WorldWideScience

Sample records for foreign trade ordinance

  1. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  2. China's Foreign Trade Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zuoyan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Profile of route map In 1949,right after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC),overall economic blockage and embargo imposed by other countries,except the Soviet Union and eastern European countries,separated China from the global economic and trade community.In such a context,China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) was born in May 1952 to facilitate non-governmental trade with other countries,Japan in particular.

  3. MOFCOM Released Report on China Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On May 17, 2007, the Report on China Foreign Trade was released by MOFCOM, which reviewed China's foreign trade development and characteristic in 2006 and in the first quarter in 2007, and preview its future development in 2007.

  4. The Evolution of China's Foreign Trade Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wenhao

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1.Introduction Since China started the reform of foreign trade system in 1978,the foreign trade laws and regulations have developed from scratch or from a limited amount,gradually with the step of reform.

  5. Public announcement concerning the obligation to procure an export licence under para. 5d of the Foreign Trade Ordinance. As of April 6, 1992. Bekanntmachung ueber die Ausfuhrgenehmigungspflicht gemaess Para. 5d AWV. Vom 6. April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-08

    The export of goods and documents for the manufacture of goods is subject to licensing if they are intended for the construction or operation of or for assembly in installations serving purposes of nuclear engineering, are destined for or to be purchased by or assembled in Algeria, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lybia, North Korea, Pakistan, South Africa, Syria or Taiwan and if the exporter knows of these circumstances (restriction pursuant to para. 7 sec. 1 of the Foreign Trade Law). (orig./HP).

  6. The Olympics' Impacts on China's Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xinliang

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Olympics will have a lasting effect on China, especially on its politics and diplomacy, but the Olympics will only have limited and indirect influence on its foreign trade in my view. The rapid increase of China's foreign trade has remained a strong trend and could not be easily changed or accelerated by other factors including the Olympics. Meanwhile, China doesn't expect the Olympics to be a propeller for its foreign trade. With the fast development of past years.China has become one of the most important global trading nations that can be easily told from the perspective of its share of international trade flows.

  7. CONSIDERATIONS ON TRANSACTIONS OF FOREIGN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliu-Popa Lucia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the complex connection process of national economies to global economy flows, an important role has the foreign trade, which in recent decades has become, in the market economy conditions, one of the factors determining for economic growth. Foreign trade, as a separate branch of the national economy is an important factor of economic growth, caused by the internationalization of business and determining for the process of globalization. For Romania, a country still in transition and recent member of the European Union is particularly important to enhance the participation to international trade in goods and services, but also attracting foreign investments in the economy as the main possibilities for the re-industry and restructuring the national economy in order to creation and maintenance of sustainable competitive advantages. Starting from these considerations, in this article I addressed/aproached the theoretical aspects of foreign trade, without omitting intracomunity purchases and deliveries of goods.

  8. The Story of Foreign Trade and Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cedric

    This comic-style booklet is one of a series of educational booklets published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The booklet uses everyday language and lively illustrations to explain the benefits of international trade; the effects of tariffs and quotas; the significance of foreign exchange rates; how the foreign exchange market facilities…

  9. Foreign experience of regulating international trade transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko L. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the international experience of state regulating international trade transactions; nature, directions and contradictions of contemporary processes of globalization are defined; components of regulatory and incentive means in system of state supporting foreign trade activity of commodity producers are considered; general provisions for the improvement of state regulation mechanisms of export-import activities in Ukraine are determined.

  10. International Trade, Foreign Investment, and the Enivronment

    OpenAIRE

    Rauscher, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This paper surveys the literature on the relationship between international trade in goods and the factors and the environment. Traditional approaches based on the HEckscher-Ohlin trade model and more recent models looking at non-competetive market structures are discussed. Moreover, the paper covers intertemporal aspects (foreign debt, stock pollutants), public-choice models (the political economy), the empirical evidence and the instituonal issues. This paper was written for the Handbook of...

  11. International Trade, Foreign Investment, and the Enivronment

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Rauscher

    2001-01-01

    This paper surveys the literature on the relationship between international trade in goods and the factors and the environment. Traditional approaches based on the HEckscher-Ohlin trade model and more recent models looking at non-competetive market structures are discussed. Moreover, the paper covers intertemporal aspects (foreign debt, stock pollutants), public-choice models (the political economy), the empirical evidence and the instituonal issues. This paper was written for the "Handbook o...

  12. ROMANIAN FOREIGN TRADE - A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Carmen Pascariu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing integration of Romania in the global economy is a reality of the last years, proved through a constant growth of the foreign trade with other countries, which exceeded, in terms ofdynamics, both GDP and industrial production. In the first part of our paper, we intend to analyze the evolution of Romanian foreign trade in the period 1995-2007, focusing on the proportions of the imports and exports, at regional level. We wish to emphasize the correlations between the indicators that describe the degree of openness to foreign trade and indicators of competitiveness and specialization in different industries. The main goal of our approach is to highlight the sectors which generate comparative advantages and potential competitiveness poles, contributing significantly to the increase of the Romanian economy, expressed in GDP/capita. In the second part of the paper, based on the frame of analysis and interpretation defined and implemented in the first part, we intend to establish if the agglomeration processes in some regions of ourcountry will lead gradually to the strengthening of growth poles and, therefore to boost the foreign trade.

  13. Innovative regression in the foreign trade commodity structure of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Zubko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the indicators of Ukraines foreign trade with innovative products are analyzed. The existence of innovative regression in the structure of Ukraine's foreign trade is proved. The threats to economic growth through Ukraine's foreign trade disproportion are found. The reasons for innovative regression in the economy of Ukraine are outlined. The priority of stimulating the development of Ukraines foreign trade with innovative products is substantiated.

  14. Strategy of converting Jiangsu Province A Foreign-trade Large Province into A Foreign-trade Strong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Jiangsu Province, after executing economic internationalization strategy and establishing the strategic goal of foreign-trade strong province,meaning to pursue a dominating position in the foreign trade relations, has become one of the foreign-trade large provinces of China and provided considerable international competitive power in some important fields.

  15. Strategy of converting Jiangsu Province A Foreign-trade Large Province into A Foreign-trade Strong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      Jiangsu Province, after executing economic internationalization strategy and establishing the strategic goal of foreign-trade strong province,meaning to pursue a dominating position in the foreign trade relations, has become one of the foreign-trade large provinces of China and provided considerable international competitive power in some important fields.……

  16. Marketing instruments of foreign trade promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Predrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruments of promotion as a part of marketing mix are usually associated with companies but more and more countries use this instrument in order to boost their exports. These foreign trade promotion instruments are now popular in many countries in the world since their use is not opposed to any World Trade Organization rules. Marketing instruments of trade promotions are the most important. They include National Exhibitions and National labels of origin and quality. In order to coordinate the application of these instruments countries have established national bodies for trade promotion. Many studies in the past had argued that national Agencies established to promote export did not had any real success, but recent studies indicate that they could have a significant impact on country export promotion. The result of this rise in impact of national export promotion agencies is due to international effort spearheaded by International Trade Center. The aim of this paper is to point out types and methods of marketing instruments application in trade promotion and to present the effectiveness of these instruments applications.

  17. China issued First White Paper on Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanzy

    2012-01-01

    On Dec. 7th, 2011, on the occasion of the lOth anniversary of China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession, the State Council of PRC issued its first white paper on foreign trade, highlighting its achievements in boosting foreign trade and its contribution to the world economy.

  18. Foreign Affiliate Sales and Trade in Both Goods and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Chunding Li; John Whalley; Yan Chen

    2010-01-01

    Because of the differing forms that international agreements on trade in goods and trade in services take in the GATT (1994) and the GATS there is an incompatibility between measures of world trade in goods and services. Measures of goods trade reflecting GATT (1994) are restricted to trade that crosses borders. Service trade, however, under GATS mode 3 (commercial presence) includes both cross border delivery and foreign affiliate sales within borders. As a result, present comparisons of ser...

  19. Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and International Technology Transfer: A Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamal Saggi

    2002-01-01

    ...? Using these questions as motivation, this article surveys the recent trade literature on international technology transfer, paying particular attention to the role of foreign direct investment...

  20. Translation Skills of Foreign Economics and Trade Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓丽

    2010-01-01

    As the foreign economic and trade contract belongs to legal documents, it bears profound differences with the common everyday English, especially on the application style and features of word and sentence. This article tries to enumerate some translation skills of foreign economic and trade contract. Besides, some common inaccuracies in translation are also elaborated here.

  1. Globalisation, Trade Openness and Foreign Direct Investment in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Dima Stela

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses the trend of globalisation, trade openness and foreign direct investments (FDI) in Romania and the link between them in the last 25 years. Data from UNCTAD, World Bank and KOF globalisation index were used in econometrical models testing the link between globalisation, trade openness and foreign direct investment. A strong positive and statistical validated link is found between globalisation and FDI, between trade openness and FDI, and between FDI and globalisation. In the...

  2. 40 Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... countries like Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC nations) have emerged as trade .... International Trade and Trade Relations: The Unending Issues ..... that the present media campaign of Nigerians/Nigeria as good.

  3. Foreign trade, environmental protection and sustainable economic growth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jiyong; LIU Wei; HU Yi

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1990s,China has exhibited growth in both foreign trade and the economy.Promoting environmental protection and sustainable economic growth are main concerns in the academic profession in the country.This paper makes an empirical analysis of trade and environmental pollution,and discusses the inherent relationship between foreign trade,environmental protection and sustainable economic growth.In addition,this paper makes several policy suggestions with a view to adjusting trade structure,enforcing environmental protection and promoting sustainable economic growth in China.

  4. A Model for Trading the Foreign Exchange Market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... The electronic Foreign Exchange (FOREX) market where currencies are bought and sold has .... the signal and .... indicator computations to generating trading ..... [4] Sher, G. I., (2012), Evolving Chart Pattern Sensitive Neural ...

  5. A Model for Trading the Foreign Exchange Market | Nwokorie | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Model for Trading the Foreign Exchange Market. ... interest rates, inflation rates, etc. have significant impacts on the exchange rate fluctuation. Existing ... The predictions from the networks are integrated to get the direction of price movement.

  6. 12 CFR 614.4700 - Financing foreign trade receivables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... policies adopted by their boards of directors, are authorized to finance foreign trade receivables on... acceptances; (3) Factoring; and (4) Open accounts. (b) To reduce credit, political, and other risks...

  7. 77 FR 54808 - Vessels in Foreign and Domestic Trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 4 Vessels in Foreign and Domestic Trades CFR Correction... foreign manifest; production on demand; contents and form; advance electronic filing of cargo declaration... paragraph (b)(2) of this section that an electronic cargo declaration be received by CBP 24 hours...

  8. Globalisation, Trade Openness and Foreign Direct Investment in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dima Stela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the trend of globalisation, trade openness and foreign direct investments (FDI in Romania and the link between them in the last 25 years. Data from UNCTAD, World Bank and KOF globalisation index were used in econometrical models testing the link between globalisation, trade openness and foreign direct investment. A strong positive and statistical validated link is found between globalisation and FDI, between trade openness and FDI, and between FDI and globalisation. In the context of Romanian economy, these three phenomena are interrelated and each of them is acting to potentiate the effect of the other. Moreover, a multivariate regression analysis emphasized the dependency between globalisation index and foreign direct investment, trade openness and market capitalisation. These results can be taken into account when national policies aiming to attract FDI and stimulating export-import activities are designed.

  9. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND ONE DIGIT STANDARD INTERNATIONAL TRADE CLASSICIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murman Budijanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between trade and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been indicated as one of prominent development paths toward economic development. However, this relation is not straightforward due to the complex multinational companies’ investment motivation. This paper develops an exploratory research on the FDI-trade relation in one digit Standard International Trade Classification (SITC for Indonesia with Japan and the United States of America during 1991-2003, using a Granger causality test. The result indicates strong FDI-trade relationship in natural resources and mining industry, showing that resources endowment is an advantage for Indonesia. It also finds that resource-seeking FDI has predominantly happened during that period.Keywords: Foreign direct investment, trade, one-digit SITC, granger causalityJEL classification numbers: F12, F14

  10. 19 CFR 4.89 - Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching at intermediate foreign ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching at intermediate foreign ports. 4.89 Section 4.89 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.89 Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports...

  11. CCPIT Chairman Wan Jifei:China's Foreign Trade Is An Important Force of Trade Promotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 50 years before, the Ministry of Foreign Trade published magazine named Foreign Trade of The People s Republic of China. The first issue was published in December of 1956. In December of 1958, the magazine was taken over by CCPIT(China Council for the Promotion of International Trade). Up to today, the magazine has been published in many languages including Chinese version, English version, etc., with huge influence in domestic and overseas economic and trade societies. It has played a significant role in promoting the trade communication and coopperation between China and foreign countries. It has been appraised as outstanding magazine by the State Press Office, and has won high praises by the leaders of the CPC and the government.

  12. The Position of Suitcase Trading in Turkey’s Foreign Trade and Growth-Suitcase Trading Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem YAPAR SAÇIK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Suitcase trading which is defined as a purchasing process of merchandises in a country that is implemented by travelers (nonresidents to sell those merchandises in their own country; it has started to take place in balance of payments of Turkey since 1996. After the collapse of USSR in 1991 Turkey became a net exporter in suitcase trading so the country reached significant figures occasionally. In this paper the position of suitcase trading in Turkey’s foreign trade is analyzed in consideration of statistical indicators. According to the findings acquired from the study, suitcase trading is a significant variable for Turkey to have currency and to close foreign deficits. Suitcase trading and growth connection is also analyzed by econometric method which is co-integration test and the result is affirmative. And also it is found that this connection is unilateral causation from growth towards suitcase trading according to the findings of Granger causality test

  13. 77 FR 47429 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... in Foreign Trade Sub-zones AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... concerning the Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones. This request for comment is being made... Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones. OMB Number: 1651-0063. Form Number: None. Abstract: The Foreign...

  14. Simulation Model for Foreign Trade During the Crisis in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Diaconescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes to analyze the evolution of foreign trade during the crisis in Romania. The evolution of foreign trade is analyzed using a simulation model. The period of analysis is 2006-2014. The data source is Eurostat and National Bank of Romania. Also, based on these data, we propose an econometric model which can be developed using different scenarios and forecasting of evolution of foreign trade. In period of economic recession, protectionist sentiments against imports competing with domestic products tend to rise. The same phenomenon was manifested in Romania. Thus, our study started from this consideration. Using econometric model we made scenarios predictions and the results are similar to the real values.

  15. 76 FR 80886 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 26; Makita Corporation of America; (Hand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 26; Makita Corporation... Manufacturing); Buford, GA Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as..., Georgia Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 26, has requested manufacturing...

  16. FOREIGN TRADE TEACHING ACTIVITY: DECIDING BETWEEN COST AND SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Henrique Antonelli da Veiga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The world debate focused on preserving the environment, such a s that held during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio +20, in conjunction with Brazil’s growing foreign trade requires a study of all these topics in management courses. The central premise of this paper is to investigate the systematization of trade concepts through the use of business games. Two asymmetric scenarios for exporting and importing teams were developed using action research and qualitative data analysis. The longitudinal study was conducted on four separate, sequential classes from the Foreign Trade discipline of two universities from southern Brazilian. The students were able to discuss a variety of foreign trade topics and interact autonomously among themselves using business games that stimulate business negotiations through role playing dynamics, demonstrating that this teaching strategy can be used as a foreign trade teaching support tool. The final proposal was to change the game scenarios to focus on the decision between lowest costs and sustainable manufacturing processes without losing the aspects developed previously. The results showed that students’ decisions are more linked to their prior personal environmental concepts than to competition strategies developed for the company.

  17. Product and Market Diversification in Turkey’s Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Erkan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in determining the economic size and the level of mastery of countries in international markets is the ratio of the volume of foreign trade to GDP. With this criterion, reducing the concentration (increasing the diversify in foreign trade on the basis product and market plays an important role in helping countries achieve competitive advantage in the global economy. Turkey’s foreign trade strategy in recent years, primarily has to reduce the trade deficit (and current account deficit by increasing the export. However, increasing diversification in foreign trade on the basis both product and market has been revealed as an important goal by economy policy makers. In this study covering the years 1990-2012, the level of product and market diversification in Turkey’s export and import was determined by using Concentration Ratio of Commerce, GiniHirschman Index, Entropy Index, Deviation Index and Penetration Index. In this connection, it has been found that Turkey is successful market diversification, on the other hand, unsuccessfull product diversification

  18. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE FOREIGN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru LUCA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we aim at highlighting the benefits of international trade on economic growth and development. In the first part of the paper, we will outline the seminal theories in the doctrine of international trade. In the second part, we will focus on current developments in the exports and imports of goods and services. We will also consider several indicators meant to emphasize the various aspects of research. Our approach is a transversal-comparative one and static models pertain to uni- and multivariate analysis.

