrastructure and services which has caused those living along the river to rely upon it for waste disposal. However, there has been little research to understand the prevalence of household waste along the river. Our aim is to develop a methodology that deploys a low cost sensor to identify point source discharge of solid waste using image classification methods. To demonstrate this we describe the following five-step method: 1 a strip of GoPro images are captured photogrammetrically and processed for dense point cloud generation; 2 depth for each image is generated through a backward projection of the point clouds; 3 a supervised image classification method based on Random Forest classifier is applied on the view dependent red, green, blue and depth (RGB-D data; 4 point discharge locations of solid waste can then be mapped by projecting the classified images to the 3D point clouds; 5 then the landscape elements are classified into five types, such as vegetation, human settlement, soil, water and solid waste. While this work is still ongoing, the initial results have demonstrated that it is possible to perform quantitative studies that may help reveal and estimate the amount of waste present along the river bank.

  17. 3D Aware Correction and Completion of Depth Maps in Piecewise Planar Scenes

    KAUST Repository

    Thabet, Ali Kassem; Lahoud, Jean; Asmar, Daniel; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    RGB-D sensors are popular in the computer vision community, especially for problems of scene understanding, semantic scene labeling, and segmentation. However, most of these methods depend on reliable input depth measurements, while discarding

  18. The role of forensic botany in crime scene investigation: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Ausania, Francesco; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Serra, Arianna; Boca, Silvia; Capelli, Arnaldo; Magni, Paola; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-05-01

    Management of a crime is the process of ensuring accurate and effective collection and preservation of physical evidence. Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidences during criminal investigations. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of forensic botany in the crime scene. We reported a case of a woman affected by dementia who had disappeared from nursing care and was found dead near the banks of a river that flowed under a railroad. Two possible ways of access to crime scene were identified and denominated "Path A" and "Path B." Both types of soil and plants were identified. Botanical survey was performed. Some samples of Xanthium Orientalis subsp. Italicum were identified. The fall of woman resulted in external injuries and vertebral fracture at autopsy. The botanical evidence is important when crime scene and autopsy findings are not sufficient to define the dynamics and the modality of death. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Effects of scene content and layout on the perceived light direction in 3D spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling; Pont, Sylvia C; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2016-08-01

    The lighting and furnishing of an interior space (i.e., the reflectance of its materials, the geometries of the furnishings, and their arrangement) determine the appearance of this space. Conversely, human observers infer lighting properties from the space's appearance. We conducted two psychophysical experiments to investigate how the perception of the light direction is influenced by a scene's objects and their layout using real scenes. In the first experiment, we confirmed that the shape of the objects in the scene and the scene layout influence the perceived light direction. In the second experiment, we systematically investigated how specific shape properties influenced the estimation of the light direction. The results showed that increasing the number of visible faces of an object, ultimately using globally spherical shapes in the scene, supported the veridicality of the estimated light direction. Furthermore, symmetric arrangements in the scene improved the estimation of the tilt direction. Thus, human perception of light should integrally consider materials, scene content, and layout.

  20. How Perceived Distractor Distance Influences Reference Production : Effects of Perceptual Grouping in 2D and 3D Scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, R.M.F.; Houben, E.; Huntjens, J.; Krahmer, E.J.; Bello, Paul; Guarini, Marcello; McShane, Marjorie; Scassellati, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This study explored two factors that might have an impact on how participants perceive distance between objects in a visual scene: perceptual grouping and presentation mode (2D versus 3D). More specifically, we examined how these factors affect language production, asking if they cause speakers to

  1. APPLICATION OF FORENSIC SCIENCE TECHNIQUES IN CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathri.S*

    2018-01-01

    Forensic Science means the application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by the police agencies in a criminal justice system .Forensic Science plays a vital role in the criminal justice system by providing scientifically based information through the analysis of physical evidence. It involves the use of multiple disciplines such as physics, chemistry, biology, computer science and engineering for evidence analysis. In this paper I would like to analysis how...

  2. Applicability of 3D-CT facial reconstruction for forensic individual identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Sara dos Santos; Ramos, Dalton Luiz de Paula; Cavalcanti, Marcelo de Gusmao Paraiso

    2003-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is used in several clinical dentistry applications even by axial slices and two and three-dimensional reconstructed images (2D-CT and 3D-CT). The purpose of the current study is to assess the precision of linear measurements made in 3D-CT using cranio metric patterns for individual identification in Forensic Dentistry. Five cadaver heads were submitted to a spiral computed tomography using axial slices, and 3D-CT reconstructions were obtained by volume rendering technique with computer graphics tools. Ten (10) cranio metric measurements were determined in 3D-CT images by two examiners independently, twice each, and the standard error of intra- and inter-examiner measurements was assessed. The results demonstrated a low standard error of those measurements, from 0.85% to 3.09%. In conclusion, the linear measurements obtained in osseous and soft tissue structures were considered to be precise in 3D-CT with high imaging quality and resolution. (author)

  3. Applicability of 3D-CT facial reconstruction for forensic individual identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Sara dos Santos [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Odontologia Forense; Ramos, Dalton Luiz de Paula [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. of Odontologia Social; Cavalcanti, Marcelo de Gusmao Paraiso [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2003-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is used in several clinical dentistry applications even by axial slices and two and three-dimensional reconstructed images (2D-CT and 3D-CT). The purpose of the current study is to assess the precision of linear measurements made in 3D-CT using cranio metric patterns for individual identification in Forensic Dentistry. Five cadaver heads were submitted to a spiral computed tomography using axial slices, and 3D-CT reconstructions were obtained by volume rendering technique with computer graphics tools. Ten (10) cranio metric measurements were determined in 3D-CT images by two examiners independently, twice each, and the standard error of intra- and inter-examiner measurements was assessed. The results demonstrated a low standard error of those measurements, from 0.85% to 3.09%. In conclusion, the linear measurements obtained in osseous and soft tissue structures were considered to be precise in 3D-CT with high imaging quality and resolution. (author)

  4. Complex scenes and situations visualization in hierarchical learning algorithm with dynamic 3D NeoAxis engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

    2013-06-01

    We applied a two stage unsupervised hierarchical learning system to model complex dynamic surveillance and cyber space monitoring systems using a non-commercial version of the NeoAxis visualization software. The hierarchical scene learning and recognition approach is based on hierarchical expectation maximization, and was linked to a 3D graphics engine for validation of learning and classification results and understanding the human - autonomous system relationship. Scene recognition is performed by taking synthetically generated data and feeding it to a dynamic logic algorithm. The algorithm performs hierarchical recognition of the scene by first examining the features of the objects to determine which objects are present, and then determines the scene based on the objects present. This paper presents a framework within which low level data linked to higher-level visualization can provide support to a human operator and be evaluated in a detailed and systematic way.

  5. Testing a Novel 3D Printed Radiographic Imaging Device for Use in Forensic Odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Tara L; Bruhn, Ann M; Giles, Bridget; Garcia, Hector M; Diawara, Norou

    2017-01-01

    There are specific challenges related to forensic dental radiology and difficulties in aligning X-ray equipment to teeth of interest. Researchers used 3D printing to create a new device, the combined holding and aiming device (CHAD), to address the positioning limitations of current dental X-ray devices. Participants (N = 24) used the CHAD, soft dental wax, and a modified external aiming device (MEAD) to determine device preference, radiographer's efficiency, and technique errors. Each participant exposed six X-rays per device for a total of 432 X-rays scored. A significant difference was found at the 0.05 level between the three devices (p = 0.0015), with the MEAD having the least amount of total errors and soft dental wax taking the least amount of time. Total errors were highest when participants used soft dental wax-both the MEAD and the CHAD performed best overall. Further research in forensic dental radiology and use of holding devices is needed. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Utilising E-on Vue and Unity 3D scenes to generate synthetic images and videos for visible signature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Christopher S.; Richards, Noel J.; Culpepper, Joanne B.

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the ability to develop synthetic scenes in an image generation tool, E-on Vue, and a gaming engine, Unity 3D, which can be used to generate synthetic imagery of target objects across a variety of conditions in land environments. Developments within these tools and gaming engines have allowed the computer gaming industry to dramatically enhance the realism of the games they develop; however they utilise short cuts to ensure that the games run smoothly in real-time to create an immersive effect. Whilst these short cuts may have an impact upon the realism of the synthetic imagery, they do promise a much more time efficient method of developing imagery of different environmental conditions and to investigate the dynamic aspect of military operations that is currently not evaluated in signature analysis. The results presented investigate how some of the common image metrics used in target acquisition modelling, namely the Δμ1, Δμ2, Δμ3, RSS, and Doyle metrics, perform on the synthetic scenes generated by E-on Vue and Unity 3D compared to real imagery of similar scenes. An exploration of the time required to develop the various aspects of the scene to enhance its realism are included, along with an overview of the difficulties associated with trying to recreate specific locations as a virtual scene. This work is an important start towards utilising virtual worlds for visible signature evaluation, and evaluating how equivalent synthetic imagery is to real photographs.

  7. Forensic botany as a useful tool in the crime scene: Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta, Gabriele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Carnevali, Eugenia; Severini, Simona; Bacci, Mauro; Gabbrielli, Mario

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquitous presence of plant species makes forensic botany useful for many criminal cases. Particularly, bryophytes are useful for forensic investigations because many of them are clonal and largely distributed. Bryophyte shoots can easily become attached to shoes and clothes and it is possible to be found on footwear, providing links between crime scene and individuals. We report a case of suicide of a young girl happened in Siena, Tuscany, Italia. The cause of traumatic injuries could be ascribed to suicide, to homicide, or to accident. In absence of eyewitnesses who could testify the dynamics of the event, the crime scene investigation was fundamental to clarify the accident. During the scene analysis, some fragments of Tortula muralis Hedw. and Bryum capillare Hedw were found. The fragments were analyzed by a bryologists in order to compare them with the moss present on the stairs that the victim used immediately before the death. The analysis of these bryophytes found at the crime scene allowed to reconstruct the accident. Even if this evidence, of course, is circumstantial, it can be useful in forensic cases, together with the other evidences, to reconstruct the dynamics of events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Spherical photography and virtual tours for presenting crime scenes and forensic evidence in new zealand courtrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Nicole D; Barr, Jason; Sheppard, Dion J; Elliot, Douglas A; Tottey, Leah S; Walsh, Kevan A J

    2015-05-01

    The delivery of forensic science evidence in a clear and understandable manner is an important aspect of a forensic scientist's role during expert witness delivery in a courtroom trial. This article describes an Integrated Evidence Platform (IEP) system based on spherical photography which allows the audience to view the crime scene via a virtual tour and view the forensic scientist's evidence and results in context. Equipment and software programmes used in the creation of the IEP include a Nikon DSLR camera, a Seitz Roundshot VR Drive, PTGui Pro, and Tourweaver Professional Edition. The IEP enables a clear visualization of the crime scene, with embedded information such as photographs of items of interest, complex forensic evidence, the results of laboratory analyses, and scientific opinion evidence presented in context. The IEP has resulted in significant improvements to the pretrial disclosure of forensic results, enhanced the delivery of evidence in court, and improved the jury's understanding of the spatial relationship between results. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Generation of Ground Truth Datasets for the Analysis of 3d Point Clouds in Urban Scenes Acquired via Different Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Sun, Z.; Boerner, R.; Koch, T.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we report a novel way of generating ground truth dataset for analyzing point cloud from different sensors and the validation of algorithms. Instead of directly labeling large amount of 3D points requiring time consuming manual work, a multi-resolution 3D voxel grid for the testing site is generated. Then, with the help of a set of basic labeled points from the reference dataset, we can generate a 3D labeled space of the entire testing site with different resolutions. Specifically, an octree-based voxel structure is applied to voxelize the annotated reference point cloud, by which all the points are organized by 3D grids of multi-resolutions. When automatically annotating the new testing point clouds, a voting based approach is adopted to the labeled points within multiple resolution voxels, in order to assign a semantic label to the 3D space represented by the voxel. Lastly, robust line- and plane-based fast registration methods are developed for aligning point clouds obtained via various sensors. Benefiting from the labeled 3D spatial information, we can easily create new annotated 3D point clouds of different sensors of the same scene directly by considering the corresponding labels of 3D space the points located, which would be convenient for the validation and evaluation of algorithms related to point cloud interpretation and semantic segmentation.

  10. Creating photo-realistic works in a 3D scene using layers styles to create an animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramescu, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Creating realist objects in a 3D scene is not an easy work. We have to be very careful to make the creation very detailed. If we don't know how to make these photo-realistic works, by using the techniques and a good reference photo we can create an amazing amount of detail and realism. For example, in this article there are some of these detailed methods from which we can learn the techniques necessary to make beautiful and realistic objects in a scene. More precisely, in this paper, we present how to create a 3D animated scene, mainly using the Pen Tool and Blending Options. Indeed, this work is based on teaching some simple ways of using the Layer Styles to create some great shadows, lights, textures and a realistic sense of 3 Dimension. The present work involves also showing how some interesting ways of using the illuminating and rendering options can create a realistic effect in a scene. Moreover, this article shows how to create photo realistic 3D models from a digital image. The present work proposes to present how to use Illustrator paths, texturing, basic lighting and rendering, how to apply textures and how to parent the building and objects components. We also propose to use this proposition to recreate smaller details or 3D objects from a 2D image. After a critic art stage, we are able now to present in this paper the architecture of a design method that proposes to create an animation. The aim is to create a conceptual and methodological tutorial to address this issue both scientifically and in practice. This objective also includes proposing, on strong scientific basis, a model that gives the possibility of a better understanding of the techniques necessary to create a realistic animation.

  11. Microscopic 3D measurement of dynamic scene using optimized pulse-width-modulation binary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Chen, Qian; Feng, Shijie; Tao, Tianyang; Li, Hui; Zuo, Chao

    2017-10-01

    Microscopic 3-D shape measurement can supply accurate metrology of the delicacy and complexity of MEMS components of the final devices to ensure their proper performance. Fringe projection profilometry (FPP) has the advantages of noncontactness and high accuracy, making it widely used in 3-D measurement. Recently, tremendous advance of electronics development promotes 3-D measurements to be more accurate and faster. However, research about real-time microscopic 3-D measurement is still rarely reported. In this work, we effectively combine optimized binary structured pattern with number-theoretical phase unwrapping algorithm to realize real-time 3-D shape measurement. A slight defocusing of our proposed binary patterns can considerably alleviate the measurement error based on phase-shifting FPP, making the binary patterns have the comparable performance with ideal sinusoidal patterns. Real-time 3-D measurement about 120 frames per second (FPS) is achieved, and experimental result of a vibrating earphone is presented.

  12. Forensic 3D Visualization of CT Data Using Cinematic Volume Rendering: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Lars C; Schweitzer, Wolf; Gascho, Dominic; Ruder, Thomas D; Flach, Patricia M; Thali, Michael J; Ampanozi, Garyfalia

    2017-02-01

    The 3D volume-rendering technique (VRT) is commonly used in forensic radiology. Its main function is to explain medical findings to state attorneys, judges, or police representatives. New visualization algorithms permit the generation of almost photorealistic volume renderings of CT datasets. The objective of this study is to present and compare a variety of radiologic findings to illustrate the differences between and the advantages and limitations of the current VRT and the physically based cinematic rendering technique (CRT). Seventy volunteers were shown VRT and CRT reconstructions of 10 different cases. They were asked to mark the findings on the images and rate them in terms of realism and understandability. A total of 48 of the 70 questionnaires were returned and included in the analysis. On the basis of most of the findings presented, CRT appears to be equal or superior to VRT with respect to the realism and understandability of the visualized findings. Overall, in terms of realism, the difference between the techniques was statistically significant (p 0.05). CRT, which is similar to conventional VRT, is not primarily intended for diagnostic radiologic image analysis, and therefore it should be used primarily as a tool to deliver visual information in the form of radiologic image reports. Using CRT for forensic visualization might have advantages over using VRT if conveying a high degree of visual realism is of importance. Most of the shortcomings of CRT have to do with the software being an early prototype.

  13. Indoor objects and outdoor urban scenes recognition by 3D visual primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Junsheng; Kämäräinen, Joni-Kristian; Buch, Anders Glent

    2014-01-01

    , we propose an alternative appearance-driven approach which rst extracts 2D primitives justi ed by Marr's primal sketch, which are \\accumulated" over multiple views and the most stable ones are \\promoted" to 3D visual primitives. The 3D promoted primitives represent both structure and appearance...

  14. Validation and evaluation of measuring methods for the 3D documentation of external injuries in the field of forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ursula; Buße, Kirsten; Campana, Lorenzo; Schyma, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) measurement techniques are gaining importance in many areas. The latest developments brought more cost-effective, user-friendly, and faster technologies onto the market. Which 3D techniques are suitable in the field of forensic medicine and what are their advantages and disadvantages? This wide-ranging study evaluated and validated various 3D measurement techniques for the forensic requirements. High-tech methods as well as low-budget systems have been tested and compared in terms of accuracy, ease of use, expenditure of time, mobility, cost, necessary knowhow, and their limitations. Within this study, various commercial measuring systems of the different techniques were tested. Based on the first results, one measuring system was selected for each technique, which appeared to be the most suitable for the forensic application or is already established in forensic medicine. A body of a deceased, a face and an injury of a living person, and a shoe sole were recorded by 11 people with different professions and previous knowledge using the selected systems. The results were assessed and the personal experiences were evaluated using a questionnaire. In addition, precision investigations were carried out using test objects. The study shows that the hand-held scanner and photogrammetry are very suitable for the 3D documentation of forensic medical findings. Their moderate acquisition costs and easy operation could lead to more frequent application in forensic medicine in the future. For special applications, the stripe-light scanner still has its justification due to its high precision, the flexible application area, and the high reliability. The results show that, thanks to the technological advances, the 3D measurement technology will have more and more impact on the routine of the forensic medical examination.

  15. Computer-aided fiber analysis for crime scene forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Arndt, Christian; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana

    2012-03-01

    The forensic analysis of fibers is currently completely manual and therefore time consuming. The automation of analysis steps can significantly support forensic experts and reduce the time, required for the investigation. Moreover, a subjective expert belief is extended by objective machine estimation. This work proposes the pattern recognition pipeline containing the digital acquisition of a fiber media, the pre-processing for fiber segmentation, and the extraction of the distinctive characteristics of fibers. Currently, basic geometrical features like width, height, area of optically dominant fibers are investigated. In order to support the automatic classification of fibers, supervised machine learning algorithms are evaluated. The experimental setup includes a car seat and two pieces clothing of a different fabric. As preliminary work, acrylic as synthetic and sheep wool as natural fiber are chosen to be classified. While sitting on the seat, a test person leaves textile fibers. The test aims at automatic distinguishing of clothes through the fiber traces gained from the seat with the help of adhesive tape. The digitalization of fiber samples is provided by a contactless chromatic white light sensor. First test results showed, that two optically very different fibers can be properly assigned to their corresponding fiber type. The best classifier achieves an accuracy of 75 percent correctly classified samples for our suggested features.

  16. Recursive 3D-reconstruction of structured scenes using a moving camera - application to robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukarri, Bachir

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the perception of a structured environment, and proposes a new method which allows a 3D-reconstruction of an interesting part of the world using a mobile camera. Our work is divided into three essential parts dedicated to 2D-information aspect, 3D-information aspect, and a validation of the method. In the first part, we present a method which produces a topologic and geometric image representation based on 'segment' and 'junction' features. Then, a 2D-matching method based on a hypothesis prediction and verification algorithm is proposed to match features issued from two successive images. The second part deals with 3D-reconstruction using a triangulation technique, and discuses our new method introducing an 'Estimation-Construction-Fusion' process. This ensures a complete and accurate 3D-representation, and a permanent position estimation of the camera with respect to the model. The merging process allows refinement of the 3D-representation using a powerful tool: a Kalman Filter. In the last part, experimental results issued from simulated and real data images are reported to show the efficiency of the method. (author) [fr

  17. Post Blast Nuclear Forensics Of A Radiological Dispersion Device Scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, A.; Halevy, I; Sattinger, D; Admon, U; Banaim, P; Yaar, I.; Krantz, L.

    2014-01-01

    'Green Field' (GF) project conducting in Israel, between the years ’06-‘14, aimed at increasing the preparedness for outdoor terrorism events, where a radioactive (RA) material is dispersed by an explosive charge. Under the project framework a wide experimental program was established and conducted. The experimental plan included set of about 150 detonation tests that were done in order to close some gaps of knowledge mainly relating to the “source term” characterization. Experiments were done using wide range of different source term parameters. Among these are: explosive types, dispersed materials (both, stable simulants and short live radio isotopes), device geometries, ground surfaces, detonation heights and orientation, atmospheric stability situations etc. Field data collection and documentation used some of the “state of the art” detectors, cameras etc. Based on a comprehensive data analysis and complementary simulations, a methodology for post blast forensic using data collected from the close vicinity of the detention point was developed

  18. Forensic DNA Phenotyping: Predicting human appearance from crime scene material for investigative purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    Forensic DNA Phenotyping refers to the prediction of appearance traits of unknown sample donors, or unknown deceased (missing) persons, directly from biological materials found at the scene. "Biological witness" outcomes of Forensic DNA Phenotyping can provide investigative leads to trace unknown persons, who are unidentifiable with current comparative DNA profiling. This intelligence application of DNA marks a substantially different forensic use of genetic material rather than that of current DNA profiling presented in the courtroom. Currently, group-specific pigmentation traits are already predictable from DNA with reasonably high accuracies, while several other externally visible characteristics are under genetic investigation. Until individual-specific appearance becomes accurately predictable from DNA, conventional DNA profiling needs to be performed subsequent to appearance DNA prediction. Notably, and where Forensic DNA Phenotyping shows great promise, this is on a (much) smaller group of potential suspects, who match the appearance characteristics DNA-predicted from the crime scene stain or from the deceased person's remains. Provided sufficient funding being made available, future research to better understand the genetic basis of human appearance will expectedly lead to a substantially more detailed description of an unknown person's appearance from DNA, delivering increased value for police investigations in criminal and missing person cases involving unknowns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Embedded, real-time UAV control for improved, image-based 3D scene reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean Liénard; Andre Vogs; Demetrios Gatziolis; Nikolay Strigul

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are already broadly employed for 3D modeling of large objects such as trees and monuments via photogrammetry. The usual workflow includes two distinct steps: image acquisition with UAV and computationally demanding postflight image processing. Insufficient feature overlaps across images is a common shortcoming in post-flight image...

  20. Visualization of spatial-temporal data based on 3D virtual scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianghong; Liu, Jiping; Wang, Yong; Bi, Junfang

    2009-10-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to realize the expression of the three-dimensional dynamic visualization of spatialtemporal data based on three-dimensional virtual scene, using three-dimensional visualization technology, and combining with GIS so that the people's abilities of cognizing time and space are enhanced and improved by designing dynamic symbol and interactive expression. Using particle systems, three-dimensional simulation, virtual reality and other visual means, we can simulate the situations produced by changing the spatial location and property information of geographical entities over time, then explore and analyze its movement and transformation rules by changing the interactive manner, and also replay history and forecast of future. In this paper, the main research object is the vehicle track and the typhoon path and spatial-temporal data, through three-dimensional dynamic simulation of its track, and realize its timely monitoring its trends and historical track replaying; according to visualization techniques of spatialtemporal data in Three-dimensional virtual scene, providing us with excellent spatial-temporal information cognitive instrument not only can add clarity to show spatial-temporal information of the changes and developments in the situation, but also be used for future development and changes in the prediction and deduction.

  1. 3D shape measurement for moving scenes using an interlaced scanning colour camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Senpeng; Cao, Yiping; Lu, Mingteng; Zhang, Qican

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform deinterlacing algorithm (FTDA) is proposed to eliminate the blurring and dislocation of the fringe patterns on a moving object captured by an interlaced scanning colour camera in phase measuring profilometry (PMP). Every frame greyscale fringe from three colour channels of every colour fringe is divided into even and odd field fringes respectively, each of which is respectively processed by FTDA. All of the six frames deinterlaced fringes from one colour fringe form two sets of three-step phase-shifted greyscale fringes, with which two 3D shapes corresponding to two different moments are reconstructed by PMP within a frame period. The deinterlaced fringe is identical with the exact frame fringe at the same moment theoretically. The simulation and experiments show its feasibility and validity. The method doubles the time resolution, maintains the precision of the traditional phase measurement profilometry, and has potential applications in the moving and online object’s 3D shape measurements. (paper)

  2. Fast, accurate, small-scale 3D scene capture using a low-cost depth sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicole; Nagpal, Radhika; Werfel, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Commercially available depth sensing devices are primarily designed for domains that are either macroscopic, or static. We develop a solution for fast microscale 3D reconstruction, using off-the-shelf components. By the addition of lenses, precise calibration of camera internals and positioning, and development of bespoke software, we turn an infrared depth sensor designed for human-scale motion and object detection into a device with mm-level accuracy capable of recording at up to 30Hz. PMID:28758159

  3. On the Use of ROMOT—A RObotized 3D-MOvie Theatre—To Enhance Romantic Movie Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Portalés

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the use of ROMOT—a RObotic 3D-MOvie Theatre—to enhance love and sex movie scenes. ROMOT represents the next generation of movie theatres, where scenes are enhanced with multimodal content, also allowing audience interaction. ROMOT is highly versatile as it can support different setups, integrated hardware and content and, thus, it can be easily adapted to different groups and purposes. Regarding the setups, currently, ROMOT supports a traditional movie setup (including first-person movies, a mixed reality environment, a virtual reality interactive environment, and an augmented reality mirror-based scene. Regarding the integrated hardware, the system currently integrates a variety of devices and displays that allow audiences to see, hear, smell, touch, and feel the movement, all synchronized with the film experience. Finally, regarding to content, here we theorize about the use of ROMOT for romantic-related interactive movies. Though the work presented in this sense is rather speculative, it might open new avenues of research and for the film and other creative industries.

  4. Global Registration of 3D LiDAR Point Clouds Based on Scene Features: Application to Structured Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sanchez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring 3D data with LiDAR systems involves scanning multiple scenes from different points of view. In actual systems, the ICP algorithm (Iterative Closest Point is commonly used to register the acquired point clouds together to form a unique one. However, this method faces local minima issues and often needs a coarse initial alignment to converge to the optimum. This paper develops a new method for registration adapted to indoor environments and based on structure priors of such scenes. Our method works without odometric data or physical targets. The rotation and translation of the rigid transformation are computed separately, using, respectively, the Gaussian image of the point clouds and a correlation of histograms. To evaluate our algorithm on challenging registration cases, two datasets were acquired and are available for comparison with other methods online. The evaluation of our algorithm on four datasets against six existing methods shows that the proposed method is more robust against sampling and scene complexity. Moreover, the time performances enable a real-time implementation.

  5. Research on military application of 3D real scene technology to road into Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng; Yang, Liang

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the troops have been carrying out training missions to Tibet more and more. How to improve the inspection results of the road lead to Tibet, ensure that the army carry out and formulate targeted motorized mobility training programs and related disposal plans, is a real problem to be solved and answered. This article analyzes the current research status at home and abroad, introduces the key technologies and main functions of the military application, and puts forward that the use of 3D real maps of Highway into Tibet, which will promote the motorized training of troops into Tibet and complete the resolution of determination.

  6. 3D terrestrial lidar data classification of complex natural scenes using a multi-scale dimensionality criterion: Applications in geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodu, N.; Lague, D.

    2012-03-01

    3D point clouds of natural environments relevant to problems in geomorphology (rivers, coastal environments, cliffs, …) often require classification of the data into elementary relevant classes. A typical example is the separation of riparian vegetation from ground in fluvial environments, the distinction between fresh surfaces and rockfall in cliff environments, or more generally the classification of surfaces according to their morphology (e.g. the presence of bedforms or by grain size). Natural surfaces are heterogeneous and their distinctive properties are seldom defined at a unique scale, prompting the use of multi-scale criteria to achieve a high degree of classification success. We have thus defined a multi-scale measure of the point cloud dimensionality around each point. The dimensionality characterizes the local 3D organization of the point cloud within spheres centered on the measured points and varies from being 1D (points set along a line), 2D (points forming a plane) to the full 3D volume. By varying the diameter of the sphere, we can thus monitor how the local cloud geometry behaves across scales. We present the technique and illustrate its efficiency in separating riparian vegetation from ground and classifying a mountain stream as vegetation, rock, gravel or water surface. In these two cases, separating the vegetation from ground or other classes achieve accuracy larger than 98%. Comparison with a single scale approach shows the superiority of the multi-scale analysis in enhancing class separability and spatial resolution of the classification. Scenes between 10 and one hundred million points can be classified on a common laptop in a reasonable time. The technique is robust to missing data, shadow zones and changes in point density within the scene. The classification is fast and accurate and can account for some degree of intra-class morphological variability such as different vegetation types. A probabilistic confidence in the classification

  7. The Role of Forensic Botany in Solving a Case: Scientific Evidence on the Falsification of a Crime Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Gratteri, Santo; Sacco, Matteo A; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2018-05-01

    Forensic botany can provide useful information for pathologists, particularly on crime scene investigation. We report the case of a man who arrived at the hospital and died shortly afterward. The body showed widespread electrical lesions. The statements of his brother and wife about the incident aroused a large amount of suspicion in the investigators. A crime scene investigation was carried out, along with a botanical morphological survey on small vegetations found on the corpse. An autopsy was also performed. Botanical analysis showed some samples of Xanthium spinosum, thus leading to the discovery of the falsification of the crime scene although the location of the true crime scene remained a mystery. The botanical analysis, along with circumstantial data and autopsy findings, led to the discovery of the real crime scene and became crucial as part of the legal evidence regarding the falsity of the statements made to investigators. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Digitized forensics: retaining a link between physical and digital crime scene traces using QR-codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana

    2013-03-01

    The digitization of physical traces from crime scenes in forensic investigations in effect creates a digital chain-of-custody and entrains the challenge of creating a link between the two or more representations of the same trace. In order to be forensically sound, especially the two security aspects of integrity and authenticity need to be maintained at all times. Especially the adherence to the authenticity using technical means proves to be a challenge at the boundary between the physical object and its digital representations. In this article we propose a new method of linking physical objects with its digital counterparts using two-dimensional bar codes and additional meta-data accompanying the acquired data for integration in the conventional documentation of collection of items of evidence (bagging and tagging process). Using the exemplary chosen QR-code as particular implementation of a bar code and a model of the forensic process, we also supply a means to integrate our suggested approach into forensically sound proceedings as described by Holder et al.1 We use the example of the digital dactyloscopy as a forensic discipline, where currently progress is being made by digitizing some of the processing steps. We show an exemplary demonstrator of the suggested approach using a smartphone as a mobile device for the verification of the physical trace to extend the chain-of-custody from the physical to the digital domain. Our evaluation of the demonstrator is performed towards the readability and the verification of its contents. We can read the bar code despite its limited size of 42 x 42 mm and rather large amount of embedded data using various devices. Furthermore, the QR-code's error correction features help to recover contents of damaged codes. Subsequently, our appended digital signature allows for detecting malicious manipulations of the embedded data.

  9. Applicability of 3D-CT facial reconstruction for forensic individual identification Aplicabilidade da reconstrução facial em 3D-TC para identificação individual forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara dos Santos Rocha

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is used in several clinical dentistry applications even by axial slices and two and three-dimensional reconstructed images (2D-CT and 3D-CT. The purpose of the current study is to assess the precision of linear measurements made in 3D-CT using craniometric patterns for individual identification in Forensic Dentistry. Five cadaver heads were submitted to a spiral computed tomography using axial slices, and 3D-CT reconstructions were obtained by volume rendering technique with computer graphics tools. Ten (10 craniometric measurements were determined in 3D-CT images by two examiners independently, twice each, and the standard error of intra- and inter-examiner measurements was assessed. The results demonstrated a low standard error of those measurements, from 0.85% to 3.09%. In conclusion, the linear measurements obtained in osseous and soft tissue structures were considered to be precise in 3D-CT with high imaging quality and resolution.A tomografia computadorizada (TC tem sido utilizada em diversas áreas clínicas da Odontologia; utilizam-se tanto seus cortes originais quanto as reconstruções em duas e três dimensões (2D-TC e 3D-TC. O presente estudo propõe avaliar a precisão das medidas lineares realizadas na 3D-TC, utilizando a craniometria, para fins de identificação individual na Odontologia Forense. Cinco cabeças de cadáveres foram submetidas a tomografia computadorizada em espiral por meio de cortes axiais e reconstruções em 3D-TC foram obtidas por meio da técnica de volume, utilizando recursos da computação gráfica. Medidas craniométricas (n = 10 foram determinadas nas imagens em 3D-TC por dois examinadores independentemente, duas vezes cada um, e uma análise de erro padrão percentual das medidas intra- e inter-examinadores foi realizada. Os resultados demonstraram um erro padrão percentual baixo apresentado por essas medidas, variando entre 0,85% e 3,09%. Em conclusão, as medidas lineares

  10. An Indoor Scene Recognition-Based 3D Registration Mechanism for Real-Time AR-GIS Visualization in Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR systems are becoming ideal platforms for visualization, permitting users to better comprehend and interact with spatial information. Subsequently, this technological development, in turn, has prompted efforts to enhance mechanisms for registering virtual objects in real world contexts. Most existing AR 3D Registration techniques lack the scene recognition capabilities needed to describe accurately the positioning of virtual objects in scenes representing reality. Moreover, the application of such registration methods in indoor AR-GIS systems is further impeded by the limited capacity of these systems to detect the geometry and semantic information in indoor environments. In this paper, we propose a novel method for fusing virtual objects and indoor scenes, based on indoor scene recognition technology. To accomplish scene fusion in AR-GIS, we first detect key points in reference images. Then, we perform interior layout extraction using a Fully Connected Networks (FCN algorithm to acquire layout coordinate points for the tracking targets. We detect and recognize the target scene in a video frame image to track targets and estimate the camera pose. In this method, virtual 3D objects are fused precisely to a real scene, according to the camera pose and the previously extracted layout coordinate points. Our results demonstrate that this approach enables accurate fusion of virtual objects with representations of real world indoor environments. Based on this fusion technique, users can better grasp virtual three-dimensional representations on an AR-GIS platform.

