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Sample records for foreman plater welder

  1. Lung cancer in Yorkshire chrome platers, 1972-97

    OpenAIRE

    Sorahan, T.; Harrington, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate mortality from lung cancer in chrome platers, a group exposed to chromic acid.
METHODS—The mortality of a cohort of 1087 chrome platers (920 men, 167 women) from 54 plants situated in the West Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, was investigated for the period 1972-97. All subjects were employed as chrome platers for ⩾3 months and all were alive on 31 May 1972. Mortality data were also available for a cohort of 1163 comparison workers with no known occupational expo...

  2. Lung cancer in Yorkshire chrome platers, 1972-97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorahan, T; Harrington, J M

    2000-06-01

    To investigate mortality from lung cancer in chrome platers, a group exposed to chromic acid. The mortality of a cohort of 1087 chrome platers (920 men, 167 women) from 54 plants situated in the West Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, was investigated for the period 1972-97. All subjects were employed as chrome platers for >/=3 months and all were alive on 31 May 1972. Mortality data were also available for a cohort of 1163 comparison workers with no known occupational exposure to chrome compounds (989 men, 174 women). Information on duration of chrome work and smoking habits collected for a cross sectional survey carried out in 1969-72 were available for 916 (84.3%) of the chrome platers; smoking habits were available for 1004 (86.3%) comparison workers. Two analytical approaches were used, indirect standardisation and Poisson regression. Based on serial mortality rates for the general population of England and Wales, significantly increased mortality from lung cancer was observed (obs) in male chrome platers (obs 60, expected (exp) 32.5, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 185, pchrome, although data on working after 1972 were not available. Confident interpretation is not possible but occupational exposures to hexavalent chromium may well have been involved in the increased mortality from lung cancer found in this cohort of chrome platers.

  3. Gas tungsten arc welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable grinder, co-axial with the electrode, is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds. The specification also discloses means for loading of the cladding with fuel pellets and for placement of reflectors, gas capsules and end caps. Gravity feed conveyor and inerting means are also described. (author)

  4. Plant services (maintenance) foreman training. Inception to implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Training content and time allocated for training have become essential and auditable commodities. This additional awareness, by upper management, has increased the pressure on training organizations to demonstrate effective and efficient programs. Structured program design and administration can assist training organizations in meeting these requirements and assuring a quality program. Sequential development of the job analysis, qualification standard, associated lesson plans, and a methodology for tracking program changes which affect the system, are all required components in a systematic approach to training. This paper addresses these facets in establishing a training program. It describes the methods utilized, problems identified and resolved as they occurred in the development of the Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) Plant Services (Maintenance) Foreman Training Program

  5. Lung cancer mortality in nickel/chromium platers, 1946-95

    OpenAIRE

    Sorahan, T.; Burges, D. C.; Hamilton, L.; Harrington, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate mortality from lung cancer in nickel/chromium platers. METHODS: The mortality experience of a cohort of 1762 chrome workers (812 men, 950 women) from a large electroplating and light engineering plant in the Midlands, United Kingdom, was investigated for the period 1946-95. All subjects were first employed in chrome work at the plant during the period 1946-75, and had at least six months employment in jobs associated with exposure to chromic acid mist (hexaval...

  6. [The vision of welders in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissin, J P; Peyresblanques, J; Rollin, J P; Marini, F; Beaufils, D

    2002-10-01

    A study was conducted to measure the impact of welding on the vision of welders. This study was conducted in France by the occupational medicine staff of large companies on 1.131 people, namely 850 welders and 281 control subjects. This investigation included two examinations at the beginning and the end of a year. The investigative procedure examined the different welding processes, the percentage of working time spent on welding activity, the length of exposure in years, as well as the medical variables: the optical correction type and history of ocular traumatology. The Visiotest or the Ergovision were used for the visual examination, equipment in common use by occupational medicine departments. The welders were comparatively young (59.53% of them were less than 45 years old). Moreover, for 69.75% of the welders, more than 75% of their activity was devoted to welding. All currently used welding processes were represented, including the modern PLASMA-TIG welding process. No excessive blood alcohol levels were observed in all subjects, but welders did smoke slightly more than the control subjects (40% vs 33%). Self-medication was rather less frequent among the welders, except as regards the use of eye drops, where the proportions were clearly inverted. Optical correction for hyperopia was similar between the two groups; however, as regards myopia, the welders were corrected less often. Lastly, contact lens use was exceptional among the welders. Nearsightedness varied logically with age, but also, inexplicably, with the welding processes. Vision recovery time after exposure to glare was much longer among the welders, except for the PLASMA-TIG processes. No difference was observed in the other parameters of the study. No change in the visual functions studied was noted between the two examinations. The examination techniques used showed no impairment of the studied visual functions, probably because companies use protective and preventive eye care methods. Moreover

  7. Mortality study of nickel platers with special reference to cancers of the stomach and lung, 1945-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, D; Burges, D C; Sorahan, T

    1996-10-01

    To re-examine mortality patterns in a cohort of nickel platers with no history of chromium plating. All 284 men first employed by the company in 1945-75 with a minimum employment of three months in the nickel plating department were identified. Workers who had worked in the chromium plating or nickel/chromium plating departments were excluded. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), P values, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Poisson regression was used to carry out statistical modelling of mortalities within the cohort (internal standard). Four variables were considered to have the potential to influence mortality within the cohort: attained age (age at follow up or age at death), year of starting nickel work, period of follow up (measured from the first period of work with nickel exposure), and duration of exposure to nickel. The only significant difference between observed and expected numbers, when investigated by site of cancer and by broad non-cancer groupings, was that for stomach cancer (observed eight, expected 2.49, SMR 322). The study provides only weak evidence that nickel plating is associated with an excess risk of stomach cancer. This cohort of nickel platers does not seem to have experienced any discernible risk of occupational lung cancer. Other studies of nickel platers rather than nickel/chromium platers would be useful.

  8. 49 CFR 192.229 - Limitations on welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.229 Limitations on welders. (a) No welder whose qualification is based on nondestructive testing may weld compressor station pipe and components. (b) No welder may weld with a particular welding process unless, within the...

  9. Awareness and utilization of protective eye device among welders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramakantb

    was a high level of awareness of protective eye devices among the welders (367, 90.6%), being higher among arc welders compared ... each respondent in the field. The welders' ... Thermal retinal damage can also occur from near infrared ...

  10. Pattern of eye diseases among welders in a Nigeria community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Welders have been identified as a high risk group for eye disorders due to their exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Objective: To determine the prevalence and types of eye diseases amongst welders in Ile-Ife, Osun state. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study of 405 consenting welders. Information ...

  11. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. Nadine Foreman, M.D., August 19, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    Dr. Nadine Foreman was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). Dr. Foreman was selected for interview because of the position she held at the University of California, San Francisco. Following a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Foreman describes her work with Dr. Mayo Soley using I-131 in treatment of hyperthyroidism, selection criteria for patients in the radioiodine project, work with Dr. Earl Miller, work at Highland Hospital, radioiodine treatment of diffuse toxic goiter (myxedema), the radiophosphorus and radioiodine programs with Dr. Bert Low-Beer, and treatment of polycythemia vera

  12. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. Nadine Foreman, M.D., August 19, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Dr. Nadine Foreman was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). Dr. Foreman was selected for interview because of the position she held at the University of California, San Francisco. Following a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Foreman describes her work with Dr. Mayo Soley using I-131 in treatment of hyperthyroidism, selection criteria for patients in the radioiodine project, work with Dr. Earl Miller, work at Highland Hospital, radioiodine treatment of diffuse toxic goiter (myxedema), the radiophosphorus and radioiodine programs with Dr. Bert Low-Beer, and treatment of polycythemia vera.

  13. Mortality study of nickel platers with special reference to cancers of the stomach and lung, 1945-93.

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, D; Burges, D C; Sorahan, T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To re-examine mortality patterns in a cohort of nickel platers with no history of chromium plating. METHODS: All 284 men first employed by the company in 1945-75 with a minimum employment of three months in the nickel plating department were identified. Workers who had worked in the chromium plating or nickel/chromium plating departments were excluded. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), P values, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Poisson regression was used to carry...

  14. Personal exposure to metal fume, NO2, and O3 among production welders and non-welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Todd; Conroy, Lorraine; Lacey, Steven; Plavka, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize personal exposures to welding-related metals and gases for production welders and non-welders in a large manufacturing facility. Welding fume metals and irritant gases nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) were sampled for thirty-eight workers. Personal exposure air samples for welding fume metals were collected on 37 mm open face cassettes and nitrogen dioxide and ozone exposure samples were collected with diffusive passive samplers. Samples were analyzed for metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and welding fume metal exposure concentrations were defined as the sum of welding-related metals mass per volume of air sampled. Welding fume metal exposures were highly variable among similar types of welding while NO(2) and O(3) exposure were less variable. Welding fume metal exposures were significantly higher 474 μg/m(3) for welders than non-welders 60 μg/m(3) (p=0.001). Welders were exposed to higher concentrations of NO(2) and O(3) than non-welders but the differences were not statistically significant. Welding fume metal exposure concentrations for welders performing gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) were higher than welders performing gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Non-welders experienced exposures similar to GTAW welders despite a curtain wall barrier separating welding and non-welding work areas.

  15. Biografia nieobecna. Wokół życia i twórczości Ireneusza Plater-Zyberka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zawisza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An Absent Biography. About the life and work of Ireneusz Plater-Zyberk Ireneusz Plater-Zyberk (1896–1946, was a writer and a film producer, adventurer and gallant. His life is an incredible story of the disabled individual who succeeded in an amazing career. Plater-Zyberk was born in a wealthy landowning family who lived at the estate of Vabole in Latvia. He was born without hands and at that time, due to his disability, was classified as "margins of society." Thanks to perseverance and commitment of his mother, he graduated as an extern student from high school in Warsaw, Poland. His career  includes Life without Hands, memories,  and two novels. He was a co-author of first movie in Poland with stunt effects Dead Node (1927, which unfortunately wasn’t preserved. Also, he was recognized as a documentary creator as well as an initiator of film production regulations.   Biografia nieobecna. Wokół życia i twórczości Ireneusza Plater-Zyberka Ireneusz Plater-Zyberk (1896 lub 1897–1946 był literatem i twórcą filmowym, nieco awanturnikiem i bawidamkiem. Jego postać to niezwykły przykład niepełnosprawnego, który osiągnął w dwudziestoleciu międzywojennym znaczącą karierę. Ireneusz Plater-Zyberk pochodził z zamożnej rodziny ziemiańskiej, zamieszkałej w majątku Wabol na Łotwie. Urodził się bez rąk i w ówczesnej rzeczywistości miał pozostać na marginesie społeczeństwa. Dzięki wytrwałości matki udało mu się ukończyć jako ekstern gimnazjum w Warszawie. W swoim dorobku ma wspomnienia Życie bez rąk oraz dwie powieści. Ważną rolę odegrał Plater jako scenarzysta i reżyser, był m.in. współtwórcą pierwszego polskiego filmu z efektami kaskaderskimi „Martwy węzeł” (1927. Miał on również ogromne zasługi jako twórca filmów dokumentalnych i jednocześnie inspirator zmian w prawodawstwie dotyczącym produkcji filmowej. Tłem jego twórczości pisarskiej jest burzliwe i pełne przygód

  16. Ocular ultraviolet radiation exposure of welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    I read with interest a recent paper in your journal by Slagor et al on the risk of cataract in relation to metal arc welding (1). The authors highlight that even though welders are exposed to substantial levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), "no studies have reported data on how much UVR welders' eyes are exposed to during a working day. Thus, we do not know whether welders are more or less exposed to UVR than outdoor workers" (1, p451). Undertaking accurate exposure assessment of UVR from welding arcs is difficult, however, two studies have reported ocular/facial UVR levels underneath welding helmets (2, 3). In the first paper, UVR levels were measured using polysulphone film dosimeters applied to the cheeks of a patient who suffered from severe facial dermatitis (2). UVR levels of four times the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) (4) were measured on the workers left cheek and nine times the MPE on the right cheek. The authors concluded that the workers dermatitis was likely to have been due to the UVR exposure received during welding. In the other paper, a comprehensive exposure assessment of personal UVR exposure of workers in a welding environment was reported (3). The study was conducted at a metal fabrication workshop with participants being welders, boilermakers and non-welders (eg, supervisors, fitters, machinists). Polysulphone film dosimeters were again used to measure UVR exposure of the workers, with badges worn on the clothing of workers (in the chest area), on the exterior of welding helmets, attached to 11 locations on the inside of welding helmets, and on the bridge and side-shields of safety spectacles. Dosimeters were also attached to surfaces throughout the workshop to measure ambient UVR levels. For welding subjects, mean 8-hour UVR doses within the welding helmets ranged from around 9 mJ/cm 2 (3×MPE) on the inside of the helmets to around 15 mJ/cm 2 (5×MPE) on the headband (a

  17. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  18. Pulmonary siderosis (pneumoconiosis) in an arc welder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triebel, H J; Spielmann, R P; Jessel, A

    1988-02-01

    An arc welder of 32 years of age is presented with a random finding of miliar reticulonodular shadows in the plain film of the thorax. Subjectively and objectively the patient appears healthy. The presence of a pneumoconiosis is confirmed by biopsy. Differential diagnosis had to consider sarcoidosis and pulmonary siderosis in view of the known professional anamnesis. This case report underlines the repeated demand to assess X-ray films of the thoracic organs only if the clinical findings and anamnesis are thoroughly known.

  19. Pulmonary siderosis (pneumoconiosis) in an arc welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triebel, H.J.; Spielmann, R.P.; Jessel, A.

    1988-01-01

    An arc welder of 32 years of age is presented with a random finding of miliar reticulonodular shadows in the plain film of the thorax. Subjectively and objectively the patient appears healthy. The presence of a pneumoconiosis is confirmed by biopsy. Differential diagnosis had to consider sarcoidosis and pulmonary siderosis in view of the known professional anamnesis. This case report underlines the repeated demand to assess X-ray films of the thoracic organs only if the clinical findings and anamnesis are thoroughly known. (orig.) [de

  20. Ocular injuries among industrial welders in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebai, B; Awoyesuku, EA

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular injuries among industrial welders and rate the use of protective eyewear at work among industrial welders in Port Harcourt. Information from this study will provide a database for effective policy formation on prevention of occupational eye injuries in Port Harcourt Rivers State. Methods A cross-sectional survey of ocular injuries and use of protective eyewear among industrial welders in the Port Harcourt local government area of Rivers State, Nigeria, was carried out over a three-month period. Five hundred welders were selected by simple random sampling. Information was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. All welders were examined in their workshops. Results Flying metal chips were the chief source of ocular injury, as reported by 199 (68.15%) of those who gave a history of work-related eye injury, while arc rays accounted for the remaining 93 (31.85%). There was a high level of awareness of the risk of sustaining an eye injury from welding (n = 490, 98%), but only 46 (15.3%) of the welders were using protective eyewear at the time of injury. Conclusion To minimize ocular injury and promote eye health amongst industrial welders, safety intervention programs, such as awareness campaigns, setting up of targeted programs by the relevant government agencies, and encouragement of locally produced eye protectors is recommended. The involvement of occupational medical practitioners is also strongly recommended. PMID:21966197

  1. Neuromotor function in ship welders after cessation of manganese exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastensson, Gunilla; Sallsten, Gerd; Bast-Pettersen, Rita; Barregard, Lars

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether previous long-term exposure to manganese (Mn) via inhalation of welding fumes can cause persistent impairment in neuromotor function even long after cessation of exposure. Quantitative tests of tremor, motor speed, manual dexterity, diadochokinesis, eye-hand coordination and postural stability were administered to 17 retired ship welders (mean age 69 years), with mean exposure time 28 years. The welders' exposure had ceased on average 18 years before the study. A cumulative exposure index (CEI) was calculated for each of the former welders. The welders were compared with 21 referents from the same shipyards (mean age was 66 years). Former welders performed less well than referents in the grooved pegboard test, and poorer performance was associated with CEI. The performance in most of the other neurobehavioral tests was similar between groups, but the welders tended to perform slightly better than the referents in tests demanding hand steadiness. The latter finding may be due to a training effect from their former working tasks or selection bias into or out of this occupation. In the present study of welders with previous welding fume exposure, former welders and referents performed similarly in most of the neurobehavioral tests. Previous adverse effects on the neuromotor system might have ceased, and decreased neuromotor function due to normal aging processes in both groups might have disguised any slight effect of previous Mn exposure. The poorer performance in the grooved pegboard test among welders may indicate an adverse effect on motor function of long-term exposure to Mn, but this finding has to be confirmed by other studies.

  2. Lung cancer mortality in nickel/chromium platers, 1946-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorahan, T; Burges, D C; Hamilton, L; Harrington, J M

    1998-04-01

    To investigate mortality from lung cancer in nickel/chromium platers. The mortality experience of a cohort of 1762 chrome workers (812 men, 950 women) from a large electroplating and light engineering plant in the Midlands, United Kingdom, was investigated for the period 1946-95. All subjects were first employed in chrome work at the plant during the period 1946-75, and had at least six months employment in jobs associated with exposure to chromic acid mist (hexavalent chromium). Detailed job histories were abstracted from original company personnel records and individual cumulative durations of employment in three types of chrome work were derived as time dependent variables (chrome bath work, other chrome work, any chrome work). Two analytical approaches were used--indirect standardisation and Poisson regression. Based on mortalities for the general population of England and Wales, male workers with some period of chrome bath work had higher lung cancer mortalities (observed deaths 40, expected deaths 25.41, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 157, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 113 to 214, p chrome workers (observed 9, expected 13.70, SMR 66, 95% CI 30 to 125). Similar findings were shown for female workers (chrome bath workers: observed 15, expected 8.57, SMR 175, 95% CI 98 to 289, p = 0.06; other chrome workers: observed 1, expected 4.37, SMR 23, 95% CI 1 to 127). Poisson regression was used to investigate risks of lung cancer relative to four categories of cumulative duration of chrome bath work and four categories of cumulative duration of other chrome work (none, or = 5 y). After adjusting for sex, age, calendar period, year of starting chrome work, period from first chrome work, and employment status (still employed v left employment), there was a significant positive trend (p chrome bath work and risks of mortality for lung cancer. Relative to a risk of unity for those chrome workers without any period of chrome bath work, risks were 2.83 (95% CI 1.47 to

  3. Electroacoustics modeling of piezoelectric welders for ultrasonic additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a recent 3D metal printing technology which utilizes ultrasonic vibrations from high power piezoelectric transducers to additively weld similar and dissimilar metal foils. CNC machining is used intermittent of welding to create internal channels, embed temperature sensitive components, sensors, and materials, and for net shaping parts. Structural dynamics of the welder and work piece influence the performance of the welder and part quality. To understand the impact of structural dynamics on UAM, a linear time-invariant model is used to relate system shear force and electric current inputs to the system outputs of welder velocity and voltage. Frequency response measurements are combined with in-situ operating measurements of the welder to identify model parameters and to verify model assumptions. The proposed LTI model can enhance process consistency, performance, and guide the development of improved quality monitoring and control strategies.

  4. Ocular injuries among industrial welders in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiebai B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available B Fiebai, EA AwoyesukuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular injuries among industrial welders and rate the use of protective eyewear at work among industrial welders in Port Harcourt. Information from this study will provide a database for effective policy formation on prevention of occupational eye injuries in Port Harcourt Rivers State.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of ocular injuries and use of protective eyewear among industrial welders in the Port Harcourt local government area of Rivers State, Nigeria, was carried out over a three-month period. Five hundred welders were selected by simple random sampling. Information was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. All welders were examined in their workshops.Results: Flying metal chips were the chief source of ocular injury, as reported by 199 (68.15% of those who gave a history of work-related eye injury, while arc rays accounted for the remaining 93 (31.85%. There was a high level of awareness of the risk of sustaining an eye injury from welding (n = 490, 98%, but only 46 (15.3% of the welders were using protective eyewear at the time of injury.Conclusion: To minimize ocular injury and promote eye health amongst industrial welders, safety intervention programs, such as awareness campaigns, setting up of targeted programs by the relevant government agencies, and encouragement of locally produced eye protectors is recommended. The involvement of occupational medical practitioners is also strongly recommended.Keywords: industrial welders, ocular injury, Port Harcourt, preventable blindness, protective eye devices

  5. Prevalence of color vision deficiency among arc welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarian, Samira; Mahjoob, Monireh; Gholami, Ahmad; Veysi, Sajjad; Mohammadi, Morteza

    This study was performed to investigate whether occupationally related color vision deficiency can occur from welding. A total of 50 male welders, who had been working as welders for at least 4 years, were randomly selected as case group, and 50 age matched non-welder men, who lived in the same area, were regarded as control group. Color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desatured panel D-15 test. The test was performed under the daylight fluorescent lamp with a spectral distribution of energy with a color temperature of 6500K and a color rendering index of 94 that provided 1000lx on the work plane. The test was carried out monocularly and no time limit was imposed. All data analysis were performed using SPSS, version 22. The prevalence of dyschromatopsia among welders was 15% which was statistically higher than that of nonwelder group (2%) (p=0.001). Among welders with dyschromatopsia, color vision deficiency in 72.7% of cases was monocular. There was positive relationship between the employment length and color vision loss (p=0.04). Similarly, a significant correlation was found between the prevalence of color vision deficiency and average working hours of welding a day (p=0.025). Chronic exposure to welding light may cause color vision deficiency. The damage depends on the exposure duration and the length of their employment as welders. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Woman – mother and citzen. Cecylia Plater-Zyberkówna’s considerations in the light of her writing work and educational activity [Kobieta – matka i obywatelka. Rozważania Cecylii Plater-Zyberkówny w świetle jej dorobku pisarskiego i działalności oświatowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania WALASEK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The woman - a mother and citizen. Cecilia Plater-Zyberkówna’s View in the light of her literary work and educational activities Cecylia Plater-Zyberkówna’s (1853– 1920 writing activity and socio-cultural activities focused on education and the education of girls. At this level she showed, in practice as well as in her writing work, the preparation of the girls to perform the responsible roles of: mother, wife and citizen. Political and social events of the second half of the XIXth century, which Cecilia PlaterZyberkówna witnessed, solidified her belief in the need of involvement in solving the so-called women issue. She developed her commitment to broad social activities by working among girls and in the environment of young women. These were organisational initiatives through which she implemented her educational concepts. She included her pedagogical views in numerous theoretical works and in her journalism. In her theoretical considerations she emphasized the role of family and above all mothers who should be the guardians of hearth and home. The most important matter for PlaterZyberkówna was the answer to question: how to educate and prepare the girl to perform responsible roles in adult life? She answered that question in the work „Woman – the hearth and home in the family.”

  7. Chronic phototoxic maculopathy caused by welding arc in occupational welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoran; Shao, Dongping; Ding, Xiaohu; Liang, Xuefen; Yang, Jiehua; Li, Jie

    2012-02-01

    To investigate whether occupationally-related phototoxicity can occur from welding. Cross-sectional study. Forty welders from manufacturing enterprise and 40 age-matched nonwelder controls. Participants underwent thorough ophthalmologic examination including fundus photography, automatic perimeter examination, and high definition optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan. The clinical history of all subjects was screened carefully before the study. There was no significant difference for best corrected distance visual acuity when comparing welders with nonwelders. Anterior segment, red reflex, Amsler grid test, and perimetric examinations were unremarkable. Fundus photographs revealed a small, round, or oval, dark-yellow macular lesion with an obscure boundary in 19 welder eyes (23.8%). OCT revealed an interruption or defect in the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) layer and the inner portion retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer in varying degrees in 30 welder eyes (38.0%), revealing a higher prevalence of maculopathy. All control examinations were unremarkable. We have also discovered that OCT is more sensitive than fundus photography in identifying macular lesions. Occupational welders exposed to a welding arc environment have a higher risk of phototoxic maculopathy than nonwelders, as diagnosed most effectively using OCT. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mining Foreman School in Dabrowa Gornicza - heir to the Higher Mining School in Kielce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciuk, E

    1988-02-01

    The first Polish Higher Mining School was founded in 1816 in Kielce. The historical background of its foundation is described, curricula are outlined, prominent professors and graduates named. The significance of this School for Polish geology, mining and metallurgy to the present day is stressed. The School was closed in 1826 and the next Mining School to contine its traditions was instituted not earlier than in 1889 in Dabrowa Gornicza. It was also known as the Mine Foreman or Mine Deputy School (Sztygarka). This School was closed in 1905, reopened in 1910 and closed again in 1914. After Poland regained independence in 1919 the School flourished for 20 years. During the Second World War the teaching staff and student body were decimated and facilities destroyed. After 1945 the School was rebuilt and developed into an engineering school as a branch of the Academy of Mining and Metallury in Cracow by 1968 and a branch of the Silesian Politechnical between 1968 and 1984. In 1985 the School was taken over by the Ministry of Mining and Power Engineering and reorganized as a mining trade school. The Mining School in Dabrowa Gornicza, where several prominent professors of geology and managers of Polish geological and mining enterprises began their careers, contributed greatly to the development of geology in Poland. 12 refs.

  9. Utility of an allograft tendon for scoliosis correction via the costo-transverse foreman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; McCarthy, Michael; Dooley, Adam C; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H; Shelton, R Shane; McLaren, Sandra G; Skinner, Robert A; Suva, Larry J; McCarthy, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Current convex tethering techniques for treatment of scoliosis have centered on anterior convex staples or polypropylene tethers. We hypothesized that an allograft tendon tether inserted via the costo-transverse foramen would correct an established spinal deformity. In the pilot study, six 8-week-old pigs underwent allograft tendon tethering via the costo-transverse foreman or sham to test the strength of the transplanted tendon to retard spine growth. After 4 months, spinal deformity in three planes was induced in all animals with allograft tendons. In the treatment study, the allograft tendon tether was used to treat established scoliosis in 11 8-week-old pigs (spinal deformity > 50°). Once the deformity was observed (4 months) animals were assigned to either no treatment group or allograft tendon tether group and progression assessed by monthly radiographs. At final follow-up, coronal Cobb angle and maximum vertebral axial rotation of the treatment group was significantly smaller than the non-treatment group, whereas sagittal kyphosis of the treatment group was significantly larger than the non-treatment group. In sum, a significant correction was achieved using a unilateral allograft tendon spinal tether, suggesting that an allograft tendon tethering approach may represent a novel fusion-less procedure to correct idiopathic scoliosis. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:183-192, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Disasters and vulnerabilities in the Foreman and Kennedy road informal settlements: Biographical influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As the towards the end of the homelands in the post-apartheid South Africa, there was a scramble of poverty stricken African black youth to the most severe vulnerable and disaster prone urban areas in search for formal job opportunities. The main purpose of this empirical study is to investigate the extent in which how the biographical profiles (age, gender, marital status, education levels, occupation (males and females, children and tenure can influence vulnerability and disasters in these informal settlements. A quantitative research design was adopted and a survey method was used, whereby questionnaires were administered by the researcher to a population of 240, whereby, 140 questionnaires were completed generating a response rate of 63.6%. The findings of this study reveals that the majority of the respondents in the Foreman and Kennedy Road informal settlements are black, poverty stricken, unemployed and who are suffered economic difficulties that make them highly vulnerable to disasters. This study will act an advisory role to the decision-makers as the research findings shows that in the foreseeable future in South Africa, informal settlements will be an intergral feature of formal housing, which requires urban planners to include such settlements to housing planning.

  11. radiation-related eye diseases among welders of suame

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana ... welders and to determine the prevalence of ocular diseases among them in the Kumasi metropo- lis. ... gen and carbon dioxide of earth's atmosphere. .... Table 1 displays the age characteristics of the ... types of keratopathy involving deposition of.

  12. Confined space ventilation by shipyard welders: observed use and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouzou, Jane G; Warner, Chris; Neitzel, Richard L; Croteau, Gerry A; Yost, Michael G; Seixas, Noah S

    2015-01-01

    Shipbuilding involves intensive welding activities within enclosed and confined spaces, and although ventilation is commonly used in the industry, its use and effectiveness has not been adequately documented. Workers engaged in welding in enclosed or confined spaces in two shipyards were observed for their use of ventilation and monitored for their exposure to particulate matter. The type of ventilation in use, its placement and face velocity, the movement of air within the space, and other ventilation-related parameters were recorded, along with task characteristics such as the type of welding, the welder's position, and the configuration of the space. Mechanical ventilation was present in about two-thirds of the 65 welding scenarios observed, with exhaust ventilation used predominantly in one shipyard and supply blowers predominantly in the other. Welders were observed working in apparent dead-spaces within the room in 53% of the cases, even where ventilation was in use. Respiratory protection was common in the two shipyards, observed in use in 77 and 100% of the cases. Welding method, the proximity of the welder's head to the fume, and air mixing were found to be significantly associated with the welder's exposure, while other characteristics of dilution ventilation did not produce appreciable differences in exposure level. These parameters associated with exposure reduction can be assessed subjectively and are thus good candidates for training on effective ventilation use during hot work in confined spaces. Ventilation used in confined space welding is often inadequate for controlling exposure to welding fume. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  13. Eye protection practices and symptoms among welders in the Limpopo Province of South Africa+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Sithole

    2009-12-01

    though the majority of the welders wore protective devices while welding, a few did not always use such devices while others used sunglasses for protection.  Moreover, many of the welders were occasionally, and only a few were always, exposed to welding flashes when protective devices were not used. Therefore, we concluded that eye protectionpractices amongst the welders appeared to be inadequate to avoid hazards associated with welding.  It is recommended that an eye protection educational campaign for welders should form part of the SouthAfrican Government’s workplace safety program.

  14. Biomonitoring of genotoxic exposure among stainless steel welders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Boisen, T; Christensen, J M

    1992-01-01

    A biosurvey in the Danish metal industry measured the genotoxic exposure from stainless steel welding. The study comprised measurements of chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in peripheral lymphocytes and serum immunoglobulin G. Environm......A biosurvey in the Danish metal industry measured the genotoxic exposure from stainless steel welding. The study comprised measurements of chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in peripheral lymphocytes and serum immunoglobulin G....... A higher frequency of chromosomal aberrations, classified as translocations, double minutes, exchanges and rings, was observed in stainless steel welders than in non-welders. SCE was lower in welders working with both MMA and TIG welding than in reference persons. N-Acetoxy-N-acetylaminofluorene (NA...... lymphocytes in exposed persons compared with non-exposed are suggested. MMA welding gave the highest exposure to chromium, an increased number of chromosomal aberrations and a decrease in SCE when compared with TIG welding. Consequently improvements in the occupational practice of stainless steel welding...

  15. Ocular effects of chronic exposure to welding light on calabar welders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was generally observed that welders in Calabar, Nigeria did not always wear their protective goggles during welding. Since chronic exposure to welding light can impair vision this study was done to assess the effect of exposure to welding light on ocular function of welders in Calabar, Nigeria. There were 195 subjects ...

  16. Development of automatic pipe welder for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Taro; Ando, Shimon; Omae, Tsutomu; Ito, Yoshitoshi; Araya, Takeshi.

    1978-01-01

    Numerous pipings are installed in nuclear power plants, and of course, the reliability of these pipings are very important to preserve the safety of the plants. These pipings undergo periodic inspection yearly, and when some defects are found or some reconstructions to superior systems are made, field welding in the plants is required. When the places to be welded are in containment vessels, the works must be carried out in radiation environment. In order to maintain the highest quality of welding and to reduce the radiation exposure of workers, many skilled workers are required. This automatic pipe welder was developed to solve these problems, aiming at carrying out welding works by remote control at the safe places outside containment vessels. Especially in order to obtain the highest quality of welding, it was not perfectly automated, but the man-machine system so as to enable to utilize the delicate sense of workers was adopted. The visual and contact detecting systems to monitor welding works, remote control system, computer control, light, small and easily installed welding head, grinding and supersonic flow detecting equipments, the power source of transistor switching type, air cooling equipment, and the function for setting welding conditions according to algorithm were added to the welding machine. The outline and main components of this automatic pipe welder are explained. (Kako, I.)

  17. Pulmonary function abnormalities and airway irritation symptoms of metal fumes exposure on automobile spot welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Shen, Wu-Shiun

    2006-06-01

    Spot or resistance welding has been considered less hazardous than other types of welding. Automobile manufacturing is a major industry in Taiwan. Spot and arc welding are common processes in this industry. The respiratory effects on automobile spot welders exposed to metal fumes are investigated. The cohort consisted of 41 male auto-body spot welders, 76 male arc welders, 71 male office workers, and 59 assemblers without welding exposure. Inductivity Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) was applied to detect metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in the post-shift urine samples. Demographic data, work history, smoking status, and respiratory tract irritation symptoms were gathered by a standard self-administered questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also performed. There were significantly higher values for average urine metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in spot welders and arc welders than in the non-welding controls. There were 4 out of 23 (17.4%) abnormal forced vital capacity (FVC) among the high-exposed spot welders, 2 out of 18 (11.1%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 6 out of 130 (4.6%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of restrictive airway abnormalities (P = 0.036) after adjusting for other factors. There were 9 out of 23 (39.1%) abnormal peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) among high-exposed spot welders, 5 out of 18 (27.8%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 28 out of 130 (21.5%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a borderline significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of obstructive lung function abnormalities (P = 0.084) after adjusting for other factors. There was also a significant dose-response relationship of airway irritation symptoms (cough, phlegm, chronic bronchitis) among the spot welders. Arc welders with high exposure status also had a significant risk of obstructive lung abnormalities (PEFR

  18. Cancer incidence among mild steel and stainless steel welders and other metal workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K S; Lauritsen, J M; Skytthe, A

    1996-01-01

    by a postal questionnaire in living cohort members and interviews by proxy for deceased and emigrated subjects. The incidence of lung cancer was increased among workers ever "employed as welders" (SIR = 1.38, 95% C.I. 1.03-1.81). There was a significant excess risk of lung cancer among "mild steel (MS) only...... "stainless steel (SS) only welders" (SIR = 2.38, 95% C.I. 0.77-5.55). In spite of signs of inconsistency in the risk estimation by duration and latency, we find the results support the conclusions of other studies: employment as a welder is associated with an increased lung cancer risk....

  19. Variations in occupational exposure to magnetic fields among welders in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, A. K.; Shahidan, R.

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted to estimate the lifelong magnetic field (MF) exposures of a particular group of welders. Exposure was quantified via measurements, observations and interviews. It was found that these welders face a vast range of lifelong MF exposures depending on the welding processes and duration of the welding tasks performed. This may explain the inconsistency in the results of studies of MF exposures on human health. The mere assessing of the MF exposure levels through spot measurements does not give an overall picture of the total amount of exposure received by the welders as some of these workers performed the welding task throughout the day, whereas others performed this as a part of their job. The exposure to various chemicals in the fume may complicate the interpretation of the elevated health risk among the welders. (authors)

  20. Conversion of continuous-direct-current TIG welder to pulse-arc operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, D. R.

    1969-01-01

    Electronics package converts a continuous-dc tungsten-inert gas welder for pulse-arc operation. Package allows presetting of the pulse rate, duty cycle, and current value, and enables welding of various alloys and thicknesses of materials.

  1. Welding fume exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D-H; Kim, J-I; Kim, K-H; Yoo, S-W

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure is estimated to contribute 15% to the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Welding fumes are suspected to accelerate the decline of lung function and development of COPD. To examine the relationship between welding fume exposure and COPD in Korean shipyard welders. The study involved a group of male welders working at two shipyards who underwent an annual health examination in 2010. Subjects completed a questionnaire about smoking habits and occupational history and a pulmonary function test (PFT) was carried out with strict quality control measures. Welding fume exposure concentrations were estimated using 884 measurements taken between 2002 and 2009 in one of the shipyards. Multiple linear and logistic regression was employed to evaluate the association between cumulative fume exposure and lung function parameters, controlling for age, height and cigarette smoking. Two hundred and forty subjects participated, with a mean age of 48 and mean work duration of 15 years. The mean cumulative fume exposure was 7.7mg/m(3). The prevalence of COPD was 15%. FEV1 and FVC showed non-significant negative correlations with cumulative fume exposure. Odds ratios of COPD were significantly elevated for the middle (3.9; 95% CI 1.4-13.3) and high exposure groups (3.8; 95% CI 1.03-16.2) compared with the low fume exposure group. Our findings support an association between welding fume exposure and increased risk of COPD. Further prospective study is needed to investigate whether this is a causal relationship. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Development of a cost effective organizational model for the shipbuilding welder labor workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Stegelman, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited For the past twenty-five years, the United States shipbuilding industry has experienced a slow decay in both hiring and retaining critical skilled professionals. One of the most critical skills required to fabricate a ship is welding, as welders play a major role in shipbuilding, from pre-fabrication to delivery. Many factors can be identified with the cause of this reduction in the welder workforce. These factors include technology ...

  3. State of the eyes in welders of Division M-5, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gos, R.; Stepien, J.; Horowski, P.

    1984-01-01

    Sight organ impairments have been compared in a group of M-5 Division welders, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow, and control group of randomly selected administration workers. In the group of welders statistically more frequent were degenerative changes in the eye macula, melanomatosis and conjunctivitis. Those with changes in the area of the macua lutea and melanosis conjunctivae should undergo periodic ophthalmological control (dispensary groups).

  4. Awareness of Occupational Injuries and Utilization of Safety Measures among Welders in Coastal South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ganesh Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Awareness of occupational hazards and its safety precautions among welders is an important health issue, especially in developing countries. Objective: To assess the awareness of occupational hazards and utilization of safety measures among welders in coastal South India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 209 welders in Puducherry, South India. Baseline characteristics, awareness of health hazards, safety measures and their availability to and utilization by the participants were assessed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results: The majority of studied welders aged between 20 and 40 years (n=160, 76.6% and had 1-10 years of education (n=181, 86.6%. They were more aware of hazards (n=174, 83.3% than safety measures (n=134, 64.1%. The majority of studied welders utilized at least one protective measure in the preceding week (n=200, 95.7%. Many of them had more than 5 years of experience (n=175, 83.7%, however, only 20% of them had institutional training (n=40, 19.1%. Age group, education level, and utilization of safety measures were significantly associated with awareness of hazards in univariate analysis (p<0.05. Conclusion: Awareness of occupational hazards and utilization of safety measures is low among welders in coastal South India, which highlights the importance of strengthening safety regulatory services towards this group of workers.

  5. Risk assessment of welders` exposure to total fume in an automobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk assessment of Toxic or hazardous chemicals enables the Industrial Hygienists to make the appropriate decision in providing healthy work place. This project was conducted in an assembling plant,(4workshop of an Automobile Industry in IRAN with 2 types of welding operations, including GMAW (CO2 welding and Spot resistance welding operations. . Method and Materials: Welders` exposures were assessed via collecting 143 breathing zone air samples based on NIOSH 0500 method. Risk assessment was carried out using Singapore recommended method. .Results: Finding showed that the mean of welders exposure in GMAW and Spot resistance welding operations 5.61 ± 5.78and 2.38± 2.15 mg/m3, respectively(p<0.05. The results showed that in GMAW welders had the highe exposure in comparison with Spot resistance welders (p<0.05. The findings also demonstrated that the risk rate of GMAW welders were high, while this rate for Spot resistance was low. .Conclusion: more hygienic attention is needed for GTAW welders. Control approaches are required including effective engineering control, conduct air monitoring, biological monitoring training, adopt respiratory protection program, develop and implement safe and correct work procedures and finally reassess the risk after all the controls have been done.

  6. Hazard perception and occupational injuries in the welders and lathe machine operators of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M A

    2001-02-01

    To study the prevalence of occupational injuries in the welders and lathe machine operators and their hazard perception. This study was conducted in the welders and lathe machine operators working in the welding and metal working shops in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by two trained health interviewers using uniform questionnaire with both close and open-ended questions. Two hundred and eight welders and 104 lathe machine operators were interviewed. Thirty nine (18.7%) welders and 27 (26%) lathe machine operators reported an injury in the past three months, while 63 (30.3%) welders and 76 (73.8%) lathe machine operators reported sustaining an injury in the past twelve months. However, only half of the welders and 31 (29.8%) lathe machine operators believed that their occupation was hazardous for health. For effective public health policy there is a need preventive education and enforcement of safety regulations for the informal occupational sector in Pakistan.

  7. Platería europea en Canarias. La bandeja de Teguise, la copa con tapa y las fuentes de la cetadral de Las Palmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Pérez Morera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abordamos en este trabajo la correcta clasificaci6n de una serie de piezas da platería de origen flamenco, alemán y portugués existentes en Canarias que, aunque conocidas, habían pasado por españolas o americanas. Destacarnos la bandeja de la parroquia de Teguise (Lanzarote, labrada en Hamburgo por juergen Richels hacia 1680; la copa con tapa de la catedral de Las Palmas (Gran Canaria, realizada en Amberes por el maestro del compás en 1548-1549; y !as fuentes pertenecientes al obispo Vicuña y Zuazo de la misma catedral, marcadas en Lisboa a finales del siglo XVII.The current article approaches the correct classification of a variety o¡ flemish, german and portuguese silversmith's pieces located in the Canary Islands which, though very well known, had been considered form Spanish or american origin. We emphasize the tray from the Parisf of Teguise (Lanzarote\\, wrought in Hamburg by Juergen Richels circa 1680; the Chalice with Lid Las Palmas cathedral (Gran Canaria made in Antwerp by the Master  of  the compass in 1548-49; and the fountains belonging to Bishop Vicuña y Zuazo from the same cathedral, marked in Lisbon at the end of XVII century. 

  8. Assessment of biological chromium among stainless steel and mild steel welders in relation to welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmé, J L; Shirali, P; Mereau, M; Sobaszek, A; Boulenguez, C; Diebold, F; Haguenoer, J M

    1997-01-01

    Air and biological monitoring were used for assessing external and internal chromium exposure among 116 stainless steel welders (SS welders) using manual metal arc (MMA), metal inert gas (MIG) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding processes (MMA: n = 57; MIG: n = 37; TIG: n = 22) and 30 mild steel welders (MS welders) using MMA and MIG welding processes (MMA: n = 14; MIG: n = 16). The levels of atmospheric total chromium were evaluated after personal air monitoring. The mean values for the different groups of SS welders were 201 micrograms/m3 (MMA) and 185 micrograms/m3 (MIG), 52 micrograms/m3 (TIG) and for MS welders 8.1 micrograms/m3 (MMA) and 7.3 micrograms/m3 (MIG). The curve of cumulative frequency distribution from biological monitoring among SS welders showed chromium geometric mean concentrations in whole blood of 3.6 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 19.9), in plasma of 3.3 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 21.0) and in urine samples of 6.2 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 58.0). Among MS welders, mean values in whole blood and plasma were rather more scattered (1.8 micrograms/l, 95th percentile = 9.3 and 1.3 micrograms/l, 95th percentile = 8.4, respectively) and in urine the value was 2.4 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 13.3). The analysis of variance of chromium concentrations in plasma previously showed a metal effect (F = 29.7, P process effect (F = 22.2, P process interaction (F = 1.3, P = 0.25). Concerning urinary chromium concentration, the analysis of variance also showed a metal effect (F = 30, P process effect (F = 72, P process interaction (F = 13.2, P = 0.0004). Throughout the study we noted any significant differences between smokers and non-smokers among welders. Taking in account the relationships between chromium concentrations in whole, plasma or urine and the different welding process. MMA-SS is definitely different from other processes because the biological values are clearly higher. These higher levels are due to the very significant

  9. Risk Communication as a Tool for Training Apprentice Welders: A Study about Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Severo, Luana de Oliveira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Turik, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The present study has aimed to identify the perceptions of apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed; identify types of occupational accidents involving apprentice welders; and report the development of a socioenvironmental education intervention as a tool for risk communication for apprentice welders. A quantitative study was performed with 161 apprentice welders in Southern Brazil in 2011. Data collection was performed via structured interviews with the apprentice welders about risk perception, occupational accidents, and time experienced in welding. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.9%), chemical (95%), physiological (86.3%), and biological (51.5%). In this sample, 39.7% of apprentice welders reported occupational accidents and 27.3% reported burning. The inferential analysis showed that the frequency of risk perception factors increases with the length of experience, and apprentice welders who have experienced accidents during welding activity perceive a higher amount of risk factors than those who have never experienced them. It is concluded that apprentice welders perceive risks and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their activity. PMID:23326211

  10. Pulmón del soldador de arco Arc welder's lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Molinari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La siderosis del soldador o neumoconiosis siderótica fue descripta por Doig y McLaughlin en 1936 como una enfermedad pulmonar causada por la inhalación crónica de polvo de hierro en soldadores de arco eléctrico. Presentamos un caso de siderosis del soldador asociada a aumento de los niveles de ferritina, sin hallazgo de depósito de hierro en otros órganos y sin causas evidentes de hemosiderosis secundaria.Pneumoconiosis of electric arc welder or siderotic pneumoconiosis was described by Doig and McLaughlin in 1936 as a lung disease caused by chronic inhalation of iron fumes in electric arc welders. We present a case report of electric arc welder siderosis associated with high levels of ferritin, without findings of iron deposit in any other organ.

  11. Brain MRI findings of welders : high signal intensity in T1WI secondary to manganese exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Lim, M. A.; Shon, M. Y.; Lee, S. H.; Ha, D. G.; Kwon, K. R.; Kim, S. S.; Hong, Y. S.; Lee, Y. H. [Sunlin Presbyterian Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, H. K. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical and brain MRI findings of welders and to determine the utility of MRI in the assessment of occupational manganese exposure. All welders complained of fatigue, headache, anorexia, and decreased libido. The palmomental reflex was positive in five (28%), Myerson`s sign in four (22%), and intention tremor in three (17%). Mean blood Mn was 5.18 (range, 1.77-9.34) {mu}g/dl, mean urine Mn was 5.84 (range, 1.07 -22) {mu}g/l, serum Fe was elevated in one welder, and serum Cd in two. T1WI of brain MRI revealed high signal intensities in the globus pallidus, the putamen, the substantia nigra, the tectum, the caudate nucleus, the subthalamic nucleus, the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. These intensities correlated closely with blood Mn levels, suggesting their potential role in estimating the accumulation of Mn in the brain. (author). 25 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. Redemption of asthma pharmaceuticals among stainless steel and mild steel welders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Hansen, Johnni

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose was to examine bronchial asthma according to cumulative exposure to fume particulates conferred by stainless steel and mild steel welding through a proxy of redeemed prescribed asthma pharmaceuticals. METHODS: A Danish national company-based historical cohort of 5,303 male ever...... was estimated by combining questionnaire data on welding work with a welding exposure matrix. The estimated exposure accounted for calendar time, welding intermittence, type of steel, welding methods, local exhaustion and welding in confined spaces. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were...... nonsignificant increased rate of redemption of asthma medicine was observed among high-level exposed stainless steel welders in comparison with low-level exposed welders (HR 1.54, 95 % CI 0.76-3.13). This risk increase was driven by an increase risk among non-smoking stainless steel welders (HR 1.46, 95 % CI 1...

  13. Hair Manganese as an Exposure Biomarker among Welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Boris; Simpson, Christopher D; Baker, Marissa G; Stover, Bert; Sheppard, Lianne; Seixas, Noah S

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying exposure and dose to manganese (Mn) containing airborne particles in welding fume presents many challenges. Common biological markers such as Mn in blood or Mn in urine have not proven to be practical biomarkers even in studies where positive associations were observed. However, hair Mn (MnH) as a biomarker has the advantage over blood and urine that it is less influenced by short-term variability of Mn exposure levels because of its slow growth rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether hair can be used as a biomarker for welders exposed to manganese. Hair samples (1cm) were collected from 47 welding school students and individual air Mn (MnA) exposures were measured for each subject. MnA levels for all days were estimated with a linear mixed model using welding type as a predictor. A 30-day time-weighted average MnA (MnA30d) exposure level was calculated for each hair sample. The association between MnH and MnA30d levels was then assessed. A linear relationship was observed between log-transformed MnA30d and log-transformed MnH. Doubling MnA30d exposure levels yields a 20% (95% confidence interval: 11-29%) increase in MnH. The association was similar for hair washed following two different wash procedures designed to remove external contamination. Hair shows promise as a biomarker for inhaled Mn exposure given the presence of a significant linear association between MnH and MnA30d levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  14. Influencia de la práctica de los valores morales de los docentes en las actitudes de los estudiantes de las instituciones educativas secundarias del distrito de Platería - Puno en el año 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Choque Neyra, Marleni

    2010-01-01

    La investigación se ha formulado para evidenciar la influencia de la práctica de los valores morales de los docentes en las actitudes de los estudiantes de las Instituciones Educativas Secundarias del distrito de Platería. Se realizó la investigación porque existe la necesidad de tratar de dar solución al problema, mejorar las actitudes y formas de comportamiento de los estudiantes por ser el futuro de nuestro País. Además, es necesario crear conciencia en los docentes para la práctica y la e...

  15. Philosophy for Welders: Colleges Offer Innovative Humanities Curricula for Liberal Arts and Career Track Students Alike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Does America needs more welders and fewer philosophers? Community college humanities professors and administrators say it benefits all students, whether liberal arts or career track, to take courses in philosophy, history, political science, language arts, and other liberal arts subjects. And they're developing innovative humanities curricula to…

  16. Prognostic factors for musculoskeletal sickness absence and return to work among welders and metal workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); B. Naaktgeboren; W.K. Post (Wendel)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To analyse factors that determine the occurrence of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal problems and the time it takes to return to work. METHODS: A longitudinal study with two year follow up was conducted among 283 male welders and metal

  17. Exposure of welders to fumes, Cr, Ni, Cu and gases in Dutch industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, J.F. van der

    1985-01-01

    The exposure of welders in Dutch industries to total particulate, chromium, nickel and copper fume during the welding of unalloyed, stainless and high alloyed steels has been investigated. The exposure to the gases NO2, NO and ozone is also discussed. The results are presented in tables and graphs.

  18. Assessment of Health Consequences of Steel Industry Welders' Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Zahra; Mortazavi, Saied Mohammad Javad; Asmand, Ebrahim; Nikeghbal, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    Welding is among the most important frequently used processes in the industry with a wide range of applications from the food industry to aerospace and from precision tools to shipbuilding. The aim of this study was to assess the level of steel industry welders' exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to investigate the health impacts of these exposures. In this case-control study, we measured the intensity of UV at the workers' wrist in Fars Steel Company through manufacture of different types of heavy metal structures, using UV-meter model 666230 made by Leybold Co., from Germany. The population under the study comprised 400 people including 200 welders as the exposed group and 200 nonwelders as the unexposed group. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19. The average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of the UV at the welders' wrist were 0.362, 0.346, 1.27, and 0.01 μW/cm(2), respectively. There was a significantly (P radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures.

  19. La ocupación de la Araucanía y la pérdida de la platería en manos mapuches. Finales del siglo XIX y primeras décadas del XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Chávez, Jaime

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the Chilean state towards the Araucanía region from the mid-nineteenth century had a major impact on the mapuche economy. The cattle bonanza of the pre-occupation period gave way to the economic malaise which characterized the post-occupation phase. Centring on the activity of silversmithing as a means of reflecting on these two periods, our study seeks to analyze the context and mechanisms which brought about the loss of silversmithing from mapuche hands in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Sources used include notary documents, military reports, census information, newspapers, commercial guides and travel journals.La expansión del Estado chileno hacia la Araucanía, a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, generó un fuerte impacto sobre la economía mapuche. La bonanza ganadera del periodo preocupacional dio paso a una situación de postración económica que caracterizará la etapa post-ocupacional. Centrado en la platería como expresión reveladora de estos dos momentos, nuestro trabajo busca analizar el contexto y mecanismos que posibilitaron la pérdida de la platería en manos mapuches a fines del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Para ello utilizaremos documentos notariales, informes militares, censos, periódicos, guías comerciales y diarios de viajes, entre otros.

  20. Designing, Constructing and Installing a Local Exhaust Ventilation System to Minimize Welders\\' Exposure to Welding Fumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Zare

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Welder’s exposure to welding fumes can cause occupational diseases. The current study sought to examine exposure to welding fumes among welders who work in the repair shop of Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex and design a local exhaust ventilation system to control exposure to welding fumes. Materials & Methods: This applied analytical study was conducted in the summer of 2016 among welders working in the repair shop of Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex. The study comprised three phases; in the first one, welders’ exposure to welding fumes was assessed at the beginning of the study. After that, a local exhaust ventilation system was designed and installed in the aforementioned repair shop. In the final stage, welders’ exposure to welding fumes was assessed again after installation of the ventilation system. The procedure recommended by NIOSH (method number 7300 was used for individual sampling of welders. Results: Based on the obtained findings, before installing the ventilation system, welding technicians were exposed to 0.3 mg/m3 of copper fumes and 0.04 mg/m3 of chromium fumes. Journeyman welders were also exposed to 2.16 mg/m3 of manganese fumes, while stellar welders were exposed to 6.9 mg/m3 of iron fumes. In the light of these measurements, a local exhaust ventilation system was designed and installed. Subsequently, measurement of exposure to welding fumes showed a significant reduction. That is, welding technicians were exposed to 0.17 mg/m3 and 0.015 mg/m3 of copper and chromium fumes respectively. Additionally, journeyman welders were exposed to 0.86 mg/m3 of manganese fumes, whereas stellar welders were exposed to 4.3 mg/m3 of iron fumes. Conclusions: A comparison of standard limits of exposure to welding fumes and the results obtained from measurements in sampling stations before and after the installation of the local exhaust ventilation system reveals that this controlling measure was very effective in the

  1. [Respiratory function evaluation in welders taking into account tecnological evolution of individual protection dispositive and risk specific information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, B; Graziuso, G; Carbone, U

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of specific information program on DPI use on the functional respiratory parameters in a group of 15 welders compared with 18 welders not included in the program and 18 workers of industrial sector. Spirometryc parameters were recorded and compared and the results pointed out a significant increase of FEV1 and FVC in the study group compared with welder out of the study while no difference were observed between study group and workers of industrial sector. Results shown that the correct use of DPI could reduce the effects of welding fumes on respiratory tract making these effects equal to the exposure to industrial dusts.

  2. Synergy as a new and sensitive marker of basal ganglia dysfunction: A study of asymptomatic welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mechelle M; Lee, Eun-Young; Jo, Hang Jin; Du, Guangwei; Park, Jaebum; Flynn, Michael R; Kong, Lan; Latash, Mark L; Huang, Xuemei

    2016-09-01

    Multi-digit synergies, a recently developed, theory-based method to quantify stability of motor action, are shown to reflect basal ganglia dysfunction associated with parkinsonian syndromes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that multi-digit synergies may capture early and subclinical basal ganglia dysfunction. We chose asymptomatic welders to test the hypothesis because the basal ganglia are known to be most susceptible to neurotoxicity caused by welding-related metal accumulation (such as manganese and iron). Twenty right-handed welders and 13 matched controls were invited to perform single- and multi-finger pressing tasks using the fingers of the right or left hand. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Grooved Pegboard scores were used to gauge gross and fine motor dysfunction, respectively. High-resolution (3T) T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T1 mapping, susceptibility, and diffusion tensor MRIs were obtained to reflect manganese, iron accumulation, and microstructural changes in basal ganglia. The synergy index stabilizing total force and anticipatory synergy adjustments were computed, compared between groups, and correlated with estimates of basal ganglia manganese [the pallidal index, R1 (1/T1)], iron [R2* (1/T2*)], and microstructural changes [fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity]. There were no significant differences in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (total or motor subscale) or Grooved Pegboard test scores between welders and controls. The synergy index during steady-state accurate force production was decreased significantly in the left hand of welders compared to controls (p=0.004) but did not reach statistical significance in the right hand (p=0.16). Anticipatory synergy adjustments, however, were not significantly different between groups. Among welders, higher synergy indices in the left hand were associated significantly with higher fractional anisotropy values in the left globus pallidus (R=0.731, psynergy metrics may serve

  3. Characterization of Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding Fume Generated by Apprentice Welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Halshka; Lewinski, Nastassja; Zhao, Jiayuan; Concha-Lozano, Nicolas; Riediker, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) represents one of the most widely used metal joining processes in industry. Its propensity to generate a greater portion of welding fume particles at the nanoscale poses a potential occupational health hazard for workers. However, current literature lacks comprehensive characterization of TIG welding fume particles. Even less is known about welding fumes generated by welding apprentices with little experience in welding. We characterized TIG welding fume generated by apprentice welders (N = 20) in a ventilated exposure cabin. Exposure assessment was conducted for each apprentice welder at the breathing zone (BZ) inside of the welding helmet and at a near-field (NF) location, 60cm away from the welding task. We characterized particulate matter (PM4), particle number concentration and particle size, particle morphology, chemical composition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production potential, and gaseous components. The mean particle number concentration at the BZ was 1.69E+06 particles cm(-3), with a mean geometric mean diameter of 45nm. On average across all subjects, 92% of the particle counts at the BZ were below 100nm. We observed elevated concentrations of tungsten, which was most likely due to electrode consumption. Mean ROS production potential of TIG welding fumes at the BZ exceeded average concentrations previously found in traffic-polluted air. Furthermore, ROS production potential was significantly higher for apprentices that burned their metal during their welding task. We recommend that future exposure assessments take into consideration welding performance as a potential exposure modifier for apprentice welders or welders with minimal training. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  4. Characterization of Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding Fume Generated by Apprentice Welders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Halshka; Lewinski, Nastassja; Zhao, Jiayuan; Concha-Lozano, Nicolas; Riediker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) represents one of the most widely used metal joining processes in industry. Its propensity to generate a greater portion of welding fume particles at the nanoscale poses a potential occupational health hazard for workers. However, current literature lacks comprehensive characterization of TIG welding fume particles. Even less is known about welding fumes generated by welding apprentices with little experience in welding. We characterized TIG welding fume generated by apprentice welders (N = 20) in a ventilated exposure cabin. Exposure assessment was conducted for each apprentice welder at the breathing zone (BZ) inside of the welding helmet and at a near-field (NF) location, 60cm away from the welding task. We characterized particulate matter (PM4), particle number concentration and particle size, particle morphology, chemical composition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production potential, and gaseous components. The mean particle number concentration at the BZ was 1.69E+06 particles cm−3, with a mean geometric mean diameter of 45nm. On average across all subjects, 92% of the particle counts at the BZ were below 100nm. We observed elevated concentrations of tungsten, which was most likely due to electrode consumption. Mean ROS production potential of TIG welding fumes at the BZ exceeded average concentrations previously found in traffic-polluted air. Furthermore, ROS production potential was significantly higher for apprentices that burned their metal during their welding task. We recommend that future exposure assessments take into consideration welding performance as a potential exposure modifier for apprentice welders or welders with minimal training. PMID:26464505

  5. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Alves Bonow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%, chemical (96.2%, physiological (88.8%, and biological (62.9%. The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices’ ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning.