  19. Trade, Foreign Direct Investment and R&D Spillovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehwa Lee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the evidence of R & D spillovers through trade and foreign direct investment at the industrial sectoral level. Specifically, it focuses on the appropriate measure of foreign R&D stocks embodied in imports, and proposes an alternative measure to the traditional measure. With a new measure of foreign technology, this paper then empirically distinguishes between R&D spillovers from import volume and from import variety. Panel estimations with fixed effects use a data set comprised of eight sectors in the manufacturing industry of thirteen OECD countries from 1981 to 1999. This empirical work at disaggregated level has shown the evidence to generally support the role of manufacturing imports in the international diffusion of technology. In particular, the results imply that the impact of import variety proves stronger and more significant in investigating trade-related R&D spillovers. The evidence indicates the variety effect dominates the volume effect, and hence import variety proves more important in explaining trade-related technological diffusion. This paper also investigates R&D spillovers occurring simultaneously through trade and non-trade (i.e., FDI channels, Empirical results provide no strong evidence on R&D spillovers through FDI, although FDI is often considered as an important channel for technological diffusion. The evidence implies that the effect of trade channel dominates that of the FDI channel and finds that FDI only weakly affects domestic productivity.

  20. Canton Fair:Foreign Trade Enterprises Fight Against Difficulties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zijun; Cui Xiaoling

    2011-01-01

    @@ The 110th Chinese Export Commodities Fair, also called Canton Fair, was held in Pazhou International Exhibition Center in October this year which marks the tenth anniversary of Chinas accession to the WTO.China's foreign trade enterprises are facing a grim situation featured by declining exports and other pressure, and feel the need to develop new ideas and strategies to survive.

  1. Foreign Trade Competitiveness of Chinese Cities in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The world continued to recover from the global economic downturn in 2010. China's foreign trade faced many challenges as the global market changed remarkably and the other emerging markets boomed. Most cities in China felt the stress and made their utmost

  2. Secret in Exchange Rate & Foreign Trade?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's import and export growth in November has dropped drastically.Year-on-year export growth rate dropped from 19.2 percent to -2.2percent and the year-on-year import growth rate dropped from 15.6 percent to -17.9 percent. The trade surplus amounted to 40.09billion U.S. dollars. This is the first time in China's exports monthly negative growth dating back to June 2001 (see Chart 1 ).

  3. 75 FR 15413 - Approval for Processing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 196, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Personal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... & Electronics (Personal Navigation Devices), Fort Worth, Texas Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade...) adopts the following Order: Whereas, ATC Logistics & Electronics, an operator of Foreign-Trade Zone...

  4. Development Trend of Foreign Trade Policy for China’s Forest Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzed the current status of foreign trade of forest industry in China and the national and international market changes. Based on the analysis, the orientation and transformation of foreign trade policy for China's forest industry were discussed.

  5. 78 FR 2251 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 44; Morris County, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ..., notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR 80885, 12/27/11) and the...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 44; Morris County,...

  6. 78 FR 48647 - Foreign-Trade Zone 225-Springfield, Missouri; Authorization of Production Activity; General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 225--Springfield, Missouri; Authorization of Production Activity; General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems Munitions Services (Demilitarization of...

  7. 76 FR 53115 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 202; Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 202; Los Angeles, CA Pursuant to its authority... City of Los Angeles, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 202, submitted an application to the Board for authority to expand FTZ 202 to include a site in Los Angeles, California, within the Los Angeles/Long...

  8. 76 FR 86 - Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 202, Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 202, Los Angeles, CA Pursuant to... Commissioners of the City of Los Angeles, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 202, submitted an application to the Board for authority to reorganize and expand FTZ 202 in the Los Angeles, California area, within...

  9. 75 FR 12731 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, CA; Site Renumbering Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 50--Long Beach, CA; Site Renumbering Notice Foreign-Trade... this revision, the site list for FTZ 50 will be as follows: Site 1 (8 acres)--909 East Colon...

  10. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois; Authorization of Production Activity Panasonic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, Illinois; Authorization of Production Activity Panasonic Corporation of North America (Kitting of Consumer Electronics) Aurora, Illinois On January 11... production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Panasonic Corporation of...

  11. 78 FR 33808 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, California; Authorization of Production Activity; Panasonic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... No: 2013-13314] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-13-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 50... (Kitting of Consumer Electronics); Anaheim, California On January 29, 2013, the Board of Harbor... activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Panasonic Corporation of North America,...

  12. 15 CFR 50.30 - Fee structure for foreign trade and shipping statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shipping statistics. 50.30 Section 50.30 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... THE CENSUS § 50.30 Fee structure for foreign trade and shipping statistics. (a) The Bureau of the Census is willing to furnish on a cost basis foreign trade and shipping statistics provided there is...

  13. 76 FR 50172 - Designation of New Grantee, Foreign-Trade Zone 41, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Designation of New Grantee, Foreign-Trade Zone 41, Milwaukee, WI Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and...

  14. 75 FR 51757 - Foreign-Trade Zone 167-Green Bay, WI; Site Renumbering Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 167--Green Bay, WI; Site Renumbering Notice Foreign-Trade Zone 167 was approved by the FTZ Board on August 23, 1990 (Board Order 483, 55 FR 35916, 9/4/1990), and expanded on August 4, 2005 (Board Order 1407, 70 FR 48537-48538, 8/18/2005). FTZ 167 currently consists...

  15. 77 FR 6057 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 22, Baxter Healthcare Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 22, Baxter Healthcare Corporation, (Pharmaceutical and Biological Intravenous Product Manufacturing), Chicago, IL Pursuant to its... District, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 22, has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of...

  16. The competitiveness of Slovak foreign trade in the European market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavličková Viera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the competitiveness of the Slovak Republic in its ability to succeed in foreign markets. It provides a complex view of Slovak foreign trade within the European Union using a sectoral classification of products. Several appropriate methods (Constant Market Share Analysis, Revealed Comparative Advantage, Michaely Index, and unit export and import values are applied to quantify the competitiveness of Slovak foreign trade and to identify the level and trend of its specialisation. The analysis uses the data provided by the Eurostat Comext database for the period 1999-2011. The results confirmed Slovakia as a former transition country to be a fast developing open economy. Its production is competitive in the European market, although mainly with prices. Labour- and capital-intensive commodities, along with the automotive industry, dominate Slovak foreign trade. Technology- and R&D-driven goods have a comparative disadvantage as a consequence of several factors, such as lack of innovation and creativity in the business sphere. A shift towards export of more sophisticated products would be beneficial in supporting long-term sustainable development; however, no significant change in Slovak commodity structure has occurred over the past years.

  17. Growth and Inequality: The Role of Foreign Trade and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Richard

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the influence of foreign trade and investment on inequality or, more generally, on the distribution of income, with a focus on developing countries. There has been some scholarly debate on the influence on economic growth of economic openness to the rest of the world. Since growth affects the level of poverty and the distribution of income, the trade–growth nexus is also addressed. "Distribution of income" has several quite different meanings, apart from the issue of th...

  18. Characteristics of Serbian foreign trade of agricultural and food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Dragica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and food products are a significant segment of the total foreign trade of Serbia, which is characterized by a relatively high import dependency, modest export and constantly present deficit. In such conditions, agrarian sector serves as a stabilizer, and its importance is reflected in the permanently positive balance, increased participation, particularly in total exports, and balancing the trade balance of the country. The aim of the paper is to analyze the basic characteristics of foreign trade of agricultural and food products of Serbia in the period 2005-2015. The tendencies in export, import, and the level of coverage of import by export of agro-food (or agrarian products are analysed. The participation of these products in the total foreign trade of Serbia is also considered, followed by the comparison of this indicator with the neighbouring countries. In the next part of the paper, the structure of Serbian export and import of agricultural and food products (by product groups is analysed. Special attention is given to the territorial orientation of export and import of agrarian products by the most important trade partners. In order to conduct more comprehensive analysis of comparative advantages, or competitiveness of certain groups of agro-food products of Serbia in the exchange with the world, indicator of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA is calculated. The analysis of qualitative competitiveness is derived using the indicator - unit value of export and import. The analysis points to the dynamic growth in the value of Serbian export and import of agro-food products, with the constant surplus of trade balance in the observed period. These products are significantly represented in the structure of the total foreign trade of the country, particularly in export (with about 20%. RCA indicators show that Serbia has a comparative advantage in trade of agro-food products to the world in primary products and products of lower

  19. Foreign Trade in 2007, Stable and Rapid Development Forecasted——Interview with Li Jian, Senior Researcher, Department of China's Foreign Trade,Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic Cooperation, Ministry of Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ 2006 is the fifth anniversary of China's WTO Accession. As we have seen, China's foreign trade has witnessed rapid development. We now have to be aware of some potential difficulties: trade surplus has increased greatly, the exchange reserve has increased steeply, which has imposed great pressure on China's foreign trade polices and exchange policies;the unbalanced international trade will conttnue, the RMB also faces appreciation; etc. Therefore, what foreign trade developments will occur in 2007?

  20. Strategic Trading in a Two-Sided Foreign Exchange Auction

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Goldberg; Rafael Tenorio

    1995-01-01

    The market microstructure chosen for foreign exchange markets can influence trading volumes and equilibrium exchange rates. With emerging markets and developing countries increasingly utilizing two- sided auctions, we show that the choice of the discrete 'tƒtonnement' auction creates incentives for strategic behavior among market participants. We provide theoretical predictions on strategic under- revelation of demand or supply positions that are supported empirically using detailed data from...

  1. China's Foreign Trade to Grow 15% in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's foreign trade is projected to grow 15 percent next year,according to a report released by the China Institute for WTO Studies on Dec.21,2009.The report forecasts imports to increase by 15 percent and exports up 13 percent.With the external demand improving and the global economic recovery gaining momentum,"the declining trend of China's exports would come to an end next year," the report says.

  2. Foreign trade infrastructure of a frontier region: structure, role and development trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Filippovich Saliychuk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the main factors influencing the efficiency of foreign trade in the region. One of the main factors is described in a more detailed way - the infrastructure of the region's foreign trade. The definition of foreign trade infrastructure is given, it's structure (institutional, material and normative subsystem is determined. The main purpose of foreign trade and infrastructure problems are indicated, the solution of which contributes to the presence of the optimal balance of foreign trade infrastructure in the region. The main factors influencing the development of infrastructure in today's conditions are: transfer of customs registration and formalisation into border regions as well as establishment of the Customs Union within the EurAsEC. Practical issues of foreign trade infrastructure are considered on the example of Kurgan region. The author identifies some trends in the development of infrastructure and describes priority areas for infrastructure development of foreign trade.

  3. Born Global Firms: A Foreign Trade Related Study on Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytaç GÖKMEN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the comprehensive advent in information and communication technologies and worldwide ease of transportation, the volume of international trade and business increased profoundly. Within this process, a Born Global Firm (BGF, right from its initiation, aims at creating competitive advantage by marketing a large volume of its products in various international markets by utilizing technological advances. Therefore, the rational behind the idea of BGF is to become an international firm in a short period of time and making international business affairs core of its business activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to review the concept of BGF theoretically and relate the issue to foreign trade affairs resting on significant sources related to the Turkish case mainly focusing on trade statistics as to review the potential development of BGFs in Turkey.

  4. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-08

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements.

  5. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF FOREIGN TRADE UNIONS TO AMERICAN TRADE UNIONS SUSTEM EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Александрович Шиленко

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade union as a social institution in charge of monitoring the social and labor rights was first formed in the west, and later became the basis for the organization of a similar structure in pre-revolutionary Russia. This organizational structure, having undergone a transformation during the first half of the XX century, was formed in the Soviet trade unions. However, there has been a tendency to reduce the popularity of the trade unions in the countries in which originated the concept of trade unions. Therefore there are some reasons, both economic and political. To analyze this issue, consider examples of typical cases of foreign trade unions. These cases can be seen in the media, as well as in the analysis of studies on the characteristics of modern trade unions, both in our country and abroad. As a results-based on facts and stereotypes to define the place of trade unions in the modern economic system and a comparative analysis of the structure of our country and the United States ' Trade Union.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-99

  6. Wave function method to forecast foreign currencies exchange rates at ultra high frequency electronic trading in foreign currencies exchange markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2015-01-01

    The accurate forecast of the foreign currencies exchange rates at the ultra high frequency electronic trading in the foreign currencies exchange markets is a main topic of our research: 1) the present state of the foreign currencies exchange markets in Asia, Europe and North America; 2) the research review on the classic forecast techniques of the foreign currencies exchange rates dynamics in the foreign currencies exchange markets in the classic finances theory; 3) the description on the qua...

  7. Ownership Principle in the Foreign Trade Statistics: Czech Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rojíček

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic is a small open economy, which is vitally dependent on its export performance. In the period after EU accession the intensity of international cooperation grew rapidly in all the Central European countries, which is mostly the result of the huge FDI inflow at the beginning of the decade. In this context onesignificant problem for the Czech Republic and some other countries of the region appeared: the valuation of the trade flows based on the cross-border measuring overestimates the country’s trade balance in comparison with its value added created. This is the case of trade declared by non-resident units, which is more and more common within the European Union. This phenomenon is even enhanced by strategic geographical location of the Czech Republic, which is an important factor explaining why a lot of this “quasi-transit” trade is beingoperated. The revision of the foreign trade data, which aim is to follow more consistently the ownership approach, significantly changes the picture of the Czech economy, specifically the role of external demand to the economic growth.

  8. 31 CFR 575.412 - Release of Iraqi goods from bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... warehouse or foreign trade zone. 575.412 Section 575.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 575.412 Release of Iraqi goods from bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. Section 575.204 does not prohibit the release from a bonded warehouse or a foreign...

  9. 77 FR 63320 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... in Foreign Trade Sub-zones AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Sub-zones. This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was previously approved. CBP... Trade Sub-zones. OMB Number: 1651-0063. Form Number: None. Abstract: The Foreign Trade Zones Act, 19...

  10. Foreign Trade of China:Pains join happiness in 2005,Hard to Go Ahead in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin; Tao

    2005-01-01

    Foreign trade has become the most im portant issue in the country's economic situation.Domestic experts take the point of view that in 2006, the external demand will be still in a period of expansion, the surplus of foreign trade and export will witness a great increase, meaning that China will be possible to encounter more trade disputes in 2006 than in 2005.

  11. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in...

  12. Foreign Trade Dvelopment between Libya and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Maitah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the analysis of foreign trade development betweenLibyaand the European Union in the recent years. Libya is one of the developing countries with large area, low density of population and large endowment of natural resources, oil and gas. The Libyan economy like a number of other Arab economies, depends heavily on oil revenue, it relies heavily on a single exportable commodity, as the main source of foreign exchange earnings. Trade relations betweenLibyaand the European Union have resulted in preliminary free trade accords that have been proving beneficial for both parties.Libya’s vast holdings in oil have been a primary driver in the resumption of talks and cooperation in terms of an economic sense that tempered with the changed stance of Libyan government has underpinned the new direction. The progress of present state of affairs is herein. The paper was processed within the framework of the Research Project of MSM 6046070906 "The economics of Czech agricultural resources and their effective use within the framework of multifunctional agri-food systems".

  13. How Could China's Foreign Trade Get Over Varlous Difficulties?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2011-01-01

    Dongguan,which leads the development of private enterprises in China,has witnessed the failure of some businesses recently.Some people predict more enterprises will close down in Dongguan in the second half 2011.According to the latest statistics from China Customs,Guangdong,the largest foreign trade province in China,has a total import and export value of US$513.4 billion in the first seven months,up 24% from a year ago.However this growth is still 1.1 percent lower than the national average (25.1%),marking that the cumulative import and export value growth of Guangdong is below national average for the first time in 2011.In August,the trade value growth of Guangdong dropped to 22.4%.

  14. Im/Ex in January: Witness Foreign Trade CONSECUTIVE RECOVERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On February 10, 2010, General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China released the profile of China s foreign trade import and export in January 2010, almost equal to the statistics of 2008.The statistics from customs show that, the total import and export value for January 2010 is US$204.78 billion, increasing 44.4% from 2008. Among the total value, the monthly export reaches US$109.47 billion, 21% increase year-on-year, while the yearly import US$95.31 billion, 85.5% increase year-on-year.

  15. Major Problems and Countermeasures of Foreign Trade in China under the Background of Expanding Domestic Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Starting from China’s macro-economic policy level and combining with the status of foreign trade in China, major problems in the development of foreign trade are analyzed under the background of expanding domestic demand, which is guided by the macro-economy, international finance, international trade and other related disciplines. Problems are mainly the inflation, the reduction of import, the trade protection, the increase in export costs, the reduction of export, the scale shrinkage of foreign trade, the speculation of short-term hot money, and the increase in risk of economic fluctuation. Finally, corresponding countermeasures are put forward, such as actively coping with the appreciation of the RMB, effectively increasing the anti-risk ability of RMB, firmly maintaining the currency stability of RMB, reducing the international trade friction, transforming the growth model of foreign trade, promoting the industrial and products upgrading of foreign trade, enhancing the benefits of foreign trade, forming an effective price competition mechanism, increasing the support in trade, improving the environment for trade development, correctly dealing with the relationship between government and foreign trade enterprise, controlling inflation, and restricting hot money speculation.