  11. Towards a Decision Support Tool for 3d Visualisation: Application to Selectivity Purpose of Single Object in a 3d City Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, R.; Pouliot, J.; Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; De Rudder, L.; Billen, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the establishment of a comprehensive methodological framework that defines 3D visualisation rules and its application in a decision support tool. Whilst the use of 3D models grows in many application fields, their visualisation remains challenging from the point of view of mapping and rendering aspects to be applied to suitability support the decision making process. Indeed, there exists a great number of 3D visualisation techniques but as far as we know, a decision support tool that facilitates the production of an efficient 3D visualisation is still missing. This is why a comprehensive methodological framework is proposed in order to build decision tables for specific data, tasks and contexts. Based on the second-order logic formalism, we define a set of functions and propositions among and between two collections of entities: on one hand static retinal variables (hue, size, shape…) and 3D environment parameters (directional lighting, shadow, haze…) and on the other hand their effect(s) regarding specific visual tasks. It enables to define 3D visualisation rules according to four categories: consequence, compatibility, potential incompatibility and incompatibility. In this paper, the application of the methodological framework is demonstrated for an urban visualisation at high density considering a specific set of entities. On the basis of our analysis and the results of many studies conducted in the 3D semiotics, which refers to the study of symbols and how they relay information, the truth values of propositions are determined. 3D visualisation rules are then extracted for the considered context and set of entities and are presented into a decision table with a colour coding. Finally, the decision table is implemented into a plugin developed with three.js, a cross-browser JavaScript library. The plugin consists of a sidebar and warning windows that help the designer in the use of a set of static retinal variables and 3D environment

  12. Virtual animation of victim-specific 3D models obtained from CT scans for forensic reconstructions: Living and dead subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, C; Olsen, K B; Hansen, S H

    2017-09-01

    Post-mortem CT scanning (PMCT) has been introduced at several forensic medical institutions many years ago and has proved to be a useful tool. 3D models of bones, skin, internal organs and bullet paths can rapidly be generated using post-processing software. These 3D models reflect the individual physiognomics and can be used to create whole-body 3D virtual animations. In such way, virtual reconstructions of the probable ante-mortem postures of victims can be constructed and contribute to understand the sequence of events. This procedure is demonstrated in two victims of gunshot injuries. Case #1 was a man showing three perforating gunshot wounds, who died due to the injuries of the incident. Whole-body PMCT was performed and 3D reconstructions of bones, relevant internal organs and bullet paths were generated. Using 3ds Max software and a human anatomy 3D model, a virtual animated body was built and probable ante-mortem postures visualized. Case #2 was a man presenting three perforating gunshot wounds, who survived the incident: one in the left arm and two in the thorax. Only CT scans of the thorax, abdomen and the injured arm were provided by the hospital. Therefore, a whole-body 3D model reflecting the anatomical proportions of the patient was made combining the actual bones of the victim with those obtained from the human anatomy 3D model. The resulted 3D model was used for the animation process. Several probable postures were also visualized in this case. It has be shown that in Case #1 the lesions and the bullet path were not consistent with an upright standing position; instead, the victim was slightly bent forward, i.e. he was sitting or running when he was shot. In Case #2, one of the bullets could have passed through the arm and continued into the thorax. In conclusion, specialized 3D modelling and animation techniques allow for the reconstruction of ante-mortem postures based on both PMCT and clinical CT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. 3D topography measurements on correlation cells—a new approach to forensic ballistics identifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, John; Chu, Wei; Tong, Mingsi; Soons, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Based on three-dimensional (3D) topography measurements on correlation cells, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed the ‘NIST Ballistics Identification System (NBIS)’ aimed at accurate ballistics identifications and fast ballistics evidence searches. The 3D topographies are divided into arrays of correlation cells to identify ‘valid correlation areas’ and eliminate ‘invalid correlation areas’ from the matching and identification procedure. A ‘congruent matching cells’ (CMC)’ method using three types of identification parameters of the paired correlation cells (cross correlation function maximum CCF max , spatial registration position in x–y and registration angle θ) is used for high accuracy ballistics identifications. ‘Synchronous processing’ is proposed for correlating multiple cell pairs at the same time to increase the correlation speed. The proposed NBIS can be used for correlations of both geometrical topographies and optical intensity images. All the correlation parameters and algorithms are in the public domain and subject to open tests. An error rate reporting procedure has been developed that can greatly add to the scientific support for the firearm and toolmark identification specialty, and give confidence to the trier of fact in court proceedings. The NBIS is engineered to employ transparent identification parameters and criteria, statistical models and correlation algorithms. In this way, interoperability between different ballistics identification systems can be more easily achieved. This interoperability will make the NBIS suitable for ballistics identifications and evidence searches with large national databases, such as the National Integrated Ballistic Information Network in the United States. (paper)

  14. 3D topography measurements on correlation cells—a new approach to forensic ballistics identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, John; Chu, Wei; Tong, Mingsi; Soons, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Based on three-dimensional (3D) topography measurements on correlation cells, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed the ‘NIST Ballistics Identification System (NBIS)’ aimed at accurate ballistics identifications and fast ballistics evidence searches. The 3D topographies are divided into arrays of correlation cells to identify ‘valid correlation areas’ and eliminate ‘invalid correlation areas’ from the matching and identification procedure. A ‘congruent matching cells’ (CMC)’ method using three types of identification parameters of the paired correlation cells (cross correlation function maximum CCFmax, spatial registration position in x-y and registration angle θ) is used for high accuracy ballistics identifications. ‘Synchronous processing’ is proposed for correlating multiple cell pairs at the same time to increase the correlation speed. The proposed NBIS can be used for correlations of both geometrical topographies and optical intensity images. All the correlation parameters and algorithms are in the public domain and subject to open tests. An error rate reporting procedure has been developed that can greatly add to the scientific support for the firearm and toolmark identification specialty, and give confidence to the trier of fact in court proceedings. The NBIS is engineered to employ transparent identification parameters and criteria, statistical models and correlation algorithms. In this way, interoperability between different ballistics identification systems can be more easily achieved. This interoperability will make the NBIS suitable for ballistics identifications and evidence searches with large national databases, such as the National Integrated Ballistic Information Network in the United States.

  15. Real-time capture and reconstruction system with multiple GPUs for a 3D live scene by a generation from 4K IP images to 8K holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Oi, Ryutaro; Senoh, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kurita, Taiichiro

    2012-09-10

    We developed a real-time capture and reconstruction system for three-dimensional (3D) live scenes. In previous research, we used integral photography (IP) to capture 3D images and then generated holograms from the IP images to implement a real-time reconstruction system. In this paper, we use a 4K (3,840 × 2,160) camera to capture IP images and 8K (7,680 × 4,320) liquid crystal display (LCD) panels for the reconstruction of holograms. We investigate two methods for enlarging the 4K images that were captured by integral photography to 8K images. One of the methods increases the number of pixels of each elemental image. The other increases the number of elemental images. In addition, we developed a personal computer (PC) cluster system with graphics processing units (GPUs) for the enlargement of IP images and the generation of holograms from the IP images using fast Fourier transform (FFT). We used the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) as the development environment for the GPUs. The Fast Fourier transform is performed using the CUFFT (CUDA FFT) library. As a result, we developed an integrated system for performing all processing from the capture to the reconstruction of 3D images by using these components and successfully used this system to reconstruct a 3D live scene at 12 frames per second.

  16. Forensic age estimation based on magnetic resonance imaging of third molars: converting 2D staging into 3D staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tobel, Jannick; Hillewig, Elke; Verstraete, Koenraad

    2017-03-01

    Established methods to stage development of third molars for forensic age estimation are based on the evaluation of radiographs, which show a 2D projection. It has not been investigated whether these methods require any adjustments in order to apply them to stage third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which shows 3D information. To prospectively study root stage assessment of third molars in age estimation using 3 Tesla MRI and to compare this with panoramic radiographs, in order to provide considerations for converting 2D staging into 3D staging and to determine the decisive root. All third molars were evaluated in 52 healthy participants aged 14-26 years using MRI in three planes. Three staging methods were investigated by two observers. In sixteen of the participants, MRI findings were compared with findings on panoramic radiographs. Decisive roots were palatal in upper third molars and distal in lower third molars. Fifty-seven per cent of upper third molars were not assessable on the radiograph, while 96.9% were on MRI. Upper third molars were more difficult to evaluate on radiographs than on MRI (p third molars were equally assessable on both imaging techniques (93.8% MRI, 98.4% radiograph), with no difference in level of difficulty (p = .375). Inter- and intra-observer agreement for evaluation was higher in MRI than in radiographs. In both imaging techniques lower third molars showed greater inter- and intra-observer agreement compared to upper third molars. MR images in the sagittal plane proved to be essential for staging. In age estimation, 3T MRI of third molars could be valuable. Some considerations are, however, necessary to transfer known staging methods to this 3D technique.

  17. 3D reconstruction of emergency cranial computed tomography scans as a tool in clinical forensic radiology after survived blunt head trauma--report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, M; Gehl, A; Püschel, K; Turk, E E

    2011-04-15

    When requested to evaluate surviving victims of blunt head trauma the forensic expert has to draw mainly on medical documentation from the time of hospital admission. In many cases these consist of written clinical records, radiographs and in some cases photographic documentation of the injuries. We report two cases of survived severe blunt head trauma where CT images, which had primarily been obtained for clinical diagnostic purposes, were used for forensic assessment. 3D reconstructions of the clinical CT-images yielded valuable information regarding the sequence, number and direction of the impacts to the head, their gross morphology and the inflicting weapon. We conclude that computed tomography and related imaging methods, along with their 3D reconstruction capabilities, provide a useful tool to approach questions in clinical forensic casework. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) principles for on-site forensic and medico-legal scene and corpse investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, D; Ferrara, S D; Keller, E; Ludes, B; Mangin, P; Väli, M; Vieira, N

    2017-07-01

    Forensic medical practitioners need to define the general principles governing procedures to be used for the on-site examination of a body where the death has occurred in unnatural, violent or suspicious circumstances. These principles should be followed whenever a medical expert is required to perform an on-site corpse inspection and should be utilised as a set of general guidelines to be adapted to the specific situation in hand and interpreted using common sense and scientific knowledge of the relevant procedures and facts of the case. The aim of these principles is to ensure that forensic evidence at the scene of a death is properly observed and assessed and all necessary relevant evidence gathered in order to ensure that a comprehensive report is available to the judicial authority (investigating judge or coroner) in the justice system. The on-site corpse inspection by a forensic practitioner is a mandatory and essential stage of the forensic and medico-legal autopsy, as it may provide important information for subsequent investigation stages.

  19. Three-dimensional image technology in forensic anthropology: Assessing the validity of biological profiles derived from CT-3D images of the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Leon Valenzuela, Maria Julia

    This project explores the reliability of building a biological profile for an unknown individual based on three-dimensional (3D) images of the individual's skeleton. 3D imaging technology has been widely researched for medical and engineering applications, and it is increasingly being used as a tool for anthropological inquiry. While the question of whether a biological profile can be derived from 3D images of a skeleton with the same accuracy as achieved when using dry bones has been explored, bigger sample sizes, a standardized scanning protocol and more interobserver error data are needed before 3D methods can become widely and confidently used in forensic anthropology. 3D images of Computed Tomography (CT) scans were obtained from 130 innominate bones from Boston University's skeletal collection (School of Medicine). For each bone, both 3D images and original bones were assessed using the Phenice and Suchey-Brooks methods. Statistical analysis was used to determine the agreement between 3D image assessment versus traditional assessment. A pool of six individuals with varying experience in the field of forensic anthropology scored a subsample (n = 20) to explore interobserver error. While a high agreement was found for age and sex estimation for specimens scored by the author, the interobserver study shows that observers found it difficult to apply standard methods to 3D images. Higher levels of experience did not result in higher agreement between observers, as would be expected. Thus, a need for training in 3D visualization before applying anthropological methods to 3D bones is suggested. Future research should explore interobserver error using a larger sample size in order to test the hypothesis that training in 3D visualization will result in a higher agreement between scores. The need for the development of a standard scanning protocol focusing on the optimization of 3D image resolution is highlighted. Applications for this research include the possibility

  20. Polymers on the crime scene forensic analysis of polymeric trace evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Causin, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    This book approaches the analysis of forensic contact traces from a polymer science perspective. The development of characterization methods of new or unusual traces and the improvement of existing protocols is described. The book starts with a general introduction to polymers and the issues related to transfer, persistence and recovery of polymeric traces. The chapters present a distinctive feature of polymers, discussing how it can be measured, what the practical difficulties which can be encountered in the analysis, and how useful that information is for comparison or identification purposes. Practical tips for the realization of the forensic analyses are included.

  1. New weather depiction technology for night vision goggle (NVG) training: 3D virtual/augmented reality scene-weather-atmosphere-target simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folaron, Michelle; Deacutis, Martin; Hegarty, Jennifer; Vollmerhausen, Richard; Schroeder, John; Colby, Frank P.

    2007-04-01

    US Navy and Marine Corps pilots receive Night Vision Goggle (NVG) training as part of their overall training to maintain the superiority of our forces. This training must incorporate realistic targets; backgrounds; and representative atmospheric and weather effects they may encounter under operational conditions. An approach for pilot NVG training is to use the Night Imaging and Threat Evaluation Laboratory (NITE Lab) concept. The NITE Labs utilize a 10' by 10' static terrain model equipped with both natural and cultural lighting that are used to demonstrate various illumination conditions, and visual phenomena which might be experienced when utilizing night vision goggles. With this technology, the military can safely, systematically, and reliably expose pilots to the large number of potentially dangerous environmental conditions that will be experienced in their NVG training flights. A previous SPIE presentation described our work for NAVAIR to add realistic atmospheric and weather effects to the NVG NITE Lab training facility using the NVG - WDT(Weather Depiction Technology) system (Colby, et al.). NVG -WDT consist of a high end multiprocessor server with weather simulation software, and several fixed and goggle mounted Heads Up Displays (HUDs). Atmospheric and weather effects are simulated using state-of-the-art computer codes such as the WRF (Weather Research μ Forecasting) model; and the US Air Force Research Laboratory MODTRAN radiative transport model. Imagery for a variety of natural and man-made obscurations (e.g. rain, clouds, snow, dust, smoke, chemical releases) are being calculated and injected into the scene observed through the NVG via the fixed and goggle mounted HUDs. This paper expands on the work described in the previous presentation and will describe the 3D Virtual/Augmented Reality Scene - Weather - Atmosphere - Target Simulation part of the NVG - WDT. The 3D virtual reality software is a complete simulation system to generate realistic

  2. Palaeomicrobiology meets forensic medicine: time as a fourth-dimension for the crime scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazaj, A; Turrina, S; De Leo, D; Cornaglia, G

    2015-03-01

    The unrelenting progress of laboratory techniques is rapidly unleashing the huge potential of palaeomicrobiology. That bodies are often found in poor condition is common to both palaeomicrobiology and forensic medicine, and this might stimulate them towards a joint quest to extract reproducible data for reliable specimens.

  3. Palaeomicrobiology meets forensic medicine: time as a fourth-dimension for the crime scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bazaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The unrelenting progress of laboratory techniques is rapidly unleashing the huge potential of palaeomicrobiology. That bodies are often found in poor condition is common to both palaeomicrobiology and forensic medicine, and this might stimulate them towards a joint quest to extract reproducible data for reliable specimens.

  4. Application of plant DNA markers in forensic botany: genetic comparison of Quercus evidence leaves to crime scene trees using microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Kathleen J; Owens, Jeffrey D; Ashley, Mary V

    2007-01-05

    As highly polymorphic DNA markers become increasingly available for a wide range of plant and animal species, there will be increasing opportunities for applications to forensic investigations. To date, however, relatively few studies have reported using DNA profiles of non-human species to place suspects at or near crime scenes. Here we describe an investigation of a double homicide of a female and her near-term fetus. Leaf material taken from a suspect's vehicle was identified to be that of sand live oak, Quercus geminata, the same tree species that occurred near a shallow grave where the victims were found. Quercus-specific DNA microsatellites were used to genotype both dried and fresh material from trees located near the burial site and from the material taken from the suspect's car. Samples from the local population of Q. geminata were also collected and genotyped in order to demonstrate that genetic variation at four microsatellite loci was sufficient to assign leaves to an individual tree with high statistical certainty. The cumulative average probability of identity for these four loci was 2.06x10(-6). DNA was successfully obtained from the dried leaf material although PCR amplification was more difficult than amplification of DNA from fresh leaves. The DNA profiles of the dried leaves from the suspect's car did not match those of the trees near the crime scene. Although this investigation did not provide evidence that could be used against the suspect, it does demonstrate the potential for plant microsatellite markers providing physical evidence that links plant materials to live plants at or near crime scenes.

  5. Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: from laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

    2009-07-01

    Body fluid traces recovered at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence to forensic investigators. They contain valuable DNA evidence which can identify a suspect or victim as well as exonerate an innocent individual. The first step of identifying a particular body fluid is highly important since the nature of the fluid is itself very informative to the investigation, and the destructive nature of a screening test must be considered when only a small amount of material is available. The ability to characterize an unknown stain at the scene of the crime without having to wait for results from a laboratory is another very critical step in the development of forensic body fluid analysis. Driven by the importance for forensic applications, body fluid identification methods have been extensively developed in recent years. The systematic analysis of these new developments is vital for forensic investigators to be continuously educated on possible superior techniques. Significant advances in laser technology and the development of novel light detectors have dramatically improved spectroscopic methods for molecular characterization over the last decade. The application of this novel biospectroscopy for forensic purposes opens new and exciting opportunities for the development of on-field, non-destructive, confirmatory methods for body fluid identification at a crime scene. In addition, the biospectroscopy methods are universally applicable to all body fluids unlike the majority of current techniques which are valid for individual fluids only. This article analyzes the current methods being used to identify body fluid stains including blood, semen, saliva, vaginal fluid, urine, and sweat, and also focuses on new techniques that have been developed in the last 5-6 years. In addition, the potential of new biospectroscopic techniques based on Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy is evaluated for rapid, confirmatory, non-destructive identification of a body

  6. Morphological features of the macerated cranial bones registered by the 3D vision system for potential use in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzat, Janusz; Sioma, Andrzej; Kozerska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present potential usage of the 3D vision system for registering features of the macerated cranial bones. Applied 3D vision system collects height profiles of the object surface and from that data builds a three-dimensional image of the surface. This method appeared to be accurate enough to capture anatomical details of the macerated bones. With the aid of the 3D vision system we generated images of the surface of the human calvaria which was used for testing the system. Performed reconstruction visualized the imprints of the dural vascular system, cranial sutures, and the three-layer structure of the cranial bones observed in the cross-section. We figure out that the 3D vision system may deliver data which can enhance estimation of sex from the osteological material.

  7. Forensic science information needs of patrol officers: The perceptions of the patrol officers, their supervisors and administrators, detectives, and crime scene technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Eyup

    Thanks to the rapid developments in science and technology in recent decades, especially in the past two decades, forensic sciences have been making invaluable contributions to criminal justice systems. With scientific evaluation of physical evidence, policing has become more effective in fighting crime and criminals. On the other hand, law enforcement personnel have made mistakes during the detection, protection, collection, and evaluation of physical evidence. Law enforcement personnel, especially patrol officers, have been criticized for ignoring or overlooking physical evidence at crime scenes. This study, conducted in a large American police department, was aimed to determine the perceptions of patrol officers, their supervisors and administrators, detectives, and crime scene technicians about the forensic science needs of patrol officers. The results showed no statistically significant difference among the perceptions of the said groups. More than half of the respondents perceived that 14 out of 16 areas of knowledge were important for patrol officers to have: crime scene documentation, evidence collection, interviewing techniques, firearm evidence, latent and fingerprint evidence, blood evidence, death investigation information, DNA evidence, document evidence, electronically recorded evidence, trace evidence, biological fluid evidence, arson and explosive evidence, and impression evidence. Less than half of the respondents perceived forensic entomology and plant evidence as important for patrol officers.

  8. VIRTOPSY--scientific documentation, reconstruction and animation in forensic: individual and real 3D data based geo-metric approach including optical body/object surface and radiological CT/MRI scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Buck, Ursula; Aghayev, Emin; Jackowski, Christian; Vock, Peter; Sonnenschein, Martin; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2005-03-01

    Until today, most of the documentation of forensic relevant medical findings is limited to traditional 2D photography, 2D conventional radiographs, sketches and verbal description. There are still some limitations of the classic documentation in forensic science especially if a 3D documentation is necessary. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate new 3D real data based geo-metric technology approaches. This paper present approaches to a 3D geo-metric documentation of injuries on the body surface and internal injuries in the living and deceased cases. Using modern imaging methods such as photogrammetry, optical surface and radiological CT/MRI scanning in combination it could be demonstrated that a real, full 3D data based individual documentation of the body surface and internal structures is possible in a non-invasive and non-destructive manner. Using the data merging/fusing and animation possibilities, it is possible to answer reconstructive questions of the dynamic development of patterned injuries (morphologic imprints) and to evaluate the possibility, that they are matchable or linkable to suspected injury-causing instruments. For the first time, to our knowledge, the method of optical and radiological 3D scanning was used to document the forensic relevant injuries of human body in combination with vehicle damages. By this complementary documentation approach, individual forensic real data based analysis and animation were possible linking body injuries to vehicle deformations or damages. These data allow conclusions to be drawn for automobile accident research, optimization of vehicle safety (pedestrian and passenger) and for further development of crash dummies. Real 3D data based documentation opens a new horizon for scientific reconstruction and animation by bringing added value and a real quality improvement in forensic science.

  9. Leading-edge forensic DNA analyses and the necessity of including crime scene investigators, police officers and technicians in a DNA elimination database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Martine; Rogic, Anita; Bourgoin, Sarah; Jolicoeur, Christine; Séguin, Diane

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, sophisticated technology has significantly increased the sensitivity and analytical power of genetic analyses so that very little starting material may now produce viable genetic profiles. This sensitivity however, has also increased the risk of detecting unknown genetic profiles assumed to be that of the perpetrator, yet originate from extraneous sources such as from crime scene workers. These contaminants may mislead investigations, keeping criminal cases active and unresolved for long spans of time. Voluntary submission of DNA samples from crime scene workers is fairly low, therefore we have created a promotional method for our staff elimination database that has resulted in a significant increase in voluntary samples since 2011. Our database enforces privacy safeguards and allows for optional anonymity to all staff members. We also offer information sessions at various police precincts to advise crime scene workers of the importance and success of our staff elimination database. This study, a pioneer in its field, has obtained 327 voluntary submissions from crime scene workers to date, of which 46 individual profiles (14%) have been matched to 58 criminal cases. By implementing our methods and respect for individual privacy, forensic laboratories everywhere may see similar growth and success in explaining unidentified genetic profiles in stagnate criminal cases. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-dimensional measurement system for crime scene documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marcin; Hołowko, Elwira; Lech, Krzysztof; Michoński, Jakub; MÄ czkowski, Grzegorz; Bolewicki, Paweł; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Sitnik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional measurements (such as photogrammetry, Time of Flight, Structure from Motion or Structured Light techniques) are becoming a standard in the crime scene documentation process. The usage of 3D measurement techniques provide an opportunity to prepare more insightful investigation and helps to show every trace in the context of the entire crime scene. In this paper we would like to present a hierarchical, three-dimensional measurement system that is designed for crime scenes documentation process. Our system reflects the actual standards in crime scene documentation process - it is designed to perform measurement in two stages. First stage of documentation, the most general, is prepared with a scanner with relatively low spatial resolution but also big measuring volume - it is used for the whole scene documentation. Second stage is much more detailed: high resolution but smaller size of measuring volume for areas that required more detailed approach. The documentation process is supervised by a specialised application CrimeView3D, that is a software platform for measurements management (connecting with scanners and carrying out measurements, automatic or semi-automatic data registration in the real time) and data visualisation (3D visualisation of documented scenes). It also provides a series of useful tools for forensic technicians: virtual measuring tape, searching for sources of blood spatter, virtual walk on the crime scene and many others. In this paper we present our measuring system and the developed software. We also provide an outcome from research on metrological validation of scanners that was performed according to VDI/VDE standard. We present a CrimeView3D - a software-platform that was developed to manage the crime scene documentation process. We also present an outcome from measurement sessions that were conducted on real crime scenes with cooperation with Technicians from Central Forensic Laboratory of Police.

  11. UPSCALING OF SOLAR INDUCED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE FROM LEAF TO CANOPY USING THE DART MODEL AND A REALISTIC 3D FOREST SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar induced chlorophyll a fluorescence (SIF has been shown to be an excellent proxy of photosynthesis at multiple scales. However, the mechanical linkages between fluorescence and photosynthesis at the leaf level cannot be directly applied at canopy or field scales, as the larger scale SIF emission depends on canopy structure. This is especially true for the forest canopies characterized by high horizontal and vertical heterogeneity. While most of the current studies on SIF radiative transfer in plant canopies are based on the assumption of a homogeneous canopy, recently codes have been developed capable of simulation of fluorescence signal in explicit 3-D forest canopies. Here we present a canopy SIF upscaling method consisting of the integration of the 3-D radiative transfer model DART and a 3-D object model BLENDER. Our aim was to better understand the effect of boreal forest canopy structure on SIF for a spatially explicit forest canopy.

  12. [The currently available possibilities for the application of photogrammetry in the forensic medical expertise of the blood stains at the scene of the crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, V A; Makarov, I Yu; Gusarov, A A; Lorents, A S; Smirenin, S A; Stragis, V B

    The study of blood stains retained at the scene of the crime is of crucial importance for the preliminary inquiry. The present article is focused on the analysis of the possibilities and prospects for the use of photogrammetry (PM) as exemplified by the foreign expert practice of the blood stains examination at the site of the event. It is shown that the results of the application of digital photogrammetry in addition to the traditional methods of morphological investigations enables the forensic medical experts to reconstruct a number of unique features and circumstances that accompanied the commission of a crime at the site of the event. Such PM techniques supplemented by the ballistic analysis of the blood splatter and droplet trajectories provides additional evidence that allows the forensic medical experts to reconstruct the scene of the crime including the pose and position of the victim at the moment of causing injury. Moreover, these data make it possible to determine the maximum number and the sequence of injurious impacts (blows). The authors discuss the advantages and relative disadvantages of the application of the photogrammetric technique in the routine practical expert work. It is emphasized that the published decision making algorithms provide the specialists in various disciplines and professional experts with the ready-made technological tools for obtaining the additional criteria for the objective improvement of the quality of the studies they carry out and for the enhancement of the value of expert conclusions. It is concluded that the application of the modern photogrammetric technologies can be recommended for the solution of the applied forensic medical problems and conducting the relevant expert research.

  13. Contribution to the tracking and the 3D reconstruction of scenes composed of torus from image sequences a acquired by a moving camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, S.

    1997-01-01

    The three-dimensional perception of the environment is often necessary for a robot to correctly perform its tasks. One solution, based on the dynamic vision, consists in analysing time-varying monocular images to estimate the spatial geometry of the scene. This thesis deals with the reconstruction of torus by dynamic vision. Though this object class is restrictive, it enables to tackle the problem of reconstruction of bent pipes usually encountered in industrial environments. The proposed method is based on the evolution of apparent contours of objects in the sequence. Using the expression of torus limb boundaries, it is possible to recursively estimate the object three-dimensional parameters by minimising the error between the predicted projected contours and the image contours. This process, which is performed by a Kalman filter, does not need a precise knowledge of the camera displacement or any matching of the tow limbs belonging to the same object. To complete this work, temporal tracking of objects which deals with occlusion situations is proposed. The approach consists in modeling and interpreting the apparent motion of objects in the successive images. The motion interpretation, based on a simplified representation of the scene, allows to recover pertinent three-dimensional information which is used to manage occlusion situations. Experiments, on synthetic and real images, proves he validity of the tracking and the reconstruction processes. (author)

  14. Using drone-mounted cameras for on-site body documentation: 3D mapping and active survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Petra; Jurda, Mikoláš; Vojtíšek, Tomáš; Krajsa, Jan

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in unmanned aerial technology have substantially lowered the cost associated with aerial imagery. As a result, forensic practitioners are today presented with easy low-cost access to aerial photographs at remote locations. The present paper aims to explore boundaries in which the low-end drone technology can operate as professional crime scene equipment, and to test the prospects of aerial 3D modeling in the forensic context. The study was based on recent forensic cases of falls from height admitted for postmortem examinations. Three mock outdoor forensic scenes featuring a dummy, skeletal remains and artificial blood were constructed at an abandoned quarry and subsequently documented using a commercial DJI Phantom 2 drone equipped with a GoPro HERO 4 digital camera. In two of the experiments, the purpose was to conduct aerial and ground-view photography and to process the acquired images with a photogrammetry protocol (using Agisoft PhotoScan ® 1.2.6) in order to generate 3D textured models. The third experiment tested the employment of drone-based video recordings in mapping scattered body parts. The results show that drone-based aerial photography is capable of producing high-quality images, which are appropriate for building accurate large-scale 3D models of a forensic scene. If, however, high-resolution top-down three-dimensional scene documentation featuring details on a corpse or other physical evidence is required, we recommend building a multi-resolution model by processing aerial and ground-view imagery separately. The video survey showed that using an overview recording for seeking out scattered body parts was efficient. In contrast, the less easy-to-spot evidence, such as bloodstains, was detected only after having been marked properly with crime scene equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [The efficiency of the application of the modern computed technologies in the clinical practice and the prospects for the further use of the biomechanical 3D-models in forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, I Yu; Svetlakov, A V; Sotin, A V; Shigeev, S V; Gusarov, A A; Smirenin, S A; Emelin, V V; Stragis, V B; Fetisov, V A

    2018-01-01

    To-day, the computer-assisted 3D-technologies for the mathematical simulation of the engineering facilities are extensively used for the purpose of technical calculations in all branches of industry and building. The positive experience gained with the application of the 3D-models finds wide application in the joined investigations on the topical problems of the prosthetic and surgical treatment of bones, teeth, joints, cardiac valves, blood vessels, etc. The objective of the present study was the analysis of the positive experience with the involvement of the specialists in the design and practical application of 3D-models for the solution of problems facing the medical prosthetics and the management of various pathological conditions. Another objective was to discuss the possible prospects for the interdisciplinary collaboration in these fields with a view to improving the quality of expert conclusions in the framework of forensic medical and criminalistics examinations. The data readily available from the official domestic and foreign Internet resources were used for the purpose of the study. The analysis of the published data has demonstrated the obvious advantages of the application of the mathematical 3D-models and the biomechanical studies for the solution of the concrete medico-biological problems. The currently available positive experience gained due to the participation of domestic specialists in biomechanics in the solution of the specific clinical problems gives hope that their collaboration between themselves and with the forensic medical experts will open up the promising prospects for the further investigations of the issues of common interest.

  16. Stand-off imaging Raman spectroscopy for forensic analysis of post-blast scenes: trace detection of ammonium nitrate and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceco, Ema; Önnerud, Hans; Menning, Dennis; Gilljam, John L.; Bââth, Petra; Östmark, Henric

    2014-05-01

    The following paper presents a realistic forensic capability test of an imaging Raman spectroscopy based demonstrator system, developed at FOI, the Swedish Defence Research Agency. The system uses a 532 nm laser to irradiate a surface of 25×25mm. The backscattered radiation from the surface is collected by an 8" telescope with subsequent optical system, and is finally imaged onto an ICCD camera. We present here an explosives trace analysis study of samples collected from a realistic scenario after a detonation. A left-behind 5 kg IED, based on ammonium nitrate with a TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) booster, was detonated in a plastic garbage bin. Aluminum sample plates were mounted vertically on a holder approximately 6 m from the point of detonation. Minutes after the detonation, the samples were analyzed with stand-off imaging Raman spectroscopy from a distance of 10 m. Trace amounts could be detected from the secondary explosive (ammonium nitrate with an analysis time of 1 min. Measurement results also indicated detection of residues from the booster (TNT). The sample plates were subsequently swabbed and analyzed with HPLC and GC-MS analyses to confirm the results from the stand-off imaging Raman system. The presented findings indicate that it is possible to determine the type of explosive used in an IED from a distance, within minutes after the attack, and without tampering with physical evidence at the crime scene.