  6. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2013-01-01

    This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604

  7. [The Influence of risk factors on visual performance in of phototoxic maculopathy in occupational welders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingtao; Zhang, Xinfang

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the Influence of risk factors that cause the phototoxic maculopathy by welding arc in occupational welders. We examined randomly a group of 86 male occupational welders 172 eyes from some local metal manufacturing enterprise from August 2010 to December 2013. The ophthalmologic examination which the participants underwent thorough including the best visual acuity, fundus examination by the supplementary lens, fundus photography, and the high definition optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan. All participants of this study underwent thorough the medicine examined by a specialist of occupational who prior to the OCT. All the subjects were divided into groups according to age, protection degrees , length of service, operating time . The incidences of phototoxic maculopathy were compared within groups. The subjects was divided randomly into the lutein group and the placebo group. The examination including the best visual acuity, serum lutein concentrations, macular pigmentoptical density (MPOD), Contrast and glare Sensitivity. (1) The total incidence of phototoxic maculopathy is 32.0%. (2) The incidences of phototoxic maculopathy in the strict protection group, the randomed protective group and the nonprofessional protection group were respectively 21.4%, 36.7%, 53.6%. The incidence in the strict protection group was lower than the other two groups, the incidence was the highest in the nonprofessional protection group, and the difference was statistically significant. (3) The longer length of service, and operating time , the more incidence of phototoxic maculopathy develop. (4) The lutein group prior to the placebo group at the best visual acuity, serum lutein concentrations, macular pigmentoptical density (MPOD), Contrast and glare Sensitivity. The risk factors of phototoxic maculopathy in male occupational welders are the length of service, operating time, protection degrees and the lutein assistantly. The incidence of phototoxic maculopathy occurs

  8. Exposure to respirable dust and manganese and prevalence of airways symptoms, among Swedish mild steel welders in the manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedmer, Maria; Karlsson, Jan-Eric; Andersson, Ulla; Jacobsson, Helene; Nielsen, Jörn; Tinnerberg, Håkan

    2014-08-01

    Welding fume consists of metal fumes, e.g., manganese (Mn) and gases, e.g., ozone. Particles in the respirable dust (RD) size range dominate. Exposure to welding fume could cause short- and long-term respiratory effects. The prevalence of work-related symptoms among mild steel welders was studied, and the occupational exposure to welding fumes was quantified by repeated measurements of RD, respirable Mn, and ozone. Also the variance components were studied. A questionnaire concerning airway symptoms and occupational history was answered by 79% of a cohort of 484 welders. A group of welders (N = 108) were selected and surveyed by personal exposure measurements of RD and ozone three times during 1 year. The welders had a high frequency of work-related symptoms, e.g., stuffy nose (33%), ocular symptoms (28%), and dry cough (24%). The geometric mean exposure to RD and respirable Mn was 1.3 mg/m(3) (min-max 0.1-38.3 mg/m(3)) and 0.08 mg/m(3) (min-max <0.01-2.13 mg/m(3)), respectively. More than 50% of the Mn concentrations exceeded the Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL). Mainly, low concentrations of ozone were measured, but 2% of the samples exceeded the OEL. Of the total variance for RD, 30 and 33% can be attributed to within-worker variability and between-company variability, respectively. Welders had a high prevalence of work-related symptom from the airways and eyes. The welders' exposure to Mn was unacceptably high. To reduce the exposure further, control measures in the welding workshops are needed. Correct use of general mechanical ventilation and local exhaust ventilation can, for example, efficiently reduce the exposure.

  9. Body burden of aluminum in relation to central nervous system function among metal inert-gas welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, V; Hänninen, H; Akila, R; Kovala, T; Kuosma, E; Paakkulainen, H; Valkonen, S; Engström, B

    2000-04-01

    The relationship between elevated internal aluminum loads and central nervous system function was studied among aluminum welders, and the threshold level for adverse effect was defined. For 65 aluminum welders and 25 current mild steel welders body burden was estimated, and the aluminum concentrations in serum (S-Al) and urine (U-Al) were analyzed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. Referents and low-exposure and high-exposure groups were defined according to an aggregated measure of aluminum body burden, the group median S-Al levels being 0.08, 0.14, and 0.46 micromol/l, respectively, and the corresponding values for U-Al being 0.4, 1.8, and 7.1 micromol/l. Central nervous system functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery, symptom and mood questionnaires, a visual and quantitative analysis of electroencephalography (EEG), and P3 event-related potentials with pitch and duration paradigms. Subjective symptoms showed exposure-related increases in fatigue, mild depression, and memory and concentration problems. Neuropsychological testing revealed a circumscribed effect of aluminum, mainly in tasks demanding complex attention and the processing of information in the working memory system and in the analysis and recall of abstract visual patterns. The visual EEG analysis revealed pathological findings only for aluminum welders. Mild, diffuse abnormalities were found in 17% of the low-exposure group and 27% of the high-exposure group, and mild to moderate epileptiform abnormalities at a frequency of 7% and 17%, respectively. Both objective neurophysiological and neuropsychological measures and subjective symptomatology indicated mild but unequivocal findings dose-dependently associated with increased aluminum body burden. The study indicates that the body burden threshold for adverse effect approximates an U-Al value of 4-6 micromol/l and an S-Al value of 0.25-0.35 micromol/l among aluminum welders.

  10. Determination of "safe" and "critical" nanoparticles exposure to welders in a workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J F; Miranda, R M

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined consequences of "safe" versus "critical" exposure to nanoparticles (NP) released during welding operations. With this aim in mind, a set of measurements regarding NP emissions was undertaken in a workshop during welding by metal active gas of carbon steel using different mixtures of argon (Ar) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) as well as different process parameters which might influence emission of (NP). If these measurements were conducted in several locations away from the welding sources, the graphical representation of the obtained observations with time enabled definition of "safe" and "critical" regions within a welding workshop in terms of welder's exposure. This information may be combined with the results of risk analysis derived by control banding and helps to categorize the sites where regulatory measures such as operation containment or dedicated exhaust ventilation need to be implemented.

  11. Torque strength of an endplate welding due to process parameters using a fuel assembling welder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae-Seo; Kim, Soo-Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    As fuel bundles in a PHWR core irradiated, inner pressure in the claddings of the fuel rods increases owing to the outer pressure and fission products of the nuclear fissions. Because of a leak possibility from a welding between a cladding and end plug, this welding part is connected with the safety of nuclear fuel rods. Endplug-cladding welding of nuclear fuel rods in a PHWR takes advantage of a resistance upset butt welding. The weldment between a cladding and endplug is to be sound to prevent a leakage of fission products from a cladding as a UO{sub 2} pellet is irradiated. Weld flash was made from a deformation due to a welding heat and increasing the pressure of the resistivity and resistance from a cladding and endplug. Weld line of a welding interface, microstructure of a weldment and a crystallographic structure change were sources of an iodine induced SCC in a reactor. The soundness of a weldment is important because a weld line connects the leakage of fission products from an operational reactor. In this study, welding specimens were fabricated by a resistance welding method using a bundle fuel welder to measure and analyze the torque of an endplug-endplate welding. The torque of a weldment between an endplug and endplate was measured and analyzed with the welding time. The weldability of a weldment between an endplug and endplate was investigated by a metallographic examination.

  12. Novel Round Energy Director for Use with Servo-driven Ultrasonic Welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitski, Alex; Klinstein, Leo; Holt, Kenneth

    Increasingly stringent process repeatability and precision of assembly requirements are common for high-volume manufacturing for electronic, automotive and especially medical device industries, in which components for disposable medication delivery devices are produced in hundreds of millions annually. Ultrasonic welding, one of the most efficient of plastic welding processes often joins these small plastic parts together, and quite possibly, the one most broadly adopted for high volume assembly. The very fundamental factor in ultrasonic welding process performance is a proper joint design, the most common of which is a design utilizing an energy director. Keeping the energy director size and shape consistent on a part-to-part basis in high volume, multi-cavity operations presents a constant challenge to molded part vendors, as dimensional variations from cavity to cavity and variations in the molding process are always present. A newly developed concept of energy director design, when the tip of the energy director is round, addresses these problems, as the round energy director is significantly easier to mold and maintain its dimensional consistency. It also eliminates a major source of process variability for assembly operations. Materializing the benefits of new type of joint design became possible with the introduction of servo-driven ultrasonic welders, which allow an unprecedented control of material flow during the welding cycle and results in significantly improved process repeatability. This article summarizes results of recent studies focused on evaluating performance of round energy director and investigating the main factors responsible for the joint quality.

  13. [Occupational exposure of welders to ultraviolet and "blue light" radiation emitted during TIG and MMA welding based on field measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present the results of welders' occupational exposure to "blue light" and UV radiation carried out at industrial workstations during TIG and MMA welding. Measurements were performed at 13 workstations (TIG welding: 6; MMA welding: 7), at which different welding parameters and materials were used. The radiation level was measured using a wide-range radiometer and a set of detectors, whose spectral responses were adequately fit to particular hazard under study. The measurement points corresponded with the location of eye and hand. The highest values of eye irradiance were found for aluminum TIG welding. Effective irradiance of actinic UV was within the range E(s) = 7.79-37.6 W/m2; UVA total irradiance, E(UVA) = 18-53.1 W/m2 and effective blue-light irradiance E(B) = 35-67 W/m2. The maximum allowance time ranged from 1.7 to 75 s, which means that in some cases even unintentional very short eye exposure can exceed MPE. The influence of welded material and the type of electrode coating on the measured radiation level were evidenced. The exceeded value of MPE for photochemical hazard arising for the eyes and skin was found at all measured workstations. Welders should use appropriately the eye and face protective equipment and avoid direct staring at welding arc when starting an arc-welding operation. Besides, the lack of head and neck skin protection can induce acute and chronic harmful health effects. Therefore, an appropriate wear of personal protective equipment is essential for welders' health.

  14. Occupational exposure of welders to ultraviolet and "blue light" radiation emitted during TIG and MMA welding based on field measuremants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wolska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to present the results of welders' occupational exposure to "blue light" and UV radiation carried out at industrial workstations during TIG and MMA welding. Materials and methods: Measurements were performed at 13 workstations (TIG welding: 6; MMA welding: 7, at which different welding parameters and materials were used. The radiation level was measured using a wide-range radiometer and a set of detectors, whose spectral responses were adequately fit to particular hazard under study. The measurement points corresponded with the location of eye and hand. Results: The highest values of eye irradiance were found for aluminum TIG welding. Effective irradiance of actinic UV was within the range Es = 7.79-37.6 W/m2; UVA total irradiance, EUVA = 18-53.1 W/m2 and effective blue-light irradiance EB = 35-67 W/m2. The maximum allowance time ranged from 1.7 to 75 s, which means that in some cases even unintentional very short eye exposure can exceed MPE. Conclusions: The influence of welded material and the type of electrode coating on the measured radiation level were evidenced. The exceeded value of MPE for photochemical hazard arising for the eyes and skin was found at all measured workstations. Welders should use appropriately the eye and face protective equipment and avoid direct staring at welding arc when starting an arcwelding operation. Besides, the lack of head and neck skin protection can induce acute and chronic harmful health effects. Therefore, an appropriate wear of personal protective equipment is essential for welders' health. Med Pr 2013;64(1:69–82

  15. Monitoring of chromium and nickel in biological fluids of stainless steel welders using the flux-cored-wire (FCW) welding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stridsklev, Inger Cecilie; Schaller, Karl-Heinz; Langård, Sverre

    2004-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the exposure to chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in flux-cored wire (FCW) welders welding on stainless steel (SS). Seven FCW welders were monitored for 3 days to 1 workweek, measuring Cr and Ni in air, blood, and urine. The welders were questioned about exposure to Cr and Ni during their whole working careers, with emphasis on the week of monitoring, about the use of personal protective equipment and their smoking habits. The air concentrations were mean 200 microg/m(3) (range 2.4-2,744) for total Cr, 11.3 microg/m(3) (416.7) for Ni during the workdays for the five welders who were monitored with air measurements. The levels of Cr and Ni in biological fluids varied between different workplaces. For Cr in whole blood, plasma, and erythrocytes, the mean levels after work were 1.25 (<0.4-8.3) and 1.68 (<0.2-8.0) and 0.9 (<0.4-7.2) microg/l, respectively. For Ni most of the measurements in whole blood and plasma were below the detection limits, the mean levels after work being 0.84 (<0.8-3.3) and 0.57 microg/l (<0.4-1.7), respectively. Mean levels for Cr and Ni in the urine after work were 3.96 (0.34-40.7) and 2.50 (0.56-5.0) microg/g creatinine, respectively. Correlations between the Cr(VI) levels measured in air and the levels of total Cr in the measured biological fluids were found. The results seem to support the view that monitoring of Cr in the urine may be versatile for indirect monitoring of the Cr(VI) air level in FCW welders. The results seem to suggest that external and internal exposure to Cr and Ni in FCW welders welding SS is low in general.

  16. Modifications resulting in significant increases in the beam usage time of a 60 keV electron beam welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, R.E.; Harrison, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Short beam usage times were encountered using a 60 keV electron beam welder. These short times were the direct result of a buildup of a reaction product (WO 2 . 90 ) that occurred on graphite washers which housed the tungsten emitter plate. While it was not possible to prevent the reaction product, its growth rate was sufficiently altered by changing graphite materials and minor design changes of the washers. With these modifications beam usage times increased from an original 40 min to approximately 675 min

  17. Levels and predictors of airborne and internal exposure to chromium and nickel among welders--results of the WELDOX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Tobias; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Gutwinski, Eleonore; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Lehnert, Martin; Heinze, Evelyn; Hartwig, Andrea; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this analysis was to investigate levels and determinants of exposure to airborne and urinary chromium (Cr, CrU) and nickel (Ni, NiU) among 241 welders. Respirable and inhalable welding fume was collected during a shift, and the metal content was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In post-shift urine, CrU and NiU were measured by means of graphite furnace atom absorption spectrometry, with resulting concentrations varying across a wide range. Due to a large fraction below the limits of quantitation we applied multiple imputations to the log-transformed exposure variables for the analysis of the data. Respirable Cr and Ni were about half of the concentrations of inhalable Cr and Ni, respectively. CrU and NiU were determined with medians of 1.2 μg/L (interquartile range exposure-modulating variables in form of multiplicative factors and revealed slightly better model fits for Cr (R(2) respirable Cr 48%, CrU 55%) than for Ni (R(2) respirable Ni 42%, NiU 38%). The air concentrations were mainly predicted by the metal content in electrodes or base material in addition to the welding technique. Respirable Cr and Ni were good predictors for CrU and NiU, respectively. Exposure was higher when welding was performed in confined spaces or with inefficient ventilation, and lower in urine when respirators were used. In conclusion, statistical modelling allowed the evaluation of determinants of internal and external exposure to Cr and Ni in welders. Welding parameters were stronger predictors than workplace conditions. Airborne exposure was lowest inside respirators with supply of purified air. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Electromyographic activity of the erector spinae: The short-effect of one workday for welders with nonspecific chronic low back pain, an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, André Augusto M T; de Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira; Amorin, César Ferreira; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2018-02-06

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of one workday on pain and perceived exertion, muscular strength, and electromyographic activity of the erector spinae muscles in welders with and without low back pain. This is an observational cohort study. Twenty-two welders, metallurgical shipbuilding, were equally divided into 2 groups: low back pain and no low back pain. Pain and perceived exertion. Muscular strength by maximal voluntary contractions and electromyographic activity of right and left erector spinae muscles during maximal voluntary contractions and in the 3 welding positions for 2 periods of the workday (in the morning and at the end of the workday). At the end of workday, the pain increased significantly for the low back pain group (t(22) = 2.448; P= 0.023). The perceived exertion also increased significantly for both groups at the end of workday groups (F(1,22) = 8.570, P= 0.000) and periods (F(1,22) = 8.142, P= 0.000). There were no significant differences between groups and workday periods for muscular strength and electromyographic activity during maximal voluntary contractions of the erector spinae. There was no significance difference for electromyographic activity between groups and workday period and in the 3 welding positions. Although the pain and perceived exertion increased at the end of the workday, these results did not interfere in muscular strength and electromyographic activity of right and left erector spinae muscles. Thus, we can conclude that welders with chronic low back pain had a good physical capacity (muscular strength) and that muscle performance was maintained.

  19. Fiber optics welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  20. Manganese Fractionation Using a Sequential Extraction Method to Evaluate Welders' Shielded Metal Arc Welding Exposures During Construction Projects in Oil Refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Kevin W; Andrews, Ronnee; Bertke, Steven; Ashley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted an occupational exposure assessment study of manganese (Mn) in welding fume of construction workers rebuilding tanks, piping, and process equipment at two oil refineries. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposures to different Mn fractions using a sequential extraction procedure. Seventy-two worker-days were monitored for either total or respirable Mn during stick welding and associated activities both within and outside of confined spaces. The samples were analyzed using an experimental method to separate different Mn fractions by valence states based on selective chemical solubility. The full-shift total particulate Mn time-weighted average (TWA) breathing zone concentrations ranged from 0.013-29 for soluble Mn in a mild ammonium acetate solution; from 0.26-250 for Mn(0,2+) in acetic acid; from non-detectable (ND) - 350 for Mn(3+,4+) in hydroxylamine-hydrochloride; and from ND - 39 micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m(3)) for insoluble Mn fractions in hydrochloric and nitric acid. The summation of all Mn fractions in total particulate TWA ranged from 0.52-470 μg/m(3). The range of respirable particulate Mn TWA concentrations were from 0.20-28 for soluble Mn; from 1.4-270 for Mn(0,2+); from 0.49-150 for Mn(3+,4+); from ND - 100 for insoluble Mn; and from 2.0-490 μg/m(3) for Mn (sum of fractions). For all jobs combined, total particulate TWA GM concentrations of the Mn(sum) were 99 (GSD = 3.35) and 8.7 (GSD = 3.54) μg/m(3) for workers inside and outside of confined spaces; respirable Mn also showed much higher levels for welders within confined spaces. Regardless of particle size and confined space work status, Mn(0,2+) fraction was the most abundant followed by Mn(3+,4+) fraction, typically >50% and ∼30-40% of Mn(sum), respectively. Eighteen welders' exposures exceeded the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values for total Mn (100 μg/m(3)) and 25 exceeded the recently adopted respirable

  1. Al principio fue la platería…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sánchez-Lafuente Gémar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio moderno de las artes decorativas tuvo en sus comienzos, allá por los años setenta del pasado siglo, una cierta vocación femenina. El acceso progresivo de la mujer a la Universidad, y particularmente a las carreras humanísticas, supuso un estímulo y, sobre todo, un incremento notable del número de alumnas matriculadas, por encima incluso del de alumnos, en los estudios de Historia del Arte, introducidos entonces como una nueva titulación universitaria. De aquellas primeras generaciones de licenciadas son algunos de los mejores estudios realizados hasta hoy en esta parcela del arte español, algunos convertidos ya en obras clásicas, que recuperó, gracias a ellas –y también, evidentemente, a destacados especialistas masculinos (entre los que hay que incluir ciertos nombres del finales del siglo XIX–, el protagonismo investigador y universitario que hasta entonces se le habían negado a las creaciones de las artes decorativas por su consideración de menores. El ejemplo de esos años que mejor ilustra la mayor presencia femenina en esta materia es el índice de autores del libro Historia de las artes aplicadas e industriales en España, coordinado por Antonio Bonet Correa y publicado en 1982, en el que figuran once mujeres (frente a solo cinco hombres, que se ocupan de los textos de dieciséis capítulos de un total de veintitrés.

  2. Lung cancer risk in welders and foundry workers with a history of heavy smoking in the USA: The National Lung Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason Y Y; Bassig, Bryan A; Seow, Wei Jie; Hu, Wei; Ji, Bu-Tian; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T; Lan, Qing

    2017-06-01

    Foundry work is a risk factor for lung cancer; however, the association with welding is unclear, as smoking is common among metalworkers and may mask the relationship. We evaluated whether history of welding and foundry work, independently and jointly, and employment duration were associated with lung cancer risk in heavy smokers. We analysed data from the National Lung Screening Trial, a prospective randomised trial of 53 454 heavy smokers (>30 pack-years) in the USA. Cox regression models were used to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs of medically/histologically confirmed incident lung cancer during the follow-up period (2002-2009) in relation to history and duration of welding and foundry work assessed via questionnaires, adjusted for screening arm, component study, sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status and pack-years, body mass index and personal/family medical history. There were 2034 incident lung cancer cases throughout the follow-up. Increasing years of employment in welding (p-trend =0.039) and foundry work (p-trend =0.005) were related to increased lung cancer risk among heavy smokers. Having ever been employed (≥1 yr) as either a welder or foundry worker alone was associated with non-significant increased risks of lung cancer (HR=1.12 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.37) and HR=1.09 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.39), respectively). Further, there was a joint-effect in that those who were ever employed in both occupations had significantly increased risks (HR=1.48 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.04)). Our findings provide further evidence that exposure to welding/metal fumes may be associated with elevated lung cancer risk. NCT00047385. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. 49 CFR 195.222 - Welders: Qualification of welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be qualified in accordance with section 6 of API 1104 (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3) or... and found acceptable under section 9 of API 1104 (incorporated by reference, see § 195.3). [Amdt. 195...

  4. Fiber optics welder having movable aligning mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Robert W.; Robichaud, Roger E.

    1981-01-01

    A system for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45.degree. angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  5. Automation and instrument control applied to an experimental study of electron transport dynamics in an avalanche mode resistive plater chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work it is presented a computer based instrumentation system which was developed to perform data acquisition and integrate the control of different devices in an experimental study of electron transport dynamics in an avalanche mode resistive plate chamber detector in the Radiation Technology Center (CTR) at IPEN/CNEN-SP. System control and data acquisition was performed by a computer program called RPCLabOperator written in MatLab environment running on a LeCroy WavePro 7000 digital oscilloscope. (author)

  6. How to Build a Bacterial Cell: MreB as the Foreman of E. coli Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Handuo; Bratton, Benjamin P; Gitai, Zemer; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2018-03-08

    Cell shape matters across the kingdoms of life, and cells have the remarkable capacity to define and maintain specific shapes and sizes. But how are the shapes of micron-sized cells determined from the coordinated activities of nanometer-sized proteins? Here, we review general principles that have surfaced through the study of rod-shaped bacterial growth. Imaging approaches have revealed that polymers of the actin homolog MreB play a central role. MreB both senses and changes cell shape, thereby generating a self-organizing feedback system for shape maintenance. At the molecular level, structural and computational studies indicate that MreB filaments exhibit tunable mechanical properties that explain their preference for certain geometries and orientations along the cylindrical cell body. We illustrate the regulatory landscape of rod-shape formation and the connectivity between cell shape, cell growth, and other aspects of cell physiology. These discoveries provide a framework for future investigations into the architecture and construction of microbes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pattern of eye diseases among welders in a Nigeria community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Department of Ophthalmology, University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti Ekiti state, ... Objective: To determine the prevalence and types of eye diseases amongst .... conducted in persons with reduced vision or hazy ... computer program, Statistical Package for Social ..... Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental.

  8. Occupational Health Problems of Welders in Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average level of use of protective devices was generally low (35.9%) when compared to the levels of awareness of the workplace hazards (91.6%) and the work-related health complaints (96.4%). The most prevalent health complaints were arc eye injuries (75.7%) followed by foreign bodies in the eyes (70.0%), ...

  9. Cancer Risks among Welders and Occasional Welders in a National Population-Based Cohort Study: Canadian Census Health and Environmental Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill S. MacLeod

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Excess risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma may be partly attributable to factors including smoking and asbestos. Welding-specific exposures may increase bladder and kidney cancer risks, and particular sources of exposure should be investigated. Studies that are able to disentangle welding effects from smoking and asbestos exposure are needed.

  10. Data acquisition system for the Hamilton Standard W2 Electron Beam Welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.

    1979-06-01

    A data acquisition system has been designed which will perform on-line weld-parameter sampling. It is a microprocessor-based program controller and calculator. The parameters sampled are beam current, accelerating voltage, focus-coil current, workpiece rpm, and filament voltage. Sampling in analog form occurs in pre-selected angular-rotation increments from 1 to 9 degrees. There are three data printout options: (A) all data displayed; (B) only out-of-tolerance values displayed; and (C) differences between nominal and sampled values in excess of preselected error bands displayed. A magnetic tape cartridge unit allows long-term data storage and easy retrieval. This report is a manual for system operation. It also describes the design--logic principles, circuitry, and programming--in detail

  11. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Welding (Program CIP: 48.0508--Welder/Welding Technologist). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for welding I and II. Presented first are a program description and course…

  12. The Relationship of Welding Fume Exposure, Smoking, and Pulmonary Function in Welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Laura L

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between occupational exposure to welding fumes and pulmonary function in an effort to add supportive evidence and clarity to the current body of research. This study utilized a retrospective chart review of pulmonary function testing and pulmonary questionnaires already available in charts from preplacement physicals to the most recent test. When comparing smokers to nonsmokers, utilizing multiple regression and controlling for age and percentage of time using a respirator, years welding was statistically significant at p = .04. Data support that smoking has a synergistic effect when combined with welding fume exposure on pulmonary decline.

  13. Development of a Cost Effective Organization Model for the Shipbuilding Welder Labor Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    is in consistent and som etimes non-existent. Air qu ality can be poor and climate control features do not m atch those permanent systems installed...the functions of hydr aulic repair and m aintenance on prim ary equipment. The TO&E is a dynam ic, event driven document that allows e merging long

  14. Welding uranium with a multikilowatt, continuous-wave, carbon dioxide laser welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, P.W.; Townsend, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    A 15-kilowatt, continuous-wave carbon dioxide laser was contracted to make partial-penetration welds in 6.35-and 12.7-mm-thick wrought depleted uranium plates. Welding power and speed ranged from 2.3 to 12.9 kilowatts and from 21 to 127 millimeters per second, respectively. Results show that depth-to-width ratios of at least unity are feasible. The overall characteristics of the process indicate it can produce welds resembling those made by the electron-beam welding process

  15. Research on wireless communication technology based on automatic logistics system of welder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of high real-time and high stability of data transmission in automatic welding system, RTU data format and real-time communication mechanism are adopted in this system. In the automatic logistics system through the Ethernet and wireless WIFI technology will palletizer, stacker, AGV car organically together to complete the palletizer automatic crawling the goods, AGV car automatic delivery, stacking machine automatically out of the Dimensional warehouse. .

  16. THE FORMATION OF BIMETALLIC CONNECTION IN WELDER DEPOSITION UNDER LASER WELDING WITH THE FILLER WIRE FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Yelistratov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The metallurgical and technological features of welding deposition in a robotic unit with a semiconductor laser are analyzed. The prospects of using beam with low energy density in the spot heating for applying metallic layers using filler wire are shown. 

  17. Male-mediated spontaneous abortion among spouses of stainless steel welders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Bonde, J P; Jensen, T K

    2000-01-01

    Male-mediated spontaneous abortion has never been documented for humans. The welding of stainless steel is associated with the pulmonary absorption of hexavalent chromium, which has genotoxic effects on germ cells in rodents. Clinical and early subclinical spontaneous abortions were examined among...

  18. Data acquisition system for the Hamilton Standard W2 Electron Beam Welder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopwood, J.

    1979-06-01

    A data acquisition system has been designed which will perform on-line weld-parameter sampling. It is a microprocessor-based program controller and calculator. The parameters sampled are beam current, accelerating voltage, focus-coil current, workpiece rpm, and filament voltage. Sampling in analog form occurs in pre-selected angular-rotation increments from 1 to 9 degrees. There are three data printout options: (A) all data displayed; (B) only out-of-tolerance values displayed; and (C) differences between nominal and sampled values in excess of preselected error bands displayed. A magnetic tape cartridge unit allows long-term data storage and easy retrieval. This report is a manual for system operation. It also describes the design--logic principles, circuitry, and programming--in detail.

  19. Research on wireless communication technology based on automatic logistics system of welder

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Xuan; Wang Zhi-yong; Ma Zhe-dong

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of high real-time and high stability of data transmission in automatic welding system, RTU data format and real-time communication mechanism are adopted in this system. In the automatic logistics system through the Ethernet and wireless WIFI technology will palletizer, stacker, AGV car organically together to complete the palletizer automatic crawling the goods, AGV car automatic delivery, stacking machine automatically out of the Dimensional warehouse. .

  20. Determination of Maximum Follow-up Speed of Electrode System of Resistance Projection Welders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2004-01-01

    the weld process settings for the stable production and high quality of products. In this paper, the maximum follow-up speed of electrode system was tested by using a special designed device which can be mounted to all types of machine and easily to be applied in industry, the corresponding mathematical...... expression was derived based on a mathematical model. Good accordance was found between test and model....

  1. Lung cancer mortality in stainless steel and mild steel welders: a nested case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens; Hansen, K S

    1996-01-01

    . Analysis was based on 439 deceased referents and 94 deceased cases. There was a 70% excess of lung cancer associated with "welding exposure ever" (OR +/- 95% C.I.: 1.68, 1.02-2.78). Overall OR for "mild steel (MS) welding ever" was 1.64, 0.99-2.72. The risk estimates for welding exposures showed...... an increasing tendency up to 15 years of exposure. The pattern of stainless steel (SS) welding resembles that of mild steel with an estimated OR of 1.65, 0.88-3.0. The general conclusion is that MS welding as well as SS welding seems to be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Further followup...

  2. Pre-conceptual design requirements and system description for FED frame seal welder and cutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, L.S.; Longhurst, G.R.; Watts, K.D.; Williams, S.A.

    1981-03-01

    The Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is being designed in a torus shape using ten removable segments to form the torus geometry. The torus consists of a frame and ten shield assemblies which fit into the frame and are held in place structurally using electrically insulated backing plates. It is then necessary to seal the shield segment to the frame for the assembly to sustain an internal vacuum of 10 -7 torr. This task is intended to be accomplished by welding a frame seal between the frame and the shield segment. An example of this concept is shown. This document covers the equipment requirements and pre-conceptual design description for installing and removing the frame seal

  3. An Experienced Worker's View of the Workplace: Caring about Employees Brings Success to Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carl

    1992-01-01

    A bakery foreman states that employers need (1) a sustained standard of living; (2) job security; (3) creativity; and (4) dignity in work. He suggests that foreman must find ways to increase productivity while treating employees as individuals. (SK)

  4. Planning and management support for NPP personnel SAT-based training programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziakova, M.

    1998-01-01

    Planning and management support for NPP personnel SAT-based training programmes is described for the following job positions: reactor operator; turbine operator; reactor maintenance worker; pump maintenance worker; chemistry foreman; health physics foreman; electric maintenance worker

  5. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Welding and Cutting Programs (Program CIP: 48.0508--Welder/Welding Technologist). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the welding and cutting programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies, and…

  6. ARC+(Registered Trademark) and ARC PC Welding Simulators: Teach Welders with Virtual Interactive 3D Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, Claude

    2011-01-01

    123 Certification Inc., a Montreal based company, has developed an innovative hands-on welding simulator solution to help build the welding workforce in the most simple way. The solution lies in virtual reality technology, which has been fully tested since the early 90's. President and founder of 123 Certification Inc., Mr. Claude Choquet Ing. Msc. IWE. acts as a bridge between the welding and the programming world. Working in these fields for more than 20 years. he has filed 12 patents world-wide for a gesture control platform with leading edge hardware related to simulation. In the summer of 2006. Mr Choquet was proud to be invited to the annual IIW International Weld ing Congress in Quebec City to launch the ARC+ welding simulator. A 100% virtual reality system and web based training center was developed to simulate multi process. multi-materiaL multi-position and multi pass welding. The simulator is intended to train welding students and apprentices in schools or industries. The welding simulator is composed of a real welding e[eetrode holder (SMAW-GTAW) and gun (GMAW-FCAW). a head mounted display (HMD), a 6 degrees of freedom tracking system for interaction between the user's hands and head. as well as external audio speakers. Both guns and HMD are interacting online and simultaneously. The welding simulation is based on the law of physics and empirical results from detailed analysis of a series of welding tests based on industrial applications tested over the last 20 years. The simulation runs in real-time, using a local logic network to determine the quality and shape of the created weld. These results are based on the orientation distance. and speed of the welding torch and depth of penetration. The welding process and resulting weld bc.1d are displayed in a virtual environment with screenplay interactive training modules. For review. weld quality and recorded process values can be displayed and diagnosed after welding. To help in the le.tming process, a learning curve for each student and each Virtual Welding Class'" can be plotted, for an instructor's review or a required third party evaluation.

  7. Monitoring of occupational exposure in manufacturing of stainless steel constructions. Part I: Chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium in the workplace air of stainless steel welders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Bencko, V.; Papayova, A.; Saligova, D.; Tejral, J.; Borska, L.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to workplace airborne pollutants was examined in a group of 20 workers dealing mainly with welding, polishing, drilling and assembling of stainless steel constructions. Monitoring of airborne particulate matter (ARM) was performed using both personal and stationary samplers. For the personal full-shift monitoring, a SKC 224 PCRX-4 constant flow rate pump was used which was connected to a sampling head with mixed cellulose matched-weight filters having a diameter of 32 mm and a 0.8 μm pore size. The constant flow rate amounted to 2 L min -1 . For the stationary sampling, the ''Gent'' stacked filter unit PM10 sampler was used, operating at a flow rate of 16 L min -1 . It collects particles having an equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD) of less than 10,um in the separate ''coarse'' (2-10 μm EAD) and ''fine'' (< 2 μm EAD) size fractions on two sequential polycarbonate (Costar, Nuclepore) filters with a 47 mm diameter. The filters of both types were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Of the elements determined, results for chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium are presented. Procedures for quality assurance of both sampling and analytical stages are described. Sampling of biological material for elemental analysis (hair, nails, urine and blood and/or serum) of exposed and control persons in contamination-free conditions was also performed. In addition, saliva samples were collected for studying immunological and genotoxicity aspects of occupational exposure. (author)

  8. Monitoring of occupational exposure in manufacturing of stainless steel constructions. Part I: Chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium in the workplace air of stainless steel welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, J; Bencko, V; Pápayová, A; Saligová, D; Tejral, J; Borská, L

    2001-11-01

    Exposure to workplace airborne pollutants was examined in a group of 20 workers dealing mainly with welding, polishing, drilling and assembling of stainless steel constructions. Airborne particulate matter (APM) collected using both personal and stationary samplers was analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Quality assurance procedures of both sampling and analytical stages are described. Of the elements determined, results are presented for chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium. The median values of element concentrations exceeded the maximum admissible limits for workplace pollutants only for chromium, while for nickel the limit was exceeded in several individual cases. Sampling of hair, nails, blood, urine and saliva to be used for biological monitoring of the exposed and control groups is also described.

  9. Early renal effects of occupational exposure to low-level hexavalent chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaya, Teruo (Dept. of Public Health, Gifu Univ. School of Medicine, Tsukasa-machi (Japan)); Ishikawa, Noriko (Occupational Hygiene Center, Gifu Labour Standards Association, Hikie (Japan)); Hata, Hideo (Occupational Hygiene Center, Gifu Labour Standards Association, Hikie (Japan)); Takahashi, Akemi (Gifu-shi Central Public Health Center, Miyako-dori (Japan)); Yoshida, Izumi (Gifu-shi Central Public Health Center, Miyako-dori (Japan)); Okamoto, Yoshinari (Gifu-shi Central Public Health Center, Miyako-dori (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    To detect early renal effects of occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr), urinary total proteins (U-TP), urinary albumin (U-Alb) and urinary retinol-binding protein (U-RBP) were determined in 166 male Cr platers and 106 male controls. The mean employment time in Cr plating for the platers was 12.6 years. Urinary Cr (U-Cr), which was determined as an index of Cr exposure, ranged from ''not detected'' to 19.91 [mu]g/g creatinine in the platers. The U-Cr level was lower than those in other previous studies. Age-adjusted U-TP, U-Alb or U-RBP levels were not different between the platers and the controls. In the platers, a significant positive correlation was found between age-adjusted U-TP and U-Cr, but U-Cr had no significant relation to age-adjusted U-Alb or U-RBP level. Employment time had no effect on any age-adjusted urinary proteins. The Cr exposure may have been too low to induce definite renal dysfunction. Early renal effects of low-level Cr exposure may be mild, and may not be specific to renal function. (orig.)

  10. 29 CFR 1926.406 - Specific purpose equipment and installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—disconnecting means—(1) Motor-generator, AC transformer, and DC rectifier arc welders. A disconnecting means shall be provided in the supply circuit for each motor-generator arc welder, and for each AC transformer and DC rectifier arc welder which is not equipped with a disconnect mounted as an integral part of the...

  11. Shop Math for the Metal Trades. Combination Welder Apprentice, Machinist Helper, Precision Metal Finisher, Sheet Metal Worker Apprentice. A Report on Metal Trades Industry Certified, Single-Concept, Mathematical Learning Projects to Eliminate Student Math Fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Lawrence R.

    This project (1) identifies basic and functional mathematics skills (shop mathematics skills), (2) provides pretests on these functional mathematics skills, and (3) provides student learning projects (project sheets) that prepare metal trades students to read, understand, and apply mathematics and measuring skills that meet entry-level job…

  12. GrB-TWEAK: A Potential Novel Biologic for NSCLC Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    325. 29 de Plater L, Vincent-Salomon A, Berger F, Nicolas A, Vacher S, Gravier E et al. Predictive gene signature of response to the anti-TweakR mAb...Bellail AC, Hunter SB, Brat DJ, Tan C, Van Meir EG. Microregional extracellular matrix heterogeneity in brain modulates glioma cell invasion. Int J

  13. DNA-protein crosslinks in peripheral lymphocytes of individuals exposed to hexavalent chromium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitkovich, A; Lukanova, A; Popov, T; Taioli, E; Cohen, H; Costa, M; Toniolo, P

    1996-01-01

    Abstract DNA-protein crosslinks were measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes of chrome-platers and controls from Bulgaria in order to evaluate a genotoxic effect of human exposure to carcinogenic Cr(VI) compounds. Chrome-platers and most of the unexposed controls were from the industrial city of Jambol; some additional controls were recruited from the seaside town of Burgas. The chrome-platers had significantly elevated levels of chromium in pre- and post-shift urine, erythrocytes and lymphocytes compared with the control subjects. The largest differences between the two groups were found in erythrocyte chromium concentrations which are considered to be indicative of Cr(VI) exposure. Despite the significant differences in internal chromium doses, levels of DNA-protein crosslinks were not significantly different between the combined controls and exposed workers. Individual DNA-protein crosslinks, however, correlated strongly with chromium in erythrocytes at low and moderate doses but at high exposures, such as among the majority of chrome-platers, these DNA adducts were saturated at maximum levels. The saturation of DNA-protein crosslinks seems to occur at 7-8 μg I-(1) chromium in erythrocytes whereas a mean erythrocyte chromium among the chrome platers was as high as 22.8 μg l(-1). Occupationally unexposed subjects exhibited a significant variability with respect to the erythrocyte chromium concentration, however erythrocyte chromium levels correlated closely with DNA-protein crosslinks in lymphocytes. The controls from Jambol had higher chromium concentrations in erythrocytes and elevated levels of DNA-protein crosslinks compared with Burgas controls. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde among furniture factory workers did not change levels of DNA-protein crosslinks in peripheral lymphocytes. DNA-protein crosslink measurements showed a low intraindividual variability and their levels among both controls and exposed indivduals were not affected by smoking, age

  14. Assessment of health consequences of steel industry welders′ occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zamanian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that the time period of UV exposure in welders is higher than the permissible contact threshold level. Therefore, considering the outbreak of the eye and skin disorders in the welders, decreasing exposure time, reducing UV radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures.

  15. Machine Shop Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Projects at IARC can benefit from Fermilab's experienced machinists, welders, and extensive on-site equipment. Equipment includes conventional and CNC mills, lathes,...

  16. 49 CFR 325.59 - Measurement procedure; stationary test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE..., asphalt spreaders, liquid or slurry pumps, auxiliary air compressors, welders, and trash compactors. (c...

  17. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and Implementation of Domain Referenced Testing in Vocational Welding. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Dan

    A project was undertaken to develop and implement domain-referenced tests (DRTs) for welders' helpers. After analyzing the results of a state survey of welding job titles and related tasks and after consulting with postsecondary educators and industry personnel, researchers developed DRTs to measure various tasks typically performed by welders.…

  19. Modelling of Energy Expenditure at Welding Workstations: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The welding workstation usually generates intense heat during operations, which may affect the welder's health if not properly controlled, and can also affect the performance of the welder at work. Consequently, effort to control the conditions of the welding workstation is essential, and is therefore pursued in this paper.

  20. PENGARUH PERBEDAAN POSISI PENGELASAN TERHADAP KEKUATAN SAMBUNGAN T-Joint PENGELASAN FILLET DENGAN LAS FCAW PADA PLAT MILD STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjito Jokosisworo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To get quality of good weld joint that in scheme of construction welder of hull must be planned about way of welder, way of inspection, welding flux and weld type which would in utilizing. By karna to get quality of good weld of welder engineering at ship must be followed by will have an effect on to end result from welder process and mechanical properties yielded at construction welder process of ship steel which in the end will influence strength of construction weld joint of ship steel. How big the influence can be done with assaying of mechanical properties at steel plate weld joint. Data analysis result of the assaying can be taken a a real conclusion assists in increasing grade and security and safety of weld joint. This research aim to know strength of joint T-join at weld material to influence position of welder at buckling strength, and visually with EDSA. By using low alloy steel containing grade C=0,15%, Si=0,24%, Mn=0,88%, P=0,018%, S=0,034%. Material is given [by] treatment of welder with various position of welder Horizontal ( 2F , Vertical ( 3F , Overhead ( 4F by using weld FCAW ( Flux cord Arc Welding with electrode E71T-1, Ø cord 1,2 mm, applies gas CO2, Pada joint type Tjoin welder fillet. Method used in this research is experiment method, that is experimental method directly to object. In this case steel ST42 joint Tjoin with Thick plate 8 mm Marine Plate 18 piece weld by using gas CO2.To get research data is applied [by] observation method by using testing machine bending and test EDSA. Data which collected then is analysed difference of result from visual and mechanic assaying. Result of research shows existence of difference from strength of bending and its(the visulisation is especially to level of weave bead formed between differences of position of Horizontal ( 2F , Vertical ( 3F , Overhead ( 4F. And level of influence position of welder to strain bending 72,65 %.. At execution of workmanship of construction of welder

  1. Biomonitoring for iron, manganese, chromium, aluminum, nickel and cadmium in workers exposed to welding fume: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The control of exposure to welding fumes is increasing importance in promoting a healthy, safe and productive work environment. This study is a case-control design, random study was conducted among welder (56 subjects and non welder (39 subjects with more than 1 years experience in the same job task in an automotive parts manufactory within the industrial area at Cikarang in 2013. All subjects were completed physical examination, informed consent and questionnaire. Blood heavy metals were determined by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Whole blood iron, manganese, chromium and lead in welder were higher than non-welder, but not different for aluminum, nickel and cadmium. In welder, chromium and manganese correlated with smoking status, cadmium correlated with age and smoking status. In multivariate analysis, wholeblood cadmium correlates with age and smoking status.

  2. Experience with extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furia, John P.

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to summarize the literature and to report on single treatment, high-energy ESWT for the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis and lateral epicondylitis. Fifty-three patients (60 heels) were treated with 3800 shock waves. Sixteen patients (19 heels) were active, 21 (22 heels), were moderately active, and 16 (19 heels) were sedentary. Twelve weeks post treatment, mean visual analog scores (VAS) for the entire group improved from 9.2 to 2.4 (plateral epicondylitis were treated with 3200 shock waves. There were 9 workers compensation and 27 non-workers compensation patients. Twelve weeks post treatment, the mean VAS for the entire group improved from 8.0 to 2.5 (plateral epicondylitis.

  3. Stainless steel welding and semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, J E; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1988-01-01

    Questionnaire studies of patients from fertility clinics suggest that welders may have an increased risk of reduced semen quality. In this study, welders and nonwelders from the same plants were asked to provide blood, urine, and semen samples. Urine was analyzed for chromium and nickel, and for ...... and nonwelders. Because the metal dust exposure of nonwelders in the plant may be higher than that in the general population, welders were also compared to referents not working in the metal industry. Again, no decrease in semen quality associated with welding was demonstrated....

  4. Low-Cost Open-Source Voltage and Current Monitor for Gas Metal Arc Weld 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar, A.; Wijnen, B.; Anzalone, G. C.; Havens, T. C.; Sanders, P. G.; Pearce, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Arduino open-source microcontrollers are well known in sensor applications for scientific equipment and for controlling RepRap 3D printers. Recently low-cost open-source gas metal arc weld (GMAW) RepRap 3D printers have been developed. The entry-level welders used have minimal controls and therefore lack any real-time measurement of welder voltage or current. The preliminary work on process optimization of GMAW 3D printers requires a low-cost sensor and data logger system to measure welder cu...

  5. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity data for 379 pharmaceuticals: on systemic dose and developmental effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter T. Theunissen; Bruce Beyer; Sonia Beken

    2016-01-01

    And co-authors William J. Breslin, Gregg D. Cappon, Connie L. Chen, Gary Chmielewski, Luc de Schaepdrijver, Brian Enright, Jennifer E. Foreman, Wafa Harrouk, Kok-Wah Hew, Alan M. Hoberman, Julia Y. Hui, Thomas B. Knudsen, Susan B. Laffan, Susan L. Makris, Matthew Martin, Mary Ellen McNerney,

  6. 40 CFR 761.123 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... decontamination levels set forth in this policy as constituting adequate cleanup of PCBs. (2) “Standards” refers to the numerical decontamination levels set forth in this policy. Residential/commercial areas means... designated agent (e.g., a facility manager or foreman). Soil means all vegetation, soils and other ground...

  7. Interviewing for a Job. The Wisconsin Guide to Local Curriculum Improvement in Industrial Education, K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, John M.

    The intent of this field tested instructional package is to provide the student with an overview of the management element of industry and how it relates to the duties of a shop foreman. Defining behavioral objectives, the course description includes an information section, classroom activities, sample job application forms, and student evaluation…

  8. 76 FR 15321 - SEDASYS Computer-Assisted Personalized Sedation System; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.'s, Petition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...] SEDASYS Computer-Assisted Personalized Sedation System; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.'s, Petition for Review... an advisory committee Ethicon Endo- Surgery Inc.'s (EES's), petition for review of the Agency's... Foreman, FDA, CDRH, to Ken Charak, Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc., containing the order denying approval of...

  9. 46 CFR 56.95-5 - Rights of access of marine inspectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... includes manufacture, fabrication, assembly, erection, and testing of the piping or system components... requirements of § 56.95-1, including certified qualifications for welders, welding operators, and welding...

  10. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes; smoking; superoxide release; welders ... by serum from young smokers as compared to that of young nonsmokers, both from the ... to oxidants induce appearance in serum of factors that affect the PMN function.

  11. Křížový stolek do stolní elektronové svářečky

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Ivan; Zobač, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, 11-12 (2006), s. 214-216 ISSN 0447-6441 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : X–Y stage * electron beam welder Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  12. Automatization of welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Tomita, Jinji; Nishihara, Katsunori.

    1978-01-01

    Automatization of welding is one of the effective measures for securing high degree of quality of nuclear power equipment, as well as for correspondence to the environment at the site of plant. As the latest ones of the automatic welders practically used for welding of nuclear power apparatuses in factories of Toshiba and IHI, those for pipes and lining tanks are described here. The pipe welder performs the battering welding on the inside of pipe end as the so-called IGSCC countermeasure and the succeeding butt welding through the same controller. The lining tank welder is able to perform simultaneous welding of two parallel weld lines on a large thin plate lining tank. Both types of the welders are demonstrating excellent performance at the shops as well as at the plant site. (author)

  13. The risk of cataract in relation to metal arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagor, Rebekka Michaelsen; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    .95–1.21] and the adjusted HR was 1.08 (95% CI 0.95–1.22). Age and diabetes were as expected strong risk factors. Conclusion: We found no increased risk of developing cataract among Danish metal welders who worked with arc welding from 1950–1985. This may be attributed to the effectiveness of personal safety equipment....... increases the risk of cataract. Method: We compared the risk of being diagnosed with cataract from 1987–2012 in a historic cohort of 4288 male metal arc welders against a reference group comprised of Danish skilled and unskilled male workers with similar age distribution. For the welders’ cohort...... adjusted for baseline data regarding age, diabetes, and social group. Results: There were 266 welders and 29 007 referents with a diagnosis and/or operation for cataract. The unadjusted HR for cataract comparing ever-welders with referents was 1.07 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0...

  14. Effectiveness of ultraviolet light personal protective equipment used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... (UV) light personal protective equipment (PPE) used by arc welders in the informal sector. ... all had formal education: 31.1% had primary school level as the highest attained education level, ...

  15. Pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... close to a security system metal detector. Notify security staff if you have a pacemaker. Also, stay at least 2 feet away from industrial welders and electrical generators. Some medical procedures can ...

  16. Risk of lung cancer according to mild steel and stainless steel welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anita Rath; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hansen, Johnni

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Whether the elevated risk of lung cancer observed among welders is caused by welding emissions or by confounding from smoking or asbestos exposure is still not resolved. This question was addressed in a cohort with a long follow-up and quantified estimates of individual exposure.......06-1.70)]. Among the stainless steel welders, the risk increased significantly with increasing accumulative welding particulate exposure, while no exposure-response relation was found for mild steel welders, even after adjustment for tobacco smoking and asbestos exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The study corroborates...... earlier findings that welders have an increased risk of lung cancer. While exposure-response relations indicate carcinogenic effects related to stainless steel welding, it is still unresolved whether the mild steel welding process carries a carcinogenic risk....

  17. 75 FR 31760 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ..., Connecticut, experienced a catastrophic natural gas explosion that caused six deaths and at least 50 injuries... to the building was on, welders were actively working, and diesel-fueled heaters were running...

  18. The discussion of execution about HAF603 of 2008 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Wei; Lu Gaoshang; Sun Haipeng

    2010-01-01

    The general situation about nuclear power welder qualification standards of 1995 and 2008 editions is introduced in this paper, and the differences between them are analyzed. Combining with the practical experiences in the supervisions of welder qualification, the authors point out the main problems faced in the execution of 2008 edition HAF603, and put forward the advices and opinions in the execution of 2008 edition HAF603. (authors)

  19. Increased risk of parkinsonism associated with welding exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Brad A; Criswell, Susan R; Lundin, Jessica I; Hobson, Angela; Seixas, Noah; Kotzbauer, Paul T; Evanoff, Bradley A; Perlmutter, Joel S; Zhang, Jing; Sheppard, Lianne; Checkoway, Harvey

    2012-10-01

    Manganese (Mn), an established neurotoxicant, is a common component of welding fume. The neurological phenotype associated with welding exposures has not been well described. Prior epidemiologic evidence linking occupational welding to parkinsonism is mixed, and remains controversial. This was a cross-sectional and nested case-control study to investigate the prevalence and phenotype of parkinsonism among 811 shipyard and fabrication welders recruited from trade unions. Two reference groups included 59 non-welder trade workers and 118 newly diagnosed, untreated idiopathic PD patients. Study subjects were examined by a movement disorders specialist using the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection 3 (UPDRS3). Parkinsonism cases were defined as welders with UPDRS3 score ≥15. Normal was defined as UPDRS3welding. Adjusted prevalence ratios for parkinsonism were calculated in relation to quartiles of welding years. The overall prevalence estimate of parkinsonism was 15.6% in welding exposed workers compared to 0% in the reference group. Among welders, we observed a U-shaped dose-response relation between weighted welding exposure-years and parkinsonism. UPDRS3 scores for most domains were similar between welders and newly diagnosed idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) patients, except for greater frequency of rest tremor and asymmetry in PD patients. This work-site based study among welders demonstrates a high prevalence of parkinsonism compared to nonwelding-exposed workers and a clinical phenotype that overlaps substantially with PD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DAGING HALAL DAN THOYYIB

    OpenAIRE

    Zakariah, M. Askari

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was determined to halal and good (thoyyib) in food and feed. Halal on plate and halal on production is one of term were used on this research. The term halal on plater is view from substrate, then halal on production is view from process include a slaughtering process until marketing. Critical control point for decided a meat halal is nine (9) point from handle a cattle until labeling. Some causes in area outer Kolaka Regency was showed that The marketer mixed or a...

  1. Workshop on effects of chromium coating on Nb3Sn superconductor strand: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Chromium coating on superconductor strand -- an overview; technology of chromium plating; comparison of wires plated by different platers; search for chromium in copper; strand manufactures' presentations; chromium plating at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; a first look at a chromium plating process development project tailored for T.P.X. and I.T.E.R. strand; and influence of chromium diffusion and related phenomena on the reference ratios of bare and chromium plated Nb 3 Sn strand

  2. Acute respiratory effects and biomarkers of inflammation due to welding-derived nanoparticle aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierschke, Katrin; Isaxon, Christina; Andersson, Ulla B K; Assarsson, Eva; Axmon, Anna; Stockfelt, Leo; Gudmundsson, Anders; Jönsson, Bo A G; Kåredal, Monica; Löndahl, Jakob; Pagels, Joakim; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats; Nielsen, Jörn

    2017-07-01

    Welders are exposed to airborne particles from the welding environment and often develop symptoms work-related from the airways. A large fraction of the particles from welding are in the nano-size range. In this study we investigate if the welders' airways are affected by exposure to particles derived from gas metal arc welding in mild steel in levels corresponding to a normal welding day. In an exposure chamber, 11 welders with and 10 welders without work-related symptoms from the lower airways and 11 non-welders without symptoms, were exposed to welding fumes (1 mg/m 3 ) and to filtered air, respectively, in a double-blind manner. Symptoms from eyes and upper and lower airways and lung function were registered. Blood and nasal lavage (NL) were sampled before, immediately after and the morning after exposure for analysis of markers of oxidative stress. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) for analysis of leukotriene B4 (LT-B4) was sampled before, during and immediately after exposure. No adverse effects of welding exposure were found regarding symptoms and lung function. However, EBC LT-B4 decreased significantly in all participants after welding exposure compared to filtered air. NL IL-6 increased immediately after exposure in the two non-symptomatic groups and blood neutrophils tended to increase in the symptomatic welder group. The morning after, neutrophils and serum IL-8 had decreased in all three groups after welding exposure. Remarkably, the symptomatic welder group had a tenfold higher level of EBC LT-B4 compared to the two groups without symptoms. Despite no clinical adverse effects at welding, changes in inflammatory markers may indicate subclinical effects even at exposure below the present Swedish threshold limit (8 h TWA respirable dust).

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Cardiovascular Effects of Welding Fumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqi Li

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the risk to welders working today remains unclear. We aimed to elucidate the cardiovascular effects of exposure to welding fumes.In a cross-sectional study, structured interviews and biological sampling were conducted for 101 welders and 127 controls (all non-smoking males from southern Sweden. Personal breathing zone sampling of respirable dust was performed. Blood pressure (BP and endothelial function (using peripheral arterial tonometry were measured. Plasma and serum samples were collected from peripheral blood for measurement of C-reactive protein, low-density lipoprotein, homocysteine, serum amyloid A, and cytokines.Welders were exposed to 10-fold higher levels of particles than controls. Welders had significantly higher BP compared to controls, an average of 5 mm Hg higher systolic and diastolic BP (P ≤ 0.001. IL-8 was 3.4 ng/L higher in welders (P=0.010. Years working as a welder were significantly associated with increased BP (β=0.35, 95%CI 0.13 - 0.58, P=0.0024 for systolic BP; β=0.32, 95%CI 0.16 - 0.48, P<0.001 for diastolic BP, adjusted for BMI but exposure to respirable dust was not associated with BP. No clear associations occurred between welding and endothelial function, or other effect markers.A modest increase in BP was found among welders compared to controls suggesting that low-to-moderate exposure to welding fumes remains a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  4. Major factors influencing craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcherding, J.D.; Sebastian, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study whose objective was to determine the most influential factors adversely affecting craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction from the perspective of the tradesmen employed at the sites. Data were collected through the use of a questionnaire survey and group interview sessions, predominantly with workmen, at six nuclear power plant construction projects. Craftsmen were chosen as the major data base because of their awareness of how their time would actually be spent on the project. Topics considered include the factors influencing craft productivity, material availability, redoing work, crew interfacing, overcrowded work areas, instruction time, inspection delays, craft turnover, craft absenteeism, foreman changes, foreman incompetence, engineering design lead time, comprehensive scheduling of the design function, the responsibility of the utility, value engineering, plant standardization, the effective utilization of the planning and scheduling system, and the labor-management committee

  5. Computerized system of team make-up and work allocation in the Belgian Zolder mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustanowicz, M.

    1979-01-01

    System of work allocation introduced in 1974 in the Zolder Coal Mine (NV Kempense Steenkolenmijnen) in Belgium is evaluated. The system is based on an IBM 370/158 computer. An information management system supervises the programing work. There are approximately 30 programs. Absenteeism in the Belgian coal mines is generally high at approximately 24% and some months as high as 40%. Therefore, introducing a computerized system of work allocation and team make-up was advantageous. Operation of the system is described on the levels of foreman, engineers and director of the mine. Advantages of the system are numerous. It enables optimization of team make-up and work allocation, shortens the time of allocation of work by a foreman, increases efficiency of foremen's work and provides the director with the means and information necessary for efficient decision making in improving the productivity of the mine. (5 refs.) (In Polish)

  6. Requirements to be met by mine shift foremen, and interpersonal conflicts that arise in the labor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozmus, R. (Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland))

    1990-02-01

    Reports on investigations into the questions of whether the functions, duties and capacity to act endowed to shift foremen are in agreement with work organization principles, and if there is a relationship between wrongly established duties, responsibilities and capacity to act and worker-foreman conflicts that arise on the line. Results of questionnaires completed for a group of 30 mine foremen are discussed. The questionnaires asked about the sense of duty and abilities of the personnel, work climate, occurrence and kind of conflicting situations and the necessity of punishment. Nearly all polled foremen (98.5%) stressed the need for greater capacity to act and make decisions. About 80% of the polled challanged the scope of the foreman's responsibilities. 7 refs.

  7. Bucket Brigades to Increase Productivity in a Luxury Assembly Line

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo, Filippo De; Borgia, Orlando; Tucci, Mario

    2013-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues in manual assembly lines is to achieve the best balance of workloads. There are many analytic approaches to solve this problem, but they are often neglected, since they are time-consuming and require high level engineering skills. Fashion bags packaging lines must comply with a number of different products with low production volumes, while the organization of the line is often under the mere responsibility of the foreman, who balances workloads in an empiri...