  16. 78 FR 49255 - Foreign-Trade Zone 158-Vicksburg/Jackson, Mississippi; Authorization of Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Furniture); Belden, Saltillo, and Verona, Mississippi On February 28, 2013, the Greater Mississippi Foreign... Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Lane Furniture Industries, Inc., in Belden, Saltillo, and...

  17. Intra-industry Affiliate Trade of Foreign Owned Companies in Poland 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    The concept of intra-industry international exchange of goods and assets has attracted a lot of interests within the last 30 years. Concepts like intra-industry trade, intra-industry foreign direct investments, intra-industry affiliate sale, and intra-industry supply have been used in theoretical...... and empirical research with most emphasis laid on intra-industry trade. What has not been investigated until now is a subgroup within intra-industry trade, namely intra-industry affiliate trade which is two-way trade from foreign owned affiliates in a country. By use of a unique database containing trade...... (exports and imports) and industry variables (wages, employment, foreign capital share, investments, sales, etc.) of foreign owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, this paper, investigates for the first time intra-industry affiliate trade (IIAT), including its...

  18. 75 FR 47675 - Request for Public Comments To Compile the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... foreign country's markets; (10) Trade restrictions affecting electronic commerce (e.g., tariff and non... separate cover letters to electronic submissions; rather, include any information that might appear in...

  19. 75 FR 64248 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority Foreign-Trade Zone 196 ATC Logistics & Electronics (Cell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting) Fort Worth, TX Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of... following Order: Whereas, ATC Logistics & Electronics (ATCLE), an operator of Foreign-Trade Zone 196, has... procedures within FTZ 196 on behalf of ATC Logistics & Electronics, as described in the application...

  20. 77 FR 12111 - Foreign-Trade Zones in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Zones in the United States; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 39 / Tuesday, February 28... RIN 0625-AA81 Foreign-Trade Zones in the United States AGENCY: Foreign-Trade Zones Board... the United States. The rule is comprehensive and constitutes a complete revision, replacing...

  1. 75 FR 26198 - Foreign-Trade Zone 152 - Burns Harbor, Indiana, Application for Reorganization under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 152 - Burns Harbor, Indiana, Application for Reorganization...-purpose zone currently consists of six sites in the Burns Harbor/Gary, Indiana area: Site 1: (533,288 sq...); Site 2: (441 acres) within the Port of Indiana/Burns International Harbor, Burns Harbor (Porter...

  2. 75 FR 42069 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 152, Burns Harbor, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 152, Burns Harbor, Indiana Pursuant to its... in the Burns Harbor, Indiana, area, within the Chicago Customs and Border Protection port of...

  3. 75 FR 65448 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Application for Subzone Baxter Healthcare Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Application for Subzone Baxter Healthcare... intravenous (I.V.) product manufacturing facility of Baxter Healthcare Corporation (Baxter), located near... 400). It was formally filed on October 15, 2010. The Baxter facility (500 manufacturing employees...

  4. 77 FR 38269 - Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 7M; Amgen Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 7M; Amgen Manufacturing Limited (Biotechnology and Healthcare Products); Juncos, Puerto Rico Pursuant to its authority... Company, grantee of FTZ 7, has requested an expansion of the scope of manufacturing authority on behalf...

  5. 76 FR 19746 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 133; Quad-Cities, IL/IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... given in the Federal Register (75 FR 12729, 3/17/2010) and the application has been processed pursuant... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 133; Quad-Cities, IL/IA Pursuant to...

  6. 75 FR 103 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 17, Kansas City, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... been given in the Federal Register (74 FR 17953-17954, 4/20/2009) and the application has been... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Order No. 1655 Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 17, Kansas City, Kansas...

  7. 76 FR 40688 - Foreign-Trade Zone 71-Windsor Locks, CT Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... 8, 1981 (Board Order 177, 46 FR 36220, 7/14/81). The zone currently consists of one site (17.5 acres... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 71--Windsor Locks, CT Application for Expansion...

  8. 77 FR 19002 - Foreign-Trade Zone 158-Vicksburg/Jackson, MS; Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Order 430, 54 FR 15480, 4/18/89), and expanded on October 23, 1994 (Board Order 707, 59 FR 54885, 11/2/94), and on March 8, 2005 (Board Order 1378, 70 FR 13449, 3/21/05). The zone currently consists of 17... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 158--Vicksburg/Jackson, MS; Application for Expansion...

  9. 76 FR 25300 - Foreign-Trade Zone 276-Kern County, CA; Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ..., 76 FR 86-87, 01/03/ 2011). The zone currently consists of two sites (1,690 acres): Site 1 (1,443... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 276--Kern County, CA; Application for Expansion...

  10. 78 FR 22843 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33-Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 33--Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export... December 4, 2012, Tsudis Chocolate Company, submitted a notification of proposed export production activity... liquid chocolate admitted to FTZ 33 must be re-exported. Dated: April 11, 2013. Andrew...

  11. The Effectiveness of Web-Based Foreign Exchange Trading Simulation in an International Finance Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chen-Huei; Liu, Hao-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study if trading simulation is an effective tool to increase students' knowledge of the foreign exchange market. We developed a real-time multiuser web-based trading system that replicates an electronic brokerage foreign exchange market. To assess the effectiveness of the program, we conducted surveys in three…

  12. 78 FR 5773 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Panasonic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Panasonic Corporation of North America, (Kitting of Consumer Electronics), Aurora, IL The Illinois... consumer electronics parts into retail packages. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b)4 of the regulations,...

  13. 78 FR 9667 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, California; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 50--Long Beach, California; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Panasonic Corporation of North America (Kitting of Consumer Electronics); Anaheim, CA... FTZ 50. The facility is used for the kitting of consumer electronics parts into retail...

  14. 77 FR 55455 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 235--Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC, (Fragrance Bottling), Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC...

  15. 76 FR 4001 - Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Commerce Census Bureau 15 CFR Part 30 Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System... Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments Requiring... Automated Export System (AES) or through AESDirect for all shipments of used self-propelled...

  16. 76 FR 23787 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 75D, STMicroelectronics, Inc., Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ...., Phoenix, AZ Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U... issued a grant of authority to the City of Phoenix (grantee of FTZ 75) authorizing the establishment of Foreign-Trade Subzone 75D at the STMicroelectronics, Inc., facility in Phoenix, Arizona (Board Order...

  17. 75 FR 64708 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 75 under Alternative Site Framework; Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...; Phoenix, AZ Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U...; Whereas, the City of Phoenix, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 75, submitted an application to the Board (FTZ... Maricopa County and portions of Pinal and Yavapai Counties, Arizona, within and adjacent to the...

  18. 76 FR 10328 - Approval of Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 134, Volkswagen Group of America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 134, Volkswagen Group of America Chattanooga Operations, LLC (Motor Vehicles), Chattanooga, TN Pursuant to its authority under the... of FTZ 134, has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Volkswagen Group of America...

  19. 77 FR 70139 - Foreign-Trade Zone 8-Toledo, OH; Authorization of Production Activity; Whirlpool Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 8--Toledo, OH; Authorization of Production Activity; Whirlpool Corporation (Washing Machines); Clyde and Green Springs, OH On July 20, 2012 the...

  20. 77 FR 46024 - Foreign-Trade Zone 8-Toledo, OH; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Whirlpool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 8--Toledo, OH; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Whirlpool Corporation (Washing Machines), Clyde and Green Springs, OH The Toledo-Lucas County Port...

  1. Urgency Required in Changing the Growth Mode of China’s Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简新华; 张皓

    2008-01-01

    Presently China mainly relies on the low cost of production factors and introducing advanced foreign technology to create an international competitive edge.Thepresent foreign trade growth mode,which is charaterized of quantitative expansion,labor-intensive and low prices,low e ciency,unsustained,is facing lots ofdifficulties.The problems such as the worsening terms of trade,the huge trade surplus,too much dependence on foreign trade,the rising prices of production factors,difficulties in the introduction of high technology,excessive consumption of resources,environmental pressures exacerbated the situations.Therefore,China mustadopt effective measures into a sustained and high efficiency foreign trade growth mode,which is supposed to be described as optimization of export commoditystructure,market diversification,mainly relying on independent innovation and independent brands,promoting trade with science and technology,rationaliztion ofindustrial structure,focusing on high added value.

  2. Impact of Croatian EU accession on its foreign trade and customs system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Štulec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of the effects of Croatian EU accession on its foreign trade and customs system, with special emphasis on bilateral trade with EU and CEFTA countries. With Croatia entering the EU, Croatian trade agreements with the South Eastern European countries no longer apply due to its simultaneous exit from CEFTA. These processes will certainly lead to certain changes in the Croatian foreign trade. The paper, therefore, analyses the current state and the dynamics of foreign trade with EU and CEFTA member countries in the period from 2007 to 2013. Moreover, we also offer an overview of possible changes in foreign trade and customs system, as well as the potential effects of these changes estimated within the previous theoretical and empirical research.

  3. The Significance of Achieving Effective Cross-culture Communication in Foreign Trade Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秋萍

    2016-01-01

    The commercial activities of foreign enterprises are a kind of cross-cultural communication activity. There are many contradictions and conflicts existing in the foreign trade business communication. The thesis aims to discuss the misunderstandings generated in the course of cross-cultural communication and illustrate the importance to improve cross-cultural awareness, as well as providing measures to improve the cross-cultural communication competence in foreign trade business.

  4. China's Foreign Trade and Investment: An Overview and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hung-gayFung

    2005-01-01

    This study discusses the current development of China's trade and investment and their related issues. It presents data consistent with the hypothesis that Chinese firms try, to overcome market impediments, such as capital account inconvertibility and differential tax treatment between foreign and domestic firms, through trade and investment. Various challenges and opportunities related to China's future trade and investment are also discussed.

  5. 75 FR 72801 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 152 Under Alternative Site Framework Burns Harbor, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 152 Under Alternative Site Framework Burns Harbor, IN Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19...

  6. 78 FR 43141 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates), Youngsville, North Carolina On... proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Southern Lithoplate, Inc...

  7. 78 FR 38922 - Foreign-Trade Zone 189-Kent/Ottawa/Muskegon Counties, Michigan; Authorization of Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 189--Kent/Ottawa/Muskegon Counties, Michigan; Authorization of Production Activity; Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates); Grand Rapids, Michigan... activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board for its facility within FTZ 189--Site 10, in Grand Rapids...

  8. 77 FR 55455 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority Foreign-Trade Zone 72, Brevini Wind USA, Inc., (Wind Turbine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Manufacturing Authority Foreign-Trade Zone 72, Brevini Wind USA, Inc., (Wind Turbine Gear Boxes), Yorktown, IN Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones..., has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Brevini Wind USA, Inc., within FTZ 72 in...

  9. 75 FR 40795 - Review of Sourcing Change, Foreign-Trade Subzone 61H, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Review of Sourcing Change, Foreign-Trade Subzone 61H, Baxter Healthcare of...(a)(3)(iii)(A)) of changes in sourcing related to inhalation anesthetics at Foreign-Trade Subzone 61H...-free to 20%). Baxter has now notified the Board of additional sourcing of two chemical inputs. The new...

  10. 77 FR 24459 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 9D, Maui Pineapple Company, Ltd., Kahului, Maui, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 9D, Maui Pineapple Company, Ltd., Kahului, Maui, HI Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as...

  11. 78 FR 28190 - Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Authorization of Production Activity; Foreign-Trade Subzone 29C; GE Appliances (Electric Water Heaters); Louisville, Kentucky On January 7, 2013, GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C in Louisville, Kentucky, submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones...

  12. 31 CFR 560.408 - Importation into and release from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. 560.408 Section 560.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... warehouse or foreign trade zone. The prohibitions in § 560.201 apply to importation into a bonded warehouse... bonded warehouse or a foreign trade zone of Iranian-origin goods imported into a bonded warehouse or...

  13. 31 CFR 592.404 - Importation into or release from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. 592.404 Section 592.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... warehouse or foreign trade zone. The requirements of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme apply to all... withdrawal from, a bonded warehouse or a foreign trade zone of the United States....

  14. 31 CFR 539.406 - Importation into and release from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. 539.406 Section 539.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... release from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. The prohibitions in §§ 539.201 and 539.202 apply to importation into a bonded warehouse or a foreign trade zone of the United States....

  15. 75 FR 4344 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority LG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, IL Application for Temporary/ Interim Manufacturing Authority LG Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc. (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution) Bolingbrook, IL An application has been submitted to the Executive Secretary of the Foreign-Trade Zones Board...

  16. 77 FR 23222 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59, Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority, Novartis Consumer Health, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 59, Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority, Novartis Consumer Health, Inc., (Pharmaceutical Product Manufacturing); Notice of Approval On January 12, 2012, the... Foreign Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 59, requesting temporary/interim manufacturing (T/IM) authority...

  17. 77 FR 75609 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 277; Suntech Arizona, Inc. (Solar Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 277; Suntech Arizona, Inc. (Solar Panel Manufacturing); Goodyear, AZ Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones... requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Suntech Arizona, Inc., within FTZ 277, in Goodyear,...

  18. 76 FR 72675 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 90A Smith Corona Corporation, Cortland County, New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 90A Smith Corona Corporation... establishment of Foreign-Trade Subzone 90A at the Smith Corona Corporation plant in Cortland County, New...

  19. State of Country Report——Foreign Trade 2009-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ The active financial policy and proper monetary policy have achieved initial success. Local aovernments implement central policies and measures seriously, help and give support to enterprises to solve practical problems and explore international markets. Meanwhile majority of foreign trade enterprises have speeded up structural adjustment and enhanced their competitive capacity effectively, succeed to develop new customers. In general, there have been positive changes in China's foreign trade in this particular year. Followings are some main features of foreign trade performance in the first three quarters 2009.

  20. EXPORT PROMOTION POLICY, PREREQUISITE OF AN EFFICIENT NATIONAL FOREIGN TRADE STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIAN-LIVIU OLARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of international trade is widely recognized not only by the business sector, but also by governments. Governments all over the world have reviewed and streamlined their foreign trade strategies during the last decades. Nearly all countries have adopted special export promotion and development programmes. These programmes have focused on providing more efficient trade support services in areas such as trade information, financing, logistics, customs procedures and communications. Trade Promotion Organizations (TPOs have a broad mandate to provide or coordinate trade support services in the above mentioned area.

  1. The mathematical method to optimize the management of foreign trade activities of the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Martyanova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to development of a mathematical model of optimal control of foreign trade activities of the organization and determine the criteria for its effectiveness in a sanctions policy pursued by Western countries against Russia.

  2. Im/Ex in February, 2010:Foreign Trade Continue Recovery Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On March 10, 2009, General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China released the profile of China foreign trade import and export in February 2010, still huge pickup as shown in the year-on-year statistics.

  3. 78 FR 48413 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Production Activity, Orbital Sciences...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ..., Orbital Sciences Corporation, (Satellites and Spacecraft Launch Vehicles); Gilbert, Arizona On April 2... to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Orbital Sciences Corporation, within Site 10, in... Secretary. BILLING CODE 3510-DS-P...

  4. Liberalism in foreign trade versus liberalism in air transportation - is there a link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grancay Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine whether there is a statistically significant link between regulation of international civil aviation and protectionism against foreign trade. We use weighted air liberalization index (WALI as a proxy for the level of regulation in a country’s foreign aviation relations; trade tariff restrictiveness index (TTRI and overall trade restrictiveness index (OTRI as proxies for the level of protectionism in a country’s foreign trade. Correlation analysis shows that there is no statistically significant link between the indicators. Hence, our research confirms the view that air transportation is a specific sector and it is subject to a different kind of policies than trade in goods. We also demonstrate that large high-income countries tend to have a more liberal approach to international civil aviation than small low-income countries.

  5. Optimization of the Import Policy as a Factor of Foreign Trade Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasiuk Taras O.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of ensuring the state foreign trade safety by using the tools of import policy. The analysis of the current condition of Ukraine import and import policy was carried out, the individual tools of the import policy were analyzed, a list of problems with the import that threaten separate industries of Ukraine was given, the measures, which implementation will positively affect the level of foreign trade safety of the state, were proposed.

  6. 75 FR 7546 - Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Eliminate the Social Security Number (SSN) as an Identification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... Census Bureau 15 CFR Part 30 RIN 0607-AA48 Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Eliminate the Social Security... Social Security Number (SSN) as an identification number when registering to file and filing electronic... collecting, compiling, and publishing export and import trade statistics for the United States under...

  7. Foreign Direct Investment and Trade Openness: The Case of Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liargovas, Panagiotis G.; Skandalis, Konstantinos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of trade openness for attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, using a sample of 36 developing economies for the period 1990-2008. It provides a direct test of causality between FDI inflows, trade openness and other key variables in developing regions of the world: Latin America, Asia, Africa, CIS…

  8. National Treatment and American Foreign Policy - The Evolution of National Treatment Approaches in International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Kucherepa, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The National Treatment Clause, Article 1102 of the North American Free Trade Agreement, protects foreign investors from discrimination, including expropriation of their investments. This national treatment approach - equal treatment of foreign investors and local investors by states - was developed to encourage investment in Europe after the Second World War. Over the course of fifty years, the approach has evolved to provide foreign investors with protections over and above those provided to...