  17. Crime event 3D reconstruction based on incomplete or fragmentary evidence material--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymowicz, Krzysztof; Tunikowski, Wojciech; Kościuk, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Using our own experience in 3D analysis, the authors will demonstrate the possibilities of 3D crime scene and event reconstruction in cases where originally collected material evidence is largely insufficient. The necessity to repeat forensic evaluation is often down to the emergence of new facts in the course of case proceedings. Even in cases when a crime scene and its surroundings have undergone partial or complete transformation, with regard to elements significant to the course of the case, or when the scene was not satisfactorily secured, it is still possible to reconstruct it in a 3D environment based on the originally-collected, even incomplete, material evidence. In particular cases when no image of the crime scene is available, its partial or even full reconstruction is still potentially feasible. Credibility of evidence for such reconstruction can still satisfy the evidence requirements in court. Reconstruction of the missing elements of the crime scene is still possible with the use of information obtained from current publicly available databases. In the study, we demonstrate that these can include Google Maps(®*), Google Street View(®*) and available construction and architecture archives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An enhanced feature set for pattern recognition based contrast enhancement of contact-less captured latent fingerprints in digitized crime scene forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2014-02-01

    In crime scene forensics latent fingerprints are found on various substrates. Nowadays primarily physical or chemical preprocessing techniques are applied for enhancing the visibility of the fingerprint trace. In order to avoid altering the trace it has been shown that contact-less sensors offer a non-destructive acquisition approach. Here, the exploitation of fingerprint or substrate properties and the utilization of signal processing techniques are an essential requirement to enhance the fingerprint visibility. However, especially the optimal sensory is often substrate-dependent. An enhanced generic pattern recognition based contrast enhancement approach for scans of a chromatic white light sensor is introduced in Hildebrandt et al.1 using statistical, structural and Benford's law2 features for blocks of 50 micron. This approach achieves very good results for latent fingerprints on cooperative, non-textured, smooth substrates. However, on textured and structured substrates the error rates are very high and the approach thus unsuitable for forensic use cases. We propose the extension of the feature set with semantic features derived from known Gabor filter based exemplar fingerprint enhancement techniques by suggesting an Epsilon-neighborhood of each block in order to achieve an improved accuracy (called fingerprint ridge orientation semantics). Furthermore, we use rotation invariant Hu moments as an extension of the structural features and two additional preprocessing methods (separate X- and Y Sobel operators). This results in a 408-dimensional feature space. In our experiments we investigate and report the recognition accuracy for eight substrates, each with ten latent fingerprints: white furniture surface, veneered plywood, brushed stainless steel, aluminum foil, "Golden-Oak" veneer, non-metallic matte car body finish, metallic car body finish and blued metal. In comparison to Hildebrandt et al.,1 our evaluation shows a significant reduction of the error rates

  19. Stages As Models of Scene Geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedović, V.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Redert, A.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reconstruction of 3D scene geometry is an important element for scene understanding, autonomous vehicle and robot navigation, image retrieval, and 3D television. We propose accounting for the inherent structure of the visual world when trying to solve the scene reconstruction problem. Consequently,

  20. Approaching ethical, legal and social issues of emerging forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP) technologies comprehensively: Reply to ‘Forensic DNA phenotyping: Predicting human appearance from crime scene material for investigative purposes’ by Manfred Kayser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toom, V.; Wienroth, M.; M'charek, A.; Prainsack, B.; Williams, R.; Duster, T.; Heinemann, T.; Kruse, C.; Machado, H.; Murphy, E.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent special issue of the journal on new trends in forensic genetics, Manfred Kayser contributed a review of developments, opportunities and challenges of forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP). In his article he argues that FDP technologies - such as determining eye, hair and skin color - should be

  1. Forensic Science Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  2. Cortical Dynamics of Figure-Ground Separation in Response to 2D Pictures and 3D Scenes: How V2 Combines Border Ownership, Stereoscopic Cues, and Gestalt Grouping Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The FACADE model, and its laminar cortical realization and extension in the 3D LAMINART model, have explained, simulated, and predicted many perceptual and neurobiological data about how the visual cortex carries out 3D vision and figure-ground perception, and how these cortical mechanisms enable 2D pictures to generate 3D percepts of occluding and occluded objects. In particular, these models have proposed how border ownership occurs, but have not yet explicitly explained the correlation bet...

  3. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 3D Reasoning from Blocks to Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoyin Jia; Gallagher, Andrew C; Saxena, Ashutosh; Chen, Tsuhan

    2015-05-01

    Objects occupy physical space and obey physical laws. To truly understand a scene, we must reason about the space that objects in it occupy, and how each objects is supported stably by each other. In other words, we seek to understand which objects would, if moved, cause other objects to fall. This 3D volumetric reasoning is important for many scene understanding tasks, ranging from segmentation of objects to perception of a rich 3D, physically well-founded, interpretations of the scene. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to parse a single RGB-D image with 3D block units while jointly reasoning about the segments, volumes, supporting relationships, and object stability. Our algorithm is based on the intuition that a good 3D representation of the scene is one that fits the depth data well, and is a stable, self-supporting arrangement of objects (i.e., one that does not topple). We design an energy function for representing the quality of the block representation based on these properties. Our algorithm fits 3D blocks to the depth values corresponding to image segments, and iteratively optimizes the energy function. Our proposed algorithm is the first to consider stability of objects in complex arrangements for reasoning about the underlying structure of the scene. Experimental results show that our stability-reasoning framework improves RGB-D segmentation and scene volumetric representation.

  5. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrat...

  6. Cortical dynamics of figure-ground separation in response to 2D pictures and 3D scenes:How V2 combines border ownership, stereoscopic cues, and Gestalt grouping rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The FACADE model, and its laminar cortical realization and extension in the 3D LAMINART model, have explained, simulated, and predicted many perceptual and neurobiological data about how the visual cortex carries out 3D vision and figure-ground perception, and how these cortical mechanisms enable 2D pictures to generate 3D percepts of occluding and occluded objects. In particular, these models have proposed how border ownership occurs, but have not yet explicitly explained the correlation between multiple properties of border ownership neurons in cortical area V2 that were reported in a remarkable series of neurophysiological experiments by von der Heydt and his colleagues; namely, border ownership, contrast preference, binocular stereoscopic information, selectivity for side-of-figure, Gestalt rules, and strength of attentional modulation, as well as the time course during which such properties arise. This article shows how, by combining 3D LAMINART properties that were discovered in two parallel streams of research, a unified explanation of these properties emerges. This explanation proposes, moreover, how these properties contribute to the generation of consciously seen 3D surfaces. The first research stream models how processes like 3D boundary grouping and surface filling-in interact in multiple stages within and between the V1 interblob – V2 interstripe – V4 cortical stream and the V1 blob – V2 thin stripe – V4 cortical stream, respectively. Of particular importance for understanding figure-ground separation is how these cortical interactions convert computationally complementary boundary and surface mechanisms into a consistent conscious percept, including the critical use of surface contour feedback signals from surface representations in V2 thin stripes to boundary representations in V2 interstripes. Remarkably, key figure-ground properties emerge from these feedback interactions. The second research stream shows how cells that

  7. Cortical Dynamics of Figure-Ground Separation in Response to 2D Pictures and 3D Scenes: How V2 Combines Border Ownership, Stereoscopic Cues, and Gestalt Grouping Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The FACADE model, and its laminar cortical realization and extension in the 3D LAMINART model, have explained, simulated, and predicted many perceptual and neurobiological data about how the visual cortex carries out 3D vision and figure-ground perception, and how these cortical mechanisms enable 2D pictures to generate 3D percepts of occluding and occluded objects. In particular, these models have proposed how border ownership occurs, but have not yet explicitly explained the correlation between multiple properties of border ownership neurons in cortical area V2 that were reported in a remarkable series of neurophysiological experiments by von der Heydt and his colleagues; namely, border ownership, contrast preference, binocular stereoscopic information, selectivity for side-of-figure, Gestalt rules, and strength of attentional modulation, as well as the time course during which such properties arise. This article shows how, by combining 3D LAMINART properties that were discovered in two parallel streams of research, a unified explanation of these properties emerges. This explanation proposes, moreover, how these properties contribute to the generation of consciously seen 3D surfaces. The first research stream models how processes like 3D boundary grouping and surface filling-in interact in multiple stages within and between the V1 interblob-V2 interstripe-V4 cortical stream and the V1 blob-V2 thin stripe-V4 cortical stream, respectively. Of particular importance for understanding figure-ground separation is how these cortical interactions convert computationally complementary boundary and surface mechanisms into a consistent conscious percept, including the critical use of surface contour feedback signals from surface representations in V2 thin stripes to boundary representations in V2 interstripes. Remarkably, key figure-ground properties emerge from these feedback interactions. The second research stream shows how cells that compute absolute disparity in

  8. Cortical Dynamics of Figure-Ground Separation in Response to 2D Pictures and 3D Scenes: How V2 Combines Border Ownership, Stereoscopic Cues, and Gestalt Grouping Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The FACADE model, and its laminar cortical realization and extension in the 3D LAMINART model, have explained, simulated, and predicted many perceptual and neurobiological data about how the visual cortex carries out 3D vision and figure-ground perception, and how these cortical mechanisms enable 2D pictures to generate 3D percepts of occluding and occluded objects. In particular, these models have proposed how border ownership occurs, but have not yet explicitly explained the correlation between multiple properties of border ownership neurons in cortical area V2 that were reported in a remarkable series of neurophysiological experiments by von der Heydt and his colleagues; namely, border ownership, contrast preference, binocular stereoscopic information, selectivity for side-of-figure, Gestalt rules, and strength of attentional modulation, as well as the time course during which such properties arise. This article shows how, by combining 3D LAMINART properties that were discovered in two parallel streams of research, a unified explanation of these properties emerges. This explanation proposes, moreover, how these properties contribute to the generation of consciously seen 3D surfaces. The first research stream models how processes like 3D boundary grouping and surface filling-in interact in multiple stages within and between the V1 interblob—V2 interstripe—V4 cortical stream and the V1 blob—V2 thin stripe—V4 cortical stream, respectively. Of particular importance for understanding figure-ground separation is how these cortical interactions convert computationally complementary boundary and surface mechanisms into a consistent conscious percept, including the critical use of surface contour feedback signals from surface representations in V2 thin stripes to boundary representations in V2 interstripes. Remarkably, key figure-ground properties emerge from these feedback interactions. The second research stream shows how cells that compute absolute disparity

  9. [Forensic entomology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal

    2010-01-01

    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately.

  10. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  11. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  12. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  13. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  14. Forensic Archaeological Recovery of a Large-Scale Mass Disaster Scene: Lessons Learned from Two Complex Recovery Operations at the World Trade Center Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnasch, Scott C

    2016-05-01

    In 2006, unexpected discoveries of buried World Trade Center (WTC) debris and human remains were made at the World Trade Center mass disaster site. New York City's Office of Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) was given the task of systematically searching the site for any remaining victims' remains. The subsequent OCME assessment and archaeological excavation conducted from 2006 until 2013, resulted in the recovery of over 1,900 victims' remains. In addition, this operation demonstrated the essential skills archaeologists can provide in a mass disaster recovery operation. The OCME excavation data illustrates some of the challenges encountered during the original recovery effort of 2001/2002. It suggests that when understood within the larger site recovery context, certain fundamental components of the original recovery effort, such as operational priorities and activities in effect during the original recovery, directly or indirectly resulted in unsearched deposits that contained human remains. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. 3D reconstructions of a controlled bus bombing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Hansen, Nikolaj Friis; Hansen, Kamilla Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: to demonstrate the usefulness of 3D reconstructions to better understand the dynamic of a controlled bus bombing. Materials and methods: 3D models of the victims (pigs) were created from post-mortem CT scanning using Mimic software; 3D models of the crime scene (bus) were generated by...

  16. Electron microscopy and forensic practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana

    2013-05-01

    Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

  17. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  18. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  19. Open 3D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many professionals and 3D artists consider Blender as being the best open source solution for 3D computer graphics. The main features are related to modeling, rendering, shading, imaging, compositing, animation, physics and particles and realtime 3D/game creation.

  20. Contribution to the tracking and the 3D reconstruction of scenes composed of torus from image sequences a acquired by a moving camera; Contribution au suivi et a la reconstruction de scenes constituees d`objet toriques a partir de sequences d`images acquises par une camera mobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudet, S

    1997-01-31

    The three-dimensional perception of the environment is often necessary for a robot to correctly perform its tasks. One solution, based on the dynamic vision, consists in analysing time-varying monocular images to estimate the spatial geometry of the scene. This thesis deals with the reconstruction of torus by dynamic vision. Though this object class is restrictive, it enables to tackle the problem of reconstruction of bent pipes usually encountered in industrial environments. The proposed method is based on the evolution of apparent contours of objects in the sequence. Using the expression of torus limb boundaries, it is possible to recursively estimate the object three-dimensional parameters by minimising the error between the predicted projected contours and the image contours. This process, which is performed by a Kalman filter, does not need a precise knowledge of the camera displacement or any matching of the tow limbs belonging to the same object. To complete this work, temporal tracking of objects which deals with occlusion situations is proposed. The approach consists in modeling and interpreting the apparent motion of objects in the successive images. The motion interpretation, based on a simplified representation of the scene, allows to recover pertinent three-dimensional information which is used to manage occlusion situations. Experiments, on synthetic and real images, proves he validity of the tracking and the reconstruction processes. (author) 127 refs.

  1. Albedo estimation for scene segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C H; Rosenfeld, A

    1983-03-01

    Standard methods of image segmentation do not take into account the three-dimensional nature of the underlying scene. For example, histogram-based segmentation tacitly assumes that the image intensity is piecewise constant, and this is not true when the scene contains curved surfaces. This paper introduces a method of taking 3d information into account in the segmentation process. The image intensities are adjusted to compensate for the effects of estimated surface orientation; the adjusted intensities can be regarded as reflectivity estimates. When histogram-based segmentation is applied to these new values, the image is segmented into parts corresponding to surfaces of constant reflectivity in the scene. 7 references.

  2. 3D Graphics with Spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Benacka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the formulas for orthographic parallel projection of 3D bodies on computer screen are derived using secondary school vector algebra. The spreadsheet implementation is demonstrated in six applications that project bodies with increasing intricacy – a convex body (cube with non-solved visibility, convex bodies (cube, chapel with solved visibility, a coloured convex body (chapel with solved visibility, and a coloured non-convex body (church with solved visibility. The projections are revolvable in horizontal and vertical plane, and they are changeable in size. The examples show an unusual way of using spreadsheets as a 3D computer graphics tool. The applications can serve as a simple introduction to the general principles of computer graphics, to the graphics with spreadsheets, and as a tool for exercising stereoscopic vision. The presented approach is usable at visualising 3D scenes within some topics of secondary school curricula as solid geometry (angles and distances of lines and planes within simple bodies or analytic geometry in space (angles and distances of lines and planes in E3, and even at university level within calculus at visualising graphs of z = f(x,y functions. Examples are pictured.

  3. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; Loon, Mark van [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-28

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N=2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N=2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-’t Hooft loops in the 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. In the presence of a mass parameter for the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  4. A 3d-3d appetizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-02

    We test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T[L(p,1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p,1). In particular, for p=1, we show how the familiar S{sup 3} partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p,1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p,1)] on the squashed three-sphere S{sub b}{sup 3}. This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G{sub ℂ} complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  5. Stages as models of scene geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedović, Vladimir; Smeulders, Arnold W M; Redert, André; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2010-09-01

    Reconstruction of 3D scene geometry is an important element for scene understanding, autonomous vehicle and robot navigation, image retrieval, and 3D television. We propose accounting for the inherent structure of the visual world when trying to solve the scene reconstruction problem. Consequently, we identify geometric scene categorization as the first step toward robust and efficient depth estimation from single images. We introduce 15 typical 3D scene geometries called stages, each with a unique depth profile, which roughly correspond to a large majority of broadcast video frames. Stage information serves as a first approximation of global depth, narrowing down the search space in depth estimation and object localization. We propose different sets of low-level features for depth estimation, and perform stage classification on two diverse data sets of television broadcasts. Classification results demonstrate that stages can often be efficiently learned from low-dimensional image representations.

  6. Parasites in Forensic Science: a historic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    Parasites show a great potential to Forensic Science. Forensic Science is the application of any science and methodology to the legal system. The forensic scientist collects and analyses the physical evidence and produce a report of the results to the court. A parasite is an organism that lives at the expense of another and they exist in any ecosystem. Parasites are the cause of many important diseases. The forensic scientists can use the parasites to identify a crime scene, to determine the murder weapon or simply identify an individual. The applications for parasites in the Forensic Science can be many and more studies should be made in Forensic Parasitology. The most important parasites in Forensic Science are helminths specifically schistosomes. Through history there are many cases where schistosomes were described in autopsies and it was related to the cause of death. Here we review the applications of parasites in Forensic Science and its importance to the forensic scientist.

  7. Virtual autopsy using imaging: bridging radiologic and forensic sciences. A review of the Virtopsy and similar projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolliger, Stephan A.; Thali, Michael J.; Ross, Steffen; Buck, Ursula; Naether, Silvio; Vock, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The transdisciplinary research project Virtopsy is dedicated to implementing modern imaging techniques into forensic medicine and pathology in order to augment current examination techniques or even to offer alternative methods. Our project relies on three pillars: three-dimensional (3D) surface scanning for the documentation of body surfaces, and both multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualise the internal body. Three-dimensional surface scanning has delivered remarkable results in the past in the 3D documentation of patterned injuries and of objects of forensic interest as well as whole crime scenes. Imaging of the interior of corpses is performed using MSCT and/or MRI. MRI, in addition, is also well suited to the examination of surviving victims of assault, especially choking, and helps visualise internal injuries not seen at external examination of the victim. Apart from the accuracy and three-dimensionality that conventional documentations lack, these techniques allow for the re-examination of the corpse and the crime scene even decades later, after burial of the corpse and liberation of the crime scene. We believe that this virtual, non-invasive or minimally invasive approach will improve forensic medicine in the near future. (orig.)

  8. Status of nuclear forensic support in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Mohammedelmoez Eltayeb Abderahman

    2015-08-01

    The central problem investigated in this thesis is nuclear forensic support in Sudan, the thesis comprises five chapters, began with an introduction containing the art of forensic science, stated the importance of the it in criminal investigations. The forensic science was defined, and stated the principle of which it underlying, including: principle of individuality and principle of exchange, the divisions of this science has been clarified, then it discussed the crime scene and the collecting of evidence, where starting the forensic science at the crime scene, with clarifying the principle of crime scene investigation. Nuclear and other radioactive material was discussed: defining a radioactivity with the material source. It placed into 3 general categories: special nuclear materials, reactor fuel, and commercial radioactive sources, and mention each category and it characteristics. Radiation is part of our environment was clarified, and discussed what the effect on organisms and populations are. Nuclear forensics was presented,and how problem of the safeguarding of the nuclear material beginning. The emerging nature of the problem was discussed, the radiological crime scene management was explained, importance of securing the scene with an examples of equipment and instruments for on-scene radiation safety assessment and how the collection of evidence, storage forensic laboratory analysis was discussed and how set the designated nuclear forensic laboratory, also nuclear forensic interpretation, and the chain of custody was mentioned. The role of Regulating Authority in Nuclear forensic support was discussed, specifically in Sudan, International Cooperation have also been reminded, as well as memorandum of understanding was mentioned between SNRRA and the administration of forensic evidence, and one of it results is the radiological surveys unit in forensic administration, how the unit is configured, the role of the unit, finally conclusion of research was

  9. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  10. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  11. Lightning fast animation in Element 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Audronis, Ty

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow and all-inclusive guide, in which the underlying principles of 3D animation as well as their importance are explained in detail. The lessons are designed to teach you how to think of 3D animation in such a way that you can troubleshoot any problem, or animate any scene that comes your way.If you are a Digital Artist, Animation Artist, or a Game Programmer and you want to become an expert in Element 3D, this is the book for you. Although there are a lot of basics for beginners in this book, it includes some advanced techniques for both animating in Element 3D, and overcoming i

  12. Underwater 3D filming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  13. User-centered 3D geovisualisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anette Hougaard

    2004-01-01

    . In a broader perspective, the overall aim is to develop a language in 3D Geovisualisation gained through usability projects and the development of a theoretical background. A conceptual level of user-centered 3D Geovisualisation is introduced by applying a categorisation originating from Virtual Reality...... and shadowing effects or with weather phenomena serving a level of realism and providing depth cues. The rendered objects and scenes are graphically accessible through the interface where immersive or non-immersive monitors in different sizes and shapes are relevant. Through the user interface, users can...

  14. Rendering Large-Scale Terrain Models and Positioning Objects in Relation to 3D Terrain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hittner, Brian

    2003-01-01

    .... Rendering large scale landscapes based on 3D geometry generally did not occur because the scenes generated tended to use up too much system memory and overburden 3D graphics cards with too many polygons...

  15. Underwater 3D filming

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” ) and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Unde...

  16. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  17. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  18. Professional Papervision3D

    CERN Document Server

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  19. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  20. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC, international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc., forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics, forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants, psychiatry and hypnotics, forensic anthropology and archeology, forensic odontology, fingerprints and impressions, firearms and tool marks, white collar crimes (counterfeit and forgery; questioned documents, digital forensics; cyber-crimes, criminal justice and crime scene investigation, as well as many other disciplines where science and medicine interact with the law.

  1. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  2. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Bin; Yan, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models

  3. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  4. Computer Forensics JumpStart

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Michael G; Tittel, Ed; Broom, Neil; Barrett, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Essential reading for launching a career in computer forensicsInternet crime is on the rise, catapulting the need for computer forensics specialists. This new edition presents you with a completely updated overview of the basic skills that are required as a computer forensics professional. The author team of technology security veterans introduces the latest software and tools that exist and they review the available certifications in this growing segment of IT that can help take your career to a new level. A variety of real-world practices take you behind the scenes to look at the root causes

  5. What is 3D good for? A review of human performance on stereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.

    2012-06-01

    This work reviews the human factors-related literature on the task performance implications of stereoscopic 3D displays, in order to point out the specific performance benefits (or lack thereof) one might reasonably expect to observe when utilizing these displays. What exactly is 3D good for? Relative to traditional 2D displays, stereoscopic displays have been shown to enhance performance on a variety of depth-related tasks. These tasks include judging absolute and relative distances, finding and identifying objects (by breaking camouflage and eliciting perceptual "pop-out"), performing spatial manipulations of objects (object positioning, orienting, and tracking), and navigating. More cognitively, stereoscopic displays can improve the spatial understanding of 3D scenes or objects, improve memory/recall of scenes or objects, and improve learning of spatial relationships and environments. However, for tasks that are relatively simple, that do not strictly require depth information for good performance, where other strong cues to depth can be utilized, or for depth tasks that lie outside the effective viewing volume of the display, the purported performance benefits of 3D may be small or altogether absent. Stereoscopic 3D displays come with a host of unique human factors problems including the simulator-sickness-type symptoms of eyestrain, headache, fatigue, disorientation, nausea, and malaise, which appear to effect large numbers of viewers (perhaps as many as 25% to 50% of the general population). Thus, 3D technology should be wielded delicately and applied carefully; and perhaps used only as is necessary to ensure good performance.

  6. Wearable 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Imura, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Masanobu; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    Wearable 3D measurement realizes to acquire 3D information of an objects or an environment using a wearable computer. Recently, we can send voice and sound as well as pictures by mobile phone in Japan. Moreover it will become easy to capture and send data of short movie by it. On the other hand, the computers become compact and high performance. And it can easy connect to Internet by wireless LAN. Near future, we can use the wearable computer always and everywhere. So we will be able to send the three-dimensional data that is measured by wearable computer as a next new data. This paper proposes the measurement method and system of three-dimensional data of an object with the using of wearable computer. This method uses slit light projection for 3D measurement and user"s motion instead of scanning system.

  7. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3...... important to appreciate the analysis. Before turning to the presentation of preliminary findings and a discussion of 3D digital modelling, it begins, however, with an outline of industry specific ICT strategic issues. Paper type. Multi-site field study...

  8. The Essential Guide to 3D in Flash

    CERN Document Server

    Olsson, Ronald A

    2010-01-01

    If you are an ActionScript developer or designer and you would like to work with 3D in Flash, this book is for you. You will learn the core Flash 3D concepts, using the open source Away3D engine as a primary tool. Once you have mastered these skills, you will be able to realize the possibilities that the available Flash 3D engines, languages, and technologies have to offer you with Flash and 3D.* Describes 3D concepts in theory and their implementation using Away3D* Dives right in to show readers how to quickly create an interactive, animated 3D scene, and builds on that experience throughout

  9. 3D ARCHITECTURAL VIDEOMAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Catanese

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D architectural mapping is a video projection technique that can be done with a survey of a chosen building in order to realize a perfect correspondence between its shapes and the images in projection. As a performative kind of audiovisual artifact, the real event of the 3D mapping is a combination of a registered video animation file with a real architecture. This new kind of visual art is becoming very popular and its big audience success testifies new expressive chances in the field of urban design. My case study has been experienced in Pisa for the Luminara feast in 2012.

  10. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  11. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article ...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  12. Herramientas SIG 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Feito Higueruela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Geographical Information Systems on several Archeology fields have been increasing during the last years. Recent avances in these technologies make possible to work with more realistic 3D models. In this paper we introduce a new paradigm for this system, the GIS Thetrahedron, in which we define the fundamental elements of GIS, in order to provide a better understanding of their capabilities. At the same time the basic 3D characteristics of some comercial and open source software are described, as well as the application to some samples on archeological researchs

  13. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip; Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions 〈ψψψψ〉 in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ×ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C{sub T}. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the Gross-Neveu models at large N. We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  14. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  15. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  16. 3D Harmonic Echocardiography:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Voormolen (Marco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThree dimensional (3D) echocardiography has recently developed from an experimental technique in the ’90 towards an imaging modality for the daily clinical practice. This dissertation describes the considerations, implementation, validation and clinical application of a unique

  17. Interactive 3d Landscapes on Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanini, B.; Calori, L.; Ferdani, D.; Pescarin, S.

    2011-09-01

    The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  18. INTERACTIVE 3D LANDSCAPES ON LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fanini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  19. 3D Surgical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive ...

  20. Asymmetries in perception of 3D orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan C Dobbins

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual scene interpretation depends on assumptions based on the statistical regularities of the world. People have some preference for seeing ambiguously oriented objects (Necker cubes as if tilted down or viewed from above. This bias is a near certainty in the first instant (approximately 1 s of viewing and declines over the course of many seconds. In addition, we found that there is modulation of perceived orientation that varies with position--for example objects on the left are more likely to be interpreted as viewed from the right. Therefore there is both a viewed-from-above prior and a scene position-dependent modulation of perceived 3-D orientation. These results are consistent with the idea that ambiguously oriented objects are initially assigned an orientation consistent with our experience of an asymmetric world in which objects most probably sit on surfaces below eye level.

  1. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through...... facilitated discussions during the course as well as through a survey distributed to the participating students. The analysis of the experiences shows a mixed picture consisting of both benefits and limits to the experimental technique. A discussion about the applicability of the technique and about...

  2. Scene Integration for Online VR Advertising Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kalochristianakis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a scene composition approach that allows the combinational use of standard three dimensional objects, called models, in order to create X3D scenes. The module is an integral part of a broader design aiming to construct large scale online advertising infrastructures that rely on virtual reality technologies. The architecture addresses a number of problems regarding remote rendering for low end devices and last but not least, the provision of scene composition and integration. Since viewers do not keep information regarding individual input models or scenes, composition requires the consideration of mechanisms that add state to viewing technologies. In terms of this work we extended a well-known, open source X3D authoring tool.

  3. Analysis of bite marks in foodstuffs by computer tomography (cone beam CT)--3D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Jeidson; Musse, Jamilly; Caetano, Catarina; Corte-Real, Francisco; Corte-Real, Ana Teresa

    2013-12-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) analysis of forensic evidence is highlighted in comparison with traditional methods. This three-dimensional analysis is based on the registration of the surface from a bitten object. The authors propose to use Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), which is used in dental practice, in order to study the surface and interior of bitten objects and dental casts of suspects. In this study, CBCT is applied to the analysis of bite marks in foodstuffs, which may be found in a forensic case scenario. 6 different types of foodstuffs were used: chocolate, cheese, apple, chewing gum, pizza and tart (flaky pastry and custard). The food was bitten into and dental casts of the possible suspects were made. The dental casts and bitten objects were registered using an x-ray source and the CBCT equipment iCAT® (Pennsylvania, EUA). The software InVivo5® (Anatomage Inc, EUA) was used to visualize and analyze the tomographic slices and 3D reconstructions of the objects. For each material an estimate of its density was assessed by two methods: HU values and specific gravity. All the used materials were successfully reconstructed as good quality 3D images. The relative densities of the materials in study were compared. Amongst the foodstuffs, the chocolate had the highest density (median value 100.5 HU and 1,36 g/cm(3)), while the pizza showed to have the lowest (median value -775 HU and 0,39 g/cm(3)), on both scales. Through tomographic slices and three-dimensional reconstructions it was possible to perform the metric analysis of the bite marks in all the foodstuffs, except for the pizza. These measurements could also be obtained from the dental casts. The depth of the bite mark was also successfully determined in all the foodstuffs except for the pizza. Cone Beam Computed Tomography has the potential to become an important tool for forensic sciences, namely for the registration and analysis of bite marks in foodstuffs that may be found in a crime

  4. 3D reconstruction based on light field images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong; Wu, Chunhong; Liu, Yunluo; Fu, Dongmei

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposed a method of reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) scene from two light field images capture by Lytro illium. The work was carried out by first extracting the sub-aperture images from light field images and using the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) for feature registration on the selected sub-aperture images. Structure from motion (SFM) algorithm is further used on the registration completed sub-aperture images to reconstruct the three-dimensional scene. 3D sparse point cloud was obtained in the end. The method shows that the 3D reconstruction can be implemented by only two light field camera captures, rather than at least a dozen times captures by traditional cameras. This can effectively solve the time-consuming, laborious issues for 3D reconstruction based on traditional digital cameras, to achieve a more rapid, convenient and accurate reconstruction.

  5. Design of 3D simulation engine for oilfield safety training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua-Ming; Kang, Bao-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Aiming at the demand for rapid custom development of 3D simulation system for oilfield safety training, this paper designs and implements a 3D simulation engine based on script-driven method, multi-layer structure, pre-defined entity objects and high-level tools such as scene editor, script editor, program loader. A scripting language been defined to control the system's progress, events and operating results. Training teacher can use this engine to edit 3D virtual scenes, set the properties of entity objects, define the logic script of task, and produce a 3D simulation training system without any skills of programming. Through expanding entity class, this engine can be quickly applied to other virtual training areas.

  6. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  7. Construction and Optimization of Three-Dimensional Disaster Scenes within Mobile Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Because mobile virtual reality (VR is both mobile and immersive, three-dimensional (3D visualizations of disaster scenes based in mobile VR enable users to perceive and recognize disaster environments faster and better than is possible with other methods. To achieve immersion and prevent users from feeling dizzy, such visualizations require a high scene-rendering frame rate. However, the existing related visualization work cannot provide a sufficient solution for this purpose. This study focuses on the construction and optimization of a 3D disaster scene in order to satisfy the high frame-rate requirements for the rendering of 3D disaster scenes in mobile VR. First, the design of a plugin-free browser/server (B/S architecture for 3D disaster scene construction and visualization based in mobile VR is presented. Second, certain key technologies for scene optimization are discussed, including diverse modes of scene data representation, representation optimization of mobile scenes, and adaptive scheduling of mobile scenes. By means of these technologies, smartphones with various performance levels can achieve higher scene-rendering frame rates and improved visual quality. Finally, using a flood disaster as an example, a plugin-free prototype system was developed, and experiments were conducted. The experimental results demonstrate that a 3D disaster scene constructed via the methods addressed in this study has a sufficiently high scene-rendering frame rate to satisfy the requirements for rendering a 3D disaster scene in mobile VR.

  8. Scalable Multi-Platform Distribution of Spatial 3d Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimke, J.; Hagedorn, B.; Döllner, J.