  8. ANALISA ELECTRODE CONSUMABLE TYPE OK AUTROD 12.10 PENGELASAN SUBMERGED ARC WELDING PADA BLOK-BLOK KAPAL DCV 18500 DWT DI PT. JASA MARINA INDAH UNIT II SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanto Jatmiko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this globalization era technological advances growed very fast. In shipping industry of development process shipbuilding of principal feedstock to used steel plate, with construction tacking on using welder method.In this research purpose of lifted is know number of requirement (consumable electrode for welder SAW at block-block ship DCV 18500 DWT in PT. Jasa Marina Indah Semarang.At this experiment specimen applied is low carbon steel of type ST 42 with thickness of 12, 13, 14, 17, 19 dan 24 mm. Research is done by the way of making specimen at every plate thickness. Then is done path measurement of length, used electrode length, and weight flux applied at the welder.From result of gauging and data calculation welder at block DB 5(p/c/s, SS5A(p/s, SS 5B(p/s, UD 5C, and TB 102 (p/c/s will be known number of electrodes applied in welder SAW and number of flux used.

  9. Low-Cost Open-Source Voltage and Current Monitor for Gas Metal Arc Weld 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arduino open-source microcontrollers are well known in sensor applications for scientific equipment and for controlling RepRap 3D printers. Recently low-cost open-source gas metal arc weld (GMAW RepRap 3D printers have been developed. The entry-level welders used have minimal controls and therefore lack any real-time measurement of welder voltage or current. The preliminary work on process optimization of GMAW 3D printers requires a low-cost sensor and data logger system to measure welder current and voltage. This paper reports on the development of a low-cost open-source power measurement sensor system based on Arduino architecture. The sensor system was designed, built, and tested with two entry-level MIG welders. The full bill of materials and open source designs are provided. Voltage and current were measured while making stepwise adjustments to the manual voltage setting on the welder. Three conditions were tested while welding with steel and aluminum wire on steel substrates to assess the role of electrode material, shield gas, and welding velocity. The results showed that the open source sensor circuit performed as designed and could be constructed for <$100 in components representing a significant potential value through lateral scaling and replication in the 3D printing community.

  10. Exposure to welding fumes is associated with hypomethylation of the F2RL3 gene: a cardiovascular disease marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Li, Huiqi; Hedmer, Maria; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Albin, Maria; Broberg, Karin

    2015-12-01

    Welders are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies linked tobacco smoke exposure to hypomethylation of the F2RL3 (coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3) gene, a marker for cardiovascular disease prognosis and mortality. However, whether welding fumes cause hypomethylation of F2RL3 remains unknown. We investigated 101 welders (median span of working as a welder: 7 years) and 127 unexposed controls (non-welders with no obvious exposure to respirable dust at work), age range 23-60 years, all currently non-smoking, in Sweden. The participants were interviewed about their work history, lifestyle factors and diseases. Personal sampling of respirable dust was performed for the welders. DNA methylation of F2RL3 in blood was assessed by pyrosequencing of four CpG sites, CpG_2 (corresponds to cg03636183) to CpG_5, in F2RL3. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between exposure to welding fumes and F2RL3 methylation. Welders had 2.6% lower methylation of CpG_5 than controls (pWelding fumes exposure and previous smoking were associated with F2RL3 hypomethylation. This finding links low-to-moderate exposure to welding fumes to adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, and suggests a potential mechanistic pathway for this link, via epigenetic effects on F2RL3 expression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Study on the Joining Strength of Spot Welding using POMISPOT Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azhar Ahmad; Siti Aiasah Hashim; Mohd Rizal Chulan

    2015-01-01

    Welding is a process to join metals. Spot welding is commonly used for specific purposes such joining in small areas or making temporary joints. POMISPOT is a spot welder that was designed and built by the ADC group, using capacitive resistance method. This study was made to obtain the welding strength that can be made by this spot welder. The study used stainless steel pieces of different thickness and by varying the applied voltage. The strength of welded pieces is tested by applying loads. The relationship between the thickness, voltage and welding strength will be used as the basis of specifications of this tool. (author)

  12. 49 CFR 178.338-16 - Inspection and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and testing. 178.338-16 Section 178.338... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-16 Inspection and testing... Section VIII of the ASME Code. The welder and the welding procedure must be qualified in accordance with...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.251 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Welding, Cutting and Brazing § 1910.251 Definitions. As used in this subpart: (a) Welder and welding operator mean any operator of electric or gas welding and cutting equipment. (b) Approved means listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to...

  14. 49 CFR 195.214 - Welding procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding procedures. 195.214 Section 195.214... PIPELINE Construction § 195.214 Welding procedures. (a) Welding must be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with welding procedures qualified under Section 5 of API 1104 or Section IX of the ASME Boiler and...

  15. Auto Body Welding 2 (Course Outline), Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 1: 9033.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The 90-hour course is a foundation quinmester course in welding for the auto body repairman. The outline consists of seven blocks of instruction (orientation, 6 hours; auto body oxyacetylene welding, 10 hours; electric arc welding equipment, 6 hours; auto body electric arc welding, 8 hours; position welding, 40 hours; electric spot welders, 16…

  16. 49 CFR 179.100-9 - Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.100-9 Section 179.100-9... Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-9 Welding. (a) All..., appendix W (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Welding procedures, welders and fabricators shall be...

  17. 49 CFR 192.225 - Welding procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding procedures. 192.225 Section 192.225... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.225 Welding procedures. (a) Welding must be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with welding procedures...

  18. 49 CFR 179.400-11 - Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.400-11 Section 179.400-11...-11 Welding. (a) Except for closure of openings and a maximum of two circumferential closing joints in... subchapter). (d) Each welding procedure, welder, and fabricator must be approved. [Amdt. 179-32, 48 FR 27708...

  19. 49 CFR 179.200-10 - Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.200-10 Section 179.200-10... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-10 Welding. (a) All joints... W (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Welding procedures, welders and fabricators shall be...

  20. 49 CFR 179.11 - Welding certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding certification. 179.11 Section 179.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Design Requirements § 179.11 Welding certification. (a) Welding procedures, welders and fabricators shall...

  1. 46 CFR 54.25-25 - Welding of quenched and tempered steels (modifies UHT-82).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding of quenched and tempered steels (modifies UHT-82... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-25 Welding of quenched and tempered steels (modifies UHT-82). (a) The qualification of welding procedures, welders, and...

  2. Metal Working and Welding Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by metal workers and welders. Addressed in the six individual units of the course are the following topics: weldable metals and their alloys, arc welding, gas welding,…

  3. Introduction to Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; Gregory, Mike

    This curriculum guide provides six units of instruction on basic welding. Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: employment opportunities for welders, welding safety and first aid, welding tools and equipment, basic metals and metallurgy, basic math and measuring, and procedures for applying for a welding job.…

  4. Effects of Exposure to Welding Fume on Lung Function: Results from the German WELDOX Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, M; Hoffmeyer, F; Gawrych, K; Lotz, A; Heinze, E; Berresheim, H; Merget, R; Harth, V; Van Gelder, R; Hahn, J-U; Hartwig, A; Weiß, T; Pesch, B; Brüning, T

    2015-01-01

    The association between exposure to welding fume and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been insufficiently clarified. In this study we assessed the influence of exposure to welding fume on lung function parameters. We investigated forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, and expiratory flow rates in 219 welders. We measured current exposure to respirable particles and estimated a worker's lifetime exposure considering welding techniques, working conditions and protective measures at current and former workplaces. Multiple regression models were applied to estimate the influence of exposure to welding fume, age, and smoking on lung function. We additionally investigated the duration of working as a welder and the predominant welding technique. The findings were that age- and smoking-adjusted lung function parameters showed no decline with increasing duration, current exposure level, and lifetime exposure to welding fume. However, 15% of the welders had FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal, but we could not substantiate the presence of an association with the measures of exposure. Adverse effects of cigarette smoking were confirmed. In conclusion, the study did not support the notion of a possible detrimental effect of exposure to welding fume on lung function in welders.

  5. 49 CFR 179.300-9 - Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.300-9 Section 179.300-9... Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-9 Welding. (a) Longitudinal... fusion welded on class DOT-110A tanks. Welding procedures, welders and fabricators must be approved in...

  6. 49 CFR 179.220-10 - Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.220-10 Section 179.220-10... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-10 Welding. (a) All joints... of this subchapter). Welding procedures, welders, and fabricators shall be approved. (b) Radioscopy...

  7. 30 CFR 250.111 - Who oversees operations under my welding plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who oversees operations under my welding plan... § 250.111 Who oversees operations under my welding plan? A welding supervisor or a designated person in charge must be thoroughly familiar with your welding plan. This person must ensure that each welder is...

  8. Upper nozzle welding development transfer of Angra 2/00 fuel element to F.E.C. (Fabrica de Elemento Combustivel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo, R.F. di; Almeida, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The technology development of upper nozzle welding of Angra-2 Combustible element, done at CDTN (Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear), this technology transfer to FEC (Fabrica de Elemento Combustivel), the welders training of FEC in nozzle welding, the radiographic control of nozzle welds and the FEC personnel training in this nozzle welds radiography are presented is this report. (C.M.) [pt

  9. Technical specifications on the welding in fuel reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karino, Motonobu; Uryu, Mitsuru; Matsui, N.; Nakazawa, Fumio; Imanishi, Makoto; Koizumi; Kazuhiko; Sugawara, Junichi; Tanaka, Hideo

    1999-04-01

    The past specifications SGN of the welding in JNC was reexamined for the reprocessing plants in order to further promote the quality control. The specification first concerns the quality of raw materials, items of the quality tests, material management, and qualification standards of the welders. It extends over details of the welding techniques, welding design, welding testings, inspection and the judgment standards. (H. Baba)

  10. Welding the CNGS decay tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    3.6 km of welds were required for the 1 km long CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) decay tube, in which particles produced in the collision with a proton and a graphite target will decay into muons and muon neutrinos. Four highly skilled welders performed this delicate task.

  11. APPLICATIONS OF A SINGLE CARBON ELECTRODE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Page 1 ... ABSTRACT: A single carbon electrode used with a common arc welder has been successfully used on steel to weld, to surface harden, to spot weld sheet, to pierce holes and to do simple brazing. ... applications: welding, spot welding, hole piercing, etc. The metal tube holding the carbon electrodes is banded with ...

  12. Manufactura/Mercadeo y Distribucion. Libro del Profesor (Manufacturing/Marketing & Distribution. Teacher's Guide). B6. CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-Hudson Migrant Education Center, New Paltz, NY.

    The guide, written in Spanish, comprises the fifth grade unit of a career education curriculum developed for migrant students. The unit focuses on 11 occupations in manufacturing, marketing, and distribution: union representative, welder, machinist, assembly worker, textile designer, chemist, buyer, sales representative, accountant, commercial…

  13. Work-related chronic obstructive pulmo- nary disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite smoking being the most important risk factor for this disease, accounting .... fibre, glass transport workers, concrete/ cement manufacture, foundries, refrac- ... Welders, automobile industries – repairs, servicing, petrol stations, tobacco ... This assessment by the clinician depends ... workplace hazard control or, if not.

  14. Occupational injuries and safety measures adopted by welding workers: a cross sectional study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhumika.T.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Welders have been identified as a high risk group according to ranking of occupations based on cost related injuries. Employment of safety measures and practices among welders are potential ways of preventing occupational injuries. Adherence to these precautions is nearly universal in the developed world but there is scarcity of information about the situation in developing world including India. Objectives 1 To estimate the prevalence of occupational injuries among welding workers in Udupi district; 2 To assess the perception towards occupational hazards and the safety measures adopted by the welders Material and Methods A cross- sectional study was conducted among 160 non- industrial welding workers in Udupi district. A pre-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used. Results The prevalence of occupational injuries was found to be 80%. Only 24.4% of the welders had undergone professional training. Though 95% of them were aware of the importance of personal protective equipments (PPE, only 37.5% of them were regularly using PPE. Majority (75% of them reported that welding profession was dangerous. Around 79% of the workers reported carelessness being the major cause of injury during work. Working hours of less than 8 hours in a day, reading of safety manual and maintenance of equipments were significantly positively associated with occupational injuries among welding workers. Conclusion Occupational injuries during welding are preventable. The level of experience, training and attitude while working can reduce the injuries to large extent.

  15. Radiographic testing of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, James F.

    1997-01-01

    The increase in construction activity in the Philippines, reinforced concrete building is still a favorite among designers, because it is much cheaper to build and it requires qualified welders, etc. and extensive nondestructive testing and inspection of metals, welds and castings. Of all the techniques radiography is widely used for concrete

  16. IMPACTS OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF SPENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    of publications exist in the literature on large scale environmental pollution problems such as oil pollution ... by small – scale industrial establishment like welding workshops. Welders and panel beaters use calcium .... measured with a weighing balance (METTLER TOLEDO model) to obtain the fresh weight yield. Dry weight ...

  17. Elementary TIG Welding Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, John E., III

    The text was prepared to help deaf students develop the skills needed by an employed welder. It uses simplified language and illustrations to present concepts which should be reinforced by practical experience with welding skills. Each of the 12 lessons contains: (1) an information section with many illustrations which presents a concept or…

  18. Applications of a single carbon electrode | Skelskey | SINET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A single carbon electrode used with a common arc welder has been successfully used on steel to weld, to surface harden, to spot weld sheet, to pierce holes and to do simple brazing. Key words/phrases: Arc, carbon, dry cell, plasma, welding. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science Vol.26(2) 2003: 173-176 ...

  19. Occupational injuries and safety measures adopted by welding workers: a cross sectional study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhumika.T.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Welders have been identified as a high risk group according to ranking of occupations based on cost related injuries. Employment of safety measures and practices among welders are potential ways of preventing occupational injuries. Adherence to these precautions is nearly universal in the developed world but there is scarcity of information about the situation in developing world including India. Objectives 1 To estimate the prevalence of occupational injuries among welding workers in Udupi district; 2 To assess the perception towards occupational hazards and the safety measures adopted by the welders Material and Methods A cross--‐ sectional study was conducted among 160 non--‐ industrial welding workers in Udupi district. A pre--‐structured interviewer--‐administered questionnaire was used. Results The prevalence of occupational injuries was found to be 80%. Only 24.4% of the welders had undergone professional training. Though 95% of them were aware of the importance of personal protective equipments (PPE, only 37.5% of them were regularly using PPE. Majority (75% of them reported that welding profession was dangerous. Around 79% of the workers reported carelessness being the major cause of injury during work. Working hours of less than 8 hours in a day, reading of safety manual and maintenance of equipments were significantly positively associated with occupational injuries among welding workers. Conclusion Occupational injuries during welding are preventable. The level of experience, training and attitude while working can reduce the injuries to large extent.

  20. Caring for Rosie the Riveter's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Bill

    2011-01-01

    During the Second World War, women in the United States who worked in the war industries in such jobs as welders, riveters, heavy machinery operators, and parachute riggers were heralded in the media as "Rosie the Riveter." From 1943 to 1945 a fortunate few of these workplace pioneers participated in a memorable experiment in child care at Kaiser…

  1. Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Peter

    Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

  2. ROCLA robots repaired after tough times

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïezi

    2004-01-01

    The team of five welders and five mechanics, represented by Pascal Mésenge (right) and Fabrice Multon (left), worked during two week-ends to repair the two ROCLA. At the centre, Oliver Boettcher, technical manager for the robot.

  3. Comparative microscopic study of human and rat lungs after overexposure to welding fume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, James M; Roberts, Jenny R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Mercer, Robert R

    2013-11-01

    Welding is a common industrial process used to join metals and generates complex aerosols of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Most long-time welders experience some type of respiratory disorder during their time of employment. The use of animal models and the ability to control the welding fume exposure in toxicology studies have been helpful in developing a better understanding of how welding fumes affect health. There are no studies that have performed a side-by-side comparison of the pulmonary responses from an animal toxicology welding fume study with the lung responses associated with chronic exposure to welding fume by a career welder. In this study, post-mortem lung tissue was donated from a long-time welder with a well-characterized work background and a history of extensive welding fume exposure. To simulate a long-term welding exposure in an animal model, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once a week for 28 weeks by intratracheal instillation with 2mg of a stainless steel, hard-surfacing welding fume. Lung tissues from the welder and the welding fume-treated rats were examined by light and electron microscopy. Pathological analysis of lung tissue collected from the welder demonstrated inflammatory cell influx and significant pulmonary injury. The poor and deteriorating lung condition observed in the welder examined in this study was likely due to exposure to very high levels of potentially toxic metal fumes and gases for a significant number of years due to work in confined spaces. The lung toxicity profile for the rats treated with welding fume was similar. For tissue samples from both the welder and treated rats, welding particle accumulations deposited and persisted in lung structures and were easily visualized using light microscopic techniques. Agglomerates of deposited welding particles mostly were observed within lung cells, particularly alveolar macrophages. Analysis of individual particles within the agglomerates showed that these

  4. Oxidative stress, telomere shortening, and DNA methylation in relation to low-to-moderate occupational exposure to welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiqi; Hedmer, Maria; Wojdacz, Tomasz; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Lindh, Christian H; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Albin, Maria; Broberg, Karin

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to welding fumes is a risk factor for lung cancer. We examined relationships between low-to-moderate occupational exposure to particles from welding fumes and cancer-related biomarkers for oxidative stress, changes in telomere length, and alterations in DNA methylation. We enrolled 101 welders and 127 controls (all currently nonsmoking men) from southern Sweden. We performed personal sampling of respirable dust and measured 8-oxodG concentrations in urine using a simplified liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Telomere length in peripheral blood was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Methylation status of 10 tumor suppressor genes was determined by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis. All analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index, previous smoking, passive smoking, current residence, and wood burning stove/boiler at home. Welders were exposed to respirable dust at 1.2 mg/m(3) (standard deviation, 3.3 mg/m(3); range, 0.1-19.3), whereas control exposures did not exceed 0.1 mg/m(3) (P < 0.001). Welders and controls did not differ in 8-oxodG levels (β = 1.2, P = 0.17) or relative telomere length (β = -0.053, P = 0.083) in adjusted models. Welders showed higher probability of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) methylation in the unadjusted model (odds ratio = 14, P = 0.014), but this was not significant in the fully adjusted model (P = 0.052). Every working year as a welder was associated with 0.0066 units shorter telomeres (95% confidence interval -0.013 to -0.00053, P = 0.033). Although there were no clear associations between concentrations of respirable dust and the biomarkers, there were modest signs of associations between oxidative stress, telomere alterations, DNA methylation, and occupational exposure to low-to-moderate levels of particles. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Kajian Gangguan Fungsi Paru Pada Pekerja Pengelasan Di Kecamatan Mertoyudan Kabupaten Magelang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sukawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Welders are at high risk for suffering from pulmonary function disorders. A preliminary study revealed that as many as 50% of welders suffered from this kind of disease. This study aimed to explain risk factors associated with the occurrence of pulmonary function disorders among welders in their workshops. Methods: It was observational research with cross-sectional approach. Number of samples ware 47 welders worker at industries. Pulmonary function testing was measured using Spirometer Lab III. While, dust levels inside workplace were measured using Low Volume Sampler (LVS. Results: Factors of dust levels (p=0.475; PR=1.278, duration of exposure (p=0.697; PR=1.231, nutritional status (p=0.077; PR=1.913 and number of cigarettes more than 9 rods a day (p=0.037; PR=1.765 had no significant association with pulmonary function disorders. On the other hand, factors of age (p=0.011; PR=1.965, length of work more than 5 years (p<0.001; PR=9.257, length of smoking (p=0.024; PR=1.878 had significant association with pulmonary function disorders. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that the length of work more than 5 years was the most dominant variables influencing pulmonary function disorders (p=0.007 and Exp(B with 95%CI=24,158 (2.348 – 248.516. Conclusion: Welders who have been working more than 5 years are 24 times as likely to have pulmonary function disorders as those who have been working less than or equal to 5 years.    Keywords: Dust Levels, Pulmonary Function Disorders

  6. Ultraviolet-B phototoxicity and hypothetical photomelanomagenesis: intraocular and crystalline lens photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainster, Martin A; Turner, Patricia L

    2010-04-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation can cause phototoxic macular injuries in young people who have been sunbathing but not sungazing and in welders. Welders have a reportedly increased risk of uveal melanoma. We analyze phakic and pseudophakic risks for solar and welding arc UV-B exposure. Optical radiation measurement, analysis, and perspective. Spectral transmittances were measured for UV-transmitting, UV-blocking, and blue-blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs). The photoprotective performances of crystalline and intraocular lenses were analyzed using relevant epidemiologic and laboratory data and action spectra for acute retinal phototoxicity and melanoma photocarcinogenesis. Crystalline lens UV-B retinal protection is deficient in children and young adults, increasing their potential susceptibility to acute retinal phototoxicity and hypothetical photomelanomagenesis. UV-B radiation has sufficient energy/photon to induce primary melanomagenic DNA lesions, unlike blue light or UV-A radiation. UV-blocking and blue-blocking IOLs have negligible UV-B transmittance. UV-transmitting IOL transmittance of UV-B radiation is equivalent to that of a 15-year-old crystalline lens. If optical radiation exposure is responsible for welders' increased risk of uveal melanoma, then UV-B radiation is the most probable causative agent and spectacle wear is a potential confounding factor in epidemiologic studies of ocular melanoma. Welders under 30 years of age are at greater risk for welding maculopathy than older welders. Children, adults under 30 years of age, and pseudophakic individuals with UV-transmitting IOLs should wear sunglasses in bright environments because of the UV-B window in their crystalline lenses or IOLs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Welding related occupational eye injuries: a narrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, D A; Pannala, R; Sorock, G S; Wellman, H; Courtney, T K; Verma, S; Smith, G S

    2005-06-01

    To determine the activities and circumstances proximal to a welding related occupational eye injury, a hybrid narrative coding approach derived from two well developed classification systems was developed to categorize and describe the activity, initiating process, mechanism of injury, object and/or substance, and the use of protective eyewear from the narrative text data reported for each injury. Routinely collected workers' compensation claims over a one year period (2000) were analyzed from a large US insurance provider. An index term search algorithm of occupation, incident, and injury description fields identified 2209 potential welding related eye injury claims. After detailed review of these claims, 1353 welders and 822 non-welders were analyzed. During 2000, eye(s) as the primary injured body part accounted for 5% (n = 26 413) of all compensation claims. Eye injuries accounted for 25% of all claims for welders. Subjects were mainly male (97.1%) and from manufacturing (70.4%), service (11.8%), or construction (8.4%) related industries. Most injuries were foreign body (71.7%) or burn (22.2%) and 17.6% were bilateral. Common activities include welding (31.9%) and/or grinding (22.5%). Being struck by an airborne object occurred in 56.3% of cases. Non-welders showed similar patterns except that burns (43.8%) were more frequent and more often initiated by another worker (13.9%). Narrative injury text provides valuable data to supplement traditional epidemiologic analyses. Workers performing welding tasks or working nearby welders should be trained to recognize potential hazards and the effective use of proper safety equipment to prevent ocular injury.

  8. Un cáliz de Juan de Astorga en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Sosa, Rafael

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available El trasiego de artistas y obras entre España y América, en uno y otro sentido, fue muy intenso y aun falta bastante para tener un panorama suficientemente completo y sacar consecuencias. Al margen de la identificación concreta de cada uno de ellos, el fenómeno se inscribe en un amplio marco de trasvase cultural donde los aspectos artísticos alumbran los fundamentos sobre los que descansa este proceso de colonización, de tanto alcance en la edad moderna. Estas líneas dan a conocer un cáliz de plata sobredorada en propiedad privada de La Paz. Se trata de una obra de platería renacentista que presenta buen estado de conservación, aunque bastante alterado su aspecto por la aplicación posterior de numerosas piezas de esmalte con el fin de enriquecerlo,…

  9. An investigation of player to player character identification via personal pronouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hichens, Michael; Drachen, Anders; Richards, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The player character is an important feature of many games, where it is through the character that the player interacts with game world. There has been considerable interest in the relationship between the player and the player character. Much of this work has examined the identification of players......, third) as an indication of the relationship between player and character. Results indicate that the presence of story and information about the player character had no effect on identification with the plater character. However, characteristics of the players, particularly gender and general experience...... in playing video games, did have a statistically significant affect, indicating that different levels of identification are more dependent on the player than on the game. This indicates that players are not a homogeneous group with respect to player character identification and is an important consideration...

  10. Review of occupational epidemiology of chromium chemicals and respiratory cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B

    1988-06-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between cancer risk and employment in chromium producing and using industries. Strong and consistent associations have been found between employment in the primary chemical producing industry and the risk for respiratory cancer. Workers employed in chromate pigment production and possibly spray painters of chromate pigment paints appear to be at excess risk of respiratory cancer. Chrome platers may also be at excess risk, although the evidence is limited. A few studies indicate that chromium alloy welding may also be an exposure source of concern. Some studies of ferrochromium alloy workers have shown an excess risk for respiratory cancer, although the risk may in part be due to concomitant exposures. The evidence indicates that the hexavalent form of chromium is the primary agent of chromium carcinogenesis. Solubility and other characteristics of chromium compounds may also play a role in determining risk.

  11. Hanford Site storm water comprehensive site compliance evaluation report for the reporting period July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    On September 9, 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF, Authorization to Discharge Under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). RL submitted a Notice of Intent to comply with this permit to EPA in conformance with the General Permit requirements on October 1, 1992. On February 14, 1994, EPA issued a Storm Water General Permit Coverage Notice and assigned WA-R-00-Al7F as the Hanford Site's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) storm water permit number. The Hanford Site Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) (WHC 1996a) was certified by J. E Rasmussen, Director Environmental Assurance, RL, on September 24, 1996, in compliance with Part IV.B(i) of the General Permit. As required by General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF (WA-R-00-Al7F), Section IV, Part D, Section 4.c, an annual report must be developed by RL and retained on site to verify that the requirements listed in the General Permit are being implemented. The previous Hanford Site Storm Plater Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation Report (WHC 1996b) addressed the period from July 1995 through June 1996. This document fulfills the requirement to prepare an annual report and contains the results of inspections of the storm water outfalls listed in the SWPPP (WHC 1996a). This report also describes the methods used to conduct the 1100 Storm Plater Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation (SWCSCE) as required in Part IV, Section D.4.c in the General Permit; summarizes the results of the compliance evaluation; and documents significant leaks and spills. The reporting year for this SWCSCE report is July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997

  12. Adult Learning and the Establishment of Training Programs in Bureaucratic-Like Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    environment, and provide the methodology and resources required. 3. Product Use Training for Customers at DuPont ( Green , 8 1-85) When Du Pont developed a...contains pedorniance.-relate(, lot behavors that foremen, their supervsors and their subordinates have reported) as critcal ’to the foreman S job success...Please consider the above-named individual s behavior on the loo for the past three months Do not ccnsider other foremen or tlOs rnuividua;’s behavor at

  13. Determination of Informal Sector as Urban Pollution Source : Fume Characterization of Small-scale Manual Metal Arc Welding using Factor Analysis in Bandung City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastiti, A.; Pramudyastuti, D.Y.; Oginawati, K.; Santoso, M.

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, the informal sector, particularly small-scale welding activities, are considered to be an important contributor to urban air pollution although studies in this sector are limited. This study aims to identify the composition of small-scale welding fume in order to further investigate the effects and set control strategies and urban pollution abatement policies. Breathing zone air samples were collected from 30 mild steel manual metal arc welders and 17 non-welders in Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. The respirable particulates in air samples were analyzed using gravimetric method, and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was employed to identify characteristic of welding fume. It was found that respirable particulates concentration in welders (range : 315.6 and 3,735.93 µgm -3 ; average 1,545.436 µgm -3 ) were significantly higher than in non-welders (range : 41.84 and 1,688.03 µgm -3 ; average : 375.783 µgm -3 ). Welders' breathing zones contain Fe>Na>K>Mn>Al >Cr>Ti>Cl>Br>I>Zn>Sb>V>Co>Sc; while non-welders' breathing zones contain Cr>F>Al>Ti>Na>Br>I>Mn>Cl>Co>Zn>Sc. Inter-species correlation analysis conducted using Statgraphic Ver. 4.0 shows that Fe (range : n.d. - 775.19 µgm -3 ; average: 0.1674µgm -3 ), Co (range : n.d. - 0.51 µgm -3 ; average: 0.000082 µgm -3 ), Mn (range : 0.39 - 148.37 µgm -3 ; average: 0.0374 µgm -3 ), Na (range: 0.17 and 623.85 µgm -3 ; average: 0.0973 µgm -3 ) and K (range : n.d. - 301.15 µgm -3 ; average: 0.0535 µgm -3 ) were emitted from welding activity, and thus are considered as components of welding fume which contribute to urban air pollution. Although welding fume and the identified species in welding fume were still below permissible limit, small-scale welding activities have great potential in emitting higher fume concentration due to due to high variability of welding activities, such as welding frequency, materials being welded, and varied environmental conditions. (author)

  14. Full-Field Strain Mapping at a Ge/Si Heterostructure Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buwen Cheng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The misfit dislocations and strain fields at a Ge/Si heterostructure interface were investigated experimentally using a combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and quantitative electron micrograph analysis methods. The type of misfit dislocation at the interface was determined to be 60° dislocation and 90° full-edge dislocation. The full-field strains at the Ge/Si heterostructure interface were mapped by using the geometric phase analysis (GPA and peak pairs analysis (PPA, respectively. The effect of the mask size on the GPA and PPA results was analyzed in detail. For comparison, the theoretical strain fields of the misfit dislocations were also calculated by the Peierls-Nabarro and Foreman dislocation models. The results showed that the optimal mask sizes in GPA and PPA were approximately three tenths and one-tenth of the reciprocal lattice vector, respectively. The Foreman dislocation model with an alterable factor a = 4 can best describe the strain field of the misfit dislocation at the Ge/Si heterostructure interface.

  15. ANALISA OPTIMALISASI TEKNIK ESTIMASI DAN KOMPENSASI GERAK PADA ENKODER VIDEO H.263

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oka Widyantara

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Mode baseline encoder video H.263 menerapkan teknik estimasi dan kompensasi gerak dengan satu vector gerak untuk setiap macroblock. Prosedur area pencarian menggunakan pencarian penuh dengan akurasi setengah pixel pada bidang [16,15.5] membuat prediksi di tepian frame tidak dapat diprediksi dengan baik. Peningkatan unjuk kerja pengkodean prediksi interframe encoder video H.263 dengan optimalisasi teknik estimasi dan kompensasi gerak diimplementasikan dengan penambahan area pencarian [31.5,31.5] (unrestricted motion vector, Annex D dan 4 motion vector (advanced prediction mode, Annex F. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa advanced mode mampu meningkatkan nilai SNR sebesar 0.03 dB untuk sequence video claire, 0.2 dB untuk sequence video foreman, 0.041 dB untuk sequence video Glasgow, dan juga mampu menurunkan bit rate pengkodean sebesar 2.3 % untuk video Claire, 15.63 % untuk video Foreman,  dan 9.8% untuk video Glasgow dibandingkan dengan implementasi 1 motion vector pada pengkodean baseline mode.

  16. Strain field mapping of dislocations in a Ge/Si heterostructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlong Liu

    Full Text Available Ge/Si heterostructure with fully strain-relaxed Ge film was grown on a Si (001 substrate by using a two-step process by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The dislocations in the Ge/Si heterostructure were experimentally investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The dislocations at the Ge/Si interface were identified to be 90° full-edge dislocations, which are the most efficient way for obtaining a fully relaxed Ge film. The only defect found in the Ge epitaxial film was a 60° dislocation. The nanoscale strain field of the dislocations was mapped by geometric phase analysis technique from the HRTEM image. The strain field around the edge component of the 60° dislocation core was compared with those of the Peierls-Nabarro and Foreman dislocation models. Comparison results show that the Foreman model with a = 1.5 can describe appropriately the strain field around the edge component of a 60° dislocation core in a relaxed Ge film on a Si substrate.

  17. Strain field mapping of dislocations in a Ge/Si heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanlong; Zhao, Chunwang; Su, Shaojian; Li, Jijun; Xing, Yongming; Cheng, Buwen

    2013-01-01

    Ge/Si heterostructure with fully strain-relaxed Ge film was grown on a Si (001) substrate by using a two-step process by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The dislocations in the Ge/Si heterostructure were experimentally investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The dislocations at the Ge/Si interface were identified to be 90° full-edge dislocations, which are the most efficient way for obtaining a fully relaxed Ge film. The only defect found in the Ge epitaxial film was a 60° dislocation. The nanoscale strain field of the dislocations was mapped by geometric phase analysis technique from the HRTEM image. The strain field around the edge component of the 60° dislocation core was compared with those of the Peierls-Nabarro and Foreman dislocation models. Comparison results show that the Foreman model with a = 1.5 can describe appropriately the strain field around the edge component of a 60° dislocation core in a relaxed Ge film on a Si substrate.

  18. PROMSYS, Plant Equipment Maintenance and Inspection Scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.L.; Srite, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: PROMSYS is a computer system designed to automate the scheduling of routine maintenance and inspection of plant equipment. This 'programmed maintenance' provides the detailed planning and accomplishment of lubrication, inspection, and similar repetitive maintenance activities which can be scheduled at specified predetermined intervals throughout the year. The equipment items included are the typical pumps, blowers, motors, compressors, automotive equipment, refrigeration units, filtering systems, machine shop equipment, cranes, elevators, motor-generator sets, and electrical switchgear found throughout industry, as well as cell ventilation, shielding, containment, and material handling equipment unique to nuclear research and development facilities. Four related programs are used to produce sorted schedule lists, delinquent work lists, and optional master lists. Five additional programs are used to create and maintain records of all scheduled and unscheduled maintenance history. 2 - Method of solution: Service specifications and frequency are established and stored. The computer program reviews schedules weekly and prints, on schedule cards, instructions for service that is due the following week. The basic output from the computer program comes in two forms: programmed-maintenance schedule cards and programmed-maintenance data sheets. The data sheets can be issued in numerical building, route, and location number sequence as equipment lists, grouped for work assigned to a particular foreman as the foreman's equipment list, or grouped by work charged to a particular work order as the work-order list. Data sheets grouped by equipment classification are called the equipment classification list

  19. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  20. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item

  1. ATLAS TileCal Sub-Module Production at UIUC - Production Submodule Photos (current)

    CERN Multimedia

    Errede, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Step 5 - Welding tacl_weld - Our Welder from Nucor (Tuscola, IL) tack-welds each of the four corners of the submodule. The submodule can then be safely lifted out of the stacking fixture by crane. Step 5 - WELDING tack_weld - Stan Lamb, our welder from Nucor (Tuscola, IL) tack-welds each of the four corners of the submodule. The submodule can then be safely lifted out of the stacking fixture by crane. Photo 9 - This is our handy Submodule Final Welding Jig designed and built by our very own Fred Cogswell. Photo 10 - A submodule being lowered into the welding jig for final welding. Photo 11 - Stan Lamb final-welds the submodule. The welding jig saves us an enormous amount of time, since the submodule can be easily be rotated by hand for each weld.

  2. Comparison of European codes and standards on the welding of LMFBR components and proposals for their harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, S.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative study has been conducted, within the framework of the exercises of comparisons of specifications and standards for fast reactors in the following specialized fields: - welding supervisor, welder; - welder's tests; -production test specimens of welds; - measures to prevent mistakes with weld material. The relevant specifications were forwarded by the national delegations: Germany, France, Italy and United Kingdom. The comparison has been presented in tabular form where rules for a particular sub-group of specialized field are laid down in the standards of at least two Member States. In each case, the conclusions and requirements set out in the national standards have been compared in relation to a specific comparison criterion. The quantitative comparisons of the requirements laid down in the individual national standards are assessed from the following standpoints: a) points of agreement between the regulations in the standards of all four Member states (Germany, France, United Kingdom and Italy); b) significant differences between the regulations. 13 tabs

  3. Repair/maintenance design for tokamak experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    Repair and maintenance design for JXFR has been studied. The reactor is in eight modules so that a damaged module alone can be separated from the other modules and transferred from the reactor room to a repair shop. Design work covers overhaul procedure, dismounting equipments (overhead cranes, auto welder/cutter and remote handling equipments), transport system of a module (module mounting carriages and rotating carriage), repair equipment for blanket, earthquake-proof analysis of the reactor, reactor room structure, repair shop layout, management of radioactive wastes, time and the number of persons required for overhaul etc. Though the repair and maintenance system is almost complete, there still remain problems for further study in joints of blanket cooling piping, auto welder/cutter and earthquake-proof strength in reactor disassemblage. More detailed studies and R and D are necessary for engineering perfection. (author)

  4. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems, volume 2, chapters 7-14 and appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Production and support equipment specifications are described for the space manufacturing facility (SMF). Defined production equipment includes electromagnetic pumps for liquid metal, metal alloying furnaces, die casters, electron beam welders and cutters, glass forming for structural elements, and rolling. A cost analysis is presented which includes the development, the aquisition of all SMF elements, initial operating cost, maintenance and logistics cost, cost of terrestrial materials, and transportation cost for each major element. Computer program listings and outputs are appended.

  5. A Field Study on the Respiratory Deposition of the Nano-Sized Fraction of Mild and Stainless Steel Welding Fume Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, L G; Chisholm, W P; Keane, M J; Chen, B T

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to estimate the amount of Cr, Mn, and Ni deposited in the respiratory system of 44 welders in two facilities. Each worker wore a nanoparticle respiratory deposition (NRD) sampler during gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of mild and stainless steel and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) of mild steel. Several welders also wore side-by-side NRD samplers and closed-face filter cassettes for total particulate samples. The NRD sampler estimates the aerosol's nano-fraction deposited in the respiratory system. Mn concentrations for both welding processes ranged 2.8-199 μg/m3; Ni concentrations ranged 10-51 μg/m3; and Cr concentrations ranged 40-105 μg/m3. Cr(VI) concentrations ranged between 0.5-1.3 μg/m3. For the FCAW process the largest concentrations were reported for welders working in pairs. As a consequence this often resulted in workers being exposed to their own welding fumes and to those generated from the welding partner. Overall no correlation was found between air velocity and exposure (R2 = 0.002). The estimated percentage of the nano-fraction of Mn deposited in a mild-steel-welder's respiratory system ranged between 10 and 56%. For stainless steel welding, the NRD samplers collected 59% of the total Mn, 90% of the total Cr, and 64% of the total Ni. These results indicate that most of the Cr and more than half of the Ni and Mn in the fumes were in the fraction smaller than 300 nm.

  6. Quality demands and methods of control in the case of welded plastic-casing pipe joints. Part 1. Kontrolmetoder og kvalitetskrav til svejste kapperoerssamlinger af plast. 1. delrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.; Svanum, M.

    1983-03-15

    The aim of the literary study was to attain knowledge relevant to the production and utilization of pre-insulated district heating pipes coated with polyethylene. Methods of testing for longevity and quality in addition to an evaluation of welding processes were also studied. It was concluded that welders should be specially trained and follow clearly specified working procedures and that their equipment should be standardized. (AB).

  7. Determination of manganese in blood by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, E.; Kovats, M.; Molnar, M.

    1981-01-01

    A new method has been elaborated: the manganese content of a blood sample was precipitated by H 2 O 2 , and analysed by neutron activation analysis. The mean value was 2.67x10 -8 g/g in men, 3.25x10 -8 g/g in women and 3.57x10 -8 g/g in men working as welders for several years. (L.E.)

  8. Personality traits in persons with manganese poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, A A

    1976-10-01

    Results of studies with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in 3 groups of arc welders with various degrees of manganese poisoning (22 symptom-free, 23 with functional disturbances, 55 with organic symptoms) and 50 controls were discussed. There was a close relation between the severity of the poisoning and quantitative and qualitative personality changes. Personality tests are considered a useful addition to the clinical diagnosis of chronic manganese poisoning.

  9. Occupation and risk of primary fallopian tube carcinoma in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riska, A; Martinsen, J I; Kjaerheim, K

    2012-01-01

    .11-2.29, Obs = 32), nurses (1.49, 1.14-1.92, Obs = 60), shop workers (1.25, 1.07-1.46, Obs = 159) and clerical workers (1.20, 1.07-1.35, Obs = 271) and these sustained over times and different Nordic countries. There was a nonsignificant increased risk for PFTC among welders, printers, painters and chemical...

  10. A study of thorium exposure during tungsten inert gas welding in an airline engineering population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElearney, N; Irvine, D

    1993-07-01

    To investigate the theoretic possibility of excessive exposure to thorium during the process of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding using thoriated rods we carried out a cross-sectional study of TIG welders and an age- and skill-matched group. We measured the radiation doses from inhaled thorium that was retained in the body and investigated whether any differences in health or biologic indices could have been attributable to the welding and tip-grinding process. Sixty-four TIG welders, 11 non-TIG welders, and 61 control subjects from an airline engineering population participated. All of the subjects were interviewed for biographic, occupational history and morbidity details. All of the welders and eight control subjects carried out large-volume urine sampling to recover thorium 232 and thorium 228; this group also had chest radiographs. All of the subjects had a blood sample taken to estimate liver enzymes, and they provided small-volume urine samples for the estimation of retinol-binding protein and beta 2-microglobulin. We found no excess of morbidity among the TIG or non-TIG welding groups, and the levels of retinol-binding protein and beta 2-microglobulin were the same for both groups. There was a higher aspartate aminotransferase level in the control group. The internal radiation doses were estimated at less than an annual level of intake in all cases, and considerably less if the exposure (as was the case) was assumed to be chronic over many years. Some additional precautionary measures are suggested to reduce further any potential hazard from this process.

  11. Flight Termination Systems Commonality Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    and Transient Suppressors ) ............ C-9 Table C-8. Diode (Step Recovery, Varactor, and Varicap...to any stray energy sources such as strobes, sunlight, arc welders, flash - lamps, lightning, RF, and alternating current (AC)/DC electrical energy... Suppressors • Table C-8: Step Recovery, Varactor, and Varicap • Table C-9: Zener Diode • Table C-10: Shottky Barrier • Table C-11: Tunnel and

  12. Welding facilities for NPP assembling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojtenberg, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Recommendations concerning the choice of equipment for welding in pre-assembling work shops, in the enlarging assembling shops and at the assembling site, are given. Advanced production automatic welders and semiautomatic machines, applied during the NPP equipment assembling as well as automatic machines specially produced for welding the main reactor components and pipelines are described. Automatic and semiautomatic machine and manual welding post supply sources are considered

  13. Welding, a risk factor of lung cancer: the ICARE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrat, Mireille; Guida, Florence; Mattei, Francesca; Cénée, Sylvie; Cyr, Diane; Févotte, Joëlle; Sanchez, Marie; Menvielle, Gwenn; Radoï, Loredana; Schmaus, Annie; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Luce, Danièle; Stücker, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between lung cancer and occupational exposure to welding activity in ICARE, a population-based case-control study. Analyses were restricted to men (2276 cases, 2780 controls). Welding exposure was assessed through detailed questionnaires, including lifelong occupational history. ORs were computed using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for lifelong cigarette smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos. Among the regular welders, welding was associated with a risk of lung cancer (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5), which increased with the duration (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.9 when duration >10 years), and was maximum 10-20 years since last welding. The risk was more pronounced in case of gas welding (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.3), when the workpiece was covered by paint, grease, or other substances (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.4) and when it was cleaned with chemical substances before welding. No statistically significant increase in lung cancer risk was observed among occasional welders. Although these results should be confirmed, we showed that type of welding and mode of workpiece preparation are important determinants of the lung cancer risk in regular welders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Welding and lung cancer in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Siemiatycki, Jack; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Van Gelder, Rainer; Olsson, Ann; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, H-Erich; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Tardón, Adonina; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Consonni, Dario; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Gustavsson, Per; Marcus, Michael; Fabianova, Eleonora; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Rudnai, Peter; Bencko, Vladimir; Janout, Vladimir; Mates, Dana; Foretova, Lenka; Forastiere, Francesco; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Boffetta, Paolo; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-11-15

    Several epidemiologic studies have indicated an increased risk of lung cancer among welders. We used the SYNERGY project database to assess welding as a risk factor for developing lung cancer. The database includes data on 15,483 male lung cancer cases and 18,388 male controls from 16 studies in Europe, Canada, China, and New Zealand conducted between 1985 and 2010. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals between regular or occasional welding and lung cancer were estimated, with adjustment for smoking, age, study center, and employment in other occupations associated with lung cancer risk. Overall, 568 cases and 427 controls had ever worked as welders and had an odds ratio of developing lung cancer of 1.44 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.67) with the odds ratio increasing for longer duration of welding. In never and light smokers, the odds ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval: 1.37, 2.79). The odds ratios were somewhat higher for squamous and small cell lung cancers than for adenocarcinoma. Another 1,994 cases and 1,930 controls had ever worked in occupations with occasional welding. Work in any of these occupations was associated with some elevation of risk, though not as much as observed in regular welders. Our findings lend further support to the hypothesis that welding is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.

  15. 3D finite element modeling of in-service sleeve repair welding of gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, Ahmed R.; Shazly, Mostafa; Megahed, Mohammad M.

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the influence of welding sequence and scheme on residual stresses induced during in-service sleeve repair welding of gas pipelines. For this purpose, a 3D thermo-mechanical FE analysis is conducted on an 8″-Schedule-20, API 5L-X65 steel pipe. Two welding sequences for the sleeve-pipe circumferential fillet welds are compared in the present study: sequential welding in which one side of the sleeve is welded first and then the other side is welded by the same welder, and simultaneous welding in which both sides of the sleeve are welded concurrently by two welders. Within the simultaneous welding sequence, four different welding schemes, designed to investigate the influence of the number of welders and welding directions on residual stresses, are investigated. The results show that the sequential welding sequence induces less residual stresses and distortions. Within the simultaneous welding sequence, the back-step welding scheme is found to induce the least average residual stresses as compared to other welding schemes. - Highlights: • We model in-service sleeve repair welding using 3D FE. • Model was validated through comparison with existing experimental results. • The study presents results on the effect of both welding sequence and welding scheme on the resulting residual stresses. • Sequential welding sequence generates lower residual stresses than simultaneous welding sequence. • Back-step welding scheme generates the lowest average residual stresses along the pipe circumference.

  16. Robotic Assistance by Impedance Compensation for Hand Movements While Manual Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Billard, Aude

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a robotic assistance scheme which allows for impedance compensation with stiffness, damping, and mass parameters for hand manipulation tasks and we apply it to manual welding. The impedance compensation does not assume a preprogrammed hand trajectory. Rather, the intention of the human for the hand movement is estimated in real time using a smooth Kalman filter. The movement is restricted by compensatory virtual impedance in the directions perpendicular to the estimated direction of movement. With airbrush painting experiments, we test three sets of values for the impedance parameters as inspired from impedance measurements with manual welding. We apply the best of the tested sets for assistance in manual welding and perform welding experiments with professional and novice welders. We contrast three conditions: 1) welding with the robot's assistance; 2) with the robot when the robot is passive; and 3) welding without the robot. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the assistance through quantitative measures of both task performance and perceived user's satisfaction. The performance of both the novice and professional welders improves significantly with robotic assistance compared to welding with a passive robot. The assessment of user satisfaction shows that all novice and most professional welders appreciate the robotic assistance as it suppresses the tremors in the directions perpendicular to the movement for welding.

  17. Reduction of nanoparticle exposure to welding aerosols by modification of the ventilation system in a workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myong-Hwa; McClellan, William J.; Candela, Joe; Andrews, Dan; Biswas, Pratim

    2007-01-01

    Nanometer particle size distributions were measured in booths with two different ventilation patterns in an occupational environment with welding operations underway. The measurements were used to illustrate the impact of change of ventilation methods (existing - with ventilation ducts located at the top, modified - with ventilation ducts located below the weld bench) on the aerosol size distributions at different locations: close to the weld, in the vicinity of the welder's face, and in the exhaust duct. Particle number concentrations measured in the vicinity of the welder's face (mask) during a horizontal standard arc welding process in a booth with ventilation at the top was in the range of 7.78x10 5 particles cm -3 with a geometric mean size of 181 nm and geometric standard deviation of 1.8. This reduced to 1.48x10 4 particles cm -3 in the vicinity of the welder's face with the modified ventilation system. The clearance of the welding aerosol was also faster in the modified booth (6 min compared to 11 min in a conventional booth). Particles were collected in the booth for the various test conditions, and analyzed to determine their composition and morphology. The particles were composed of hazardous heavy metals such as manganese, chromium and nickel, and had varying morphologies

  18. Modelling of occupational exposure to inhalable nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Pesch, Beate; Koppisch, Dorothea; Van Gelder, Rainer; Pitzke, Katrin; Zschiesche, Wolfgang; Behrens, Thomas; Weiss, Tobias; Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jerome; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Stamm, Roger; Brüning, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate average occupational exposure to inhalable nickel (Ni) using the German exposure database MEGA. This database contains 8052 personal measurements of Ni collected between 1990 and 2009 in adjunct with information on the measurement and workplace conditions. The median of all Ni concentrations was 9 μg/m 3 and the 95th percentile was 460 μg/m 3 . We predicted geometric means (GMs) for welders and other occupations centered to 1999. Exposure to Ni in welders is strongly influenced by the welding process applied and the Ni content of the used welding materials. Welding with consumable electrodes of high Ni content (>30%) was associated with 10-fold higher concentrations compared with those with a low content (exposure levels (GMs ≥20 μg/m 3 ) were observed in gas metal and shielded metal arc welders using welding materials with high Ni content, in metal sprayers, grinders and forging-press operators, and in the manufacture of batteries and accumulators. The exposure profiles are useful for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies as well as in industrial hygiene. Therefore, we recommend to collect additional exposure-specific information in addition to the job title in community-based studies when estimating the health risks of Ni exposure.

  19. Manganese exposure and cognitive deficits: a growing concern for manganese neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, H A; Bowler, R M; Kim, Y; Claus Henn, B; Mergler, D; Hoet, P; Gocheva, V V; Bellinger, D C; Wright, R O; Harris, M G; Chang, Y; Bouchard, M F; Riojas-Rodriguez, H; Menezes-Filho, J A; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2012-08-01

    This symposium comprised five oral presentations dealing with recent findings on Mn-related cognitive and motor changes from epidemiological studies across the life span. The first contribution highlighted the usefulness of functional neuroimaging of the central nervous system (CNS) to evaluate cognitive as well as motor deficits in Mn-exposed welders. The second dealt with results of two prospective studies in Mn-exposed workers or welders showing that after decrease of Mn exposure the outcome of reversibility in adverse CNS effects may differ for motor and cognitive function and, in addition the issue of plasma Mn as a reliable biomarker for Mn exposure in welders has been addressed. The third presentation showed a brief overview of the results of an ongoing study assessing the relationship between environmental airborne Mn exposure and neurological or neuropsychological effects in adult Ohio residents living near a Mn point source. The fourth paper focused on the association between blood Mn and neurodevelopment in early childhood which seems to be sensitive to both low and high Mn concentrations. The fifth contribution gave an overview of six studies indicating a negative impact of excess environmental Mn exposure from air and drinking water on children's cognitive performance, with special attention to hair Mn as a potential biomarker of exposure. These studies highlight a series of questions about Mn neurotoxicity with respect to cognitive processes, forms and routes of exposure, adequate biomarkers of exposure, gender differences, susceptibility and exposure limits with regard to age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluor Hanford Nuclear Material Stabilization Project Welding Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERKEY, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the welding manual is to: (1) Provide a general description of the major responsibilities of the organizations involved with welding. (2) Provide general guidance concerning the application of codes related to welding. This manual contains requirements for welding for all Fluor Hanford (FH) welding operators working on the W460 Project, in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford facilities. These procedures and any additional requirements for these joining processes can be used by all FH welding operators that are qualified. The Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) found in this document were established from Procedure Qualification Records (PQR) qualified by FH specifically for the W460 Project. PQRs are permanent records of the initial testing and qualification program and are used to backup, and support, the WPS. The identification numbers of the supporting PQR(s) are recorded on each WPS. All PQRs are permanently stored under the supervision of the Fluor Hanford Welding Engineer (FHWE). New PQRs and WPSs will continue to be developed as necessary. The qualification of welders, welding operators and welding procedures will be performed for FH under supervision and concurrent of the FHWE. All new welding procedures to be entered in this manual or welder personnel to be added to the welder qualification database, shall be approved by the FHWE

  1. Occupational health concerns in the welding industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczynski, R E

    2000-12-01

    The Workplace Safety and Health Branch initiated a proactive study in the welding industry in Manitoba. Eight welding companies participated in this study. Health concerns raised by welders were welders' flash, sore/red/teary eyes, headaches, nosebleeds, and a black mucous discharge from their nasal membrane. Most welders expressed concern regarding excessive smoke levels in the workplace and inadequate ventilation. Types of welding identified were MIG mild steel, MIG stainless steel, and TIG aluminum. Monitoring involved an assessment of noise levels, fume composition, and carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations. Metal analyses were according to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7300. Noise dosimeters used were the Quest model 100 and Micro 14 & 15. Carbon monoxide was monitored using the Gastech Model 4700 and ozone using the AID Portable Ozone Meter Model 560. In Manitoba, a hearing conservation program is required when the equivalent sound exposure level (normalized Lex 8-hr) exceeds 80 dBA-weighted. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' threshold limit value-time weighted average (ACGIH TLV-TWA) for iron is 5.0 mg/m3, manganese is 0.2 mg/m3, carbon monoxide is 25 ppm, and ozone is 0.05 ppm (heavy work), 0.08 ppm (moderate work), and 0.1 ppm (light work). Welders' personal exposures to manganese ranged from 0.01-4.93 mg/m3 (N = 42; AM = 0.5; GM = 0.2; SD +/- 0.9; GSD +/- 3.2) and to iron ranged from 0.04-16.29 mg/m3 (N = 42; AM = 3.0; GM = 1.4; SD +/- 3.5; GSD +/- 2.5). Noise exposures ranged from 79-98 dBA (N = 44; AM = 88.9; GM = 88.8; SD +/- 4.2; GSD +/- 1.0). Carbon monoxide levels were less than 5.0 ppm (at source) and ozone levels varied from 0.4-0.6 ppm (at source). Ventilation upgrades in the workplace were required in most welding shops. Only 7 percent of the welders wore respiratory protection. A hearing conservation program and hearing protection were required at all monitored workplaces.

  2. Improving plant availability by predicting reactor trips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.V.; Epstein, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Management Ahnalysis Company (MAC) has developed and applied two complementary software packages called RiTSE and RAMSES. Together they provide an mini-computer workstation for maintenance and operations personnel to dramatically reduce inadvertent reactor trips. They are intended to be used by those responsible at the plant for authorizing work during operation (such as a clearance coordinator or shift foreman in U.S. plants). They discover and represent all components, processes, and their interactions that could case a trip. They predict if future activities at the plant would cause a reactor trip, provide a reactor trip warning system and aid in post-trip cause analysis. RAMSES is a general reliability engineering software package that uses concepts of artificial intelligence to provide unique capabilities on personal and mini-computers

  3. Motivation and productivity on large jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcherding, J.D.; Garner, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    A Department of Energy sponsored study employing questionnaires and interviews with over 1,300 craftsmen and foreman from eleven power plant projects and a nuclear processing facility indicated an average 23.14 lost manhours per week. These lost manhours were due to delays resulting from material and tool availability, overcrowded work areas, crew interfacing, inspection delays and instruction time. In addition, the average time spent redoing work was 5.70 hours per week per craftsman. The previous factors reducing productivity plus demotivational concerns, such as disrespectful treatment, little accomplishment, project confusion, lack of recognition, and communication breakdowns, have an adverse effect on morale of the lower level work force. The causes of productivity and motivational problems encountered were developed from a statistical, comparative analysis with different project characteristics. 3 refs

  4. BPA/PGE transmission support project: Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan describes the mitigation measures identified in the BPA/PGE Transmission Support Project Environmental Assessment. These measures commit to actions that will reduce the environmental impacts that could occur by constructing, operating and maintaining the transmission line and related facilities. They have been developed in coordination with environmental specialists, design and construction engineers and maintenance personnel. The measures will be written into the construction specifications for the project, which is expected to be constructed by contract personnel. Unless noted in the plan, the construction inspector or the line foreman would be responsible for carrying out the mitigation; environmental staff would also monitor the area for mitigation effectiveness. The right-of-way would be cleared in 1997 or 1998, and construction would begin in the spring of 1998 and be completed later that fall

  5. Power, command and violence in von Trier’s Manderlay. A political and philosophical analysis of pseudo-democracies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alabama, 1933. A caravan of limousines carrying gangsters arrives in Manderlay, a small village where slavery still exists as an institution. Mam (Lauren Bacall rules the plantation assisted by her foreman Wilhelm (Danny Glover, a slave who believes his people are not ready for the responsibilities of freedom. Driving up to the gates of the plantation, Grace (Bryce Dallas Howard declares that the slaves must be informed how to enjoy freedom and thus becoming good citizens. Drawing on a textual and visual analysis of Manderlay, the article explores how democracy arises from the exercise of violence and power, as well as the inability of Western societies to deal with the dogma of difference.

  6. ANALISIS REWORK PADA PROYEK KONSTRUKSI GEDUNG DI KABUPATEN BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Sutrisna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rework is unavoidable from the world of construction, Rework can be a devastating effect on the performance and productivity of both the consultant and the contractor. This study aims to determine the main factors causing rework, efforts to reduce rework. The analysis used the analysis Multivariant factor analysis with the help of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS for Windows version 17.0. From the results obtained by factor analysis the main factors causing the occurrence of rework are: aspects of the owner (poor communication, poor coordination, poor information flow, aspects of planning consultants (lack of information in the field, lack of communication, the situation in the picture on the ground is not suitable. aspects of construction management consultants (lack of information in the field, lack of communication, lack of control, aspects of mechanical electrical plumbing contractors (Materials misdirected, MEP staff inexperience, lack of knowledge about the character of the material, the amount of overtime, aspects of the contractor (lack of competence foreman, foreman lack of experience, lack of experience, the quality of labor is bad, the error in interpreting the specification, aspects of operator (poor flow of information, lack of communication, lack of coordination, lack of operator experience. Efforts to systematically reduce rework most effective according to the respondent's answer is: Systematic planning, detailing and describing the project at every stage of the steps to be taken to achieve quality objectives, set standards of communication, coordination and construction project sinkronasi work with all parties involved in the implementation of the project, Constructing specification limits and criteria and quality standards to be used in engineering design, procurement and construction materials.

  7. Improving child nutrition at the village level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, J P

    1981-01-01

    The decision was made about 12 years ago in the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health of Makerere University to see if childhood malnutrition could be cured and prevented in a rural area of Uganda, surrounding a small 10-bedded maternity center some 20 miles north of Kampala. The staff included 2 midwives and another midwife who had had training in health visiting, and a community development foreman. There were weekly visits from the Church of Uganda Mengo Hospital by a doctor and sister and a similar visit from an agricultural assistant from Makerere University Department of Agriculture. A small shelter was built on the grounds of the maternity center for the purpose of conducting antenatal and children's clinics. From the beginning the intention was to involve the community, and this was done through the local pastor and the community development foreman assisted by the midwife with health-visiting experience. A local club was formed, and members decided to start by improving and cleaning the local sources of water. At the clinic infants and children were weighed and seen every fortnight until they had been immunized, and thereafter at any time their mothers were anxious about them. Any child who showed early signs of faltering in weight or of clinical malnutrition was followed by a midwife health visitor from the large children's clinic. The mothers were taught about mixing the food to give the children adequate calories and protein. The principles which appeared to be significant in the improvement of child nutrition at the village level were the following: identification; involvement of mothers; communication with the people; involvement of influential persons; indoctrination; integration in village life; and staff effectiveness.