  9. Intra-industry Affiliate Trade of Foreign Owned Companies in Poland 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    The concept of intra-industry international exchange of goods and assets has attracted a lot of interests within the last 30 years. Concepts like intra-industry trade, intra-industry foreign direct investments, intra-industry affiliate sale, and intra-industry supply have been used in theoretical...... (exports and imports) and industry variables (wages, employment, foreign capital share, investments, sales, etc.) of foreign owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, this paper, investigates for the first time intra-industry affiliate trade (IIAT), including its...

  10. The Leading Economic Sectors Building Comparative and Competitive Advantages in Romania's Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Giurgiu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available For now on, as a member state of the EU, Romania and the Romanian commercial operators should maximize the foreign trade’s opportunities given by the rich portfolio of free trade agreements of the European Union and try to reorient our exports towards countries where the products of which the structure of our Romanian exports is consisted of hold a comparative and competitive advantage, in order to reduce the Romanian long-term trade balance deficit. Therefore, this paper focuses on finding out the leading sectors with high potential to maintain and consolidate the comparative and competitive advantages of the Romania’s foreign trade.

  11. The Research on Interface between Lithuanian Direct Investment Abroad and Foreign Trade Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anžela Kozlova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific research results related to foreign trade and direct investment abroad (DIA are discussed in the article. The relation of the direct investment abroad and foreign trade is still under the discussion as there is no clear answer whether foreign trade is supplemented or replaced by the direct investment abroad. Since 1997 the flows of the direct investment abroad increased greately in Lithuania. Consequently, it is important to define the link between the DIA and foreign trade considering each country separately. Direct investment abroad and trade links in Lithuania in 1997–2014 are analyzed in the article. The research analysis involves Lithuanian direct investments in the developed countries except some countries, such as Belorus, Russia and Ukraine. It is defined that there is a positive bilateral link between Lithuanian direct investment abroad and foreign trade. It is also observed the impact of general development of Lithuanian direct investment abroad (considering certain countries on the countries economy itself – imports can exceed exports. Engle-Granger causality test is applied in the research paper for the purpose of defining the impact of the DIA on the import and export range.

  12. The Impact on Environmental Kuznets Curve by Trade and Foreign Direct Investment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haisheng; Jia Jia; Zhou Yongzhang; Wang Shugong

    2005-01-01

    Based on data of trade, foreign direct investment (FDI), economic development and environmental conditions in China's 30 provinces between 1990-2002, this paper deals with the impact on Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) of trade and FDI in China. The results show no direct impact on EKC of trade, on the one hand. However, trade contributes significantly to economic growth, and has played a positive role in introducing advanced pollution prevention technology and environmental management methodology to China. Therefore, a proactive trade policy will help solve the environmental pollution problem brought by economic growth. On the other hand, there is a positive correlation between FDI and pollutant emission, which proves that FDI does have some negative influence on environment in China due to hasty introduction of foreign capital and inadequate environmental management system in China.

  13. Skill Intensity in Foreign Trade and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Worz

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explores the link between trade structure, trade specialization and per capita income growth. It is argued that industrial upgrading in export specialization patterns has a positive long-run growth effect, while the effect of structural change in industrial import patterns is

  14. The impact of foreign capital inflows and trade expansion on integrated pollutant discharge from China: Regional differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiufeng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the years from 1991 to 2012 of the nine categories of the provincial pollutant discharge indexes of China, uses the „vertical and horizontal method“ to calculate the comprehensive indexes that can fully measure the provincial pollutant discharge situation of China, establishes a dynamic inter-provincial panel data regression model and makes an empirical test on the relationship among foreign direct investments, foreign trade and pollutant discharge these three factors. The results show that foreign direct investment and foreign trade in different regions have a different impact on pollutant discharge. Therefore, local governments should at all levels be based on local conditions to attract foreign investment and develop foreign trade for the targeted optimization of the structure of introducing foreign investment and improving the quality of foreign trade growth, thus improving the overall situation of China’s pollutant discharge.

  15. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE EVOLUTION OF ROMANIAN FOREIGN TRADE UNDER THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The foreign trade represent the engine of renewal of productive structures of developed countries and the essential vector for the development of newly industrialized nations as countries that can not be considered as belonging to the developing countries, mainly due to exports development. Nobody doubts the need for foreign trade and its possible beneficial effects for the economy of a country, which is supported by John Stuart Mill classical economist, who said that "openness to foreign trade ... is sometimes the effect of an industrial revolution as a country whose resources are poor" This paper analyses, on the one side, the importance of foreign trade and his evolution in 2001– 2010 period, and, on the other side, the consequences of the economic crisis on it. The period under review includes the last years of economic growth in Romania and the first years of actual economic crisis., because the global economic crisis is reflected strongly in the evolution of Romania's foreign trade, which in February 2009, has seen a veritable collapse over the same period of the previous year.

  16. Analysis of Ukraine’s foreign trade turnover in context of free trade zone with European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.Shymanska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the free trade zone between Ukraine and the European Union has many advantages and disadvantages for our country. The changes in Ukraine’s economic integration vector cause much dispute about its prospects and profitability. Nevertheless, the strengthening of economic and political crisis leads to the reduction in foreign trade of Ukraine with the EU. Although in recent years, many institutional limitations for the Ukrainian producers’ entrance to European markets have been removed. The analysis of Ukraine's foreign trade turnover with EU countries showed the indicators of exports and imports structure in the partner countries and allowed to reveal decreasing of intensity of these operations. This can be a negative indicator of activities for the implementation of the Association Agreement with the EU. The study has formulated the perspective directions of foreign trade policy of Ukraine, in particular with respect to the modernization of informational and technical support of the customs clearance of the goods movement, increasing control over the quality of Ukrainian goods and opportunities for the small and mediumsized entities entrance to the European markets.

  17. 76 FR 62760 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, AZ; Application for Temporary/Interim...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    .../Interim Manufacturing Authority; Sub-Zero, Inc.; (Refrigerators); Goodyear, AZ An application has been... County Foreign Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 277, requesting temporary/ interim manufacturing...

  18. China’s Foreign Trade of Nonferrous Metals Keeps Growing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> According to the customs statistics,China’sforeign trade of nonferrous metals in the firstseven months kept increasing with the tradevalue reaching US$18.931 billion,up by 56.5per cent or US$6.831 billion,accounting forover 81 per cent of the total in 2003.During theJanuary-July period,export was US$6.487billion,up by 58.2 per cent or US$2.387 billionyear on year,and import reached 12.4 billion,up by 55.6 per cent or US$4.44 billion.Theforeign trade still shows an unfavorable trade

  19. Foreign Currency Exchange Problems Relating to the Book Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael

    1973-01-01

    In the purchase of books from foreign countries, the basic problem with regard to currency is to decide which currency will be used in these transactions, and how to reach agreement with vendors on this point. (11 references) (Author)

  20. The Impact of Employment of Foreign Workers: Local Employability and Trade Union Roles in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of foreign workers has received increase media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and consequences of employment of foreign workers in Malaysia. Introduction of significant changes in recruitment phenomenon has ended in painful and traumatic atmosphere which barely acceptable by local workforce in Malaysia. This conceptual paper can be derived from the field of industrial relations which play a significant role in employment of foreign workers. The article reports on the preliminary findings on employment status of local workforce and trade union rights affected by employment of foreign workers. In addition, the research makes a number of recommendations, including the need for further development on reducing the employment of foreign workers and more refined targeting of vulnerable foreign workers linked with labor legislations.

  1. Improvement of Listening and Speaking Skills for English Majors in Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章慧

    2016-01-01

    In china, with the guidance of the exam-oriented education, both teachers and students pay more attention to the improvement of English writing skills. However, under the growing trend of economic globalization, mastering English listening and speaking skills is a necessity for students, especially for English majors in foreign trade. In recent years, many researchers have discussed listening and speaking teaching separately. In fact, the two skills are supplementary to each other, which should be taught and practiced simultaneously. Based on the current situation of English listening and speaking skills of English majors in foreign trade, therefore, this thesis aims to summarize a comprehensive teaching method to improve students’ listening and speaking skills in foreign trade. It is also hoped that the findings will provide valuable resources for the relevant studies in the near future.

  2. Analysis of China's Foreign Trade Growth and Discussion of Related Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChanghongPei

    2005-01-01

    China’s foreign trade experienced three consecutive years of super-speed growth in 2002-2004, even though the country was stricken by the SARS epidemic in 2003 and power shortages in 2004. What has gone beyond expectations is that the exports trade still grew with momentum after the central government lowered the export rebate rates by an average of 3 percentage points, starting from January 2004. Such growth momentum is apparently associated with external demand and the performance of the domestic macroeconomy, and even more associated with a series of support policies. This paper tries to raise issues issues associated with these policies on the basis of an analysis of foreign trade performance in 2002-2004, in order to enhance understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of these policies, and to recommend a new line of thought for improving policy arrangements for the growth of import and export trade and for the harmonious development of the macroeconomy.

  3. The Algerian Foreign Trade between the Multilateral Trading System and the Regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayreddine Belaaze

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims at highlighting a major challenge facing global trade and trade in developing countries. Indeed, regional and preferential trade agreements are now more than ever inconsistent and incoherent and one of the principles of the World Trade Organization, the clause of the most favored nation requiring eliminated all forms of discrimination between trading parties, but what we see in regional trade agreements that the preferential tariffs based on a principle of discrimination. All regional trade agreements granting preferential tariffs between member countries, these preferences do not include the remains of non-member countries (rest of world. On the other hand, preferential tariffs are lower than MFN rates. Meanwhile, the number of regional agreements has doubled since 1995 date creation of the WTO, and Algeria like other developing countries considered one of countries which have not benefit a lot from this situation.

  4. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING APPROACHES OF THE REVOLVING LOANS WITH THE EXAMPLE OF THE FOREIGN TRADE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA IOŢA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic context, with a major increase in the foreign business of the Romanian companies, there is a need to finance their activities from various sources in order to meet competition. For this reason I aimed, with this paper, to identify the way to finance current business of foreign trade companies. Considering that for the majority of foreign trade transactions settlement is performed after a maturity established by agreement between the partners, in this interval various payment obligations may occur, reason for which companies resort to short-term funding sources, usually of the revolving type. This paper presents on one hand the financial features of two forms of crediting current activity, most often contracted by companies engaged in foreign trade, as the credit line and the global working loans. In the case of the credit line we presented the accounting methodology applicable to a company that engaged in foreign trade, with the purpose of highlighting the accounting peculiarities of the records of the currency credit line, as well as the costs (interests, fees these imply.

  5. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: A policy and economic comparative analysis for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Husid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to achieve an overall view of Foreign Direct Investment and International Trade in Canada, analyzing both the current situation and the actions and policies being implemented by several provinces to promote this subject. This study will be valuable to companies and governments to understand what has been done and to support strategic planning to invest and trade with Canada, especially for the Brazilian market.

  6. Intra-Industry Affiliate Trade of Foreign-Owned Companies in Transition Economies:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Using a database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises (MNE) in Poland and the intra-industry trade...... become a more important mode of organization for multinational enterprises as Poland has evolved into a relatively stable economic environment where MNEs feel comfortable basing their regional operations....

  7. Intermediation in Foreign Trade: When do Exporters Rely on Intermediaries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Trabold, H.; Trübswetter, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the question of why trade intermediaries (TIs) are frequently used as agents for exports to some countries but not to others. First, we adapt a standard intra-industry trade model with variable export costs (e.g. transport) and fixed export costs (e.g. market access) to include...... a TI that is able to pool market access cost. This framework suggests explanatory factors for the TI share in a country's exports, which are largely in line with the literature. Second, we test these explanatory factors with a new data set based on French customs information. The paper finds that: (i......) higher market access costs increase the TI share, (ii) smaller export markets feature a larger TI share, (iii) network effects are important determinants of trade intermediation....

  8. Services tradeability, trade liberalization and foreign direct investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles); J.J. Stibora (Joachim); A. Vaal, de (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe article analyzes a two-country general equilibrium model to examine the role played by services in the world economy. Services play an increasingly important role in the world economy, as observed, for instance, by the growing share in employment, production, exports and foreign dire

  9. 76 FR 81475 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... privileged foreign (PF) status (19 CFR 146.41) inputs in manufacturing of ink for inkjet printer cartridges... would be either inkjet ink (duty rate--1.8%) or inkjet printer cartridges (duty- free). New material... Portland Inc. ] (Inkjet Ink Manufacturing), Hillsboro, OR An application has been submitted to the...

  10. China's Foreign Trade Availed in the Sino-US Trade Partner Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ China council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) Chairman Wan Jifei and US Commerce Acting Under Secretary for International Trade Tim Hauser signed a Memorandum of Understanding(MOU) on July 11,2005 to launch a new Sino-US International Partner Network in 14 major business centers across China. The MOU was signed during the Sino-US Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade annual meeting.

  11. China's Foreign Trade Availed in the Sino-US Trade Partner Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      China council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) Chairman Wan Jifei and US Commerce Acting Under Secretary for International Trade Tim Hauser signed a Memorandum of Understanding(MOU) on July 11,2005 to launch a new Sino-US International Partner Network in 14 major business centers across China. The MOU was signed during the Sino-US Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade annual meeting.……

  12. 75 FR 13484 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics... Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc. (LGEMU), to process cell phone kits under FTZ procedures within FTZ...

  13. 76 FR 1133 - Foreign-Trade Zone 152-Burns Harbor, IN, Application for Reorganization (Expansion of Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 152--Burns Harbor, IN, Application for Reorganization (Expansion of Service Area) Under the Alternative Site Framework An application has been submitted to...

  14. 77 FR 12007 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7, Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 7, Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority, Baxter..., requesting temporary/interim manufacturing (T/IM) authority, on behalf of Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico...

  15. 77 FR 38269 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 15; Blount, Inc. (Log Splitters); Kansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ..., filed 11-29-2011); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 15; Blount, Inc....

  16. 76 FR 61342 - Foreign-Trade Zone 72 Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority Brevini Wind USA, Inc., (Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 72 Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority Brevini Wind USA, Inc., (Wind Turbine Gear Boxes); Notice of Approval On July 14, 2011, the Executive Secretary of the..., grantee of FTZ 72, requesting temporary/interim manufacturing (T/IM) authority, on behalf of Brevini Wind...

  17. 78 FR 14074 - Foreign-Trade Zone 189-Kent/Ottawa/Muskegon Counties, MI, Notification of Proposed Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 189--Kent/Ottawa/Muskegon Counties, MI, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Southern Lithoplate, Inc., (Aluminum Printing Plates), Grand Rapids, Michigan... Board (15 CFR 400.22) was received on February 22, 2013. The SLP facility is located within Site 10 of...

  18. 78 FR 17635 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates); Youngsville, North Carolina The... notification conforming to the requirements of the regulations of the Board (15 CFR 400.22) was received on...

  19. 75 FR 56995 - Termination of Review of Sourcing Change, Foreign-Trade Subzone 61H, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Termination of Review of Sourcing Change, Foreign-Trade Subzone 61H, Baxter... termination of a sourcing change review related to certain chemical ingredients at the manufacturing facility...

  20. 78 FR 54234 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26-Atlanta, Georgia, Authorization of Production Activity PBR, Inc. d/b/a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 26--Atlanta, Georgia, Authorization of Production Activity PBR, Inc. d/b/a SKAPS Industries (Polypropylene Geotextiles), Athens, Georgia On April 8,...

  1. 78 FR 36165 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 104; (Expansion of Service Area and Expansion of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 43047, 07/23/12) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 104; (Expansion of Service Area and Expansion of Zone); Under Alternative Site Framework, Savannah, Georgia Pursuant to its...

  2. 78 FR 2952 - Foreign-Trade Zone 3-San Francisco, California; Application for Expansion and Expansion of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... on January 9, 2013. FTZ 3 was approved by the Board on March 10, 1948 (Board Order 12, 13 FR 1459, 3/19/48) and the zone was reorganized under the ASF on October 7, 2010 (Board Order 1718, 75 FR 64708... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 3--San Francisco, California; Application for Expansion...

  3. 77 FR 2269 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA, Application for Subzone, Tesla Motors, Inc. (Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose, CA, Application for Subzone, Tesla Motors, Inc... purpose subzone status for the electric passenger- vehicle manufacturing facilities of Tesla Motors, Inc. (Tesla), located in Palo Alto and Fremont, California. The application was submitted pursuant to the...

  4. 78 FR 65963 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, Arizona; Schoeller Arca Systems, Inc. (Plastic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 277--Western Maricopa County, Arizona; Schoeller Arca Systems, Inc. (Plastic Containers Production); Goodyear, Arizona On June 13, 2013, the Greater Maricopa...

  5. 76 FR 81912 - Foreign-Trade Zone 226-Merced, Madera, Fresno and Tulare Counties, CA; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 226--Merced, Madera, Fresno and Tulare Counties, CA... and Air Park Road, Atwater (Merced County); Site 6 (87 acres)--City of Madera Airport Industrial Park/State Center Commerce Park, Falcon Drive, Madera (Madera County); Site 7 (10 acres)--City of Madera...