    2013-09-01

    Virtual 3D city models provide powerful user interfaces for communication of 2D and 3D geoinformation. Providing high quality visualization of massive 3D geoinformation in a scalable, fast, and cost efficient manner is still a challenging task. Especially for mobile and web-based system environments, software and hardware configurations of target systems differ significantly. This makes it hard to provide fast, visually appealing renderings of 3D data throughout a variety of platforms and devices. Current mobile or web-based solutions for 3D visualization usually require raw 3D scene data such as triangle meshes together with textures delivered from server to client, what makes them strongly limited in terms of size and complexity of the models they can handle. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for provisioning of massive, virtual 3D city models on different platforms namely web browsers, smartphones or tablets, by means of an interactive map assembled from artificial oblique image tiles. The key concept is to synthesize such images of a virtual 3D city model by a 3D rendering service in a preprocessing step. This service encapsulates model handling and 3D rendering techniques for high quality visualization of massive 3D models. By generating image tiles using this service, the 3D rendering process is shifted from the client side, which provides major advantages: (a) The complexity of the 3D city model data is decoupled from data transfer complexity (b) the implementation of client applications is simplified significantly as 3D rendering is encapsulated on server side (c) 3D city models can be easily deployed for and used by a large number of concurrent users, leading to a high degree of scalability of the overall approach. All core 3D rendering techniques are performed on a dedicated 3D rendering server, and thin-client applications can be compactly implemented for various devices and platforms.

  9. Forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2012-04-01

    Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology.

  10. Scene analysis in the natural environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewicki, Michael S; Olshausen, Bruno A; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    The problem of scene analysis has been studied in a number of different fields over the past decades. These studies have led to important insights into problems of scene analysis, but not all of these insights are widely appreciated, and there remain critical shortcomings in current approaches th...... ill-posed problems, (2) the ability to integrate and store information across time and modality, (3) efficient recovery and representation of 3D scene structure, and (4) the use of optimal motor actions for acquiring information to progress toward behavioral goals....

  11. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  12. Metrological characterization of 3D imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, G.

    2013-04-01

    Manufacturers often express the performance of a 3D imaging device in various non-uniform ways for the lack of internationally recognized standard requirements for metrological parameters able to identify the capability of capturing a real scene. For this reason several national and international organizations in the last ten years have been developing protocols for verifying such performance. Ranging from VDI/VDE 2634, published by the Association of German Engineers and oriented to the world of mechanical 3D measurements (triangulation-based devices), to the ASTM technical committee E57, working also on laser systems based on direct range detection (TOF, Phase Shift, FM-CW, flash LADAR), this paper shows the state of the art about the characterization of active range devices, with special emphasis on measurement uncertainty, accuracy and resolution. Most of these protocols are based on special objects whose shape and size are certified with a known level of accuracy. By capturing the 3D shape of such objects with a range device, a comparison between the measured points and the theoretical shape they should represent is possible. The actual deviations can be directly analyzed or some derived parameters can be obtained (e.g. angles between planes, distances between barycenters of spheres rigidly connected, frequency domain parameters, etc.). This paper shows theoretical aspects and experimental results of some novel characterization methods applied to different categories of active 3D imaging devices based on both principles of triangulation and direct range detection.

  13. Forensic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  14. Use of AFIS for linking scenes of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefetz, Ido; Liptz, Yakir; Vaturi, Shaul; Attias, David

    2016-05-01

    Forensic intelligence can provide critical information in criminal investigations - the linkage of crime scenes. The Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is an example of a technological improvement that has advanced the entire forensic identification field to strive for new goals and achievements. In one example using AFIS, a series of burglaries into private apartments enabled a fingerprint examiner to search latent prints from different burglary scenes against an unsolved latent print database. Latent finger and palm prints coming from the same source were associated with over than 20 cases. Then, by forensic intelligence and profile analysis the offender's behavior could be anticipated. He was caught, identified, and arrested. It is recommended to perform an AFIS search of LT/UL prints against current crimes automatically as part of laboratory protocol and not by an examiner's discretion. This approach may link different crime scenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Virtual environments for scene of crime reconstruction and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Toby L. J.; Murta, Alan D.; Gibson, Simon

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes research conducted in collaboration with Greater Manchester Police (UK), to evalute the utility of Virtual Environments for scene of crime analysis, forensic investigation, and law enforcement briefing and training. We present an illustrated case study of the construction of a high-fidelity virtual environment, intended to match a particular real-life crime scene as closely as possible. We describe and evaluate the combination of several approaches including: the use of the Manchester Scene Description Language for constructing complex geometrical models; the application of a radiosity rendering algorithm with several novel features based on human perceptual consideration; texture extraction from forensic photography; and experiments with interactive walkthroughs and large-screen stereoscopic display of the virtual environment implemented using the MAVERIK system. We also discuss the potential applications of Virtual Environment techniques in the Law Enforcement and Forensic communities.

  16. Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: understanding and utilizing the human element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Itiel E.

    2015-01-01

    The human element plays a critical role in forensic science. It is not limited only to issues relating to forensic decision-making, such as bias, but also relates to most aspects of forensic work (some of which even take place before a crime is ever committed or long after the verification of the forensic conclusion). In this paper, I explicate many aspects of forensic work that involve the human element and therefore show the relevance (and potential contribution) of cognitive neuroscience to forensic science. The 10 aspects covered in this paper are proactive forensic science, selection during recruitment, training, crime scene investigation, forensic decision-making, verification and conflict resolution, reporting, the role of the forensic examiner, presentation in court and judicial decisions. As the forensic community is taking on the challenges introduced by the realization that the human element is critical for forensic work, new opportunities emerge that allow for considerable improvement and enhancement of the forensic science endeavour. PMID:26101281

  17. Mobile 3D tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerhaus, Bernhard; Goebbels, Juergen; Onel, Yener; Sauerwein, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Mobile tomographs often have the problem that high spatial resolution is impossible owing to the position or setup of the tomograph. While the tree tomograph developed by Messrs. Isotopenforschung Dr. Sauerwein GmbH worked well in practice, it is no longer used as the spatial resolution and measuring time are insufficient for many modern applications. The paper shows that the mechanical base of the method is sufficient for 3D CT measurements with modern detectors and X-ray tubes. CT measurements with very good statistics take less than 10 min. This means that mobile systems can be used, e.g. in examinations of non-transportable cultural objects or monuments. Enhancement of the spatial resolution of mobile tomographs capable of measuring in any position is made difficult by the fact that the tomograph has moving parts and will therefore have weight shifts. With the aid of tomographies whose spatial resolution is far higher than the mechanical accuracy, a correction method is presented for direct integration of the Feldkamp algorithm [de

  18. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  19. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  20. An automatic image-based modelling method applied to forensic infography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zancajo-Blazquez

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method based on 3D reconstruction from images that demonstrates the utility and integration of close-range photogrammetry and computer vision as an efficient alternative to modelling complex objects and scenarios of forensic infography. The results obtained confirm the validity of the method compared to other existing alternatives as it guarantees the following: (i flexibility, permitting work with any type of camera (calibrated and non-calibrated, smartphone or tablet and image (visible, infrared, thermal, etc.; (ii automation, allowing the reconstruction of three-dimensional scenarios in the absence of manual intervention, and (iii high quality results, sometimes providing higher resolution than modern laser scanning systems. As a result, each ocular inspection of a crime scene with any camera performed by the scientific police can be transformed into a scaled 3d model.

  1. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  2. 3D Volume Rendering and 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkar, Rujuta A; Taft, Robert M; Grant, Gerald T

    2018-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered images allow 3D insight into the anatomy, facilitating surgical treatment planning and teaching. 3D printing, additive manufacturing, and rapid prototyping techniques are being used with satisfactory accuracy, mostly for diagnosis and surgical planning, followed by direct manufacture of implantable devices. The major limitation is the time and money spent generating 3D objects. Printer type, material, and build thickness are known to influence the accuracy of printed models. In implant dentistry, the use of 3D-printed surgical guides is strongly recommended to facilitate planning and reduce risk of operative complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  4. The Future Is 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    3D printers are a way of producing a 3D model of an item from a digital file. The model builds up in successive layers of material placed by the printer controlled by the information in the computer file. In this article the author argues that 3D printers are one of the greatest technological advances of recent times. He discusses practical uses…

  5. The 3D additivist cookbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allahyari, Morehshin; Rourke, Daniel; Rasch, Miriam

    The 3D Additivist Cookbook, devised and edited by Morehshin Allahyari & Daniel Rourke, is a free compendium of imaginative, provocative works from over 100 world-leading artists, activists and theorists. The 3D Additivist Cookbook contains .obj and .stl files for the 3D printer, as well as critical

  6. PBX Security and Forensics A Practical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif I

    2013-01-01

    PBX Security and Forensics begins with an introduction to PBXs (Private Branch Exchanges) and the scene, statistics and involved actors. This book discusses confidentiality, integrity and availability threats in PBXs. The author examines the threats and the technical background as well as security and Forensics involving PBXs. The purpose of this book is to raise user awareness in regards to security and privacy threats present in PBXs, helping both users and administrators safeguard their systems.

  7. An interactive display system for large-scale 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zijian; Sun, Kun; Tao, Wenbing; Liu, Liman

    2018-04-01

    With the improvement of 3D reconstruction theory and the rapid development of computer hardware technology, the reconstructed 3D models are enlarging in scale and increasing in complexity. Models with tens of thousands of 3D points or triangular meshes are common in practical applications. Due to storage and computing power limitation, it is difficult to achieve real-time display and interaction with large scale 3D models for some common 3D display software, such as MeshLab. In this paper, we propose a display system for large-scale 3D scene models. We construct the LOD (Levels of Detail) model of the reconstructed 3D scene in advance, and then use an out-of-core view-dependent multi-resolution rendering scheme to realize the real-time display of the large-scale 3D model. With the proposed method, our display system is able to render in real time while roaming in the reconstructed scene and 3D camera poses can also be displayed. Furthermore, the memory consumption can be significantly decreased via internal and external memory exchange mechanism, so that it is possible to display a large scale reconstructed scene with over millions of 3D points or triangular meshes in a regular PC with only 4GB RAM.

  8. Genetic Approaches to Appearance and Ancestry : Improving Forensic DNA Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Chaitanya (Lakshmi)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTraditionally, routine forensic casework is based on comparative grounds. DNA profiles obtained from crime-scenes are compared with those of potential suspects or DNA profiles deposited in forensic DNA databases. The principal limitation of such comparative approach is that trace

  9. Scene incongruity and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Arien; Clarke, Jason; Erol, Muge; Bert, John

    2017-02-01

    Does scene incongruity, (a mismatch between scene gist and a semantically incongruent object), capture attention and lead to conscious perception? We explored this question using 4 different procedures: Inattention (Experiment 1), Scene description (Experiment 2), Change detection (Experiment 3), and Iconic Memory (Experiment 4). We found no differences between scene incongruity and scene congruity in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, although in Experiment 3 change detection was faster for scenes containing an incongruent object. We offer an explanation for why the change detection results differ from the results of the other three experiments. In all four experiments, participants invariably failed to report the incongruity and routinely mis-described it by normalizing the incongruent object. None of the results supports the claim that semantic incongruity within a scene invariably captures attention and provide strong evidence of the dominant role of scene gist in determining what is perceived. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  11. 3D motion analysis via energy minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedel, Andreas

    2009-10-16

    This work deals with 3D motion analysis from stereo image sequences for driver assistance systems. It consists of two parts: the estimation of motion from the image data and the segmentation of moving objects in the input images. The content can be summarized with the technical term machine visual kinesthesia, the sensation or perception and cognition of motion. In the first three chapters, the importance of motion information is discussed for driver assistance systems, for machine vision in general, and for the estimation of ego motion. The next two chapters delineate on motion perception, analyzing the apparent movement of pixels in image sequences for both a monocular and binocular camera setup. Then, the obtained motion information is used to segment moving objects in the input video. Thus, one can clearly identify the thread from analyzing the input images to describing the input images by means of stationary and moving objects. Finally, I present possibilities for future applications based on the contents of this thesis. Previous work in each case is presented in the respective chapters. Although the overarching issue of motion estimation from image sequences is related to practice, there is nothing as practical as a good theory (Kurt Lewin). Several problems in computer vision are formulated as intricate energy minimization problems. In this thesis, motion analysis in image sequences is thoroughly investigated, showing that splitting an original complex problem into simplified sub-problems yields improved accuracy, increased robustness, and a clear and accessible approach to state-of-the-art motion estimation techniques. In Chapter 4, optical flow is considered. Optical flow is commonly estimated by minimizing the combined energy, consisting of a data term and a smoothness term. These two parts are decoupled, yielding a novel and iterative approach to optical flow. The derived Refinement Optical Flow framework is a clear and straight-forward approach to

  12. On 3D Geo-visualization of a Mine Surface Plant and Mine Roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunjia; FU Yongming; FU Erjiang

    2007-01-01

    Constructing the 3D virtual scene of a coal mine is the objective requirement for modernizing and processing information on coal mining production. It is also the key technology to establish a "digital mine". By exploring current worldwide research, software and hardware tools and application demands, combined with the case study site (the Dazhuang mine of Pingdingshan coal group), an approach for 3D geo-visualization of a mine surface plant and mine roadway is deeply discussed. In this study, the rapid modeling method for a large range virtual scene based on Arc/Info and SiteBuilder3D is studied, and automatic generation of a 3D scene from a 2D scene is realized. Such an automatic method which can convert mine roadway systems from 2D to 3D is realized for the Dazhuang mine. Some relevant application questions are studied, including attribute query, coordinate query, distance measure, collision detection and the dynamic interaction between 2D and 3D virtual scenes in the virtual scene of a mine surface plant and mine roadway. A prototype system is designed and developed.

  13. Automatic detection of artifacts in converted S3D video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, Alexander; Vatolin, Dmitriy; Zachesov, Anton; Belous, Alexander; Erofeev, Mikhail

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present algorithms for automatically detecting issues specific to converted S3D content. When a depth-image-based rendering approach produces a stereoscopic image, the quality of the result depends on both the depth maps and the warping algorithms. The most common problem with converted S3D video is edge-sharpness mismatch. This artifact may appear owing to depth-map blurriness at semitransparent edges: after warping, the object boundary becomes sharper in one view and blurrier in the other, yielding binocular rivalry. To detect this problem we estimate the disparity map, extract boundaries with noticeable differences, and analyze edge-sharpness correspondence between views. We pay additional attention to cases involving a complex background and large occlusions. Another problem is detection of scenes that lack depth volume: we present algorithms for detecting at scenes and scenes with at foreground objects. To identify these problems we analyze the features of the RGB image as well as uniform areas in the depth map. Testing of our algorithms involved examining 10 Blu-ray 3D releases with converted S3D content, including Clash of the Titans, The Avengers, and The Chronicles of Narnia: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. The algorithms we present enable improved automatic quality assessment during the production stage.

  14. Digital Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Jason; Langdon, John; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Cater, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The term forensic science may evoke thoughts of blood-spatter analysis, DNA testing, and identifying molds, spores, and larvae. A growing part of this field, however, is that of digital forensics, involving techniques with clear connections to math and physics. This article describes a five-part project involving smartphones and the investigation…

  15. Forensic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, E.

    1981-01-01

    Modern scientific technology now plays an increasingly important role in the process of law enforcement. Neutron activation, as developed for elemental analysis offers, in many cases, the suitable answer to forensic problems. The author discusses the use NAA has been put to in forensic science. (Auth.)

  16. Intelligent Open Data 3D Maps in a Collaborative Virtual World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho-Pekka Virtanen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D maps have many potential applications, such as navigation and urban planning. In this article, we present the use of a 3D virtual world platform Meshmoon to create intelligent open data 3D maps. A processing method is developed to enable the generation of 3D virtual environments from the open data of the National Land Survey of Finland. The article combines the elements needed in contemporary smart city concepts, such as the connection between attribute information and 3D objects, and the creation of collaborative virtual worlds from open data. By using our 3D virtual world platform, it is possible to create up-to-date, collaborative 3D virtual models, which are automatically updated on all viewers. In the scenes, all users are able to interact with the model, and with each other. With the developed processing methods, the creation of virtual world scenes was partially automated for collaboration activities.

  17. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  18. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  19. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  20. 3D IBFV : hardware-accelerated 3D flow visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, A.C.; Wijk, van J.J.

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique presented by van Wijk (2001) for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D

  1. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  2. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  3. 3D for Graphic Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  4. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  5. Qademah Fault 3D Survey

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Collect 3D seismic data at Qademah Fault location to 1. 3D traveltime tomography 2. 3D surface wave migration 3. 3D phase velocity 4. Possible reflection processing Acquisition Date: 26 – 28 September 2014 Acquisition Team: Sherif, Kai, Mrinal, Bowen, Ahmed Acquisition Layout: We used 288 receiver arranged in 12 parallel lines, each line has 24 receiver. Inline offset is 5 m and crossline offset is 10 m. One shot is fired at each receiver location. We use the 40 kgm weight drop as seismic source, with 8 to 15 stacks at each shot location.

  6. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  7. 3-D printers for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  8. AR goggles make crime scene investigation a desk job

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Jacob; NORTHFIELD, Dean

    2012-01-01

    CRIME scene investigators could one day help solve murders without leaving the office. A pair of augmented reality glasses could allow local police to virtually tag objects in a crime scene, and build a clean record of the scene in 3D video before evidence is removed for processing.\\ud The system, being developed by Oytun Akman and colleagues at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, consists of a head-mounted display receiving 3D video from a pair of attached cameras controll...

  9. Development of a clinical forensic medicine curriculum for emergency physicians in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smock, W S

    1994-06-01

    To address the forensic needs of living patients, the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Louisville School of Medicine in Louisville, Kentucky, USA initiated the first clinical forensic medicine training programme in the USA. In July 1991, formal training in clinical forensic medicine was incorporated into the core curriculum of the USA's second oldest academic emergency medicine training programme. The University of Louisville, in cooperation with the Kentucky Medical Examiner's Office, developed the curriculum to provide the emergency physician with the knowledge base and technical skills to perform forensic evaluations of living patients. Forensic lectures are given monthly by local and regional forensic experts including: forensic pathologists, prosecuting attorneys, firearm and ballistics examiners, law enforcement officers, forensic chemists and forensic odontologists. Topics which are presented include: forensic pathology, forensic photography, ballistics and firearms analysis, paediatric physical and sexual assault, crime scene investigation, forensic odontology, courtroom and expert testimony and the forensic evaluation of penetrating trauma. As a result of the introduction of clinical forensic medicine into the core curriculum of an emergency medicine training programme the residents are now actively addressing the forensic issues encountered in the Emergency department. Key, often short-lived forensic evidence, which was frequently overlooked or discarded while delivering patient care is now recognized, documented and preserved. The development and introduction of a clinical forensic medicine curriculum into emergency medicine training has greatly enhanced the emergency physician's ability to recognize, document and address the forensic needs of their patients who are victims of violent and non-fatal trauma.

  10. Abusir 3D survey 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinori Kawae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, in collaboration with the Czech Institute of Egyptology, we, a Japanese consortium, initiated the Abusir 3D Survey (A-3DS for the 3D documentation of the site’s pyramids, which have not been updated since the time of the architectural investigations of Vito Maragioglio and Celeste Rinaldi in the 1960s to the 1970s. The first season of our project focused on the exterior of Neferirkare’s pyramid, the largest pyramid at Abusir. By developing a strategic mathematical 3D survey plan, step-by-step 3D documentation to suit specific archaeological needs, and producing a new display method for the 3D data, we successfully measured the dimensions of the pyramid in a cost-effective way.

  11. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... a channel limited 2-D transducer array and the conventional 3-D beamforming technique, Parallel Beamforming. The first part of the scientific contributions demonstrate that 3-D synthetic aperture imaging achieves a better image quality than the Parallel Beamforming technique. Data were obtained using both...

  12. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... are (vx, vy, vz) = (-0.03, 95, 1.0) ± (9, 6, 1) cm/s compared with the expected (0, 96, 0) cm/s. Afterwards, 3D vector flow images from a cross-sectional plane of the vessel are presented. The out of plane velocities exhibit the expected 2D circular-symmetric parabolic shape. The experimental results...... verify that the 3D TO method estimates the complete 3D velocity vectors, and that the method is suitable for 3D vector flow imaging....

  13. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  14. E3D, 3-D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, S.; Harris, D.; Schultz, C.; Maddix, D.; Bakowsky, T.; Bent, L.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output. 2 - Methods: The software simulates wave propagation by solving the elasto-dynamic formulation of the full wave equation on a staggered grid. The solution scheme is 4-order accurate in space, 2-order accurate in time

  15. Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; de Bruin, Karla G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2012-01-01

    Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time

  16. Biometric Score Calibration for Forensic Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef

    2014-01-01

    When two biometric specimens are compared using an automatic biometric recognition system, a similarity metric called “score‿ can be computed. In forensics, one of the biometric specimens is from an unknown source, for example, from a CCTV footage or a fingermark found at a crime scene and the other

  17. 3D Point Cloud Reconstruction from Single Plenoptic Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Murgia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel plenoptic cameras sample the light field crossing the main camera lens. The information available in a plenoptic image must be processed, in order to create the depth map of the scene from a single camera shot. In this paper a novel algorithm, for the reconstruction of 3D point cloud of the scene from a single plenoptic image, taken with a consumer plenoptic camera, is proposed. Experimental analysis is conducted on several test images, and results are compared with state of the art methodologies. The results are very promising, as the quality of the 3D point cloud from plenoptic image, is comparable with the quality obtained with current non-plenoptic methodologies, that necessitate more than one image.

  18. The Arnolfini Portrait in 3d: Creating Virtual World of a Painting with Inconsistent Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.H.; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Arnold, D. B.; Ferko, A.

    We report on creating a 3d virtual reconstruction of the scene shown in "The Arnolfini Portrait" by Jan van Eyck. This early Renaissance painting, if painted faithfully, should confirm to one-point perspective, however it has several vanishing points instead of one. Hence our 3d reconstruction had

  19. 2D-Driven 3D Object Detection in RGB-D Images

    KAUST Repository

    Lahoud, Jean; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a technique that places 3D bounding boxes around objects in an RGB-D scene. Our approach makes best use of the 2D information to quickly reduce the search space in 3D, benefiting from state-of-the-art 2D object detection

  20. Design considerations for view interpolation in a 3D video coding framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morvan, Y.; Farin, D.S.; With, de P.H.N.; Lagendijk, R.L.; Weber, Jos H.; Berg, van den A.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    A 3D video stream typically consists of a set of views capturing simultaneously the same scene. For an efficient transmission of the 3D video, a compression technique is required. In this paper, we describe a coding architecture and appropriate algorithms that enable the compression and

  1. Measurable realistic image-based 3D mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. J.; Ding, W.; Almagbile, A.

    2011-12-01

    realistic image-based (MRI) system can produce. The major contribution here is the implementation of measurable images on 3D maps to obtain various measurements from real scenes.

  2. Preliminary analysis of facial hair follicle distribution for forensic identification using OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chengming; Li, Zhigang; Xie, Lanchi; Guo, Jingjing; Xu, Lei; Yan, Yuwen; Li, Zhihui; Huang, Wei; Xu, Xiaojing

    2018-02-01

    In most deaths caused by explosions, the fragment of explosive remained on the victim's body can provide valuable clues to forensic investigation. However, the examination of the skin and appendages at the scene of explosion, which may reveal clue to the identity of an individual, has not been extensively studied. Compared with visual appearance of the epidermis surface that affected by various wounds, skin adnexa embedded in the dermis has a more stable morphology as an inner biometric. Hair follicles are formed when a fetus is 5 months old and distributed fairly evenly throughout the body, with the exception of hairless palms and soles. Therefore, we focus on the distribution of hair follicles in order to infer information of age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel forensic imaging method, which achieves non-destructive, high-resolution and most importantly cross-sectional imaging. In this study, we design and develop a custom-built spectral-domain three-dimensional (3D) OCT system with a portable handheld probe to detect and reconstruct the hair follicles in the facial skin. We test our system on the forehead and preauricular skin of 2 adult volunteers and demonstrate the high quality visualization of hair follicles beneath the epidermis. The diameter, orientation, density and shape of hair follicles can be extracted from the 3D volume data. The preliminary analysis suggests that these parameters vary from different part of body and have individual difference. Eventually, we believe 3D OCT is promising tool for the examination of hair follicles for forensic purpose.

  3. 3-D neutron transport benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Ikeda, H.

    1991-03-01

    A set of 3-D neutron transport benchmark problems proposed by the Osaka University to NEACRP in 1988 has been calculated by many participants and the corresponding results are summarized in this report. The results of K eff , control rod worth and region-averaged fluxes for the four proposed core models, calculated by using various 3-D transport codes are compared and discussed. The calculational methods used were: Monte Carlo, Discrete Ordinates (Sn), Spherical Harmonics (Pn), Nodal Transport and others. The solutions of the four core models are quite useful as benchmarks for checking the validity of 3-D neutron transport codes

  4. Handbook of 3D integration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  5. Forensic psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of different issues that a forensic psychologists encounter at work. Forensic assessment might be needed in civil law cases, administrative procedures and in criminal law cases. The paper focuses on referrals in criminal law cases regarding matters such as assessing competence to stand trial, criminal responsibility and violence risk assessment. Finally, the role of expert testimony on eyewitness memory, which is not used in practice in Slovenia yet, is presented.

  6. a Quadtree Organization Construction and Scheduling Method for Urban 3d Model Based on Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C.; Peng, G.; Song, Y.; Duan, M.

    2017-09-01

    The increasement of Urban 3D model precision and data quantity puts forward higher requirements for real-time rendering of digital city model. Improving the organization, management and scheduling of 3D model data in 3D digital city can improve the rendering effect and efficiency. This paper takes the complexity of urban models into account, proposes a Quadtree construction and scheduling rendering method for Urban 3D model based on weight. Divide Urban 3D model into different rendering weights according to certain rules, perform Quadtree construction and schedule rendering according to different rendering weights. Also proposed an algorithm for extracting bounding box extraction based on model drawing primitives to generate LOD model automatically. Using the algorithm proposed in this paper, developed a 3D urban planning&management software, the practice has showed the algorithm is efficient and feasible, the render frame rate of big scene and small scene are both stable at around 25 frames.

  7. A QUADTREE ORGANIZATION CONSTRUCTION AND SCHEDULING METHOD FOR URBAN 3D MODEL BASED ON WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasement of Urban 3D model precision and data quantity puts forward higher requirements for real-time rendering of digital city model. Improving the organization, management and scheduling of 3D model data in 3D digital city can improve the rendering effect and efficiency. This paper takes the complexity of urban models into account, proposes a Quadtree construction and scheduling rendering method for Urban 3D model based on weight. Divide Urban 3D model into different rendering weights according to certain rules, perform Quadtree construction and schedule rendering according to different rendering weights. Also proposed an algorithm for extracting bounding box extraction based on model drawing primitives to generate LOD model automatically. Using the algorithm proposed in this paper, developed a 3D urban planning&management software, the practice has showed the algorithm is efficient and feasible, the render frame rate of big scene and small scene are both stable at around 25 frames.

  8. PC Scene Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; Cosby, David; Bunfield, Dennis H.; Mayhall, Anthony J.; Trimble, Darian E.

    2007-04-01

    AMRDEC has successfully tested hardware and software for Real-Time Scene Generation for IR and SAL Sensors on COTS PC based hardware and video cards. AMRDEC personnel worked with nVidia and Concurrent Computer Corporation to develop a Scene Generation system capable of frame rates of at least 120Hz while frame locked to an external source (such as a missile seeker) with no dropped frames. Latency measurements and image validation were performed using COTS and in-house developed hardware and software. Software for the Scene Generation system was developed using OpenSceneGraph.

  9. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  10. AI 3D Cybug Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper I briefly discuss 3D war Game based on artificial intelligence concepts called AI WAR. Going in to the details, I present the importance of CAICL language and how this language is used in AI WAR. Moreover I also present a designed and implemented 3D War Cybug for AI WAR using CAICL and discus the implemented strategy to defeat its enemies during the game life.

  11. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  12. Molecular DNA Analysis in Forensic Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Enache, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Serological and biochemical identification methods used in forensics have several major disadvantages, such as: long time in processing biological sample and lack of sensitivity and specificity. In the last 30 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples. Forensic genetics, can provide information on the events which occurred at the crime scene or to supplement other methods of forensic identification. Currently, the methods used in identification are based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. This method analyses the autosomal STRs, the Y-chromosome, and the mitochondrial DNA. Correlation of biological samples present at the crime scene with identification, selection, and the probative value factor is therefore the first aspect to be taken into consideration in the forensic genetic analysis. In the last decade, because of the advances in the field of molecular biology, new biomarkers such as: microRNAs (miR), messenger RNA (mRNA), and DNA methylation have been studied and proposed to be used in the forensic identifications of body fluids.

  13. A modern approach to storing of 3D geometry of objects in machine engineering industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, E. A.; Aslanov, G. A.; Sokolov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    3D graphics is a kind of computer graphics which has absorbed a lot from the vector and raster computer graphics. It is used in interior design projects, architectural projects, advertising, while creating educational computer programs, movies, visual images of parts and products in engineering, etc. 3D computer graphics allows one to create 3D scenes along with simulation of light conditions and setting up standpoints.

  14. 3D accelerator magnet calculations using MAGNUS-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pissanetzky, S.; Miao, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The steady trend towards increased magnetic and geometric complexity in the design of accelerator magnets has caused a need for reliable 3D computer models and a better understanding of the behavior of magnetic system in three dimensions. The capabilities of the MAGNUS-3D family of programs are ideally suited to solve this class of problems and provide insight into 3D effects. MAGNUS-3D can solve any problem of magnetostatics involving permanent magnets, nonlinear ferromagnetic materials and electric conductors. MAGNUS-3D uses the finite element method and the two-scalar-potentials formulation of Maxwell's equations to obtain the solution, which can then be used interactively to obtain tables of field components at specific points or lines, plots of field lines, function graphs representing a field component plotted against a coordinate along any line in space (such as the beam line), and views of the conductors, the mesh and the magnetic bodies. The magnetic quantities that can be calculated include the force or torque on conductors or magnetic parts, the energy, the flux through a specified surface, line integrals of any field component along any line in space, and the average field or potential harmonic coefficients. We describe the programs with emphasis placed on their use for accelerator magnet design, and present an advanced example of actual calculations. (orig.)

  15. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo

    2015-02-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models and optimizes their location through cost functions, our technique performs the retrieval and placement of 3D models by discovering the relationships between the room space and the models\\' categories. This is enabled by a new analytical structure, called Wall Grid Structure, which jointly considers the categories and locations of 3D models. Our technique greatly reduces the amount of user intervention and provides users with suggestions and inspirations. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of scenarios: conference rooms, living rooms and bedrooms.

  16. Instrument for 3D characterization of autostereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévoteau, J.; Chalençon-Piotin, S.; Debons, D.; Lucas, L.; Remion, Y.

    2011-03-01

    We now have numerous autostereoscopic displays, and it is mandatory to characterize them because it will allow to optimize their performances and to make efficient comparison between them. Therefore we need standards so we have to be able to quantify the quality of the viewer's perception. The purpose of the present paper is twofold; we first present a new instrument of characterization of the 3D perception on a given autostereoscopic display; then we propose a new way to realize an experimental protocol allowing to get a full characterization. This instrument will allow us to compare efficiently the different autostereoscopic displays but it will also validate practically the adequacy between the shooting and rendering geometries. In this aim, we are going to match a perceived scene with the virtual scene. It is hardly possible to determine the scene perceived by a viewer placed in front of an autostereoscopic display. Indeed if it may be executable on the pop-out, it is impossible on the depth effect because the depth of the virtual scene is set behind the screen. Therefore, we will have to use an optical illusion based on the deflection of light by a mirror to know the position which the viewer perceives some points of the virtual scene on an autostereoscopic display.