  8. Chromium carcinogenicity: California strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, G V; Satin, K; Painter, P; Zeise, L; Popejoy, C; Murchison, G

    1989-10-01

    Hexavalent chromium was identified by California as a toxic air contaminant (TAC) in January 1986. The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) concurred with the findings of the International Agency for Research on Cancer that there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the carcinogenicity of chromium in both animals and humans. CDHS did not find any compelling evidence demonstrating the existence of a threshold with respect to chromium carcinogenesis. Experimental data was judged inadequate to assess potential human reproductive risks from ambient exposures. Other health effects were not expected to occur at ambient levels. The theoretically increased lifetime carcinogenic risk from a continuous lifetime exposure to hexavalent chromium fell within the range 12-146 cancer cases per nanogram hexavalent chromium per cubic meter of air per million people exposed, depending on the potency estimate used. The primary sources found to contribute significantly to the risk of exposure were chrome platers, chromic acid anodizing facilities and cooling towers utilizing hexavalent chromium as a corrosion inhibitor. Evaluation of genotoxicity data, animal studies and epidemiological studies indicates that further consideration should be given to the potential carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium via the oral route.

  9. [Nose disease caused by occupational exposure to chromium in the electroplating industry: cytomorphological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, I; Gariboldi, L M; Gabrielli, M; Baldo, D; Romanelli, A; Tuberti, E; Magnani, F

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-six workers were studied (9 chrome-platers exposed to chromium dioxide and 17 workers exposed to metallic chromium dust) in order to investigate the macroscopic and cytological changes of the nasal mucosa due to exposure to water-soluble hexavalent chromium or to metallic chromium dust in the electroplating industry and the role of different valencies in the onset of nasal disease. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that hexavalent chromium, which has strong oxidative power, induces more noticeable toxic effects on tissues and mucous membranes than other compounds. The correlation between the degree of local toxic effects and the chemical state of chromium was demonstrated in both the macro- and the microscopic investigations and in particular in the cytological examinations: cases of atypia were found only in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium. Evidence of atypia raises the question of whether hexavalent chromium may act as a carcinogenic agent on the rhinosinusal mucosa. For this reason, the introduction of cytological nasal examination in health surveillance programmes for this category of workers acquires considerable importance. Sample collection from the nasal mucosa by brushing is the method of choice since it is simple, non-invasive and gives good diagnostic results.

  10. Localized Failure Promoted by Heterogeneous Stresses in Tectonic Mélanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N. J.; Rowe, C. D.; Ujiie, K.

    2017-12-01

    Within the shallow (PLC) toolbox developed at the University of Maine, which uses Asymptotic Expansion Homogenization (AEH) over a finite element mesh to determine the instantaneous stress distributions in a multiphase system. We model the shale matrix mélange to be deforming through a modified flow law for viscous creep based on coupled frictional sliding and pressure solution, where at a strain rate of 10-12 s-1 the flow stress is 10 MPa under the temperature (190 ºC) and pressure ( 100 MPa) conditions during deformation, and describe the behaviour of the basaltic blocks using experimentally-derived power law flow laws. The results show that at the strain rates calculated based on plate-rate motion, differential stresses high enough to cause comminution of the basalts ( 300 MPa) correspond strongly to areas around the blocks with basalt derived cataclasites. Within the basalt derived cataclasites, thin zones of ultracataclasite record localized slip. We hypothesize that the heterogeneous stress distributions within subduction mélanges: 1) fractures the strong basalt thereby facilitating weakening through fluid-rock interactions, and 2) promotes localized slip (and occasionally seismicity) within these zones of altered basalt along the margins of strong intact basalt.

  11. MR Imaging of Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis of the Elbow: Is the Common Extensor Tendon an Isolated Lesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Ren-Fa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether an injury of the common extensor tendon (CET) is associated with other abnormalities in the elbow joint and find the potential relationships between these imaging features by using a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Twenty-three patients were examined with 3.0 T MR. Two reviewers were recruited for MR images evaluation. Image features were recorded in terms of (1) the injury degree of CET; (2) associated injuries in the elbow joint. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis was performed to analyze the relationships between the injury degree of CET and associated abnormalities of the elbow joint, correlations were considered significant at plateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL). Conclusion Injury of the CET is not an isolated lesion for lateral picondylitis, which is mostly accompanied with other abnormalities, of which the LUCL injury is the most commonly seen in lateral epicondylitis, and there is a positive correlation between the injury degree in CET and LUCL. PMID:24244512

  12. Efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Korhan; Yesil, Hilal; Dogan, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is one of the widely seen lesions of the arm characterized by pain localized over lateral epicondyle which is the insertion site of the wrist extensors, and extensor muscles of the forearm. It is easy to diagnose lateral epicondylitis but treatment involves some inherent drawbacks. Conservative management includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ultrasound therapy, steroid injections, functional bracing, laser therapy and extracorporeal shock wave therapy, however none of these modalities have been shown to be really effective based on evidence-based data. Our study is aimed to determine the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) therapy in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. A total of 12 patients with the diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis were included in the study and 3 sessions of ESWT were applied (1 session per week). Maximum grip strength and pain scores were assessed before and at 1. month after the treatment. Spesific tests for lateral epicondylitis were utilized and Turkish version of the Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE-T) questionnaire was administered and data obtained were analyzed. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores were significantly lower (plateral epicondyilitis was found to be effective on reducing pain, and improving functional activities and quality of life.

  13. Do patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have increased energy needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, Nachum; Lusaus, Michal; Nefussy, Beatrice; Niv, Eva; Comaneshter, Doron; Hallack, Ron; Drory, Vivian E

    2009-04-15

    Nutritional status is a prognostic factor for survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We investigated the contribution of some of the components contributing to resting energy expenditure (REE) in order to determine whether potentially higher energy needs should be considered for these patients. Thirty three ALS patients and 33 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. REE was measured by an open-circuit indirect calorimeter, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and estimated caloric intake by 7-day food records. Patients had lower body mass indices and lower lean body mass (LBM) than healthy controls. REE values (as a percentage of predicted) was similar but increased when normalized by LBM (Plater. A model for predicting measured REE was constructed based on the different components, with 86% prediction of its variability. ALS is associated with increased REE. Various factors, such as poor caloric intake and mechanical ventilation, may mask this tendency. All the above parameters need to be considered during nutritional intervention to prevent additional muscle loss.

  14. [Historical notes on the terms "glaucoma" and "cataract" (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintelen, F

    1977-02-01

    The Greek term "glaucoma" has nothing to do with the disease we call glaucoma today and that we use to translate incorrectly with "grüner Star" throughout the German-speaking countries. The Greek adjective "glaucos" does not mean green but gleaming, sparkling. It signified the discolouring of the pupil in glaucoma. It was later replaced by the pathogenetic term hypochysis, Latin suffusio, denoting the supposed "trübe Feuchte" (opaque humour) that was taught to gather and congeal in front of the crystalline lens. Later on "glaukosis" was reserved for incurable cases, disease of the crystalline lens itself, which was looked at as the "organon visus" up to Felix Plater. The word "cataract"--waterfall--does not exist in Greek medicine. It appears in Salernitan medical science around the year 1000 as a synonym for hypochysis, the disease we call cataract today and which has been identified as opacity of the lens since Brisseau (1705). The nature of "incurable" glaucoma, later considered as a disease of the vitreous body, was clearly recognized as a consequence of intraocular increase of pressure only by v. Graefe.

  15. Seaside, ícone do novo urbanismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Costa Macedo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The town of Seaside case study brings home to questions related to the Congress for the new urbanism, founded in 1993. This town, the second designed by the architects Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater Zyberk is based upon revising partterns of the traditional way to build small communities in America. Both, the urban tissues and the building prototypes have been considered. Following the process used by the architectural firms to conceptualize, develop and implement urban design projects the plan for Seaside is analysed. The town was carefully programmed, designed and built. Thus, the present paper describes the interactions between the developer, the architects and the community involved, concluding that the good interaction among them is the clue for the success of any project. As a matter of contolling the urban development a code was created in a first version. Afterwards this code is unfolded to urban design more generic elements in order to fit different situations. It is denominated smar code and up to now it reached the ninth version. The plan for Seaside emphasizes the importance of the triangle drama binding the developer, architect and community to achieve a high quality project. Being successful Seaside stimulated many other initiatives along side the Gulf of Mexico panhandle.

  16. [Investigation of occupational hazards of ultraviolet radiation and protective measures for workers in electric welding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Gong, Man-man; Wang, Jiao; He, Li-hua; Wang, Sheng; Du, Wei-wei; Zhang, Long-lian; Lin, Sen; Dong, Xue-mei; Wang, Ru-gang

    2012-06-18

    To investigate and analyze the occupational hazards of ultraviolet radiation, protective measures and related factors for typical symptoms among workers in electric welding, and to provide basic information for revision of the occupational standards of UV. Questionnaires and physical examinations were used in this investigation. A total of 828 workers from four vehicle manufacturers in Beijing and Guangdong Province were selected. Corresponding analyses were conducted with SPSS 16.0 statistic software. The top three injuries of faces and hands were burning tingling (48.7% & 41.3%), itch of skin (39% & 34.9%) and pigmentation (31.9% & 24.5%).The major injuries of eyes were ophthalmodynia (61.5%) , photophobia and tearing (61.4%), and blurred vision (50.2%). The incidences of facial and hands burning tingling, hands flushing, hands macula and papula were significantly different between the welders and auxiliary workers (Pwelding masks (87.2%), gloves (84.3%) and glasses (65.9%). Except for UV cut cream, the usages of other protective equipments in the auxiliary workers were significantly lower than those in the welders (Pwelding, using argon arc welding and CO(2) gas shielded arc welding, not wearing welding masks, and not using UV cut cream was significantly associated with the increased risk of face burning tingling, and the ORs were 3.894 (6 h to 8 h), 2.665 (4 h to 6 h), 2.052, 1.765, 1.759, 1.833, respectively; working years might be a protective factor, and the OR was 0.440, respectively. The study suggested that the UV radiation produced during welding operations not only caused harm to welders, but also to the auxiliary workers. Protection should be strengthened,for example, wearing welding masks, glasses, etc. Meanwhile automatic welding machines should be adopted by the factories to reduce the exposure time for workers.

  17. Pulmonary fibrosis and exposure to steel welding fume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, M P

    2015-12-01

    Arc welders who have been exposed to high concentrations of steel welding fume for prolonged periods of time may develop pulmonary fibrosis but the nature of the fibrotic changes has been debated over the last 80 years without any clear international consensus. To characterize the nature of the pulmonary fibrosis that develops in response to steel welding fume exposure and to provide a working hypothesis that would explain the findings of the existing research, to provide a platform for future research and to inform future occupational and clinical management of welders with pulmonary effects from welding fume. Review of the world literature on pulmonary fibrosis and welding of steel in all languages using PubMed, with further secondary search of references in the articles found in the primary search. Google and Reference Manager were used as further confirmatory search tools. Only case series and case reports were found but these provided consistent evidence that the consequence of exposure to steel welding fume at high levels for a prolonged period of time is a type of pulmonary fibrosis similar to, and possibly the same as, respiratory bronchiolitis which eventually develops into desquamative interstitial pneumonia with ongoing exposure. Steel welding fume may cause an occupational respiratory bronchiolitis which may develop into de squamative interstitial pneumonia with ongoing exposure. This concept may explain the difficulties in interpreting the wider literature on welding fume and lung function at lower exposures and may also explain the increased risk of lung cancer in welders. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Intakes of thorium while using thoriated tungsten electrodes for TIG welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, T; Schwass, D; Seitz, G; Siekmann, H

    1999-10-01

    Thoriated electrodes are used in TIG welding. TIG welders, along with persons who grind thoriated electrodes and persons located near relevant welding and grinding sites, might be at risk of thorium intake. The isotopes of radiological relevance are 232Th, 230Th, and 228Th. The studies described in the literature do not provide a consistent picture of the actual hazards, and changes in European and German radiological protection laws have now made it necessary to determine the risks. To accomplish this, a field test was conducted under real working conditions in 26 different welding shops. The airborne activity generated through welding, and through grinding of electrodes, was measured using personal air samplers. Stationary samplers were also used. The filters' samples were evaluated by means of direct alpha spectrometry with proportional counting and by means of gamma spectrometry following neutron activation. The results clearly showed that considerable intake can occur during both alternating-current welding and electrode grinding, if no suction systems are used. The range of 232Th intakes to welders were estimated from 0.1 Bq y(-1) to 144 Bq y(-1) during welding and from 0.02 Bq y(-1) to 30.2 Bq y(-1) during grinding. In 6 of the 26 cases the recent annual limit on intake derived from the most recent ICRP publications was exceeded--in the worst case it was exceeded by a factor of 10--if it is assumed that the persons studied were not exposed workers (not routinely monitored for radiation exposure). When the significantly more restrictive German limits are applied, the amounts by which the limits were exceeded were even greater. Because many qualified welders have very long careers, the risks can thus be considerable. The paper also discusses parameters that influence exposure, and it presents a catalogue of recommended measures for dosage reduction.

  19. Assessment of occupational exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Aniołczyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: European Union Directive 2013/35/UE provides for the implementation of EU regulations into national legislation. Our aim is to assess actual health hazards from radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF (range: 100 kHz – 300 GHz and indicate workplaces with the highest risk to employee health. Material and Methods: Data from measurements of RF EMF performed by the Laboratory of Electromagnetic Hazards in Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Łódź, Poland were analyzed. The analysis covered the results of electric field intensity (E for over 450 selected items. The ranges of protection zones and the extent to which maximum admissible intensity (MAI values were also analyzed. The determinations and measurements of EMF in the work environment met the requirements of Polish Standard, while Polish regulations on the MAI values were used as the criterion for the assessment of the exposure. Results: The highest values of E field intensity at workplaces were measured for: electrosurgery, to 400 V/m, and short-wave diathermy units, to 220 V/m, dielectric welders to 240 V/m, within the FM radio antenna systems, to 180 V/m. The widest protection zones were noted for prototype research instruments, short-wave diathermy units, and dielectric welders. The most excessive (up to 12-fold MAI values were recorded for dielectric welders, short-wave diathermy units (up to 11-fold and microwave diathermy units (up to 8-fold. Conclusions: Our results have confirmed the high RF EMF values for physiotherapists, operators of dielectric welders, and mast maintenance workers in radio communication facilities (especially radio and TV broadcasting stations. Med Pr 2015;66(2:199–212

  20. Evidence of perception of AIDS insufficient for verdict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-28

    The 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals overturned the jury verdict in favor of [name removed], a welder who claimed he was fired because his employer, [name removed] National Vendor, thought he had AIDS. According to [name removed], when his health and physical appearance began deteriorating due to Graves disease, a thyroid condition, he was terminated. [Name removed] filed a grievance through his labor union and filed a lawsuit under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Circuit Court panel determined there was insufficient evidence to conclude that the company's officials and key decision makers regarded [name removed] as having AIDS.

  1. Development of remote welding equipment and techniques for the TFTR vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, L.S.; Watts, K.D.; Larson, R.A.; Aldrich, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    In the event that the TFTR vacuum vessel is damaged or one of the toroidal field coils fails after the system has become substantially activated, it is necessary to remotely remove and replace the damaged section of the vessel using remote handling procedures. This paper describes a welding system developed through the final design stage to perform the remote welding necessary during the replacement operation. Information is presented describing the vessel configuration, the replacement sequence, the welding system requirements, welder configuration, supporting systems, the weld development program and future development requirements

  2. Development of New Materials and Technologies for Welding and Surfacing at Research and Production Center 'Welding Processes and Technologies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, N A; Kryukov, R E; Galevsky, G V; Titov, D A; Shurupov, V M

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides description of research into the influence of new materials and technologies on quality parameters of welds and added metal carried out at research and production center «Welding processes and technologies».New welding technologies of tanks for northern conditions are considered, as well as technologies of submerged arc welding involving fluxing agents AN - 348, AN - 60, AN - 67, OK. 10.71 and carbon-fluorine containing additives, new flux cored wires and surfacing technologies, teaching programs and a trainer for welders are designed. (paper)

  3. Socket welds in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.A.; Torres, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Socket welds are easier and faster to make than are butt welds. However, they are often not used in nuclear facilities because the crevices between the pipes and the socket sleeves may be subject to crevice corrosion. If socket welds can be qualified for wider use in facilities that process nuclear materials, the radiation exposures to welders can be significantly reduced. The current tests at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) are designed to determine if socket welds can be qualified for use in the waste processing system at a nuclear fuel processing plant

  4. Determination of Informal Sector as Urban Pollution Source : Fume Characterization of Small-scale Manual Metal Arc Welding using Factor Analysis in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nastiti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, the informal sector, particularly small-scale welding activities, are considered to be an important contributor to urban air pollution although studies in this sector are limited. This study aims to identify the composition of small-scale welding fume in order to further investigate the effects and set control strategies and urban pollution abatement policies. Breathing zone air samples were collected from 30 mild steel manual metal arc welders and 17 non-welders in Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. The respirable particulates in air samples were analyzed using gravimetric method, and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA was employed to identify characteristic of welding fume. It was found that respirable particulates concentration in welders (range : 315.6 and 3,735.93 µgm-3; average 1,545.436 µgm-3 were significantly higher than in non-welders (range : 41.84 and 1,688.03 µgm-3; average : 375.783 µgm-3. Welders’ breathing zones contain Fe>Na>K>Mn>Al >Cr>Ti>Cl>Br>I>Zn>Sb>V>Co>Sc; while non-welders’ breathing zones contain Cr>F>Al>Ti>Na>Br>I>Mn>Cl>Co>Zn>Sc. Inter-species correlation analysis conducted using Statgraphic Ver. 4.0 shows that Fe (range : n.d. – 775.19 µgm-3; average: 0.1674 µgm-3, Co (range : n.d. – 0.51 µgm-3; average: 0.000082 µgm-3, Mn (range : 0.39 – 148.37 µgm-3; average: 0.0374 µgm-3, Na (range: 0.17 and 623.85 µgm-3; average: 0.0973 µgm-3 and K (range : n.d. – 301.15 µgm-3; average: 0.0535 µgm-3 were emitted from welding activity, and thus are considered as components of welding fume which contribute to urban air pollution. Although welding fume and the identified species in welding fume were still below permissible limit, small-scale welding activities have great potential in emitting higher fume concentration due to due to high variability of welding activities, such as welding frequency, materials being welded, and varied environmental conditions

  5. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The volume contains six papers which together provide an overall review of the inspection technique known as acoustic emission or stress wave emission. The titles are: a welder's introduction to acoustic emission technology; use of acoustic emission for detection of defects as they arise during fabrication; examples of laboratory application and assessment of acoustic emission in the United Kingdom; (Part I: acoustic emission behaviour of low alloy steels; Part II: fatigue crack assessment from proof testing and continuous monitoring); inspection of selected areas of engineering structures by acoustic emission; Japanese experience in laboratory and practical applications of acoustic emission to welded structures; and ASME acoustic emission code status. (U.K.)

  6. Fabrication of uranium-plutonium mixed nitride fuel pins (88F-5A) for first irradiation test at JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasufumi; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo; Sasayama, Tatsuo; Shiozawa, Ken-ichi; Ohmichi, Toshihiko; Handa, Muneo

    1990-07-01

    A couple of uranium-plutonium mixed nitride fuel pins was fabricated for the first irradiation tests at JMTR for the purpose of understanding the irradiation behavior and establishing the feasibility of nitride fuels as advanced FBR fuels. The one of the pins was fitted with thermocouples in order to observe the central fuel temperature. In this report, the fabrication procedure of the pins such as pin design, fuel pellet fabrication and characterizations, welding of fuel pins, and inspection of pins are described, together with the outline of the new TIG welder installed recently. (author)

  7. Intelligent sensing and control of gas metal arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smartt, H.B.; Johnson, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent sensing and control is a multidisciplinary approach that attempts to build adequate sensing capability, knowledge of process physics, control capability, and welding engineering into the welding system such that the welding machine is aware of the state of the weld and knows how to make a good weld. The sensing and control technology should reduce the burden on the welder and welding engineer while providing the great adaptability needed to accommodate the variability found in the production world. This approach, accomplished with application of AI techniques, breaks the tradition of separate development of procedure and control technology

  8. Eddy current testing instruments manufactured by the production unit of the Brno Technical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiala, I.

    1989-01-01

    Three materials testing machines are described. The ECTER general-purpose machine for materials testing in diagnostics of selected components of nuclear power plants can be used in detection and monitoring of defects of non-ferromagnetic tubes in heat exchangers using an immersion probe for crack, wall thickness and corrosion detection. The instrument for inspection of pipe welding joints, DEST-1, is the sensor of the control system of a welder for axially welded pipes. The third instrument, a device for detection of surface defects in metallic materials is used for testing steel rod materials. It is used in screw mills. (M.D.). 2 figs

  9. Field cancerization i ansigtet hos en ung kvindelig svejser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Rasmus Nygård; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2015-01-01

    developed multiple squamous cell carcinomas located exclusively on the right side of her face. During welding she had experienced numerous facial burns limited to the right side. This marked anatomical relationship between exposure and illness supports a causal association between welding and skin cancer.......Welding generates ultraviolet radiation and has been suggested to cause skin cancer. However, it remains questionable whether welding is in fact causally associated with the development of skin cancer. We report on a 44-year-old female with ten years occupational experience as a welder, who...

  10. Robot welding process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  11. Comprehensive proteome analysis of nasal lavage samples after controlled exposure to welding nanoparticles shows an induced acute phase and a nuclear receptor, LXR/RXR, activation that influence the status of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Neserin; Ljunggren, Stefan; Karlsson, Helen M; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Pagels, Joakim; Isaxon, Christina; Gudmundsson, Anders; Rissler, Jenny; Nielsen, Jörn; Lindh, Christian H; Kåredal, Monica

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that many welders experience respiratory symptoms. During the welding process a large number of airborne nanosized particles are generated, which might be inhaled and deposited in the respiratory tract. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms behind observed symptoms is still partly lacking, although inflammation is suggested to play a central role. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of welding fume particle exposure on the proteome expression level in welders suffering from respiratory symptoms, and changes in protein mediators in nasal lavage samples were analyzed. Such mediators will be helpful to clarify the pathomechanisms behind welding fume particle-induced effects. In an exposure chamber, 11 welders with work-related symptoms in the lower airways during the last month were exposed to mild-steel welding fume particles (1 mg/m 3 ) and to filtered air, respectively, in a double-blind manner. Nasal lavage samples were collected before, immediately after, and the day after exposure. The proteins in the nasal lavage were analyzed with two different mass spectrometry approaches, label-free discovery shotgun LC-MS/MS and a targeted selected reaction monitoring LC-MS/MS analyzing 130 proteins and four in vivo peptide degradation products. The analysis revealed 30 significantly changed proteins that were associated with two main pathways; activation of acute phase response signaling and activation of LXR/RXR, which is a nuclear receptor family involved in lipid signaling. Connective tissue proteins and proteins controlling the degradation of such tissues, including two different matrix metalloprotease proteins, MMP8 and MMP9, were among the significantly changed enzymes and were identified as important key players in the pathways. Exposure to mild-steel welding fume particles causes measurable changes on the proteome level in nasal lavage matrix in exposed welders, although no clinical symptoms were manifested. The

  12. Stainless steel fabrication for high quality requirements in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wareing, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the author explains the welding procedures and practices adopted within the nuclear industry to achieve the high quality and standards of welds required. The changeover to mechanised welding, orbital TIG welding and synergic MIG welding, has resulted in consistent achievement of high quality standards as well as optimising the productivity. However, the use of mechanised welding machines does require the welder operating them to be fully trained and qualified. The formally organised training courses are described and the cost savings and production rates achieved by utilising the mechanised method are discussed. (author)

  13. Urinary β2 Microglobulin in Workers Exposed to Arc Welding Fumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Welding is a process in which two or more metals are attached by the use of heat and, in some cases, pressure. Direct exposure and inhalation of welding fumes causes acute and chronic side effects in humans. Kidney damage is one of these important side effects. β2 microglobulin is an 11.8 kilodalton protein and levels increase in the case of some inflammatory and viral diseases, or kidney malfunction and autoimmune diseases. In this study measurements of β2 microglobulin were used as a criterion for assessing effects on the kidneys of workers exposed to welding fumes. The study population were electric arc welders in an industrial plant in Tehran, Iran. For control we selected workers who did not have any exposure to welding fumes. Both groups were selected on the basis of a questionnaire and the consideration of criteria for inclusion and exclusion. In the end 50 cases and 50 controls were chosen. A urine sample was collected from all participants and urinary pH was set to between 6-8 using NaOH (1M. Sample transportation to the laboratory complied with the related standards. The samples were assessed using the ORG 5BM kit. For quantitative assessment of β2 microglobulin we used the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. The ages of the welders ranged from 21 to 48 years (mean=30.5±5.9 yrs and of controls from 23 to 56 years (mean=31.8±5.9 yrs. Mean employment duration was 7.86±5.01years (range 2 to 27 years for welders. Mean β2 microglobulin level was 0.10±0.096 μg/ml in welders and 0.11±0.06 in controls. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.381. In conclusion we don't find that exposure to electric arc welding fumes cause a significant change in urinary β2 microglobulin compared to the control group.

  14. Development of TIG Welding System for a Nuclear Fuel Test Rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Changyoung; Ahn, Sungho; Hong, Jintae; Kim, Kahye

    2013-01-01

    The welding process is one of the most important among the instrumentation processes of the nuclear fuel test rig and rods. To manufacture the nuclear fuel test rig, a precision welding system needs to be fabricated to develop various welding technologies of the fuel test rig and rods jointing the various sensors and end caps on a fuel cladding tube, which is charged with fuel pellets and component parts. Thus, we designed and fabricated the precision welding system consisting of an orbital TIG welder, a low-pressure chamber, and a high-pressure chamber. Using this system, the performance tests were performed with the round and seal spot welds for each welding condition. This paper describes not only the contents for the fabrication of precision TIG welding system but also some results from weld tests using the low-pressure and high-pressure chambers to verify the performance of this system. The TIG welding system was developed to manufacture the nuclear fuel test rig and rods. It has been configured to be able to weld the nuclear fuel test rigs and rods by applying the TIG welder using a low-pressure chamber and a high-pressure chamber. The performance tests using this system were performed with the round and seal spot welds for the welding conditions. The soundness of the orbital TIG welding system was confirmed through performance tests in the low-pressure and high-pressure chambers

  15. Manganese in exhaled breath condensate: a new marker of exposure to welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulo, Sébastien; Chérot-Kornobis, Nathalie; Howsam, Mike; Crucq, Sébastien; de Broucker, Virginie; Sobaszek, Annie; Edme, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-07

    To evaluate manganese in exhaled breath condensate (Mn-EBC) as an indicator of exposure to fumes from metal inert gas welding process. We collected EBC and urine from 17 welders and 16 unexposed control subjects after 5 days exposure. Concentrations of manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe) and chromium (Cr) were measured in EBC and urine samples and correlated with cumulative exposure indices for the working week (CIW) and for the total welding years (WY), based on duration of welding activity and atmospheric metal measurements. Concentrations of Mn and Ni in EBC were significantly higher among welders than controls whereas this difference was not significant for Mn in urine. Levels of Mn and Ni in EBC were not correlated with their respective levels in urine. The linear regressions found significant positive coefficients between Mn-EBC, Ni-EBC, Ni-U and Cr-U concentrations and the cumulative exposure indices. Taking into account tobacco use, statistical analysis showed the same trends except for the relationship between Mn-U and CIW. This pilot study showed that Mn-EBC, as well as Ni-EBC, can serve as reliable indices of occupational exposure to welding fumes and provide complimentary toxicokinetic information to that provided by urine analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomarkers of exposure to stainless steel tungsten inert gas welding fumes and the effect of exposure on exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccelli, Maria Grazia; Goldoni, Matteo; Andreoli, Roberta; Mozzoni, Paola; Pinelli, Silvana; Alinovi, Rossella; Selis, Luisella; Mutti, Antonio; Corradi, Massimo

    2018-08-01

    The respiratory tract is the main target organ of the inhaled hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) and nickel (Ni) contained in stainless steel (SS) welding fumes (WFs). The aim of this study was to investigate the Cr and Ni content of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of SS tungsten inert gas (TIG) welders, and relate their concentrations with oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. EBC and urine from 100 SS TIG welders were collected pre-(T 0 ) and post-shift (T 1 ) on a Friday, and pre-shift (T 2 ) on the following Monday morning. Both EBC and urinary Cr concentrations were higher at T 1 (0.08 μg/L and 0.71 μg/g creatinine) and T 0 (0.06 μg/L and 0.74 μg/g creatinine) than at T 2 (below the limit of detection [LOD] and 0.59 μg/g creatinine), and EBC Ni concentrations generally remained welding also play a role in generating lung oxidative stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Shielding and filtering techniques to protect sensitive instrumentation from electromagnetic interference caused by arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalechstein, W.

    1997-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) caused by arc welding is a concern for sensitive CANDU instrumentation and control equipment, especially start-up instrumentation (SUI) and ion chamber instruments used to measure neutron flux at low power. Measurements of the effectiveness of simple shielding and filtering techniques that may be applied to limit arc welding electromagnetic emissions below the interference threshold are described. Shielding configurations investigated include an arrangement in which the welding power supply, torch (electrode holder), interconnecting cables and welder operator were housed in a single enclosure and a more practical configuration of separate shields for the power supply, cables and operator with torch. The two configuration were found to provide 30 dB and 26 dB attenuation, respectively, for arc welder electric-field emissions and were successful in preventing EMI in SUI set up just outside the shielding enclosures. Practical improvements that may be incorporated in the shielding arrangement to facilitate quick setup in the field in a variety of application environments, while maintaining adequate EMI protection, are discussed. (author)

  18. Integrated Voltage—Current Monitoring and Control of Gas Metal Arc Weld Magnetic Ball-Jointed Open Source 3-D Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuenyong Nilsiam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To provide process optimization of metal fabricating self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap 3-D printers requires a low-cost sensor and data logger system to measure current (I and voltage (V of the gas metal arc welders (GMAW. This paper builds on previous open-source hardware development to provide a real-time measurement of welder I-V where the measuring circuit is connected to two analog inputs of the Arduino that is used to control the 3-D printer itself. Franklin firmware accessed through a web interface that is used to control the printer allows storing the measured values and downloading those stored readings to the user’s computer. To test this custom current and voltage monitoring device this study reports on its use on an upgraded all metal RepRap during the printing of aluminum alloy (ER1100, ER4043, ER4943, ER4047, and ER5356. The voltage and current data were analyzed on a per alloy basis and also layer-by-layer in order to evaluate the device’s efficacy as a monitoring device for 3-D printing and the results of the integrated design are discussed.

  19. Autonomic function in manganese alloy workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrington, W.W.; Angle, C.R.; Willcockson, N.K.; Padula, M.A. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Korn, T.

    1998-07-01

    The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a frog shop for gouging, welding, and grinding repair of high manganese railway track and a convenience sample of three mild steel welders with lesser manganese exposure also referred because of cognitive or autonomic symptoms. Frog shop air manganese samples 9.6--10 years before and 1.2--3.4 years after the diagnosis of the index case exceeded 1.0 mg/m{sup 3} in 29% and 0.2 mg/m{sup 3} in 62%. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring was used to determine the temporal variability of the heartrate (RR{prime} interval) and the rates of change at low frequency and high frequency. MMPI and MCMI personality assessment and short-term memory, figure copy, controlled oral word association, and symbol digit tests were used.

  20. High quality joining techniques: in-process assurance (IPA) welding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaihara, Shoichiro

    1996-01-01

    On July 1, 1995, the Product Liability Law was enforced, and in industrial world, further reliability has been demanded. Recently, accompanying the progress of electronics, the proportion taken by automatic welders and robots increased in welding. By memorizing proper welding conditions, the welding from initial to final passes can be done fully automatically. Also feedback mechanism was equipped to mechanized welders, and the in-process control has become to be feasible. The way of thinking on confirming in process welding quality in arc welding is explained. IPA welding system utilizes the multi-media collecting images and sound, samples the change of welding conditions and the state of arc on a same screen, and monitors the deviation from the range of proper welding conditions. At the time of abnormality, inspector or a computer carries out image diagnosis and welding control, and the system indicates the soundness of welded parts. The basic concept and the flow chart of this system are shown. The experiment of applying the system to arc welding is reported. The correlation of welding phenomena and welding conditions is examined. (K.I.)

  1. Welding in Singapore; Singapore no yosetsu jijo. Sekai no 40% no seizo kichi (2010 nen) (Tonan Asia no doko) donoyonishite ibunka no kabe wo koeruka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, S. [Singapore Welding Society, (Singapore)

    1997-07-01

    From the position participating as a president of the Singapore Welding Society invited from Japan, the author of this paper introduces the welding situation in that country with emphasis placed on technical exchanges. South East Asia consists of a number of countries in which different kinds of races are present with different cultures. The region is now accomplishing a transfiguration into the manufacturing base of the world. Singapore exists as its core, and is carrying out lubricating functions for industrial growth of the region. It is an important matter how technical transfer will be made from industrialized nations such as Europe, America and Japan into Singapore to meet the above functions. Being different from Japan where a homogeneous society is viewed more importantly, welders, for example, change their place of employment from one to another despite the fact that welders are qualified for their skills by companies independently. Therefore, people concerned with welding in oil refineries, the government agencies and academic societies have developed extensive committee activities for unification of standards for welding skill examinations and for preparation of common implementation law bills. They have spent two years only for preparing the drafts. As a result, a network covering different kinds of business was successfully realized to exchange human resources and information and perform skill management. 4 figs.

  2. Welding processes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Weman, Klas

    2003-01-01

    Deals with the main commercially significant and commonly used welding processes. This title takes the student or novice welder through the individual steps involved in each process in an easily understood way. It covers many of the requirements referred to in European Standards including EN719, EN 729, EN 729 and EN 287.$bWelding processes handbook is a concise, explanatory guide to the main commercially significant and commonly-used welding processes. It takes the novice welder or student through the individual steps involved in each process in a clear and easily understood way. It is intended to provide an up-to-date reference to the major applications of welding as they are used in industry. The contents have been arranged so that it can be used as a textbook for European welding courses in accordance with guidelines from the European Welding Federation. Welding processes and equipment necessary for each process are described so that they can be applied to all instruction levels required by the EWF and th...

  3. Evaluation of occupational exposure to toxic metals released in the process of aluminum welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczak, Wanda; Gromiec, Jan

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to welding fumes and its elements on aluminum welders in Polish industry. The study included 52 MIG/Al fume samples and 18 TIG/Al samples in 3 plants. Air samples were collected in the breathing zone of welders (total and respirable dust). Dust concentration was determined gravimetrically, and the elements in the collected dust were determined by AAS. Mean time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of the welding dusts/fumes and their components in the breathing zone obtained for different welding processes were, in mg/m3: MIG/Al fumes mean 6.0 (0.8-17.8), Al 2.1 (0.1-7.7), Mg 0.2 (TIG/Al fumes 0.7 (0.3-1.4), Al 0.17 (0.07-0.50). A correlation has been found between the concentration of the main components and the fume/dust concentrations in MIG/Al and TIG/Al fumes. Mean percentages of the individual components in MIG/Al fumes/dusts were Al: 30 (9-56) percent; Mg: 3 (1-5.6) percent; Mn: 0.2 (0.1-0.3) percent; Cu: 0.2 (welding methods, the nature of welding-related operations, and work environment conditions.

  4. Development of TIG Welding System for a Nuclear Fuel Test Rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Changyoung; Ahn, Sungho; Hong, Jintae; Kim, Kahye [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The welding process is one of the most important among the instrumentation processes of the nuclear fuel test rig and rods. To manufacture the nuclear fuel test rig, a precision welding system needs to be fabricated to develop various welding technologies of the fuel test rig and rods jointing the various sensors and end caps on a fuel cladding tube, which is charged with fuel pellets and component parts. Thus, we designed and fabricated the precision welding system consisting of an orbital TIG welder, a low-pressure chamber, and a high-pressure chamber. Using this system, the performance tests were performed with the round and seal spot welds for each welding condition. This paper describes not only the contents for the fabrication of precision TIG welding system but also some results from weld tests using the low-pressure and high-pressure chambers to verify the performance of this system. The TIG welding system was developed to manufacture the nuclear fuel test rig and rods. It has been configured to be able to weld the nuclear fuel test rigs and rods by applying the TIG welder using a low-pressure chamber and a high-pressure chamber. The performance tests using this system were performed with the round and seal spot welds for the welding conditions. The soundness of the orbital TIG welding system was confirmed through performance tests in the low-pressure and high-pressure chambers.

  5. Reproductive toxicological aspects of chromium in males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, E.

    1994-01-01

    To expand our present understanding of the effects of chromium on male fertility a number of studies were designed to achieve this through the use of chromium intoxicated experimental animals and through investigation of sexual hormones and sperm quality in welders. Also in view of the lack of an experimental model for effects of noxious substance on the epididymal spermatozoa the main objectives of the series of studies reviewed here were: A. To establish a model for evaluation of epididymal sperm count and motility in the rat. B. To investigate and compare the effects of tri- and hexavalent chromium on epididymal spermatozoa. Further to describe the effects of low-dose long-time exposure of rats to the most toxicological interesting chromium oxidative state - hexavalent chromium. C. By the use of autoradiography and γ-countinuing to expand the present knowledge on the distribution of chromium in the body with special reference to the male reproductive organs. D. To describe the effects of exposure to hexavalent chromium in welding fume on levels of sexual hormones and semen parameters in welders. (EG)

  6. High quality joining techniques: in-process assurance (IPA) welding system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaihara, Shoichiro [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    On July 1, 1995, the Product Liability Law was enforced, and in industrial world, further reliability has been demanded. Recently, accompanying the progress of electronics, the proportion taken by automatic welders and robots increased in welding. By memorizing proper welding conditions, the welding from initial to final passes can be done fully automatically. Also feedback mechanism was equipped to mechanized welders, and the in-process control has become to be feasible. The way of thinking on confirming in process welding quality in arc welding is explained. IPA welding system utilizes the multi-media collecting images and sound, samples the change of welding conditions and the state of arc on a same screen, and monitors the deviation from the range of proper welding conditions. At the time of abnormality, inspector or a computer carries out image diagnosis and welding control, and the system indicates the soundness of welded parts. The basic concept and the flow chart of this system are shown. The experiment of applying the system to arc welding is reported. The correlation of welding phenomena and welding conditions is examined. (K.I.)

  7. Assessment of Health Consequences of Steel Industry Welders’ Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Zahra; Mortazavi, Saied Mohammad Javad; Asmand, Ebrahim; Nikeghbal, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Welding is among the most important frequently used processes in the industry with a wide range of applications from the food industry to aerospace and from precision tools to shipbuilding. The aim of this study was to assess the level of steel industry welders’ exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to investigate the health impacts of these exposures. Methods: In this case–control study, we measured the intensity of UV at the workers’ wrist in Fars Steel Company through manufacture of different types of heavy metal structures, using UV-meter model 666230 made by Leybold Co., from Germany. Results: The population under the study comprised 400 people including 200 welders as the exposed group and 200 nonwelders as the unexposed group. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19. The average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of the UV at the welders’ wrist were 0.362, 0.346, 1.27, and 0.01 μW/cm2, respectively. There was a significantly (P radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures. PMID:26900437

  8. Case-control study of leukemia at a naval nuclear shipyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, F.B.; Waxweiler, R.A.; Beaumont, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    A matched case-control study was conducted of 53 leukemia deaths and of 212 controls within a previously studied cohort of 24,545 on-shore workers employed between January 1, 1952 and August 15, 1977 at the Portsmouth (New Hampshire) Naval Shipyard. The study sought to ascertain a priori whether there was an association between leukemia deaths and occupational exposure to either ionizing radiation or organic solvents. To obtain information on individual exposures, radiation dose histories and detailed work histories by job and shop were evaluated for each subject. No statistically significant associations were found either between ionizing radiation or presumed solvent exposure and myelogenous or lymphatic leukemia. However, when specific job categories and shops were examined without benefit of a priori hypotheses, two occupations, electrician and welder, were found to be associated with leukemia. For electricians, the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (ORMH) was significantly elevated for all leukemias (ORMH = 3.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.29-6.98), particularly for lymphatic leukemia (ORMH = 6.00, 95% CI = 1.47-24.45). For welders, the odds ratio was not significantly elevated for all leukemias (ORMH = 2.25, 95% CI = 0.92-5.53), but was significantly elevated for myeloid leukemia (ORMH = 3.83, 95% CI = 1.28-11.46). These findings persisted when potential confounders were adjusted by means of a conditional logistic regression model

  9. 10,170 flawless welds

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    The welding of tubes containing the principal current-carrying busbars in the LHC magnets was one of the main activities of the SMACC project. After a year of preparation and another of intense activity in the tunnel, the last weld was completed on Wednesday 14 May. Over 10,170 welds have been inspected and not a single fault has been found.    The welder (above) creates the weld using an orbital welding machine (below) specifically designed for CERN. Each of the eight sectors of the LHC contains around 210 interconnects between the superconducting magnets. Consolidating these interconnections was the SMACC project’s primary objective. One of the last jobs before closing the interconnects is the welding of the M lines: each has a 104 mm diameter and a radial clearance of just 45 mm. In total: 10,170 welds carried out in a single year of activities. A true challenge, which was carried out by a team of 30 highly specialised welders, working under the supervision o...

  10. Real-time remote-controlled welding of the inspection nozzle on the Phenix double-wall tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagnot, C.; Dineghin, G. de; Baude, D.; Delmas, A.; Gauthier, A.; Gros, J.; Sommeillier, M.

    2001-01-01

    For the ultrasonic non destructive inspection of the vessel shell ring welds in the Phenix reactor, the insert of the NDT instrument needs to drill the double-wall tank, to install and weld nozzles. This last operation is realized by the way of an orbital welding installation. Considering severe environment restraints (irradiation, temperature, space,...), the welding control is made at distance (50 m). To supervise this operation, the welder requires an high quality image of the welding scene. Five nozzles of about 400 mm diameter are distributed on a 12 m-diameter tank. The junction between the nozzle and the tank present a shape of horse saddle and the passes trajectories against the tank wall show a lateral deviation of several millimeters. To take care of this deviation and of eventual geometrical defects, the welder adjust the torch position during welding. For that he needs an adapted information. The ''Laboratoire Moderne de Soudage'' inside CEA/CEREM has designed, validated and provided a new Computer-Assisted Welding for real-time remote-controlled orbital welding. Video cameras and a laser diode module were installed on the orbital installation for the watching of the welding scene. An image processing unit of new generation gives the real-time measurement of the distance between the torch and the wall tank. The control of the torch position is particularly significant to guarantee the good welding pass sequence. With this system, the position precision can reach 0,1 mm. (author)

  11. Joining of fuel pin end plugs. Pulsed magnetic welding (PMW), pressurized resistance welding (PRW) and their inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Katsuichiro; Seki, Masayuki

    1996-01-01

    In Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, in order to attain the high burnup of FBR fuel, the development of new cladding tube materials mainly aiming at the improvement of swelling resistance has been advanced. Oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic steel has excellent swelling characteristics and high temperature creep strength, but the strength of its welded parts lowers remarkably. As the result of the investigation of solid phase joining, the conclusion that PMW and PRW are promising was obtained. So far, the manufacture of a welder was started first, the welding test was advanced, and the ultrasonic flaw detection technology of high accuracy was developed for the inspection of welding defects. The features, the principle of welding, the welders and the examples of application of the PMW and the PRW are reported. The features of the ultrasonic inspection apparatus are explained. The inspection apparatus comprises 5 pulse motors for driving probes and one pulse motor for turning a sample. The example of flaw detection test results is shown. (K.I.)

  12. Occupation and lung cancer in two industrialized areas of northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronco, G.; Ciccone, G.; Mirabelli, D.; Troia, B.; Vineis, P.

    1988-03-15

    A population-based case-control study on lung cancer was conducted in 2 industrialized areas of northern Italy. Cases (126) were all males who died from lung cancer between 1976 and 1980. Controls (384) were a random sample of males dying from other causes during the same period. Jobs held during working life have been analyzed according to a list of occupations already known to be causally associated with lung cancer (list A) and a list of occupations suspected of being so (list B). Attributable risk percentages in the population for occupations included in either list A or B were about 36% and 12% in the 2 areas. Welders or workers in industries in which welding is common showed elevated odds ratios: 2.9 for welders (95% CI 0.9-9.8); 4.9 (1.1-22.9) for structural metal workers; 11.4 (2.6-49.9) for workers in structural metal production. Other job categories associated with lung cancer included: electricians and workers in electrical machine production, woodworkers (in furniture or cabinet making, but not in carpentry or joinery) and cleaning services. Smoking did not seem to exert a substantial confounding effect. Attributable risk percentages for tobacco smoking were about 78% and 76% in the population of the 2 areas.

  13. Occupation and lung cancer in two industrialized areas of northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, G; Ciccone, G; Mirabelli, D; Troia, B; Vineis, P

    1988-03-15

    A population-based case-control study on lung cancer was conducted in 2 industrialized areas of northern Italy. Cases (126) were all males who died from lung cancer between 1976 and 1980. Controls (384) were a random sample of males dying from other causes during the same period. Jobs held during working life have been analyzed according to a list of occupations already known to be causally associated with lung cancer (list A) and a list of occupations suspected of being so (list B). Attributable risk percentages in the population for occupations included in either list A or B were about 36% and 12% in the 2 areas. Welders or workers in industries in which welding is common showed elevated odds ratios: 2.9 for welders (95% CI 0.9-9.8); 4.9 (1.1-22.9) for structural metal workers; 11.4 (2.6-49.9) for workers in structural metal production. Other job categories associated with lung cancer included: electricians and workers in electrical machine production, woodworkers (in furniture or cabinet making, but not in carpentry or joinery) and cleaning services. Smoking did not seem to exert a substantial confounding effect. Attributable risk percentages for tobacco smoking were about 78% and 76% in the population of the 2 areas.

  14. Welding mechanization in shipyard CIM; Zosen ni okeru yosetsu no jidoka robot ka CIM ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, T. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper explains development and examples of application of automated welding devices from a viewpoint of an element technology constituting computer integrated manufacturing (CIM), based on the history of modernization of shipyards that has been achieved to date. In the first step of promoting the modernization, elevating cutting accuracy in the uppermost stream process was thought a starting point of rationalization. What have been achieved therefrom are adoption of the most advanced NC plasma cutting machine, and improvement in the computer aided system for the cutting machines. In addition, a twenty-electrode line welder has been developed, which does not create angle deformation in welding longerons, and can be operated even by unskilled workers. The welder has successfully realized a construction method in which robots can be applied more easily. Further developments have been made on a robot to weld cells, advanced CAD/CAM operation techniques which are linked with data from design, an automatic one-side welding device which can achieve a speed 2.5 times greater than by conventional devices, and an automation device for three-dimensionally bent blocks, whose automation has been regarded difficult. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Mechanized and robotized welding in shipbuilding; Zosen ni okeru yosetsu no jidoka robot ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Y. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    Large-scale ships such as VLCC are built at the Kure No.1 Works of IHI (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industry). This paper introduces current status of mechanized and robotized welding at the works. For the sub-assembly with short weld length and horizontal fillet, simplified automatic welders are used in which mag-welding method using CO2 is adopted. The frequent wound welding of member ends can be automatically conducted using welders developed by IHI. In the large-scale assembly processes, remarkable rationalization and highly accurate assembly of flat plate welding have been promoted. Tankers, container ships, and bulk carriers can be treated at the same time. Teaching times of welding robots can be greatly reduced by a technique called parametric treatment. In the future, it is essential to enhance the accuracy of members by introducing the laser cutting during machining processes. Completely self-type mechanization is required as well as large-output laser welding and sensor technology. 3 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Analysis of lung tissue particles among silicosis cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Case

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims:Lung tissue samples of several miners, millers, sandblaster, welders andconstruction workers with historical exposure to mineral particles were analyzed. These subjectshad significant respiratory exposure to silica particles and demanded compensation foroccupational lung diseases.Method: Lung tissue samples were observed under an Electron microscope with 10000Xmagnification. Mineral particles were sized and analyzed by EDS detector based on X-rayspectrophotometry.Results: The results have indicated that the lung particle burden of the subjects was closelyrelated to their occupational history. The highest level of mineral silica particles were found in thelungs of miners and sandblasters. The highest concentration of metallic particles was found in thelungs of welders and miners in ferric mining industry. Severity of lung fibrosis was directlyrelated to the lung free silica concentration. However, no association was found between particlediameter and severity of fibrosis. In addition, lung particle burden of silicotic cases with lungcancer contained a much higher concentration of metallic particles and asbestos fibres that thelung of those subject with silicosis only.Conclusion: Although workers in mining and construction may be predominantly exposed tosilica particles including quartz, the role of other mineral particles including asbestos fibres,metallic fibres and other minerals should be taken into account in the genesis of occupational lungdisease in particular lung cancer. Lung tissue sample analysis can provide valuable informationto assess the legal and compensation cases.

  17. Workplace monitoring and occupational health studies in the Sostanj thermal power plant, Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacimovic, R.; Falnoga, I.; Jeran, Z.; Kump, P.; Necemer, M.; Stropnik, B.; Kobal, A.B.

    2000-01-01

    Only a few investigations have been performed in the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (TPP) involving comprehensive studies of trace and minor elements and radionuclides in the workplaces. Workers at the TPP in some sectors are exposed to high levels of coal dust, in others to dusty operations with ash and electrostatically precipitated fly ash, and in addition a force of welders is employed for maintenance and construction tasks. Welders work 5 to 6 hours per day and they are protected only from UV light. They are exposed to high concentrations of metals in inhaled welding fume. One method to determine the levels of trace and minor elements in the atmosphere at the working places is to sample aerosols. Aerosols were collected on Nuclepore polycarbonate membrane filters by a Casella personal sampler at different working places in the Sostanj TPP. In this report, the emphasis is on the methodology and analytical development (instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray spectrometry), and to a lesser extent on the results obtained up to now. Results obtained by the k 0 -method and XRF techniques for aerosols collected at different working places in the Sostanj TPP are presented and discussed. Results obtained for an intercomparison study for different samples provided by IAEA are not presented in this progress report but have been sent to the IAEA and the National Institute of Occupational Health (Denmark)

  18. Qualification, certification and training systems of a Japanese nuclear power plant supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshijima, S.; Tomita, J.; Yoneda, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Training and indoctrination of personnel are very important for performing quality assurance activities in nuclear power plants. The paper presents policies, procedures and practices with regard to a training system for site construction workers, a training system for plant operation personnel at a special facility, and services and activities for operating plants. The training system for site workers and technicians offers basic training for all workers, and special training and qualification for field welders, cable-termination workers and non-destructive examination personnel. In addition to the qualification system for field welders applied by the regulatory body, a privat-company qualification system exists. Also, a training centre for BWR operators has been established. This facility has a simulator duplicating the main control room of an actual plant and a computer-assisted instruction system. Standard training courses, short-term basic courses, re-training courses, group training courses and special training courses are held at the training centre. Finally, the services and activities performed by Toshiba Corporation for operating plants are described. These activities of the plant supplier aim at keeping up and further enhancing the safety and reliability of operating plants and mainly consist of: (1) collection and evaluation of plant operation data, with re-evaluation and improvement of systems and components; (2) development of new maintenance techniques; (3) development of measures for reducing annual outage periods; and (4) plant emergency preparedness. (author)

  19. Equipment to weld fuel rods of mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, G.; Orlando, O.S.; Olano, V.R.; Toubes, B.; Munoz, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Two welding outfits system T1G were designed and constructed to weld fuel rods with mixed oxides pellets (uranium and plutonium). One of them is connected to a glove box where the loading of sheaths takes place. The sheaths are driven to the welder through a removable plug pusher in the welding chamber. This equipment was designed to perform welding tests changing the parameters (gas composition and pressure, welding current, electrode position, etc.). The components of the welder, such as plug holder, chamber closure and peripheral accessories, were designed and constructed taking into account the working pressures in the machine, which is placed in a controlled area and connected to a glove box, where special safety conditions are necessary. The equipment to weld fuel bars is complemented by another machine, located in cold area, of the type presently used in the fuel elements factory. This equipment has been designed to perform some welding operations in sheaths and mixed oxide rods of the type Atucha I and II. Both machines have a programmed power supply of wide range and a vacuum, and pressurizing system that allows the change of parameters. Both systems have special features of handling and operation. (Author)

  20. The effect of a commercial competitive exclusion product on the selection of enrofloxacin resistance in commensal E. coli in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantziaras, Ilias; Smet, Annemieke; Filippitzi, Maria Eleni; Damiaans, Bert; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Boyen, Filip; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2018-06-07

    The effect of a competitive exclusion product (Aviguard ® ) on the selection of fluoroquinolone resistance in poultry was assessed in vivo in the absence or presence of fluoroquinolone treatment. Two experiments using a controlled seeder-sentinel animal model (2seeders:4sentinels per group) with one-day-old chicks were used. For both experiments,as soon as the chicks were hatched, the animals of two groups were administered Aviguard ® and two groups were left untreated. Three days later, all groups were inoculated with an enrofloxacin-susceptible commensal E. coli strain. Five days after hatching, two animals per group were inoculated either with a bacteriologically-fit or a bacteriologically non-fit enrofloxacin-resistant commensal E. coli strain. In experiment 2, all groups were orally treated for three consecutive days (Day 8-10) with enrofloxacin. Throughout the experiments, faecal excretion of all inoculated E. coli strains was determined on days 2-5-8-11-18-23 by selective plating (via spiral plater). Linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of Aviguard ® on the selection of fluoroquinolone resistance. The use of Aviguard® (penrofloxacin-resistant E. coli when no enrofloxacin treatment was administered. However, this beneficial effect disappeared (p=0.37) when the animals were treated with enrofloxacin. Similarly, bacterial fitness of the enrofloxacin-resistant E. coli strain used for inoculation had an effect (penrofloxacin resistance when no treatment was administered, whereas this effect was no longer present when enrofloxacin was administered (p =0.70). Thus, enrofloxacin treatment cancelled the beneficial effects from administrating Aviguard ® in one-day-old broiler chicks and resulted in a enrofloxacin-resistant flora.

  1. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; Poli, Diana; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2006-03-15

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers.Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively.The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)-DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)-DPC) in EBC.Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI).

  2. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; Poli, Diana; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively. The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)-DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)-DPC) in EBC. Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI)

  3. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldoni, Matteo [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Caglieri, Andrea [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Poli, Diana [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Vettori, Maria Vittoria [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Corradi, Massimo [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Apostoli, Pietro [Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene, Department of Experimental and Applied Medicine, University of Brescia (Italy); Mutti, Antonio [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.mutti@unipr.it

    2006-03-15

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively. The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)-DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)-DPC) in EBC. Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI)

  4. Thermal Characteristic Of AIMg2 Cladding And Fuel Plates Of U3Si2-Al With Various Uranium Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslina, Br. G.; Suparjo; Aggraini, D.; Hasbullah, N.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal characteristic analyzed in this paper included linear expansion value, coefficient expansion, and enthalpy of cladding material fuel core and fuel plate of U 3 Si 2 -AI. Before analyzing, the fresh cladding of AIMg2 (without treatment) and the rolled AIMg2 were annealed at temperature of 425 o C for 1 hour, and the fuel plates of U 3 Si 2 -AI was prepared for various uranium loading of 0.9 - 3.6 - 4.2 - 4.8 and 5.2 g/cm 3 . Linear expansion nominal value and expansion coefficient were analyzed by using Dilatometer whereas enthalpy determination used Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). The linear expansion and expansion coefficient analysis was performed to study the dimension cladding and of fuel plates during their stay in the reactor core, whereas determination of enthalpy was carried out to estimate the energy absorbed and released by fuel meat of U 3 Si 2 -AI to the cooling water through AlMg2 as a cladding. The result showed that the linear expansion and expansion coefficient of fresh AIMg2 cladding, rolled AIMg2 and fuel plates of U 3 Si 2 -AI are increased with the increase of temperature as well as the increase of uranium loading. The enthalpy measure showed that the enthalpy of fresh AIMg2 is smaller than that of rolled AIMg2 but melting temperature of fresh AIMg2 is greater than that of rolled AIMg2. The enthalpy of fuel plates and meat of U 3 Si 2 -AI is less than that of plates of U 3 Si 2 -AI. The enthalpy of fuel platers and meat of U 3 Si 2 -AI decrease with the increase of uranium loading. It is concluded that the fuel meat more reactive than fuel plates of U 3 Si 2 -AI

  5. Effect of reduced use of organic solvents on disability pension in painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, Bengt; Burdorf, Alex

    2017-11-01

    To investigate whether the decreased use of paints based on organic solvents has caused a decreased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders in painters by studying their incidence in disability pensions. The incidence of disability pension in Swedish painters who had participated in health examinations between 1971 and 1993 was studied through linkage with Swedish registers of disability pension over 1971-2010 and compared with the incidence in other construction workers as woodworkers, concrete workers and platers. When phasing out began in the 1970s, about 40% of paints were based on organic solvents and it had decreased to 4% in 1990s. The analysis was adjusted for age, time period, body mass index and smoking. The painters (n=23 065) had an increased risk of disability pension due to neurological diagnosis (n=285, relative risk (RR) 1.92, 95% CI 1.67 to 2.20) and psychiatric diagnosis (n=632, RR=1.61, 95 % CI 1.42 to 1.82). For neurological disorders there was a time trend with a continuously decreasing risk from 1980 onwards, but there was no such trend for psychiatric disorders. High exposure to organic solvents increased the risk for disability pension in neurological disorders, and the risk decreased when the use of organic solvents decreased. The painters also had an increased risk of disability pension due to psychiatric disorders, but the causes have to be further investigated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. [Anatomia practica: features from the history of early patho-anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Olaf Myhre

    2002-01-01

    Since the anatomy school of Alexandria during the fourth og third century before Christ dissection of the human body seems not to have been practiced until late Medieval or early Renaissance period, undoubtedly due to ethical and religious aversions. The teaching of anatomy was based on Galen using animal dissection. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, however, anatomical examinations of the human body slowly began, seemingly for the purpose of describing both the normal structure and the abnormal structure caused by diseases, maldevelopment or trauma. This latter branch of anatomy was called practical, medical or correlative anatomy and corresponds to what we today name as patho-anatomy. Antonio Benivieni of Florence (1442-1502) is the first one to collect (and publish) a series of clinical observations some of which could be correlated to post mortem findings. It is unknown, however, whether the autopsies were performed by himself; and there is no mentioning of technique or circumstances for sectioning. Studies of the dead body by incision for the purpose of displaying diseased organs (autopsy) seem to have been an accepted practice for which relatives consented in those days. Other medical doctors in the years to follow, as for instance Fernel (1485-1558) in Paris, Eustachius (1524-1574) in Rome, Felix Plater (1536-1614) in Basle and Th. Bartholin (1616-1680) in Copenhagen have used the anatomical method for the study of diseases. Further, Schenck (1530-1598) in Freiburg and Bonet (1620-1689) in Genéva collected and published large series of clinical symptoms which had been related to post mortem findings dating back to ancient observers. This is the scientific background for anatomists as Morgagni, Lieutaud, Baillie, Bichât and others who founded the morbid anatomy on which the study of disease flourished in the classical patho-anatomical era of the nineteenth century with names as Rokitanski and Virchow.