  6. 75 FR 69057 - Foreign-Trade Zone 226-Merced, Madera, Fresno, and Tulare Counties, California; Site Renumbering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 226--Merced, Madera, Fresno, and Tulare Counties, California... Park, Highway 33, Air Park Road, Atwater (Merced County); Site 6 (87 acres)--City of Madera Airport Industrial Park/State Center Commerce Park, Falcon Drive, Madera (Madera County); Site 7 (10 acres)--City of...

  7. 78 FR 18314 - Foreign-Trade Zone 169-Manatee County, Florida; Application for Production Authority; ASO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 169--Manatee County, Florida; Application for Production Authority; ASO, LLC; Subzone 169A (Textile Fabric Adhesive Bandage Coating and Production);...

  8. 77 FR 74170 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, PR; Application for Subzone; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, PR; Application for Subzone; Pepsi Cola Puerto...-purpose subzone status for the facility of Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, located in Toa...

  9. 78 FR 55057 - Authorization of Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 123E, Vestas Nacelles America, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Authorization of Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 123E, Vestas..., Vestas Nacelles America, Inc., operator of Subzone 123E in Brighton, Denver, Pueblo, and...

  10. 75 FR 52927 - Foreign-Trade Zone 29; Application for Subzone Authority; Dow Corning Corporation; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 29; Application for Subzone Authority; Dow Corning Corporation; Extension of Rebuttal Period Based on a request from Dow Corning Corporation (Dow Corning), the rebuttal period on the preliminary recommendation for the application for ] subzone status at the...

  11. 75 FR 44760 - Foreign-Trade Zone 29; Application for Subzone Authority; Dow Corning Corporation; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 29; Application for Subzone Authority; Dow Corning... the preliminary recommendation for the application for subzone status at the Dow Corning Corporation (Dow Corning) facilities in Carrollton, Elizabethtown and Shepherdsville, Kentucky (75 FR 31763,...

  12. 76 FR 13354 - Foreign-Trade Zone 266-Dane County, WI; Application for Subzone, Cabela's Inc. (Hunting, Fishing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 266--Dane County, WI; Application for Subzone, Cabela's Inc. (Hunting, Fishing, Camping and Related Outdoor Merchandise), Prairie du Chien, WI An application has...

  13. 78 FR 7394 - Foreign-Trade Zone 41-Milwaukee, WI; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; CNH America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 41--Milwaukee, WI; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; CNH America, LLC, Subzone 41I (Tractors and Tractor/Combine Components), Racine, WI The Port...

  14. 78 FR 41911 - Foreign-Trade Zone 39-Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; CSI Calendering, Inc. (Rubber Coated Textile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 39--Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; CSI Calendering, Inc. (Rubber Coated Textile Fabric); Arlington, Texas On March 4, 2013, the Dallas/Fort Worth International...

  15. 75 FR 5281 - Approval of Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 26, Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Order No. 1648 Approval of Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 26, Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia, Inc. (Motor Vehicles), West Point, Georgia Pursuant to its authority under...., grantee of FTZ 26, has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia...

  16. 77 FR 43048 - Foreign-Trade Zone 8-Toledo, OH; Application for Reorganization and Expansion Under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 8--Toledo, OH; Application for Reorganization and Expansion...) Board (the Board) by the Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, grantee of FTZ 8, requesting authority to...: Site 1 (332 acres)--Port of Toledo Complex, Toledo; Site 2 (337 acres)--Toledo Express Airport, 11311...

  17. 77 FR 46377 - Foreign-Trade Zone 37-Orange County, NY, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Takasago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ..., mixtures of odiferous substances and essential oils (duty rate ranges from duty free to 7%). Public comment... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 37--Orange County, NY, Notification of Proposed Production... (Takasago) submitted a notification of proposed production activity for their facility located in...

  18. Intermediation in Foreign Trade: When do Exporters Rely on Intermediaries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Trabold, Harald; Trübswetter, Parvati

    2003-01-01

    The paper explores theoretically and empirically why trade intermediaries (TIs) are frequently used as agents for exports to some countries but not to others. We adapt a standard intra-industry trade model with variable export costs (e.g. transport) and fixed export costs (e.g. market access......) to include a TI that is able to pool market access cost. From this framework explanatory factors for the TI share in a country's exports are derived and subsequently tested with a new data set based on French customs information. The paper finds that: (i) higher market access costs increase the TI share, (ii......) smaller export markets feature a larger TI share, (iii) the TI share is independent from variable (distance-dependent) export costs....

  19. 75 FR 17691 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196 - Fort Worth, Texas, Application for Manufacturing Authority, ATC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Authority, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution), Fort Worth, Texas An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by ATC Logistics & Electronics... kitting and distribution of cell phones. Components and materials sourced from abroad (representing 96% of...

  20. 76 FR 28418 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 104; Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Systems Americas, Inc., (Power Generation Turbine Components), Pooler, GA Pursuant to its authority under... Foreign-Trade Zone 104, has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Mitsubishi Power Systems... FTZ 104 on behalf of Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc., as described in the application...

  1. 77 FR 4758 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, Nebraska, Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Manufacturing Authority, Novartis Consumer Health, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Product Manufacturing), Lincoln, NE An... Lincoln Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 59, requesting temporary/interim manufacturing (T/ IM... request to the FTZ Board for FTZ manufacturing authority beyond a two-year period, which may include...

  2. Persuasive and Politeness Strategies in Chinese Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳芳

    2013-01-01

    During international trade negotiations Chinese salespersons tend to employ a variety of persuasive and politeness strat⁃egies in marketing their products. Persuasion involves face-threatening acts (FTAs), thus politeness strategies which are applied to reduce face-threatening are combined with persuasive communication. This paper, taking Brown and Levinson’s model of po⁃liteness as a reference, makes an analysis on politeness strategies used in persuasive communication of the salespersons.

  3. Foreign Policy Benefits from Subsidization of Trade with Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    The Soviets have mixed incentives with respect to NSWP trade with the West. Howevcr, there is substantial evidence indicating that an explicit Soviet...those trends by tying important NSWP interests to Western sup- pliers and sources of expertise. It is reasonable to expect that such an outcome would...Report No. 95 (Czechoslovakia), May 6, 1983. 8°See Kramer, fn 58, p. 206. 61See " Polluton in Slovakia," RFE Situation Report No. 2 (Czechoslovakia

  4. Foreign trade trends in the Hungarian-Romanian turnover of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós VÁSÁRY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The accession to the European Union (EU has brought a lot of advantages for all the new member states (NMS. The general and wide range implementation of economic integration gave the hope of economic prosperity and macroeconomic stability for all the new member states. In the case of foreign trade of agricultural products the possibility of expansion has opened after EU integration. The chance to build and stabilize new trading relations was especially important for the small countries with an open economy. In general, it can be concluded from the analysis of EU membership that the trade among new member countries has substantially expanded as a result of increasing trading activities in relation to member states which integrated into the EU in 2004 and also due to the elimination of former trading barriers and a growing common internal market. Starting from this, the examination of trading of goods between particular countries is also justified. The important aspects in considering the possible solutions for the consequences of the economic crisis in 2008 are: the strengthening of regional markets, the utilization of geographical conditions and the increasing role of comparative advantages. The present study details how the Hungarian-Romanian agricultural trade has changed in the frames of bilateral trading activities due to the second wave of Eastern expansion and what tendencies can be observed. In regards to trading of goods, it is reviewed which products show concentration and which products can be characterized with comparative advantages.

  5. Foreign Value-added in China's Manufactured Exports: Implications for China's Trade Imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhang; Dongbo Tang; Yubo Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Economists have recently become interested in weighting how much domestic value-added is actually included in China' s exports.Formally,the proportion of foreign and domestic contents could be identified by calculating the vertical specialization share using noncompetitive input-output tables.Applying such a method to the Chinese case,however,would result in a big measurement bias because China has a large share of processing exports,which utilize a disproportionately high percentage of imported intermediates.This paper,by directly employing 2008 trade data for which imported intermediates in both processing and non-processing trade could be identified by means of various trade patterns,provides a simplified way to estimate the share of foreign/domestic value-added included in industry-level manufactured exports.This paper finds that the vertical specialization share of China 's processing exports was about 56percent in 2008,compared to about 10 percent for ordinary exports.It also finds that the sectors that experienced fast expansion of processing exports have a much higher share of foreign contents.Since processing exports accoant for about half of Chinese exports,the prevailing trade statistics,which focus on gross values rather than the value-added of exports and imports,has obviously overstated the bilateral trade imbalances,especially between China and the USA.

  6. Foreign Direct Investment in Visegrad Four and the Main Trading Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Babuněk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at a comparison of the inflow of foreign direct investment per capita in the countries of the Visegrad four and their most important trading partners. For the comparison of countries there was exerted one statistical method - analyses of variance (ANOVA. It was found that there are statistical significantdifferences between the countries of the Visegrad four. It is shown that after the accession of Germany and Austria there is no statistically significant difference between all the countries. Germany and Austria are the geographically nearest countries of the Visegrad countries. After the inclusion of all trading partnerswho have ties to more countries, the Visegrad four is already evident that there are significant differences between countries. However, variances are statistically significant in the inflow of investment to all countries. In the work is shown that a country of the Visegrad four and its nearest trading partners are a compact unitin the inflow of foreign direct investment per capita.

  7. The Foreign Trade of China Surpasses US$1.4 Trillion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Since 2002, China foreign trade development has been keeping a20% growth for 4 consecutive years, listed the 3rd in the world. General Administration of Customs of P. R. China has promulgated the 2005 for eign trade situation of China.The statistics show that the foreign trade of China surmounted US$1 trillion in 2004, and reached up to US$1.42 trillion in 2005, with a growth rate of 23.2%,which was 2.8 times the number of 2001,the beginning of the period of the tenth five-year plan. The export was US$762billion, with a growth rate of 28.4%; the import was US$660.12 billion, with a growth rate of 17.6%.

  8. Foreign trade and pollution: the case of South China water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui; Ai, Danxiang; Lin, Yuling

    2017-01-01

    With rapid economic growth, South China has to face the most serious water pollution. However, whether or not such kind of water pollution is mainly caused by foreign trade is questionable. And, how the trade mode will be changed by pollution and corresponding regulation is also uncertain. In this paper, a fully endogenous model, which integrate economic growth, energy use and pollution, is designed to interpret the interrelation among these key variables in South China. Through this model, a new possibility of water environment Kuznets curve change has been investigated. Attribute to mixed two stage feasible general least square estimation method, we conclude that foreign trade has strong influence on environment change rate and the turning point. It can make the virtuous circle of between economic growth and environment improvement come early or later in different circumstances. Export and import play different role in such process and have counter effects on environment.

  9. China Macroeconomic: Documentation Data Banks. Volume 3. Foreign Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-15

    TIm S from YUAN to DWuA .c TEsI N 7N oTUN TEMN 7EC" Eo~Uq 4 5N TM" N TEO7LN EOB2q TEc09L 1949 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1950 N/A N/A N...various sources: 1. State Statistical Bureau 1981 Yearbook, p.35 7 ( English version), 1981, 1982 FROM SSBYB83, P. 405. 2. Official Ministry of Foreign

  10. Recent Trends of the EU – 27 Foreign Trade Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa - Aurelia Chiţiba,

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In line with the world economy trend, the collapse in world trade in goods and services observed in the last quarter of 2008 intensified inthe first quarter of 2009, but the trough in growth rates has likely been reached; positive quarterly growth rates are expected by the end of 2009. UE-27 registered the slowest export growth of any region last year, with an expansion of just 0.0per cent, down from 3.5 per cent in 2007. Import growthturned negative in 2008, falling by 1 per cent (+3.5 per cent in 2007. If the 27 members of the European Union are considered collectively(excluding internal EU trade, the five leading exporters were the European Union (15.9 per cent of world exports, China (8.9%, the United States(8.1%, Japan (4.9% and Netherlands (3.9 per cent. Exports from the EU were worth US$ 1.93 trillion in 2008. Signs of recovery are not yet soclearly visible in the EU-27 like in USA, in the last part of 2009. Each country has its own specific combination of weaknesses such as burstinghousing bubbles, declining exports and damaged financial sectors. The eventual recovery is likely to be slow as rising unemployment will hitconsumer spending. In the above mentioned conditions, GDP in the euro area is expected to contract 4.8% in 2009 and to show 0% growth in 2010.The previous projections were for a 4.1% fall in 2009 and a 0.3% fall in 2010. The main factors with a positive influence, taken into consideration forrevising up the projections for 2010 in euro area are: the strengthening growth in world trade which will help support a turnaround in exports, thegovernmental policy support and an easing of financial conditions adopted in some countries.

  11. Foreign trade, local protectionism and industrial location in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jiuli; LI Kunwang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we find that,in China,geographical changes of industrial bases in the 1980s had led to a slight drop in the extent of specialization and location imbalance,but in 1990s the specialization and industry imbalance have further developed.The geographical advantage for trade has a significant impact on the location patterns,and the effects of local protectionism are confined to the hinterland in 1990s.The role of comparative advantage in shaping industry location is evident,and some predictions derived from new economic geography are partially supported.

  12. 31 CFR 585.412 - Release of goods originating in the FRY (S&M) from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FRY (S&M) from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. 585.412 Section 585.412 Money and Finance... of goods originating in the FRY (S&M) from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. Section 585.204 does not prohibit the release from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone of goods originating in...

  13. 77 FR 6536 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 177; Best Chair, Inc., d/b/a Best Home...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 177; Best Chair, Inc., d/b/a Best Home Furnishings, Inc. (Upholstered Furniture); Ferdinand, Cannelton, and Paoli, IN..., grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 177, has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Best Chair, Inc., d...

  14. Intra-industry Affiliate Trade of Foreign Owned Companies in Poland 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    (exports and imports) and industry variables (wages, employment, foreign capital share, investments, sales, etc.) of foreign owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, this paper, investigates for the first time intra-industry affiliate trade (IIAT), including its...... industry determinants. Labour intensive industries and specialised supplier intensive industries are shown to operate at the highest level of IIAT, and generally IIAT is shown to be increasing over time. Wage level, labour intensity and scale economies are in panel estimations shown to be significant...... and positively associated to IIAT, while the degree of foreign control over affiliates (measured by the foreign capital share in total equity) is insignificant. Our results are shown partly to be in accordance with the knowledge capital model of Markusen (2002). By assuming that industry variables like scale...

  15. THE PLACE OF SWITZERLAND IN ROMANIA'S FOREIGN TRADE WITH EFTA DURING 2007-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAMFIR PAUL BOGDAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented in a synthetic manner the overall evolution of bilateral trade between Romania and Switzerland in the current period of post-accession of our country to EU. Therefore, in order to be successed on this market - to achieve and maintain stable and long-term commercial relations partners, romanian exporters should pay very attention strict implementation of contractual terms, equality rules, conditions and delivery terms and possibly to inform previously on local prices of competing firms. Also it is important to emphasize that the current EU's legal framework regarding trade relations influenced positively the entire climate of bilateral trade between Romanian and Swiss economic agents. At the same time, the bilateral agreements are also applied by Romania in virtue of its quality as member state of EU that automatically adopted and implemented EU legislation, the international treaties and agreements with third countries. Thus, it is noticeable that in post-accession period to the EU, our country in the field of foreign trade with Switzerland applies the legal framework of EU that has as main effect the development of trade conducted between Romanian and Swiss companies. Also, regarding Romania's foreign trade with EFTA states in the current period of post accession to EU it can be noticed a major improvement, due to the three countries of The European Free Trade Association (EFTA except Switzerland is subject to the European Economic Area (EEA Agreement. In this context the elimination of customs duties in trade between our country and EFTA states leads undoubtedly to entry on Romanian market of products with high quality designed to meet the requirements of domestic demand.

  16. The analysis of the state of foreign trade in the republic of Tuva on the 2011-2015 time period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul M. Oorzhak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines one of the most important topics in socioeconomic development of the Republic of Tuva — the region’s foreign trade. There is a marked lack of research on the current foreign trade turnover of Tuva. We used statistical data provided by the Agency for Foreign Economic Relations of the Republic of Tuva and the Siberian Customs Directorate of Federal Customs Service to analyze the foreign trade turnover and commodity structure of exports and imports for the years 2011-2015. The statistical data are presented in charts, showing the dynamics of the trends observed. In Tuva, imports exceed exports, with the main articles of export being minerals and foodstuffs, and those of import, machinery, equipment and vehicles. Despite the fact that the Republic of Tuva is a border region, its foreign trade is the smallest in the Siberian Federal district. In foreign trade turnover per capita (the indicator used by the World Bank to measure the openness of the global market, the economy of the Republic of Tuva is relatively closed. The factors hindering the development of foreign trade include the absence of railways and a small number of enterprises exporting competitive goods.

  17. The Impact of RMB Revaluation on China’s Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海燕

    2016-01-01

    Since China reformed the exchange rate regime on July 21, 2015, RMB exchange rate has been revalued by 21% so far. The remarkable appreciation of RMB exchange rate has affected China’s foreign trade deeply in the past 10 years. This thesis aims at analyzing the impact of RMB revaluation on Chinese imports and exports from economic point of view, and tries to propose some suggestions and strategies to face the future revaluation and negative effects caused.