  17. Emergence of forensic podiatry--A novel sub-discipline of forensic sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; DiMaggio, John A

    2015-10-01

    "Forensic podiatry is defined as the application of sound and researched podiatric knowledge and experience in forensic investigations; to show the association of an individual with a scene of crime, or to answer any other legal question concerned with the foot or footwear that requires knowledge of the functioning foot". Forensic podiatrists can contribute to forensic identification by associating the pedal evidence with the criminal or crime scene. The most common pedal evidence collected from the crime scene is in the form of footprints, shoeprints and their tracks and trails. Forensic podiatrists can establish identity of the individuals from the footprints in many ways. The analysis of bare footprints involves the identification based on the individualistic features like flat footedness, ridges, humps, creases, an extra toe, missing toe, corns, cuts, cracks, pits, deformities, and various features of the toe and heel region. All these individualistic features can link the criminal with the crime. In addition to these, parameters of body size like stature and body weight as well as sex can also be estimated by using anthropometric methods. If a series of footprints are recovered from the crime scene, then parameters of the gait analysis such as stride/step length and general movement of the criminal can be traced. Apart from these, a newly established biometric parameter of the footprints i.e. footprint ridge density can also be evaluated for personal identification. Careful analysis of the footprint ridge density can give an idea about the sex of the criminal whose footprints are recovered at the scene which can further help to reduce the burden of the investigating officer as the investigations then may be directed toward either a male suspect or a female suspect accordingly. This paper highlights various aspects of Forensic Podiatry and discusses the different methods of personal identification related to pedal evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland

  18. The forensic entomologist in the context of the forensic pathologist's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobasso, C P; Introna, F

    2001-08-15

    An adequate death investigation requires the combined efforts and cooperation of experts in different disciplines: crime scene technicians, death investigators, forensic pathologists, anthropologists, entomologists, other medical and non-medical professionals. These front-line experts play a crucial role in every death investigation process. The forensic pathologist normally has the legal authority to take charge of the dead body at a death scene and his primary functions are the exterior and interior examination of the cadaver by analyzing the extent of antemortem injuries and the postmortem changes and the recovery of physical evidence. He is responsible for determining how, when and why of any death which is the result of violence, suspicious or unexplained circumstances or a death which is sudden or unattended, defending and explaining the reasons for making these diagnoses in a courtroom. The forensic entomologist can provide invaluable aid in death cases where human remains are colonized by insects and in the overall investigation. His principal role is to identify the arthropods associated with such cases and to analyze entomological data for interpreting insect evidence. He is responsible for determining the period of insect activity according to all the variables affecting insect invasion of remains and their development. The major goal of medico-criminal entomology is to contribute to the determination of the time, cause, manner and place of the investigated death (especially on badly decomposed corpses or skeletonized human remains) with the support of all the elements which can be inferred from the study of insects found on the cadaver or nearby. The application of techniques devised recently in forensic entomology can allow experts in the field to collect strong entomological evidence and provide useful information not only in a death investigation including movement or storage of the remains following death, time of dismemberment, postmortem artifacts

  19. From 3D view to 3D print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  20. 3D imaging, 3D printing and 3D virtual planning in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pratik; Chong, B S

    2018-03-01

    The adoption and adaptation of recent advances in digital technology, such as three-dimensional (3D) printed objects and haptic simulators, in dentistry have influenced teaching and/or management of cases involving implant, craniofacial, maxillofacial, orthognathic and periodontal treatments. 3D printed models and guides may help operators plan and tackle complicated non-surgical and surgical endodontic treatment and may aid skill acquisition. Haptic simulators may assist in the development of competency in endodontic procedures through the acquisition of psycho-motor skills. This review explores and discusses the potential applications of 3D printed models and guides, and haptic simulators in the teaching and management of endodontic procedures. An understanding of the pertinent technology related to the production of 3D printed objects and the operation of haptic simulators are also presented.

  1. Objective and subjective quality assessment of geometry compression of reconstructed 3D humans in a 3D virtual room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Rufael; Cesar, Pablo; Doumanis, Ioannis; Frisiello, Antonella

    2015-09-01

    Compression of 3D object based video is relevant for 3D Immersive applications. Nevertheless, the perceptual aspects of the degradation introduced by codecs for meshes and point clouds are not well understood. In this paper we evaluate the subjective and objective degradations introduced by such codecs in a state of art 3D immersive virtual room. In the 3D immersive virtual room, users are captured with multiple cameras, and their surfaces are reconstructed as photorealistic colored/textured 3D meshes or point clouds. To test the perceptual effect of compression and transmission, we render degraded versions with different frame rates in different contexts (near/far) in the scene. A quantitative subjective study with 16 users shows that negligible distortion of decoded surfaces compared to the original reconstructions can be achieved in the 3D virtual room. In addition, a qualitative task based analysis in a full prototype field trial shows increased presence, emotion, user and state recognition of the reconstructed 3D Human representation compared to animated computer avatars.

  2. Underwater Scene Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nanyoung

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an underwater scene composition for elementary-education majors. This project deals with watercolor with crayon or oil-pastel resist (medium); the beauty of nature represented by fish in the underwater scene (theme); texture and pattern (design elements); drawing simple forms (drawing skill); and composition…

  3. Scene construction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stéphane; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Bayard, Sophie; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-09-01

    Recent research has revealed that schizophrenia patients are impaired in remembering the past and imagining the future. In this study, we examined patients' ability to engage in scene construction (i.e., the process of mentally generating and maintaining a complex and coherent scene), which is a key part of retrieving past experiences and episodic future thinking. 24 participants with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls were asked to imagine new fictitious experiences and described their mental representations of the scenes in as much detail as possible. Descriptions were scored according to various dimensions (e.g., sensory details, spatial reference), and participants also provided ratings of their subjective experience when imagining the scenes (e.g., their sense of presence, the perceived similarity of imagined events to past experiences). Imagined scenes contained less phenomenological details (d = 1.11) and were more fragmented (d = 2.81) in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Furthermore, positive symptoms were positively correlated to the sense of presence (r = .43) and the perceived similarity of imagined events to past episodes (r = .47), whereas negative symptoms were negatively related to the overall richness of the imagined scenes (r = -.43). The results suggest that schizophrenic patients' impairments in remembering the past and imagining the future are, at least in part, due to deficits in the process of scene construction. The relationships between the characteristics of imagined scenes and positive and negative symptoms could be related to reality monitoring deficits and difficulties in strategic retrieval processes, respectively. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  5. 3D future internet media

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  6. Novel 3D media technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  7. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Taska, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  8. Aspects of defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study supersymmetric co-dimension 2 and 4 defects in the compactification of the 6d (2,0) theory of type A_N_−_1 on a 3-manifold M. The so-called 3d-3d correspondence is a relation between complexified Chern-Simons theory (with gauge group SL(N,ℂ)) on M and a 3d N=2 theory T_N[M]. We study this correspondence in the presence of supersymmetric defects, which are knots/links inside the 3-manifold. Our study employs a number of different methods: state-integral models for complex Chern-Simons theory, cluster algebra techniques, domain wall theory T[SU(N)], 5d N=2 SYM, and also supergravity analysis through holography. These methods are complementary and we find agreement between them. In some cases the results lead to highly non-trivial predictions on the partition function. Our discussion includes a general expression for the cluster partition function, which can be used to compute in the presence of maximal and certain class of non-maximal punctures when N>2. We also highlight the non-Abelian description of the 3d N=2T_N[M] theory with defect included, when such a description is available. This paper is a companion to our shorter paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/49/30/30LT02, which summarizes our main results.

  9. Stereoscopic 3D graphics generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Jianping; Zan, Y.

    1997-05-01

    Stereoscopic display technology is one of the key techniques of areas such as simulation, multimedia, entertainment, virtual reality, and so on. Moreover, stereoscopic 3D graphics generation is an important part of stereoscopic 3D display system. In this paper, at first, we describe the principle of stereoscopic display and summarize some methods to generate stereoscopic 3D graphics. Secondly, to overcome the problems which came from the methods of user defined models (such as inconvenience, long modifying period and so on), we put forward the vector graphics files defined method. Thus we can design more directly; modify the model simply and easily; generate more conveniently; furthermore, we can make full use of graphics accelerator card and so on. Finally, we discuss the problem of how to speed up the generation.

  10. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    , if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges...... ultrasonic vector flow estimation and bring it a step closer to a clinical application. A method for high frame rate 3-D vector flow estimation in a plane using the transverse oscillation method combined with a 1024 channel 2-D matrix array is presented. The proposed method is validated both through phantom...... hampers the task of real-time processing. In a second study, some of the issue with the 2-D matrix array are solved by introducing a 2-D row-column (RC) addressing array with only 62 + 62 elements. It is investigated both through simulations and via experimental setups in various flow conditions...

  11. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  12. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  13. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3D vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.; Gallman, P.G.; Slotwinski, A.R.; Wagner, K.; Weaver, S.; Xu, Jieping

    1996-01-01

    This CLVS will provide a substantial advance in high speed computer vision performance to support robotic Environmental Management (EM) operations. This 3D system employs a compact fiber optic based scanner and operator at a 128 x 128 pixel frame at one frame per second with a range resolution of 1 mm over its 1.5 meter working range. Using acousto-optic deflectors, the scanner is completely randomly addressable. This can provide live 3D monitoring for situations where it is necessary to update once per second. This can be used for decontamination and decommissioning operations in which robotic systems are altering the scene such as in waste removal, surface scarafacing, or equipment disassembly and removal. The fiber- optic coherent laser radar based system is immune to variations in lighting, color, or surface shading, which have plagued the reliability of existing 3D vision systems, while providing substantially superior range resolution

  14. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  15. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  16. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2010-10-10

    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combining 3D structure of real video and synthetic objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man-Bae; Song, Mun-Sup; Kim, Do-Kyoon

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach of combining real video and synthetic objects. The purpose of this work is to use the proposed technology in the fields of advanced animation, virtual reality, games, and so forth. Computer graphics has been used in the fields previously mentioned. Recently, some applications have added real video to graphic scenes for the purpose of augmenting the realism that the computer graphics lacks in. This approach called augmented or mixed reality can produce more realistic environment that the entire use of computer graphics. Our approach differs from the virtual reality and augmented reality in the manner that computer- generated graphic objects are combined to 3D structure extracted from monocular image sequences. The extraction of the 3D structure requires the estimation of 3D depth followed by the construction of a height map. Graphic objects are then combined to the height map. The realization of our proposed approach is carried out in the following steps: (1) We derive 3D structure from test image sequences. The extraction of the 3D structure requires the estimation of depth and the construction of a height map. Due to the contents of the test sequence, the height map represents the 3D structure. (2) The height map is modeled by Delaunay triangulation or Bezier surface and each planar surface is texture-mapped. (3) Finally, graphic objects are combined to the height map. Because 3D structure of the height map is already known, Step (3) is easily manipulated. Following this procedure, we produced an animation video demonstrating the combination of the 3D structure and graphic models. Users can navigate the realistic 3D world whose associated image is rendered on the display monitor.

  18. Semi-automatic scene generation using the Digital Anatomist Foundational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, B A; Rosse, C; Brinkley, J F

    1999-01-01

    A recent survey shows that a major impediment to more widespread use of computers in anatomy education is the inability to directly manipulate 3-D models, and to relate these to corresponding textual information. In the University of Washington Digital Anatomist Project we have developed a prototype Web-based scene generation program that combines the symbolic Foundational Model of Anatomy with 3-D models. A Web user can browse the Foundational Model (FM), then click to request that a 3-D scene be created of an object and its parts or branches. The scene is rendered by a graphics server, and a snapshot is sent to the Web client. The user can then manipulate the scene, adding new structures, deleting structures, rotating the scene, zooming, and saving the scene as a VRML file. Applications such as this, when fully realized with fast rendering and more anatomical content, have the potential to significantly change the way computers are used in anatomy education.

  19. AUTOMATIC 3D MAPPING USING MULTIPLE UNCALIBRATED CLOSE RANGE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic three-dimensions modeling of the real world is an important research topic in the geomatics and computer vision fields for many years. By development of commercial digital cameras and modern image processing techniques, close range photogrammetry is vastly utilized in many fields such as structure measurements, topographic surveying, architectural and archeological surveying, etc. A non-contact photogrammetry provides methods to determine 3D locations of objects from two-dimensional (2D images. Problem of estimating the locations of 3D points from multiple images, often involves simultaneously estimating both 3D geometry (structure and camera pose (motion, it is commonly known as structure from motion (SfM. In this research a step by step approach to generate the 3D point cloud of a scene is considered. After taking images with a camera, we should detect corresponding points in each two views. Here an efficient SIFT method is used for image matching for large baselines. After that, we must retrieve the camera motion and 3D position of the matched feature points up to a projective transformation (projective reconstruction. Lacking additional information on the camera or the scene makes the parallel lines to be unparalleled. The results of SfM computation are much more useful if a metric reconstruction is obtained. Therefor multiple views Euclidean reconstruction applied and discussed. To refine and achieve the precise 3D points we use more general and useful approach, namely bundle adjustment. At the end two real cases have been considered to reconstruct (an excavation and a tower.

  20. A NOVEL APPROACH FOR 3D NEIGHBOURHOOD ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Emamgholian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and lack of land in urban areas have caused massive developments such as high rises and underground infrastructures. Land authorities in the international context recognizes 3D cadastres as a solution to efficiently manage these developments in complex cities. Although a 2D cadastre does not efficiently register these developments, it is currently being used in many jurisdictions for registering land and property information. Limitations in analysis and presentation are considered as examples of such limitations. 3D neighbourhood analysis by automatically finding 3D spaces has become an issue of major interest in recent years. Whereas the neighbourhood analysis has been in the focus of research, the idea of 3D neighbourhood analysis has rarely been addressed in 3 dimensional information systems (3D GIS analysis. In this paper, a novel approach for 3D neighbourhood analysis has been proposed by recording spatial and descriptive information of the apartment units and easements. This approach uses the coordinates of the subject apartment unit to find the neighbour spaces. By considering a buffer around the edges of the unit, neighbour spaces are accurately detected. This method was implemented in ESRI ArcScene and three case studies were defined to test the efficiency of this approach. The results show that spaces are accurately detected in various complex scenarios. This approach can also be applied for other applications such as property management and disaster management in order to find the affected apartments around a defined space.

  1. a Novel Approach for 3d Neighbourhood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamgholian, S.; Taleai, M.; Shojaei, D.

    2017-09-01

    Population growth and lack of land in urban areas have caused massive developments such as high rises and underground infrastructures. Land authorities in the international context recognizes 3D cadastres as a solution to efficiently manage these developments in complex cities. Although a 2D cadastre does not efficiently register these developments, it is currently being used in many jurisdictions for registering land and property information. Limitations in analysis and presentation are considered as examples of such limitations. 3D neighbourhood analysis by automatically finding 3D spaces has become an issue of major interest in recent years. Whereas the neighbourhood analysis has been in the focus of research, the idea of 3D neighbourhood analysis has rarely been addressed in 3 dimensional information systems (3D GIS) analysis. In this paper, a novel approach for 3D neighbourhood analysis has been proposed by recording spatial and descriptive information of the apartment units and easements. This approach uses the coordinates of the subject apartment unit to find the neighbour spaces. By considering a buffer around the edges of the unit, neighbour spaces are accurately detected. This method was implemented in ESRI ArcScene and three case studies were defined to test the efficiency of this approach. The results show that spaces are accurately detected in various complex scenarios. This approach can also be applied for other applications such as property management and disaster management in order to find the affected apartments around a defined space.

  2. Reconstruction and 3D visualisation based on objective real 3D based documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Michael J; Buck, Ursula; Thali, Michael J; Bolliger, Stephan A

    2012-09-01

    Reconstructions based directly upon forensic evidence alone are called primary information. Historically this consists of documentation of findings by verbal protocols, photographs and other visual means. Currently modern imaging techniques such as 3D surface scanning and radiological methods (computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) are also applied. Secondary interpretation is based on facts and the examiner's experience. Usually such reconstructive expertises are given in written form, and are often enhanced by sketches. However, narrative interpretations can, especially in complex courses of action, be difficult to present and can be misunderstood. In this report we demonstrate the use of graphic reconstruction of secondary interpretation with supporting pictorial evidence, applying digital visualisation (using 'Poser') or scientific animation (using '3D Studio Max', 'Maya') and present methods of clearly distinguishing between factual documentation and examiners' interpretation based on three cases. The first case involved a pedestrian who was initially struck by a car on a motorway and was then run over by a second car. The second case involved a suicidal gunshot to the head with a rifle, in which the trigger was pushed with a rod. The third case dealt with a collision between two motorcycles. Pictorial reconstruction of the secondary interpretation of these cases has several advantages. The images enable an immediate overview, give rise to enhanced clarity, and compel the examiner to look at all details if he or she is to create a complete image.

  3. 3D Terahertz Beam Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  4. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  5. 3D Pit Stop Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lael; Shaw, Daniel; Gaidds, Kimberly; Lyman, Gregory; Sorey, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Although solving an engineering design project problem with limited resources or structural capabilities of materials can be part of the challenge, students making their own parts can support creativity. The authors of this article found an exciting solution: 3D printers are not only one of several tools for making but also facilitate a creative…

  6. Meeting a Forensic Podiatry Admissibility Challenge: A Daubert Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirenberg, Michael

    2016-05-01

    This article is an introduction to the United States Supreme Court's standard of admissibility of forensic evidence and testimony at trial, known as the Daubert standard, with emphasis on how this standard applies to the field of forensic podiatry. The author, a forensic podiatrist, provided law enforcement with evidence tying a bloody sock-clad footprint found at the scene of a homicide to the suspect. In 2014, the author testified at a pretrial hearing, known as "a Daubert hearing," to address the admissibility of this evidence in court. This was the first instance of forensic podiatry being the primary subject of a Daubert hearing. The hearing resulted in the court ordering this evidence admissible. The expert's testimony contributed to the suspect's conviction. This article serves as a reference for forensic podiatrists and experts in similar fields that involve impression evidence, providing evidentiary standards and their impact on expert evidence and testimony. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. 3D visualization of numeric planetary data using JMARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenshied, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Anwar, S.; Carter, S.; Hagee, W.; Noss, D.

    2013-12-01

    JMARS (Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing) is a free geospatial application developed by the Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University. Originally written as a mission planning tool for the THEMIS instrument on board the MARS Odyssey Spacecraft, it was released as an analysis tool to the general public in 2003. Since then it has expanded to be used for mission planning and scientific data analysis by additional NASA missions to Mars, the Moon, and Vesta, and it has come to be used by scientists, researchers and students of all ages from more than 40 countries around the world. The public version of JMARS now also includes remote sensing data for Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, Mars, and a number of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Additional datasets for asteroids and other smaller bodies are being added as they becomes available and time permits. In addition to visualizing multiple datasets in context with one another, significant effort has been put into on-the-fly projection of georegistered data over surface topography. This functionality allows a user to easily create and modify 3D visualizations of any regional scene where elevation data is available in JMARS. This can be accomplished through the use of global topographic maps or regional numeric data such as HiRISE or HRSC DTMs. Users can also upload their own regional or global topographic dataset and use it as an elevation source for 3D rendering of their scene. The 3D Layer in JMARS allows the user to exaggerate the z-scale of any elevation source to emphasize the vertical variance throughout a scene. In addition, the user can rotate, tilt, and zoom the scene to any desired angle and then illuminate it with an artificial light source. This scene can be easily overlain with additional JMARS datasets such as maps, images, shapefiles, contour lines, or scale bars, and the scene can be easily saved as a graphic image for use in presentations or publications.

  8. 3D histomorphometric quantification from 3D computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F. de; Lopes, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    The histomorphometric analysis is based on stereologic concepts and was originally applied to biologic samples. This technique has been used to evaluate different complex structures such as ceramic filters, net structures and cancellous objects that are objects with inner connected structures. The measured histomorphometric parameters of structure are: sample volume to total reconstructed volume (BV/TV), sample surface to sample volume (BS/BV), connection thickness (Tb Th ), connection number (Tb N ) and connection separation (Tb Sp ). The anisotropy was evaluated as well. These parameters constitute the base of histomorphometric analysis. The quantification is realized over cross-sections recovered by cone beam reconstruction, where a real-time microfocus radiographic system is used as tomographic system. The three-dimensional (3D) histomorphometry, obtained from tomography, corresponds to an evolution of conventional method that is based on 2D analysis. It is more coherent with morphologic and topologic context of the sample. This work shows result from 3D histomorphometric quantification to characterize objects examined by 3D computer tomography. The results, which characterizes the internal structures of ceramic foams with different porous density, are compared to results from conventional methods

  9. DYNA3D2000*, Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: DYNA3D2000 is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation. 2 - Method of solution: Discretization of a continuous model transforms partial differential equations into algebraic equations. A numerical solution is then obtained by solving these algebraic equations through a direct time marching scheme. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Recent software improvements have eliminated most of the user identified limitations with dynamic memory allocation and a very large format description that has pushed potential problem sizes beyond the reach of most users. The dominant restrictions remain in code execution speed and robustness, which the developers constantly strive to improve

  10. Multithreaded real-time 3D image processing software architecture and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Atanassov, Kalin; Aleksic, Milivoje; Goma, Sergio R.

    2011-03-01

    Recently, 3D displays and videos have generated a lot of interest in the consumer electronics industry. To make 3D capture and playback popular and practical, a user friendly playback interface is desirable. Towards this end, we built a real time software 3D video player. The 3D video player displays user captured 3D videos, provides for various 3D specific image processing functions and ensures a pleasant viewing experience. Moreover, the player enables user interactivity by providing digital zoom and pan functionalities. This real time 3D player was implemented on the GPU using CUDA and OpenGL. The player provides user interactive 3D video playback. Stereo images are first read by the player from a fast drive and rectified. Further processing of the images determines the optimal convergence point in the 3D scene to reduce eye strain. The rationale for this convergence point selection takes into account scene depth and display geometry. The first step in this processing chain is identifying keypoints by detecting vertical edges within the left image. Regions surrounding reliable keypoints are then located on the right image through the use of block matching. The difference in the positions between the corresponding regions in the left and right images are then used to calculate disparity. The extrema of the disparity histogram gives the scene disparity range. The left and right images are shifted based upon the calculated range, in order to place the desired region of the 3D scene at convergence. All the above computations are performed on one CPU thread which calls CUDA functions. Image upsampling and shifting is performed in response to user zoom and pan. The player also consists of a CPU display thread, which uses OpenGL rendering (quad buffers). This also gathers user input for digital zoom and pan and sends them to the processing thread.

  11. Microbiome Tools for Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Z; Bouslimani, Amina; Dorrestein, Pieter; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2017-09-01

    Microbes are present at every crime scene and have been used as physical evidence for over a century. Advances in DNA sequencing and computational approaches have led to recent breakthroughs in the use of microbiome approaches for forensic science, particularly in the areas of estimating postmortem intervals (PMIs), locating clandestine graves, and obtaining soil and skin trace evidence. Low-cost, high-throughput technologies allow us to accumulate molecular data quickly and to apply sophisticated machine-learning algorithms, building generalizable predictive models that will be useful in the criminal justice system. In particular, integrating microbiome and metabolomic data has excellent potential to advance microbial forensics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. 3-D Discrete Analytical Ridgelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Helbert , David; Carré , Philippe; Andrès , Éric

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines:...

  13. 3D physical modeling for patterning process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Chandra; Abdo, Amr; Bailey, Todd; Conley, Will; Dunn, Derren; Marokkey, Sajan; Talbi, Mohamed

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we will demonstrate how a 3D physical patterning model can act as a forensic tool for OPC and ground-rule development. We discuss examples where the 2D modeling shows no issues in printing gate lines but 3D modeling shows severe resist loss in the middle. In absence of corrective measure, there is a high likelihood of line discontinuity post etch. Such early insight into process limitations of prospective ground rules can be invaluable for early technology development. We will also demonstrate how the root cause of broken poly-line after etch could be traced to resist necking in the region of STI step with the help of 3D models. We discuss different cases of metal and contact layouts where 3D modeling gives an early insight in to technology limitations. In addition such a 3D physical model could be used for early resist evaluation and selection for required ground-rule challenges, which can substantially reduce the cycle time for process development.

  14. Are UK undergraduate Forensic Science degrees fit for purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Charles; Hannis, Marc

    2011-09-01

    In October 2009 Skills for Justice published the social research paper 'Fit for purpose?: Research into the provision of Forensic Science degree programmes in UK Higher Education Institutions.' The research engaged employers representing 95% of UK Forensic Science providers and 79% of UK universities offering Forensic Science or Crime Scene degree programmes. In addition to this, the research collected the views of 430 students studying these degrees. In 2008 there were approximately 9000 people working in the Forensic Science sector in the UK. The research found that the numbers of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees in the UK have more than doubled since 2002-03, from 2191 in to 5664 in 2007-08. Over the same period there were twice as many females as males studying for these degrees. The research concluded that Forensic Science degree programmes offered by UK universities were of a good quality and they provided the student with a positive learning experience but the content was not relevant for Forensic Science employers. This echoed similar research by the former Government Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on graduates from wider science, technology, engineering and mathematics degree programmes. The research also found that 75% of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees expected to have a career in the Forensic Science sector, meaning that ensuring these courses are relevant for employers is a key challenge for universities. This paper reflects on the original research and discusses the implications in light of recent government policy. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Procedural 3d Modelling for Traditional Settlements. The Case Study of Central Zagori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsakis, D.; Tsiliakou, E.; Labropoulos, T.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2017-02-01

    Over the last decades 3D modelling has been a fast growing field in Geographic Information Science, extensively applied in various domains including reconstruction and visualization of cultural heritage, especially monuments and traditional settlements. Technological advances in computer graphics, allow for modelling of complex 3D objects achieving high precision and accuracy. Procedural modelling is an effective tool and a relatively novel method, based on algorithmic modelling concept. It is utilized for the generation of accurate 3D models and composite facade textures from sets of rules which are called Computer Generated Architecture grammars (CGA grammars), defining the objects' detailed geometry, rather than altering or editing the model manually. In this paper, procedural modelling tools have been exploited to generate the 3D model of a traditional settlement in the region of Central Zagori in Greece. The detailed geometries of 3D models derived from the application of shape grammars on selected footprints, and the process resulted in a final 3D model, optimally describing the built environment of Central Zagori, in three levels of Detail (LoD). The final 3D scene was exported and published as 3D web-scene which can be viewed with 3D CityEngine viewer, giving a walkthrough the whole model, same as in virtual reality or game environments. This research work addresses issues regarding textures' precision, LoD for 3D objects and interactive visualization within one 3D scene, as well as the effectiveness of large scale modelling, along with the benefits and drawbacks that derive from procedural modelling techniques in the field of cultural heritage and more specifically on 3D modelling of traditional settlements.

  16. 3D integrated superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D.; Kim, D.; Das, R.; Yost, D.; Gustavsson, S.; Hover, D.; Krantz, P.; Melville, A.; Racz, L.; Samach, G. O.; Weber, S. J.; Yan, F.; Yoder, J. L.; Kerman, A. J.; Oliver, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    As the field of quantum computing advances from the few-qubit stage to larger-scale processors, qubit addressability and extensibility will necessitate the use of 3D integration and packaging. While 3D integration is well-developed for commercial electronics, relatively little work has been performed to determine its compatibility with high-coherence solid-state qubits. Of particular concern, qubit coherence times can be suppressed by the requisite processing steps and close proximity of another chip. In this work, we use a flip-chip process to bond a chip with superconducting flux qubits to another chip containing structures for qubit readout and control. We demonstrate that high qubit coherence (T1, T2,echo > 20 μs) is maintained in a flip-chip geometry in the presence of galvanic, capacitive, and inductive coupling between the chips.

  17. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  18. Mortars for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko Olga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at developing scientifically proven compositions of mortars for 3D printing modified by a peat-based admixture with improved operational characteristics. The paper outlines the results of experimental research on hardened cement paste and concrete mixture with the use of modifying admixture MT-600 (thermally modified peat. It is found that strength of hardened cement paste increases at early age when using finely dispersed admixtures, which is the key factor for formation of construction and technical specifications of concrete for 3D printing technologies. The composition of new formations of hardened cement paste modified by MT-600 admixture were obtained, which enabled to suggest the possibility of their physico-chemical interaction while hardening.

  19. Automated 3-D Radiation Mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpinian, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    This work describes an automated radiation detection and imaging system which combines several state-of-the-art technologies to produce a portable but very powerful visualization tool for planning work in radiation environments. The system combines a radiation detection system, a computerized radiation imaging program, and computerized 3-D modeling to automatically locate and measurements are automatically collected and imaging techniques are used to produce colored, 'isodose' images of the measured radiation fields. The isodose lines from the images are then superimposed over the 3-D model of the area. The final display shows the various components in a room and their associated radiation fields. The use of an automated radiation detection system increases the quality of radiation survey obtained measurements. The additional use of a three-dimensional display allows easier visualization of the area and associated radiological conditions than two-dimensional sketches

  20. 3D neutron transport modelization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, X.

    1996-12-01

    Some nodal methods to solve the transport equation in 3D are presented. Two nodal methods presented at an OCDE congress are described: a first one is a low degree one called RTN0; a second one is a high degree one called BDM1. The two methods can be made faster with a totally consistent DSA. Some results of parallelization show that: 98% of the time is spent in sweeps; transport sweeps are easily parallelized. (K.A.)

  1. 3D Printing A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Solid free fabrication SFF are produced to enhance the printing instrument utilizing distinctive strategies like Piezo spout control multi-spout injet printers or STL arrange utilizing cutting information. The procedure is utilized to diminish the cost and enhance the speed of printing. A few techniques take long at last because of extra process like dry the printing. This study will concentrate on SFFS utilizing UV gum for 3D printing.

  2. 3D neutron transport modelization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warin, X.

    1996-12-01

    Some nodal methods to solve the transport equation in 3D are presented. Two nodal methods presented at an OCDE congress are described: a first one is a low degree one called RTN0; a second one is a high degree one called BDM1. The two methods can be made faster with a totally consistent DSA. Some results of parallelization show that: 98% of the time is spent in sweeps; transport sweeps are easily parallelized. (K.A.). 10 refs.

  3. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...

  4. Reliable Gait Recognition Using 3D Reconstructions and Random Forests - An Anthropometric Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandau, Martin; Heimbürger, Rikke V.; Jensen, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    reliable recognition. Sixteen participants performed normal walking where 3D reconstructions were obtained continually. Segment lengths and kinematics from the extremities were manually extracted by eight expert observers. The results showed that all the participants were recognized, assuming the same...... expert annotated the data. Recognition based on data annotated by different experts was less reliable achieving 72.6% correct recognitions as some parameters were heavily affected by interobserver variability. This study verified that 3D reconstructions are feasible for forensic gait analysis...

  5. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  6. 3D treatment planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng B; Li, Sicong

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning systems have evolved and become crucial components of modern radiation therapy. The systems are computer-aided designing or planning softwares that speed up the treatment planning processes to arrive at the best dose plans for the patients undergoing radiation therapy. Furthermore, the systems provide new technology to solve problems that would not have been considered without the use of computers such as conformal radiation therapy (CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The 3D treatment planning systems vary amongst the vendors and also the dose delivery systems they are designed to support. As such these systems have different planning tools to generate the treatment plans and convert the treatment plans into executable instructions that can be implemented by the dose delivery systems. The rapid advancements in computer technology and accelerators have facilitated constant upgrades and the introduction of different and unique dose delivery systems than the traditional C-arm type medical linear accelerators. The focus of this special issue is to gather relevant 3D treatment planning systems for the radiation oncology community to keep abreast of technology advancement by assess the planning tools available as well as those unique "tricks or tips" used to support the different dose delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Compact 3D quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Edwar; Deppe, Frank; Renger, Michael; Repp, Daniel; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Fedorov, Kirill G.; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    2018-05-01

    Superconducting 3D microwave cavities offer state-of-the-art coherence times and a well-controlled environment for superconducting qubits. In order to realize at the same time fast readout and long-lived quantum information storage, one can couple the qubit to both a low-quality readout and a high-quality storage cavity. However, such systems are bulky compared to their less coherent 2D counterparts. A more compact and scalable approach is achieved by making use of the multimode structure of a 3D cavity. In our work, we investigate such a device where a transmon qubit is capacitively coupled to two modes of a single 3D cavity. External coupling is engineered so that the memory mode has an about 100 times larger quality factor than the readout mode. Using an all-microwave second-order protocol, we realize a lifetime enhancement of the stored state over the qubit lifetime by a factor of 6 with a fidelity of approximately 80% determined via quantum process tomography. We also find that this enhancement is not limited by fundamental constraints.

  8. Geometric and Colour Data Fusion for Outdoor 3D Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chacón

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and coloured 3D models of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of 3D model creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination conditions. We address our research towards the integration of images and range data to produce photorealistic models. Our proposal is based on decoupling the colour integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two different viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete model (geometry plus texture, we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the colour information extracted from external images taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external images onto the complete geometric model, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and 3D modelling fields.

  9. Remote gaze tracking system for 3D environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congcong Liu; Herrup, Karl; Shi, Bertram E

    2017-07-01

    Eye tracking systems are typically divided into two categories: remote and mobile. Remote systems, where the eye tracker is located near the object being viewed by the subject, have the advantage of being less intrusive, but are typically used for tracking gaze points on fixed two dimensional (2D) computer screens. Mobile systems such as eye tracking glasses, where the eye tracker are attached to the subject, are more intrusive, but are better suited for cases where subjects are viewing objects in the three dimensional (3D) environment. In this paper, we describe how remote gaze tracking systems developed for 2D computer screens can be used to track gaze points in a 3D environment. The system is non-intrusive. It compensates for small head movements by the user, so that the head need not be stabilized by a chin rest or bite bar. The system maps the 3D gaze points of the user onto 2D images from a scene camera and is also located remotely from the subject. Measurement results from this system indicate that it is able to estimate gaze points in the scene camera to within one degree over a wide range of head positions.

  10. Digital Forensics to Intelligent Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Irons

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we posit that current investigative techniques—particularly as deployed by law enforcement, are becoming unsuitable for most types of crime investigation. The growth in cybercrime and the complexities of the types of the cybercrime coupled with the limitations in time and resources, both computational and human, in addressing cybercrime put an increasing strain on the ability of digital investigators to apply the processes of digital forensics and digital investigations to obtain timely results. In order to combat the problems, there is a need to enhance the use of the resources available and move beyond the capabilities and constraints of the forensic tools that are in current use. We argue that more intelligent techniques are necessary and should be used proactively. The paper makes the case for the need for such tools and techniques, and investigates and discusses the opportunities afforded by applying principles and procedures of artificial intelligence to digital forensics intelligence and to intelligent forensics and suggests that by applying new techniques to digital investigations there is the opportunity to address the challenges of the larger and more complex domains in which cybercrimes are taking place.