  7. An edge pedestal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacev, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    A new model for calculation of the gradient scale lengths in the edge pedestal region and of the edge transport barrier width in H-mode tokamak plasmas will be described. Model problem calculations which demonstrate the promise of this model for predicting experimental pedestal properties will be discussed. The density and Prague gradient scale lengths (L) in the edge are calculated from the particle and ion and electron energy radial transport equations, making use of (presumed) known particle and energy fluxes flowing across the edge transport barrier from the core into the SOL and of edge transport coefficients. The average values of the particle and heat fluxes in the edge transport barrier are calculated in terms of the fluxes crossing into the SOL and the atomic physics reaction rates (ionisation, charge-exchange, elastic scattering, impurity radiation) in the edge by integrating the respective transport equations from the pedestal to the separatrix. An important implication of this model is that the pedestal gradient scale lengths depend not just on local pedestal platers properties but also on particle and energy fluxes from the core plasma and on recycling neutral fluxes that penetrate into the plasma edge, both of which in turn depend on the pedestal properties. The MHD edge pressure gradient constraint α≤ α C is used to determine the pressure width of the edge transport barrier, Δ TB = Δ TB (α c ). Three different models for the MHD edge pressure gradient constraint have been investigated: (1) nominal ideal ballooning mode theory, (2) ballooning mode theory taking into account the edge geometry and shear to access He second stability region; and pedestal β-limit theory when the ballooning modes are stabilised by diamagnetic effects. A series of calculations have been made for a DIII-D model problem. The calculated gradient scale lengths and edge transport barrier widths are of the magnitude of values observed experimentally, and certain trends

  8. El enlucido exterior de yeso en las rehabilitaciones de las fachadas de París

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Pigache, M.

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available The use, the manufacture, the putting into excution of gypsum plaster on old Paris façades -a marely manual technique- are specified since long ago. A number of gypsum plaster carried out under Louis the 14th reign, have still a good behaviour in spite of, as it is well known, gypsum in the outside is very sensible to dissolution. This study allows to clarify four fundamental parameters, and its conclusions make it possible to carry out rehabilitations both in prestigeous and in humble buildings: - The use of a mortar which components will be similar to those old materials; - A merely handwork. - An established proportion with a view to protect the gypsum plasters, cornices, moldings, etc. from drainage waters. - Bearing walls with higher mechanical characteristics than those of platers.La utilización, fabricación y puesto en obra de morteros de yeso, sobre las fachadas antiguas en el viejo París -técnica puramente manual-, están precisadas desde hace mucho tiempo. Numerosos enlucidos de mortero de yeso, realizados bajo el reinado de Luis XIV, presentan todavía un excelente comportamiento a pesar de que, como es sabido, el yeso en exteriores es muy sensible a disolverse. Este estudio ha permitido aclarar cuatro parámetros fundamentales y, sobre todo, sus conclusiones han permitido la realización de numerosas rehabilitaciones, tanto en inmuebles de prestigio como en edificaciones modestas: - El empleo de un mortero cuyos componentes sean más cercanos a los materiales antiguos. - Una aplicación puramente manual. - Una proporción establecida a fin de proteger de las aguas de desagüe los enlucidos de mortero de yeso, las cornisas, molduras y etc. - Muros portantes con las características mecánicas más elevadas que las de los enlucidos.

  9. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in nonintact beefsteaks of different thicknesses cooked by pan broiling, double pan broiling, or roasting by using five types of cooking appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cangliang; Adler, Jeremy M; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2010-03-01

    This study compared thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in nonintact beefsteaks of different thicknesses by different cooking methods and appliances. Coarsely ground beef was inoculated with rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (eight-strain composite, 6 to 7 log CFU/g) and then mixed with sodium chloride (0.45%) plus sodium tripolyphosphate (0.23%); the total water added was 10%. The meat was stuffed into bags (10-cm diameter), semifrozen (-20 degrees C, 6 h), and cut into 1.5-, 2.5-, and 4.0-cm-thick steaks. Samples were then individually vacuum packaged, frozen (-20 degrees C, 42 h), and tempered (4 degrees C, 2.5 h) before cooking. Partially thawed (-2 +/- 1 degrees C) steaks were pan broiled (Presto electric skillet and Sanyo grill), double pan broiled (George Foreman grill), or roasted (Oster toaster oven and Magic Chef standard kitchen oven) to a geometric center temperature of 65 degrees C. Extent of pathogen inactivation decreased in order of roasting (2.0 to 4.2 log CFU/g) > pan broiling (1.6 to 2.8 log CFU/g) >/= double pan broiling (1.1 to 2.3 log CFU/g). Cooking of 4.0-cm-thick steaks required a longer time (19.8 to 65.0 min; variation was due to different cooking appliances), and caused greater reductions in counts (2.3 to 4.2 log CFU/g) than it did in thinner samples (1.1 to 2.9 log CFU/g). The time to reach the target temperature increased in order of George Foreman grill (3.9 to 19.8 min) electric skillet (16.3 to 55.0 min) kitchen oven (20.0 to 63.0 min); variation was due to steak thickness. Results indicated that increased steak thickness allowed greater inactivation of E. coli O157:H7, as time to reach the target internal temperature increased. Roasting in a kitchen oven was most effective for pathogen inactivation.

  10. Sturdy on Orbital TIG Welding Properties for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Changyoung; Hong, Jintae; Kim, Kahye; Huh, Sungho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    We developed a precision TIG welding system that is able to weld the seam between end-caps and a fuel cladding tube for the nuclear fuel test rod and rig. This system can be mainly classified into an orbital TIG welder (AMI, M-207A) and a pressure chamber. The orbital TIG welder can be independently used, and it consists of a power supply unit, a microprocessor, water cooling unit, a gas supply unit and an orbital weld head. In this welder, the power supply unit mainly supplies GTAW power for a welding specimen and controls an arc starting of high frequency, supping of purge gas, arc rotation through the orbital TIG welding head, and automatic timing functions. In addition, the pressure chamber is used to make the welded surface of the cladding specimen clean with the inert gas filled inside the chamber. To precisely weld the cladding tube, a welding process needs to establish a schedule program for an orbital TIG welding. Therefore, the weld tests were performed on a cladding tube and dummy rods under various conditions. This paper describes not only test results on parameters of the purge gas flow rates and the chamber gas pressures for the orbital TIG welding, but also test results on the program establishment of an orbital TIG welding system to weld the fuel test rods. Various welding tests were performed to develop the orbital TIG welding techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The width of HAZ of a cladding specimen welded with the identical power during an orbital TIG welding cycle was continuously increased from a welded start-point to a weld end-point because of heat accumulation. The welding effect of the PGFR and CGP shows a relatively large difference for FSS and LSS. Each hole on the cladding specimens was formed in the 1bar CGP with the 20L/min PGFR but not made in the case of the PGFR of 10L/min in the CGP of 2bar. The optimum schedule program of the orbital TIG welding system to weld the nuclear fuel test rod was established through the program

  11. Sturdy on Orbital TIG Welding Properties for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Changyoung; Hong, Jintae; Kim, Kahye; Huh, Sungho

    2014-01-01

    We developed a precision TIG welding system that is able to weld the seam between end-caps and a fuel cladding tube for the nuclear fuel test rod and rig. This system can be mainly classified into an orbital TIG welder (AMI, M-207A) and a pressure chamber. The orbital TIG welder can be independently used, and it consists of a power supply unit, a microprocessor, water cooling unit, a gas supply unit and an orbital weld head. In this welder, the power supply unit mainly supplies GTAW power for a welding specimen and controls an arc starting of high frequency, supping of purge gas, arc rotation through the orbital TIG welding head, and automatic timing functions. In addition, the pressure chamber is used to make the welded surface of the cladding specimen clean with the inert gas filled inside the chamber. To precisely weld the cladding tube, a welding process needs to establish a schedule program for an orbital TIG welding. Therefore, the weld tests were performed on a cladding tube and dummy rods under various conditions. This paper describes not only test results on parameters of the purge gas flow rates and the chamber gas pressures for the orbital TIG welding, but also test results on the program establishment of an orbital TIG welding system to weld the fuel test rods. Various welding tests were performed to develop the orbital TIG welding techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The width of HAZ of a cladding specimen welded with the identical power during an orbital TIG welding cycle was continuously increased from a welded start-point to a weld end-point because of heat accumulation. The welding effect of the PGFR and CGP shows a relatively large difference for FSS and LSS. Each hole on the cladding specimens was formed in the 1bar CGP with the 20L/min PGFR but not made in the case of the PGFR of 10L/min in the CGP of 2bar. The optimum schedule program of the orbital TIG welding system to weld the nuclear fuel test rod was established through the program

  12. Increase in oxidative stress levels following welding fume inhalation: a controlled human exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Halshka; Lewinski, Nastassja; Zhao, Jiayuan; Sauvain, Jean-Jacques; Suarez, Guillaume; Wild, Pascal; Danuser, Brigitta; Riediker, Michael

    2016-06-10

    Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding represents one of the most widely used metal joining processes in industry. It has been shown to generate a large majority of particles at the nanoscale and to have low mass emission rates when compared to other types of welding. Despite evidence that TIG fume particles may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), limited data is available for the time course changes of particle-associated oxidative stress in exposed TIG welders. Twenty non-smoking male welding apprentices were exposed to TIG welding fumes for 60 min under controlled, well-ventilated settings. Exhaled breathe condensate (EBC), blood and urine were collected before exposure, immediately after exposure, 1 h and 3 h post exposure. Volunteers participated in a control day to account for oxidative stress fluctuations due to circadian rhythm. Biological liquids were assessed for total reducing capacity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations at each time point. A linear mixed model was used to assess within day and between day differences. Significant increases in the measured biomarkers were found at 3 h post exposure. At 3 h post exposure, we found a 24 % increase in plasma-H2O2 concentrations ([95%CI: 4 % to 46 %], p = 0.01); a 91 % increase in urinary-H2O2 ([2 % to 258 %], p = 0.04); a 14 % increase in plasma-8-OHdG ([0 % to 31 %], p = 0.049); and a 45 % increase in urinary-8-OHdG ([3 % to 105 %], p = 0.03). Doubling particle number concentration (PNC) exposure was associated with a 22 % increase of plasma-8-OHdG at 3 h post exposure (p = 0.01). A 60-min exposure to TIG welding fume in a controlled, well-ventilated setting induced acute oxidative stress at 3 h post exposure in healthy, non-smoking apprentice welders not chronically exposed to welding fumes. As mass concentration of TIG welding fume particles is very low when compared to other types of welding, it is

  13. Comparison of stainless and mild steel welding fumes in generation of reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazer David

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Welding fumes consist of a wide range of complex metal oxide particles which can be deposited in all regions of the respiratory tract. The welding aerosol is not homogeneous and is generated mostly from the electrode/wire. Over 390,000 welders were reported in the U.S. in 2008 while over 1 million full-time welders were working worldwide. Many health effects are presently under investigation from exposure to welding fumes. Welding fume pulmonary effects have been associated with bronchitis, metal fume fever, cancer and functional changes in the lung. Our investigation focused on the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species from stainless and mild steel welding fumes generated by a gas metal arc robotic welder. An inhalation exposure chamber located at NIOSH was used to collect the welding fume particles. Results Our results show that hydroxyl radicals (.OH were generated from reactions with H2O2 and after exposure to cells. Catalase reduced the generation of .OH from exposed cells indicating the involvement of H2O2. The welding fume suspension also showed the ability to cause lipid peroxidation, effect O2 consumption, induce H2O2 generation in cells, and cause DNA damage. Conclusion Increase in oxidative damage observed in the cellular exposures correlated well with .OH generation in size and type of welding fumes, indicating the influence of metal type and transition state on radical production as well as associated damage. Our results demonstrate that both types of welding fumes are able to generate ROS and ROS-related damage over a range of particle sizes; however, the stainless steel fumes consistently showed a significantly higher reactivity and radical generation capacity. The chemical composition of the steel had a significant impact on the ROS generation capacity with the stainless steel containing Cr and Ni causing more damage than the mild steel. Our results suggest that welding fumes may cause acute

  14. Improving student’s technical drawing in building technology course with shared and digital enrichment material in order to support green technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizaka, W.; Nurdiani, N.

    2017-12-01

    Technical drawing is a step that is absolutely necessary to be mastered by the architects in presenting their product in design development phase. The easy readiness and completeness of information in a drawing determine the quality and timeliness of a project. An incomplete engineering drawing is difficult to read by foreman or craftsman, and the risk of misunderstanding of the drawing will cost expensive and have potential risk to create many bad implications in the project. Unfortunately, the knowledge and skill of drawing technique are often not completely mastered by most students. On the other hand, according to the regional development situation in architectural and construction issue, the drawing standards must be fully utilized in international standards in order to facilitate cooperative work involving workers and engineers from these region countries. This research will be described some errors that often made by students and of international drafting symbols that supposed to be well used by students and then insert multi-media resources as digital enrichment material that supposed to be used as an additional material. The goal of this study will be to examine how multi-media is employed to positively impact student learning in a Building Technology course.

  15. Skookum Jim Friendship Centre retrofit training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    The retrofit/renovation of the Skookum Jim Friendship Centre in Whitehorse, Yukon, provided an ideal opportunity to train ten carpenters as specialists in energy conserving construction at the community level throughout the Yukon. Through this project, the trainees have gained special skills through hands-on experience with many energy conserving materials and techniques. As well, the training sessions provided extensive information on applicable thermodynamic principles and building science technology. The crew of two instructors, ten trainees, and the foreman covered all aspects of residential/light commercial construction which apply to retrofit work. Training sessions included information on site-safety, and interpreting the National Building Code, as well as special attention to the air tightness and insulation levels in the building. In observing the operation of the new building during the first heating season, it was noted that the heat provided by the lighting in the building supplied the majority of space heating requirements. Back-up electrical heating was required only at temperatures approaching design temperature for the building. 6 Figs.

  16. TEKNIK ESTIMASI GERAK PENCARIAN PENUH DENGAN AKURASI SETENGAH PIKSEL UNTUK FRAME RATE UP CONVERSION VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ary satya prabhawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Saat ini Teknologi video digital banyak digunakan pada aplikasi hiburan, contohnya adalah TV Digital dengan format HD. Dengan frame rate tinggi, pengkodean video akan menghasil laju bit lebih tinggi yaitu sampai 15 – 30 fps. Permasalahannya adalah kapasitas saluran transmisi memiliki kapasitas terbatas. Solusinya adalah menurunkan laju bit dengan menurunkan jumlah frame video ke penerima. Skema ini dikenal dengan Frame Rate Up-Conversion (FRUC video, dimana frame yang di encoder akan direkonstruksi kembali di decoder dengan membangkitkan frame intermediate (FI. FI dibangkitkan dengan teknik Motion Compensation Interpolation (MCI. Terkait dengan metode FRUC, penelitian ini mengajukan skema MCI unidirectional dengan pencarian gerak akurasi setengah piksel. Pada skema ini, sebuah motion vector (MV kandidat akan dicari di frame referensi, proses estimasi gerak dilakukan dengan menambah piksel sisipan diantara piksel eksisting. Sasarannya adalah meningkatkan akurasi MV kandidat. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa metode yang diajukan lebih baik sampai sebesar masing – masing 3,21 dB dan 3,11 dB pada wilayah pencarian 7 dan 15 piksel dibandingkan dengan metode frame repetition untuk sekuen video foreman dan hall monitor.

  17. ALICE HLT Cluster operation during ALICE Run 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrbach, J.; Krzewicki, M.; Rohr, D.; Engel, H.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Lindenstruth, V.; Berzano, D.; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the four major detectors located at the LHC at CERN, focusing on the study of heavy-ion collisions. The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a compute cluster which reconstructs the events and compresses the data in real-time. The data compression by the HLT is a vital part of data taking especially during the heavy-ion runs in order to be able to store the data which implies that reliability of the whole cluster is an important matter. To guarantee a consistent state among all compute nodes of the HLT cluster we have automatized the operation as much as possible. For automatic deployment of the nodes we use Foreman with locally mirrored repositories and for configuration management of the nodes we use Puppet. Important parameters like temperatures, network traffic, CPU load etc. of the nodes are monitored with Zabbix. During periods without beam the HLT cluster is used for tests and as one of the WLCG Grid sites to compute offline jobs in order to maximize the usage of our cluster. To prevent interference with normal HLT operations we separate the virtual machines running the Grid jobs from the normal HLT operation via virtual networks (VLANs). In this paper we give an overview of the ALICE HLT operation in 2016.

  18. The effect of internal marketing on job satisfaction in health services: a pilot study in public hospitals in Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of internal marketing on job satisfaction in health services, particularly in public hospitals in Northern Greece. Methods A questionnaire with three sections was used. The first one referred to internal marketing by using Foreman and Money's scale, while the second one contained questions on job satisfaction based on Stamps and Piermonte's work. The last section included demographic questions. Three categories of health care professionals, nurses, doctors and paramedic personnel working in public hospitals have participated. Results Doctors tend to be more satisfied with their job than nurses in the same hospitals. Male personnel also tend to be more satisfied with their job than female. Time-defined work contract personnel have a greater level of job satisfaction than permanent personnel. Marital status, position, and educational level have no statistically significant impact on job satisfaction. A slight decline in job satisfaction occurs as the personnel age. Conclusions Internal marketing has a positive effect on the job satisfaction of hospital staff in Northern Greece. Also, doctors and male personnel seem to have greater levels of job satisfaction. Staff with time-defined work contracts with the hospital are more satisfied than permanent staff, and as the staff age, there is a slight decline in job satisfaction. PMID:21981753

  19. Sistem Informasi Pengukuran Kinerja Pada Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Dengan Menggunakan Metode Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil plantations is one of the sub-sectors of agriculture crops in Indonesia, which is the main source of food and economic growth. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC into a model of performance measurement system that can provide a solution within the framework of an integrated performance measurement using financial and non financial aspects. This study aims to develop information systems to measure the performance of oil palm plantations using the Balanced Scorecard method. Measurement of performance using four perspectives, that is: financial, customer, internal business processes and learning and growth. Nine indicators were used, that is: value of employee satisfaction, employee loyalty value, Return on Assets (ROA, solvency, crop maintenance, harvesting TBS, increasing the foreman and administrative competence in the garden, orchard manager guidance to employees and provide a special budget for training. This study resulted in an information system that can determine the weights of indicators and performance assessment scores will then be known to the achievement of performance measurement in oil palm plantations. This study was carried out on the Bina Karya plantation, obtained performance tends to be stable from 2009 to 2013. In 2011 the highest performance values ​​obtained at 68.34% and the lowest was in 2009 at 60.84%.   Keywords: Performance Measurement; Balanced scorecard; Key Performance Indicator; Information System; Palm oil

  20. Bucket Brigades to Increase Productivity in a Luxury Assembly Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo De Carlo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging issues in manual assembly lines is to achieve the best balance of workloads. There are many analytic approaches to solve this problem, but they are often neglected, since they are time-consuming and require high level engineering skills. Fashion bags packaging lines must comply with a number of different products with low production volumes, while the organization of the line is often under the mere responsibility of the foreman, who balances workloads in an empirical way. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the arrangement of bucket brigades (BBs for an assembly line of luxury handbags. To do this, it was decided to perform a testing activity in a company producing fashion handbags in order to compare the self-made design with the BBs and with a simple assembly line balancing problem algorithm. The originality of this research lies in the fact that there are no studies in the literature on BBs applied to the packaging of highly variable small batches. The results were excellent, showing the advantages of BBs in terms of flexibility, the reduction of work in the process and the ability to handle small anomalies.

  1. Expectations from the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Atabek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Transition from agricultural society to industry society, from industrial society to science society has taken place. In all these societies, expectations from children also vary. In the agricultural community, human labor is based on arm power. For this reason, expectation from children is to increase work power. Having more children is the basis for the expectations in this community to see that the boy is valuable because he has increased his work power. In the industrial society, the power of the arm changed its place with the machine power. The knowledgeable person is not a family grown-up but a foreman. Childhood was distinguished during this period. It has been investigated that the child has a separate development.  In the information society, communication and information has never been as fast as it is in this period.  The widespread use of the Internet, and the use of social networks such as Facebook and Twitter are in this period. In this society, families are panicked to prepare a future in their own heads for their children. Because the parents thought of their children, they decided about the child's life instead of the child making these decisions. This has had a negative impact on children's sense of autonomy and their ability to take responsibility. To change this, parents should train their children in auto control and develop children's impulse control skills. The children should be able to understand their emotions and make decisions by reasoning and reasoning.

  2. Successful flow testing of a gas reservoir in 3,500 feet of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaughnessy, J.M.; Carpenter, R.S.; Coleman, R.A.; Jackson, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The test of Viosca Knoll Block 957 Well No. 1 Sidetrack No. 2 was Amoco Production Co.'s deepest test from a floating rig. Viosca Knoll 957 is 115 miles southeast of New Orleans in 3,500 ft of water. The test, at a record water depth for the Gulf of Mexico, also set a world water-depth record for testing a gas reservoir. Safety to crew and the environmental were top priorities during the planning. A team consisting of drilling, completion, reservoir, and facilities engineers and a foreman were assigned to plan and implement the test. Early planning involved field, service company, and engineering groups. Every effort was made to identify potential problems and to design the system to handle them. This paper reports that the goals of the test were to determine reservoir properties and reservoir limits. Several significant challenges were involved in the well test. The reservoir was gas with a potentially significant condensate yield. The ability to dispose of the large volumes of produced fluids safely without polluting was critical to maintaining uninterrupted flow. Potential shut-in surface pressure was 6,500 psi. Seafloor temperature in 3,500 ft of water was 39 degrees F

  3. Yves Bernard (1954-2014)

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Yves Bernard, who has passed away at the age of 59, worked in the transport and handling service (EN-HE) and had been at CERN since 1 July 1975.   Yves Bernard, CERN Open Day 2008. He initially worked for the various transport companies on site, such as H. Reigner, ISS, DBS and ALTEAD, during which time he quickly climbed the ladder (from driver to team leader to foreman) before becoming a member of the CERN personnel in 2004. He was also a volunteer firefighter at the Grilly-Divonne fire station. He worked on all the large accelerator and experiment worksites, in particular on the installation of DELPHI and the North Area (UA1, UA2, UA5), on the Meyrin site (ISR, ISOLDE, AD, the CTF3 complex, n_TOF, LINAC4) and on consolidation work (PS, East Area, PSB). Always friendly and open, he was well-known by many people all over CERN. If ever you had a transport problem, he was the man to call. His commitment to the Organization meant he always went the extra mile to help out physicists and users....

  4. Work efficiency in the operations of juvenile thinning of mixed stands of pedunculate oak with hornbeam, ash and other hard broadleaves with the Stihl MS 260 chainsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research of efficacy of the lightweight low power chainsaw Stihl MS 260 in the operations of juvenile thinning in preserved even-aged mixed stands of pedunculate oak with hornbeam, ash and other hard hardwoods. The investigations were carried out in the territory of FE “Sremska Mitrovica” in three sample plots of different ages. It is the first research of this kind based on the choice of optimal technological solution for the cleaning cuts of oak stands. Technology of work is based on cutting unwanted species at a certain height in order to favor pedunculate oak as the main species. In sample plot 1 the cutting through of undesirable species was carried out in one place and then third parties carried out their processing and transportation. In sample plots 2 and 3 workers cut the unwanted species in several places and stacked the timber on the ground so as not to interfere with the growth of pedunculate oak which does not tolerate shading. In this study, we applied time and work study. Group system of work was recorded. The group typically consisted of 4 workers and a foreman. Fuel consumption was recorded by the method of tank refuelling. The research results show that operating conditions have a significant impact on the effects of work with a chainsaw, as well as on the consumption of fuel and lubricants. The differences are mainly caused by different structures of cut timber.

  5. DNS load balancing in the CERN cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero Naredo, Ignacio; Lobato Pardavila, Lorena

    2017-10-01

    Load Balancing is one of the technologies enabling deployment of large-scale applications on cloud resources. A DNS Load Balancer Daemon (LBD) has been developed at CERN as a cost-effective way to balance applications accepting DNS timing dynamics and not requiring persistence. It currently serves over 450 load-balanced aliases with two small VMs acting as master and slave. The aliases are mapped to DNS subdomains. These subdomains are managed with DDNS according to a load metric, which is collected from the alias member nodes with SNMP. During the last years, several improvements were brought to the software, for instance: support for IPv6, parallelization of the status requests, implementing the client in Python to allow for multiple aliases with differentiated states on the same machine or support for application state. The configuration of the Load Balancer is currently managed by a Puppet type. It discovers the alias member nodes and gets the alias definitions from the Ermis REST service. The Aiermis self-service GUI for the management of the LB aliases has been produced and is based on the Ermis service above that implements a form of Load Balancing as a Service (LBaaS). The Ermis REST API has authorisation based in Foreman hostgroups. The CERN DNS LBD is Open Software with Apache 2 license.

  6. Integrating configuration workflows with project management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Dimitri; Weber, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of the heterogeneous computing resources, services and recurring infrastructure changes at the GridKa WLCG Tier-1 computing center require a structured approach to configuration management and optimization of interplay between functional components of the whole system. A set of tools deployed at GridKa, including Puppet, Redmine, Foreman, SVN and Icinga, provides the administrative environment giving the possibility to define and develop configuration workflows, reduce the administrative effort and improve sustainable operation of the whole computing center. In this presentation we discuss the developed configuration scenarios implemented at GridKa, which we use for host installation, service deployment, change management procedures, service retirement etc. The integration of Puppet with a project management tool like Redmine provides us with the opportunity to track problem issues, organize tasks and automate these workflows. The interaction between Puppet and Redmine results in automatic updates of the issues related to the executed workflow performed by different system components. The extensive configuration workflows require collaboration and interaction between different departments like network, security, production etc. at GridKa. Redmine plugins developed at GridKa and integrated in its administrative environment provide an effective way of collaboration within the GridKa team. We present the structural overview of the software components, their connections, communication protocols and show a few working examples of the workflows and their automation.

  7. North American Engineering, Procurement, Fabrication and Construction Worker Safety Climate Perception Affected by Job Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Pinion

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and implementing the results of Safety Climate surveys can assist in decreasing occupational injuries and illnesses. The following article presents findings of a cross-sectional study that assessed the relationship between safety climate perceptions and job position among engineering, procurement, fabrication and construction (EPFC employees using a 15-item survey. Descriptive statistics (means and frequencies and an ANACOVA (analysis of covariance were performed on a saturated model. The study had a 62% response rate. Results indicate a statistically significant in mean safety climate scores between job position among EPFC employees when controlling for years in industry and location type (i.e., construction versus fabrication [F (9, 603 = 5.28, p < 0.0001, adjusted R-square = 0.07]. Employee perception of safety climate differed based on the employee’s job position (i.e., laborer, foreman, etc.. Project management reported the highest safety climate scores (0.91, followed by supervisors (0.86, technical support employees and foremen (0.84 and laborers (0.81.

  8. The effect of internal marketing on job satisfaction in health services: a pilot study in public hospitals in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Efthymios; Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios

    2011-10-09

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of internal marketing on job satisfaction in health services, particularly in public hospitals in Northern Greece. A questionnaire with three sections was used. The first one referred to internal marketing by using Foreman and Money's scale, while the second one contained questions on job satisfaction based on Stamps and Piermonte's work. The last section included demographic questions. Three categories of health care professionals, nurses, doctors and paramedic personnel working in public hospitals have participated. Doctors tend to be more satisfied with their job than nurses in the same hospitals. Male personnel also tend to be more satisfied with their job than female. Time-defined work contract personnel have a greater level of job satisfaction than permanent personnel. Marital status, position, and educational level have no statistically significant impact on job satisfaction. A slight decline in job satisfaction occurs as the personnel age. Internal marketing has a positive effect on the job satisfaction of hospital staff in Northern Greece. Also, doctors and male personnel seem to have greater levels of job satisfaction. Staff with time-defined work contracts with the hospital are more satisfied than permanent staff, and as the staff age, there is a slight decline in job satisfaction.

  9. Running and testing GRID services with Puppet at GRIF- IRFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, S.; Schaer, F.; Meyer, JP

    2015-12-01

    GRIF is a distributed Tiers 2 centre, made of 6 different centres in the Paris region, and serving many VOs. The sub-sites are connected with 10 Gbps private network and share tools for central management. One of the sub-sites, GRIF-IRFU held and maintained in the CEA- Saclay centre, moved a year ago, to a configuration management using Puppet. Thanks to the versatility of Puppet/Foreman automation, the GRIF-IRFU site maintains usual grid services, with, among them: a CREAM-CE with a TORQUE+Maui (running a batch with more than 5000 jobs slots), a DPM storage of more than 2 PB, a Nagios monitoring essentially based on check_mk, as well as centralized services for the French NGI, like the accounting, or the argus central suspension system. We report on the actual functionalities of Puppet and present the last tests and evolutions including a monitoring with Graphite, a HT-condor multicore batch accessed with an ARC-CE and a CEPH storage file system.

  10. Changing stress levels through gaining information on stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Madu

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to find out the effect of the Information Phase of a Stress Management Program (SMP on the perceptions of participants about their stress levels. Method: A total sample of 100 workers (nursing staff, private business men and women, laboratory assistants, the protective services [foreman and security staff], as well as people in human resources departments took part in this study. All the participants were from the Northern and Gauteng Provinces in South Africa. The Combined Hassles and Uplifts Scale (Folkman & Lazarus, 1989 was used as an instrument to measure the perceived stress level of participants in a SMP. Result: A significant reduction in stress levels was achieved among those who received the Information Phase of the SMP only, as well as those who received the whole stress management techniques. There was no significant difference between the amount of reduction in perceived stress-levels achieved among those that received the Information Phase of the SMP only, compared to that of those who received the whole techniques. Conclusion: The authors conclude that where the resources are limited, only the information phase of a SMP may be given to desiring clients. That should help to save time and money spent on participating in SMPs. This should however not discourage the use of the whole SPM, where affordable. Keywords: Stress Management Programs, Information Phase, Perception, Stress Level.

  11. Risk assessment related to manual handling on choosen work possition in foundry Alstom Power Sp. z o. o.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kowal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Manual handling remains one of the different types of transport inside working place, although technological progress and modernorganization of work. Manual transport as a transport inside working place is related to foundry industry. According to polish lawregulations employer has to give consideration to manual handling in professional risk assessment and introduce actions for manualhandling reduction. In Foundry Elblag case there is found that in many processes manual handling are made by workers. For example wecan choose melting processes (additives manual feeding, mixing and pulling metallurgical slag, etc. or fettling processes like grinding.Objective of that analysis was to define level of risk related to manual handling in work stand chosen and define activities impacted onrisk assessment result with biggest range. For risk reduction, technical and organizational solutions were shown (better ergonomically work stand, method of work and worker’s awareness about good practices. In this study methods related to manual handling risk assessment were described, focus on KIM method used in Foundry Elblag. Key Item Method allow to estimate the risk by simple calculation based on key indicators (time rating points, rating points of mass, posture or work condition. Points were chosen based on timekeeping, information from workers and foreman.

  12. Forming mechanism and avoiding measures of blue-ring on electronic beam welding sample after water corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Defang; Luo Xiandian; Tong Shenxiu; Guo Xulin; Peng Haiqing

    2001-01-01

    After water corrosion in compliance with ASTM G2, the blue ring appears on the nuclear fuel rod samples of AFA 2G welded by using a Big Chamber Electron Beam Welder made in Russia. The characteristics, appearance, chemical composition, microstructure of b lue ring a nd some condition test are described. The mechanism of forming blue ring may be depicted as following: welding metal vapor and the splash produced by secondary and scatter electrons on metal clamp and gun body deposit in the area between HAZ and substrate because of the water cooling down effects on the clamp; these deposits, after water corrosion, appears as blue ring on the fuel rod surface. Avoiding measure is that the side of the clamp closing to weld seal is chamfered, while making the welding chamber cleaner

  13. Comparison of the AWA lumped-circuit model of electrical discharges with empirical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, W.B. II; Kadish, A.; Robiscoe, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors compare experimental data for three 1.7-m-long transient discharges with an AWA lumped- circuit discharge model in which the arc resistance is taken from the Arc Welder's Ansatz, R a = V*/|I |, where V* is a positive constant and I is the discharge current. In addition to the arc resistance, there is a small series resistance R present in the external circuit. A single value for each of R and V* is deduced from the data, and these values are used to characterize all three discharges. Adequate agreement with the experimental data is obtained; for example, the authors predict the proper number of current reversals for each discharge and abrupt termination of current flow after a finite time. The authors suggest that the AWA lumped circuit provides a better representation of the data than a standard lumped-circuit RLC model and hence is more useful as a tool for prediction and interpretation of discharges

  14. [New welding processes and health effects of welding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, G Marina; Maestrelli, Piero

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some of the recent developments in the control technology to enhance capability of Pulse Gas Metal Arc Welding. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processing has been also considered. FSW is a new solid-state joining technique. Heat generated by friction at the rotating tool softens the material being welded. FSW can be considered a green and energy-efficient technique without deleterious fumes, gas, radiation, and noise. Application of new welding processes is limited and studies on health effects in exposed workers are lacking. Acute and chronic health effects of conventional welding have been described. Metal fume fever and cross-shift decline of lung function are the main acute respiratory effects. Skin and eyes may be affected by heat, electricity and UV radiations. Chronic effects on respiratory system include chronic bronchitis, a benign pneumoconiosis (siderosis), asthma, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Pulmonary infections are increased in terms of severity, duration, and frequency among welders.

  15. Welding processes and ocular hazards and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabley, A S; Keeney, A H

    1981-07-01

    There are approximately 60 different forms of welding, but only six of these are commonly used. Shielded metal-arc or stick welding, gas metal-arc welding, and oxyacetylene welding are the most frequently used. All produce ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation at damaging levels. Conventional glass welding shields contain ultraviolet, visible, and infrared absorbers. Infrared absorbers, however, cause heating and secondary re-radiation. New polycarbonate lenses offer greater impact resistance, and have less tendency to welding spatter. Early abrasion-resistant and reflective coatings on plastics were ineffective. Thin layers of gold with proprietary coatings provide cool reflection and surface resistance. Thermal monitoring of welding indicated that these new shields reduce temperature rises above the ambient by 150% to 175% compared to green glass filter plates without interfering with the welder's vision.

  16. Through a glass, darkly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenberry, Ronnie

    2005-10-01

    The technology available in today's auto-darkening welding helmets was the stuff of science fiction to welders 30 years ago. A single lens capable of darkening automatically to a variable, preset shade level the instant an arc is struck would have sounded about as realistic as a "Star Trek"-style "transporter" or a cell phone that can take pictures. "It would have been complete and total science fiction," said Kevin Coughlin, president of Hoodlum Welding Gear, Minneapolis. "The technology really didn't exist, so it would be like me telling you your car will be flying in 20 years--you'd look at me and laugh. Even 25 years ago, if someone had told me [the lens] would go from clear to dark when you spark, I'd have said, 'Yeah, right, sure it does.' "

  17. Spectralis optical coherence tomography findings in Welder′s maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Mahindrakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Welder′s maculopathy is a form of photochemical damage to the retina and is typically characterized by involvement of the outer retinal layers. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT imaging was performed in three eyes of two patients with clinical findings suggestive of Welder′s maculopathy in occupational welders. A faceted foveal lesion characterized clinical examination and the SD-OCT line scans images showed a distinct discontinuity of the photoreceptor inner and outer segment (IS/OS junction. The external limiting membrane (ELM and the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE layer remained intact at the site of IS/OS defect. SD-OCT imaging offers a noninvasive way of evaluating the microstructural changes at the fovea in Welder′s maculopathy.

  18. Doses from the use of welding electrodes alloyed with thorium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1980-01-01

    In tungsten inert gas welding the electrodes are alloyed with 1-2% thorium oxide to improve the welding properties. This has been found to form an aerosol with average particle size of about 0.1 μm. Previously reported values for activity in air near the head and thorax of a welder are used to calculate the radiation dose from inhalation under both conservative and realistic conditions. These values are compared with the annual limit of intake (ALI) specified by the ICRP in 1979 for thorium 232 and thorium 230, giving a conservative estimate of 48% of the ALI and a realistic estimate of 7%. It is concluded that there is no reason to forbid the use of thoriom alloyed welding electrodes at present, but that the matter should be followed up, and the use of these electrodes limited as far as possible. (JIW)

  19. Effect on spot welding variables on nugget size and bond strength of 304 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charde, Nachimani

    2012-01-01

    Resistance spot welding (RSW) has revolutionized mechanical assembly in the automotive industry since its introduction in the early 1970s. Currently, one mechanical assembly in five is welded using spot welding technology, with welding of stainless steel sheet becoming increasingly common. Consequently, this research paper examines the spot welding of 2 mm thick 304 austenitic stainless steel sheet. The size of a spot weld nugget is primarily determined by the welding parameters: welding current, welding time, electrode force and electrode tip diameter However, other factors such as electrode deformation, corrosion, dissimilar materials and material properties also affect the nugget size and shape. This paper analyzes only the effects of current, weld time and force variations with unchanged electrode tip diameter. A pneumatically driven 75kVA spot welder was used to accomplish the welding process and the welded samples were subjected to tensile, hardness and metallurgical testing to characterize the size and shape of the weld nugget and the bond strength.

  20. Ergonomic exposure on a drilling rig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Jensen, Chris

    . In a relatively old study on American drilling rigs it was indicated that lower back problems was a frequent cause of absence (Clemmer et al. 1991). Most of the incidents causing lower back injuries were associated with heavy lifting or pushing/pulling objects by roustabouts, floorhands, derrickmen and welders......, but for some of the most frequent problems, such as musculoskeletal problems, it is difficult to determine whether the causes are work‐related or not. As manual handling (lifting, pushing, etc.) in awkward body postures increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders, it should be expected that work......‐related health problems contribute to sickness absence in the offshore industry, if these working postures are common. However, also work‐related psychosocial factors, personal factors and other factors may contribute to the development of lower back disorders, which often have a multifactorial background...

  1. Radiological impact assessment of arc welding supplies rutile; Evaluacion del impacto radiologico de la soldadura por arco con consumibles de rutilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozas Guinea, S.; Herranz Soler, M.; Perez Marin, C.; Idoeta Hermandorena, R.; Alegria gutierrez, N.; Nunez-Lagos Rogla, R.; Legarda Ibanez, F.

    2013-07-01

    Consumables for welding containing rutile, the coating of the electrode or the filling of tubular thread, are the most widely used and also the most radioactive since the rutile is a mineral containing traces of natural radionuclides, and is therefore considered Normal Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As these electrodes and wire are consumed, small particles, aerosols and gases are emitted to the atmosphere of work, and may be inhaled by the welder. Therefore, and also according to the current regulatory framework and work carried out previously by the author on the radiological impact of the process of manufacture and storage of coated rutile electrodes, the objectives are: 1Calcular the internal dose for inhalation during two types of welding, one with electrodes coated and the other with thread. 2 calculate the external dose due to the deposition of particles in the work environment, slag and the immersion of the soldering iron in the cloud of smoke. 3 to assess the radiological impact. (Author)

  2. Comparative study of residual stress by table of coordinates and X-ray diffraction in a welded joint; Estudo comparativo das tensoes residuais por mesa de coordenadas e DR-X numa junta soldada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira Filho, A.V.; Rolim, T.L.; Yadava, Y.P.; Ferreira, R.A.S., E-mail: anibal_siqueira@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Cardoso, F.I.B. [Universidade de Pernambuco (POLI/UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Guimaraes, P.B. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Residual stresses in a welded joint of naval steel ASTM AH-32 was measured either by the displacements of referenced points with a coordinated table (CT) or by x-ray diffraction (X-DR) after welding. For all tests, the welding was performed by a certified welder in the SMAW process, using an AWS E 7018 G3 electrode. Before welding, small holes evenly spaced were made in the specimens to be mapped on a coordinated table (CT). After labeling, the specimens were submitted to the welding process and new measurements by (CT) to evaluate the displacements produced by the tensions generated. In parallel, residual stress were measured by DR-X for validation of this new measurement methodology. (author)

  3. Harmonization of welding qualification provisions in RCC-M and European standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, M.; Lainez, B.; Anastassiades, P.

    2007-01-01

    Since a long time, numerous precautions for welding have been integrated in the nuclear codes, in particular in the RCC-M applicable to pressurized water reactors, in order to guarantee a high quality level of permanent assemblies. In parallel, European and ISO standardization works have led to a harmonisation of practices on qualification of welding processes, welders and operators. In the context of the regulatory evolutions presented during this conference, it was judged appropriate to bring closer the RCC-M practices and those of EN and ISO standards, while taking the precaution of specifying, if necessary, the complementary provisions allowing maintaining guarantees of quality consistent with the prior experience feedback. This paper presents the amendments brought to the RCC-M Code by the 2005 and 2007 addenda, in order to respond to this objective, and develops their motivations. (authors) [fr

  4. Comparative study of residual stress by table of coordinates and X-ray diffraction in a welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira Filho, A.V.; Rolim, T.L.; Yadava, Y.P.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Guimaraes, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Residual stresses in a welded joint of naval steel ASTM AH-32 was measured either by the displacements of referenced points with a coordinated table (CT) or by x-ray diffraction (X-DR) after welding. For all tests, the welding was performed by a certified welder in the SMAW process, using an AWS E 7018 G3 electrode. Before welding, small holes evenly spaced were made in the specimens to be mapped on a coordinated table (CT). After labeling, the specimens were submitted to the welding process and new measurements by (CT) to evaluate the displacements produced by the tensions generated. In parallel, residual stress were measured by DR-X for validation of this new measurement methodology. (author)

  5. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  6. Development of prolonged standing strain index to quantify risk levels of standing jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Isa; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Many occupations in industry such as metal stamping workers, electronics parts assembly operators, automotive industry welders, and lathe operators require working in a standing posture for a long time. Prolonged standing can contribute to discomfort and muscle fatigue particularly in the back and legs. This study developed the prolonged standing strain index (PSSI) to quantify the risk levels caused by standing jobs, and proposed recommendations to minimize the risk levels. Risk factors associated with standing jobs, such as working posture, muscles activity, standing duration, holding time, whole-body vibration, and indoor air quality, were the basis for developing the PSSI. All risk factors were assigned multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness. multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness.

  7. Construction appraisal team inspection results on welding and nondestructive examination activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, P.C.S.; Shaaban, H.I.

    1987-09-01

    This report summarizes data and findings on deficiencies and discrepancies in welding and nondestructive examination (NDE) activities identified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Construction Appraisal Team (CAT) during its inspection of 11 plants. The CAT reviewed selected welds and NDE packages in its inspection of the following plant areas: piping and pipe supports and/or restraints; modification and installation of reactor internals; electrical installations and electrical supports; instrumentation tubing and supports; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and supports; fabrication and erection of structural steel; fabrication of refueling cavity and spent fuel pool liner; containment liner and containment penetrations; and fire protection systems. The CAT inspected both structural welds and pressure-retaining welds and reviewed welder qualification test records and welding procedure documents for code compliance. The NDE activities that were evaluated included visual examination, magnetic particle examination, liquid penetrant examination, ultrasonic examination, and radiographic examination of welds. 4 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs

  8. Nestling diets and provisioning rates of sympatric Golden-fronted and Ladder-backed Woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Evonne L.; Boal, Clint W.; Glasscock, Selma N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined comparative food use and provisioning of Golden-fronted (Melanerpes aurifrons) and Ladder-backed (Picoides scalaris) woodpeckers at the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, in San Patricio County, Texas. We combined video surveillance and direct observations to monitor provisioning rates and identify items delivered by adult woodpeckers to nestlings. We collected 328 hours of data at Ladder-backed Woodpecker nest cavities and 230 hours of data at Golden-fronted Woodpecker nest cavities. Ladder-backed Woodpecker nestling diets consisted of 100% animal matter, comprised of invertebrate larvae (99%) and invertebrate adults (nestlings were also high in animal matter (77%) with more invertebrate adults (55%) and fewer invertebrate larvae (27%), but also included vegetable matter (16%). Morisita's measure of overlap suggested a relatively low dietary overlap of 31% between nestlings of these two sympatric woodpecker species. Foraging methods used by these species may explain their low dietary overlap and facilitate their coexistence.

  9. Metal arc welding and the risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltoft, K N; Slagor, R M; Agner, T

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Arc welding produces the full spectrum of ultraviolet radiation and may be a contributory cause of skin cancer; however, there has been little research into this occupational hazard. The aim of this study is to explore if metal arc welding increases the risk of malignant melanoma and....../or basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on skin areas which may possibly be exposed (neck, head, and upper extremities). METHOD: A Danish national company-based historic cohort of 4333 male metal arc welders was followed from 1987 through 2012 to identify the risk of skin cancer....... An external reference group was established including all Danish skilled and unskilled male workers with similar age distribution. Occupational histories were gathered by questionnaires in 1986 and information about skin cancer diagnoses [BCC, SCC, cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), and precancerous...

  10. Radiological impact assessment of arc welding supplies rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozas Guinea, S.; Herranz Soler, M.; Perez Marin, C.; Idoeta Hermandorena, R.; Alegria gutierrez, N.; Nunez-Lagos Rogla, R.; Legarda Ibanez, F.

    2013-01-01

    Consumables for welding containing rutile, the coating of the electrode or the filling of tubular thread, are the most widely used and also the most radioactive since the rutile is a mineral containing traces of natural radionuclides, and is therefore considered Normal Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As these electrodes and wire are consumed, small particles, aerosols and gases are emitted to the atmosphere of work, and may be inhaled by the welder. Therefore, and also according to the current regulatory framework and work carried out previously by the author on the radiological impact of the process of manufacture and storage of coated rutile electrodes, the objectives are: 1Calcular the internal dose for inhalation during two types of welding, one with electrodes coated and the other with thread. 2 calculate the external dose due to the deposition of particles in the work environment, slag and the immersion of the soldering iron in the cloud of smoke. 3 to assess the radiological impact. (Author)

  11. Laser welding parameters for manufacturing iridium-192 (Ir-192) source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anung Pujiyanto; Moch Subechi; Hotman Lubis; Diandono KY

    2013-01-01

    Number of cervical cancer patients in Indonesia is growing every year. One of cervical cancer treatment was fairly effective use brachytherapy treatment with radioisotope sources of iridium-192. Manufacturing of iridium sources for brachytherapy can be done by incorporating the iridium-192 into stainless steel microcapsules then welding using laser welder which the quality of the welding of iridium source (Ir-192) was determined by the welding parameters such as full power, energy frequency, average power and speed. Based on the result of leakage test using pressure -20 inch Hg and tensile test 2.5 bar showed the welding parameters III and IV did not have leakage and damaged. So that parameters III and IV are recommended to be applied to Ir-192 HDR's source. (author)

  12. Status of the PEP-II B-factory high energy ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Reuter, E.; Bellomo, P.; Daly, E.; Fisher, A.; Gracia, J.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Pietryka, M.; Seeman, J.T.; Taylor; Belser, C.; Bertolini, L.; Mugge, M.; Swan, J.

    1996-01-01

    The 9 GeV High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B Factory is an electron storage ring under construction at SLAC. Significant progress has been made in the last year on all systems. As of mid 1996, all 192 dipoles have been installed, with installation of the quadrupoles underway. The vacuum system, for design currents up to 3 A average, is in production using a recently commissioned e-beam welder. Beam instrumentation systems are being fabricated. The interaction region will bring the HER beam into collision with the 3 GeV beam of the Low Energy Ring; design of this section of the HER is in an advanced stage. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Radiation shielding considerations for the repair and maintenance of a swimming pool-type tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Y.; Mori, S.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation shielding relevant to the repair and maintenance of a swimming pool-type tokamak reactor is considered. The dose rate during the reactor operation can be made low enough for personnel access into the reactor room if a 2m thick water layer is installed above the magnet cryostat. The dose rate 24 h after shutdown is such that the human access is allowed above the magnet cryostat. Sufficient water layer thickness is provided in the inboard space for the operation of automatic welder/cutter while retaining the magnet shielding capability. Some forced cooling is required for the decay heat removal in the first wall. The penetration shield thickness around the neutral beam injector port is estimated to be barely sufficient in terms of the magnet radiation damage. (orig.)

  14. System specification/system design document comment review: Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. Notes of conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A meeting was held between DOE personnel and the BNFL team to review the proposed resolutions to DOE comments on the initial issue of the system specification and system design document for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. The objectives of this project are to design, fabricate, install, and start up a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxide and metal, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. The areas discussed at the meeting were: nitrogen in can; moisture instrumentation; glovebox atmosphere; can marking bar coding; weld quality; NFPA-101 references; inner can swabbing; ultimate storage environment; throughput; convenience can screw-top design; furnacetrays; authorization basis; compactor safety; schedule for DOE review actions; fire protection; criticality safety; applicable standards; approach to MC and A; homogeneous oxide; resistance welder power; and tray overfill. Revised resolutions were drafted and are presented

  15. GTA Welding Research and Development for Plutonium Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessions, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of two welding systems that are used to contain actinide metals and oxides for long term storage. The systems are termed the bagless transfer system (BTS) and the outer container welder (OCW) system. The BTS is so named because it permits the containment of actinides without a polymeric package (i.e., bag). The development of these two systems was directed by Department of Energy Standard 3013, hereafter referred to as DOE 3013. This document defines the product and container requirements. In addition, it references national codes and standards for leak rates, ANSI N14.5, and design, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII (BandPVC)

  16. An automated system for studying the power distribution of electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, C.A.

    1994-12-01

    Precise welds with an electron beam welder are difficult to reproduce because the factors effecting the electron beam current density distribution are not easily controlled. One method for measuring the power density distribution in EB welds uses computer tomography to reconstruct an image of the current density distribution. This technique uses many separate pieces of hardware and software packages to obtain the data and then reconstruct it consequently, transferring this technology between different machines and operators is difficult. Consolidating all of the hardware and software into one machine to execute the same tasks will allow for real-time measurement of the EB power density distribution and will provide a facilitated means for transferring various welding procedure between different machines and operators, thereby enhancing reproducibility of electron beam welds.

  17. Investigations on penetration control for automated pipe welding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiki, Daisuke; Sato, Akihiro; Funamoto, Takao; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Kobayashi, Masahiro

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating process conditions forming sound root bead by orbital welding technique for nuclear power stations. Specimens used were stainless steel (SUS304) pipes (318.5 mm outside diameter and 15.4 mm thickness), and pulsed gas tungsten-arc (GTA) welder was adopted. We have found process conditions to form sound root bead by changing both heat input conditions and joint designs. It is found that reducing volume of molten metal is necessary to form sound root bead. And it is also found that changing joint designs is effective to reduce volume of molten metal. By selecting proper joint designs, we could form sound root bead in constant heat input conditions in every position of pipe. (author)

  18. Gas metal arc weldability of 1.5 GPa grade martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Insung; Yun, Hyeonsang; Kim, Dongcheol; Kang, Munjin; Kim, Young-Min

    2018-01-01

    The gas metal arc weldability of 1.5 GPa grade martensitic (MART) steel was evaluated using both inverter direct current (DC) and DC pulse power type welders, under conditions of different welding currents, welding speeds, and shielding gasses. By investigating the bead appearance, tensile strength, and arc stability, it was determined that DC pulse power is better than inverter DC power for arc welding of 1.3 mm thick 1.5 GPa grade MART steel. Further, from the results of the weldability for various shielding gases, it was determined that mixed shielding gas is more effective for welding 1.5 GPa grade MART steel than is pure inert gas (Ar) or active (CO2) gas. In the case of pure shielding gas, no sound bead was formed under any conditions. However, when the mixed shielding gas was used, sound and fine beads were obtained.

  19. A comparison of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress from welding fumes generated with a new nickel-, copper-based consumable versus mild and stainless steel-based welding in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badding, Melissa A; Fix, Natalie R; Antonini, James M; Leonard, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    Welding processes that generate fumes containing toxic metals, such as hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni), have been implicated in lung injury, inflammation, and lung tumor promotion in animal models. While federal regulations have reduced permissible worker exposure limits to Cr(VI), this is not always practical considering that welders may work in confined spaces and exhaust ventilation may be ineffective. Thus, there has been a recent initiative to minimize the potentially hazardous components in welding materials by developing new consumables containing much less Cr(VI) and Mn. A new nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu)-based material (Ni-Cu WF) is being suggested as a safer alternative to stainless steel consumables; however, its adverse cellular effects have not been studied. This study compared the cytotoxic effects of the newly developed Ni-Cu WF with two well-characterized welding fumes, collected from gas metal arc welding using mild steel (GMA-MS) or stainless steel (GMA-SS) electrodes. RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were exposed to the three welding fumes at two doses (50 µg/ml and 250 µg/ml) for up to 24 hours. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, phagocytic function, and cytokine production were examined. The GMA-MS and GMA-SS samples were found to be more reactive in terms of ROS production compared to the Ni-Cu WF. However, the fumes from this new material were more cytotoxic, inducing cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction at a lower dose. Additionally, pre-treatment with Ni-Cu WF particles impaired the ability of cells to phagocytize E. coli, suggesting macrophage dysfunction. Thus, the toxic cellular responses to welding fumes are largely due to the metal composition. The results also suggest that reducing Cr(VI) and Mn in the generated fume by increasing the concentration of other metals (e.g., Ni, Cu) may not necessarily improve welder safety.

  20. Exposure to welding fumes and lower airway infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Reetika; Periselneris, Jimstan; Lanone, Sophie; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Melton, Geoffrey; Palmer, Keith T; Andujar, Pascal; Antonini, James M; Cohignac, Vanessa; Erdely, Aaron; Jose, Ricardo J; Mudway, Ian; Brown, Jeremy; Grigg, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Welders are at increased risk of pneumococcal pneumonia. The mechanism for this association is not known. The capacity of pneumococci to adhere to and infect lower airway cells is mediated by host-expressed platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR). We sought to assess the effect of mild steel welding fumes (MS-WF) on PAFR-dependent pneumococcal adhesion and infection to human airway cells in vitro and on pneumococcal airway infection in a mouse model. The oxidative potential of MS-WF was assessed by their capacity to reduce antioxidants in vitro. Pneumococcal adhesion and infection of A549, BEAS-2B, and primary human bronchial airway cells were assessed by means of quantitative bacterial culture and expressed as colony-forming units (CFU). After intranasal instillation of MS-WF, mice were infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung CFU values were determined. PAFR protein levels were assessed by using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, and PAFR mRNA expression was assessed by using quantitative PCR. PAFR was blocked by CV-3988, and oxidative stress was attenuated by N-acetylcysteine. MS-WF exhibited high oxidative potential. In A549 and BEAS-2B cells MS-WF increased pneumococcal adhesion and infection and PAFR protein expression. Both CV-3988 and N-acetylcysteine reduced MS-WF-stimulated pneumococcal adhesion and infection of airway cells. MS-WF increased mouse lung PAFR mRNA expression and increased BALF and lung pneumococcal CFU values. In MS-WF-exposed mice CV-3988 reduced BALF CFU values. Hypersusceptibility of welders to pneumococcal pneumonia is in part mediated by the capacity of welding fumes to increase PAFR-dependent pneumococcal adhesion and infection of lower airway cells. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical and cognitive effects of virtual reality integrated training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard T; Watts, Kristopher P; Zhong, Peihan; Wei, Chen-Shuang

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cognitive and physical impact of virtual reality (VR) integrated training versus traditional training methods in the domain of weld training. Weld training is very important in various industries and represents a complex skill set appropriate for advanced training intervention. As such, there has been a long search for the most successful and most cost-effective method for training new welders. Participants in this study were randomly assigned to one of two separate training courses taught by sanctioned American Welding Society certified welding instructors; the duration of each course was 2 weeks. After completing the training for a specific weld type, participants were given the opportunity to test for the corresponding certification. Participants were evaluated in terms of their cognitive and physical parameters, total training time exposure, and welding certification awards earned. Each of the four weld types taught in this study represented distinct levels of difficulty and required the development of specialized knowledge and skills. This study demonstrated that participants in the VR integrated training group (VR50) performed as well as, and in some cases, significantly outperformed, the traditional welding (TW) training group.The VR50 group was found to have a 41.6% increase in overall certifications earned compared with the TW group. VR technology is a valuable tool for the production of skilled welders in a shorter time and often with more highly developed skills than their traditionally trained counterparts. These findings strongly support the use ofVR integrated training in the welding industry.

  2. Real-time remote-controlled welding of the inspection nozzle on the Phenix double-wall tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagnot, C.; Dineghin, G. de; Baude, D.; Delmas, A.; Gauthier, A. [CEA Saclay, Lab. Moderne de Soudage, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Gros, J. [Centrale Phenix, 30 - Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Sommeillier, M. [Comex Nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2001-07-01

    For the ultrasonic non destructive inspection of the vessel shell ring welds in the Phenix reactor, the insert of the NDT instrument needs to drill the double-wall tank, to install and weld nozzles. This last operation is realized by the way of an orbital welding installation. Considering severe environment restraints (irradiation, temperature, space,...), the welding control is made at distance (50 m). To supervise this operation, the welder requires an high quality image of the welding scene. Five nozzles of about 400 mm diameter are distributed on a 12 m-diameter tank. The junction between the nozzle and the tank present a shape of horse saddle and the passes trajectories against the tank wall show a lateral deviation of several millimeters. To take care of this deviation and of eventual geometrical defects, the welder adjust the torch position during welding. For that he needs an adapted information. The ''Laboratoire Moderne de Soudage'' inside CEA/CEREM has designed, validated and provided a new Computer-Assisted Welding for real-time remote-controlled orbital welding. Video cameras and a laser diode module were installed on the orbital installation for the watching of the welding scene. An image processing unit of new generation gives the real-time measurement of the distance between the torch and the wall tank. The control of the torch position is particularly significant to guarantee the good welding pass sequence. With this system, the position precision can reach 0,1 mm. (author)

  3. Hematozoan parasites of Rio Grande wild turkeys from southern Texas (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Marc D.; Christensen, Beth A.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred twenty-three of 300 blood samples (41%) taken from Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) from three locations in southern Texas (Welder Wildlife Refuge, Chaparrosa Ranch, and Campo Alegre Ranch) and subinoculated into domestic broad-breasted white turkey poults were positive for a Plasmodium (Novyella) sp. Analysis of blood films from 350 turkeys revealed Haemoproteus meleagridis in 76% of the birds. A significantly greater mean parasite intensity was observed in birds from Welder Wildlife Refuge. Birds from the Campo Alegre Ranch exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of H. meleagridis than birds from Chaparrosa. The Plasmodium sp. was infective for canaries (Serinus canaria), bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), but would not produce infection in white leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus) or Coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix). Attempts to infect Culex tarsalis and C. pipiens pipiens were unsuccessful. Asexual erythrocytic synchrony was not observed when blood-induced infections were monitored in two domestic turkey poults every 4 hr for 72 hr. Exoerythrocytic stages were not found upon examination of impression smears and tissue samples taken from brain, liver, spleen, kidney, lung, and bone marrow. The Plasmodium sp. is most similar morphologically to three species in the subgenus Novyella, P. hexamerium, P. vaughani, and P. kempi. The most striking similarities are to P. hexamerium, and involve mean merozoite number, erythrocytic schizont location, and vertebrate host susceptibility. It differs from P. vaughani in being able to infect turkeys and in type of parasitized erythrocytes. Differences to P. kempi include mean merozoite number, and ability to infect pheasants, and its inability to develop inC. pipiens and C. tarsalis.