  18. Multinational Corporations and Foreign Direct Investments in Romania. Effects on the Romanian Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catana Adina Mihaela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the study of transnational corporations and their business development through foreign direct investments made in other countries, mostly greenfield type countries. The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of these companies enlargement on the Romanian retail market, especially on the consumer goods market. Transnational companies have experienced a very dynamic economic growth, enjoying success at first in their country and then expanding to other countries. As independent players on the international market, multinational corporations are becoming more and more powerful every day. Most of these companies record annual sales of ten million dollars each. The most important aspect of business globalization is the interdependence between national economies. In this process, Foreign Direct Investments have an important role, given the fact that the internal resources are not enough to ensure the development and support of businesses hence the need to obtain external resources. Generally, FDI have a strong training effect both in the national and global economy, providing the replacement and modernization of techniques and technologies, increasing production and supply of goods, improving their quality and competitiveness, creating new jobs and growing the quality of life. Thus, each national economy is building its economic development strategy in which investments have a predominant role. Foreign Direct Investment is a major driver of globalization that characterizes the modern economy. Increasing of Foreign Direct Investment flows, accompanied by the increasing of the portfolio investments, highlights the major role played by transnational corporations, especially in developing economies and transition economies. The most important areas in which FDI was made in Romania are: financial intermediation and insurance, trade, construction and real estate, information technology and communication. The entering of

  19. Foreign direct investment and trade in health services: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D

    2004-12-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant aspect of this is direct trade in health services, a result of the rise of transnational corporations, challenges in health care financing, porous borders and improved technology creating the scope for increased 'foreign direct investment' (FDI) in health care. This has gathered momentum with the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which aims to further liberalize trade in services, and within which FDI has been noted as perhaps the most critical area for trade negotiation. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore seeks to provide the first comprehensive and systematic review of evidence concerning FDI and health services. This process included electronic bibliographic database searches, website searches and correspondence with experts in the area of trade in health services, from which 76 papers, books and reports were reviewed. Perhaps due to the rapid developments in this area, most of the literature is speculative, polarized between those arguing for the benefits of liberalization and those arguing against. However, there seem to be three issues which emerge as of most importance: (i) the extent to which a national health system is commercialized per se is of more significance than whether investment in it is foreign or domestic; (ii) the national regulatory environment and its 'strength' will significantly determine the economic and health impact of FDI, the effectiveness of safeguard measures, and the stability of GATS commitments; and (iii) any negotiations will depend upon parties having a common understanding of what is being negotiated, and the interpretation of key definitions is thus critical. Each of these issues is explored in some depth, with the overall conclusion that countries should take a step back and first think through the risks and benefits of commercialization of their health sector, rather than being

  20. Polish Foreign Trade: The Quality Catch-up and the Influence of Foreign Direct Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates how the Polish transition process has expressed itself in export and inward foreign direct investments (FDI), and the relations between export and FDI. Since 1988, the number of Polish products able to compee in export markets has steadily increased. The quality level...... than that of older surviving products, indicating that Poland is increasingly specialising in price-sensitive sectors, a process that, to some extent, is supported by inward FDI....

  1. 78 FR 13857 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, NC; Authorization of Production Activity; Revlon Consumer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...; Revlon Consumer Products Corporation (Hair Coloring Products); Oxford, NC On October 10, 2012, Revlon... activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Revlon Consumer Products Corporation, within...

  2. 76 FR 63281 - Foreign-Trade Zone 78-Nashville, TN, Application for Subzone, Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Semiconductor, L.L.C. (Polysilicon); Clarksville, TN An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade... Semiconductor, L.L.C. (HSLLC), located in Clarksville, Tennessee. The application was submitted pursuant to...

  3. 77 FR 28568 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, OR; Application for Subzone, Shimadzu USA Manufacturing, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Manufacturing, Inc., Canby, OR An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by... Shimadzu USA Manufacturing, Inc. (SUM), located in Canby, Oregon. The application was submitted pursuant...

  4. 76 FR 771 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 14 Under Alternative Site Framework; Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Framework; Little Rock, AR Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... White Counties, Arkansas, within and adjacent to the Little Rock Customs and Border ] Protection port...

  5. Testing the Effectiveness of Some Macroeconomic Variables in Stimulating Foreign Trade in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Salamaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some concepts of contemporary econometrics depart from the arbitrary division of variables into endogenous and exogenous. In the estimation process of the econometric model or in prediction process, it may be important to test weak or strong exogeneity of variables. In the foreign trade modelling, we oft en deal with variables between which there may be feedback. Thus, the causality of variables in the classic sense is not always obvils and it should be tested to facilitate the proper specification of foreign trade models. This article is aimed at testing the exogeneity of selected macroeconomic variables used in foreign trade models, based on Visegrad Group countries. Exogeneity tests made in this paper are based on the results of the VEC and VAR models, which enabled to explain dynamic relations between variables in foreign trade. The results of this research can be helpful for determining the structure of actual links between variables, estimation of proper models and forecasting of variable values.

  6. 78 FR 16465 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Pepsi Cola...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Activity, Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC (Soft Drink and Fruit Drink Beverages), Toa Baja, Puerto... notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Pepsi...

  7. 78 FR 52758 - Foreign-Trade Zone 123-Denver, Colorado; Application for Subzone, Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board... Pillow Kingdom, Inc. (Pillow Kingdom), located in Aurora, Colorado. The application was...

  8. 78 FR 23904 - Foreign-Trade Zone 114-Peoria, Illinois; Application for Subzone; Easton-Bell Sports, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Sports, Inc.; Rantoul, Illinois An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board...-purpose subzone status for the facility of Easton-Bell Sports, Inc. (EBS), located in Rantoul,...

  9. The trade union freedom of foreigners with no authorization to work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Nieto Roales-Nieto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The need of working, intended in its most primitive expression, as a mean for subsistence, is one of the fundamental causes for the increasement of migratory movements. As a result, a peculiar situation arises: there are foreign workers to whom the law that regulates the right to work does not apply.As trade union freedom is one of the fundamental rights related to work, it does not apply either. The article analyses the compatibility of the dispositions about foreigners that, in this respect, condition the exercise of the freedom of syndication, to the authorization of permanence in the country or residence permission with the scope of application of trade union freedom right provided by the Spanish Bill of Rights. The study does not try to establish the practical viability of the possibility for a foreigner to be covered by the right of syndication but the legitimacy of the normative implications when foreigner´s law (Ley de extranjería is applied confronted to the principles stated in the Spanish Constitution and in international treaties.

  10. FORECASTING CHINA'S FOREIGN TRADE VOLUME WITH A KERNEL-BASED HYBRID EC-ONOMETRIC-AI ENSEMBLE LEARNING APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lean YU; Shouyang WANG; Kin Keung LAI

    2008-01-01

    Due to the complexity of economic system and the interactive effects between all kinds of economic variables and foreign trade, it is not easy to predict foreign trade volume. However, the difficulty in predicting foreign trade volume is usually attributed to the limitation of many conventional forecasting models. To improve the prediction performance, the study proposes a novel kernel-based ensemble learning approach hybridizing econometric models and artificial intelligence (AI) models to predict China's foreign trade volume. In the proposed approach, an important econometric model, the co-integration-based error correction vector auto-regression (EC-VAR) model is first used to capture the impacts of all kinds of economic variables on Chinese foreign trade from a multivariate linear anal-ysis perspective. Then an artificial neural network (ANN) based EC-VAR model is used to capture the nonlinear effects of economic variables on foreign trade from the nonlinear viewpoint. Subsequently, for incorporating the effects of irregular events on foreign trade, the text mining and expert's judgmental adjustments are also integrated into the nonlinear ANN-based EC-VAR model. Finally, all kinds of economic variables, the outputs of linear and nonlinear EC-VAR models and judgmental adjustment model are used as input variables of a typical kernel-based support vector regression (SVR) for en-semble prediction purpose. For illustration, the proposed kernel-based ensemble learning methodology hybridizing econometric techniques and AI methods is applied to China's foreign trade volume predic-tion problem. Experimental results reveal that the hybrid econometric-AI ensemble learning approach can significantly improve the prediction performance over other linear and nonlinear models listed in this study.

  11. 78 FR 44523 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 122 Under Alternative Site Framework; Corpus Christi, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...; Corpus Christi, Texas Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... establishment or reorganization of zones; Whereas, the Port of Corpus Christi Authority, grantee of Foreign..., Kleberg and Bee Counties, Texas, within and adjacent to the Corpus Christi Customs and Border...

  12. 77 FR 12799 - Foreign-Trade Zone 104-Savannah, GA Expansion of Manufacturing Authority Mitsubishi Power Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Foreign-Trade Zone 104--Savannah, GA Expansion of Manufacturing Authority Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (Power Generation Turbines) Pooler, GA An application has been submitted to the Foreign... Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (MPSA), in Pooler, Georgia. The application was submitted pursuant...

  13. 78 FR 1197 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 8 Under Alternative Site Framework; Toledo, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Framework; Toledo, OH Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... establishment or reorganization of zones; Whereas, the Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, grantee of Foreign..., Lucas and Defiance Counties, Ohio, in and adjacent to the Toledo- Sandusky Customs and Border...

  14. 17 CFR 240.3a12-8 - Exemption for designated foreign government securities for purposes of futures trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for designated foreign government securities for purposes of futures trading. 240.3a12-8 Section 240.3a12-8 Commodity and... trading. (a) When used in this Rule, the following terms shall have the meaning indicated: (1) The...

  15. Polish Foreign Trade: The Quality Catch-up and the Influence of Foreign Direct Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2000-01-01

    of these products, however, still lags substantially behind and until 1996 there have been no signs of a significnat quality catching-up in polish export structure relative to some dynamic Asian economies and the EU-countires.The quality level of new Polish export products coming into the markeet is, in fact, lower......This paper investigates how the Polish transition process has expressed itself in export and inward foreign direct investments (FDI), and the relations between export and FDI. Since 1988, the number of Polish products able to compee in export markets has steadily increased. The quality level...... than that of older surviving products, indicating that Poland is increasingly specialising in price-sensitive sectors, a process that, to some extent, is supported by inward FDI....

  16. Foreign trade and early industrialisation in the Habsburg Monarchy and the United Kingdom - Two extremes in comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Simone

    2011-05-15

    The concept of socio-ecological transitions is used to analyse the quantitative importance of physical imports and exports for the Habsburg Empire and the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th centuries. For the Habsburg Empire, a new dataset of foreign trade and social metabolism is presented. For the United Kingdom, the analysis relies on previously published data. Foreign trade volumes increased in both countries in the long run. Total trade volumes were much higher in the United Kingdom throughout the entire time period, on average by around a factor four. Physical factors explaining the disparities in structure and volume of foreign trade in the two countries are differences in (1) the temporal patterns of the socio-ecological transition and (2) domestic resource endowments. In both countries, energy carrying materials, i.e. fossil fuels and biomass, were the dominant resources in physical foreign trade. The analysis focuses on the physically most important material groups: coal, wood and cereals, and discusses the role of imports and exports in relation to domestic resource provision and environmental pressures. Physical foreign trade increased at a faster pace than domestic resource extraction and consumption. The socio-ecological transition was thus accompanied by rising international integration of resource supply.

  17. Foreign trade and early industrialisation in the Habsburg Monarchy and the United Kingdom — Two extremes in comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The concept of socio–ecological transitions is used to analyse the quantitative importance of physical imports and exports for the Habsburg Empire and the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th centuries. For the Habsburg Empire, a new dataset of foreign trade and social metabolism is presented. For the United Kingdom, the analysis relies on previously published data. Foreign trade volumes increased in both countries in the long run. Total trade volumes were much higher in the United Kingdom throughout the entire time period, on average by around a factor four. Physical factors explaining the disparities in structure and volume of foreign trade in the two countries are differences in (1) the temporal patterns of the socio-ecological transition and (2) domestic resource endowments. In both countries, energy carrying materials, i.e. fossil fuels and biomass, were the dominant resources in physical foreign trade. The analysis focuses on the physically most important material groups: coal, wood and cereals, and discusses the role of imports and exports in relation to domestic resource provision and environmental pressures. Physical foreign trade increased at a faster pace than domestic resource extraction and consumption. The socio–ecological transition was thus accompanied by rising international integration of resource supply. PMID:21760665

  18. CONCEPTS AND METODOLOGIES REGARDING THE IMPROVEMENT OF ROMANIAN FOREIGN TRADE (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrea Adrian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current paper is to highlight possible engines that can boost Romanian foreign trade from a chronic deficit to a more balanced one. In the beginning, the main theories and models that tackle this subject will be presented. In this respect, the paper starts with Smith, Ricardo, Manoilescu and Heckscher-Ohlin, in order to see the historic thought of trade model development. Following these models, a more mathematical approach will be made, using a thorough analysis at the product level. All the computations will be based on the combined nomenclature with its XXII classes, being the most exact determinant of traded goods. This paper uses the statistical indicators of Michaely and Lafay, in order to determine the specialization effect of the Romanian classes for a period of twenty one years, starting with 1991 and ending in 2012. This is the point where former, current and future specialized engines of potential trade growth can be established. It is crucial for a country to determine its potential in an open international arena, in order to take the necessary steps to encourage or discourage productive or non-productive areas of certain industry branches. Based on the results and on the previous methodology, a mix of theory with solid mathematical analysis, will gives the opportunity to draw up different sets of sustainable development formulas in order to obtain a higher concentration ratio regarding several classes from the combined nomenclature. For Romania to obtain higher gains from international trade, a more sustainable integration in the European Union, it has to stop its chronic balance of trade deficit. Looking at and analysing the potential development of a combined nomenclature class or classes, will help improving Romania’s chronic deficit, offering a long term prospective of sustainable development, reducing its foreign debt, improving its balance of trade accounts, and transforming its import driven economy to a

  19. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Books Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations; National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; Calendar, 2003-2012; Acronyms; Index of Organizations; Subject Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the United States and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) standards; calendar, 2003-2012; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  20. Data Watch on China's Foreign Trade and investment in the First Ten Months of 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's foreign trade in the first ten months of 2011 According to statistics of the Customs, China's exports and imports in the first ten months of the year reached $2.97538 trillion, up 24.3% over the same period last year, 12 percentage points lower than that of the previous year.Specifically, exports stood at $1.54971 trillion, up 22.0% year on year, 10.7 percentage points lower than that of the previous year; imports $1.42568 billion, up 26.9%, 13.7 percentage points lower than that of the previous year.The first ten months of the year saw a trade deficit of $124.03 billion, a decline of 15.4% from the previous year.

  1. International Trade and Foreign Direct Investment as Innovation Factors of the U.S. Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napiórkowski1 Tomasz M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to asses the hypothesis that foreign direct investment (FDI and international trade have had a positive impact on innovation in one of the most significant economies in the world, the United States (U.S.. To do so, the author used annual data from 1995 to 2010 to build a set of econometric models. In each model, 11 in total the number of patent applications by U.S. residents is regressed on inward FDI stock, exports and imports of the economy as a collective, and in each of the 10 SITC groups separately.

  2. PRICE CATEGORIES USED IN FOREIGN TRADE TRANSACTIONS IN THE LIGHT OF THE DELIVERY TERMS INCOTERMS 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliu - Popa Lucia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On the international markets of goods, pricing is usually done by the confrontation between supply and demand, under pressure from global competition; such pricing is influenced by many other factors that reflect the structural crisis phenomena triggered in the world economy, or factors specific to different groups of goods. After negotiation, the contracting parties should obtain the best price, taking into account the circumstantial situation of the world market upon the transaction, the quality and the technical and functional parameters of the goods subject to negotiations, comparable to those of the competition, the delivery terms and the payment method. From this perspective, we believe that the provision of substantiated external prices makes it easier to obtain maximum benefits and achieve the trade with foreign countries under the best terms. Because the external price is an essential element of the agreement of international sale of goods that contributes substantially to the profitability of an entity, we will deal below with the main categories of prices used in foreign trade activities, both in intra-Community and international transactions, taking into account the models for calculating the external price, compared to the delivery terms Incoterms 2010.

  3. TRENDS IN ROMANIA'S AGRO-FOOD FOREIGN TRADE IN THE PERIOD 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the analysis of Romania's agro-food foreign trade dynamics in the period 2007-2012 in order to identify its major trends and changes. In 2012, the agro-food export reached Euro Million 2,812, and import Euro Million 3,834. The Euro Million -1,021 balance deficit proved that Romania is still a net exporting country. The EU accounts for about 72 % in export and 70% in import value, of which agro-food trade contributes by 8.90 % and, respectively by 9.54% in Romania's import. In 2012, the agro-food export structure was the following one:Vegetable products 38.66%, Prepared foodstuffs, beverages and tobacco 36.02 %, and Live animals and animal products 18.99 %, and the agro-food import structure was: Prepared foodstuffs, beverages and tobacco 38.39 %, Vegetal products 30.89 %, and Live animals and animal products 25.62 %. The main Romania's trade partners are Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, Spain, Germany, The Netherlands, Greece, France, Austria and United Kingdom for agro-food export (88.14 % and Hungary, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Bulgaria, Italy, France, Austria, the Czech Republic and Greece for agro-food import (88.38 %. In the period 2007-2012, an improved efficiency of the agro-food trade was noticed in terms of export/import ratio, export value per GDP and per inhabitant, and lower and lower deficit of the trade balance.