  11. 3D composite image, 3D MRI, 3D SPECT, hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, T.; Shibata, I.; Sugo, N.; Takano, M.; Takahashi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D)SPECT imaging technique we have studied and published for the past several years is an analytical tool that permits visual expression of the cerebral circulation profile in various cerebral diseases. The greatest drawback of SPECT is that the limitation on precision of spacial resolution makes intracranial localization impossible. In 3D SPECT imaging, intracranial volume and morphology may vary with the threshold established. To solve this problem, we have produced complimentarily combined SPECT and helical-CT 3D images by means of general-purpose visualization software for intracranial localization. In hydrocephalus, however, the key subject to be studied is the profile of cerebral circulation around the ventricles of the brain. This suggests that, for displaying the cerebral ventricles in three dimensions, CT is a difficult technique whereas MRI is more useful. For this reason, we attempted to establish the profile of cerebral circulation around the cerebral ventricles by the production of combined 3D images of SPECT and MRI. In patients who had shunt surgery for hydrocephalus, a difference between pre- and postoperative cerebral circulation profiles was assessed by a voxel distribution curve, 3D SPECT images, and combined 3D SPECT and MRI images. As the shunt system in this study, an Orbis-Sigma valve of the automatic cerebrospinal fluid volume adjustment type was used in place of the variable pressure type Medos valve currently in use, because this device requires frequent changes in pressure and a change in pressure may be detected after MRI procedure. The SPECT apparatus used was PRISM3000 of the three-detector type, and 123I-IMP was used as the radionuclide in a dose of 222 MBq. MRI data were collected with an MAGNEXa+2 with a magnetic flux density of 0.5 tesla under the following conditions: field echo; TR 50 msec; TE, 10 msec; flip, 30ueK; 1 NEX; FOV, 23 cm; 1-mm slices; and gapless. 3D images are produced on the workstation TITAN

  12. 3D silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

  13. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  14. 3D recovery of human gaze in natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletta, Lucas; Santner, Katrin; Fritz, Gerald; Mayer, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of human attention has recently been addressed in the context of human robot interaction. Today, joint work spaces already exist and challenge cooperating systems to jointly focus on common objects, scenes and work niches. With the advent of Google glasses and increasingly affordable wearable eye-tracking, monitoring of human attention will soon become ubiquitous. The presented work describes for the first time a method for the estimation of human fixations in 3D environments that does not require any artificial landmarks in the field of view and enables attention mapping in 3D models. It enables full 3D recovery of the human view frustum and the gaze pointer in a previously acquired 3D model of the environment in real time. The study on the precision of this method reports a mean projection error ≈1.1 cm and a mean angle error ≈0.6° within the chosen 3D model - the precision does not go below the one of the technical instrument (≈1°). This innovative methodology will open new opportunities for joint attention studies as well as for bringing new potential into automated processing for human factors technologies.

  15. Integration of real-time 3D capture, reconstruction, and light-field display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Pei, Renjing; Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Effective integration of 3D acquisition, reconstruction (modeling) and display technologies into a seamless systems provides augmented experience of visualizing and analyzing real objects and scenes with realistic 3D sensation. Applications can be found in medical imaging, gaming, virtual or augmented reality and hybrid simulations. Although 3D acquisition, reconstruction, and display technologies have gained significant momentum in recent years, there seems a lack of attention on synergistically combining these components into a "end-to-end" 3D visualization system. We designed, built and tested an integrated 3D visualization system that is able to capture in real-time 3D light-field images, perform 3D reconstruction to build 3D model of the objects, and display the 3D model on a large autostereoscopic screen. In this article, we will present our system architecture and component designs, hardware/software implementations, and experimental results. We will elaborate on our recent progress on sparse camera array light-field 3D acquisition, real-time dense 3D reconstruction, and autostereoscopic multi-view 3D display. A prototype is finally presented with test results to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed integrated 3D visualization system.

  16. Utilization of nuclear research reactors in forensic science - Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.K.; Tripathi, A.B.R.; Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Arya, Bharti; Chattopadhyay, N.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques in Forensic Science is one of the most important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal cause. Forensic Science is oriented towards the examination of evidence specimens, collected from a scene of crime in order to establish the link between the suspect/criminal and the crime. This science therefore has a profound role to play in criminal justice delivery system. (author)

  17. Digital Mayhem 3D machine techniques where inspiration, techniques and digital art meet

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    From Icy Tundras to Desert savannahs, master the art of landscape and environment design for 2D and 3D digital content. Make it rain, shower your digital scene with a snow storm or develop a believable urban scene with a critical eye for modeling, lighting and composition. Move beyond the limitations of gallery style coffee table books with Digital Mayhem: 3D Landscapes-offering leading professional techniques, groundbreaking inspiration, and artistic mastery from some of the greatest digital artists. More than just a gallery book - each artist has written a breakdown overview, with supporting

  18. 3D documentation of outcrop by laser scanner – Filtration of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kisztner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with separation of vegetation from 3D data acquired by Terrestrial Laser Scanning for detecting more complex geological structures. Separation of vegetation is not an easy task. In many cases, the outcrop is not clear and the vegetation outgrows the outcrop. Therefore the separation of vegetation from 3D data is a task which requires adjustment of algorithms from image processing and remote sensing. By using cluster analysis and analysis of spectral behaviour we can detect vegetation from the rest of the scene and erase these points from the scene for detection of geological structures.

  19. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  20. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  1. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  2. [Forensic anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-09-07

    Forensic anthropology is the application of biological or physical anthropology in the service of justice. One main area is the analysis of human remains. Such analyses involve person identification by assessment of age and sex of the deceased, and comparison with ante-mortem data. Another major area is the analysis of surveillance pictures and videos. Such analyses may comprise facial and bodily morphological comparisons, multi-angle photogrammetry and gait analysis. We also perform studies of human remains for archaeologists.

  3. Web GIS in practice VII: stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Maged N.K.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2009-01-01

    Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the 'third dimension' or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in "true 3D", with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system.

  4. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  5. Perceived crosstalk assessment on patterned retarder 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bochao; Liu, Yue; Huang, Yi; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-03-01

    CONTEXT: Nowadays, almost all stereoscopic displays suffer from crosstalk, which is one of the most dominant degradation factors of image quality and visual comfort for 3D display devices. To deal with such problems, it is worthy to quantify the amount of perceived crosstalk OBJECTIVE: Crosstalk measurements are usually based on some certain test patterns, but scene content effects are ignored. To evaluate the perceived crosstalk level for various scenes, subjective test may bring a more correct evaluation. However, it is a time consuming approach and is unsuitable for real­ time applications. Therefore, an objective metric that can reliably predict the perceived crosstalk is needed. A correct objective assessment of crosstalk for different scene contents would be beneficial to the development of crosstalk minimization and cancellation algorithms which could be used to bring a good quality of experience to viewers. METHOD: A patterned retarder 3D display is used to present 3D images in our experiment. By considering the mechanism of this kind of devices, an appropriate simulation of crosstalk is realized by image processing techniques to assign different values of crosstalk to each other between image pairs. It can be seen from the literature that the structures of scenes have a significant impact on the perceived crosstalk, so we first extract the differences of the structural information between original and distorted image pairs through Structural SIMilarity (SSIM) algorithm, which could directly evaluate the structural changes between two complex-structured signals. Then the structural changes of left view and right view are computed respectively and combined to an overall distortion map. Under 3D viewing condition, because of the added value of depth, the crosstalk of pop-out objects may be more perceptible. To model this effect, the depth map of a stereo pair is generated and the depth information is filtered by the distortion map. Moreover, human attention

  6. Volume Attenuation and High Frequency Loss as Auditory Depth Cues in Stereoscopic 3D Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolas, Christos; Pauletto, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Assisted by the technological advances of the past decades, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) cinema is currently in the process of being established as a mainstream form of entertainment. The main focus of this collaborative effort is placed on the creation of immersive S3D visuals. However, with few exceptions, little attention has been given so far to the potential effect of the soundtrack on such environments. The potential of sound both as a means to enhance the impact of the S3D visual information and to expand the S3D cinematic world beyond the boundaries of the visuals is large. This article reports on our research into the possibilities of using auditory depth cues within the soundtrack as a means of affecting the perception of depth within cinematic S3D scenes. We study two main distance-related auditory cues: high-end frequency loss and overall volume attenuation. A series of experiments explored the effectiveness of these auditory cues. Results, although not conclusive, indicate that the studied auditory cues can influence the audience judgement of depth in cinematic 3D scenes, sometimes in unexpected ways. We conclude that 3D filmmaking can benefit from further studies on the effectiveness of specific sound design techniques to enhance S3D cinema.

  7. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system

  8. Hybrid animation integrating 2D and 3D assets

    CERN Document Server

    O'Hailey, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Artist imaginations continue to grow and stretch the boundaries of traditional animation. Successful animators adept and highly skilled in traditional animation mediums are branching out beyond traditional animation workflows and will often use multiple forms of animation in a single project. With the knowledge of 3D and 2D assets and the integration of multiple animation mediums into a single project, animators have a wealth of creative resources available for a project that is not limited to a specific animation medium, software package or workflow processs. Enhance a poignant scene by choos

  9. WS-007: EPR-First Responders: Practical applications of FEMG concepts (Group management of forensic evidence)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this working session is that the participants can apply their knowledge in a potential crime. They have to know the forensic management group actions as well as how to preservate the scene and victim evidences for the forensic studies and how to prevent cross-contamination

  10. A 360-degree floating 3D display based on light field regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinxing; Liu, Xu; Li, Haifeng; Zheng, Zhenrong; Wang, Han; Peng, Yifan; Shen, Weidong

    2013-05-06

    Using light field reconstruction technique, we can display a floating 3D scene in the air, which is 360-degree surrounding viewable with correct occlusion effect. A high-frame-rate color projector and flat light field scanning screen are used in the system to create the light field of real 3D scene in the air above the spinning screen. The principle and display performance of this approach are investigated in this paper. The image synthesis method for all the surrounding viewpoints is analyzed, and the 3D spatial resolution and angular resolution of the common display zone are employed to evaluate display performance. The prototype is achieved and the real 3D color animation image has been presented vividly. The experimental results verified the representability of this method.

  11. An algorithm for 3D target scatterer feature estimation from sparse SAR apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie Ann; Moses, Randolph L.

    2009-05-01

    We present an algorithm for extracting 3D canonical scattering features from complex targets observed over sparse 3D SAR apertures. The algorithm begins with complex phase history data and ends with a set of geometrical features describing the scene. The algorithm provides a pragmatic approach to initialization of a nonlinear feature estimation scheme, using regularization methods to deconvolve the point spread function and obtain sparse 3D images. Regions of high energy are detected in the sparse images, providing location initializations for scattering center estimates. A single canonical scattering feature, corresponding to a geometric shape primitive, is fit to each region via nonlinear optimization of fit error between the regularized data and parametric canonical scattering models. Results of the algorithm are presented using 3D scattering prediction data of a simple scene for both a densely-sampled and a sparsely-sampled SAR measurement aperture.

  12. Analysis of 3-D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, M. Arif; Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1992-03-01

    Deriving generalized representation of 3-D objects for analysis and recognition is a very difficult task. Three types of representations based on type of an object is used in this paper. Objects which have well-defined geometrical shapes are segmented by using a fast edge region based segmentation technique. The segmented image is represented by plan and elevation of each part of the object if the object parts are symmetrical about their central axis. The plan and elevation concept enables representing and analyzing such objects quickly and efficiently. The second type of representation is used for objects having parts which are not symmetrical about their central axis. The segmented surface patches of such objects are represented by the 3-D boundary and the surface features of each segmented surface. Finally, the third type of representation is used for objects which don't have well-defined geometrical shapes (for example a loaf of bread). These objects are represented and analyzed from its features which are derived using a multiscale contour based technique. Anisotropic Gaussian smoothing technique is introduced to segment the contours at various scales of smoothing. A new merging technique is used which enables getting the current best estimate of break points at each scale. This new technique enables elimination of loss of accuracy of localization effects at coarser scales without using scale space tracking approach.

  13. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  14. 3D DNA Origami Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Hartl, Caroline; Frank, Kilian; Heuer-Jungemann, Amelie; Fischer, Stefan; Nickels, Philipp C; Nickel, Bert; Liedl, Tim

    2018-05-18

    3D crystals assembled entirely from DNA provide a route to design materials on a molecular level and to arrange guest particles in predefined lattices. This requires design schemes that provide high rigidity and sufficiently large open guest space. A DNA-origami-based "tensegrity triangle" structure that assembles into a 3D rhombohedral crystalline lattice with an open structure in which 90% of the volume is empty space is presented here. Site-specific placement of gold nanoparticles within the lattice demonstrates that these crystals are spacious enough to efficiently host 20 nm particles in a cavity size of 1.83 × 10 5 nm 3 , which would also suffice to accommodate ribosome-sized macromolecules. The accurate assembly of the DNA origami lattice itself, as well as the precise incorporation of gold particles, is validated by electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. The results show that it is possible to create DNA building blocks that assemble into lattices with customized geometry. Site-specific hosting of nano objects in the optically transparent DNA lattice sets the stage for metamaterial and structural biology applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  16. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics and 3D neutron kinetics. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution

  17. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-01-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  18. Tracking people and cars using 3D modeling and CCTV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Gerda; Bijhold, Jurrien

    2010-10-10

    The aim of this study was to find a method for the reconstruction of movements of people and cars using CCTV footage and a 3D model of the environment. A procedure is proposed, in which video streams are synchronized and displayed in a 3D model, by using virtual cameras. People and cars are represented by cylinders and boxes, which are moved in the 3D model, according to their movements as shown in the video streams. The procedure was developed and tested in an experimental setup with test persons who logged their GPS coordinates as a recording of the ground truth. Results showed that it is possible to implement this procedure and to reconstruct movements of people and cars from video recordings. The procedure was also applied to a forensic case. In this work we experienced that more situational awareness was created by the 3D model, which made it easier to track people on multiple video streams. Based on all experiences from the experimental set up and the case, recommendations are formulated for use in practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 3D vision upgrade kit for TALON robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Brian; Morris, James; Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Chenault, David B.; Tchon, Joe; Barnidge, Tracy; Kaufman, Seth; Pettijohn, Brad

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision field upgrade kit for TALON robot consisting of a replacement flat panel stereoscopic display, and multiple stereo camera systems. An assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations was conducted. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a TALON IV Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that stock components could be electrically disconnected and removed, and upgrade components coupled directly to the mounting and electrical connections. A replacement display, replacement mast camera with zoom, auto-focus, and variable convergence, and a replacement gripper camera with fixed focus and zoom comprise the upgrade kit. The stereo mast camera allows for improved driving and situational awareness as well as scene survey. The stereo gripper camera allows for improved manipulation in typical TALON missions.

  20. 3D exploitation of large urban photo archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Peter; Snavely, Noah; Anderson, Ross

    2010-04-01

    Recent work in computer vision has demonstrated the potential to automatically recover camera and scene geometry from large collections of uncooperatively-collected photos. At the same time, aerial ladar and Geographic Information System (GIS) data are becoming more readily accessible. In this paper, we present a system for fusing these data sources in order to transfer 3D and GIS information into outdoor urban imagery. Applying this system to 1000+ pictures shot of the lower Manhattan skyline and the Statue of Liberty, we present two proof-of-concept examples of geometry-based photo enhancement which are difficult to perform via conventional image processing: feature annotation and image-based querying. In these examples, high-level knowledge projects from 3D world-space into georegistered 2D image planes and/or propagates between different photos. Such automatic capabilities lay the groundwork for future real-time labeling of imagery shot in complex city environments by mobile smart phones.

  1. Development of remote handling system based on 3-D shape recognition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomizuka, Chiaki; Takeuchi, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    In a nuclear facility, the maintenance and repair activities must be done remotely in a radioactive environment. Fuji Electric Systems Co., Ltd. has developed a remote handling system based on 3-D recognition technique. The system recognizes the pose and position of the target to manipulate, and visualizes the scene with the target in 3-D, enabling an operator to handle it easily. This paper introduces the concept and the key features of this system. (author)

  2. 3D registration method for assessing the gastrointestinal motility using spectral reflectance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobe, Kazuki; Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Takahashi, Hideya

    2018-02-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are the most common gastrointestinal disorders. The term "functional" is generally applied to disorders where there are no structural abnormalities. One of the major factors for FGID is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. We have proposed a system for assessing the function of gastric motility using a 3D endoscope. In this previous study, we established a method for estimating characteristics of contraction wave extracted from a 3D shape include contraction wave obtained from stereo endoscope. Because it is difficult to fix the tip position of the endoscope during the examination, estimation of the 3D position between the endoscope and the gastric wall is necessary for the accurate assessment. Then, we have proposed a motion compensation method using 3D scene flow. However, since mucosa has few feature points, it is difficult to obtain 3D scene flow from RGB images. So, we focused on spectral imaging that can enhance visualization of mucosal structure. Spectral image can be obtained without switching optical filters by using technique to estimate spectral reflectance by image processing. In this paper, we propose registration method of measured 3D shape in time series using estimated spectral image. The spectral image is estimated from the RGB image for each frame. 3D scene flow of feature points, that is, enhanced mucosal structure calculated by spectral images in a time series. The position change between the endoscope and gastric wall is estimated by 3D scene flow. We experimented to confirm the validity of the proposed method using papers with a grid of colors close to the background color.

  3. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  4. Nanotechnology - The future armour of forensics: A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay R Hallikeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is the study of the control of matter of an atomic and molecular scale. At present the most widespread forensic application of micro fluidic systems is post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR quantization. These systems are currently being used in several forensic laboratories to perform post-PCR quantification of mitochondrial DNA. Another innovation relates to assisting in solving gun crime. Using a nanoscale developer and an X-ray source, it is possible to image the etched fingerprints even if the casing has been wiped or washed. This technology is going to revolutionize the fields of virtopsy, crime scene investigation, identification, forensic ballistics, and toxicology.

  5. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  6. Telerobotics and 3-d TV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Able, E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of telerobotic techniques that can be used in the nuclear industry. The approach has been to apply available equipment, modify available equipment, or design and build anew. The authors have successfully built an input controller which can be used with standard industrial robots, converting them into telerobots. A clean room industrial robot has been re-engineered into an advanced telerobot engineered for the nuclear industry, using a knowledge of radiation tolerance design principles and collaboration with the manufacturer. A powerful hydraulic manipulator has been built to respond to a need for more heavy duty devices for in-cell handling. A variety of easy to use 3-D TV systems has been developed

  7. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  8. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-10-12

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step of printing the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate; placing the flexible silicon substrate in a cavity of the first portion of the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate in the 3D structure; and resuming the step of printing the 3D structure to form the second portion of the 3D structure.

  9. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through. The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and

  10. Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan

    2009-10-01

    Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

  11. Radiological field exercises for forensic investigators. Technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, C.L.; Clement, C.; Estan, D.; McDiarmid, C.; Tessier, M.

    2006-06-01

    A series of tabletop and field exercises were designed and executed to test traditional forensic investigation procedures in a crime scene with radioactive material present. This allowed for specific training needs of forensic identification specialists to be identified and revised procedures to be drafted. Two scenarios were exercised, first as tabletop discussions with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), and DRDC Ottawa, and then as field exercises with the participation of the RCMP and Ottawa Police Services (OPS) forensic investigators. These exercises produced a number of lessons learned with regard to protocols for forensic investigators and led to the development of a one-page fact sheet on performing forensic identification tasks in a radiation environment. (author)

  12. Crime Scene Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Barbara; Kohlmeier, Kris; Kiel, Robert D.

    Casting students in grades 5 through 12 in the roles of reporters, lawyers, and detectives at the scene of a crime, this interdisciplinary activity involves participants in the intrigue and drama of crime investigation. Using a hands-on, step-by-step approach, students work in teams to investigate a crime and solve a mystery. Through role-playing…

  13. An Integrated Simplification Approach for 3D Buildings with Sloped and Flat Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghan Xie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Simplification of three-dimensional (3D buildings is critical to improve the efficiency of visualizing urban environments while ensuring realistic urban scenes. Moreover, it underpins the construction of multi-scale 3D city models (3DCMs which could be applied to study various urban issues. In this paper, we design a generic yet effective approach for simplifying 3D buildings. Instead of relying on both semantic information and geometric information, our approach is based solely on geometric information as many 3D buildings still do not include semantic information. In addition, it provides an integrated means to treat 3D buildings with either sloped or flat roofs. The two case studies, one exploring simplification of individual 3D buildings at varying levels of complexity while the other, investigating the multi-scale simplification of a cityscape, show the effectiveness of our approach.

  14. Natural fibre composites for 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been common option for prototyping. Not all the materials are suitable for 3D printing. Various studies have been done and still many are ongoing regarding the suitability of the materials for 3D printing. This thesis work discloses the possibility of 3D printing of certain polymer composite materials. The main objective of this thesis work was to study the possibility for 3D printing the polymer composite material composed of natural fibre composite and various different ...

  15. Introducing the depth transfer curve for 3D capture system characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goma, Sergio R.; Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas

    2011-03-01

    3D technology has recently made a transition from movie theaters to consumer electronic devices such as 3D cameras and camcorders. In addition to what 2D imaging conveys, 3D content also contains information regarding the scene depth. Scene depth is simulated through the strongest brain depth cue, namely retinal disparity. This can be achieved by capturing an image by horizontally separated cameras. Objects at different depths will be projected with different horizontal displacement on the left and right camera images. These images, when fed separately to either eye, leads to retinal disparity. Since the perception of depth is the single most important 3D imaging capability, an evaluation procedure is needed to quantify the depth capture characteristics. Evaluating depth capture characteristics subjectively is a very difficult task since the intended and/or unintended side effects from 3D image fusion (depth interpretation) by the brain are not immediately perceived by the observer, nor do such effects lend themselves easily to objective quantification. Objective evaluation of 3D camera depth characteristics is an important tool that can be used for "black box" characterization of 3D cameras. In this paper we propose a methodology to evaluate the 3D cameras' depth capture capabilities.

  16. 2D-Driven 3D Object Detection in RGB-D Images

    KAUST Repository

    Lahoud, Jean

    2017-12-25

    In this paper, we present a technique that places 3D bounding boxes around objects in an RGB-D scene. Our approach makes best use of the 2D information to quickly reduce the search space in 3D, benefiting from state-of-the-art 2D object detection techniques. We then use the 3D information to orient, place, and score bounding boxes around objects. We independently estimate the orientation for every object, using previous techniques that utilize normal information. Object locations and sizes in 3D are learned using a multilayer perceptron (MLP). In the final step, we refine our detections based on object class relations within a scene. When compared to state-of-the-art detection methods that operate almost entirely in the sparse 3D domain, extensive experiments on the well-known SUN RGB-D dataset [29] show that our proposed method is much faster (4.1s per image) in detecting 3D objects in RGB-D images and performs better (3 mAP higher) than the state-of-the-art method that is 4.7 times slower and comparably to the method that is two orders of magnitude slower. This work hints at the idea that 2D-driven object detection in 3D should be further explored, especially in cases where the 3D input is sparse.

  17. Forensic entomology: applications and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, J; Richards, C S; Campobasso, C P; Zehner, R; Hall, M J R

    2011-12-01

    Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the corpse. In addition, toxicological and molecular examinations of these insects may help reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim, by associating a larva with its last meal, for example, in cases where insect evidence is left at a scene after human remains have been deliberately removed. Some fly species can develop not only on corpses but on living bodies too, causing myiasis. Analysis of larvae in such cases can demonstrate the period of neglect of humans or animals. Without the appropriate professional collection of insect evidence, an accurate and convincing presentation of such evidence in court will be hampered or even impossible. The present paper describes the principles and methods of forensic entomology and the optimal techniques for collecting insect evidence.

  18. 3-D discrete analytical ridgelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, David; Carré, Philippe; Andres, Eric

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines: 3-D discrete radial lines going through the origin defined from their orthogonal projections and 3-D planes covered with 2-D discrete line segments. These discrete analytical lines have a parameter called arithmetical thickness, allowing us to define a 3-D DART adapted to a specific application. Indeed, the 3-D DART representation is not orthogonal, It is associated with a flexible redundancy factor. The 3-D DART has a very simple forward/inverse algorithm that provides an exact reconstruction without any iterative method. In order to illustrate the potentiality of this new discrete transform, we apply the 3-D DART and its extension to the Local-DART (with smooth windowing) to the denoising of 3-D image and color video. These experimental results show that the simple thresholding of the 3-D DART coefficients is efficient.

  19. Computer Forensics Field Triage Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus K. Rogers

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of digital based evidence, the need for the timely identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence is becoming more crucial. In many investigations critical information is required while at the scene or within a short period of time - measured in hours as opposed to days. The traditional cyber forensics approach of seizing a system(s/media, transporting it to the lab, making a forensic image(s, and then searching the entire system for potential evidence, is no longer appropriate in some circumstances. In cases such as child abductions, pedophiles, missing or exploited persons, time is of the essence. In these types of cases, investigators dealing with the suspect or crime scene need investigative leads quickly; in some cases it is the difference between life and death for the victim(s. The Cyber Forensic Field Triage Process Model (CFFTPM proposes an onsite or field approach for providing the identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence in a short time frame, without the requirement of having to take the system(s/media back to the lab for an in-depth examination or acquiring a complete forensic image(s. The proposed model adheres to commonly held forensic principles, and does not negate the ability that once the initial field triage is concluded, the system(s/storage media be transported back to a lab environment for a more thorough examination and analysis. The CFFTPM has been successfully used in various real world cases, and its investigative importance and pragmatic approach has been amply demonstrated. Furthermore, the derived evidence from these cases has not been challenged in the court proceedings where it has been introduced. The current article describes the CFFTPM in detail, discusses the model’s forensic soundness, investigative support capabilities and practical considerations.

  20. Toward 3D-IPTV: design and implementation of a stereoscopic and multiple-perspective video streaming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Goran; Farin, Dirk; de With, Peter H. N.

    2008-02-01

    3D-Video systems allow a user to perceive depth in the viewed scene and to display the scene from arbitrary viewpoints interactively and on-demand. This paper presents a prototype implementation of a 3D-video streaming system using an IP network. The architecture of our streaming system is layered, where each information layer conveys a single coded video signal or coded scene-description data. We demonstrate the benefits of a layered architecture with two examples: (a) stereoscopic video streaming, (b) monoscopic video streaming with remote multiple-perspective rendering. Our implementation experiments confirm that prototyping 3D-video streaming systems is possible with today's software and hardware. Furthermore, our current operational prototype demonstrates that highly heterogeneous clients can coexist in the system, ranging from auto-stereoscopic 3D displays to resource-constrained mobile devices.

  1. ORMGEN3D, 3-D Crack Geometry FEM Mesh Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ORMGEN3D is a finite element mesh generator for computational fracture mechanics analysis. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional finite element model for six different crack geometries. These geometries include flat plates with straight or curved surface cracks and cylinders with part-through cracks on the outer or inner surface. Mathematical or user-defined crack shapes may be considered. The curved cracks may be semicircular, semi-elliptical, or user-defined. A cladding option is available that allows for either an embedded or penetrating crack in the clad material. 2 - Method of solution: In general, one eighth or one-quarter of the structure is modelled depending on the configuration or option selected. The program generates a core of special wedge or collapsed prism elements at the crack front to introduce the appropriate stress singularity at the crack tip. The remainder of the structure is modelled with conventional 20-node iso-parametric brick elements. Element group I of the finite element model consists of an inner core of special crack tip elements surrounding the crack front enclosed by a single layer of conventional brick elements. Eight element divisions are used in a plane orthogonal to the crack front, while the number of element divisions along the arc length of the crack front is user-specified. The remaining conventional brick elements of the model constitute element group II. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 5,500 nodes, 4 layers of clad elements

  2. Hardware-accelerated autostereogram rendering for interactive 3D visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petz, Christoph; Goldluecke, Bastian; Magnor, Marcus

    2003-05-01

    Single Image Random Dot Stereograms (SIRDS) are an attractive way of depicting three-dimensional objects using conventional display technology. Once trained in decoupling the eyes' convergence and focusing, autostereograms of this kind are able to convey the three-dimensional impression of a scene. We present in this work an algorithm that generates SIRDS at interactive frame rates on a conventional PC. The presented system allows rotating a 3D geometry model and observing the object from arbitrary positions in real-time. Subjective tests show that the perception of a moving or rotating 3D scene presents no problem: The gaze remains focused onto the object. In contrast to conventional SIRDS algorithms, we render multiple pixels in a single step using a texture-based approach, exploiting the parallel-processing architecture of modern graphics hardware. A vertex program determines the parallax for each vertex of the geometry model, and the graphics hardware's texture unit is used to render the dot pattern. No data has to be transferred between main memory and the graphics card for generating the autostereograms, leaving CPU capacity available for other tasks. Frame rates of 25 fps are attained at a resolution of 1024x512 pixels on a standard PC using a consumer-grade nVidia GeForce4 graphics card, demonstrating the real-time capability of the system.

  3. 3D visualization of a resistivity data set - an example from a sludge disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstone, C.; Dahlin, T.; Jonsson, P.

    1997-01-01

    A relatively large 2D inverted CVES resistivity data set from a waste pond area in southern Sweden was visualized as an animated 3D model using state-of-the-art techniques and tools. The presentation includes a description of the hardware and software used, outline of the case study and examples of scenes from the animation

  4. Estimating 3D Object Parameters from 2D Grey-Level Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houkes, Z.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes a general framework for parameter estimation, which is suitable for computer vision applications. The approach described combines 3D modelling, animation and estimation tools to determine parameters of objects in a scene from 2D grey-level images. The animation tool predicts

  5. Forensic entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  6. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  7. CROWDSOURCING BASED 3D MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Somogyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users’ images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  8. Crime Scene Intelligence. An Experiment in Forensic Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Investigation (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1993), 72. 23 Smith, 86. 24 G. Bianchini, “La Biologia Del Cadaver, ” Archivic Antropologia...May R. Ninety-Nine More Maggots, Mites, and Munchers. Urbana and Chi- cago: University of Illinois Press, 1985. Bianchini, G. “La Biologia Del

  9. Crime Scene Intelligence. An Experiment in Forensic Entomology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cruz, Albert M

    2006-01-01

    .... Common questions answered include time since death, movement of a body from one location to another, location of traumatic wound sites, identification of toxicological deaths, and location of drug trafficking...

  10. Vrste i tehnike 3D modeliranja

    OpenAIRE

    Bernik, Andrija

    2010-01-01

    Proces stvaranja 3D stvarnih ili imaginarnih objekata naziva se 3D modeliranje. Razvoj računalne tehnologije omogućuje korisniku odabir raznih metoda i tehnika kako bi se postigla optimalna učinkovitost. Odabir je vezan za klasično 3D modeliranje ili 3D skeniranje pomoću specijaliziranih programskih i sklopovskih rješenja. 3D tehnikama modeliranja korisnik može izraditi 3D model na nekoliko načina: koristi poligone, krivulje ili hibrid dviju spomenutih tehnika pod nazivom subdivizijsko modeli...

  11. Kuvaus 3D-tulostamisesta hammastekniikassa

    OpenAIRE

    Munne, Mauri; Mustonen, Tuomas; Vähäjylkkä, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    3D-tulostaminen kehittyy nopeasti ja yleistyy koko ajan. Tulostimien tarkkuuksien kehittyessä 3D-tulostus on ottamassa myös jalansijaa hammastekniikan alalta. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata 3D-tulostamisen tilaa hammastekniikassa. 3D-tulostaminen on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, joten opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on koota yhteen kaikki mahdollinen tieto liittyen 3D-tulostamiseen hammastekniikassa. Tavoitteena on myös 3D-tulostimen testaaminen käytännössä aina suun skannaami...