  4. Genetic influence on methadone treatment outcomes in patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment for opioid addiction: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaan Z

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zainab Samaan,1–4 Monica Bawor,3,4 Brittany B Dennis,2,3 Carolyn Plater,5 Michael Varenbut,5 Jeffrey Daiter,5 Andrew Worster,5,6 David C Marsh,5,7 Charlie Tan,8 Dipika Desai,3 Lehana Thabane,2,9,10 Guillaume Pare11 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 3Population Genomics Program, Chanchlani Research Centre, 4MiNDS Neuroscience Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 5Ontario Addiction Treatment Centres, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada; 6Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 7Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; 8Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, 9Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Evaluation of Medicine, 10System Linked Research Unit, 11Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Introduction: Treatment of opioid addiction with methadone is effective; however, it is known to produce interindividual variability. This may be influenced in part by genetic variants, which can increase the initial risk of developing opioid addiction as well as explain differences in response to treatment. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting a full-scale genetic analysis to identify genes that predict methadone treatment outcomes in this population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study of patients admitted to a methadone maintenance treatment program for opioid addiction. We obtained demographic and clinical characteristics in addition to blood and urine samples, for the assessment of treatment outcomes. Results: The recruitment process yielded 252 patients, representing a 20% recruitment rate. We conducted genetic testing based on a 99.6% rate of provision of DNA samples. The average retention in treatment was 3.4 years, and >50% of the participants reported psychiatric and

  5. The impact of comorbid psychiatric disorders on methadone maintenance treatment in opioid use disorder: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosic T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tea Rosic,1 Leen Naji,2 Monica Bawor,3 Brittany B Dennis,3 Carolyn Plater,4 David C Marsh,5 Lehana Thabane,6–8 Zainab Samaan6–11 1St Joseph’s Healthcare, 2Michael G DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3St George’s University of London, London, UK; 4Canadian Addiction Treatment Centre, Richmond Hill, 5Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Sudbury, 6Biostatistics Unit, Research Institute, St Joseph’s Healthcare, 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, 8Peter Boris Centre for Addictions Research, 9Mood Disorders Research Unit, St Joseph’s Healthcare, 10Population Genomics Program, Chanchlani Research Centre, 11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Objective: There is a significant interindividual variability in treatment outcomes in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT for opioid use disorder (OUD. This prospective cohort study examines the impact of comorbid psychiatric disorders on continued illicit opioid use in patients receiving MMT for OUD. Methods: Data were collected from 935 patients receiving MMT in outpatient clinics between June 2011 and June 2015. Using linear regression analysis, we evaluated the impact of having a comorbid psychiatric disorder on continued illicit opioid use during MMT, adjusting for important confounders. The main outcome measure was percentage of opioid-positive urine screens for 6 months. We conducted a subgroup analysis to determine the influence of specific comorbid psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders, on continued illicit opioid use. Results: Approximately 80% of participants had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder in addition to OUD, and 42% of participants had a comorbid substance use disorder. There was no significant association between having a psychiatric comorbidity and continuing opioid use (P=0.248. Results from subgroup analysis

  6. Prevalence of and referred pain from myofascial trigger points in the forearm muscles in patients with lateral epicondylalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2007-05-01

    Referred pain and pain characteristics evoked from the extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum communis, and brachioradialis muscles was investigated in 20 patients with lateral epicondylalgia (LE) and 20-matched controls. Both groups were examined for the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in a blinded fashion. The quality and location of the evoked referred pain, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the lateral epicondyle on the right upper extremity (symptomatic side in patients, and dominant-side on controls) were recorded. Several lateral elbow pain parameters were also evaluated. Within the patient group, the elicited referred pain by manual exploration of 13 out of 20 (65%) extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles, 12/20 (70%) extensor carpi radialis longus muscles, 10/20 (50%) brachioradialis muscles, and 5/20 (25%) extensor digitorum communis muscles, shares similar pain patterns as their habitual lateral elbow and forearm pain. The mean number of muscles with TrPs for each patient was 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1,4] of which 2 (95% CI 1,3) were active, and 0.9 (95% CI 0,2) were latent TrPs. Control participants only had latent TrPs (mean: 0.4; 95% CI 0,2). TrP occurrence between the 2 groups was significantly different for active TrPs (P0.05). The referred pain pattern was larger in patients than in controls, with pain referral to the lateral epicondyle (proximally) and to the dorso-lateral aspect of the forearm in the patients, and confined to the dorso-lateral aspect of the forearm in the controls. Patients with LE showed a significant (Plateral epicondyle was negatively correlated with both the total number of TrPs (rs=-0.63; P=0.003) and the number of active TrPs (rs=-0.5; P=0.02): the greater the number of active TrPs, the lower the PPT at the lateral epicondyle. Our results suggest that in patients with LE, the evoked referred pain and its sensory characteristics shared similar patterns

  7. Improvement on Exoplanet Detection Methods and Analysis via Gaussian Process Fitting Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ross, Bryce; Teske, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    Planetary signals in radial velocity (RV) data are often accompanied by signals coming solely from stellar photo- or chromospheric variation. Such variation can reduce the precision of planet detection and mass measurements, and cause misidentification of planetary signals. Recently, several authors have demonstrated the utility of Gaussian Process (GP) regression for disentangling planetary signals in RV observations (Aigrain et al. 2012; Angus et al. 2017; Czekala et al. 2017; Faria et al. 2016; Gregory 2015; Haywood et al. 2014; Rajpaul et al. 2015; Foreman-Mackey et al. 2017). GP models the covariance of multivariate data to make predictions about likely underlying trends in the data, which can be applied to regions where there are no existing observations. The potency of GP has been used to infer stellar rotation periods; to model and disentangle time series spectra; and to determine physical aspects, populations, and detection of exoplanets, among other astrophysical applications. Here, we implement similar analysis techniques to times series of the Ca-2 H and K activity indicator measured simultaneously with RVs in a small sample of stars from the large Keck/HIRES RV planet search program. Our goal is to characterize the pattern(s) of non-planetary variation to be able to know what is/ is not a planetary signal. We investigated ten different GP kernels and their respective hyperparameters to determine the optimal combination (e.g., the lowest Bayesian Information Criterion value) in each stellar data set. To assess the hyperparameters’ error, we sampled their posterior distributions using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis on the optimized kernels. Our results demonstrate how GP analysis of stellar activity indicators alone can contribute to exoplanet detection in RV data, and highlight the challenges in applying GP analysis to relatively small, irregularly sampled time series.

  8. Fatigue in engineering structures. A three fold analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Afzaal M.; Qureshi, Ejaz M.; Dar, Naeem Ullah; Khan, Iqbal

    2007-01-01

    The integrity in most of the engineering structures in influenced by the presence of cracks or crack like defects. These structures fail, even catastrophically if a crack greater than a critically safe size exist. Although most of the optimal designed structures are initially free from critical cracks, sub-critical cracks can lead to failures under cyclic loadings, called fatigue crack growth. It is nearly impractical to prevent sub-critical crack growth in engineering structures particularly in crack sensitive structures like most of the structures in nuclear, aerospace and aeronautical domains. However, it is essential to predict the fatigue crack growth for these structures to preclude the in service failures causing loss of assets. The present research presents an automatic procedure for the prediction of fatigue crack growth in three dimensional engineering structures and the key data for the fracture mechanics based design: the stress intensity factors. Three fold analysis procedures are adopted to investigate the effects of repetitive (cyclic) loadings on the fatigue life of different geometries of aluminum alloy 2219-O. A general purpose Finite Element (FE) Code ANSYS-8.0 is used to predict/estimate the fatigue life of the geometries. Computer codes utilizing the Green's Function are developed to calculate the stress intensity factors. Another code based on superposition technique presented by Shivakumara and Foreman is developed to calculate the fatigue crack growth rate, fatigue life (No. of loading cycles are developed to validate the results and finally full scale laboratory tests are conducted for the comparison of the results. The results showing a close co-relation between the different techniques employed gives the promising feature of the analysis approach for the future work. (author)

  9. IN VOZDVIZHENSKOE VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetyrina Natalya Arkadevna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers civil engineering in retrospect. The paper presents the records of the two contracts that date back to 1837 and 1838. The contracts cover the two stages of construction of a famous church in Vozdvizhenskoe Village in the Moscow Province. These documents were stored in the Central Historic Archive, namely, in the collection of the town hall of Sergievskij Possad. These records of the two agreements in the collection of the brokers notes (or in other books of the same type are of particular value, as the majority of authentic contracts have been lost. One of the contracts covers the organizational procedure and pre-construction works, while the other one covers the construction of the church. The first document gives the idea of environmental protection, employment of ecological technologies, and safe disposal and recycling of human biowaste in the course of dismantling of an old structure in Vozdvizhenskoe village. The second document that dates back to 1838 covers the sequence of construction works, starting from the foundation and ending with the arches, the types of building materials used, and peculiarities of stone masonry. The information recorded in the contract includes the names of the counterparties, day-to-day mode of life of seasonal workers, remuneration of labour and procedures that assure the quality of construction. This agreement makes it possible to outline the construction process that includes workers, bricklayers, the foreman, the contractor, the architect, and the customer. On the whole, both documents help us outline and assess some of the building practices of the 19th century. This issue is relevant nowadays, as our society has entered the phase of the market economy, while the experience accumulated by the past generations is of undeniable value.

  10. Fall prevention and safety communication training for foremen: report of a pilot project designed to improve residential construction safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Vicki; Dale, Ann Marie; Lipscomb, Hester; Evanoff, Brad

    2013-02-01

    Falls from heights account for 64% of residential construction worker fatalities and 20% of missed work days. We hypothesized that worker safety would improve with foremen training in fall prevention and safety communication. Training priorities identified through foreman and apprentice focus groups and surveys were integrated into an 8-hour training. We piloted the training with ten foremen employed by a residential builder. Carpenter trainers contrasted proper methods to protect workers from falls with methods observed at the foremen's worksites. Trainers presented methods to deliver toolbox talks and safety messages. Results from worksite observational audits (n=29) and foremen/crewmember surveys (n=97) administered before and after training were compared. We found that inexperienced workers are exposed to many fall hazards that they are often not prepared to negotiate. Fall protection is used inconsistently and worksite mentorship is often inadequate. Foremen feel pressured to meet productivity demands and some are unsure of the fall protection requirements. After the training, the frequency of daily mentoring and toolbox talks increased, and these talks became more interactive and focused on hazardous daily work tasks. Foremen observed their worksites for fall hazards more often. We observed increased compliance with fall protection and decreased unsafe behaviors during worksite audits. Designing the training to meet both foremen's and crewmembers' needs ensured the training was learner-centered and contextually-relevant. This pilot suggests that training residential foremen can increase use of fall protection, improve safety behaviors, and enhance on-the-job training and safety communication at their worksites. Construction workers' training should target safety communication and mentoring skills with workers who will lead work crews. Interventions at multiple levels are necessary to increase safety compliance in residential construction and decrease falls

  11. Lead poisoning following ingestion of pieces of lead roofing plates: pica-like behavior in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouraud, Sabine; Testud, François; Descotes, Jacques; Benevent, Monique; Soglu, Gilbert

    2008-03-01

    A 37-year-old man was admitted to hospital after complaining of abdominal pain for the past two weeks. On admission the abdominal radiograph showed multiple radio-opaque flecks dispersed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Blood testing showed hemoglobin level 8.7 g/dL and a blood lead level of 112.4 microg/dL. The family interview revealed that the patient had pica-like behavior since childhood. He was a site foreman and had been ingesting pieces of roofing plates for a few weeks. The patient was treated with laxatives and CaNa(2)EDTA therapy was initiated. The blood lead level then dropped to 69.9 microg/dL. The patient received two subsequent courses of oral succimer and the blood lead level decreased to 59 microg/dL 21 days after the first course. The follow-up abdominal X-ray 20 days after the first examination was normal. Four months later, an outpatient follow-up visit showed a blood lead level within normal limits (14.5 microg/dL) and a psychiatric follow-up was initiated. Lead poisoning following the ingestion of lead-containing foreign bodies is particularly rare in adults, while it is sometimes observed in children. Pica behavior is a well-identified risk factor of lead intoxication in children but is quite exceptional in adults, where it is usually considered to be a psychiatric condition. Other unusual sources of lead poisoning include the ingestion of lead bullets, ceramic lead glaze or glazed earthenware, lead-contaminated candies, ethnic or herbal remedies.

  12. The measurement of released radionuclides during TIG-Welding and Grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, A.; Lehmann, K.-H.; Reineking, A.; Eder, E.

    2000-01-01

    The radiological relevance of the TIG welding using thoriated tungsten electrodes has recently been proved by means of different studies. As a result of this the TUEV Sueddeutschland and the University of Goettingen have carried out special investigations concerning the release of radionuclides during TIG welding. The main emphasis of these investigations were the representativity of various sampling techniques, the influence of various parameters during welding as well as the determination of activity size distributions related to the aerodynamic diameter of the inhaled aerosols. The properties of the tungsten rods are improved through the addition of radioactive thorium. We investigated the radiation exposure by handling with thoriated tungsten welding rods. We investigated the different exposure pathways and determined the specific activity in dependence to the different types of welding rods. By carrying out surveys with the users, we determined the exposure pathways for the individual exposed persons: TIG - hand-welders', TIG 'machine-welders', labourers, other persons. We measured the activity concentration of the breathing air while welding, at grinding the electrodes and by staying in the rooms where usually it's welded. The size distribution of the aerosol-attached activity was determined with several kinds of impactors. The main emphasis was the comparison of the different sampling systems at the measuring of the activity concentration of the breathing air. Selective sampling by impactors: · Berner-impactor, stationary · Sierra-impactor, stationary · Anderson-Imcaktor, stationary · Marple-impactor, personal sampler Aerosol sampling by air samplers · 5 personal air sampler · 2 stationary sampler, ring face · 2 stationary sampler, open face Rn-220-Measurements · Thoron-monitor Determination of activities on measuring filters · alpha spectrometry · low-level-gamma-spectrometry. For the various exposed persons, at the extern irradiation with gamma

  13. Manganese and acute paranoid psychosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egger Jos I

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Manganese regulates many enzymes and is essential for normal development and body function. Chronic manganese intoxication has an insidious and progressive course and usually starts with complaints of headache, fatigue, sleep disturbances, irritability and emotional instability. Later, several organ systems may be affected and, due to neurotoxicity, an atypical parkinsonian syndrome may emerge. With regard to neuropsychiatry, an array of symptoms may develop up to 30 years after intoxication, of which gait and speech abnormalities, cognitive and motor slowing, mood changes and hallucinations are the most common. Psychotic phenomena are rarely reported. Case presentation We describe the case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man working as a welder who was referred to our facility for evaluation of acute paranoid psychotic behavior. Our patient's medical history made no mention of any somatic complaints or psychiatric symptoms, and he had been involved in a professional career as a metalworker. On magnetic resonance imaging scanning of his brain, a bilateral hyperdensity of the globus pallidus, suggestive for manganese intoxication, was found. His manganese serum level was 52 to 97 nmol/L (range: 7 to 20 nmol/L. A diagnosis of organic psychotic disorder due to manganese overexposure was made. His psychotic symptoms disappeared within two weeks of treatment with low-dose risperidone. At three months later, serum manganese was decreased to slightly elevated levels and the magnetic resonance imaging T1 signal intensity was reduced. No signs of Parkinsonism were found and a definite diagnosis of manganese-induced apathy syndrome was made. Conclusion Although neuropsychiatric and neurological symptoms caused by (chronic manganese exposure have been reported frequently in the past, in the present day the disorder is rarely diagnosed. In this report we stress that manganese intoxication can still occur, in our case in a confined

  14. The measurement of released radionuclides during TIG-Welding and Grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, A.; Lehmann, K.-H. [Technical Inspection Agency of Southern Germany (TUEV Sueddeutschland), Subdepartment Environmental Radioactivity, Munich (Germany); Reineking, A. [Isotope Laboratory for Biological and Medical Research, Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Eder, E. [Government of Bavaria, State Ministry for State Development and Environmental Affairs, Munich (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    The radiological relevance of the TIG welding using thoriated tungsten electrodes has recently been proved by means of different studies. As a result of this the TUEV Sueddeutschland and the University of Goettingen have carried out special investigations concerning the release of radionuclides during TIG welding. The main emphasis of these investigations were the representativity of various sampling techniques, the influence of various parameters during welding as well as the determination of activity size distributions related to the aerodynamic diameter of the inhaled aerosols. The properties of the tungsten rods are improved through the addition of radioactive thorium. We investigated the radiation exposure by handling with thoriated tungsten welding rods. We investigated the different exposure pathways and determined the specific activity in dependence to the different types of welding rods. By carrying out surveys with the users, we determined the exposure pathways for the individual exposed persons: TIG - hand-welders', TIG 'machine-welders', labourers, other persons. We measured the activity concentration of the breathing air while welding, at grinding the electrodes and by staying in the rooms where usually it's welded. The size distribution of the aerosol-attached activity was determined with several kinds of impactors. The main emphasis was the comparison of the different sampling systems at the measuring of the activity concentration of the breathing air. Selective sampling by impactors: {center_dot} Berner-impactor, stationary {center_dot} Sierra-impactor, stationary {center_dot} Anderson-Imcaktor, stationary {center_dot} Marple-impactor, personal sampler Aerosol sampling by air samplers {center_dot} 5 personal air sampler {center_dot} 2 stationary sampler, ring face {center_dot} 2 stationary sampler, open face Rn-220-Measurements {center_dot} Thoron-monitor Determination of activitys on measuring filters {center_dot} alpha

  15. Occupation and work-related ill-health in UK construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, S J; Turner, S; McNamee, R; Carder, M; Hussey, L; Agius, R M

    2011-09-01

    Construction workers are at increased risk of work-related ill-health (WRI) worldwide. To compare the incidence of medically reported WRI in occupations within the UK construction industry according to job title. We calculated standardized incidence rate ratios (SRRs) using WRI cases for individual job titles returned to The Health and Occupation Reporting network by clinical specialists and UK population denominators. We counted frequencies of reported causal exposures or tasks reported by clinical specialists, occupational physicians and general practitioners. We found significantly increased incidence of WRI compared with other workers in the same major Standard Occupational Classification, i.e. workers with similar levels of qualifications, training, skills and experience, for skin neoplasia in roofers (SRR 6.3; 95% CI: 3.1-13.1), painters and decorators (2.1; 95% CI: 1.2-3.6) and labourers in building and woodworking trades (labourers, 6.6; 95% CI: 3.2-13.2); contact dermatitis in metal workers (1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and labourers (1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3); asthma in welders (3.8; 95% CI: 2.8-5.0); musculoskeletal disorders in welders (1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.8), road construction operatives (6.1; 95% CI: 3.8-9.6) and labourers (2.5; 95% CI: 1.7-3.7); long latency respiratory disease (mesothelioma, pneumoconiosis, lung cancer, non-malignant pleural disease) in pipe fitters (4.5; 95% CI: 3.2-6.2), electrical workers (2.7; 95% CI: 2.4-3.2), plumbing and heating engineers (2.3; 95% CI: 1.9-2.7), carpenters and joiners (2.7; 95% CI: 2.3-3.1), scaffolders (12; 95% CI: 8-18) and labourers (3.3; 95% CI: 2.6-4.1). UK construction industry workers have significantly increased risk of WRI. These data in individual construction occupations can be used to inform appropriate targeting of occupational health resources.

  16. [The efficacy of phlebotomy with a low iron diet in the management of pulmonary iron overload].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tomoko; Kimura, Fumiaki; Watanabe, Yoichi; Yoshino, Tadasi; Kimura, Ikuro

    2003-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that workers in ferriferous industries have an elevated risk of respiratory tract neoplasia and other airway diseases. Evidence is presented that iron is a carcinogenic and tissue toxic hazard as regarding the inhalation of ferriferous substances. Elimination of the inhaled iron and prevention from accumulation of iron in the lung seems to be very important. A 26-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of right chest pain. He had worked as an arc welder for two years without a mask. A chest CT showed diffuse ground glass opacity in the bilateral lung fields. A transbronchial lung biopsy specimen showed numerous alveolar and interstitial iron-laden macrophages. A 200 ml phlebotomy was carried out biweekly in combination with a low iron diet (8 mg/day). When serum ferritin reached 20 ng/ml, phlebotomy was stopped. After that, serum ferritin level was kept at around 20 ng/ml with the low iron diet alone. A transbronchial lung biopsy was carried out again 7 months later and the specimen showed remarkable reduction in the number of iron-laden alveolar and interstitial macrophages. Phlebotomy in combination with a low iron diet might become a useful strategy in the management of pulmonary conditions associated with iron loading.

  17. Preliminary design report for the prototypical fuel rod consolidation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents NUTECH's preliminary design of a dry, spent fuel rod consolidation system. This preliminary design is the result of Phase I of a planned four phase project. The present report on this project provides a considerable amount of detail for a preliminary design effort. The design and all of its details are described in this Preliminary Design Report (PDR). The NUTECH dry rod consolidation system described herein is remotely operated. It provides for automatic operation, but with operator hold points between key steps in the process. The operator has the ability to switch to a manual operation mode at any point in the process. The system is directed by the operator using an executive computer which controls and coordinates the operation of the in-cell equipment. The operator monitors the process using an in-cell closed circuit television (CCTV) system with audio output and equipment status displays on the computer monitor. The in-cell mechanical equipment consists of the following: (1) two overhead cranes with manipulators; (2) a multi-degree of freedom fuel handling table and its clamping equipment; (3) a fuel assembly end fitting removal station and its tools; (4) a consolidator (which pulls rods, assembles the consolidated bundle and loads the canister); (5) a canister end cap welder and weld inspection system; (6) decontamination systems; and (7) the CCTV and microphone systems

  18. Ultrasonic Welding of Thermoplastic Composite Coupons for Mechanical Characterization of Welded Joints through Single Lap Shear Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Irene F; Palardy, Genevieve

    2016-02-11

    This paper presents a novel straightforward method for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic-composite coupons in optimum processing conditions. The ultrasonic welding process described in this paper is based on three main pillars. Firstly, flat energy directors are used for preferential heat generation at the joining interface during the welding process. A flat energy director is a neat thermoplastic resin film that is placed between the parts to be joined prior to the welding process and heats up preferentially owing to its lower compressive stiffness relative to the composite substrates. Consequently, flat energy directors provide a simple solution that does not require molding of resin protrusions on the surfaces of the composite substrates, as opposed to ultrasonic welding of unreinforced plastics. Secondly, the process data provided by the ultrasonic welder is used to rapidly define the optimum welding parameters for any thermoplastic composite material combination. Thirdly, displacement control is used in the welding process to ensure consistent quality of the welded joints. According to this method, thermoplastic-composite flat coupons are individually welded in a single lap configuration. Mechanical testing of the welded coupons allows determining the apparent lap shear strength of the joints, which is one of the properties most commonly used to quantify the strength of thermoplastic composite welded joints.

  19. Quality and innovation in education and certification of the personnel with the responsibility for welding coordination and non-destructive testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Słania

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the activities of Instytut Spawalnictwa (Institute of Weldingwhich include essential supervision of training of welding and non-destructive testing personnel conducted at Instytut Spawalnictwa and outside the Institute. The activity comprise approval and attestation of centres for welding and NDT training as well as verification of lecturers and examiners for the welders training centres located outside the Institute, supervision of run courses in all levels of training, participation in examination and verification of welders’ and specialists’ qualifications. On the basis of acquired accreditations, authorisations and current regulations InstytutSpawalnictwa initiates drafting of guidelines for training and examining in all levels of training in the field of welding technology and allied technologies as well as NDT. Training is conducted in accordance with Instytut’s own programmes as well as programmes of International Welding Institute (IIW and European Federation for Welding, Joining and Cutting (EWF. Training is the base for welding and NDT personnel to obtain European and International diplomas and certificates.

  20. ROCLA robots repaired after tough times

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The team of five welders and five mechanics, represented by Pascal Mésenge (right) and Fabrice Multon (left), worked during two week-ends to repair the two ROCLA. At the centre, Oliver Boettcher, technical manager for the robot. The two LHC magnet transport robots ROCLA have recently been repaired after cracks were found in the welds of their load-bearing structure. The Safety Commission suspended the use of one robot and limited the operation conditions of the other. These vehicles are used intensively for the transport of the LHC cryodipoles between the test and the assembly facilities SM18 and SMA18. As a consequence, a speedy solution had to be implemented to minimize the potential disruption to the LHC schedule. Appropriate CERN resources were immediately focused on the problem. As soon as TS/MME had designed a reinforced gantry support, the necessary raw material was ordered. Less than 10 days were required to get the two ROCLA robots operating again. This included 2 full weekends, many extra hours a...

  1. Exposure to inhalable, respirable, and ultrafine particles in welding fume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Martin; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Pelzer, Johannes; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Weiss, Tobias; Mattenklott, Markus; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Möhlmann, Carsten; Berges, Markus; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m(-3) for inhalable and 1.29 mg m(-3) for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m(-3)). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements welding fume. Concentrations were mainly predicted by the welding process and were significantly higher when local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was inefficient or when welding was performed in confined spaces. Substitution of high-emission techniques like FCAW, efficient LEV, and using PAPRs where applicable can reduce exposure to welding fume. However, harmonizing the different exposure metrics for UFP (as particle counts) and for the respirable or inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging.

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Optical Radiation Emission as a Function of Welding Power during Gas Shielded Metal Arc Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stefan; Janßen, Marco; Schmitz, Martin; Ott, Günter

    2017-11-01

    Arc welding is accompanied by intense optical radiation emission that can be detrimental not only for the welder himself but also for people working nearby or for passersby. Technological progress advances continuously in the field of joining, so an up-to-date radiation database is necessary. Additionally, many literature irradiance data have been measured for a few welding currents or for parts of the optical spectral region only. Within this paper, a comprehensive study of contemporary metal active gas, metal inert gas, and cold metal transfer welding is presented covering optical radiation emission from 200 up to 2,700 nm by means of (spectro-) radiometric measurements. The investigated welding currents range from 70 to 350 A, reflecting values usually applied in industry. Based upon these new irradiance data, three mathematical models were derived in order to describe optical radiation emission as a function of welding power. The linear, exponential, and sigmoidal emission models depend on the process variant (standard or pulsed) as well as on the welding material (mild and stainless steel, aluminum). In conjunction with the corresponding exposure limit values for incoherent optical radiation maximum permissible exposure durations were calculated as a function of welding power. Typical times are shorter than 1 s for the ultraviolet spectral region and range from 1 to 10 s for visible radiation. For the infrared regime, exposure durations are of the order of minutes to hours. Finally, a validation of the metal active gas emission models was carried out with manual arc welding.

  3. Preventive strength training improves working ergonomics during welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Karsten; Petermann, Carmen; Pilat, Christian; Schubert, Emil; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Mooren, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a preventive strength training program on cardiovascular, metabolic and muscular strains during welding. Welders are one of the occupation groups which typically have to work in extended forced postures which are known to be an important reason for musculoskeletal disorders. Subjects (exercise group) accomplished a 12-week strength training program, while another group served as controls (control group). Pre and post training examinations included the measurements of the one repetition maximum and an experimental welding test. Local muscle activities were analysed by surface electromyography. Furthermore, heart rate, blood pressure, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were examined. In the exercise group, strength training lead to a significant increase of one repetition maximum in all examined muscles (pwelding test muscle activities of trunk and shoulder muscles and arm muscles were significantly reduced in the exercise group after intervention (pwelding (p<.05). Effects of strength training can be translated in an improved working ergonomics and tolerance against the exposure to high physical demands at work.

  4. Risk communication concerning welding fumes for the primary preventive care of welding apprentices in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2015-01-19

    This study's aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ≤ 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships.

  5. Evaluation of the Pulmonary Toxicity of a Fume Generated from a Nickel-, Copper-Based Electrode to be Used as a Substitute in Stainless Steel Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, James M; Badding, Melissa A; Meighan, Terence G; Keane, Michael; Leonard, Stephen S; Roberts, Jenny R

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology has indicated a possible increase in lung cancer among stainless steel welders. Chromium (Cr) is a primary component of stainless steel welding fume. There is an initiative to develop alternative welding consumables [nickel (Ni)- and copper (Cu)-based alloys] that do not contain Cr. No study has been performed to evaluate the toxicity of fumes generated from Ni- and Cu-based consumables. Dose–response and time-course effects on lung toxicity of a Ni- and Cu-based welding fume (Ni–Cu WF) were examined using an in vivo and in vitro bioassay, and compared with two other well-characterized welding fumes. Even though only trace amounts of Cr were present, a persistent increase in lung injury and inflammation was observed for the Ni–Cu WF compared to the other fumes. The difference in response appears to be due to a direct cytotoxic effect by the Ni–Cu WF sample on lung macrophages as opposed to an elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:25392698

  6. Drop weld thermal injuries to the middle ear.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keogh, I J

    2009-01-01

    Drop weld injuries to the tympanic membrane and middle ear caused by hot sparks or molten slag are a rare but significant injury. Steel workers and welders who are regularly exposed to flying sparks and molten metal slag are predisposed. This type of transtympanic thermal injury occurs when the slag literally drops into the external auditory canal and burns through the tympanic membrane. A spectrum of severity of injury occurs which includes chronic tympanic membrane perforation, chronic otorrhoea, facial nerve injury and deafness. Chronic tympanic membrane perforation is the most common sequelae and is perhaps one of the most challenging of all perforations to repair The combination of direct thermal injury and foreign body reaction results in continuing or recurrent suppuration. The foreign body reaction is due to the embedding of metal slag in the promontorial mucosa. We present a case of drop weld injury to the left tympanic membrane, resulting in chronic middle ear inflammation, otorrhoea and tympanic perforation. CAT scan clearly demonstrated a metallic promontorial foreign body with localised bone erosion. We emphasise the importance of removing these foreign bodies and recommend a cartilage reinforced underlay tympanoplasty technique to repair these perforations. Transtympanic thermal trauma is a preventable occupational injury, which is best, avoided by earplugs and increased awareness.

  7. Changes in trace element concentration in hair and other organs in relation to disease and metal burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesener, W.; Goerner, W.; Niese, S.

    1979-01-01

    With the help of reactor neutron activation analysis, the concentrations of F, Cl, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag, I and Au in hair and other organs of normal and diseased persons and of persons occupationally or otherwise exposed to high concentrations of certain elements have been determined. When necessary, before gamma spectrometry, 24 Na interference was removed by hydrated antimony pentoxide or the elements of interest were separated by an anion-exchange resin. Short-lived nuclides were determined by a short activation with the help of a pneumatic irradiation facility and automatic correction of deadtime and decay. The hair of welders was found to contain considerably more Mn than that of normal persons. The concentration of F in the hair of people working with F compounds was also enhanced. The amount of Au in the serum of patients treated with sodium-gold-thiosulphate was determined. Goitre patients showed a small increase of Se and a decrease of I in the hair. Patients with mammary carcinoma showed an increase of Cu, Zn and I. The Zn content of tumorous mammary tissue was many times higher than that of neighbouring tissue. Muscle tissue of rats with a Yoshida ascites sarcoma showed an enhanced content of Zn as well. The content of Mn, Cu and Zn in fatty livers decreases with increasing content of fat. (author)

  8. Hot cracking of welded joints of the 7CrMoVTiB 10-10 (T/P24) steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamiec, J, E-mail: janusz.adamiec@polsl.pl [Department of Materials Science, Silesian University of Technology, Krasinskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    Bainitic steel 7CrMoVTiB10-10 is one the newest steels for waterwalls of modern industrial boilers. In Europe, attempts have been made to make butt welded joints of pipes made of this steel of the diameter up to 51 mm and thickness up to 8 mm. Many cracks have been observed in the welded joint, both during welding and transport and storage. The reasons of cracking and the prevention methods have not been investigated. No comprehensive research is carried out in Europe in order to automate the welding process of the industrial boiler elements made of modern bainitic steel, such as 7CrMoVTiB10-10. There is no information about its overall, operative and local weldability, influence of heat treatment, as well as about resistance of the joints to cracking during welding and use. The paper presents experience of Energoinstal SA from development of technology and production of waterwalls of boilers made of the 7CrMoVTiB 10-10 steel on a multi-head automatic welder for submerged arc welding.

  9. Electromagnetic radiation unmasked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, P.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the nature of the electromagnetic waves, what they are and how do they affect us. Current concern is focused on exposure to low level power-frequency magnetic fields like microwave radiation from mobile phones and leaking microwave ovens; high power radiation from defence and airport radars; fields close to high voltage transmission lines; radio frequency fields from industrial welders and heaters and DC magnetic fields in aluminium smelters. These fields with frequency less than 300 GHz do not carry sufficient energy to break chemical bonds and it is assumed that they cannot damage cell DNA. The amount of radiation absorbed by a human exposed to far field electromagnetic radiation (EMR) depends on the orientation and size of the person. In the 30-300 MHz range it is possible to excite resonance in the whole or partial body such as the head. It is emphasised that since there are some evidence that electromagnetic fields do harm, a policy of prudent avoidance is recommended, especially for children. ills

  10. Assessment of exposure to manganese in welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smargiassi, A; Baldwin, M; Savard, S; Kennedy, G; Mergler, D; Zayed, J

    2000-10-01

    Welder exposure to metals in various industrial sectors is poorly characterized. We had the opportunity to carry out an exploratory study to characterize manganese exposure in welding operations in a recently established Quebec factory that assembled accessories for heavy excavation machinery. Ten workers were sampled for total manganese for at least two consecutive days out of three followed by two consecutive days for respirable manganese (with a size selective sampler with a median cut-off of 4 microns), during a typical week in the summer of 1998. Parts being welded were characterized as large or small. Small parts were those being welded on tables during subassembly. Workers were divided into two groups according to the parts they were welding. Seventy-eight percent of the total manganese exposure levels of welding operations during the assembly of large accessories of heavy excavation machinery exceeded the manganese American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.20 mg/m3 (GM 0.24 mg/m3, n = 14) while none exceeded the TLV during the assembly of small pieces (GM 0.06 mg/m3, n = 8). Welding operations during the assembly of large heavy excavation machinery accessories may pose a significant health hazard. Considering the importance of task-related variables affecting exposure among workers, further studies are needed to better characterize exposure determinants of welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories.

  11. Telemanipulation - a special activity in remotely controlled operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.W.; Andre, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Work to be done in areas hostile to humans needs special and careful preparation. If short-term entry is possible, groups of men can be trained to do the necessary work. If not, special devices have to be designed, built, and tested on mockups before the real work can be executed. Based on experience gained from maintenance in car production and test programs for a reprocessing facility, it was decided to train a special group of men to do remotely controlled work in hostile areas without endangering them and to use their personal experience as the basis for future work. This is the old-fashioned way of all professions. Some needs to be able to do that remotely controlled work with normally existing operational means and combinations of them like cranes, mechanical and electromechanical master slave manipulators (MMSMs and EMSMs), saws, files, hammer, tig-welding equipment, etc., in air as well as underwater. This paper discusses use of a remote operator manipulator (ROM), remote operator welder (ROW), a test of underwater work, and the repair of two activated jets pumps of a boiling water reactor BWR with a fueling machine, reactor crane, EMSM, and conventional tools

  12. Hanford Site Welding Program Successfully Providing A Single Site Function For Use By Multiple Contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) recently restructured its Hanford work scope, awarding two new contracts over the past several months for a total of three contracts to manage the sites cleanup efforts. DOE-RL met with key contractor personnel prior to and during contract transition to ensure site welding activities had appropriate oversight and maintained code compliance. The transition also provided an opportunity to establish a single site-wide function that would provide welding and materials engineering services to the Hanford site contractors: CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC); Mission Support Alliance (MSA); Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS); and Washington Closure Hanford (WCH). Over the years, multiple and separate welding programs (amongst the several contractors) existed at the Hanford site leading to inefficiencies resulting from duplication of administrative efforts, maintenance of welding procedures, welder performance certifications, etc. The new, single program eliminates these inefficiencies. The new program, co-managed by two of the sites' new contractors, the CHPRC ('owner' of the program and responsible for construction welding services) and the MSA (provides maintenance welding services), provides more than just the traditional construction and maintenance welding services. Also provided, are welding engineering, specialty welding development/qualification for the closure of radioactive materials containers and materials evaluation/failure analysis. The following describes the new Hanford site welding program.

  13. Remote repair robots for dissolvers in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Sen; Hirose, Yasuo; Kawamura, Hironobu; Minato, Akira; Ozaki, Norihiko.

    1984-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, for the purpose of the reduction of radiation exposure of workers, the shortening of working time and the improvement of capacity ratio of the facilities, the technical development of various devices for remote maintenance and inspection has been advanced so far. This time, an occasion came to inspect and repair the pinhole defects occurred in spent fuel dissolving tanks in the reprocessing plant of Tokai Establishment, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. However, since the radiation environmental condition and the restricting condition due to the object of repair were extremely severe, it was impossible to cope with them using conventional robot techniques. Consequently, a repair robot withstanding high level radiation has been developed anew, which can work by totally remote operation in the space of about 270 mm inside diameter and about 6 m length. The repair robot comprises a periscope reflecting mirror system, a combined underwater and atmospheric use television, a grinder, a welder, a liquid penetrant tester and an ultrasonic flaw detector. The key points of the development were the parts withstanding high level radiation and the selection of materials, to make the mechanism small size and the realization of totally remote operation. (Kako, I.)

  14. A mini-sampler for welding aerosol mounted in close vicinity of the mouth/nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liden, Goeran; Surakka, Jouni

    2009-01-01

    A small personal aerosol mini-sampler to be used inside modern welding visors has been developed. The main object of the mini-sampler has been to sample manganese. The sampler is based on commercially available 13 mm filter holders but modified to incorporate an inlet nozzle made of aluminium. The nominal flow rate of the mini-sampler is 0,75 l/min. The sampler is to be worn mounted on a headset, modified from professional microphone headsets. The headset mounting arrangement was accepted by the welders. The sampling bias of the mini sampler versus the IOM sampler depends on the coarseness of the sampled aerosol. At the lowest concentration ratio of the open-face 25 mm filter holder to the IOM sampler equal to 0,65, the bias of the mini sampler is approximately -26% versus the IOM. The RMS sampling bias of the mini sampler versus the IOM sampler for manganese is -4,6%. The inhalable fraction of welding aerosol mass consists only of 25-55% of welding fume. The rest of the mass is made up of spatter particles and grinding particles. For manganese generally more than 65% is found in the fume.

  15. Five-Axis Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for Nuclear Component Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Wenning, Justin; Terrani, Kurt; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Norfolk, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a three-dimensional metal printing technology which uses high-frequency vibrations to scrub and weld together both similar and dissimilar metal foils. There is no melting in the process and no special atmosphere requirements are needed. Consequently, dissimilar metals can be joined with little to no intermetallic compound formation, and large components can be manufactured. These attributes have the potential to transform manufacturing of nuclear reactor core components such as control elements for the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These components are hybrid structures consisting of an outer cladding layer in contact with the coolant with neutron-absorbing materials inside, such as neutron poisons for reactor control purposes. UAM systems are built into a computer numerical control (CNC) framework to utilize intermittent subtractive processes. These subtractive processes are used to introduce internal features as the component is being built and for net shaping. The CNC framework is also used for controlling the motion of the welding operation. It is demonstrated here that curved components with embedded features can be produced using a five-axis code for the welder for the first time.

  16. Nuclear power generation and automation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korei, Yoshiro

    1985-01-01

    The proportion of nuclear power in the total generated electric power has been increasing year after year, and the ensuring of its stable supply has been demanded. For the further development of nuclear power generation, the heightening of economical efficiency which is the largest merit of nuclear power and the public acceptance as a safe and stable electric power source are the important subjects. In order to solve these subjects, in nuclear power generation, various automation techniques have been applied for the purpose of the heightening of reliability, labor saving and the reduction of radiation exposure. Meeting the high needs of automation, the automation technology aided by computers have been applied to the design, manufacture and construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Computer-aided design and the examples of design of a reactor building, pipings and a fuel assembly, an automatic welder for pipings of all position TIG welding type, a new central monitoring and control system, an automatic exchanger of control rod-driving mechanism, an automatic in-service inspection system for nozzles and pipings, and a robot for steam generator maintenance are shown. The trend of technical development and an intelligent moving robot, a system maintenance robot and a four legs walking robot are explained. (Kako, I.)

  17. Unintentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliney, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the risks from unintentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and to consider hazard control regulation, one must face first the problem of their state of scientific knowledge and the public's perception of UVR. Few people in the general public would question the health benefits of sunlight. Many flock to the beaches each summer to develop a healthy tan. Since the 1920's scientists have recognized that most of the benefits--and risks--of sunlight exposure result from the UVR present in sunlight. Dermatologists warn sunbathers to avoid exposure or protect themselves against the intense midday UVR or risk skin cancer. A growing number of scientists warn of hazards to the eye if UVR--perhaps even shorter visible wavelengths--are not filtered by lenses. In addition to any intentional exposure for health or cosmetic purposes, many people are also exposed to UVR without being aware of it or without their intent to be exposed. Outdoor workers are exposed to sunlight, many industrial workers (e.g., welders) are exposed to UVR from arc sources, some UVR penetrates clothing, and people indoors are exposed to UVR from artificial lighting

  18. Commercial waste and spent fuel packaging program. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakl, A.R.

    1981-10-01

    This document is a report of activities performed by Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems Division - Nevada Operations in meeting subtask objectives described in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project Plan and revised planning documentation for Fiscal Year (FY) 1981. Major activities included: completion of the first fuel exchange in the Spent Fuel Test - Climax program; plasma arc welder development; modification and qualification of a canister cutter; installation, and activation of a remote area monitor, constant air monitor and an alpha/beta/gamma counting system; qualification of grapples required to handle pressurized water reactor or boiling water reactor fuel and high level waste (HLW) logs; data acquisition from the 3 kilowatt soil temperature test, 2 kw fuel temperature test, and 2 kw drywell test; calorimetry of the fuel assembly used in the fuel temperature test; evaluation of moisture accumulation in the drywells and recommendations for proposed changes; revision of safety assessment document to include HLW log operations; preparation of quality assurance plan and procedures; development and qualification of all equipment and procedures to receive, handle and encapsulate both the HLW log and spent fuel for the basalt waste isolation program/near surface test facility program; preliminary studies of both the requirements to perform waste packaging for the test and evaluation facility and a cask storage program for the DOE Interim Spent Fuel Management program; and remote handling operations on radioactive source calibration in support of other contractors

  19. Latest News from the Magnet System

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Ruber; R. Pengo; J. Metselaar; J. Buskop; J.J. Rabbers

    2006-01-01

    Final Connections of the Central Solenoid In the days before Christmas 2005 the highest point of ATLAS was reached as the solenoid's control dewar was put in place on top of the supporting arch structure (HS) surrounding the Barrel Toroid. From the control dewar the solenoid is connected to the cryogenic and control systems as well as to the power supply. In January 2006 the joint work was completed between dewar and chimney, containing the cryogenic and superconducting connections to the solenoid. Meanwhile the commissioning of the cryogenic distribution system in the main ATLAS cavern (UX15) was completed, after which the final connections between the solenoid and its cryogenics and control system could be started. First the huge cryogenic transfer line was put in place between the cryogenic distribution system and control dewar. A team of specialized welders worked full speed to join all the liquid and gas helium lines according to the highest quality standards. After completion the same teams then install...

  20. The distribution of fatal risk in Ontario industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.K.; Forbes, W.F.; Hayward, L.M.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate non-radiological risks of occupational fatalities in Ontario industries. The distribution of high-risk occupations was found to vary widely between the different industries for a number of reasons including the fact that insufficient data in some instances resulted in less than desirable reliability. However, in spite of various data limitations, a number of occupations had above average fatal risk rates in several industries, including Material Handlers and Related, N.E.C. (SOC-9319), Welders and Flame Cutters (SOC-8335), Truck Drivers (SOC-9175) and Mechanics and Repairmen, except Electrical (SOC-8589). The majority of occupations had rates below or close to the industry average; however, between 15% and 30% of the occupations in any given industry had fatal risk rates above the industry average. When the number of workers involved in different occupations was considered, between 18% and 40% of workers were in occupations with above average risk. Recommendations for future work are also provided

  1. Retrospective assessment of occupational asbestos exposure among 220 patients with respiratory cancer hospitalized at Vilnius University Institute of Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrauskaite Everatt, R.; Jankauskas, R.; Tossavainen, A.; Cicenas, S.; Smolianskiene, G.

    2005-01-01

    No cases of lung cancer or mesothelioma have ever been diagnosed or compensated as asbestos-related in Lithuania. This paper attempts to estimate the proportion of those occupationally exposed to asbestos among respiratory cancer patients. Occupational exposure to asbestos was assessed retrospectively for 218 lung cancer and 2 mesothelioma patients admitted to Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University. The evaluation was based on personal interview data using an internationally established questionnaire. Cumulative exposure to asbestos at work was evaluated in fibre-years. A cumulative asbestos exposure of ≥25 fibre-years was found for 7 patients (3.2%), in further 135 (61.2%) a cumulative exposure from 0.01 to 24.99 fibre-years was assessed. The most common occupations among heavily (≥25 fibre-years) exposed patients were smith, welder or insulator in foundries, construction, shipyard as well as asbestos cement and glass industry. Preliminary findings indicate that a fraction (3.2%) of the respiratory cancer cases could be attributed to occupational exposure to asbestos. Since 1560 or more cases of lung cancer are registered every year in Lithuania, about 50 cases per year could be predicted to be asbestos-related. (author)

  2. Development of the advanced CANDU technology -Development of CANDU advanced fuel fabrication technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Bum; Park, Choon Hoh; Park, Chul Joo; Kwon, Woo Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This project is carrying out jointly with AECL to develop CANFLEX fuel which can enhance reactor safety, fuel economy and can be used with various fuel cycles (natural U, slightly enriched U, other advanced fuel). The final goal of this research is to load the CANFLEX fuel in commercial CANDU reactor for demonstration irradiation. The annual portion of research activities performed during this year are followings ; The detail design of CANFLEX-NU fuel was determined. Based on this design, various fabrication drawings and process specifications were revised. The seventeen CANFLEX-NU fuel bundles for reactivity test in ZED-2 and out-pile test, two CANFLEX-SEU fuel bundles for demo-irradiation in NRU were fabricated. Advanced tack welding machine was designed and sequence control software of automatic assembly welder was developed. The basic researches related to fabrication processes, such as weld evaluation by ECT, effect of additives in UO{sub 2}, thermal stabilities of Zr based metallic glasses, were curried out. 51 figs, 22 tabs, 42 refs. (Author).

  3. Use of narrow gap welding in nuclear power engineering and development of welding equipment at Vitkovice Iron Works (VZSKG), Ostrava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehar, F.; Sevcik, P.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discussed are problems related to automatic submerged arc welding into narrow gaps. The said method was tested for the first time at the Vitkovice Iron Works VZSKG for peripheral welds on pressurizers for WWER-440 reactors. The demands are summed up which are put on the welding workplace which must be met for the use of the said technology. The requirements mainly include the provision of the positioning of the welding nozzle towards the weld gap in order to maximally exclude the effect of the welder. An automatic device was designed and manufactured at the VZSKG plant for mounting the welding nozzle on the automatic welding machine manufactured by ESAB which operates on the principle of the flexible compression of the nozzle to the wall of the weld gap. In the bottom part the welding nozzle is provided with a pulley which rolls during welding thereby providing a constant distance to be maintained between the welding wire and the wall of the weld gap. The diameter of the pulley is ruled by the diameter of the welding wire. Provided the clamping part is appropriately adjusted the developed equipment may be used for any type of automatic welding machine with motor driven supports. (Z.M.). 8 figs., 5 tabs., 9 refs

  4. Training Tomorrow's Nuclear Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Training tomorrow's Nuclear Workforce Start with the children. That is the message Brian Molloy, a human resources expert in the IAEA's Nuclear Power Engineering Section, wants to convey to any country considering launching or expanding a nuclear power programme. Mathematics and science curricular and extra-curricular activities at secondary and even primary schools are of crucial importance to future recruiting efforts at nuclear power plants, he says:''You need to interest children in science and physics and engineering. The teaching needs to be robust enough to teach them, but it must also gain their interest.'' Recruiting high-calibre engineers needed for the operation of nuclear power plants is a growing challenge, even for existing nuclear power programmes, because of a wave of retirements combined with increasing global demand. But essential as engineers are, they are only a component of the staff at any nuclear power plant. In fact, most employees at nuclear power plants are not university graduates - they are skilled technicians, electricians, welders, fitters, riggers and people in similar trades. Molloy argues that this part of the workforce needs more focus. ''It's about getting a balance between focusing on the academic and the skilled vocational'', he says, adding that countries considering nuclear power programmes often initially place undue focus on nuclear engineers.

  5. Determination of trapping parameters of dosimetric thermoluminescent glow peak of lithium triborate (LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}) activated by aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafadar, V. Emir [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey); Yazici, A. Necmeddin, E-mail: yazici@gantep.edu.t [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey); Yildirim, R. Gueler [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey)

    2009-07-15

    Lithium triborate (LBO) is a newly developed ideal nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal used in laser weapon, welder, radar, tracker, surgery, communication, etc. The effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}=7.3) makes it a tissue equivalent material and this encourages studies on its thermoluminescence (TL) properties for a radiation dosimetry. The previous studies have shown that Al-doped LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} is a promising thermoluminescent dosimetric (TLD) material for dosimetric purposes and continuous and systematic investigations to improve its quality to get ones suited for dosimeter applications are worthy. In the given study, the additive dose (AD), initial rise with partial cleaning (IR), variable heating rate (VHR), peak shape (PS), three-points method (TPM) and computerized glow deconvolution (CGCD) methods were used to determine the kinetic parameters, namely the order of kinetics (b), activation energy (E{sub a}) and the frequency factor (s) associated with the dosimetric thermoluminescent glow peak (P3) of Al-doped LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} after different dose levels with beta-irradiation.

  6. Characterization of welding of AISI 304l stainless steel similar to the core encircling of a BWR reactor; Caracterizacion de soldaduras de acero inoxidable AISI 304L similares a las de la envolvente del nucleo de un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gachuz M, M.E.; Palacios P, F.; Robles P, E.F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Plates of austenitic stainless steel AISI 304l of 0.0381 m thickness were welded by means of the SMAW process according to that recommended in the Section 9 of the ASME Code, so that it was reproduced the welding process used to assemble the encircling of the core of a BWR/5 reactor similar to that of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant, there being generated the necessary documentation for the qualification of the one welding procedure and of the welder. They were characterized so much the one base metal, as the welding cord by means of metallographic techniques, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, mechanical essays and fracture mechanics. From the obtained results it highlights the presence of an area affected by the heat of up to 1.5 mm of wide and a value of fracture tenacity (J{sub IC}) to ambient temperature for the base metal of 528 KJ/m{sup 2}, which is diminished by the presence of the welding and by the increment in the temperature of the one essay. Also it was carried out an fractographic analysis of the fracture zone generated by the tenacity essays, what evidence a ductile fracture. The experimental values of resistance and tenacity are important for the study of the structural integrity of the encircling one of the core. (Author)

  7. THE ROLE OF SHIELDING GAS ON MECHANICAL, METALLURGICAL AND CORROSION PROPERTIES OF CORTEN STEEL WELDED JOINTS OF RAILWAY COACHES USING GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byju John

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This analysis lays emphasis on finding a suitable combination of shielding gas for welding underframe members such as sole bar of Railway Coaches made of corten steel; for improved mechanical, metallurgical and corrosion properties of welds using copper coated solid MIG/MAG welding filler wire size 1.2 mm conforming to AWS/SFA 5.18 ER 70 S in Semi-automatic GMAW process. Solid filler wire is preferred by welders due to less fumes, practically no slag and easy manipulation of welding torch with smooth wire flow during corrosion repair attention, when compared to Flux cored wire. Three joints using Gas metal arc welding (GMAW with shielding gases viz., Pure CO2, (80% Ar – 20% CO2 and (90% Ar – 10% CO2 were made from test pieces cut from Sole bar material of Railway Coach. Study of Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, hardness and toughness revealed that welded joint made using shielding gas (80% Ar – 20% CO2 has better Mechanical properties compared to the other two shielding gases and comparable to that of Parent metal. Type of Shielding gas used has influence on the chemical composition and macro & micro structures. The Tafel extrapolation study of freshly ground samples in 3.5% NaCl solution revealed that the welded joint made using shielding gas (80% Ar – 20% CO2 has also better corrosion resistance which is comparable to the Parent metal as well as similar commercial steels.

  8. TIG welding power supply with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Володимирович Гулаков

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the influence of the DC component of the welding current during TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas welding is discussed. Known methods of DC current cancellation are reviewed, such as capacitor bank or diode/thyristor network insertion in the secondary circuit of the welding transformer. A new method of controlling the magnitude and shape of the TIG welding current is proposed. The idea is to insert a controlled voltage source in the secondary circuit of the welding transformer. This controlled voltage source is realized using a full-bridge voltage source inverter (VSI. VSI control system design issues are discussed. VSI is controlled by a three-level hysteretic current controller, while current reference is generated using lookup table driven by PLL (Phase Locked Loop locked to the mains frequency. Simulation results are shown. The proposed topology of TIG power supply allows to provide magnitude and shape control of the welding current, with the limitation that its DC component must be zero. Thus, some capabilities of professional AC-TIG welders are obtained using substantially lower cost components: VSI built using high-current low voltage MOSFETs with control system based on 32-bit ARM microcontroller. The use of proposed TIG welding power supply will eliminate the DC component of the welding current, improve welding transformer’s power factor and improve welding technology by increasing the welding arc stability

  9. Systemic serum amyloid A as a biomarker for exposure to zinc and/or copper-containing metal fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, R; Gube, M; Markert, A; Davatgarbenam, S; Kossack, V; Gerhards, B; Kraus, T; Brand, P

    2018-01-01

    Zinc- and copper-containing welding fumes increase systemic C-reactive protein (CRP). The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the biomarkers serum amyloid A (SAA) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in this regard. Fifteen male subjects were exposed under controlled conditions to welding fumes containing either zinc, or copper, or copper and zinc for 6 h. Plasma samples were collected before, 6 and 24 h after start of exposure and biomarkers therein were measured by electrochemiluminescent assay. For each exposure, systemic concentrations of systemic SAA, but not VCAM-1, increased significantly at 24 h after exposure start compared with baseline ("copper only": P=0.0005, "zinc only": P=0.027, "copper and zinc": P=0.001). SAA showed a wider range of concentrations than did CRP and its levels increased up to 19-fold after welding fume exposure. The recognition of copper as a potential harmful component in welding fumes, also independent from zinc, deserves further consideration. SAA might represent a new sensitive biomarker for potential subclinical sterile inflammation after inhalation of copper- and/or zinc-containing welding fumes. As elevations of CRP and SAA protein have both been linked to a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, these findings might particularly be important for long-term welders.

  10. Automatic detection and counting of cattle in UAV imagery based on machine vision technology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Foster, Jamie; Starek, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    Beef production is the main agricultural industry in Texas, and livestock are managed in pasture and rangeland which are usually huge in size, and are not easily accessible by vehicles. The current research method for livestock location identification and counting is visual observation which is very time consuming and costly. For animals on large tracts of land, manned aircraft may be necessary to count animals which is noisy and disturbs the animals, and may introduce a source of error in counts. Such manual approaches are expensive, slow and labor intensive. In this paper we study the combination of small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) and machine vision technology as a valuable solution to manual animal surveying. A fixed-wing UAV fitted with GPS and digital RGB camera for photogrammetry was flown at the Welder Wildlife Foundation in Sinton, TX. Over 600 acres were flown with four UAS flights and individual photographs used to develop orthomosaic imagery. To detect animals in UAV imagery, a fully automatic technique was developed based on spatial and spectral characteristics of objects. This automatic technique can even detect small animals that are partially occluded by bushes. Experimental results in comparison to ground-truth show the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  11. Precision machining, sheet-metal work and welding at the heart of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From the writing of specifications and the production of high-tech components, to technology transfer and call-out work on-site, the MF group in EST Division offers CERN users a wide variety of services. Its full range of activities is presented in a new brochure. In addition to its many physicists and engineers, CERN also has teams of mechanics, welders and sheet-metalworkers whose expertise is a precious asset for the Organization. Within the MF Group (Manufacturing Facilities, EST Division) these teams perform precision machining, sheet-metal work and welding. As an example, the Group has been responsible for producing radiofrequency accelerating cells to a precision of the order of 1/100th mm and with a surface roughness of only 0.1 micron. The Group's workshops also manufactured the stainless steel vacuum chamber for the brand new n-TOF experiment (Bulletin n°47/2000), a 200-m long cylindrical chamber with a diameter of just 800 millimetres! The MF Group is assisted in its task of providing me...