  4. Configuración actual del comercio exterior en Galicia = Current foreign trade framework in Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Placer Galán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La reciente crisis económica y la contracción de la demanda interna han impulsado un creciente interés por los mercados exteriores. Esta investigación pretende caracterizar la configuración actual del comercio exterior de la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia, tanto en lo relativo a los productos como a los mercados geográficos de origen y destino. Para ello se emplean una serie de indicadores, ampliamente contrastados en la investigación económica, que permiten identificar: el grado de apertura de la economía provincial leonesa; la propensión exportadora y la dependencia importadora; el grado de concentración, por producto y mercados, de sus flujos comerciales exteriores; la especialización exportadora y la ventaja comparativa sectorial; la composición inter o intra-industrial del comercio exterior; y la distribución geográfica de los flujos comerciales de la economía gallega con los mercados exteriores. The recent economic crisis and internal demand contraction have encouraged the emerging interest in international markets. This study aims at featuring the current foreign trade framework of the Galicia, in regards to both import and export products and geographical markets. For that purpose, several indexes, widely verified in this study, have been utilized to identify the trade openness level of Leon economy, its export propensity, import dependence as well as the concentration level for products and internal trade flows. Leon export specialization, its comparative advantage by sector, the inter-intra-industry trade composition and geographical distribution of trade with international markets have been likewise included in this study.   Keywords: .

  5. Influences of Border Carbon Adjustments on China's Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Lingling; Gu Alun; Teng Fei; He Jiankun

    2012-01-01

    The EU, the United States and other economies, with the intention to implement unilateral trade measures Border Car- bon Adjustments, impose emission reduction pressure on develop- ing countries. Once implemented, the measures will have great im- pact on China's foreign trade. Using the input-output table in 2007, this paper had analyzed the influences on China's foreign trade as a whole and sub-sectors in three tax rates scenarios. The results showed that the tariff level of China's exports will increase by 3.6%-6.3% if the tax was levied on exports embodied emissions, and by 1.0%-1.7% if levied on export direct emissions. In 2007, the former total amount of carbon tax was about US$42.6-73.0 billion, 4 times that of the latter. Based on export embodied emis- sions, sectors largely influenced were non-traditional energy in- tensive ones, such as textile, et al. These sectors should be encour- aged to carry out industrial upgrading, raising the value-added of export goods, and reducing their embodied emissions by reductionof energy intensity. Taking into account of the complexity of data collection, the tax levied on products direct emission is more op- erational. The results showed that the five top sectors most affected were other chemical materials, processing of petroleum and nucle- ar fuel, coking, smelting and rolling of ferrous metal and textile. Most of them were energy intensive sectors. Therefore, adjusting export products structure, and controlling too fast development of energy intensive industries are also important strategies in China.

  6. 77 FR 49055 - Request for Public Comments To Compile the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... goods, services, and U.S. foreign direct investment for inclusion in the NTE. The TPSC invites written... the most important foreign barriers affecting U.S. exports of goods and services, U.S. foreign direct... foreign films, and barriers to the provision of services by professionals); (6) Investment barriers...

  7. When Procedural Legitimacy Equals Nothing: Civil Society and Foreign Trade Policy in Brazil and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Rodrigues Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-state actors contribute with inputs to the elaboration of the national interest in trade negotiations, thus enhancing its legitimacy. Nevertheless, does the participation of those actors necessarily equal influence on the part of all segments of civil society on policymaking? To answer the question, I argue that procedural legitimacy should be evaluated not only in relation to the inputs society provides to the State, but should also consider whether officials actually analyse societal contributions in decision-making. I demonstrate the empirical application of the model based upon Brazil's experience in multilateral trade negotiations during the 2000s, using Mexico as a shadow case. I conclude that foreign trade policymaking can only be democratised if, in procedural legitimacy, the State attributes equal weight to contributions from all types of societal actors, including civil society organisations and organised social movements, which tend to have less material resources and power than interest groups such as business associations and labour unions.

  8. Peculiarities of non-tariff restrictions adjustment in foreign trade between the U.S. and EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Tustanivskyy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the theoretical evaluation of the non-tariff trading conditions essence, determination of their place and importance in the trade between the U.S. and the EU, the assessment of possible effects due to its reduction or complete freezing. The paper takes into consideration the subject-matter and importance of non-tariff methods of foreign trade regulation, finds their place and distinguishes their specific use in the foreign trade relations between the U.S. and the EU. Accordingly, the trading terms between the above-mentioned trading partners are found to be mostly liberal, and major restrictions have non-tariff character. The estimation of the rationality of the existing non-tariff trade barriers is given, and the possible effects after their adjustment, shown up in the GDP growth, imports and exports volume, population higher incomes and wages, are evaluated. The importance of the non-tariff restrictions adjustment in the context of prospects for the transatlantic free trade area creation is emphasized.

  9. Mathematical economics methods in assessing the effects of institutional factors on foreign trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, M. A.; Nepp, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    Foreign trade activity (FT) is an essential driver of economic development; therefore, factors affecting its efficiency should be analysed. Along with the conventional economic factors affecting FT development, a focus should be given to institutional factors, whose role also cannot be neglected. Recent studies show institutional factors to produce both qualitative and quantitative effects on a country's economic development, with various criteria and assessment approaches having been developed for their estimation. This paper classifies mathematical methods used to assess the effect of institutional factors on FT efficiency. An analysis of conventional mathematical models describing the relationship between institutional factors and FT indicators is provided. Mathematical methods are currently the major instrument for the analysis of FT parameters and their dependence on various external factors.

  10. 76 FR 50287 - Request for Public Comments To Compile the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ..., services, and U.S. foreign direct investment for inclusion in the NTE. Once again, the TPSC is requesting... barriers affecting U.S. exports of goods and services, U.S. foreign direct investment, and protection of... professionals); (8) Investment barriers (e.g., limitations on foreign equity participation and on access...

  11. The Problems of the Non-Tariff Regulation of Foreign Trade Activities in the Conditions of Free Trade Zone between Ukraine and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Рanaseyko Irina M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at generalizing the results of establishing the free trade zone between Ukraine and the EU in 2016, and developing measures to improve the system of non-tariff regulation of foreign trade activities. The substance, objectives, and tools of the non-tariff regulation of foreign trade activity, as used in the EU and in Ukraine, were considered. The major attention was paid to the tariff quotas for Ukraine in the terms of the free-trade zone with the European Union. The tariff quotas for different goods were analyzed from the view of their adequacy and uniformity of use. Reasons for partial use or non-use of the tariff quotas were identified. Issues of effectiveness of implementation of the restrictive function of tariff quotas, as well as their influence on Ukrainian exporters, were considered. A comparative characterization of the tariff quotas, which were applied within the terms of the free trade zone for Ukraine and for the EU, was carried out. The article specifies the necessity for compliance by Ukraine with technical reglaments, environmental regulations, sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures, marketing standards. The major obstacles to the Ukrainian products’ entering the European markets were identified.

  12. 75 FR 53638 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 22; LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 22; LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc. (Cell Phone Kitting and... manufacturing authority on behalf of LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc. (LGEMU), within FTZ 22 in Bolingbrook... Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc., as described in the application and Federal Register notice, is...

  13. 76 FR 76122 - Foreign-Trade Zone 15-Kansas City, MO; Application for Manufacturing Authority; Blount, Inc. (Log...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ...; Blount, Inc. (Log Splitters); Kansas City, MO An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade.... The facility is used for the assembly, warehousing and distribution of forestry, farm and log products. FTZ manufacturing authority is being requested for the assembly of gasoline powered log...

  14. 77 FR 26252 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, Oregon, Expansion of Manufacturing Authority, Epson Portland, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... (original and one electronic copy) shall be addressed to the Board's Executive Secretary at: Foreign-Trade Zones Board, U.S. Department of Commerce, Room 2111, 1401 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC...

  15. 75 FR 17125 - Foreign-Trade Zone 113-Ellis County, Texas, Application for Reorganization under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... May 14, 2010. Submissions (original and one electronic copy) shall be addressed to the Board's Executive Secretary at: Foreign-Trade Zones Board, U.S. Department of Commerce, Room 2111, 1401...

  16. 77 FR 41742 - Reorganization and Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 202 Under Alternative Site Framework Los...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... Framework Los Angeles, CA Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... general-purpose zones; Whereas, the Board of Harbor Commissioners of the City of Los Angeles, grantee of... authority to reorganize and expand under the ASF with a service area of Orange County and portions of Los...

  17. 76 FR 50717 - Foreign-Trade Zone 74, Baltimore, MD; Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... (Site 9); Henry Bath (Site 12); Under Armour (Site 13); Pacorini Metals (Sites 17 & 25); Ruxton Services... Under Alternative Site Framework An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ... of FTZ 74, requesting authority to reorganize and expand the zone under the alternative site...

  18. 75 FR 59695 - Foreign-Trade Zone 169-Manatee County, Florida; Extension of Subzone; Aso LLC (Adhesive Bandage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... (Adhesive Bandage Manufacturing); Sarasota County, FL An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade... strips per year) was approved by the Board in 2000 for the manufacture of adhesive bandages under FTZ... has at times instead used various duty suspension provisions on adhesive tape. Aso is now...

  19. The Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, Marc Verwilghen, with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2005-01-01

    Marc Verwilghen, Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, came to CERN on 8 April 2005, where he visited the CMS assembly hall and underground cavern, as well as the hall where the LHC superconducting magnets are being tested.

  20. The impact of foreign trade in agricultural products of Bosnia and Herzegovina within the framework of CEFTA 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćejvanović Ferhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions, characterized by the growing importance of foreign trade between the countries, relations of a country with international environment play an increasingly impor­tant role in economic development. Over the last decade the process of economic integration through the removal of barriers for the free movement of goods, services, money and people has improved job creation and economic growth. From economic cooperation with foreign countries should expect positive effects on the economy of the state if the external economic factor used in accordance with the plans and programs of economic development of a coun­try. Thereto, there are social forces that can decide relatively independently to all elements of internal development and cooperation with foreign countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the CEFTA 2006 on the foreign trade of agricultural products in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this respect it may be noted that foreign trade of agricultural products has an impact on the agricultural sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  1. An Analysis on the Structure of Foreign Trade in Indonesia%印尼的对外贸易结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭旭; 王珊珊

    2004-01-01

    With the traditional trade theory as a base, this essay mainly analyses Indonesian present conditions of import and expert goods, the percentage of GDP in its foreign trade together with its competitive conditions of its export goods and finally the present conditions of Sino - Indonesian trade.

  2. 我国大米的外贸竞争力分析%Analysis of Chinese Rice Foreign Trade Competitiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白建军; 徐立青

    2012-01-01

    大米是我国人口消费的主要粮食产品,其生产与贸易状况直接关系到我国的粮食安全.从我国大米进出口种类、贸易量、贸易额以及进出口市场的现状出发,采用国际市场占有率和贸易竞争力指数这2项指标分析比较了亚洲4个大米贸易大国(中国、泰国、巴基斯坦和印度)的大米外贸竞争力.结果表明,同泰国、巴基斯坦和印度相比,我国大米的外贸竞争力较弱.同时,从政府政策、出口价格、质量3个方面进行了分析,并提出了提高我国大米外贸竞争力的3点政策建议.%As one sort of main food products for Chinese people consume, rice production and trade is directly related to our country's food security. This paper proceed from present situation of China's rice foreign trade in terms of its sorts, trade volume and amount, and adopting of two indicators-international market shares and trade competitiveness index, analyzed and compared rice trade competitiveness with four Asian countries including China, Thailand, Pakistan and India. The result showed that compared with the other three countries, China's competitiveness of rice foreign trade was weaker. In adition, a reason analysis was conducted from the perspective of governmental policy, export price and quality, and three points of suggestions were put forward to improve the competitiveness of Chinese rice foreign trade.

  3. Overweight in the Pacific: links between foreign dependence, global food trade, and obesity in the Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassels Susan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM has received considerable attention for their alarming rates of overweight and obesity. On Kosrae, one of the four districts in the FSM, 88% of adults aged 20 or older are overweight (BMI > 25, 59% are obese (BMI > 30, and 24% are extremely obese (BMI > 35. Recent genetic studies in Kosrae have shown that obesity is a highly heritable trait, and more work is underway to identify obesity genes in humans. However, less attention has been given to potential social and developmental causes of obesity in the FSM. This paper outlines the long history of foreign rule and social change over the last 100 years, and suggests that a combination of dietary change influenced by foreigners, dependence on foreign aid, and the ease of global food trade contributed to poor diet and increased rates of obesity in Micronesia. The last section of the paper highlights the Pacific tuna trade as an example of how foreign dependence and global food trade exacerbates their obesity epidemic.

  4. Financing India’s Trade under WTO regime and post RBI Road MAP 2005 with reference to Business Practices Models of Foreign Banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Edurkar, Ashok; Shaikh, Dr.Atik Asgar

    2016-01-01

    In view of effective financing of domestic and foreign trade, foreign banks have been given more free hand in Indian banking sector after India’s accession to WTO. Under WTO regime, developed countries are seeking progressive removal of the limitations relating to further opening of branches and allowing establishment of wholly-owned subsidiaries. After 2005 RBI’s Road Map for foreign banks, which allowed fair competition and geographical expansion, foreign banks became aware of new strategic...

  5. The Chinese-English Translation of Company Profiles-A Case Study Based on Foreign Trade Companies in Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖; 滕雅芸

    2015-01-01

    As Chinese enterprises are seeking various ways to develop foreign cooperation abroad, the Chinese-English transla⁃tion of company profiles plays an ever greater role in communication with the whole world. However, a number of the transla⁃tion versions fail to achieve a satisfactory effect, neglecting target readers' cultural background and their mode of thinking. This thesis intends to make an exploration of differences between Chinese and English company profiles and discuss the pragmatic, cul⁃tural and linguistic translation errors appeared in some company profiles of foreign trade enterprises in the city of Ningbo.

  6. Transductive Ordinal Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Seah, Chun-Wei; Ong, Yew-Soon

    2011-01-01

    Ordinal regression is commonly formulated as a multi-class problem with ordinal constraints. The challenge of designing accurate classifiers for ordinal regression generally increases with the number of classes involved, due to the large number of labeled patterns that are needed. The availability of ordinal class labels, however, are often costly to calibrate or difficult to obtain. Unlabeled patterns, on the other hand, often exist in much greater abundance and are freely available. To take benefits from the abundance of unlabeled patterns, we present a novel transductive learning paradigm for ordinal regression in this paper, namely Transductive Ordinal Regression (TOR). The key challenge of the present study lies in the precise estimation of both the ordinal class label of the unlabeled data and the decision functions of the ordinal classes, simultaneously. The core elements of the proposed TOR include an objective function that caters to several commonly used loss functions casted in transductive setting...

  7. Programs of financing of foreign trade ebrr and their implementation in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Kovtonyuk, O.

    2009-01-01

    In the article justified the importance of IMF and Worldbank Group in the financing of international trade, and carried out the analysis of international trade projects financing, which have been implemented in Ukraine.

  8. 76 FR 60801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 118-Ogdensburg, NY Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ...'s regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and analyze the....trade.gov/ftz . For further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202)...

  9. 75 FR 17126 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26-Atlanta, Georgia, Application for Expansion and Reorganization under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ staff is designated examiner to evaluate and... via www.trade.gov/ftz . For further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov...

  10. Patterns of Foreign Direct Investment Flows and Trade-Investment Inter-Linkages in Southern Africa : Linking Middle-Income and Low-Income Neighbors

    OpenAIRE

    Isik, Gozde; YOSHINO, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    This report discusses the patterns of foreign direct investment flows and trade-investment inter-linkages in Southern Africa. It will discuss how cross-border investment flows create a possible channel of growth spillover from South Africa and other MICs to LICs in the subregion, and identify the roles of subregional trade and investment flows in generating these neighborhood effects with ...

  11. Living standards, terms of trade and foreign ownership: reflections on the Australian mining boom

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Australia is experiencing its largest mining boom for more than a century and a half. This paper explores, from a national perspective, important economic differences that arise when a mining boom, such as the current one, is generated by sustained export price increases (trading gains) rather than export volume increases. Since 2003, the terms of trade changes – through their direct trading gain effect and indirect real GDP effects – have increased Australian living standards. The increase, ...

  12. 76 FR 14900 - Foreign-Trade Zone 137-Washington Dulles International Airport, VA Area; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... exempted. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated..., which is accessible via http://www.trade.gov/ftz . For further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: March 14, 2011. Andrew McGilvray, Executive...

  13. IMPACT OF FOREIGN POLITICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL INSTABILITY ON U.S. AGRICULTURAL TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Awokuse, Titus O.; Gempesaw, Conrado M., II

    2003-01-01

    Very little research exists on the potential impact of political and institutional instability on agricultural trade. This paper evaluates the effects of political instability on U.S. agricultural exports. Relative to effects of potential instability measures, we found that the economic variables are more significant determinants of bilateral agricultural trade.