  12. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  13. Visualization research of 3D radiation field based on Delaunay triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Changji; Chen Yuqing; Li Shiting; Zhu Bo

    2011-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the three dimensional partition, the triangulation of discrete date sets is improved by the method of point-by-point insertion. The discrete data for the radiation field by theoretical calculation or actual measurement is restructured, and the continuous distribution of the radiation field data is obtained. Finally, the 3D virtual scene of the nuclear facilities is built with the VR simulation techniques, and the visualization of the 3D radiation field is also achieved by the visualization mapping techniques. It is shown that the method combined VR and Delaunay triangulation could greatly improve the quality and efficiency of 3D radiation field visualization. (authors)

  14. Wide area 2D/3D imaging development, analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Langmann, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Imaging technology is an important research area and it is widely utilized in a growing number of disciplines ranging from gaming, robotics and automation to medicine. In the last decade 3D imaging became popular mainly driven by the introduction of novel 3D cameras and measuring devices. These cameras are usually limited to indoor scenes with relatively low distances. Benjamin Langmann introduces medium and long-range 2D/3D cameras to overcome these limitations. He reports measurement results for these devices and studies their characteristic behavior. In order to facilitate the application o

  15. Neutron activation analysis - an aid to forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, N.; Basu, A.K.; Tripathi, A.B.R.; Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Shukla, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Forensic Science is oriented towards the examination of evidence specimens, collected from a scene of crime in order to establish the link between the criminal and the crime. This science therefore has a profound role to play in criminal justice delivery system. The importance of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a specialised technique to aid crime investigation has emerged and has been recognised

  16. Forensic use of Y-chromosome DNA: a general overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe male-specific part of the human Y chromosome is widely used in forensic DNA analysis, particularly in cases where standard autosomal DNA profiling is not informative. A Y-chromosomal gene fragment is applied for inferring the biological sex of a crime scene trace donor. Haplotypes

  17. Magma emplacement in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyk, W.; Vogt, K.

    2017-12-01

    Magma intrusion is a major material transfer process in Earth's continental crust. Yet, the mechanical behavior of the intruding magma and its host are a matter of debate. In this study, we present a series of numerical thermo-mechanical experiments on mafic magma emplacement in 3D.In our model, we place the magmatic source region (40 km diameter) at the base of the mantle lithosphere and connect it to the crust by a 3 km wide channel, which may have evolved at early stages of magmatism during rapid ascent of hot magmatic fluids/melts. Our results demonstrate continental crustal response due to magma intrusion. We observe change in intrusion geometries between dikes, cone-sheets, sills, plutons, ponds, funnels, finger-shaped and stock-like intrusions as well as injection time. The rheology and temperature of the host-rock are the main controlling factors in the transition between these different modes of intrusion. Viscous deformation in the warm and deep crust favours host rock displacement and magma pools along the crust-mantle boundary forming deep-seated plutons or magma ponds in the lower to middle-crust. Brittle deformation in the cool and shallow crust induces cone-shaped fractures in the host rock and enables emplacement of finger- or stock-like intrusions at shallow or intermediate depth. A combination of viscous and brittle deformation forms funnel-shaped intrusions in the middle-crust. Low-density source magma results in T-shaped intrusions in cross-section with magma sheets at the surface.

  18. Forensic botany: using plant evidence to aid in forensic death investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Coyle, Heather; Lee, Cheng-Lung; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lee, Henry C; Palmbach, Timothy M

    2005-08-01

    Forensic botany is still an under-utilized resource in forensic casework, although it has been used on occasion. It is an area of specialty science that could include traditional botanical classification of species, DNA, or materials evidence (trace and transfer evidence), crime mapping or geo-sourcing, all dependent on the specific case application under consideration. Critical to the evaluation of plant evidence is careful collection, documentation, and preservation for later scientific analysis. This article reviews proper procedures and recent cases where botanical evidence played a role in establishing either manner or time of death. Plant evidence can be useful for determining if a death was due to an accident, suicide, or homicide, or what time of year burial may have taken place. In addition, plant evidence can be used to determine if a crime scene is a primary or secondary scene and to locate missing bodies.

  19. Will 3D printers manufacture your meals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, K.J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    These days, 3D printers are laying down plastics, metals, resins, and other materials in whatever configurations creative people can dream up. But when the next 3D printing revolution comes, you'll be able to eat it.

  20. Eesti 3D jaoks kitsas / Virge Haavasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haavasalu, Virge

    2009-01-01

    Produktsioonifirma Digitaalne Sputnik: Kaur ja Kaspar Kallas tegelevad filmide produtseerimise ning 3D digitaalkaamerate tootearendusega (Silicon Imaging LLC). Vendade Kallaste 3D-kaamerast. Kommenteerib Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse direktor Marge Liiske

  1. Clandestine laboratory scene investigation and processing using portable GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejczyk, Raymond J.

    1997-02-01

    This presentation describes the use of portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for on-scene investigation and processing of clandestine laboratories. Clandestine laboratory investigations present special problems to forensic investigators. These crime scenes contain many chemical hazards that must be detected, identified and collected as evidence. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry performed on-scene with a rugged, portable unit is capable of analyzing a variety of matrices for drugs and chemicals used in the manufacture of illicit drugs, such as methamphetamine. Technologies used to detect various materials at a scene have particular applications but do not address the wide range of samples, chemicals, matrices and mixtures that exist in clan labs. Typical analyses performed by GC/MS are for the purpose of positively establishing the identity of starting materials, chemicals and end-product collected from clandestine laboratories. Concerns for the public and investigator safety and the environment are also important factors for rapid on-scene data generation. Here is described the implementation of a portable multiple-inlet GC/MS system designed for rapid deployment to a scene to perform forensic investigations of clandestine drug manufacturing laboratories. GC/MS has long been held as the 'gold standard' in performing forensic chemical analyses. With the capability of GC/MS to separate and produce a 'chemical fingerprint' of compounds, it is utilized as an essential technique for detecting and positively identifying chemical evidence. Rapid and conclusive on-scene analysis of evidence will assist the forensic investigators in collecting only pertinent evidence thereby reducing the amount of evidence to be transported, reducing chain of custody concerns, reducing costs and hazards, maintaining sample integrity and speeding the completion of the investigative process.

  2. 3D-Printed Millimeter Wave Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    demonstrates the resolution of the printer with a 10 micron nozzle. Figure 2: Measured loss tangent of SEBS and SBS samples. 3D - Printed Millimeter... 3D printing of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and styrene ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) is used to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D - printed ...Additionally, a dielectric lens is printed which improves the antenna gain of an open-ended WR-28 waveguide from 7 to 8.5 dBi. Keywords: 3D printing

  3. Digital Dentistry — 3D Printing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharia Cristian; Gabor Alin-Gabriel; Gavrilovici Andrei; Stan Adrian Tudor; Idorasi Laura; Sinescu Cosmin; Negruțiu Meda-Lavinia

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an additive manufacturing method in which a 3D item is formed by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers are machines that produce representations of objects either planned with a CAD program or scanned with a 3D scanner. Printing is a method for replicating text and pictures, typically with ink on paper. We can print different dental pieces using different methods such as selective laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography, fused deposition mo...

  4. Detectors in 3D available for assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Re, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable reports on 3D devices resulting from the vertical integration of pixel sensors and readout electronics. After 3D integration steps such as etching of through-silicon vias and backside metallization of readout integrated circuits, ASICs and sensors are interconnected to form a 3D pixel detector. Various 3D detectors have been devised in AIDA WP3 and their status and performance is assessed here.

  5. Analysis of forensic odontological examinations at the National Forensic Service of Korea from 2011 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Won-Joon; Seo, Jeong-Uk; Lee, U-Young; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2018-03-02

    The National Forensic Service (NFS) of Korea is a government agency responsible for examining and evaluating evidence obtained at crime scenes. The Section of Forensic Odontology of the Medical Examiner's Office conducts forensic odontological analyses of human remains, and mainly criminal cases are handled. In this study, 588 forensic odontological cases referred to NFS during 2011-2015 were analyzed for referral pattern, evidence material, examination criteria, and other factors and were compared with respective data from 2007 to 2010. Majority of the requests were internal (further dental examinations after autopsy) rather than external (direct requests from other agencies such as police departments). Regarding evidence materials, "Teeth" (including teeth and resected jaws) were dominant evidences. Due to the seasonal effects in Korea, the highest number of requests was in September of each year, but the number of requests in April has recently increased. Evidence materials were mostly found in suburban and rural area, especially in mountainous area due to the geographic characteristics of Korea. Regarding specific examinations, profiling, including age estimation, accounted for majority of the requests; this number had increased relative to the findings of a previous study, whereas the number of requests for dental identification and bite mark analysis had decreased. With this analysis, trends in forensic odontology can be observed, and we expect that these trends would be served as a reference for designing study and making training protocol for forensic odontology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Morphable 3D-Mosaics: A Hybrid Framework for Photorealistic Walkthroughs of Large Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Komodakis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid (geometry- & image-based framework suitable for providing photorealistic walkthroughs of large, complex outdoor scenes at interactive frame rates. To this end, based just on a sparse set of real stereoscopic views from the scene, a set of morphable 3D-mosaics is automatically constructed first, and then, during rendering, a continuous morphing between those 3D-mosaics that are nearby to the current viewpoint is taking place. The morphing is both photometric, as well as geometric, while we also ensure that it proceeds in a physically valid manner, thus remaining transparent to the user. The effectiveness of our framework has been demonstrated in the 3D visual reconstruction of the Samaria Gorge in Crete, which is one of the largest and most beautiful gorges in Europe.

  7. 2D to 3D conversion implemented in different hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Diaz, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Huitron, Victor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Hernandez-Fragoso, Araceli

    2015-02-01

    Conversion of available 2D data for release in 3D content is a hot topic for providers and for success of the 3D applications, in general. It naturally completely relies on virtual view synthesis of a second view given by original 2D video. Disparity map (DM) estimation is a central task in 3D generation but still follows a very difficult problem for rendering novel images precisely. There exist different approaches in DM reconstruction, among them manually and semiautomatic methods that can produce high quality DMs but they demonstrate hard time consuming and are computationally expensive. In this paper, several hardware implementations of designed frameworks for an automatic 3D color video generation based on 2D real video sequence are proposed. The novel framework includes simultaneous processing of stereo pairs using the following blocks: CIE L*a*b* color space conversions, stereo matching via pyramidal scheme, color segmentation by k-means on an a*b* color plane, and adaptive post-filtering, DM estimation using stereo matching between left and right images (or neighboring frames in a video), adaptive post-filtering, and finally, the anaglyph 3D scene generation. Novel technique has been implemented on DSP TMS320DM648, Matlab's Simulink module over a PC with Windows 7, and using graphic card (NVIDIA Quadro K2000) demonstrating that the proposed approach can be applied in real-time processing mode. The time values needed, mean Similarity Structural Index Measure (SSIM) and Bad Matching Pixels (B) values for different hardware implementations (GPU, Single CPU, and DSP) are exposed in this paper.

  8. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Hua, T.C.; Sharkawi, K.H.; Duncan, E.E.; Azri, N.; Hassan, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D

  9. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  10. 3D Characterization of Recrystallization Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andrew William; MacDonald, A. Nicole

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) volume containing a recrystallizing grain and a deformed matrix in a partially recrystallized pure aluminum was characterized using the 3D electron backscattering diffraction technique. The 3D shape of a recrystallizing boundary, separating the recrystallizing grain...... on the formation of protrusions/retrusions....

  11. 3D-Printable Antimicrobial Composite Resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, Jun; Zhao, Pei; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; van de Lagemaat, Marieke; Grotenhuis, Arjen; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Herrmann, Andreas; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is seen as a game-changing manufacturing process in many domains, including general medicine and dentistry, but the integration of more complex functions into 3D-printed materials remains lacking. Here, it is expanded on the repertoire of 3D-printable materials to include antimicrobial

  12. [Comparison of bite marks and teeth features using 2D and 3D methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska, Dorota; Glapiński, Mariusz; Zaba, Czesław; Łabecka, Marzena

    2011-01-01

    The nature of bite marks is complex. They are found at the scene of crime on different materials and surfaces - not only on human body and corpse, but also on food products and material objects. Human bites on skin are sometimes difficult to interpret and to analyze because of the specific character of skin--elastic and distortable--and because different areas of human body have different surfaces and curvatures. A bite mark left at the scene of crime can be a highly helpful way to lead investigators to criminals. The study was performed to establish: 1) whether bite marks exhibit variations in the accuracy of impressions on different materials, 2) whether it is possible to use the 3D method in the process of identifying an individual based on the comparison of bite marks revealed at the scene, and 3D scans of dental casts, 3) whether application of the 3D method allows for elimination of secondary photographic distortion of bite marks. The authors carried out experiments on simulated cases. Five volunteers bit various materials with different surfaces. Experimental bite marks were collected with emphasis on differentiations of materials. Subsequently, dental impressions were taken from five volunteers in order to prepare five sets of dental casts (the maxilla and mandible. The biting edges of teeth were impressed in wax to create an imprint. The samples of dental casts, corresponding wax bite impressions and bite marks from different materials were scanned with 2D and 3D scanners and photographs were taken. All of these were examined in detail and then compared using different methods (2D and 3D). 1) Bite marks exhibit variations in accuracy of impression on different materials. The most legible reproduction of bite marks was seen on cheese. 2) In comparison of bite marks, the 3D method and 3D scans of dental casts are highly accurate. 3) The 3D method helps to eliminate secondary photographic distortion of bite marks.

  13. Wood evidence : proper collection, documentation, and storage of wood evidence from a crime scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2006-01-01

    Wood can be found at crime scenes in many forms: as a murder weapon, as material used to hide a body, or as trace evidence from forced entry or vandalism. In the course of my work at the Forest Products Laboratory, Center for Wood Anatomy Research, I have been part of several forensic investigations that were adversely affected by inappropriate procedures used to...

  14. A Virtual Environments Editor for Driving Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald R. Mourant

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to enable the rapid creation of three-dimensional virtual driving environments. We designed and implemented a high-level scene editor that allows a user to construct a driving environment by pasting icons that represent 1 road segments, 2 road signs, 3 trees and 4 buildings. These icons represent two- and three-dimensional objects that have been predesigned. Icons can be placed in the scene at specific locations (x, y, and z coordinates. The editor includes the capability of a user to "drive" a vehicle using a computer mouse for steering, accelerating and braking. At any time during the process of building a virtual environment, a user may switch to "Run Mode" and inspect the three-dimensional scene by "driving" through it using the mouse. Adjustments and additions can be made to the virtual environment by going back to "Build Mode". Once a user is satisfied with the threedimensional virtual environment, it can be saved in a file. The file can used with Java3D software that enables the traversing of three-dimensional environments. The process of building virtual environments from predesigned icons can be applied to many other application areas. It will enable novice computer users to rapidly construct and use three-dimensional virtual environments.

  15. Forensic Comparison of Soil Samples Using Nondestructive Elemental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitdehaag, Stefan; Wiarda, Wim; Donders, Timme; Kuiper, Irene

    2017-07-01

    Soil can play an important role in forensic cases in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene by comparing samples from the crime scene with samples derived from items. This study uses an adapted ED-XRF analysis (sieving instead of grinding to prevent destruction of microfossils) to produce elemental composition data of 20 elements. Different data processing techniques and statistical distances were evaluated using data from 50 samples and the log-LR cost (C llr ). The best performing combination, Canberra distance, relative data, and square root values, is used to construct a discriminative model. Examples of the spatial resolution of the method in crime scenes are shown for three locations, and sampling strategy is discussed. Twelve test cases were analyzed, and results showed that the method is applicable. The study shows how the combination of an analysis technique, a database, and a discriminative model can be used to compare multiple soil samples quickly. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Effects of scene content and layout on the perceived light direction in 3D spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, L.; Pont, S.C.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    The lighting and furnishing of an interior space (i.e., the reflectance of its materials, the geometries of the furnishings, and their arrangement) determine the appearance of this space. Conversely, human observers infer lighting properties from the space's appearance. We conducted two

  17. Real-time geometric scene estimation for RGBD images using a 3D box shape grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Andrew R.; Brink, Kevin M.

    2016-06-01

    This article describes a novel real-time algorithm for the purpose of extracting box-like structures from RGBD image data. In contrast to conventional approaches, the proposed algorithm includes two novel attributes: (1) it divides the geometric estimation procedure into subroutines having atomic incremental computational costs, and (2) it uses a generative "Block World" perceptual model that infers both concave and convex box elements from detection of primitive box substructures. The end result is an efficient geometry processing engine suitable for use in real-time embedded systems such as those on an UAVs where it is intended to be an integral component for robotic navigation and mapping applications.

  18. 3D noise-resistant segmentation and tracking of unknown and occluded objects using integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni, Doron; Jung, Jae-Hyun; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional (3D) object segmentation and tracking can be useful in various computer vision applications, such as: object surveillance for security uses, robot navigation, etc. We present a method for 3D multiple-object tracking using computational integral imaging, based on accurate 3D object segmentation. The method does not employ object detection by motion analysis in a video as conventionally performed (such as background subtraction or block matching). This means that the movement properties do not significantly affect the detection quality. The object detection is performed by analyzing static 3D image data obtained through computational integral imaging With regard to previous works that used integral imaging data in such a scenario, the proposed method performs the 3D tracking of objects without prior information about the objects in the scene, and it is found efficient under severe noise conditions.

  19. Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: understanding and utilizing the human element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Itiel E

    2015-08-05

    The human element plays a critical role in forensic science. It is not limited only to issues relating to forensic decision-making, such as bias, but also relates to most aspects of forensic work (some of which even take place before a crime is ever committed or long after the verification of the forensic conclusion). In this paper, I explicate many aspects of forensic work that involve the human element and therefore show the relevance (and potential contribution) of cognitive neuroscience to forensic science. The 10 aspects covered in this paper are proactive forensic science, selection during recruitment, training, crime scene investigation, forensic decision-making, verification and conflict resolution, reporting, the role of the forensic examiner, presentation in court and judicial decisions. As the forensic community is taking on the challenges introduced by the realization that the human element is critical for forensic work, new opportunities emerge that allow for considerable improvement and enhancement of the forensic science endeavour. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  1. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  2. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  3. 3D Printing of Fluid Flow Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Kunihiko; Sun, Yiyang; Canuto, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the use of 3D printing to physically visualize (materialize) fluid flow structures. Such 3D models can serve as a refreshing hands-on means to gain deeper physical insights into the formation of complex coherent structures in fluid flows. In this short paper, we present a general procedure for taking 3D flow field data and producing a file format that can be supplied to a 3D printer, with two examples of 3D printed flow structures. A sample code to perform this process is also prov...

  4. The Esri 3D city information model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, T; Schubiger-Banz, S

    2014-01-01

    With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases

  5. Parallel Computer System for 3D Visualization Stereo on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Oraiqat, Anas M.; Zori, Sergii A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes the organization of a parallel computer system based on Graphic Processors Unit (GPU) for 3D stereo image synthesis. The development is based on the modified ray tracing method developed by the authors for fast search of tracing rays intersections with scene objects. The system allows significant increase in the productivity for the 3D stereo synthesis of photorealistic quality. The generalized procedure of 3D stereo image synthesis on the Graphics Processing Unit/Graphics Processing Clusters (GPU/GPC) is proposed. The efficiency of the proposed solutions by GPU implementation is compared with single-threaded and multithreaded implementations on the CPU. The achieved average acceleration in multi-thread implementation on the test GPU and CPU is about 7.5 and 1.6 times, respectively. Studying the influence of choosing the size and configuration of the computational Compute Unified Device Archi-tecture (CUDA) network on the computational speed shows the importance of their correct selection. The obtained experimental estimations can be significantly improved by new GPUs with a large number of processing cores and multiprocessors, as well as optimized configuration of the computing CUDA network.

  6. 3D reconstruction of tropospheric cirrus clouds by stereovision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Moreels, Guy; Seridi, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    A stereo imaging method is applied to measure the altitude of cirrus clouds and provide a 3D map of the altitude of the layer centroid. They are located in the high troposphere and, sometimes in the lower stratosphere, between 6 and 10 km high. Two simultaneous images of the same scene are taken with Canon cameras (400D) in two sites distant of 37 Km. Each image processed in order to invert the perspective effect and provide a satellite-type view of the layer. Pairs of matched points that correspond to a physical emissive point in the common area are identified in calculating a correlation coefficient (ZNCC: Zero mean Normalized Cross-correlation or ZSSD: as Zero mean Sum of Squared Differences). This method is suitable for obtaining 3D representations in the case of low-contrast objects. An observational campaign was conducted in June 2014 in France. The images were taken simultaneously at Marnay (47°17'31.5" N, 5°44'58.8" E; altitude 275 m) 25 km northwest of Besancon and in Mont poupet (46°58'31.5" N, 5°52'22.7" E; altitude 600 m) southwest of Besancon at 43 km. 3D maps of the Natural cirrus clouds and artificial like "aircraft trails" are retrieved. They are compared with pseudo-relief intensity maps of the same region. The mean altitude of the cirrus barycenter is located at 8.5 ± 1km on June 11.

  7. An automated 3D reconstruction method of UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, He; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Feng; Sun, Guangtong; Song, Ping

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel fully automated 3D reconstruction approach based on low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle system (UAVs) images will be presented, which does not require previous camera calibration or any other external prior knowledge. Dense 3D point clouds are generated by integrating orderly feature extraction, image matching, structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereo (MVS) algorithms, overcoming many of the cost, time limitations of rigorous photogrammetry techniques. An image topology analysis strategy is introduced to speed up large scene reconstruction by taking advantage of the flight-control data acquired by UAV. Image topology map can significantly reduce the running time of feature matching by limiting the combination of images. A high-resolution digital surface model of the study area is produced base on UAV point clouds by constructing the triangular irregular network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and feasible for automatic 3D reconstruction of low-altitude UAV images, and has great potential for the acquisition of spatial information at large scales mapping, especially suitable for rapid response and precise modelling in disaster emergency.

  8. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  9. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-05

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  11. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Courses in Forensic Odontology Choosing a Career What is Forensic Science? What Do Forensic Scientists Do? What’s a Forensic Scientist? ... ve Decided You Want a Career in Forensic Science … Now What? Young Forensic Scientists Forum (YFSF) Annual Meeting Events ...

  12. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad P. Tafti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. Keywords: 3D microscopy dataset, 3D microscopy vision, 3D SEM surface reconstruction, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM

  13. Handheld real-time volumetric 3-D gamma-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefner, Andrew, E-mail: ahaefner@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab – Applied Nuclear Physics, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barnowski, Ross [Department of Nuclear Engineering, UC Berkeley, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Luke, Paul; Amman, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab – Applied Nuclear Physics, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vetter, Kai [Department of Nuclear Engineering, UC Berkeley, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab – Applied Nuclear Physics, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-06-11

    This paper presents the concept of real-time fusion of gamma-ray imaging and visual scene data for a hand-held mobile Compton imaging system in 3-D. The ability to obtain and integrate both gamma-ray and scene data from a mobile platform enables improved capabilities in the localization and mapping of radioactive materials. This not only enhances the ability to localize these materials, but it also provides important contextual information of the scene which once acquired can be reviewed and further analyzed subsequently. To demonstrate these concepts, the high-efficiency multimode imager (HEMI) is used in a hand-portable implementation in combination with a Microsoft Kinect sensor. This sensor, in conjunction with open-source software, provides the ability to create a 3-D model of the scene and to track the position and orientation of HEMI in real-time. By combining the gamma-ray data and visual data, accurate 3-D maps of gamma-ray sources are produced in real-time. This approach is extended to map the location of radioactive materials within objects with unknown geometry.

  14. The effect of background and illumination on color identification of real, 3D objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Sarah R; Olkkonen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    For the surface reflectance of an object to be a useful cue to object identity, judgments of its color should remain stable across changes in the object's environment. In 2D scenes, there is general consensus that color judgments are much more stable across illumination changes than background changes. Here we investigate whether these findings generalize to real 3D objects. Observers made color matches to cubes as we independently varied both the illumination impinging on the cube and the 3D background of the cube. As in 2D scenes, we found relatively high but imperfect stability of color judgments under an illuminant shift. In contrast to 2D scenes, we found that background had little effect on average color judgments. In addition, variability of color judgments was increased by an illuminant shift and decreased by embedding the cube within a background. Taken together, these results suggest that in real 3D scenes with ample cues to object segregation, the addition of a background may improve stability of color identification.

  15. The effect of background and illumination on color identification of real, 3D objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ray Allred

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For the surface reflectance of an object to be a useful cue to object identity, judgments of its color should remain stable across changes in the object's environment. In 2D scenes, there is general consensus that color judgments are much more stable across illumination changes than background changes. Here we investigate whether these findings generalize to real 3D objects. Observers made color matches to cubes as we independently varied both the illumination impinging on the cube and the 3D background of the cube. As in 2D scenes, we found relatively high but imperfect stability of color judgments under an illuminant shift. In contrast to 2D scenes, we found that background had little effect on average color judgments. In addition, variability of color judgments was increased by an illuminant shift and decreased by embedding the cube within a background. Taken together, these results suggest that in real 3D scenes with ample cues to object segregation, the addition of a background may improve stability of color identification.

  16. Integrating Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  17. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  18. Learning Android forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Tamma, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a forensic analyst or an information security professional wanting to develop your knowledge of Android forensics, then this is the book for you. Some basic knowledge of the Android mobile platform is expected.

  19. Forensic Entomology in Animal Cruelty Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, A; Byrd, J H

    2016-09-01

    Forensic entomology can be useful to the veterinary professional in cases of animal cruelty. A main application of forensic entomology is to determine the minimum postmortem interval by estimating the time of insect colonization, based on knowledge of the rate of development of pioneer colonizers and on insect species succession during decomposition of animal remains. Since insect development is temperature dependent, these estimates require documentation of the environmental conditions, including ambient temperature. It can also aid in the detection and recognition of wounds, as well as estimate the timing of periods of neglect. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of insects that colonize animal remains may suggest that there has been movement or concealment of the carcass or can create associations between a suspect, a victim, and a crime scene. In some instances, it can aid in the detection of drugs or toxins within decomposed or skeletonized remains. During animal cruelty investigations, it may become the responsibility of the veterinary professional to document and collect entomological evidence from live animals or during the necropsy. The applications of forensic entomology are discussed. A protocol is described for documenting and collecting entomological evidence at the scene and during the necropsy, with additional emphasis on recording geographic location, meteorological data, and collection and preservation of insect specimens. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Extracting 3D layout from a single image using global image structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zhongyu; Gevers, Theo; Hu, Ninghang

    2015-10-01

    Extracting the pixel-level 3D layout from a single image is important for different applications, such as object localization, image, and video categorization. Traditionally, the 3D layout is derived by solving a pixel-level classification problem. However, the image-level 3D structure can be very beneficial for extracting pixel-level 3D layout since it implies the way how pixels in the image are organized. In this paper, we propose an approach that first predicts the global image structure, and then we use the global structure for fine-grained pixel-level 3D layout extraction. In particular, image features are extracted based on multiple layout templates. We then learn a discriminative model for classifying the global layout at the image-level. Using latent variables, we implicitly model the sublevel semantics of the image, which enrich the expressiveness of our model. After the image-level structure is obtained, it is used as the prior knowledge to infer pixel-wise 3D layout. Experiments show that the results of our model outperform the state-of-the-art methods by 11.7% for 3D structure classification. Moreover, we show that employing the 3D structure prior information yields accurate 3D scene layout segmentation.

  1. Grid-optimized Web 3D applications on wide area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Frank; Helian, Na; Meng, Lingkui; Wu, Sining; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yike; Parker, Michael Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Geographical information system has come into the Web Service times now. In this paper, Web3D applications have been developed based on our developed Gridjet platform, which provides a more effective solution for massive 3D geo-dataset sharing in distributed environments. Web3D services enabling web users could access the services as 3D scenes, virtual geographical environment and so on. However, Web3D services should be shared by thousands of essential users that inherently distributed on different geography locations. Large 3D geo-datasets need to be transferred to distributed clients via conventional HTTP, NFS and FTP protocols, which often encounters long waits and frustration in distributed wide area network environments. GridJet was used as the underlying engine between the Web 3D application node and geo-data server that utilizes a wide range of technologies including the one of paralleling the remote file access, which is a WAN/Grid-optimized protocol and provides "local-like" accesses to remote 3D geo-datasets. No change in the way of using software is required since the multi-streamed GridJet protocol remains fully compatible with existing IP infrastructures. Our recent progress includes a real-world test that Web3D applications as Google Earth over the GridJet protocol beats those over the classic ones by a factor of 2-7 where the transfer distance is over 10,000 km.

  2. M3D (Media 3D): a new programming language for web-based virtual reality in E-Learning and Edutainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakaveh, Sepideh; Skaley, Detlef; Laine, Patricia; Haeger, Ralf; Maad, Soha

    2003-01-01

    Today, interactive multimedia educational systems are well established, as they prove useful instruments to enhance one's learning capabilities. Hitherto, the main difficulty with almost all E-Learning systems was latent in the rich media implementation techniques. This meant that each and every system should be created individually as reapplying the media, be it only a part, or the whole content was not directly possible, as everything must be applied mechanically i.e. by hand. Consequently making E-learning systems exceedingly expensive to generate, both in time and money terms. Media-3D or M3D is a new platform independent programming language, developed at the Fraunhofer Institute Media Communication to enable visualisation and simulation of E-Learning multimedia content. M3D is an XML-based language, which is capable of distinguishing between the3D models from that of the 3D scenes, as well as handling provisions for animations, within the programme. Here we give a technical account of M3D programming language and briefly describe two specific application scenarios where M3D is applied to create virtual reality E-Learning content for training of technical personnel.

  3. Uses of software in digital image analysis: a forensic report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Jha, Shailendra

    2010-02-01

    Forensic image analysis is required an expertise to interpret the content of an image or the image itself in legal matters. Major sub-disciplines of forensic image analysis with law enforcement applications include photo-grammetry, photographic comparison, content analysis and image authentication. It has wide applications in forensic science range from documenting crime scenes to enhancing faint or indistinct patterns such as partial fingerprints. The process of forensic image analysis can involve several different tasks, regardless of the type of image analysis performed. Through this paper authors have tried to explain these tasks, which are described in to three categories: Image Compression, Image Enhancement & Restoration and Measurement Extraction. With the help of examples like signature comparison, counterfeit currency comparison and foot-wear sole impression using the software Canvas and Corel Draw.

  4. A joint multi-view plus depth image coding scheme based on 3D-warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Zanuttigh, Pietro; Milani, Simone

    2011-01-01

    on the scene structure that can be effectively exploited to improve the performance of multi-view coding schemes. In this paper we introduce a novel coding architecture that replaces the inter-view motion prediction operation with a 3D warping approach based on depth information to improve the coding......Free viewpoint video applications and autostereoscopic displays require the transmission of multiple views of a scene together with depth maps. Current compression and transmission solutions just handle these two data streams as separate entities. However, depth maps contain key information...

  5. 3D modeling of satellite spectral images, radiation budget and energy budget of urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    DART EB is a model that is being developed for simulating the 3D (3 dimensional) energy budget of urban and natural scenes, possibly with topography and atmosphere. It simulates all non radiative energy mechanisms (heat conduction, turbulent momentum and heat fluxes, water reservoir evolution, etc.). It uses DART model (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) for simulating radiative mechanisms: 3D radiative budget of 3D scenes and their remote sensing images expressed in terms of reflectance or brightness temperature values, for any atmosphere, wavelength, sun/view direction, altitude and spatial resolution. It uses an innovative multispectral approach (ray tracing, exact kernel, discrete ordinate techniques) over the whole optical domain. This paper presents two major and recent improvements of DART for adapting it to urban canopies. (1) Simulation of the geometry and optical characteristics of urban elements (houses, etc.). (2) Modeling of thermal infrared emission by vegetation and urban elements. The new DART version was used in the context of the CAPITOUL project. For that, districts of the Toulouse urban data base (Autocad format) were translated into DART scenes. This allowed us to simulate visible, near infrared and thermal infrared satellite images of Toulouse districts. Moreover, the 3D radiation budget was used by DARTEB for simulating the time evolution of a number of geophysical quantities of various surface elements (roads, walls, roofs). Results were successfully compared with ground measurements of the CAPITOUL project.

  6. Identification of the transition arrays 3d74s-3d74p in Br X and 3d64s-3d64p in Br XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, X.T.; Jupen, C.; Bengtsson, P.; Engstroem, L.; Westerlind, M.; Martinson, I.

    1991-01-01

    We report a beam-foil study of multiply ionized bromine in the region 400-1300A, performed with 6 and 8 MeV Br ions from a tandem accelerator. At these energies transitions belonging to Fe-like Br X and Mn-like Br XI are expected to be prominent. We have identified 31 lines as 3d 7 4s-3d 7 4p transitions in Br X, from which 16 levels of the previously unknown 3d 7 4s configuration could be established. We have also added 6 new 3d 7 4p levels to the 99 previously known. For Br XI we have classified 9 lines as 3d 6 4s-3d 6 4p combinations. The line identifications have been corroborated by isoelectronic comparisons and theoretical calculations using the superposition-of-configurations technique. (orig.)