  12. Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes -Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Park, Kyung Bae; Chung, Yong Sam; Chung, Young Ju; Bang, Hong Sik; Han, Hyun Soo; Shin, Byung Chul; Park, Choon Deuk; Han, Kwang Hee; Shin, Hun Young; Park, Woong Woo; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Jin Kyung; Kim, Seung Jun

    1994-07-01

    To increase the production of RI and labelled compounds utilizing the Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR), development of P-32 production process, devices and tools of neutron irradiation use, GMP facilities of radiopharmaceuticals, Dy-165/Ho-166 macroaggregate of radiation synovectomy use for rheumatoid archritis have been carried out, respectively. To utilize NAA in analysis of environmental samples, experimental studies on air borne samples have also been carried out. An efficient P-32 production process obtaining high recovery of >98% with sufficiently high radionuclidic purity of >99% has been established through reaction 32 S(n,p) 32 P and subsequent reduced pressure distillation purification. Various capsules, loading/unloading device for capsule/rigs, cole-welder for capsules, checking instrument for capsule sealing, working table/tools, transfer cask for the irradiated targets, etc. have been developed. To maintain cleanliness inside of hot cells, a modification has been proposed, and a two door type autoclave usable in GMP facility has been prepared. An efficient way of preparation of the Dy-165/Ho-166 macroaggregate of radiation synovectomy use as well as its clinical application scheme has been developed. A suitable process of environmental sample analyses has been established by carrying out NAA of standard/reference samples as well as airborne dust samples. (Author)

  13. Ergonomic analysis of construction worker's body postures using wearable mobile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Nipun D; Akhavian, Reza; Behzadan, Amir H

    2017-07-01

    Construction jobs are more labor-intensive compared to other industries. As such, construction workers are often required to exceed their natural physical capability to cope with the increasing complexity and challenges in this industry. Over long periods of time, this sustained physical labor causes bodily injuries to the workers which in turn, conveys huge losses to the industry in terms of money, time, and productivity. Various safety and health organizations have established rules and regulations that limit the amount and intensity of workers' physical movements to mitigate work-related bodily injuries. A precursor to enforcing and implementing such regulations and improving the ergonomics conditions on the jobsite is to identify physical risks associated with a particular task. Manually assessing a field activity to identify the ergonomic risks is not trivial and often requires extra effort which may render it to be challenging if not impossible. In this paper, a low-cost ubiquitous approach is presented and validated which deploys built-in smartphone sensors to unobtrusively monitor workers' bodily postures and autonomously identify potential work-related ergonomic risks. Results indicates that measurements of trunk and shoulder flexions of a worker by smartphone sensory data are very close to corresponding measurements by observation. The proposed method is applicable for workers in various occupations who are exposed to WMSDs due to awkward postures. Examples include, but are not limited to industry laborers, carpenters, welders, farmers, health assistants, teachers, and office workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parkinson's disease and occupation: differences in associations by case identification method suggest referral bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Kay; Marion, Stephen A; Tsui, Joseph K C; Shen, Hui; Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Harris, M Anne

    2014-02-01

    We used a population-based sample of 403 Parkinson's disease cases and 405 controls to examine risks by occupation. Results were compared to a previous clinic-based analysis. With censoring of jobs held within 10 years of diagnosis, the following had significantly or strongly increased risks: social science, law and library jobs (OR = 1.8); farming and horticulture jobs (OR = 2.0); gas station jobs (OR = 2.6); and welders (OR = 3.0). The following had significantly decreased risks: management and administration jobs (OR = 0.70); and other health care jobs (OR = 0.44). These results were consistent with other findings for social science and farming occupations. Risks for teaching, medicine and health occupations were not elevated, unlike our previous clinic-based study. This underscores the value of population-based over clinic-based samples. Occupational studies may be particularly susceptible to referral bias because social networks may spread preferentially via jobs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Controlled short-circuiting MIG-MAG welding process and procedures applied to the root pass in pipeline construction; Processo de soldagem MIG/MAG em curto-circuito controlado e procedimentos aplicados ao passe de raiz na construcao de linhas dutoviarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Regis H.G. e; Gohr Junior, Raul; Weck, Leonardo W.A. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Soldagem e Mecatronica (LABSOLDA)

    2005-07-01

    The work deals with the study and development of the Controlled Short-Circuiting MIG/MAG Welding Process (CCC) and procedures for the root pass on pipes, in pipelines construction. The developed process (CCC) consists in an semi-automatic slag free operation, yielding higher productivity than the Coated Electrode and TIG processes, with satisfactory properties on the root weld. The significant influence of the welding over the time schedule and construction cost makes the development of this technology attractive, in order to become available at low cost, enhancing the companies' competitiveness in the globalized oil sector. The developed system, a MIG/MAG variant, features the advantages of short-circuiting metal transfer and avoids its inconveniences (mainly with high CO{sub 2} content gases), enabling its use on pipes root welding. This is possible through current waveform control, providing process and weld pool stability. Procedures for the root pass were determined for each of the welding positions reached in thick walled pipes welding, with the CCC. Also, the low welder training time was notable. (author)

  16. Welding quality evaluation of resistance spot welding using the time-varying inductive reactance signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjie; Hou, Yanyan; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Jian

    2018-05-01

    In the spot welding process, a high alternating current is applied, resulting in a time-varying electromagnetic field surrounding the welder. When measuring the welding voltage signal, the impedance of the measuring circuit consists of two parts: dynamic resistance relating to weld nugget nucleation event and inductive reactance caused by mutual inductance. The aim of this study is to develop a method to acquire the dynamic reactance signal and to discuss the possibility of using this signal to evaluate the weld quality. For this purpose, a series of experiments were carried out. The reactance signals under different welding conditions were compared and the results showed that the morphological feature of the reactance signal was closely related to the welding current and it was also significantly influenced by some abnormal welding conditions. Some features were extracted from the reactance signal and combined to construct weld nugget strength and diameter prediction models based on the radial basis function (RBF) neural network. In addition, several features were also used to monitor the expulsion in the welding process by using Fisher linear discriminant analysis. The results indicated that using the dynamic reactance signal to evaluate weld quality is possible and feasible.

  17. Reflection of illumination laser from gas metal arc weld pool surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiaoji; Zhang, YuMing

    2009-01-01

    The weld pool is the core of the welding process where complex welding phenomena originate. Skilled welders acquire their process feedback primarily from the weld pool. Observation and measurement of the three-dimensional weld pool surface thus play a fundamental role in understanding and future control of complex welding processes. To this end, a laser line is projected onto the weld pool surface in pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and an imaging plane is used to intercept its reflection from the weld pool surface. Resultant images of the reflected laser are analyzed and it is found that the weld pool surface in GMAW does specularly reflect the projected laser as in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Hence, the weld pool surface in GMAW is also specular and it is in principle possible that it may be observed and measured by projecting a laser pattern and then intercepting and imaging the reflection from it. Due to high frequencies of surface fluctuations, GMAW requires a relatively short time to image the reflected laser

  18. Exposure of healthy subjects with emissions from a gas metal arc welding process: part 1--exposure technique and external exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, P; Havlicek, P; Steiners, M; Holzinger, K; Reisgen, U; Kraus, T; Gube, M

    2013-01-01

    Studies concerning welding fume-related adverse health effects in welders are hampered by the heterogeneity of workplace situations, resulting in complex and non-standardized exposure conditions. In order to carry out welding fume exposure studies under controlled and standardized conditions, the Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory was developed. This laboratory consists of an emission room, in which welding fume is produced, and an exposure room in which human subjects are exposed to these fumes. Both rooms are connected by a ventilation system which allows the welding fume concentration to be regulated. Particle mass concentration was measured with a TEOM microbalance and the particle number-size distribution using a Grimm SMPS device. In a study, which is the subject of this paper, it has been shown that welding fume concentration can easily be regulated between 1 and about 3 mg m(-3). The chosen concentration can be kept constant for more than 8 h. However, transport of the particles from the emission room into the exposure room leads to a change in particle size distribution, which is probably due to coagulation of the fraction of smallest particles. The Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory is suitable for controlled exposure studies with human subjects.

  19. Mondani intraoral welding: historical process and main practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Carlo, L; Pasqualini, M E; Mondani, P M; Rossi, F; Moglioni, E; Shulman, M

    2017-01-01

    The intraoral welder was invented by Dr. Pierluigi Mondani during the early 70’s to weld titanium needle implants to a titanium bar in patient’s mouth and to load them immediately by means of resin prosthesis. The clinical use documented dates back to 1972. Over the years, many practical applications have been added to the initial one, which have expanded the use of this device. In this scientific work, main applications are described. The aim of the work was to trace the historical process of intra-oral welding according to Mondani and describe the main practical applications. Intra-oral welding is a process introduced by dr. Pier Luigi Mondani of Genova (Italy) which allows to firmly conjoin titanium implants of any shape by means of a titanium bar or also directly between them in the mouth during surgery. The immediate stabilization achieved by intraoral welding increases implants success rate, allows immediate loading even in situations of bone atrophy, saves implants that are running into failure, re-evaluates fractured implants, allows to stabilize submerged implants postponing prosthesis management, allows to achieve efficient rehabilitation protocols to deal with difficult cases. The 40-years’ experience with intra-oral welding described in this article, confirms the ease of use and efficiency in providing immediate stabilization of titanium implants of all types.

  20. Thermal burn and electrical injuries among electric utility workers, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, Tiffani A; Kelsh, Michael; Lu, Elizabeth T; Sahl, Jack D; Yager, Janice W

    2007-03-01

    This study describes the occurrence of work-related injuries from thermal-, electrical- and chemical-burns among electric utility workers. We describe injury trends by occupation, body part injured, age, sex, and circumstances surrounding the injury. This analysis includes all thermal, electric, and chemical injuries included in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Occupational Health and Safety Database (OHSD). There were a total of 872 thermal burn and electric shock injuries representing 3.7% of all injuries, but accounting for nearly 13% of all medical claim costs, second only to the medical costs associated with sprain- and strain-related injuries (38% of all injuries). The majority of burns involved less than 1 day off of work. The head, hands, and other upper extremities were the body parts most frequently injured by burns or electric shocks. For this industry, electric-related burns accounted for the largest percentage of burn injuries, 399 injuries (45.8%), followed by thermal/heat burns, 345 injuries (39.6%), and chemical burns, 51 injuries (5.8%). These injuries also represented a disproportionate number of fatalities; of the 24 deaths recorded in the database, contact with electric current or with temperature extremes was the source of seven of the fatalities. High-risk occupations included welders, line workers, electricians, meter readers, mechanics, maintenance workers, and plant and equipment operators.

  1. Pathogenesis of Mortalin in Manganese-induced Parkinsonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Travis J.

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential dietary micronutrient for which excessive exposure has long been known to be neurotoxic. Historically, short-term, high-intensity exposure in occupational settings was recognized to cause acute-onset parkinsonism (PS) termed manganism. Although modern day exposures are typically several orders of magnitude lower than those necessary to cause manganism, chronic, low-level exposures are not uncommon among a number of occupations and communities. Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between Mn exposure and risk of PS, and in this regard Mn remains a public health concern. The work described here was designed to provide insight toward questions which remain with respect to Mn exposure and its toxic effect on the brain, and includes studies utilizing Mn exposed human populations and in vitro model systems to address these objectives. Blood plasma samples obtained from a cohort of welders, whose work is recognized as generating appreciable amounts of airborne Mn, and post-mortem brain tissue of Mn mine workers were both found to have discernable alterations related to the mitochondrial chaperone protein mortalin. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrated that reduced astroglial expression of mortalin confers neuronal susceptibility to toxicity elicited by low levels of Mn, possibly via mechanisms of endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress mediated by alpha-synuclein. Taken together, the results of these studies indicate that Mn exposures experienced by modern day populations are sufficient to cause biological alterations in humans that are potentially neurotoxic.

  2. Occupational asthma due to manual metal-arc welding of special stainless steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannu, T; Piipari, R; Kasurinen, H; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Tuomi, T

    2005-10-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) can be induced by fumes of manual metal-arc welding on stainless steel. In recent years, the use of special stainless steels (SSS) with high chromium content has increased. This study presents two cases of OA caused by manual metal-arc welding on SSS. In both cases, the diagnosis of OA was based on respiratory symptoms, occupational exposure and positive findings in the specific challenge tests. In the first case, a 46-yr-old welder had experienced severe dyspnoea while welding SSS (SMO steel), but not in other situations. Challenge tests with both mild steel and stainless steel using a common electrode were negative. Welding SSS with a special electrode caused a delayed 37% drop in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). In the second case, a 34-yr-old male had started to experience dyspnoea during the past few years, while welding especially SSS (Duplex steel). The workplace peak expiratory flow monitoring was suggestive of OA. Challenge tests with both mild steel and stainless steel using a common electrode did not cause bronchial obstruction. Welding SSS with a special electrode caused a delayed 31% drop in FEV1. In conclusion, exposure to manual metal-arc welding fumes of special stainless steel should be considered as a new cause of occupational asthma.

  3. Savannah River Site Bagless Transfer Technology Applied at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    A ''bagless transfer'' process was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove radioactive materials from glovebox enclosures for long-term storage in conformance with DOE Standard 3013. This process, unlike the more conventional ''bag-out'' process, produces an all-metal, helium-filled, welded storage container that does not contain materials subject to radiolytic decomposition. A Bagless Transfer System (BTS), utilizing this bagless transfer process, has been in service at SRS since August 1997. It is a semi-automated system that has proven to be very reliable during its three years of operation.The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at Hanford has a similar need for long-term storage of radioactive materials. The successful operation of the Savannah River Site BTS led to the selection of the same technology to fulfill the packaging need at Hanford. However, there are a number of differences between the existing SRS BTS and the system currently in operation at Hanford. These differences will be discussed in this paper. Additionally, a system is necessary to produce another all-metal, welded container into which the container produced by the BTS can be placed. This container must be in conformance with the criteria specified in DOE-STD-3013 for an outer container. SRS Engineers are developing a system (outer container welder), based on the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding equipment used in the BTS, to produce this outer container

  4. Dismantling method for reactor pressure vessel and system therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto; Enomoto, Kunio; Kurosawa, Koichi; Saito, Hideyo.

    1994-01-01

    Upon dismantling of a reactor pressure vessel, a containment building made of concretes is disposed underground and a spent pressure vessel is contained therein, and incore structures are contained in the spent pressure vessel. Further, a plasma-welder and a pressing machine are disposed to a pool for provisionally placing reactor equipments in the reactor building for devoluming the incore structures by welding and compression. An overhead-running crane and rails therefor are disposed on the roof and the outer side of the reactor building for transporting the pressure vessel from the reactor building to the containment building. They may be contained in the containment building after incorporation of the incore structures into the pressure vessel at the outside of the reactor building. For the devoluming treatment, a combination of cutting, welding, pressing and the like are optically conducted. A nuclear power plant can be installed by using a newly manufactured nuclear reactor, with no requirement for a new site and it is unnecessary to provide a new radioactive waste containing facility. (N.H.)

  5. Fortalecimiento del sector de la soldadura en la Provincia de Santa Elena a través de actividades del Centro de Capacitación de Soldadura LINDE-UPSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lucin

    2015-10-01

    Abstract The generation of grands projects that the country has, in its execution bears the important contribution of technical work such as welding. The University Santa Elena Peninsula, UPSE and multinational LINDE, ex AGA S.A.,  in order to strengthen the area of welding work in the province of Santa Elena, have signed a cooperation agreement with a duration of 5 years. For this purpose, is installed, an Training Center first order with equipment, machinery, tooling and supplies needed to offer quality work. Physical resources are given to UPSE, while knowledge and technique gives the multinational facilitator through highly qualified instructor.  The courses   to offering are approbation. The work is organized upon circulation, registration, training, evaluation, approval and final reports for each course, which is based on the statistics and media documents. Thus, over the first 3 years of work, has trained 229 people, with a total of 240 hours in 12 basic curs for welders support. Representative institutions in these works have been favored by updating technical knowledge and taught at the Center. The agreement remaining 1.5 years to finish but given its fruitful work, surely renew contributions towards this important technical work such as welding.

  6. Characterization of welding of AISI 304l stainless steel similar to the core encircling of a BWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachuz M, M.E.; Palacios P, F.; Robles P, E.F.

    2003-01-01

    Plates of austenitic stainless steel AISI 304l of 0.0381 m thickness were welded by means of the SMAW process according to that recommended in the Section 9 of the ASME Code, so that it was reproduced the welding process used to assemble the encircling of the core of a BWR/5 reactor similar to that of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant, there being generated the necessary documentation for the qualification of the one welding procedure and of the welder. They were characterized so much the one base metal, as the welding cord by means of metallographic techniques, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, mechanical essays and fracture mechanics. From the obtained results it highlights the presence of an area affected by the heat of up to 1.5 mm of wide and a value of fracture tenacity (J IC ) to ambient temperature for the base metal of 528 KJ/m 2 , which is diminished by the presence of the welding and by the increment in the temperature of the one essay. Also it was carried out an fractographic analysis of the fracture zone generated by the tenacity essays, what evidence a ductile fracture. The experimental values of resistance and tenacity are important for the study of the structural integrity of the encircling one of the core. (Author)

  7. Lung cancer risk among construction workers in California, 1988-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Geoffrey M; Luckhaupt, Sara; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Cress, Rosemary; Schumacher, Pam; Shen, Rui; Tak, SangWoo; Deapen, Dennis

    2012-05-01

    Although lung cancer risks can vary by race/ethnicity and by construction occupation, these risks have not been examined extensively. This study analyzed 110,937 lung cancer cases identified from the California Cancer Registry between 1988 and 2007. Mean age at diagnosis, proportion diagnosed at an advanced stage, and proportion with 3-year survival were calculated for lung cancer cases employed in the construction industry. Case-control methodology was also used to assess the risk of lung cancer. Morbidity odds ratios (MORs) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Construction workers were found to have a significantly elevated risk for all lung cancer combined (MOR = 1.57) and for each lung cancer histologic subtype examined. All construction occupations, except managers/engineers and supervisors, had a significantly elevated risk for all lung cancer combined. Roofers and welders had the highest risks for total lung cancer and for each of the histologic subtypes. Construction workers in each of the four race/ethnicity groups also had significantly increased lung cancer risks. Compared to non-construction workers, construction workers were diagnosed at an earlier age, at a more advanced stage, and had significantly lower 3-year survival, though differences were modest. These findings justify additional reductions in carcinogenic exposures in construction, and increased support for smoking cessation programs at construction sites. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Toenail as Non-invasive Biomarker in Metal Toxicity Measurement of Welding Fumes Exposure - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, S. F. Z.; Hariri, A.; Ma'arop, N. F.; Hussin, N. S. A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Workers are exposed to a variety of heavy metal pollutants that are released into the environment as a consequence of workplace activities. This chemical pollutants are incorporated into the human by varies of routes entry and can then be stored and distributed in different tissues, consequently have a potential to lead an adverse health effects and/or diseases. As to minimize the impact, a control measures should be taken to avoid these effects and human biological marker is a very effective tool in the assessment of occupational exposure and potential related risk as the results is normally accurate and reproducible. Toenail is the ideal matrix for most common heavy metals due to its reliability and practicality compared to other biological samples as well as it is a non-invasive and this appears as a huge advantage of toenail as a biomarker. This paper reviews studies that measure the heavy metals concentration in toenail as non-invasive matrix which later may adapt in the investigation of metal fume emitted from welding process. The development of new methodology and modern analytical techniques has allowed the use of toenail as non-invasive approach. The presence of a heavy metal in this matrix reflects an exposure but the correlations between heavy metal levels in the toenail must be established to ensure that these levels are related to the total body burden. These findings suggest that further studies on interactions of these heavy metals in metal fumes utilizing toenail biomarker endpoints are highly warranted especially among welders.

  9. A model for prediction of fume formation rate in gas metal arc welding (GMAW), globular and spray modes, DC electrode positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, J H; Hewitt, P J; Redding, C A; Workman, A D

    2001-03-01

    Prediction of fume formation rate during metal arc welding and the composition of the fume are of interest to occupational hygienists concerned with risk assessment and to manufacturers of welding consumables. A model for GMAW (DC electrode positive) is described based on the welder determined process parameters (current, wire feed rate and wire composition), on the surface area of molten metal in the arc and on the partial vapour pressures of the component metals of the alloy wire. The model is applicable to globular and spray welding transfer modes but not to dip mode. Metal evaporation from a droplet is evaluated for short time increments and total evaporation obtained by summation over the life of the droplet. The contribution of fume derived from the weld pool and spatter (particles of metal ejected from the arc) is discussed, as are limitations of the model. Calculated droplet temperatures are similar to values determined by other workers. A degree of relationship between predicted and measured fume formation rates is demonstrated but the model does not at this stage provide a reliable predictive tool.

  10. The Plunge Phase of Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, John C.

    2005-01-01

    The many advantages of Friction Stir Welding have led to a relatively rapid acceptance in the often conservative welding community. Because the process is so different from traditional fusion welding, with which most investigators are most familiar, there remain many aspects of FSW for which there is no clear consensus. For example, the well known onion rings seen in transverse sections have been variously interpreted as grain size variations, variation in density of second phase particles and parts of the carousel of material rotating with the pin that have been shed from the carousel. Using Orientation Imaging Microscopy, Schneider has recently noted that the onion rings have a different orientation (and hence etch differently) than the surrounding material, and this orientation is consistent with slip plane orientations at the edge of the carousel. Likewise, the forces and torque exerted by the FSW tool on the work piece largely remain unaccounted for. Although these forces are routinely measured by investigators with commercial instrumented welders, they are rarely reported or even qualitatively analyzed. This paper will introduce a model based on a carousel or disk of material that rotates with the tool to estimate the torque and plunge force required to plunge a tool into the work piece. A stationary tool is modeled rather than the moving tool because effects such as thermal transients and metallurgical changes in the sample (primarily aging in aluminum) can be more easily accounted for. It is believed, however, that with some modifications the model should be applicable to a moving tool also.

  11. Evaluation of clinical and inflammatory profile in opioid addiction patients with comorbid pain: results from a multicenter investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis BB

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brittany B Dennis,1 M Constantine Samaan,2 Monica Bawor,3 James Paul,4 Carolyn Plater,5 Guillaume Pare,1 Andrew Worster,6 Michael Varenbut,5 Jeff Daiter,5 David C Marsh,5,7 Dipika Desai,8 Lehana Thabane,1,9,10 Zainab Samaan1,8,11 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, 3McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study Program, 4Department of Anesthesia, McMaster University, Hamilton, 5Ontario Addiction Treatment Centres, Richmond Hill, 6Department of Medicine, Hamilton General Hospital, Hamilton, 7Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Sudbury, 8Population Genomics Program, Chanchlani Research Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, 9Centre for Evaluation of Medicine, 10System Linked Research Unit, Hamilton, 11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: Chronic pain is the most commonly reported comorbidity among patients with opioid addiction receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT, with an estimated prevalence ranging between 30% and 55%. Evidence suggests that patients with comorbid pain are at high risk for poor treatment response, including continued illicit substance use. Due to the important relationship between the presence of pain and illicit substance abuse within the MMT setting, it is imperative that we target our efforts toward understanding the characteristics of this patient population.Methods: The primary objective of this study was to explore the clinical and inflammatory profile of MMT patients reporting comorbid pain. This multicenter study enrolled patients (n=235 on MMT for the treatment of opioid dependence. Clinical history and blood and urine data were collected. Blood samples were obtained for estimating the serum levels of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist [IL-1ra], IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon [IFN]-γ and

  12. Ceftriaxone and tetracycline effect on biofilm-formation strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Sidashenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 122 strains of staphylococci were identified. Among the examined 122 clinical strains of staphylococci, 67 strains belonged to coagulase-positive, and 55 strains to the coagulase-negative ones. According to the study of physiological and biochemical properties, it was found that 37 strains (30.3% belonged to S. epidermidis species. One of the biological properties of many bacteria is the ability to film formation and these strains attract special attention, since it is known that the film antibiotic resistance is higher than in planktonic cultures. It was determined that 20 strains of those under study were film-forming, 17 strains – non-biofilm forming ones. The film was formed during three days, and settled to the bottom of the plate holes. The clinical (Cl strain of S. epidermidis was sensitive to ceftriaxone and tetracicline. The control (C strains of S. epidermidis were sensitive to ceftriaxone, tetracycline and sizomicine. The study of biofilm growth for 2, 3 and 4 days of incubation was carried out. The maximum rate of biofilm S. epidermidis C was observed during 2–3 days; there is the most intense increase of cells number from 5.2 × 108 CFU/ml, for S. epidermidis Cl to 5.6 × 108 CFU/ml. The effect of ceftriaxone and tetracycline on biofilm formation by 2 investigation strains of S. epidermidis was found. We determined differences in minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC for planktonic cultures and biofilm of strains under study. It was established that MIC antibiotics inhibited the growth of planktonic cultures on average 2 times lower compared to the MIC which inhibited the biofilm formation. MIC for planktonic culture of S. epidermidis Cl defined for ceftriaxone was equal to 10 mg/ml, and for tetracycline – 1 mg/ml. MIC of ceftriaxone for the control strain was equal to 12 mg/ml, MIC of tetracycline – 0.7 mg/ml. MIC values for dynamics biofilm formation of S. epidermidis Cl strain on the plater were as follows: to

  13. A study of cranial variations based on craniometric indices in a South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal; Gupta, Anadi; Acharya, Jenash

    2014-09-01

    Human skull has been the most extensively studied bone for establishing the taxonomies at evolutionary levels. Crania are also the most commonly used skeletal elements in population studies because they are known to be more genetically driven and less affected by environmental factors. The craniofacial indices are considered as clinical anthropometric parameters used in the investigation of craniofacial skeletal deformities and brain development. The present research is an attempt to study the cranial indices in the South Indian population. The sample for the study included 118 dry adult crania. All the osteometric measurements were taken using standard anthropometric instruments, and 3 indices, namely, cranial index, orbital index (OI), and index of foreman magnum (FMI), were calculated. Cranial index is calculated as (maximum cranial breadth / maximum cranial length) × 100, OI as (orbital height / orbital breadth) × 100, and FMI as (transverse diameter / anteroposterior diameter) × 100. The crania were further classified based on these indices. The cranial index ranged between 66.67 and 85.71 (mean, 78.57 [SD, 4.11]), the OI ranged between 68.89 and 102.63 (mean, 84.23 [SD, 6.64]), and the FMI ranged between 68.57 and 96.88 (mean, 79.71 [SD, 6.98]). Cranial index did not show any significant correlation with the OI (r = -0.162, P = 0.081) or the FMI (r = -0.045, P = 0.626). A statistically significant correlation was, however, observed between OI and FMI (r = -0.232, P = 0.012). The current study developed population-specific classification of crania using cranial indices. This craniometric baseline data pertaining to the craniofacial indices may be useful in presurgical planning and the postsurgical evaluation. It may also assist the forensic anthropologists in the categorization of human skulls, which may be an important component in identification of highly decomposed dead bodies and skeletal remains. More such studies need to be conducted to understand the

  14. SEA ODC - An Implementation of Web Portal and B2B Services for Managing of Oceanographic Data Sets Collected in South-East Adriatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicic, A.; Castelli, A.; Kljajic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    As a result of efforts to standardize oceanographic data sets collected since year 2002 in the area of south-east Adriatic, relational data model suitable for storage of meta-data and in situ measurements was designed and implemented. Using combination of customized tools developed for extraction of meta-data and data records from CTD files as well as standard office applications, data were extracted, transformed, processed and unified by attributes and units of measurement. To make those data available for wider scientific community, we have developed web portal able to be used for data retrieval based on various filters (spatial, temporal, by project and/or by sampling instrument). Selected data model proves to be also very efficient for generating of data-exchange formats required by various projects and initiatives (e.g. SeaDataNet) so extended by particular dictionaries it can allow fast implementation of integration services. As a part of Ecoport 8 project, newly available type of data was recently introduced. Real-time data provided by permanent sensors need to be automatically collected and stored into database. Visualization of such data was also required as well as exchange with project data center. To fulfill those requirements, additional data scheme and appropriate B2B services were developed. Additional care was taken about data transfer security as database was not hosted at the same place as workstation used for remote access to sensor equipment. Third section of portal is "Tide Tables", interactive, graphical application that visualize tide predictions for ports of Bar and Kotor, allowing also correction by atmospheric pressure. Developed in Java, based on well known Mike Foreman's Fortran 77 code it can be used as stand-alone product without Internet connection. Last section of portal is Google Earth file containing position of stations as well as some spatial features that can be useful during planning of future oceanographic cruises in this area

  15. Self Esteem Communication Skills and Cooping with Stress of Young Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcem Sala Razi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Working younger when they are investigated in terms of family structure, socio-economic condition and work condition, working environment, friend’s relation and for various reasons and in terms of expectations, due to risks they carry, they constituted an important group for preventive mental health studies. This study is conducted to determine working youngsters self esteem, communication skills, coping skills. METHODS: The samples of this descriptive study consist of 79 headworkers and foreman students between the ages of 15–24, in the education year of 2004-2005 in Zonguldak Occupation Education Center. The data was collected by the following means: “Estimating Communication Skills Scale”, “Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale”, “Coping with Stress Scale”, and “Personal Information Form”, prepared by the researchers. RESULTS: Average of the age group of the study is between 20.87+2.07 and 70.5’% are male. 81.0’ % of the youngsters reported that they work in order to acquire a job. Communication skills mean score was 72.15+12.66, self esteem mean score was 2.33+1.97 in the study group. Scores obtained for subgroups of stress coping scale are as follows self confident 2.22+0.59, self unconfident 1.57+0.59, submissive attitudes 1.27+0.63, optimistic attitudes 2.15+0.58 and seeking of social support 1.81+0.63 were determined. Between age and communication skills: between taking role decision making and self esteem, between taking role unconfident and submissive attitudes in coping stress: between working period and self esteem and between confident attitudes in coping stress: between using money and coping with stress with confident attitudes meaningful relationships were determined (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: According to the conclusion of the study in order to reduce negative effects of the working conditions on the youngsters’ development of the basic communication skills and development of the stress coping mechanisms would have positive

  16. Effects of exogenous hormones on spermatogenesis in the male prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, D

    1998-01-01

    Male prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) breed anually and have complete testicular regression. Changes in the seminiferous tubules during the annual cycle have been described recently (Foreman, 1997). This is the first description of spermatogenesis in such a species. The definition of tubular stages during the cycle allows for evaluation of the effects of exogenous hormones, hemicastration, and hemicryptorchidism on spermatogenesis during the annual cycle. Hemicastration was performed during stages of the annual cycle to determine effects of exogenous hormones on remaining testes. Hemicryptorchidism was also done during stages of the annual cycle. FSH, LH, and testosterone were given in high and low doses for short- or long-term treatment periods during stages of the annual cycle. Testicular weights and counts of cell types in tubules of control and treated testes were made on testis tissues. Hemicastration during the out-of-season period does not cause compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining testis, but during recrudescence, hypertrophy of the remaining testis occurs. Hemicastration does not prevent loss of weight by the remaining testis during regression. The seminiferous epithelium of hemicryptorchid prairie dog testes shows damage during spermatogenic activity but not during testicular inactivity. Similarly, hemicryptorchid 15-day-old rat testes do not show damage from hemicryptorchidism. Long-term treatment with FSH preparations during testicular inactivity increased testis weights, spermatogonial proliferation, and spermatocyte differentiation in conjunction with Sertoli cell differentiation. Short-term treatments with low doses increased spermatogonial proliferation and abnormal meiotic activity. Both long- and short-term treatments with LH caused increased sloughing of germ cells and stimulated Leydig and Sertoli cells. Testosterone propionate injections stimulated Sertoli secretions but not Leydig cell activity. Hemicastration during inactivity does

  17. Man-rem audit - a tool for exposure ALARA at Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivaramakrishnan, N.R.; Eswaran, G.; Gangamohan, M.; Sathish, A.V.; Ramasubramanian, K.V.; Gandhimathinathan, S.; Selvam, S.; Moolya, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    depth of his awareness, knowledge in various areas of radiation protection. Audit was conducted using two sets of questionnaires, one for Green dot qualified and another for Orange dot qualified persons. It took about 30 minutes to have discussion with each individual, to assess him and to get his suggestions about ALARA. The survey sample group includes from temporary workers, technician, foreman, supervisors and senior level officers. (author)

  18. [Expression of heat shock protein 70 and its mRNA in career exposure to manganese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenwen; Shao, Hua; Chi, Mingfeng; Zhang, Zhihu; Shan, Yongle; Zou, Wei

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the expression levels of heat shock protein70 (HSPs70) and HSPs70 mRNA in different exposure to manganese, and research the neuroprotective effect on the career exposure to manganese. From 2008 to 2009, with cross-sectional study design, and in a locomotive and rolling stock works, by stratified random sampling method, the exposed sample consisted of 180 welders from different welding shops and 100 unexposed in the last three years, non-welder controls with age-matched workers of similar socioeconomic status from the same industry. The control workers had not been exposed to neurotoxic chemicals. The mRNA expressions of four different metabolic enzyme were detected by SYBR Green I quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of the two enzymes mRNA in different exposure to manganese were analyzed. The expressions of HSPs70 were detected by Western blot. The concentration of air manganese was determined by GFAAS. The average concentration of 8 h time (8h-TWA) was used to express the level of individual exposure to manganese, according to the air manganese workplace occupational exposure limit (8h-TWA=0.15 mg/m3), the exposed group is divided into high exposed group (>0.15 mg/m3) and low exposure group (<0.15 mg/m3). The individuals exposed to manganese dose of exposed group ((0.25±0.31) mg/m3) was higher than the control group ((0.06±0.02) mg/m3) (t=6.15, P=0.001); individuals exposed to manganese dose of high exposure group for (0.42±0.34) mg/m3, which was higher than low exposure group (0.09±0.07) mg/m3 (t=9.80, P=0.001). HSPs70 mRNA and protein of exposure group (5.65±0.21, 3.26±0.15) were higher than the reference group (0.41±0.03, 1.32±0.12) (t=18.91, t=8.68, P=0.001). HSP70 mRNA and protein of high exposure group (6.48±0.37, 3.67±0.26) were higher than the low exposure group (5.15±0.23, 3.02±0.19) (t=3.24, t=2.01, P=0.003, P=0.043). The expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes HSPs70 level and HSPs70 m

  19. Workers' compensation experience of North Carolina residential construction workers, 1986-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, J M; Lipscomb, H

    1999-02-01

    A total of 31,113 workers' compensation claims among 7,400 North Carolina Homebuilders Association (NCHA) members and their subcontractors for the period 1986-1994 were analyzed to calculate workers' compensation claim incidence density rates. For the 7 years studied, the average rate (cases/200,000 work hours) for all claims was 16.40 and the rate for medical or lost time cases was 10.78. Highest rates for cases involving medical costs or paid lost time by mechanism of injury were observed for being struck by an object (3.1), lifting/movement (1.97), falls from a different level (1.13), striking against an object (0.87), and falls on the same level (0.46). Rates by mechanism of injury were highest for muscle strains (2.34), wounds/punctures (2.33), bruises/contusions (1.24), fractures/dislocations (0.98), and injuries to the eyes (0.81). Among medical cost or lost work time cases, body parts with highest injury rates were back/shoulders (1.99), fingers (1.31), leg/knee (1.00), hand/wrist (1.00), foot/ankle (0.86), and eyes (0.82). Injury rates were found to vary substantially among the residential construction trades. For more serious injuries involving medical costs greater than $2,000 or any lost work time, rates were highest for welders and cutters (28.1), insulators (24.3), roofers (19.4), and carpenters (15.3). The same general trends by trade were observed for cases involving paid lost time except that roofers were highest, with a rate of 9.1, followed by insulators (8.5), welders and cutters (5.8), and carpenters (5.8). Rates of falls from a different level resulting in medical costs or lost work time were highest for roofers (5.54), insulators (3.53), carpenters (2.05), and drywall installers (1.99). Descriptive information for falls from a different level resulting in paid lost time during 1993-1994 (n = 219) were reviewed to better determine the causes and circumstances of injuries. Falls from a roof accounted for 25.4 percent of the cases followed by

  20. A Relationship of the Torque Strength between Endplates and Endcaps due to the Welding Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae Seo; Kim, Soo Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    As fuel bundles in a PHWR core irradiated, inner pressure in the claddings of the fuel rods increases owing to the outer pressure and fission products of the nuclear fissions. Because of a leak possibility from a welding between a cladding and an endcap, this welding part is connected with the safety of nuclear fuel rods. Endcap-cladding welding of nuclear fuel rods in a PHWR takes advantage of a resistance upset butt welding. The weldment between a cladding and an endcap is to be sound to prevent a leakage of fission products from a cladding as a UO{sub 2} pellet is irradiated. Weld flash was made from a deformation due to a welding heat and increasing the pressure of the resistivity and resistance from a cladding and an endcap. Weld line of a welding interface, microstructure of a weldment and a crystallographic structure change were sources of an iodine induced SCC in a reactor. The soundness of a weldment is important because a weld line connects the leakage of fission products from an operational reactor. In this study, welding specimens were fabricated by a resistance welding method using a fuel bundle welder to measure and analyze the torque strength of an endplate-endcap welding. The torque strength between endplates and endcaps was measured and analyzed with the welding current and the welding time. The torque strength between endplates and endcaps was, on the whole, within 6.9-12.7 N{center_dot}m in the range of fabrication specification of the fuel bundles. The weldability of between an endplate and an endcap was investigated by a metallographic examination.

  1. Analytical real-time measurement of a three-dimensional weld pool surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, WeiJie; Zhang, YuMing; Wang, XueWu

    2013-01-01

    The ability to observe and measure weld pool surfaces in real-time is the core of the foundation for next generation intelligent welding that can partially imitate skilled welders who observe the weld pool to acquire information on the welding process. This study aims at the real-time measurement of the specular three-dimensional (3D) weld pool surface under a strong arc in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). An innovative vision system is utilized in this study to project a dot-matrix laser pattern on the specular weld pool surface. Its reflection from the surface is intercepted at a distance from the arc by a diffuse plane. The intercepted laser dots illuminate this plane producing an image showing the reflection pattern. The deformation of this reflection pattern from the projected pattern (e.g. the dot matrix) is used to derive the 3D shape of the reflection surface, i.e., the weld pool surface. Based on careful analysis, the underlying reconstruction problem is formulated mathematically. An analytic solution is proposed to solve this formulated problem resulting in the weld pool surface being reconstructed on average in 3.04 ms during welding experiments. A vision-based monitoring system is thus established to measure the weld pool surface in GTAW in real-time. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm, first numerical simulation is conducted. The proposed algorithm is then tested on a spherical convex mirror with a priori knowledge of its geometry. The detailed analysis of the measurement error validates the accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Results from the real-time experiments verify the robustness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm. (paper)

  2. Physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of welding fume derived particles generated from real time welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cali; Demokritou, Philip; Shafer, Martin; Christiani, David

    2013-01-01

    Welding fume particles have been well studied in the past; however, most studies have examined welding fumes generated from machine models rather than actual exposures. Furthermore, the link between physicochemical and toxicological properties of welding fume particles has not been well understood. This study aims to investigate the physicochemical properties of particles derived during real time welding processes generated during actual welding processes and to assess the particle size specific toxicological properties. A compact cascade impactor (Harvard CCI) was stationed within the welding booth to sample particles by size. Size fractionated particles were extracted and used for both off-line physicochemical analysis and in vitro cellular toxicological characterization. Each size fraction was analyzed for ions, elemental compositions, and mass concentration. Furthermore, real time optical particle monitors (DustTrak™, TSI Inc., Shoreview, Minn.) were used in the same welding booth to collect real time PM2.5 particle number concentration data. The sampled particles were extracted from the polyurethane foam (PUF) impaction substrates using a previously developed and validated protocol, and used in a cellular assay to assess oxidative stress. By mass, welding aerosols were found to be in coarse (PM 2.5–10), and fine (PM 0.1–2.5) size ranges. Most of the water soluble (WS) metals presented higher concentrations in the coarse size range with some exceptions such as sodium, which presented elevated concentration in the PM 0.1 size range. In vitro data showed size specific dependency, with the fine and ultrafine size ranges having the highest reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity. Additionally, this study suggests a possible correlation between welders' experience, the welding procedure and equipment used and particles generated from welding fumes. Mass concentrations and total metal and water soluble metal concentrations of welding fume particles may be

  3. Inhalation of gas metal arc-stainless steel welding fume promotes lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Lauryn M; Erdely, Aaron; Meighan, Terence G; Battelli, Lori A; Salmen, Rebecca; McKinney, Walter; Stone, Samuel; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared; Andrews, Ronnee N; Kashon, Michael; Antonini, James M; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C

    2017-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest an increased risk of lung cancer with exposure to welding fumes, but controlled animal studies are needed to support this association. Oropharyngeal aspiration of collected "aged" gas metal arc-stainless steel (GMA-SS) welding fume has been shown by our laboratory to promote lung tumor formation in vivo using a two-stage initiation-promotion model. Our objective in this study was to determine whether inhalation of freshly generated GMA-SS welding fume also acts as a lung tumor promoter in lung tumor-susceptible mice. Male A/J mice received intraperitoneal (IP) injections of corn oil or the chemical initiator 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA; 10 µg/g) and 1 week later were exposed by whole-body inhalation to air or GMA-SS welding aerosols for 4 h/d × 4 d/w × 9 w at a target concentration of 40 mg/m 3 . Lung nodules were enumerated at 30 weeks post-initiation. GMA-SS fume significantly promoted lung tumor multiplicity in A/J mice initiated with MCA (16.11 ± 1.18) compared to MCA/air-exposed mice (7.93 ± 0.82). Histopathological analysis found that the increased number of lung nodules in the MCA/GMA-SS group were hyperplasias and adenomas, which was consistent with developing lung tumorigenesis. Metal deposition analysis in the lung revealed a lower deposited dose, approximately fivefold compared to our previous aspiration study, still elicited a significant lung tumorigenic response. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that inhaling GMA-SS welding fume promotes lung tumorigenesis in vivo which is consistent with the epidemiologic studies that show welders may be at an increased risk for lung cancer.

  4. Modifying welding process parameters can reduce the neurotoxic potential of manganese-containing welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Krishnan; Lin, Gary X; Jefferson, Amy M; Stone, Samuel; Afshari, Aliakbar; Keane, Michael J; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared L; Roberts, Jenny R; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M

    2015-02-03

    Welding fumes (WF) are a complex mixture of toxic metals and gases, inhalation of which can lead to adverse health effects among welders. The presence of manganese (Mn) in welding electrodes is cause for concern about the potential development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like neurological disorder. Consequently, from an occupational safety perspective, there is a critical need to prevent adverse exposures to WF. As the fume generation rate and physicochemical characteristics of welding aerosols are influenced by welding process parameters like voltage, current or shielding gas, we sought to determine if changing such parameters can alter the fume profile and consequently its neurotoxic potential. Specifically, we evaluated the influence of voltage on fume composition and neurotoxic outcome. Rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation (40 mg/m(3); 3h/day × 5 d/week × 2 weeks) to fumes generated by gas-metal arc welding using stainless steel electrodes (GMA-SS) at standard/regular voltage (25 V; RVSS) or high voltage (30 V; HVSS). Fumes generated under these conditions exhibited similar particulate morphology, appearing as chain-like aggregates; however, HVSS fumes comprised of a larger fraction of ultrafine particulates that are generally considered to be more toxic than their fine counterparts. Paradoxically, exposure to HVSS fumes did not elicit dopaminergic neurotoxicity, as monitored by the expression of dopaminergic and PD-related markers. We show that the lack of neurotoxicity is due to reduced solubility of Mn in HVSS fumes. Our findings show promise for process control procedures in developing prevention strategies for Mn-related neurotoxicity during welding; however, it warrants additional investigations to determine if such modifications can be suitably adapted at the workplace to avert or reduce adverse neurological risks. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Occupation and cancer in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Bagga, S; Bevan, R; Brown, T P; Cherrie, J W; Holmes, P; Fortunato, L; Slack, R; Van Tongeren, M; Young, C; Hutchings, S J

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer). This project is the first to quantify in detail the burden of cancer and mortality due to occupation specifically for Britain. It highlights the impact of occupational exposures, together with the occupational circumstances and industrial areas where exposures to carcinogenic agents

  6. Using exposure windows to explore an elusive biomarker: blood manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Marissa G; Stover, Bert; Simpson, Christopher D; Sheppard, Lianne; Seixas, Noah S

    2016-05-01

    We sought to understand the time course between exposure to manganese (Mn) and uptake into the blood, to allow a more meaningful interpretation of exposure biomarker data, and to determine the utility of blood as a biomarker of Mn exposure. Welder trainees were monitored over the course of a five-quarter training program. Each quarter, trainees gave eight blood samples and had personal air monitoring four times. A mixed model was fit to obtain estimates of airborne exposure by welding type (fixed effect), adjusted for subject (random effect). Considering weekends and days absent as zero exposure, estimated exposures were summed over various exposure windows and related to measured blood manganese (MnB) using a mixed model. A relationship consistent with zero was found between MnB and modeled 1 or 7 days of exposure. After 30 days of preceding exposure, a 1 mg-days/m(3) increase in air Mn is associated with a 0.57 ng/mL increase in MnB (95% CI -0.04, 1.19). Considering a 90-day exposure window and a cumulative exposure window, a 1 mg-days/m(3) increase in air Mn is associated with a 0.26 (95% CI 0.005, 0.51) and 0.09 (95% CI 0.006, 0.17) ng/mL increase in MnB, respectively. From this analysis, MnB may begin to act as a biomarker of Mn exposure over longer time periods, or at higher levels of exposure. This novel study design allowed investigation of how MnB relates to different time windows of exposure, representing the most robust Mn exposure assessment in the biomarker literature.

  7. RCC-M: Design and construction rules for mechanical components of PWR nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    AFCEN's RCC-M code concerns the mechanical components designed and manufactured for pressurized water reactors (PWR). It applies to pressure equipment in nuclear islands in safety classes 1, 2 and 3, and certain non-pressure components, such as vessel internals, supporting structures for safety class components, storage tanks and containment penetrations. RCC-M covers the following technical subjects: sizing and design, choice of materials and procurement. Fabrication and control, including: associated qualification requirements (procedures, welders and operators, etc.), control methods to be implemented, acceptance criteria for detected defects, documentation associated with the different activities covered, and quality assurance. The design, manufacture and inspection rules defined in RCC-M leverage the results of the research and development work pioneered in France, Europe and worldwide, and which have been successfully used by industry to design and build PWR nuclear islands. AFCEN's rules incorporate the resulting feedback. Use: France's last 16 nuclear units (P'4 and N4); 4 CP1 reactors in South Africa (2) and Korea (2); 44 M310 (4), CPR-1000 (28), CPR-600 (6), HPR-1000 (4) and EPR (2) reactors in service or undergoing construction in China; 4 EPR reactors in Europe: Finland (1), France (1) and UK (2). Content: Section I - nuclear island components, subsection 'A': general rules, subsection 'B': class 1 components, subsection 'C': class 2 components, subsection 'D': class 3 components, subsection 'E': small components, subsection 'G': core support structures, subsection 'H': supports, subsection 'J': low pressure or atmospheric storage tanks, subsection 'P': containment penetration, subsection 'Q': qualification of active mechanical components, subsection 'Z': technical appendices; section II - materials; section III - examination

  8. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  9. Risk Factor Profile in Parkinson's Disease Subtype with REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Marie L; Dauvilliers, Yves; St Louis, Erik K; McCarter, Stuart J; Romenets, Silvia Rios; Pelletier, Amélie; Cherif, Mahmoud; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ronald B

    2016-01-01

    Numerous large-scale studies have found diverse risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), including caffeine non-use, non-smoking, head injury, pesticide exposure, and family history. These studies assessed risk factors for PD overall; however, PD is a heterogeneous condition. One of the strongest identifiers of prognosis and disease subtype is the co-occurrence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD).In previous studies, idiopathic RBD was associated with a different risk factor profile from PD and dementia with Lewy bodies, suggesting that the PD-RBD subtype may also have a different risk factor profile. To define risk factors for PD in patients with or without associated RBD. In a questionnaire, we assessed risk factors for PD, including demographic, medical, environmental, and lifestyle variables of 189 PD patients with or without associated polysomnography-confirmed RBD. The risk profile of patients with vs. without RBD was assessed with logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, and disease duration. PD-RBD patients were more likely to have been a welder (OR = 3.11 (1.05-9.223), and to have been regular smokers (OR = 1.96 (1.04-3.68)). There were no differences in use of caffeine or alcohol, other occupations, pesticide exposure, rural living, or well water use. Patients with RBD had a higher prevalence of the combined family history of both dementia and parkinsonism (13.3% vs. 5.5% , OR = 3.28 (1.07-10.0). The RBD-specific subtype of PD may also have a different risk factor profile.

  10. Ultrasonic assisted consolidation of commingled thermoplastic/glass fibers rovings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eLionetto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic matrix composites are finding new applications in different industrial area thanks to their intrinsic advantages related to environmental compatibility and processability. The approach presented in this work consists in the development of a technology for the simultaneous deposition and consolidation of commingled thermoplastic rovings through to the application of high energy ultrasound. An experimental equipment, integrating both fiber impregnation and ply consolidation in a single process, has been designed and tested. It is made of an ultrasonic welder, whose titanium sonotrode is integrated on a filament winding machine. During winding, the commingled roving is at the same time in contact with the mandrel and the horn. The intermolecular friction generated by ultrasound is able to melt the thermoplastic matrix and impregnate the reinforcement fibers. The heat transfer phenomena occurring during the in situ consolidation were simulated solving by finite element (FE analysis an energy balance accounting for the heat generated by ultrasonic waves and the melting characteristics of the matrix. To this aim, a calorimetric characterization of the thermoplastic matrix has been carried out to obtain the input parameters for the model. The FE analysis has enabled to predict the temperature distribution in the composite during heating and cooling The simulation results have been validated by the measurement of the temperature evolution during ultrasonic consolidation.The reliability of the developed consolidation equipment was proved by producing hoop wound cylinder prototypes using commingled continuous E-glass rovings and Polypropylene (PP filaments. The consolidated composite cylinders are characterized by high mechanical properties, with values comparable with the theoretical ones predicted by the micromechanical analysis.

  11. [The risk of the carpal tunnel syndrome in some work activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasseroni, A; Tartaglia, R; Carnevale, F

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to generate hypotheses on what could be the ISTAT (National Institute of Statistics) job classes with a major risk of carpal tunnel syndrome in order to plan more specific analytic epidemiology studies and apply more correct ergonomic solutions. A case-control cross-sectional survey without matching was carried out. The source of data were the computerized medical records of a large regional hospital: 833 carpal tunnel syndrome cases (mean age 48, SD 9.33) and 3222 controls (mean age 43.5, SD 13.22) hospitalized for other diseases, were selected. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence limits, controlled for age and gender by a logistic linear regression model, were calculated as measures of association for the comparison between non-exposed managerial/administrative staff and industrial workers. The analysis showed a statistically significant risk for some ISTAT job classes, in particular class 53 (spinners, weavers, dyers and similar jobs) (OR = 2.65; C.L. 1.52-4.62) class 54 (knitters, tailors, hatmakers, upholsterers and similar jobs) (OR = 1.69; C.L. 1.06-2.71), 55 (tanners, shoemakers, leather manufacture workers and similar jobs) (OR = 2.74; C.L. 1.66-4.53) and group 742 (Hotel and restaurant cooks) (OR = 2.99; C.L. 1.45-6.13). Job classes 45 (carpenters, welders and similar jobs). 62 (electricians, electrotechnicians, radio engineers and similar jobs), 63 (gasfitters, plumbers, heating engineers and similar jobs) and 85 (porters and other jobs involving manual handling of loads) showed ORs higher than 2 but without statistical significance. The results are valid for planning further studies, especially in the textile and shoe and leather manufacturing sectors.

  12. Local exhaust ventilation for the control of welding fumes in the construction industry--a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2012-08-01

    Arc welding is a common unit operation in the construction industry, where frequent changes in location and welding position make it more difficult to control fume exposures than in industries where fixed locations are the norm. Welders may be exposed to a variety of toxic airborne contaminants including manganese (Mn) and hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) is a well-known engineering control for welding fumes but has not been adopted widely in the construction industry. This literature review presents data on the performance of a variety of LEV systems for welding fume control from the construction (five references), shipyard (five references), and other industries. The studies indicate that LEV can reduce fume exposures to total particulate, Mn, and CrVI to levels below currently relevant standards. Field studies suggest that 40-50% or more reduction in exposure is possible with portable or fixed LEV systems relative to natural ventilation but that correct positioning of the hood and adequate exhaust flow rates are essential. Successful implementation of extraction guns for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and flux core arc welding has been demonstrated, indicating that a successful balance between extraction airflow and shielding gas requirements is possible. Work practices are an important part of achieving successful control of fume exposures; in particular, positioning the hood close to the arc, checking exhaust flow rates, and avoiding the plume. Further research is needed on hood size effects for controlling welding fume with portable LEV systems and identifying and overcoming barriers to LEV use in construction.

  13. Discussion on Integration of Welding Coordinator in Welding Quality System of KEPIC(Korea Electric Power Industry code)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyun-Jae; Sohn, Myoung-Sung; Cho, Kyoung-Youn; Kim, Jong-Hae [Korea Electric Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The welding quality system of KEPIC-MQW 'Welding Qualification' referencing ASME BPVC Sec.IX, Part QW requires welding procedures and performance qualification of welder or welding operator excluding welding coordinator. It means that there is potential possibility of any problem in process of welding on nuclear power plants or shop in absence of an welding coordinator who can resolve welding troubles. Therefore, the integration of welding coordinators in the welding quality system of KEPIC can improve welding quality and enhance safety of construction and management of power plants. The introduction of welding coordinator requirement would put economic problems on manufactures for new employment and subsequent management works (eg. training) and field problems making authorized nuclear inspectors to be confused on inspection work scopes. Those predictable problems are expected to be minimized or eliminated through public hearings and/or seminars with regulatory body, the owner, and manufacturers and, most significantly, cooperation with related KEPIC committees. The revision draft was reviewed and discussed with personnel in nuclear industry by holding three workshop and public hearings from 2011 to 2012 and by having a presentation in 2014 KEPIC-Week. Industrial consensus on need for integration of welding coordinators in welding quality system of KEPIC was performed by reasons that it would improve welding quality, guarantee welding reliability, advance expertise, and help export to abroad. However, economic problems on manufacturers for new employment and subsequent management works, for example training, are predicted. Therefore, introduction in stages for minimizing industrial impact regarding manufacturer's scale and permission of utilizing external welding coordinator for small scale manufacturers are required. A new draft version of KEPIC-MQW (if possible, appendices of MQW) including requirements and directives for solving these economic

  14. Soluble transition metals cause the pro-inflammatory effects of welding fumes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeilly, Jane D.; Heal, Mathew R.; Beverland, Iain J.; Howe, Alan; Gibson, Mark D.; Hibbs, Leon R.; MacNee, William; Donaldson, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a higher incidence of respiratory illnesses such as bronchitis, metal fume fever (MFF), and chronic pneumonitis among welders exposed to high concentrations of metal-enriched welding fumes. Here, we studied the molecular toxicology of three different metal-rich welding fumes: NIMROD 182, NIMROD c276, and COBSTEL 6. Fume toxicity in vitro was determined by exposing human type II alveolar epithelial cell line (A549) to whole welding fume, a soluble extract of fume or the 'washed' particulate. All whole fumes were significantly toxic to A549 cells at doses >63 μg ml -1 (TD 50; 42, 25, and 12 μg ml -1 , respectively). NIMROD c276 and COBSTEL 6 fumes increased levels of IL-8 mRNA and protein at 6 h and protein at 24 h, as did the soluble fraction alone, whereas metal chelation of the soluble fraction using chelex beads attenuated the effect. The soluble fraction of all three fumes caused a rapid depletion in intracellular glutathione following 2-h exposure with a rebound increase by 24 h. In addition, both nickel based fumes, NIMROD 182 and NIMROD c276, induced significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in A549 cells after 2 h as determined by DCFH fluorescence. ICP analysis confirmed that transition metal concentrations were similar in the whole and soluble fractions of each fume (dominated by Cr), but significantly less in both the washed particles and chelated fractions. These results support the hypothesis that the enhanced pro-inflammatory responses of welding fume particulates are mediated by soluble transition metal components via an oxidative stress mechanism

  15. Kekuatan Geser dan Pola Patahan Loop Space Maintainer yang Dibuat dengan Teknik Spot Welding Elektrik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Karlina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of spot variations on shear strength of spot welds in an electric loop space maintainer. Stainless steel wire of 0.8 mm diameter and nickel chromium crwon for lower second molar of temporary teeth were used. A loop 1 cm wide, made of 3.5 cm stainless steel wire, was welded with 3 dots on the crown using an electric spot welder. Each dot for each group took different spot variations from 1 X – 4 X. A loop space maintainer made with the usual materials and techniques as applied at the IKGA FKG UI Clinic was used as a control, with a torch as heat source. Ten specimens each were prepared for shear testing and three spesimens each for metallography. Universal testing machine was used for shear strength testing at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, and SEM/EDS was used for metallography and fractography. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA at p = 0.05, and Tukey post hoc test. The results show that the shear strength of the welded loop space maintainer was higher than that of a soldered loop space maintainer, although the difference was not statistically significant with spot variation 1 X. SEM/EDS analysis suggests that a new alloy forms at the contact area of welded and soldered loop space maintainer. Fractography of the joints suggests that welds are better than soldered joints, with higher ductility and toughness, as can be seen from the dimpled pattern of the welded joint and cleavage patterns in the control joints. In conclusion, the loop space maintainer is better made by welding than by soldering.

  16. Design basis for the copper/steel canister. Stage four. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, W.H. [Meadow End Farm, Farnham (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    The development of the copper/iron canister which has been proposed by SKB for the containment of high level nuclear waste has been studied from the points of view of choice of materials, manufacturing technology and quality assurance. Cast steel has been rejected in favour of cast iron as a candidate material for the load bearing liner. Nodular (or ductile) iron is selected and this is capable of providing mechanical properties which are equally suitable as those of the originally selected high strength low alloy steel. The material specified for the overpack is Oxygen free copper with 50 ppm of phosphorus added. Corrosion studies supported by SKB indicate that in the absence of mechanical failure or accelerated localised corrosion the overpack should provide corrosion shielding of the canister for its full design life. Published work claiming that the nodular iron liner would have corrosion characteristics similar to the carbon steel which had been examined in depth is flawed since the microstructures of the iron and carbon steel specimens used were not investigated. It is highly unlikely that nodular irons in the form used for the experiments would have similar structures to nodular iron in the canisters by chance. If the overpack were breached during the aerobic period of the repository life then very rapid penetration of the inner liner could occur. It has been recognised that the roll forming method is not suitable for serial production and alternatives are being sought. The electron beam welding process has been explored with tenacity but has so far failed to produce a satisfactory lid weld. A new welder is being developed for supply to the SKB pilot plant where development will be continued. An alternative welding process, friction stir welding, is being examined as a candidate for attaching lids. Surface breaking defects may be detected using eddy current methods but there is currently no reliable way of detecting small sub surface defects in the overpack

  17. Electric shocks at work in Europe: development of a job exposure matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel; Bowman, Joseph D; Kheifets, Leeka; Kromhout, Hans

    2013-04-01

    Electric shocks have been suggested as a potential risk factor for neurological disease, in particular for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. While actual exposure to shocks is difficult to measure, occurrence and variation of electric injuries could serve as an exposure proxy. We assessed risk of electric injury, using occupational accident registries across Europe to develop an electric shock job-exposure-matrix (JEM). Injury data were obtained from five European countries, and the number of workers per occupation and country from EUROSTAT was compiled at a 3-digit International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 level. We pooled accident rates across countries with a random effects model and categorised jobs into low, medium and high risk based on the 75th and 90th percentile. We next compared our JEM to a JEM that classified extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure of jobs into low, medium and high. Of 116 job codes, occupations with high potential for electric injury exposure were electrical and electronic equipment mechanics and fitters, building frame workers and finishers, machinery mechanics and fitters, metal moulders and welders, assemblers, mining and construction labourers, metal-products machine operators, ships' decks crews and power production and related plant operators. Agreement between the electrical injury and magnetic field JEM was 67.2%. Our JEM classifies occupational titles according to risk of electric injury as a proxy for occurrence of electric shocks. In addition to assessing risk potentially arising from electric shocks, this JEM might contribute to disentangling risks from electric injury from those of extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure.

  18. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) levels in transformer oils from selected transformers in sensitive areas in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buah-Kwofie, A.

    2009-02-01

    Knowledge of PCBs and the adverse effects on humans and the environment have been assessed among Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) staff members, Volta River Authority (VRA) staff members and the general public. Evidence obtained shows that, Staff members of the technical departments of ECG/VRA (71.4 %) as well as a few welders (16.7 %) have come in contact with the transformer oil that may possibly contain PCBs. About fifty six percent (55.6 %) of the ECG/VRA staff members do not wear any protective gears when working on these transformers thus exposing themselves to PCBs. About twenty seven percent (27.3 %) of the management staff members of ECG/VRA are not aware of the adverse health effects caused by PCBs. Using PCB test kits (CLOR-N-OIL) developed by Dexsil Company of USA, 17 out of the 80 transformers screened for PCB contaminated oils, tested positive as containing PCBs levels greater than 50 ppm. Neutron Activation Analysis and gamma ray spectroscopy using Canberra HPGe detector coupled to MAESTRO 32 software has been used to determine the total chlorine content in 22 of the transformer oil samples screened using the test kits, including the 17 samples that tested positive using the test kits. The total chlorine content measured in the transformer oils that tested positive by the test kit was in the range of 71.34 ± 8.63 with 6 - 7.5 % accuracy. This being deduced that using NAA, total chlorine greater than 71.34 ppm is an indication of PCB contamination. NAA thus provides a faster and efficient way of analyzing transformer oil samples for possible PCB contamination

  20. Characteristics of Occupational Exposure to Benzene during Turnaround in the Petrochemical Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun-Kyo; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kwon, Jiwoon; Lee, Naroo; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Lee, Jong-Han; Lee, In-Seop; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Kil

    2010-09-01

    The level of benzene exposure in the petrochemical industry during regular operation has been well established, but not in turnaround (TA), where high exposure may occur. In this study, the characteristics of occupational exposure to benzene during TA in the petrochemical companies were investigated in order to determine the best management strategies and improve the working environment. This was accomplished by evaluating the exposure level for the workers working in environments where benzene was being produced or used as an ingredient during the unit process. From 2003 to 2008, a total of 705 workers in three petrochemical companies in Korea were studied. Long- and short-term (< 1 hr) samples were taken during TAs. TA was classified into three stages: shut-down, maintenance and start-up. All works were classified into 12 occupation categories. The long-term geometric mean (GM) benzene exposure level was 0.025 (5.82) ppm (0.005-42.120 ppm) and the short-term exposure concentration during TA was 0.020 (17.42) ppm (0.005-61.855 ppm). The proportions of TA samples exceeding the time-weighted average, occupational exposure level (TWA-OEL in Korea, 1 ppm) and the short-term exposure limit (STEL-OEL, 5 ppm) were 4.1% (20 samples of 488) and 6.0% (13 samples of 217), respectively. The results for the benzene exposure levels and the rates of exceeding the OEL were both statistically significant (p < 0.05). Among the 12 job categories of petrochemical workers, mechanical engineers, plumbers, welders, fieldman and scaffolding workers exhibited long-term samples that exceeded the OEL of benzene, and the rate of exceeding the OEL was statistically significant for the first two occupations (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the periodic work environment must be assessed during non-routine works such as TA.

  1. Ferrite control--Measurement problems and solutions during stainless steel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    Ferrite is one of the magnetic phases found in many grades of otherwise nonmagnetic austenitic stainless steel weldments. Control of ferrite during the fabrication of cryogenic component parts is necessary to produce a reliable product, free of cracking and microfissuring. This is accomplished by balancing compositions in order to produce a small amount of ferrite which is generally accompanied with reduced toughness. Control of ferrite is essential during the fabrication of component parts. The means to accomplish this will vary with the type of material being welded, thickness, welding process, method of measurement and fabrication procedures. An application used during the fabrication of component parts for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) required specially formulated shielded manual arc welding (SMAW) electrodes and consumable inserts. Control of ferrite measurements and shop welding procedures were essential. The special materials and techniques were used to weld Type 316 stainless steel pipe joints, 28 in. (0.71 m) in diameter. By using three lots of electrodes, each with a different ferrite level, a compatible range of ferrite was achieved throughout the layers of weld metal. By extensive use of the Schaeffler and DeLong modified constitution diagrams for stainless steel weld metal, E-16-8-2 SMAW electrodes were developed with ''0'' ferrite level. The electrodes were used during fabrication of the Liquid Metal Fast Breader Reactor (LMFBR) component parts of Type 316 stainless steel. Metallographic evaluation of laboratory specimens, control of shop welding techniques and individual laboratory training of shop welders combined to produce a quality product

  2. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of ω-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes

  3. Experimental exposure of healthy subjects with emissions from a gas metal arc welding process--part II: biomonitoring of chromium and nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gube, Monika; Brand, Peter; Schettgen, Thomas; Bertram, Jens; Gerards, Kerstin; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between the external exposure dose of chromium and nickel caused by a metal active gas welding process with a solid high-alloyed steel welding wire and inner exposure of subjects. In order to perform welding fume exposure under controlled and standardized conditions, the investigations were conducted in the "Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory". To perform biological monitoring of chromium and nickel, blood and urine samples of 12 healthy male non-smokers who never worked as welders were collected before and after a 6-h exposure to ambient air (0 mg/m(3)) and to welding fumes of a metal active gas welding process once with a concentration of the welding fume of 1 mg/m(3) and once with a concentration of 2.5 mg/m(3). Although the internal exposure to chromium and nickel in this study was comparatively low, the subjects showed significantly increased concentrations of these metals in urine after exposure to welding fume compared to the values at baseline. Moreover, the observed increase was significantly dose dependent for both of the substances. For the biological monitoring of chromium and nickel in urine of subjects exposed to welding fumes, a dependency on exposure dose was seen under standardized conditions after a single exposure over a period of 6 h. Thus, this study contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between ambient and biological exposures from welding fumes and provides a good basis for evaluating future biological threshold values for these metals in welding occupation.

  4. The radiological accident in Lilo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The use of radioactive materials offers a wide range of benefits throughout the world in medicine, research and industry. Precautions are, however, necessary in order to limit the exposure of persons to the radiation that is emitted. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, such as with sources used in radiotherapy or industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may result in severe consequences for the affected individuals. Nevertheless, in spite of the precautions taken, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. As part of its activities dealing with the safety of radiation sources, the IAEA follows up severe accidents with a view to providing an account of their circumstances and the medical aspects from which those organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection and the safety of sources may learn. A serious radiological accident occurred in Peru in February 1999 when a welder picked up an 192 Ir industrial radiography source and put it in his pocket for several hours. This resulted in his receiving a high radiation dose that necessitated the amputation of one leg. His wife and children were also exposed, but to a much lesser extent. The Peruvian authorities requested assistance from the IAEA in obtaining advice on medical treatment. They also agreed to assist the IAEA with the subsequent review of the circumstances surrounding the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear for its willingness to assist in the reparation of this report and, thereby, share its experience with other Member States

  5. Breath-taking jobs: a case-control study of respiratory work disability by occupation in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, A K; Abrahamsen, R; Henneberger, P K; Svendsen, M V; Andersson, E; Torén, K; Kongerud, J

    2016-09-01

    The current knowledge on respiratory work disability is based on studies that used crude categories of exposure. This may lead to a loss of power, and does not provide sufficient information to allow targeted workplace interventions and follow-up of patients with respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify occupations and specific exposures associated with respiratory work disability. In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16-50, in Telemark County, Norway. We defined respiratory work disability as a positive response to the survey question: 'Have you ever had to change or leave your job because it affected your breathing?' Occupational exposures were assessed using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix, and comparison of risks was made for cases and a median of 50 controls per case. 247 workers had changed their work because of respiratory symptoms, accounting for 1.7% of the respondents ever employed. The 'breath-taking jobs' were cooks/chefs: adjusted OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.0); welders: 5.2 (2.0 to 14); gardeners: 4.5 (1.3 to 15); sheet metal workers: 5.4 (2.0 to 14); cleaners: 5.0 (2.2 to 11); hairdressers: 6.4 (2.5 to 17); and agricultural labourers: 7.4 (2.5 to 22). Job changes were also associated with a variety of occupational exposures, with some differences between men and women. Self-report and job-exposure matrix data showed similar findings. For the occupations and exposures associated with job change, preventive measures should be implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Breath-taking jobs: a case–control study of respiratory work disability by occupation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, AKM; Abrahamsen, R; Henneberger, PK; Svendsen, MV; Andersson, E; Torén, K; Kongerud, J

    2016-01-01

    Background The current knowledge on respiratory work disability is based on studies that used crude categories of exposure. This may lead to a loss of power, and does not provide sufficient information to allow targeted workplace interventions and follow-up of patients with respiratory symptoms. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify occupations and specific exposures associated with respiratory work disability. Methods In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16–50, in Telemark County, Norway. We defined respiratory work disability as a positive response to the survey question: ‘Have you ever had to change or leave your job because it affected your breathing?’ Occupational exposures were assessed using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix, and comparison of risks was made for cases and a median of 50 controls per case. Results 247 workers had changed their work because of respiratory symptoms, accounting for 1.7% of the respondents ever employed. The ‘breath-taking jobs’ were cooks/chefs: adjusted OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.0); welders: 5.2 (2.0 to 14); gardeners: 4.5 (1.3 to 15); sheet metal workers: 5.4 (2.0 to 14); cleaners: 5.0 (2.2 to 11); hairdressers: 6.4 (2.5 to 17); and agricultural labourers: 7.4 (2.5 to 22). Job changes were also associated with a variety of occupational exposures, with some differences between men and women. Conclusions Self-report and job-exposure matrix data showed similar findings. For the occupations and exposures associated with job change, preventive measures should be implemented. PMID:27365181

  7. Fuel Rod Consolidation Project: Phase 2, Final report: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This design report describes the NUS final design of the Prototype Spent Nuclear Fuel Rod Consolidation System. This summary presents the approach and the subsequent sections describe, in detail, the final design. Detailed data, drawings, and the design Basis Accident Report are provided in Volumes II thru V. The design as presented, represents one cell of a multicell facility for the dry consolidation of any type of PWR and BWR fuel used in the United States LWR industry that will exceed 1% of the fuel inventory at the year 2000. The system contains the automatically-controlled equipment required to consolidate 750MT (heavy metal)/year, at 75% availability. The equipment is designed as replaceable components using state-of-the-art tchnology. The control system utilizes the most advanced commercially available equipment on the market today. Two state-of-the-art advanced servo manipulators are provided for system maintenance. In general the equipment is designed utilizing fabricated and commercial components. For example, the main drive systems use commercially available roller screws. These rollers screws have 60,000 hours of operation in nuclear power plants and have been used extensively in other applications. The motors selected represent the most advanced designed servo motors on the market today for the precision control of machinery. In areas where precise positioning was not required, less expensive TRW Globe motors were selected. These are small compact motors with a long history of operations in radiation environments. The Robotic Bridge Transporters are modified versions of existing bridge cranes for remote automatic operations. Other equipment such as the welder for fuel canister closure operations is a commercially available product with an operating history applicable to this process. In general, this approach was followed throughout the design of all the equipment and will enable the system to be developed without costly development programs

  8. Environmental and occupational cancer in Argentina: a case-control lung cancer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matos Elena

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the risks for lung cancer associated with occupational exposures in a developing country where lung cancer is the first cause of mortality from cancer in men. The study involved 200 men with lung cancer and 397 hospital controls. The OR for current smokers was 8.5, whereas former smokers displayed an OR of 5.3. The fraction attributable to smoking was 85%. Statistically significant high ORs were observed for employment in the alcoholic beverages industry (4.5, 95% CI:1.02-20.2, sawmills and wood mills (4.6, 95% CI:1.1-18.4, chemicals/plastics (1.8, 95% CI:1.04-3.2, and pottery, glass, or mineral manufactures (3.4, 95% CI:1.1-10.6. Other high, but not statistically significant, risks were observed for employment in leather shoe industry and repair (2.1, 95% CI:0.8-5.4, rubber industries (3.4, 95% CI:0.9-12.4, metal workers, including welders (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.4, motor vehicle mechanics (2.0, 95% CI:0.9-4.2, workers in cleaning services (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.5, and for workers in agriculture (2.4, 95% CI:0.9-6.0. Although some of the present results may be due to chance, most are consistent with those of previous investigations in other countries.

  9. Modifying welding process parameters can reduce the neurotoxic potential of manganese-containing welding fumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, Krishnan; Lin, Gary X.; Jefferson, Amy M.; Stone, Samuel; Afshari, Aliakbar; Keane, Michael J.; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared L.; Roberts, Jenny R.; Frazer, David G.; Antonini, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Welding fumes (WF) are a complex mixture of toxic metals and gases, inhalation of which can lead to adverse health effects among welders. The presence of manganese (Mn) in welding electrodes is cause for concern about the potential development of Parkinson’s disease (PD)-like neurological disorder. Consequently, from an occupational safety perspective, there is a critical need to prevent adverse exposures to WF. As the fume generation rate and physicochemical characteristics of welding aerosols are influenced by welding process parameters like voltage, current or shielding gas, we sought to determine if changing such parameters can alter the fume profile and consequently its neurotoxic potential. Specifically, we evaluated the influence of voltage on fume composition and neurotoxic outcome. Rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation (40 mg/m 3 ; 3 h/day × 5 d/week × 2 weeks) to fumes generated by gas–metal arc welding using stainless steel electrodes (GMA-SS) at standard/regular voltage (25 V; RVSS) or high voltage (30 V; HVSS). Fumes generated under these conditions exhibited similar particulate morphology, appearing as chain-like aggregates; however, HVSS fumes comprised of a larger fraction of ultrafine particulates that are generally considered to be more toxic than their fine counterparts. Paradoxically, exposure to HVSS fumes did not elicit dopaminergic neurotoxicity, as monitored by the expression of dopaminergic and PD-related markers. We show that the lack of neurotoxicity is due to reduced solubility of Mn in HVSS fumes. Our findings show promise for process control procedures in developing prevention strategies for Mn-related neurotoxicity during welding; however, it warrants additional investigations to determine if such modifications can be suitably adapted at the workplace to avert or reduce adverse neurological risks

  10. Application of psychodiagnostic methods in the recruitment process for factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Seitlová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human resources (HR are the most valuable asset in any organization and many successful managers regard work with people as the most important aspect for the prosperity and health of the society. Work and organizational psychology is therefore facing a number of challenges in this a rea. The correct process of recruitment is just one of them. The selection process is a process which aims at recognizing the best candidate for a specific position. It does not always require that all procedures be carried out (preliminary interview, testing, selection interview, etc., rather, the selection process requires a critical examination in relation to the position, number of applicants, etc. The present study focuses on the use of psychodiagnostic methods in the process of selecting workmen, highlighting their usefulness in the selection process. The Tower of Hanoi test (ToH and d2 Test of Attention (d2 were applied and further supplemented by practical assessment examination of the candidate in the recruitment process. It was investigated whether the results of ToH and d2 tests together with the result of the practical test may help predict the overall work quality of a future employee. The quality of work of employees was evaluated based on the following criteria: effort and performance, interoperability, performance of tasks, respect for rules, attendance, quality of work. The overall evaluation was the average of the partial results of the individual criteria. The data were collected between August 2013 and September 2014 in a production company with a focus on engineering production in the Moravian - Sliesian region. The research group consisted of 30 people who applied for the position of a welder and, after having succeeded in the recruitment process, entered into a labor - law relationship with the employer. All respondents were acquainted with the ethical conditions of the study. The results show that the use of the above-described tests in the

  11. Application of psychodiagnostic methods in the recruitment process for factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Seitlová

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human resources (HR are the most valuable asset in any organization and many successful managers regard work with people as the most important aspect for the prosperity and health of the society. Work and organizational psychology is therefore facing a number of challenges in this area. The correct process of recruitment is just one of them. The selection process is a process which aims at recognizing the best candidate for a specific position. It does not always require that all procedures be carried out (preliminary interview, testing, selection interview, etc., rather, the selection process requires a critical examination in relation to the position, number of applicants, etc. The present study focuses on the use of psychodiagnostic methods in the process of selecting workmen, highlighting their usefulness in the selection process. The Tower of Hanoi test (ToH and d2 Test of Attention (d2 were applied and further supplemented by practical assessment examination of the candidate in the recruitment process. It was investigated whether the results of ToH and d2 tests together with the result of the practical test may help predict the overall work quality of a future employee. The quality of work of employees was evaluated based on the following criteria: effort and performance, interoperability, performance of tasks, respect for rules, attendance, quality of work. The overall evaluation was the average of the partial results of the individual criteria. The data were collected between August 2013 and September 2014 in a production company with a focus on engineering production in the Moravian-Sliesian region. The research group consisted of 30 people who applied for the position of a welder and, after having succeeded in the recruitment process, entered into a labor-law relationship with the employer. All respondents were acquainted with the ethical conditions of the study. The results show that the use of the above-described tests in the

  12. Oraciones en plata: estudio de la obra inédita de Jacobo Pecul Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canedo Barreiro, María

    2015-12-01

    marcadas por José Manuel López Vázquez, quién ha tratado en profundidad la obra de este platero. En estas páginas se realiza un breve análisis del autor así como de las tipologías de orfebrería religiosa del cambio del barroco al neoclásico en Galicia, pretendiendo así mismo ser una llamada de atención sobre la platería gallega, un patrimonio que forma parte de nuestra imaginería popular y que a menudo queda en el olvido. [gl] A presente investigación ten como obxectivo o estudo e atribución de novas pezas ó orfebre compostelán Jacobo Pecul Montenegro (1753-1817, cuxa produción reflexa unha estética influída, por unha parte das formas francesas aprendidas de seu pai, Claudio Pecul, e pola outra dos artistas galegos, como Ferreiro ou Simón Rodríguez. Seleccionáronse vinte e catro novas pezas entre cruces parroquiais, cálices, copóns, incensarios, navetas e ostensorios, as cales aparecen referenciadas no Libro de Caixa de Pecul, extractado por Couselo Bouzas en Galicia Artística, e catalogadas no Arquivo Diocesano da Igrexa Católica. Ditas obras foron estudiadas e atribuídas a Jacobo Pecul seguindo as directrices marcadas por José Manuel López Vázquez, quen tratou en profundidade a obra deste prateiro. Nestas páxinas realizase unha breve análise do autor, así como das tipoloxías de ourivería relixiosa no cambio do barroco ó neoclásico en Galicia, pretendendo ó mesmo tempo ser unha chamada de atención sobre a pratería galega, un patrimonio que forma parte da nosa imaxinería popular e que a miúdo permanece esquecida.

  13. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. Burkholder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, Higher Learning Research Communication (HLRC celebrates its 6-year anniversary. The journal is a collaborative effort amongst Universidad Andrés Bello (Chile, Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain, Istanbul Bilgi University (Turkey, and Walden University (United States. These four institutions started this journal to provide scholarly focus on international research in higher education, teaching and learning, education policy and practice, and internationalization.  It was important that the journal be open access, so that everyone could have immediate and unrestricted access to the latest research.  It was also important that the journal be multilingual; we have accepted manuscripts for review in Brazilian Portuguese, European Portuguese, Latin American Spanish, European Spanish, and English. The language capacity of the staff is truly amazing.   As I begin my first year as Chief Editor, I have had the time to reflect on the many accomplishments of HLRC. HLRC has published 88 essays, articles, lections, book reviews, and editorials. Several special issues have been published, including Accreditation (2012; Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure in a Globalized World (2012; Selected Papers from the International Conference on Teaching and Learning (2013; International Perspectives on Retention (2014; and English Medium Instruction (EMI and Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL (2015. We have been fortunate to have essays by scholars such as Drummond Bone, Internationalization (2011; Bill Plater, Quality Assurance (2013; Rogerio Meneghini, Scielo and Open Access Journals (2013; Watson Swail, A Different Viewpoint on Student Retention (2014; and Gonzalo Fernandez-Sanchez, María Olga Bernaldo, Ana Castillejo, and Ana María Manzanero, Education for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: State-of-the-art, Barriers, and Challenges (2014. I greatly appreciate the breadth of scholarship on the latest higher education practices and

  14. Acoustic Emission Weld Monitoring in the 2195 Aluminum-Lithium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Due to its low density, the 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy was developed as a replacement for alloy 2219 in the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET). The external tank is the single largest component of the space shuttle system. It is 154 feet long and 27.6 feet in diameter, and serves as the structural backbone for the shuttle during launch, absorbing most of the 7 million plus pounds of thrust produced. The almost 4% decrease in density between the two materials provides an extra 7500 pounds of payload capacity necessary to put the International Space Station components into orbit. The ET is an all-welded structure; hence, the requirement is for up to five rewelds without hot cracking. Unfortunately, hot cracking during re-welding or repair operations was occurring and had to be dealt with before the new super lightweight tank could be used. Weld metal porosity formation was also of concern because it leads to hot cracking during weld repairs. Accordingly, acoustic emission (AE) nondestructive testing was employed to monitor the formation of porosity and hot cracks in order to select the best filler metal and optimize the weld schedule. The purpose of this work is to determine the feasibility of detecting hot cracking in welded aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) structures through the analysis of acoustic emission data. By acoustically characterizing the effects of reheating during a repair operation, the potential for hidden flaws coalescing and becoming "unstable" as the panel is repaired could be reduced. Identification of regions where microcrack growth is likely to occur and the location of active flaw growth in the repair weld will provide the welder with direct feedback as to the current weld quality enabling adjustments to the repair process be made in the field. An acoustic emission analysis of the source mechanisms present during welding has been conducted with the goals of locating regions in the weld line that are susceptible to damage from a repair operation

  15. Electromagnetic interference from welding and motors on implantable cardioverter-defibrillators as tested in the electrically hostile work site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, J G; Benditt, D G; Stanton, M S

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the susceptibility of an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator to electromagnetic interference in an electrically hostile work site environment, with the ultimate goal of allowing the patient to return to work. Normal operation of an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator depends on reliable sensing of the heart's electrical activity. Consequently, there is concern that external electromagnetic interference from external sources in the work place, especially welding equipment or motor-generator systems, may be sensed and produce inappropriate shocks or abnormal reed switch operation, temporarily suspending detection of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. The effects of electromagnetic interference on the operation of one type of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (Medtronic models 7217 and 7219) was measured by using internal event counter monitoring in 10 patients operating arc welders at up to 900 A or working near 200-hp motors and 1 patient close to a locomotive starter drawing up to 400 A. The electromagnetic interference produced two sources of potential interference on the sensing circuit or reed switch operation, respectively: 1) electrical fields with measured frequencies up to 50 MHz produced by the high currents during welding electrode activation, and 2) magnetic fields produced by the current in the welding electrode and cable. The defibrillator sensitivity was programmed to the highest (most sensitive) value: 0.15 mV (model 7219) or 0.3 mV (model 7217). The ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation therapies were temporarily turned off but the detection circuits left on. None of the implanted defibrillators tested were affected by oversensing of the electric field as verified by telemetry from the detection circuits. The magnetic field from 225-A welding current produced a flux density of 1.2 G; this density was not adequate to close the reed switch, which requires approximately 10 G

  16. One last boom : Alberta's rapidly expanding oil mines may be the largest and messiest industrial projects in Canadian history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, G.

    2001-01-01

    The bitumen deposits of Alberta, 2.5 trillion barrels of oil, of which 300 billion are considered recoverable, represent the greatest single petroleum resources of the world, based on surface and subsurface calculations. Four deposits, covering an area the size of New Brunswick, are located in the area stretching from Cold Lake to Lloydminster (east of Edmonton), the upper reaches of the Athabasca River east to the Peace River. The largest by far is the Athabasca deposit in the vicinity of Fort McMurray, spread over 4.3 million hectares. The deposit is at the centre of the biggest industrial expansion witnessed by the province. Since 1996, 38 billion dollars worth of new projects have been announced. It is estimated that by 2025, the bulk of the national oil production will originate from open-pit mines and underground wells around Fort McMurray. This oil boom has economic benefits for the population, from welders to real estate agents to stakeholders. The environmental effects are not as beneficial. Huge strip mines are being carved next to the Athabasca River, with great amounts of greenhouse gases emissions. The Suncor and Syncrude oil-sands plants combined represent the fourth largest carbon dioxide emission source in Canada. The development of these projects dramatically affects global warming. The nitrogen and sulphur emissions could also acidify lakes and soil in the region. The Suncor mine resulted from the first boom to hit Fort McMurray in 1964. The Syncrude mine is the result of the second boom which took place in 1973. In 1996, Suncor installed a sulphur scrubber system that removes 95 per cent of sulphur dioxide from the electricity and steam-generation plant. Suncor also invested in various projects, such as wind-power, rainforest cultivation and biomass generation. The volume of pollution increases as the operations expand, even if operations are cleaner. If no new gains in pollution control are achieved, it is expected that by 2015, the total

  17. Response of the mouse lung transcriptome to welding fume: effects of stainless and mild steel fumes on lung gene expression in A/J and C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini James M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debate exists as to whether welding fume is carcinogenic, but epidemiological evidence suggests that welders are an at risk population for the development of lung cancer. Recently, we found that exposure to welding fume caused an acutely greater and prolonged lung inflammatory response in lung tumor susceptible A/J versus resistant C57BL/6J (B6 mice and a trend for increased tumor incidence after stainless steel (SS fume exposure. Here, our objective was to examine potential strain-dependent differences in the regulation and resolution of the lung inflammatory response induced by carcinogenic (Cr and Ni abundant or non-carcinogenic (iron abundant metal-containing welding fumes at the transcriptome level. Methods Mice were exposed four times by pharyngeal aspiration to 5 mg/kg iron abundant gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS, Cr and Ni abundant GMA-SS fume or vehicle and were euthanized 4 and 16 weeks after the last exposure. Whole lung microarray using Illumina Mouse Ref-8 expression beadchips was done. Results Overall, we found that tumor susceptibility was associated with a more marked transcriptional response to both GMA-MS and -SS welding fumes. Also, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that gene regulation and expression in the top molecular networks differed between the strains at both time points post-exposure. Interestingly, a common finding between the strains was that GMA-MS fume exposure altered behavioral gene networks. In contrast, GMA-SS fume exposure chronically upregulated chemotactic and immunomodulatory genes such as CCL3, CCL4, CXCL2, and MMP12 in the A/J strain. In the GMA-SS-exposed B6 mouse, genes that initially downregulated cellular movement, hematological system development/function and immune response were involved at both time points post-exposure. However, at 16 weeks, a transcriptional switch to an upregulation for neutrophil chemotactic genes was found and included genes such as S100A8, S100A9 and

  18. Ventilation equations for improved exothermic process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, John L; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    Exothermic or heated processes create potentially unsafe work environments for an estimated 5-10 million American workers each year. Excessive heat and process contaminants have the potential to cause acute health effects such as heat stroke, and chronic effects such as manganism in welders. Although millions of workers are exposed to exothermic processes, insufficient attention has been given to continuously improving engineering technologies for these processes to provide effective and efficient control. Currently there is no specific occupational standard established by OSHA regarding exposure to heat from exothermic processes, therefore it is important to investigate techniques that can mitigate known and potential adverse occupational health effects. The current understanding of engineering controls for exothermic processes is primarily based on a book chapter written by W. C. L. Hemeon in 1955. Improvements in heat transfer and meteorological theory necessary to design improved process controls have occurred since this time. The research presented involved a review of the physical properties, heat transfer and meteorological theories governing buoyant air flow created by exothermic processes. These properties and theories were used to identify parameters and develop equations required for the determination of buoyant volumetric flow to assist in improving ventilation controls. Goals of this research were to develop and describe a new (i.e. proposed) flow equation, and compare it to currently accepted ones by Hemeon and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Numerical assessments were conducted to compare solutions from the proposed equations for plume area, mean velocity and flow to those from the ACGIH and Hemeon. Parameters were varied for the dependent variables and solutions from the proposed, ACGIH, and Hemeon equations for plume area, mean velocity and flow were analyzed using a randomized complete block statistical

  19. INVESTIGATION IN HARDSURFACING A NICKEL-COPPER ALLOY (MONEL400)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CZAJKOWSKI, C.; BUTTERS, M.

    2001-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigated the causes of weldability problems and materials failures encountered with the application of Monel (Ni-Cu) 400 as a base material and Stellite 6 (Co-Cr) as the hard-surfacing material when using the oxyacetylene welding process. This work was performed under a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with the Target Rock Division of the Curtiss-Wright Flow Control Corporation. BNL evaluated two heats of Monel 400 material. One of the heats had performed well during manufacturing, producing an acceptable number of ''good'' parts. The second heat had produced some good parts but also exhibited a peculiar type of hardsurfacing/base metal collapse during the welding process. A review of the chemistry on the two heats of material indicated that they both met the chemical requirements for Monel400. During examination of the failed component, linear indications (cracks) were evident on the valve body, both on the circumferential area (top of valve body) and below the hard surfaced weld deposit. independent measurements also indicated that the two heats met the specification requirement for the material. The heat affected zone (HAZ) also contained linear discontinuities. The valve body was welded using the oxyacetylene welding process, a qualified and skilled welder, and had been given a pre-heat of between 1400-1600 F (760-871 C), which is the Target Rock qualified procedure requirement. Both original suppliers performed mechanical testing on their material that indicated the two heats also met the mechanical property requirements of the specification. The BNL investigation into the cause of the differences between these heats of material utilized the following techniques: (1) Heat Treatment of both heats of material; (2) Hardness testing; (3) Optical microscopy; (4) Scanning electron microscope (SEM)/Fractography; and (5) Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The report concludes that the cause of the

  20. Human biomonitoring of chromium and nickel from an experimental exposure to manual metal arc welding fumes of low and high alloyed steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Jens; Brand, Peter; Schettgen, Thomas; Lenz, Klaus; Purrio, Ellwyn; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The uptake and elimination of metals from welding fumes is currently not fully understood. In the Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory (AWSL) it is possible to investigate the impact of welding fumes on human subjects under controlled exposure conditions. In this study, the uptake and elimination of chromium or chromium (VI) respectively as well as nickel was studied in subjects after exposure to the emissions of a manual metal arc welding process using low or high alloyed steel. In this present study 12 healthy male non-smokers, who never worked as welders before, were exposed for 6h to welding fumes of a manual metal arc welding process. In a three-fold crossover study design, subjects were exposed in randomized order to either clean air, emissions from welding low alloyed steel, and emissions from welding high alloyed steel. Particle mass concentration of the exposure aerosol was 2.5mg m(-3). The content of chromium and nickel in the air was determined by analysing air filter samples on a high emission scenario. Urine analysis for chromium and nickel was performed before and after exposure using methods of human biomonitoring. There were significantly elevated chromium levels after exposure to welding fumes from high alloyed steel compared to urinary chromium levels before exposure to high alloyed welding fumes, as well as compared to the other exposure scenarios. The mean values increased from 0.27 µg l(-1) to 18.62 µg l(-1). The results were in good agreement with already existing correlations between external and internal exposure (German exposure equivalent for carcinogenic working materials EKA). The variability of urinary chromium levels was high. For urinary nickel no significant changes could be detected at all. Six-hour exposure to 2.5mg m(-3) high alloyed manual metal arc welding fumes lead to elevated urinary chromium levels far higher (7.11-34.16 µg l(-1)) than the German biological exposure reference value (BAR) of 0.6 µg l(-1) directly after

  1. Pathophysiology of Manganese-Associated Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Brad A.; Aschner, Michael; Guilarte, Tomas R.; Dydak, Ulrike; Criswell, Susan R.; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    to humans. Dr. Aschner’s presentation discussed mechanisms of dopaminergic neuronal toxicity in C. elegans and demonstrates a compelling potential role of Mn in dopaminergic degeneration. Dr. Guilarte’s experimental, non-human primate model of Mn neurotoxicity suggests that Mn decreases dopamine release in the brain without loss of neuronal integrity markers, including dopamine. Dr. Racette’s presentation demonstrates a unique pattern of dopaminergic dysfunction in active welders with chronic exposure to Mn containing welding fumes. Finally, Dr. Dydak presented novel magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy data in Mn exposed smelter workers and demonstrated abnormalities in the thalamus and frontal cortex for those workers. This symposium provided some converging evidence of the potential neurotoxic impact of Mn on the dopaminergic system and challenged existing paradigms on the pathophysiology of Mn in the central nervous system. PMID:22202748

  2. Morbidity from ischemic heart disease in workers at a stainless steel welding factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Hilt

    2009-10-01

    sensitivityand a high specificity for the outcome variables “chest pain on exercise” and “angina pectoris”, whilefor “myocardial infarction” both the sensitivity and the specificity of the answers given were high.To investigate whether there was an increased morbidity from cardiovascular diseases (CVDamong welders and other workers at a stainless steel welding factory, and, if so, to see whether morbiditycould be linked to specific exposure factors.

  3. Welding Challenges in the nuclear context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delany, Fred; Raghunathan, Sayee; Rubir, Nicolas; Wiesner, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear Power forms an essential part of the strategies deployed to provide the future global energy demands whilst meeting the obligations on CO 2 emission reduction targets. In the UK, plans across the political spectrum call for a substantial nuclear new-build (NNB) programme. This necessitates application of best practice design, fabrication and welding technology in the UK context as well as a consideration of current and future skill requirements. Existing nuclear technology covers a range of different designs, and many reactors have reached the end of their design life. The decommissioning of old plants and management of nuclear waste, especially high-level, long-life and spent fuel waste, therefore also requires ongoing attention. Welding is defined by ISO as a 'special process', as imperfections in welded/fabricated products, even after inspection, may become apparent only after the product is put in use or service. Thus, welding has a major influence on the quality and cost of the final product, as well as the operational and maintenance costs. Most current trends in welding process innovations focus on improving weld quality and productivity, or reducing the dependency on welder/operator skills. Materials research concentrates on improving the understanding of influence of the environment (irradiation, temperature, corrosion, fatigue) on long-term performance and on repair of existing plants or future designs that will require higher temperature materials. The ITER nuclear fusion and the Jules-Horowitz Research reactors also have unique demands on materials and welding processes. Through the Engineering the Future alliance, the UK has organised a review of the international lessons learnt during recent nuclear new-build projects, and welding has been identified as a critical area requiring particular attention for any future new-build activities. TWI chaired the group advising on welding issues resulting in recommendations for the UK NNB programme. Key

  4. Labour's missing pieces ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.

    2007-05-15

    , ironworkers and welders. Efforts are underway to develop and provide training programs for tradesman competencies, interprovincial certification and on-site apprenticeship.

  5. Hexavalent chromium content in stainless steel welding fumes is dependent on the welding process and shield gas type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael; Stone, Samuel; Chen, Bean; Slaven, James; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Antonini, James

    2009-02-01

    Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a known health hazard. To isolate elements in stainless steel welding fumes with high potential for adverse health outcomes, fumes were generated using a robotic gas metal arc system, using four shield gases of varying oxygen content. The objective was to measure Cr(VI) concentrations in a broad spectrum of gas metal arc welding processes, and identify processes of exceptionally high or low Cr(VI) content. The gases used were 95% Ar/5% O(2), 98% Ar/2% O(2), 95% Ar/5%CO(2), and 75% He/25% Ar. The welder was operated in axial spray mode (Ar/O(2), Ar/CO(2)), short-circuit (SC) mode (Ar/CO(2) low voltage and He/Ar), and pulsed axial-spray mode (98% Ar/2% O(2)). Results indicate large differences in Cr(VI) in the fumes, with Ar/O(2) (Pulsed)>Ar/O(2)>Ar/CO(2)>Ar/CO(2) (SC)>He/Ar; values were 3000+/-300, 2800+/-85, 2600+/-120, 1400+/-190, and 320+/-290 ppm respectively (means +/- standard errors for 2 runs and 3 replicates per run). Respective rates of Cr(VI) generation were 1.5, 3.2, 4.4, 1.3, and 0.46 microg/min; generation rates were also calculated in terms of microg Cr(VI) per metre of wire used. The generation rates of Cr(VI) increased with increasing O(3) concentrations. Particle size measurements indicated similar distributions, but somewhat higher >0.6 microm fractions for the short-circuit mode samples. Fumes were also sampled into 2 selected size ranges, a microspatter fraction (>or=0.6 microm) and a fine (welding type and shield gas type, and this presents an opportunity to tailor welding practices to lessen Cr(VI) exposures in workplaces by selecting low Cr(VI)-generating processes. Short-circuit processes generated less Cr(VI) than axial-spray methods, and inert gas shielding gave lower Cr(VI) content than shielding with active gases. A short circuit He/Ar shielded process and a pulsed axial spray Ar/O(2) process were both identified as having substantially lower Cr(VI) generation rates per unit of wire used relative

  6. Skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry: The nexus between certification, quality of work output and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola O. Windapo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Construction human resource management. Research purpose: The study examines the skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry and determines whether there is a relationship between trade certification, quality of work output and scarce labour skills. Motivation for the study: The rationale for the investigation is based on the view of scholars that a skilled labour shortage is preponderant in the South African construction industry even though there is a high level of youth unemployment in South Africa and that the perceived skills shortage contributes to a decrease in productivity and product quality. Research design, approach and method: The paper reviews relevant literature and employs a mixed method research approach in collecting empirical data from contracting companies within the Western Cape Province of South Africa that are listed on the Construction Industry Development Board contractor register. Main findings: The study demonstrated that there is no shortage of manpower, but there is a shortage of qualified or skilled tradesmen, such as electricians, plumbers, welders, fitters and carpenters, whose professions are more technical and require formal training and certification. The level of supply of skilled tradesmen is attributed to the lack of high-quality basic education, the state of the economy, compulsory certification of tradesmen and an ageing workforce. It was also found that there is a significant relationship between skilled labour shortages and the requirement that labour be certified and that work output is unsatisfactory when there is no certification requirement. Practical/managerial implications: Based on these findings, the study concludes that skilled labour shortages and poor work output quality continue to be experienced in the South African construction industry when workers are unable to obtain formal certification for informal work experience acquired through years of practice on

  7. DISPOSAL CONTAINER HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. F. Loros

    2000-06-30

    . This includes the primary hot cell bounded by the receiving area and WP transport exit air locks; and isolation doors at ATS, CTS, and Waste Package Remediation. The hot cell includes areas for welding, various staging, tilting, and WP transporter loading. There are associated operating galleries and equipment maintenance areas outside the hot cell. These areas operate concurrently to accommodate the DC/WP throughput rates and support system maintenance. The new DC preparation area is located in an unshielded structure. The handling equipment includes DC/WP bridge cranes, tilting stations, and horizontal transfer carts. The welding area includes DC/WP welders and staging stations. Welding operations are supported by remotely operated equipment including a bridge crane and hoists, welder jib cranes, welding turntables, and manipulators. WP transfer includes a transfer/decontamination and transporter load area. The transfer operations are supported by a remotely operated horizontal lifting system, decontamination system, decontamination and inspection manipulator, and a WP horizontal transfer cart. All handling operations are supported by a suite of fixtures including collars, yokes, lift beams, and lid attachments. Remote equipment is designed to facilitate decontamination and maintenance. Interchangeable components are provided where appropriate. Set-aside areas are included, as required, for fixtures and tooling to support off-normal and recovery operations. Semi-automatic, manual, and backup control methods support normal, maintenance, and recovery operations. The system interfaces with the ATS and CTS to provide empty and receive loaded DCs. The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System interfaces are for loading/unloading WPs on/from the transporter. The system also interfaces with the Waste Package Remediation System for DC/WP repair. The system is housed, shielded, supported, and has ventilation boundaries by the Waste Handling Building (WHB). The system is ventilated

  8. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual

  9. Materials processing issues for non-destructive laser gas sampling (NDLGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienert, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-09

    of the crimp using the electro-spark deposition (ESD) process followed by laser mixing, drilling and rewelding. Results of a study of the ESD parameters on deposition rate and efficiency will be discussed along with mass balance calculations for determining the desired Cr content to eliminate cracking. The study also required purchase of new pulsed Nd:YAG laser welders. Evaluation of the performance of the new lasers, including beam profiling results, will also be presented. Development of a mixing, drilling and re-welding process at atmospheric pressure with inert gas shielding demonstrated the efficacy of the Cr-augmentation approach. However, extending the process to vacuum conditions proved more challenging owing to loss of laser transmission through the window from spatter and condensation of metal vapors. Solutions developed to circumvent hese issues will be reviewed. Weld microstructures found with various Cr levels will be presented and discussed.

  10. Hydrogeology of the Cliff House Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Conde R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Previous reports in the series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), and Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the RASA (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams; and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Cliff House Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the study or were derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN data base. Although all data available for the Cliff House Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin is in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah and has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic or younger age and, therefore, is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary rocks are emphasized in this study because the major aquifers in the basin are present in these rocks. The study area is about 140 miles wide (about the same as the

  11. Hydrogeology of the Point Lookout Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigg, Steven D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Previous reports in the series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990), and Cliff House Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990), in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the RASA (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams; and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Point Lookout Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the study or were derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's database, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN data base. Although all data available for the Point Lookout Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin is in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah and has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic or younger age and, therefore, is less areally extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary rocks are emphasized in this study because the major aquifers in the basin are present in these rocks. The study area is about 140 miles wide (about the same as the

  12. Hydrogeology of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, William L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. The purposes of the study (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams, and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. Previous reports in this series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Kirtland Shale and Fruitland Formation (Kernodle and others, 1990), Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990), Cliff House Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990), and Ojo Alamo Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the RASA study or derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN database. Although all data available for the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic and younger age; therefore, the study area is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary

  13. Evaluation of hand-arm and whole-body vibrations in construction and property management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Marie A; Van Lente, Eric; McCallig, Margaret; Paddan, Gurmail; Moore, Ken

    2010-11-01

    To identify and measure the magnitude of hand-arm vibration (HAV) and whole-body vibration (WBV) sources (tools, vehicles etc.) in use within a previously unexamined sector: a construction and property management company. To evaluate the effect of factors such as age of tool, materials being worked on, number and location of tool handles, tool weight, and manufacturer brand on HAV magnitude and the effect of factors such as manufacturer machine brand, terrain, and work task on WBV magnitude. This study was carried out in a construction and property management company, employees (n = 469) working in the engineering services and maintenance departments who use vibrating equipment as part of their work were invited to participate. Two hundred and eighty-nine employees working as general operatives, excavator drivers, stone masons, carpenters, labourers, fitters, welders, and gardeners agreed to participate. A total of 20 types of hand tool (n = 264) and 11 types of vehicle (n = 158) in use within the company were selected for inclusion in the study. Five pieces of equipment had never previously been measured. Vibration measurements were carried out in accordance with ISO 5349-1 (Mechanical vibration-measurement and assessment of human exposure to hand transmitted vibration-Part 1: general guidance. 2001) (HAV) and ISO 2631-1 (Mechanical vibration and shock: evaluation of human exposure to WBV in the working environment. Part 1-general requirements. 1997) (WBV). Vibration measurements were made while workers were operating the equipment as part of their normal work activities. A wide range of vibration emission values were recorded for most tool types, e.g. orbital sanders (1.39-10.90 m s⁻²) and angle grinders (0.28-12.25 m s⁻²), and vehicle, e.g. forklifts (0.41-1.00 m s⁻²) and tractors (0.04-0.42 m s⁻²). Vibration magnitudes were largely consistent with those found in previous studies. The highest HAV magnitude was measured on a demolition hammer (13.3 m

  14. Environmental and occupational cancer in Argentina: a case-control lung cancer study Cáncer ambiental y ocupacional en Argentina: estudio de un caso-control en cáncer de pulmón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Matos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the risks for lung cancer associated with occupational exposures in a developing country where lung cancer is the first cause of mortality from cancer in men. The study involved 200 men with lung cancer and 397 hospital controls. The OR for current smokers was 8.5, whereas former smokers displayed an OR of 5.3. The fraction attributable to smoking was 85%. Statistically significant high ORs were observed for employment in the alcoholic beverages industry (4.5, 95% CI:1.02-20.2, sawmills and wood mills (4.6, 95% CI:1.1-18.4, chemicals/plastics (1.8, 95% CI:1.04-3.2, and pottery, glass, or mineral manufactures (3.4, 95% CI:1.1-10.6. Other high, but not statistically significant, risks were observed for employment in leather shoe industry and repair (2.1, 95% CI:0.8-5.4, rubber industries (3.4, 95% CI:0.9-12.4, metal workers, including welders (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.4, motor vehicle mechanics (2.0, 95% CI:0.9-4.2, workers in cleaning services (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.5, and for workers in agriculture (2.4, 95% CI:0.9-6.0. Although some of the present results may be due to chance, most are consistent with those of previous investigations in other countries.El objetivo principal de este estudio fue analizar los riesgos para cáncer de pulmón asociados con exposiciones ocupacionales, en un país en vías de desarrollo donde el cáncer de pulmón es la primera causa de mortalidad por cáncer en hombres. El estudio incluyó 200 hombres con esta patología y 397 controles hospitalarios. El OR para fumadores actuales fue 8,5, mientras que los ex-fumadores mostraron un OR de 5,3. La fracción atribuible al hábito de fumar fue de 85%. Se observaron riesgos estadísticamente significativos para: empleo en la industria de bebidas alcohólicas (4,5, 95% CI:1,02-20,2, aserraderos (4,6, 95% CI:1,1-18,4, industrias químicas, plásticos (1,8, 95% CI:1,04-3,2, cerámica, loza, vidrio o productos minerales no metálicos (3

  15. Design basis for the copper/steel canister. Stage five. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, W.H.

    1999-05-01

    cause, in electron beam welding. The improvement in creep strength conferred by the phosphorus is valuable, but the evidence that is available suggests that the influence of phosphorus is very complicated. A view is expressed that further work is required to understand the coupling between the effects on creep properties of phosphorus, processing and grain size. The writer is concerned that the problem of low creep ductility may not have been overcome. It has been recognised that the roll forming method is not suitable for serial production and this approach has been abandoned. Two candidate processes are under investigation for tubular production. These are extrusion and a pierce and draw process, which is similar to backward extrusion. Both these methods are more suitable for serial production and there is a reasonable prospect that either may be developed to provide a satisfactory metallurgical structure. A further option under investigation is reduction of the thickness of the overpack from 50 mm to 30 mm. Very good results have been achieved by using an extrusion temperature of 675 deg C and the problem of controlling grain size in the tubular appears to have been overcome. The pierce and draw process has the advantage that it produces a tubular with an integral bottom. The first trial with this process used a processing temperature of 800 deg C. The resulting grain size was very coarse and the draw did not continue to completion. Further trials are planned. A new electron beam welder has been developed to overcome the problems, which have beset the earlier trials. It has been supplied to the SKB pilot plant where commissioning is in progress. An alternative welding process, friction stir welding, is being examined as a candidate for attaching lids. This is potentially a more favourable process than electron beam welding but it is in an early stage of development. Ultrasonic and radiographic test equipment have been developed for examination of lid welds. They have

  16. MDEP Technical Report TR-CSWG-02. Technical Report on Lessons Learnt on Achieving Harmonisation of Codes and Standards for Pressure Boundary Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report was prepared by the Multinational Design Evaluation Program's (MDEP's) Codes and Standards Working Group (CSWG). The primary, long-term goal of MDEP's CSWG is to achieve international harmonisation of codes and standards for pressure-boundary components in nuclear power plants. The CSWG recognised early on that the first step to achieving harmonisation is to understand the extent of similarities and differences amongst the pressure-boundary codes and standards used in various countries. To assist the CSWG in its long-term goals, several standards developing organisations (SDOs) from various countries performed a comparison of their pressure-boundary codes and standards to identify the extent of similarities and differences in code requirements and the reasons for their differences. The results of the code-comparison project provided the CSWG with valuable insights in developing the subsequent actions to take with SDOs and the nuclear industry to pursue harmonisation of codes and standards. The results enabled the CSWG to understand from a global perspective how each country's pressure-boundary code or standard evolved into its current form and content. The CSWG recognised the important fact that each country's pressure-boundary code or standard is a comprehensive, living document that is continually being updated and improved to reflect changing technology and common industry practices unique to each country. The rules in the pressure-boundary codes and standards include comprehensive requirements for the design and construction of nuclear power plant components including design, materials selection, fabrication, examination, testing and overpressure protection. The rules also contain programmatic and administrative requirements such as quality assurance; conformity assessment (e.g., third-party inspection); qualification of welders, welding equipment and welding procedures; non-destructive examination (NDE) practices and

  17. Remarks at the International Conference on Human Resource Development for Introducing and Expanding Nuclear Power Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Dale E.

    2012-01-01

    dedicated staff in the nuclear field is a major challenge around the world. In 2008, the Nuclear Energy Agency released its long term energy projections. It predicted that the production of electricity from nuclear energy worldwide in the year 2050 will rise from the current 400 gigawatts to at least 600 gigawatts. That is the low estimate. The high estimate is 1,400 gigawatts. But I doubt, with today's economic conditions, that this high end number will be achieved by 2050. Nonetheless, adding an additional 200 gigawatts while maintaining the safe and efficient operation of the existing installed nuclear fleet is still a significant challenge for both the industry and the regulators. It is likely that over the next several years, the construction of new reactors around the world will be based mostly on five or six standard designs constructed by a few multi-national vendors. This will make for greater standardization and, therefore, make it easier for regulators to share safety information and training practices. However, we have already seen that these international firms are confronted with a number of differing national standards, codes, and regulations regarding the construction of the plants. Equally challenging are the skill levels and capacity of the workforce, their ability to overcome language barriers and communicate critical information and, most importantly, their understanding of safety culture. This applies to all disciplines from skilled crafts workers such as welders and mechanics to reactor operators and even to the top level managers and Chief Nuclear Officers. The international competition for these same skill sets will increase exponentially in the near future; moreover, there will be intense competition within each country since the operators of nuclear plants and the regulators that oversee them all need high quality individuals. As a result, I believe strongly that planning for the development of a skilled work force has to go hand-in-hand with

  18. Kazakhstan big oil transportation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakipov, K.E.; Mazhkenov, S.A.; Kunaev, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    $1.18 per each barrel. Japan and South East Asia are now seeking for new energy sources which are not connected to the Persian Gulf or Mediterrian. The route via Afganistan, in the developer view, is shortest way to the Asian market and cheapest as to transportation cost. This conclusion was confirmed by the World Bank Data. New pipeline will also allow transporting the Russian oil to China using in same time the Pavlodar and Shymkent oil refinery capacities. These refineries are located on the Omsk-Chardzhou pipeline route and their equipment is disigned just for Siberian oil. RAMIS Projet ensures energy and human resources. There are Zhambyl Thermal Power Plant of 2.400 MW capacity and South Kazakhstan Thermal Power Plant under construction. The latter, if transferred to the gas and fuel oil feed will be enable of producing 4.000 MW. This is extremly important for the country's South experiencing lack of power and deficit of energy resources. Construction and operation of the new oil pipeline and futher gas pipeline will assist in resolution of the unemployment issue for the Southern region of Republic having 60 % of the total Kazakhstan population. Main pipeline will provide jobs to engineeres, welders and constractors for at least 5 years. For the Russian and Kazakhstan oil and gas equipment manufactures this means a market for their products. this new pipeline operation it will annually filled with 25-30 million tonnes of the Sebirian oil to ensure its profitability during first year and viability of rhe entire project. Subsequently, when the Karachgank condensate and oil from Caspian shelf are transported at full capacity Kazakhstan will be able to become a fully-fledget international oil exporter. West Kazakhstan and Siberian oil transportation via Central Asian countries to the Indian Ocean may become practicable based on establishment of new design and construction Consortium involving Russian, Kazakh, Central Asian, Western and Chinese companies and enable

  19. Design basis for the copper/steel canister. Stage five. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, W.H. [Meadow End Farm, Farnham (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    cause, in electron beam welding. The improvement in creep strength conferred by the phosphorus is valuable, but the evidence that is available suggests that the influence of phosphorus is very complicated. A view is expressed that further work is required to understand the coupling between the effects on creep properties of phosphorus, processing and grain size. The writer is concerned that the problem of low creep ductility may not have been overcome. It has been recognised that the roll forming method is not suitable for serial production and this approach has been abandoned. Two candidate processes are under investigation for tubular production. These are extrusion and a pierce and draw process, which is similar to backward extrusion. Both these methods are more suitable for serial production and there is a reasonable prospect that either may be developed to provide a satisfactory metallurgical structure. A further option under investigation is reduction of the thickness of the overpack from 50 mm to 30 mm. Very good results have been achieved by using an extrusion temperature of 675 deg C and the problem of controlling grain size in the tubular appears to have been overcome. The pierce and draw process has the advantage that it produces a tubular with an integral bottom. The first trial with this process used a processing temperature of 800 deg C. The resulting grain size was very coarse and the draw did not continue to completion. Further trials are planned. A new electron beam welder has been developed to overcome the problems, which have beset the earlier trials. It has been supplied to the SKB pilot plant where commissioning is in progress. An alternative welding process, friction stir welding, is being examined as a candidate for attaching lids. This is potentially a more favourable process than electron beam welding but it is in an early stage of development. Ultrasonic and radiographic test equipment have been developed for examination of lid welds. They have

  20. PREFACE: Physics-Based Mathematical Models for Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Lok C. Lew Yan; Melnik, Roderick; Willatzen, Morten

    2008-03-01

    task of enormous computational complexity in solving a large-scale many-body problem. On the other hand, taking each quantum dot in isolation would lead to a manageable task for modern supercomputers, but accounting for the wetting layer even in the individual quantum dot model would increase the computational complexity of the problem in several times. As a result, the entire problem in its generality would be hardly feasible from a practical, routine-based simulation, point of view. Moreover, in calculating atomic positions the definitions of atomic forces that enter the Hamiltonian in such large scale atomic simulations are approximate by nature and a number of important coupled effects, such as piezoelectric, remain frequently outside the scope of the analysis. To attack the problem in hand, one needs to resort to some clever averaging over atomic scales. Such averaging can be achieved by empirical tight-binding, pseudopotential, and k.p approximations. These approximations are very important in further development of mathematical models for LDSNs due to the fact they are well suited for incorporating additional effects into the model, including strain, piezoelectric effects, spontaneous polarization, geometric and materials nonlinearities. These effects, despite their importance, have not been studied with vigor they deserve, in particular in the context of mathematical models for bandstructure calculations. There is a growing interest to such models as they should provide a key to better predicting optoelectromechanical properties of LDSNs. With anticipated new discoveries in theoretical and experimental analysis of LDSNs in the coming years, one of the main emphases of the workshop was on the models that would allow incorporating these effects consistently into the state-of-the-art models for LDSNs. From a mathematical point of view, many such models can be reduced to a large eigenvalue PDE problem (e.g., with the Hamiltonian accounting for the Burt-Foreman

  1. News & Announcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    education in thermal analysis; it will consist of Mettler-Toledo thermal analysis instrumentation, peripherals, training and service. Applications must be submitted by April 1, 2000. Application forms may be downloaded from http://www.na.mt.com. Questions should be directed to Jon Foreman, Product Manager, Thermal Analysis, Mettler-Toledo, Inc., 1900 Polaris Parkway, Columbus, OH 43240; phone: 1-800/638-8537; fax: 614/438-4871; email: Thermal.Grant@mt.com. Courses, Seminars, Meetings, Opportunities Cosmos in the Classroom 2 A national symposium on the trials and tribulations of teaching astronomy to college non-science majors will be held at the Pasadena, California, Convention Center on July 17-19, 2000, as part of the 112th Annual Meeting of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Designed for everyone who teaches introductory astronomy, the symposium will focus on ways to improve teaching, to involve students more effectively, and to put astronomy in a wider context. Specific discussion topics will include: getting out of lecture mode, using the Web effectively, dealing with creationism and astrology, and laboratory and observation projects. The 2.5-day program will involve panels of mentor instructors, an exchange of handouts and teaching resources, hands-on workshops for trying new techniques and approaches, and lots of time for discussion. Participants will range from veteran instructors to nervous graduate students about to teach their first solo course. We especially hope to involve those teaching astronomy in small colleges without extensive astronomy research programs, and colleagues in other sciences who teach astronomy on a part-time basis. To get on the mailing list for the meeting, send your name, institution, email, and postal mailing address (indicating an interest in the 2000 Education Symposium) via: email: meeting@aspsky.org; fax: 415/337-5205 (Attn: 2000 Education Symp.) mail: 2000 Education Symposium, ASP, 390 Ashton Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94112

  2. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2010 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards Announcing the 2010 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul

    2011-06-01

    particle image velocimetry (PIV), wherein 'instantaneous' planes of the velocity field are obtained. (The planar information, of course, falls short of the volumetric data that would be required for a complete measurement strategy.) In this paper [1] the authors first provide a valuable review of the literature in this area before presenting their original contribution. Operating with the constraint of incomplete information, the authors have significantly advanced this aspect of fluid mechanics measurements by: (i) performing error analysis evaluations of the extant methodologies, and (ii) introducing the use of POD (proper orthogonal decomposition) techniques to smooth the PIV data. Three globally unsteady flow fields are investigated in this paper. Two of the subject flows are simulations where the pressure can be compared with the inferred value using simulated PIV results—with the addition of typical measurement uncertainties—and the third test case is the unsteady flow in a planar diffuser. This paper is a benchmark contribution on the path to accurately inferring pressure values in the interior of a flow field. 2010 Award Award Winner—Measurement Science Achieving high effective Q-factors in ultra-high vacuum dynamic force microscopy Jannis Lübbe, Lutz Tröger, Stefan Torbrügge, Ralf Bechstein, Christoph Richter, Angelika Kühnle and Michael Reichling Fachbereich Physik, Universität Osnabrück, Barbarastraße 7, 49076 Osnabrück, Germany Nanoworld Services GmbH, Schottkystraße 10, 91058 Erlangen, Germany Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Jakob-Welder Weg 11, 55099 Mainz, Germany This paper [2] presents a detailed methodology to achieve good Q-factors in a scanning force microscope. Whilst this instrument, operated in the non-contact mode (NC-AFM), has become a standard tool for atomic scale surface characterization, the paper deals specifically with its operation in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). Performance of the system