  7. 3D PHOTOGRAPHS IN CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Schuhr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper on providing "oo-information" (= objective object-information on cultural monuments and sites, based on 3D photographs is also a contribution of CIPA task group 3 to the 2013 CIPA Symposium in Strasbourg. To stimulate the interest in 3D photography for scientists as well as for amateurs, 3D-Masterpieces are presented. Exemplary it is shown, due to their high documentary value ("near reality", 3D photography support, e.g. the recording, the visualization, the interpretation, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. This also includes samples for excavation documentation, 3D coordinate calculation, 3D photographs applied for virtual museum purposes and as educational tools. In addition 3D photography is used for virtual museum purposes, as well as an educational tool and for spatial structure enhancement, which in particular holds for inscriptions and in rock arts. This paper is also an invitation to participate in a systematic survey on existing international archives of 3D photographs. In this respect it is also reported on first results, to define an optimum digitization rate for analog stereo views. It is more than overdue, in addition to the access to international archives for 3D photography, the available 3D photography data should appear in a global GIS(cloud-system, like on, e.g., google earth. This contribution also deals with exposing new 3D photographs to document monuments of importance for Cultural Heritage, including the use of 3D and single lense cameras from a 10m telescope staff, to be used for extremely low earth based airborne 3D photography, as well as for "underwater staff photography". In addition it is reported on the use of captive balloon and drone platforms for 3D photography in Cultural Heritage. It is liked to emphasize, the still underestimated 3D effect on real objects even allows, e.g., the spatial perception of extremely small scratches as well as of nuances in

  8. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and

  9. Liquid crystal true 3D displays for augmented reality applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Shuxin; Zhou, Pengcheng; Chen, Quanming; Su, Yikai

    2018-02-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology, which integrates virtual computer-generated information into the real world scene, is believed to be the next-generation human-machine interface. However, most AR products adopt stereoscopic 3D display technique, which causes the accommodation-vergence conflict. To solve this problem, we have proposed two approaches. The first is a multi-planar volumetric display using fast switching polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) films. By rapidly switching the films between scattering and transparent states while synchronizing with a high-speed projector, the 2D slices of a 3D volume could be displayed in time sequence. We delved into the research on developing high-performance PSLC films in both normal mode and reverse mode; moreover, we also realized the demonstration of four-depth AR images with correct accommodation cues. For the second approach, we realized a holographic AR display using digital blazed gratings and a 4f system to eliminate zero-order and higher-order noise. With a 4k liquid crystal on silicon device, we achieved a field of view (FOV) of 32 deg. Moreover, we designed a compact waveguidebased holographic 3D display. In the design, there are two holographic optical elements (HOEs), each of which functions as a diffractive grating and a Fresnel lens. Because of the grating effect, holographic 3D image light is coupled into and decoupled out of the waveguide by modifying incident angles. Because of the lens effect, the collimated zero order light is focused at a point, and got filtered out. The optical power of the second HOE also helps enlarge FOV.

  10. 3D sound in the telepresence project BEAMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    three applications: A general purpose theatrical scene, a teaching situation and a medical patient-visiting-doctor scenario. The March 2012 project review deals with the teaching situation. This involves a single microphone recording followed by signal processing that reconstructs the spatial content......The involvement of Aalborg University in the EU project BEAMING will be presented. BEAMING deals with telepresence including multiple modalities; vision, haptics and audio, of which the latter is of main interest here. The setup consists of two types of locations: The Destination, where the Locals...... for the Visitor, 3D audio is provided through headphones. It is rendered based on the Locals' coordinates via a common Internet database including local positional tracking to ensure that information on the Visitor's head rotation has a minimum delay through the network. The BEAMING project currently addresses...

  11. Development of 3D Slicer based film dosimetry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, K M; Schreiner, L J; Robinson, A; Pinter, C; Fichtinger, G

    2017-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimetry has been widely adopted in the clinic as it is a convenient option for dose measurement and verification. Film dosimetry analysis is typically performed using expensive commercial software, or custom made scripts in Matlab. However, common clinical film analysis software is not transparent regarding what corrections/optimizations are running behind the scenes. In this work, an extension to the open-source medical imaging platform 3D Slicer was developed and implemented in our centre for film dosimetry analysis. This extension streamlines importing treatment planning system dose and film imaging data, film calibration, registration, and comparison of 2D dose distributions, enabling greater accessibility to film analysis and higher reliability. (paper)

  12. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender (an open source visualization suite widely used in the entertainment and gaming industries) for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  13. Remote Collaborative 3D Printing - Process Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    COLLABORATIVE 3D PRINTING - PROCESS INVESTIGATION Cody M. Reese, PE CAD MODEL PRINT MODEL PRINT PREVIEW PRINTED PART AERIAL VIRTUAL This...REMOTE COLLABORATIVE 3D PRINTING - PROCESS INVESTIGATION 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Cody M. Reese...release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Remote Collaborative 3D Printing project is a collaboration between

  14. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    10.1117/2.1201111.003952 Microfabricating 3D structures by laser origami Alberto Piqué, Scott Mathews, Andrew Birnbaum, and Nicholas Charipar A new...folding known as origami allows the transformation of flat patterns into 3D shapes. A similar approach can be used to generate 3D structures com... geometries . The overarching challenge is to move away from traditional planar semiconductor photolitho- graphic techniques, which severely limit the type of

  15. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  16. 3D images and expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Jun-ichi

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an expert system called 3D-IMPRESS for supporting applications of three dimensional (3D) image processing. This system can automatically construct a 3D image processing procedure based on a pictorial example of the goal given by a user. In the paper, to evaluate the performance of the system, it was applied to construction of procedures for extracting specific component figures from practical chest X-ray CT images. (author)

  17. ERP system for 3D printing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaky Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GOCREATE is an original cloud-based production management and optimization service which helps 3D printing service providers to use their resources better. The proposed Enterprise Resource Planning system can significantly increase income through improved productivity. With GOCREATE, the 3D printing service providers get a much higher production efficiency at a much lower licensing cost, to increase their competitiveness in the fast growing 3D printing market.

  18. Hydrological AnthropoScenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudennec, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The Anthropocene concept encapsulates the planetary-scale changes resulting from accelerating socio-ecological transformations, beyond the stratigraphic definition actually in debate. The emergence of multi-scale and proteiform complexity requires inter-discipline and system approaches. Yet, to reduce the cognitive challenge of tackling this complexity, the global Anthropocene syndrome must now be studied from various topical points of view, and grounded at regional and local levels. A system approach should allow to identify AnthropoScenes, i.e. settings where a socio-ecological transformation subsystem is clearly coherent within boundaries and displays explicit relationships with neighbouring/remote scenes and within a nesting architecture. Hydrology is a key topical point of view to be explored, as it is important in many aspects of the Anthropocene, either with water itself being a resource, hazard or transport force; or through the network, connectivity, interface, teleconnection, emergence and scaling issues it determines. We will schematically exemplify these aspects with three contrasted hydrological AnthropoScenes in Tunisia, France and Iceland; and reframe therein concepts of the hydrological change debate. Bai X., van der Leeuw S., O'Brien K., Berkhout F., Biermann F., Brondizio E., Cudennec C., Dearing J., Duraiappah A., Glaser M., Revkin A., Steffen W., Syvitski J., 2016. Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda. Global Environmental Change, in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.017 Brondizio E., O'Brien K., Bai X., Biermann F., Steffen W., Berkhout F., Cudennec C., Lemos M.C., Wolfe A., Palma-Oliveira J., Chen A. C-T. Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration. Global Environmental Change, in review. Montanari A., Young G., Savenije H., Hughes D., Wagener T., Ren L., Koutsoyiannis D., Cudennec C., Grimaldi S., Blöschl G., Sivapalan M., Beven K., Gupta H., Arheimer B., Huang Y

  19. Perspectives on Materials Science in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Materials characterization in 3D has opened a new era in materials science, which is discussed in this paper. The original motivations and visions behind the development of one of the new 3D techniques, namely the three dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD) method, are presented and the route...... to its implementation is described. The present status of materials science in 3D is illustrated by examples related to recrystallization. Finally, challenges and suggestions for the future success for 3D Materials Science relating to hardware evolution, data analysis, data exchange and modeling...

  20. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  1. Illustrating Mathematics using 3D Printers

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver; Slavkovsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    3D printing technology can help to visualize proofs in mathematics. In this document we aim to illustrate how 3D printing can help to visualize concepts and mathematical proofs. As already known to educators in ancient Greece, models allow to bring mathematics closer to the public. The new 3D printing technology makes the realization of such tools more accessible than ever. This is an updated version of a paper included in book Low-Cost 3D Printing for science, education and Sustainable Devel...

  2. A 3d game in python

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    3D game has widely been accepted and loved by many game players. More and more different kinds of 3D games were developed to feed people’s needs. The most common programming language for development of 3D game is C++ nowadays. Python is a high-level scripting language. It is simple and clear. The concise syntax could speed up the development cycle. This project was to develop a 3D game using only Python. The game is about how a cat lives in the street. In order to live, the player need...

  3. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  4. Profiling as a logical form of reasoning in order to solve controversial circumstances on the crime scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palcu Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While conducting research on the scene or during the entire phase of criminal prosecution, especially for the identification of the authors or settlement of the controversial circumstances, criminal profiling by a forensic psychologist will reduce the circle of suspects, as well as provide assistance in determining possible connections with other crimes and offer to judicial organs sustainable strategies for the solution of the case. In addition to identifying and processing the material traces found on the scene, concern falling strictly within forensics, in the future, efforts against criminality of the third millennium will be oriented towards the interpretation of human behaviour with criminogenic finality.

  5. Automatic structural scene digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Wang, Yuhan; Cosker, Darren; Li, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic system for the analysis and labeling of structural scenes, floor plan drawings in Computer-aided Design (CAD) format. The proposed system applies a fusion strategy to detect and recognize various components of CAD floor plans, such as walls, doors, windows and other ambiguous assets. Technically, a general rule-based filter parsing method is fist adopted to extract effective information from the original floor plan. Then, an image-processing based recovery method is employed to correct information extracted in the first step. Our proposed method is fully automatic and real-time. Such analysis system provides high accuracy and is also evaluated on a public website that, on average, archives more than ten thousands effective uses per day and reaches a relatively high satisfaction rate.

  6. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system.

  7. Forensic Computing (Dagstuhl Seminar 13482)

    OpenAIRE

    Freiling, Felix C.; Hornung, Gerrit; Polcák, Radim

    2014-01-01

    Forensic computing} (sometimes also called digital forensics, computer forensics or IT forensics) is a branch of forensic science pertaining to digital evidence, i.e., any legal evidence that is processed by digital computer systems or stored on digital storage media. Forensic computing is a new discipline evolving within the intersection of several established research areas such as computer science, computer engineering and law. Forensic computing is rapidly gaining importance since the...

  8. 3-D Mapping Technologies For High Level Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame

  9. First 3D view of solar eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    loops, rather than a bubble or rope-like structure. Although this technique had been independently developed previously to study relatively static structures in the solar atmosphere during eclipses, this is the first time that it is applied to fast moving CMEs. Moran and Davila believe that their method will complement data from the upcoming NASA’s Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission, scheduled for launch in February 2006. STEREO will use two widely separated spacecraft to construct 3D views of CMEs by combining images from the different vantage points of the twin spacecraft. Commenting on this result, Bernhard Fleck, SOHO Project Scientist at ESA, said: "These are really amazing images. Once again scientists have come up with a clever idea for analysing SOHO data in ways that were not even dreamt of when the mission was designed." Movie: http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702.mpg 3 stills from the movie http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702c.tiff http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702d.tiff http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702e.tiff This movie shows a 3D rendering of the data in Figure 2. It starts out viewing the Sun from SOHO's perspective, then rotates the scene to view the data from the side, and finally from the top. Note that one distinct feature shown at about 11 o'clock in Figure 2 panel a has been left out of the movie, because it is a static structure and not a part of the CME. Notes to Editors: This new result by T. Moran and J. Davila is published in today’s issue of the magazine Science. More about SOHO SOHO is a project of international co-operation between ESA and NASA to study the Sun, from its deep core to the outer corona, and the solar wind. Fourteen European countries, led by the European Space Agency and prime contractor Astrium (formerly Matra-Marconi), built the SOHO spacecraft. It carries twelve instruments (nine European-led and three

  10. Multifarious applications of atomic force microscopy in forensic science investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Tharmavaram, Maithri; Rawtani, Deepak; Kumar, Sumit; Agrawal, Y

    2017-04-01

    Forensic science is a wide field comprising of several subspecialties and uses methods derived from natural sciences for finding criminals and other evidence valid in a legal court. A relatively new area; Nano-forensics brings a new era of investigation in forensic science in which instantaneous results can be produced that determine various agents such as explosive gasses, biological agents and residues in different crime scenes and terrorist activity investigations. This can be achieved by applying Nanotechnology and its associated characterization techniques in forensic sciences. Several characterization techniques exist in Nanotechnology and nano-analysis is one such technique that is used in forensic science which includes Electron microscopes (EM) like Transmission (TEM) and Scanning (SEM), Raman microscopy (Micro -Raman) and Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPMs) like Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Atomic force microscopy enables surface characterization of different materials by examining their morphology and mechanical properties. Materials that are immeasurable such as hair, body fluids, textile fibers, documents, polymers, pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), etc. are often encountered during forensic investigations. This review article will mainly focus on the use of AFM in the examination of different evidence such as blood stains, forged documents, human hair samples, ammunitions, explosives, and other such applications in the field of Forensic Science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards sustainable and clean 3D Geoinformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, J.E.; Ledoux, H.; Zlatanova, S.; Biljecki, F.; Kolbe, T.H.; Bill, R.; Donaubauer, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises the on going research activities of the 3D Geoinformation Group at the Delft University of Technology. The main challenge underpinning the research of this group is providing clean and appropriate 3D data about our environment in order to serve a wide variety of applications.

  12. Pattern recognition: invariants in 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proriol, J.

    1992-01-01

    In e + e - events, the jets have a spherical 3D symmetry. A set of invariants are defined for 3D objects with a spherical symmetry. These new invariants are used to tag the number of jets in e + e - events. (K.A.) 3 refs

  13. 3D Printing: What Are the Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Susan A

    2018-03-01

    As the popularity of three-dimensional (3D) printers increases, more research will be conducted to evaluate the benefits and risks of this technology. Occupational health professionals should stay abreast of new recommendations to protect workers from exposure to 3D printer emissions.

  14. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei; Yan, Dongming; Li, Er; Dong, Weiming; Wonka, Peter; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces

  15. 3D, or Not to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  16. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Diaz, Cordero Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step

  17. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  18. 3D printing of functional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be

  19. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  20. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  1. 3D-printed cereal foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.; Bommel, K. van; Renzetti, S.

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is an up-and-coming production technology based on layer-by-layer deposition of material to reproduce a computer-generated 3D design. Additive manufacturing is a collective term used for a variety of technologies, such as fused deposition modeling

  2. A Framework for 3d Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Frandsen, Thomas; Kapetaniou, Chrystalla

    3D printing technologies and processes offer such a radical range of options for firms that we currently lack a structured way of recording possible impact and recommending actions for managers. The changes arising from 3d printing includes more than just new options for product design, but also...

  3. The 3D-city model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain...... of 3D city models....

  4. 3D Programmable Micro Self Assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bohringer, Karl F; Parviz, Babak A; Klavins, Eric

    2005-01-01

    .... We have developed a "self assembly tool box" consisting of a range of methods for micro-scale self-assembly in 2D and 3D We have shown physical demonstrations of simple 3D self-assemblies which lead...

  5. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  6. Digital Dentistry — 3D Printing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia Cristian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing is an additive manufacturing method in which a 3D item is formed by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers are machines that produce representations of objects either planned with a CAD program or scanned with a 3D scanner. Printing is a method for replicating text and pictures, typically with ink on paper. We can print different dental pieces using different methods such as selective laser sintering (SLS, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, and laminated object manufacturing. The materials are certified for printing individual impression trays, orthodontic models, gingiva mask, and different prosthetic objects. The material can reach a flexural strength of more than 80 MPa. 3D printing takes the effectiveness of digital projects to the production phase. Dental laboratories are able to produce crowns, bridges, stone models, and various orthodontic appliances by methods that combine oral scanning, 3D printing, and CAD/CAM design. Modern 3D printing has been used for the development of prototypes for several years, and it has begun to find its use in the world of manufacturing. Digital technology and 3D printing have significantly elevated the rate of success in dental implantology using custom surgical guides and improving the quality and accuracy of dental work.

  7. Case study of 3D fingerprints applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    Full Text Available Human fingers are 3D objects. More information will be provided if three dimensional (3D fingerprints are available compared with two dimensional (2D fingerprints. Thus, this paper firstly collected 3D finger point cloud data by Structured-light Illumination method. Additional features from 3D fingerprint images are then studied and extracted. The applications of these features are finally discussed. A series of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the helpfulness of 3D information to fingerprint recognition. Results show that a quick alignment can be easily implemented under the guidance of 3D finger shape feature even though this feature does not work for fingerprint recognition directly. The newly defined distinctive 3D shape ridge feature can be used for personal authentication with Equal Error Rate (EER of ~8.3%. Also, it is helpful to remove false core point. Furthermore, a promising of EER ~1.3% is realized by combining this feature with 2D features for fingerprint recognition which indicates the prospect of 3D fingerprint recognition.

  8. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  9. LandSIM3D: modellazione in real time 3D di dati geografici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambo Srl Lambo Srl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available LandSIM3D: realtime 3D modelling of geographic data LandSIM3D allows to model in 3D an existing landscape in a few hours only and geo-referenced offering great landscape analysis and understanding tools. 3D projects can then be inserted into the existing landscape with ease and precision. The project alternatives and impact can then be visualized and studied into their immediate environmental. The complex evolution of the landscape in the future can also be simulated and the landscape model can be manipulated interactively and better shared with colleagues. For that reason, LandSIM3D is different from traditional 3D imagery solutions, normally reserved for computer graphics experts. For more information about LandSIM3D, go to www.landsim3d.com.

  10. Approximation of a foreign object using x-rays, reference photographs and 3D reconstruction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Matt; Shanmugam, Mohan

    2013-12-01

    This case study describes how a 3D animation was created to approximate the depth and angle of a foreign object (metal bar) that had become embedded into a patient's head. A pre-operative CT scan was not available as the patient could not fit though the CT scanner, therefore a post surgical CT scan, x-ray and photographic images were used. A surface render was made of the skull and imported into Blender (a 3D animation application). The metal bar was not available, however images of a similar object that was retrieved from the scene by the ambulance crew were used to recreate a 3D model. The x-ray images were then imported into Blender and used as background images in order to align the skull reconstruction and metal bar at the correct depth/angle. A 3D animation was then created to fully illustrate the angle and depth of the iron bar in the skull.

  11. A novel binary shape context for 3D local surface description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhen; Yang, Bisheng; Liu, Yuan; Liang, Fuxun; Li, Bijun; Zang, Yufu

    2017-08-01

    3D local surface description is now at the core of many computer vision technologies, such as 3D object recognition, intelligent driving, and 3D model reconstruction. However, most of the existing 3D feature descriptors still suffer from low descriptiveness, weak robustness, and inefficiency in both time and memory. To overcome these challenges, this paper presents a robust and descriptive 3D Binary Shape Context (BSC) descriptor with high efficiency in both time and memory. First, a novel BSC descriptor is generated for 3D local surface description, and the performance of the BSC descriptor under different settings of its parameters is analyzed. Next, the descriptiveness, robustness, and efficiency in both time and memory of the BSC descriptor are evaluated and compared to those of several state-of-the-art 3D feature descriptors. Finally, the performance of the BSC descriptor for 3D object recognition is also evaluated on a number of popular benchmark datasets, and an urban-scene dataset is collected by a terrestrial laser scanner system. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed BSC descriptor obtained high descriptiveness, strong robustness, and high efficiency in both time and memory and achieved high recognition rates of 94.8%, 94.1% and 82.1% on the considered UWA, Queen, and WHU datasets, respectively.

  12. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography for 3D nanopatterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan; Bucknall, David G; Allen, Mark G

    2011-01-01

    We report a non-conventional shear-force-driven nanofabrication approach, inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL), for producing 3D nanostructures of varying heights on planar substrates in a single imprinting step. Such 3D nanostructures are fabricated by exploiting polymer anisotropic dewetting where the degree of anisotropy can be controlled by the magnitude of the inclination angle. The feature size is reduced from micron scale of the template to a resultant nanoscale pattern. The underlying INIL mechanism is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that the shear force generated at a non-zero inclination angle induced by the INIL apparatus essentially leads to asymmetry in the polymer flow direction ultimately resulting in 3D nanopatterns with different heights. INIL removes the requirements in conventional nanolithography of either utilizing 3D templates or using multiple lithographic steps. This technique enables various 3D nanoscale devices including angle-resolved photonic and plasmonic crystals to be fabricated.

  13. Density-Based 3D Shape Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Francis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel probabilistic framework for the extraction of density-based 3D shape descriptors using kernel density estimation. Our descriptors are derived from the probability density functions (pdf of local surface features characterizing the 3D object geometry. Assuming that the shape of the 3D object is represented as a mesh consisting of triangles with arbitrary size and shape, we provide efficient means to approximate the moments of geometric features on a triangle basis. Our framework produces a number of 3D shape descriptors that prove to be quite discriminative in retrieval applications. We test our descriptors and compare them with several other histogram-based methods on two 3D model databases, Princeton Shape Benchmark and Sculpteur, which are fundamentally different in semantic content and mesh quality. Experimental results show that our methodology not only improves the performance of existing descriptors, but also provides a rigorous framework to advance and to test new ones.

  14. 3D-grafiikka ja pelimoottorit

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan miten 3D-mallit saadaan sellaiseen muotoon, että ne olisivat käytettävissä eri pelimoottoreissa. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten luodaan 3D-malleja pelimoottoreihin, sekä miten 3D-mallinnusohjelmat ja pelimoottorit eroavat toisistaan, kun käsitellään 3D-malleja. Tässä työssä pelimoottoreina toimivat Valven Source sekä Epic Gamesin Unreal Engine 3. 3D-mallinnusohjelmista käytössä olivat Autodeskin 3ds Max 2014 ja Blender Foundationin Blender 2.7...

  15. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  16. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  17. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  18. Conceptualising forensic science and forensic reconstruction. Part I: A conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R M

    2017-11-01

    There has been a call for forensic science to actively return to the approach of scientific endeavour. The importance of incorporating an awareness of the requirements of the law in its broadest sense, and embedding research into both practice and policy within forensic science, is arguably critical to achieving such an endeavour. This paper presents a conceptual model (FoRTE) that outlines the holistic nature of trace evidence in the 'endeavour' of forensic reconstruction. This model offers insights into the different components intrinsic to transparent, reproducible and robust reconstructions in forensic science. The importance of situating evidence within the whole forensic science process (from crime scene to court), of developing evidence bases to underpin each stage, of frameworks that offer insights to the interaction of different lines of evidence, and the role of expertise in decision making are presented and their interactions identified. It is argued that such a conceptual model has value in identifying the future steps for harnessing the value of trace evidence in forensic reconstruction. It also highlights that there is a need to develop a nuanced approach to reconstructions that incorporates both empirical evidence bases and expertise. A conceptual understanding has the potential to ensure that the endeavour of forensic reconstruction has its roots in 'problem-solving' science, and can offer transparency and clarity in the conclusions and inferences drawn from trace evidence, thereby enabling the value of trace evidence to be realised in investigations and the courts. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Gary; Towler, Alice; Growns, Bethany; Ribeiro, Gianni; Found, Bryan; White, David; Ballantyne, Kaye; Searston, Rachel A; Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; Kemp, Richard I; Martire, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The psychology of the 3D experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  1. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  2. Photogrammetry Tool for Forensic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2012-01-01

    A system allows crime scene and accident scene investigators the ability to acquire visual scene data using cameras for processing at a later time. This system uses a COTS digital camera, a photogrammetry calibration cube, and 3D photogrammetry processing software. In a previous instrument developed by NASA, the laser scaling device made use of parallel laser beams to provide a photogrammetry solution in 2D. This device and associated software work well under certain conditions. In order to make use of a full 3D photogrammetry system, a different approach was needed. When using multiple cubes, whose locations relative to each other are unknown, a procedure that would merge the data from each cube would be as follows: 1. One marks a reference point on cube 1, then marks points on cube 2 as unknowns. This locates cube 2 in cube 1 s coordinate system. 2. One marks reference points on cube 2, then marks points on cube 1 as unknowns. This locates cube 1 in cube 2 s coordinate system. 3. This procedure is continued for all combinations of cubes. 4. The coordinate of all of the found coordinate systems is then merged into a single global coordinate system. In order to achieve maximum accuracy, measurements are done in one of two ways, depending on scale: when measuring the size of objects, the coordinate system corresponding to the nearest cube is used, or when measuring the location of objects relative to a global coordinate system, a merged coordinate system is used. Presently, traffic accident analysis is time-consuming and not very accurate. Using cubes with differential GPS would give absolute positions of cubes in the accident area, so that individual cubes would provide local photogrammetry calibration to objects near a cube.

  3. Automated reconstruction of 3D models from real environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, V.; Ng, K.; Wolfart, E.; Gonçalves, J. G. M.; Hogg, D.

    This paper describes an integrated approach to the construction of textured 3D scene models of building interiors from laser range data and visual images. This approach has been implemented in a collection of algorithms and sensors within a prototype device for 3D reconstruction, known as the EST (Environmental Sensor for Telepresence). The EST can take the form of a push trolley or of an autonomous mobile platform. The Autonomous EST (AEST) has been designed to provide an integrated solution for automating the creation of complete models. Embedded software performs several functions, including triangulation of the range data, registration of video texture, registration and integration of data acquired from different capture points. Potential applications include facilities management for the construction industry and creating reality models to be used in general areas of virtual reality, for example, virtual studios, virtualised reality for content-related applications (e.g., CD-ROMs), social telepresence, architecture and others. The paper presents the main components of the EST/AEST, and presents some example results obtained from the prototypes. The reconstructed model is encoded in VRML format so that it is possible to access and view the model via the World Wide Web.

  4. From tissue to silicon to plastic: 3D printing in comparative anatomy and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Nørgård, Mathias Ørum

    2016-01-01

    modelling has entered the scene. However, comprehending complex anatomical structures is hampered by reproduction on flat inherently two-dimensional screens. One way to circumvent this problem is in the production of 3D printed scale models. We have applied computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging...... to produce digital models of animal anatomy well suited to be printed on low cost 3D printers. In this communication we report how to apply such technology in comparative anatomy and physiology to aid discovery, description, comprehension and communication, and we seek to inspire fellow researchers...

  5. Forensic imaging tools for law enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITHPETER,COLIN L.; SANDISON,DAVID R.; VARGO,TIMOTHY D.

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods of gathering forensic evidence at crime scenes are encumbered by difficulties that limit local law enforcement efforts to apprehend offenders and bring them to justice. Working with a local law-enforcement agency, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a prototype multispectral imaging system that can speed up the investigative search task and provide additional and more accurate evidence. The system, called the Criminalistics Light-imaging Unit (CLU), has demonstrated the capabilities of locating fluorescing evidence at crime scenes under normal lighting conditions and of imaging other types of evidence, such as untreated fingerprints, by direct white-light reflectance. CLU employs state of the art technology that provides for viewing and recording of the entire search process on videotape. This report describes the work performed by Sandia to design, build, evaluate, and commercialize CLU.

  6. Saliency-Guided Detection of Unknown Objects in RGB-D Indoor Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jiatong; Jia, Yunyi; Cheng, Yu; Xi, Ning

    2015-08-27

    This paper studies the problem of detecting unknown objects within indoor environments in an active and natural manner. The visual saliency scheme utilizing both color and depth cues is proposed to arouse the interests of the machine system for detecting unknown objects at salient positions in a 3D scene. The 3D points at the salient positions are selected as seed points for generating object hypotheses using the 3D shape. We perform multi-class labeling on a Markov random field (MRF) over the voxels of the 3D scene, combining cues from object hypotheses and 3D shape. The results from MRF are further refined by merging the labeled objects, which are spatially connected and have high correlation between color histograms. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on two benchmark RGB-D datasets illustrate the advantages of the proposed method. The experiments of object detection and manipulation performed on a mobile manipulator validate its effectiveness and practicability in robotic applications.

  7. The examination and identification of bite marks in foods using 3D scanning and 3D comparison methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naether, Silvio; Buck, Ursula; Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Thali, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Bite mark analysis offers the opportunity to identify the biter based on the individual characteristics of the dentitions. Normally, the main focus is on analysing bite mark injuries on human bodies, but also, bite marks in food may play an important role in the forensic investigation of a crime. This study presents a comparison of simulated bite marks in different kinds of food with the dentitions of the presumed biter. Bite marks were produced by six adults in slices of buttered bread, apples, different kinds of Swiss chocolate and Swiss cheese. The time-lapse influence of the bite mark in food, under room temperature conditions, was also examined. For the documentation of the bite marks and the dentitions of the biters, 3D optical surface scanning technology was used. The comparison was performed using two different software packages: the ATOS modelling and analysing software and the 3D studio max animation software. The ATOS software enables an automatic computation of the deviation between the two meshes. In the present study, the bite marks and the dentitions were compared, as well as the meshes of each bite mark which were recorded in the different stages of time lapse. In the 3D studio max software, the act of biting was animated to compare the dentitions with the bite mark. The examined food recorded the individual characteristics of the dentitions very well. In all cases, the biter could be identified, and the dentitions of the other presumed biters could be excluded. The influence of the time lapse on the food depends on the kind of food and is shown on the diagrams. However, the identification of the biter could still be performed after a period of time, based on the recorded individual characteristics of the dentitions.

  8. 9th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    IC3DDose 2016 - 9th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry Preface It was a great pleasure to welcome participants to IC3DDose 2016, the 9th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry, held from 7–10 November 2016 in Galveston, Texas. The series of conferences has evolved considerably during its history. At the first conference, DOSGEL’99, the discussion centered around gel dosimetry. Held in Lexington, Kentucky in 1999, it was timed to coincide with the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Annual Meeting in Nashville, Tennessee. It was my honour to organize that first conference, and it was once again my honour to organize the 9th conference in the series now known as IC3DDose which was held in Galveston, Texas. As was the case with recent IC3DDose conferences, the topic has broadened considerably beyond gel dosimetry. Not only have newer 3D volumetric dosimeters appeared on the scene, but novel electronic dosimetry systems and software that generate quasi-3D dose information have also. These changes have tracked advances in radiation oncology as techniques such as IMRT, VMAT, and IGRT have become almost ubiquitous. At the same time, dynamic treatments including gating and tracking now enjoy widespread use. Novel treatment technologies have appeared with perhaps the most disruptive being combined MR imaging-treatment units such as the ViewRay MR-cobalt unit and the Elekta/Philips MR-Linac. The potential benefits offered by 3D dosimetry were explored, compared and evaluated during IC3DDose 2016. Novel and improved readout techniques, some of which take advantage of the contemporary treatment environment and new QA systems and procedures, as well as other aspects of clinical dosimetry were well represented in the program. Over the past several years, the importance of safety in radiation therapy has been highlighted. The benefits of 3D dosimetry in contributing to safe and accurate treatments cannot be overstated. The

  9. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Palomer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  10. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomer, Albert; Ridao, Pere; Youakim, Dina; Ribas, David; Forest, Josep; Petillot, Yvan

    2018-04-04

    Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF) fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS) is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  11. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  12. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  13. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  14. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Norman A

    2012-01-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  15. Live forensic acquisition as alternative to traditional forensic processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of live forensic acquisition in general presents a remedy for some of the problems introduced by traditional forensic acquisition. However, this live forensic acquisition introduces a variety of additional problems, unique...

  16. Setting the scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, S.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons for the special meeting on the breeder reactor are outlined with some reference to the special Scottish interest in the topic. Approximately 30% of the electrical energy generated in Scotland is nuclear and the special developments at Dounreay make policy decisions on the future of the commercial breeder reactor urgent. The participants review the major questions arising in arriving at such decisions. In effect an attempt is made to respond to the wish of the Secretary of State for Energy to have informed debate. To set the scene the importance of energy availability as regards to the strength of the national economy is stressed and the reasons for an increasing energy demand put forward. Examination of alternative sources of energy shows that none is definitely capable of filling the foreseen energy gap. This implies an integrated thermal/breeder reactor programme as the way to close the anticipated gap. The problems of disposal of radioactive waste and the safeguards in the handling of plutonium are outlined. Longer-term benefits, including the consumption of plutonium and naturally occurring radioactive materials, are examined. (author)

  17. The effect of background and illumination on color identification of real, 3D objects

    OpenAIRE

    Allred, Sarah R.; Olkkonen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    For the surface reflectance of an object to be a useful cue to object identity, judgments of its color should remain stable across changes in the object's environment. In 2D scenes, there is general consensus that color judgments are much more stable across illumination changes than background changes. Here we investigate whether these findings generalize to real 3D objects. Observers made color matches to cubes as we independently varied both the illumination impinging on the cube and th...

  18. A Small-Scale 3D Imaging Platform for Algorithm Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    between their acquisitions will form the basis for stereo analysis , and thus a 3D perception of the observed scene. Several low cost and economic...incident light versus 2% on a photographic type film [6]. The CCD camera then transforms these patterns of light into electrical signals. First...sources of lux or illumination. Table 1: Lux (Illumination) Quantitative Comparisons. Luminance Example 0.00005 lux Starlight 1 lux Moonlight 10

  19. Advanced 3D Printers for Cellular Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    06-2016 1-Aug-2014 31-Dec-2015 Final Report: Advanced 3D printers for Cellular Solids The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are...2211 3d printing, cellular solids REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8...Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Advanced 3D printers for Cellular Solids Report Title Final Report for DURIP grant W911NF

  20. Pharmacophore definition and 3D searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, T; Wolber, G

    2004-12-01

    The most common pharmacophore building concepts based on either 3D structure of the target or ligand information are discussed together with the application of such models as queries for 3D database search. An overview of the key techniques available on the market is given and differences with respect to algorithms used and performance obtained are highlighted. Pharmacophore modelling and 3D database search are shown to be successful tools for enriching screening experiments aimed at the discovery of novel bio-active compounds.: © 2004 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.