  14. 外贸企业会计内控研究%Research on the accounting internal control of the foreign trade enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞金玲

    2014-01-01

    对外贸企业而言,会计内部控制机制是外贸企业财务处理、业务程序等进行规范的一种管理手段,是外贸企业内部管理的基础和内部控制的关键控制点,在整个外贸企业的发展运行中发挥着重要作用。基于此,通过探讨当前外贸企业会计内部控制机制的现状,对其未来发展提出了相关建议。%For the foreign trade enterprise,the internal control mechanism of accounting is a management tool of foreign trade enterprise financial processing,business process specification,is the foundation of internal control and the key control points of foreign trade enterprise internal management,plays an important role in the development of foreign trade enterprises in the operation of the whole. Based on this,through probing into the present situation of current foreign trade enterprise internal accounting control mechanism ,the related suggestions on its future development are put forward.

  15. Romania’s foreign trade with the European Union in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta Stangaciu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I proposed to analyze the spatial concentration of international trade flows between Romania and the European Union both overall and by the sections of the Combined Nomenclature. Using statistical analysis methods such as square and Gini’s index or Onicescu informational energy, I concluded that Romania’s main trade partners are Italy, Germany and France and trade relations with these 3 countries are characterized by exchanges of good to cover, generally a wide range of products.

  16. 77 FR 20356 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, AZ; Application for Manufacturing Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Manufacturing Authority; Suntech Arizona, Inc., (Solar Panel Manufacturing), Goodyear, AZ An application has..., Inc., grantee of FTZ 277, requesting manufacturing authority on behalf of Suntech Arizona, Inc... foreign inputs that become scrap or waste during manufacturing. FTZ designation would further...

  17. 76 FR 45772 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone-Brunswick, ME; Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... to the Board on a case-by-case basis. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of... information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: July 27,...

  18. 76 FR 72673 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33-Pittsburgh, PA; Application for Reorganization/Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ..., Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and analyze the facts and information... information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: November 17,...

  19. 76 FR 80885 - Foreign-Trade Zone 44-Morris County, NJ; Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... on a case-by-case basis. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff..., contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: December 20, 2011. Andrew...

  20. 76 FR 80331 - Foreign-Trade Zone 99-Wilmington, DE; Application for Reorganization and Expansion Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and analyze the facts and... further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated:...

  1. 76 FR 80333 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone; Miami, Florida Area Under Alternative Site Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... to the Board on a case-by-case basis. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of..., contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce @trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: December 16, 2011. Andrew...

  2. 76 FR 67672 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone; Genesee County, NY, Under Alternative Site Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Board on a case-by-case basis. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ... Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: October 27, 2011. Andrew...

  3. 75 FR 12730 - Foreign-Trade Zone 163-Ponce, Puerto Rico; Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ..., Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate ] and analyze the facts and information... further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or 202-482-1346. Dated: March...

  4. Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade: Key Issues for the 110th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-20

    preferences under the Andean Trade Preferences Act ( ATPA ), and for an additional six months if a country enters into a free trade agreement with the...United States. ATPA extends special duty treatment to certain U.S. imports from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and CRS-68 Peru that meet domestic content and...supporting legitimate economic activities. The 110th Congress will face the issue of whether to consider a longer-term extension of ATPA as the June

  5. CHANGES IN FOREIGN TRADE IN AGRI-FOOD PRODUCTS BETWEEN THE EU AND CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to identify the changes in bilateral trade in agri-food products between the EU and China, as well as to assess – in mutual relations – ex post competitive advantages of major groups of agri-food products in 2008–2015. The research is based on data from the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat. The analysis covered the value, trade balance, shares in total trade and commodity structure of trade in agri-food products between the EU and China. Selected indices of revealed comparative advantage (XRCA, MRCA, RTA, Coverage Ratios (CR, Specialization Indicators (SI, and the indices of Intra-Industry Trade (IIT were calculated for major product groups of the Combined Nomenclature. It was  proved that bilateral trade in agri-food products between the EU and China has increased signifi cantly in 2008–2015, and the EU transformed from an importer to a net exporter. Despite the intensifi cation of mutual trade, the importance of China in the EU export of agri-food products remained relatively small. The structure of bilateral trade in agri-food products between the EU and China is consistent with the distribution of comparative advantages obtained by exporters and it is shaped under assumptions of the theory of similarity of preferences, the theory of product diff erentiation of the Armington type, and the Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson theorem of resources abundance. It can be considered that the Chinese agri-food sector is still in the stage of a factor-driven economy, while the agriculture and food industry in the EU countries has reached the stage of an innovation-driven economy.

  6. Research of Causal Relations between Components of Foreign Trade and Economic Performance of the Region, Country and World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Sergey M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Causal relations between components of the region foreign trade turnover and indicators, which characterize the economic situation of the region, country and the world, have been studied. 3 groups of indicators, which can have an impact on the region export-import activity, were formed by the degree of the covered influence level: the level of region, country and world. All the selected indicators were tested for causality by Granger test. As a result of the study it has been found that the export of Sumy region is directly affected by the volume of industrial production, inflation rate in Ukraine and the world price for wheat. The export of services is affected by the volume of extended credits, income of the population per person, the world prices for corn and wheat. Causality has also been determined between the import of goods in Sumy region and indicators of extended credits, turnover of retail trade and wholesale trade of enterprises. As regards the import of services, the influence was recorded from the side of the official exchange rate of hryvnia to the US dollar and the price index of industrial producers. The prospect of further research in this direction is expansion of the set of indicators characterizing the economic activity of the region, country and the world. The further research can contribute to building up the export-import potential of the region.

  7. Agrarian foreign trade of the Czech Republic in the period of 2004–2008, competitiveness of commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Burianová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with agrarian foreign trade (AFT of the Czech Republic during the period of 2004–2008. Distinct changes in the trade volume, but also changes in the net export structure were observed. The export is being assisted with a much larger trading area without customs restrictions but it is also exposed to a much tougher competition. A methodology that makes it possible to evaluate the competitiveness of individual commodities is described in the first part. A sequence of individual items from a total list of basic food goods was analyzed using chosen indicators – Balass indicator RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage as well as the Michaely index MI that shows a specific degree of specialization for export. In the Results section, attention is firstly focused on the year 2004. The values of export and import for 24 items of basic food commodities are summarised, and the most important items in respect of the share in total export are selected. Analogical output was acquired for the year 2008. The values of RCA and MI indicators are then itemised, and a sequence is determined for the highest values for the commodities able to compete that shows the specific degree of specialization for export.

  8. Improving the competitiveness of Russian companies through internet commerce in the foreign trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozenko V.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtual enterprises have become an independent entity conducting foreign activities and functioning of the online stores as additional sales channels is a prerequisite for increasing the development potential of the Russian economy and competitiveness of traditional Russian companies on the world market. In the present work we analyzed the dynamics of the development of e-commerce in Russia, given the author's definition of rating online stores are defined levels of their operation and the possible barriers to the further development of the foreign economic activity.

  9. 77 FR 36997 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, PR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Baxter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...--Mayaguez, PR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico... behalf of Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico (Baxter), at two sites within FTZ 7, located in Aibonito and... exempt Baxter from customs duty payments on the foreign status components used in export production. On...

  10. 78 FR 72861 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 20-Suffolk, Virginia, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... portable light towers and diesel-powered generator sets for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ activity would be limited to the specific foreign-status... assemblies; guide pulleys; winches; axles; tire-rim assemblies; clips; pins; brackets; bolts; junction...

  11. 77 FR 26737 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ: Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Cosmetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... blending and bottling of fragrances. Components and materials sourced from abroad include: plastic bottles; glass bottles; plastic caps and lids; metal caps and lids; plastic collars; sprayers; pumps; and... bottles of fragrance (duty-free) for the foreign status inputs noted above. Customs duties also...

  12. 76 FR 80332 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, PR, Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Amgen Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ...-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, PR, Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Amgen Manufacturing Limited... expansion of the scope of manufacturing authority approved within Subzone 7M, on behalf of Amgen Manufacturing Limited (Amgen) in Juncos, Puerto Rico. The application was submitted pursuant to the...

  13. 76 FR 19314 - Foreign-Trade Zone 205-Port Hueneme, California; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... regulations, Christopher Kemp of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and analyze the facts and... submitted during the subsequent 15- day period to June 21, 2011. ] A copy of the application will be... further information, contact Christopher Kemp at Christopher.Kemp@trade.gov or (202) 482-0862....

  14. 78 FR 19192 - Foreign-Trade Zone 236-Palm Springs, California; Application for Reorganization and Expansion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... project. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Christopher Kemp of the FTZ Staff is designated... during the foregoing period may be submitted during the subsequent 15-day period to June 12, 2013. A copy... via www.trade.gov/ftz . For further information, contact Christopher Kemp at...

  15. 78 FR 59914 - Foreign-Trade Zone 160-Anchorage, Alaska; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... with the FTZ Board's regulations, Christopher Kemp of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate... the foregoing period may be submitted during the subsequent 15- day period to December 16, 2013. A... accessible via www.trade.gov/ftz . For further information, contact Christopher Kemp at...

  16. 75 FR 42377 - Foreign-Trade Zone 244-Riverside County, CA; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ..., Christopher Kemp of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and analyze the facts and information... during the subsequent 15- day period to October 4, 2010. A copy of the application will be available for... information, contact Christopher Kemp at Christopher.Kemp@trade.gov or (202) 482-0862. Dated: July 14,...

  17. 75 FR 17125 - Foreign-Trade Zone 157-Casper, Wyoming, Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... to the Board on a case-by-case basis. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Christopher Kemp of... subsequent 15- day period to June 21, 2010. A copy of the application will be available for public inspection... Christopher Kemp at Christopher.Kemp@trade.gov /ftz or (202) 482-0862. Dated: March 29, 2010. Andrew...

  18. Foreign investment issues in the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Westcott

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the investment chapter of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) and discusses the bilateral investment relationship, the AUSFTA negotiating process and the investment policy outcomes. The article concludes that the investment chapter in AUSFTA will be an important influence on future bilateral, plurilateral and multilateral treaty negotiations on investment.

  19. 78 FR 67927 - Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Export System Filing for All Shipments Requiring Shipper's Export Declaration Information: Substantive... the Automated Export System (AES) under control number 0607-0152. DATES: The effective date of the... instrument used for collecting export trade data, which is used by the Census Bureau for statistical...

  20. Foreign investment issues in the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Westcott

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the investment chapter of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) and discusses the bilateral investment relationship, the AUSFTA negotiating process and the investment policy outcomes. The article concludes that the investment chapter in AUSFTA will be an important influence on future bilateral, plurilateral and multilateral treaty negotiations on investment.

  1. Causal Links between Foreign Direct Investments and Trade: A Comparative Study of India and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu SHARMA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Global economic environment is changing rapidly during the last two decades. This change is reflected in widening and intensifying international linkages in trade and FDI. Various countries are now favouring economic reforms for attaining rapid and sustained growth. The scope for transnational production has expended due to reduction of the barriers to international trade and the various regional integration agreements between the different countries. This paper examines the causal relationships between FDI and trade (i.e Exports and Imports in India and China. Granger causality test has been employed to examine the causal relation between FDI and trade by using the data over the period of 1976-2011.The results for China show unidirectional causality running from FDI to imports and FDI to exports, however, there exist bidirectional causality between imports and exports. India gives the results which are not similar to China where bidirectional causality between FDI and imports; FDI and exports; and exports and imports have been found.

  2. The Correlation of FDI Foreign Trade and Economic Growth in Ethnic Minority Areas-Based on An Empirical Analysis of Guangxi during the Years 1990 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhen; Li Xuan

    2016-01-01

    International trade and investment have been two major topics in the field of interna-tional economics. They are also two main ways to deepen foreign economic ties. With the rapid de-velopment of the China—ASEAN free trade area and the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone, international trade and investment have had an important influ-ence on the ethnic areas of Guangxi. Guangxi is a frontier and coastal minority area, and as well as an important window opening on to the ASEAN e-conomic sphere and economic hinterland. It has great power and vitality for economic development within the ASEAN economic sphere. However, Guangxi, if compared with domestic developed are-as, is a relatively backward region within China’s economy. Its level for utilizing FDI( Foreign Direct Investment) lags behind, and its foreign trade vol-ume has definitely lagged far behind that in the more developed coastal provinces. This has severe-ly restricted the economic and social transformation of the Guangxi, and is an important obstacle for re-alizing a “well -off” society in ethnic areas. In recent years, resulting in the increasing external dependency in ethnic areas, the development of foreign investment has kept steady. This has played an important role in promoting technological progress and adjusting the industrial structure in ethnic areas. At the same time, foreign investment has also increased the speed of the ethnic minority areas’ ability to absorb advanced technology and management experience. This, in turn, has had great significance for further exploring international markets. However, the various regions in China have differences in their utilization of FDI and for-eign trade, so, effective an evaluation for exploring foreign trade and FDI has had a specific effect on the economic growth in ethnic areas, which can provide certain reference points for ethnic minority areas to formulate economic policy. Based on the relevant data of exports, imports and economic growth collected

  3. On the Policies and System of Foreign Trade in the Philippines%菲律宾对外经贸政策和制度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘效梅

    2004-01-01

    Philippines' economy began to recover and develop in 1990's. Its international ecnomic and trade policies performed by the Philippine government since the late 1980' s contributed to its steady development even after experiencing the attack of Asian financial crisis . This paper aims to introduce the main contents of Philippines' policies and regulations on internatinal trade, the introduction of capital from foreign investment and exchange control. The paper also presents some information about Philippines' participating in international ecnnomic interchange and cooperation. In addition, the paper evaluates the guidelines and the tendency in terms of its international economic and trade policies.

  4. Intra-Industry Affiliate Trade of Foreign-Owned Companies in Transition Economies:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    of their affiliates (IIAT). We find labour intensity; scale economies and absorptive capacity of affiliates are the main explanatory variables for IIAT. Given the overall rise in export and import intensities of foreign affiliates over the period of investigation, our findings suggest that export-platform FDI has...... become a more important mode of organization for multinational enterprises as Poland has evolved into a relatively stable economic environment where MNEs feel comfortable basing their regional operations....

  5. To Explore Managerial Issues and Their Implications on e-Government Deployment in the Public Sector: Lessons from Taiwan's Bureau of Foreign Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Paul T. Y.; Yen, David C.; Hung, Yu-Chung; Wang, Nana C. F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore the experience of reconciling the strategic information system (IS) management with the radical transition of the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure in Taiwan's Bureau of Foreign Trade (BOFT) between 1998 and 2003. This investigation will be beneficial for the implementation of IT projects, as…

  6. Trading Dynamics in the Foreign Exchange Market: A Latent Factor Panel Intensity Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolte, Ingmar; Voev, Valeri

    2011-01-01

    the influence of unobserved time effects and allows for correlation across individuals. We contribute to the literature on market microstructure and behavioral finance by providing new results on the disposition effect and on the manifestation of risk aversion on the high frequency trading level. These novel...... disposition effect. Moreover, the proposed methodology allows the investigation of the strength of these effects for different groups of investors ranging from small retail investors to professional and institutional investors....

  7. Implement Obligations Seriously, Enjoy Rights Fully Make Active Countermeasure to the Barrier of Foreign Technology Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Changjiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ December 11th, 2006 is the fifth anniversary of China's entry into WTO. Over the past five years, what AQSIQ has done in implementing the obligations and enjoying the rights as a member of WTO? How's the performance? Facing with the current complicated barrier of technology trade worldwide, how will China reply to it? For these questions, reporters have made a special interview with Li Changjiang, Minister of AQSIQ.

  8. Managing assortment in terms of foreign economic activity of the enterprise trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Udin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Assortment management is the main task of trade enterprises. Assortment is a basic tool in the marketing mix, it affects the sales and distribution costs. Management of assortment is an important issue for interna-tional companies, because they have a high cost of export-import operations, and this fact influences the financial result. The article considers the information technology assortment management aimed at increas-ing turnover and reducing distribution costs by forming a balanced assortment structure.

  9. Co2 emission, economic growth, energy consumption and foreign trade in pakistan: causality analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Anees; Shaukat Amer; Ishfaq Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The alarming increase in global warming in the last century resulted in an intensive debate over issues of environmental degradation due to rapid economic growth on the basis of intensive utilization of the natural resources of the world economy. The literature is exhaustive on these issues and the underlying study fills the gap in literature by producing evidence in context of a relatively underdeveloped, open in context of international trade and significantly contributing to total global e...

  10. The Guns-For-Drugs Trade: Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    example of this are the two gangs that originated 20 years ago in the Los Angeles ghettos, the Bloods and the Crips . Their operations have expanded from...ELEMENTS 32 C. TERRORISTS. GUERRILLAS AND FREEDOM FIGHTERS 37 D. MERCENARIES 40 E. DOMESTIC GANGS 46 VI. PROBLEMS IN COMBATTING THE GUNS-FOR-DRUGS TRADE 48...availability of firearms. Gangs are becoming increasingly involved in narcotics trafficking which provides them the funds necessary to purchase more guns

  11. Terms of Japanese Foreign Trade and Its Relevant Volatility%日本对外贸易条件及其波动性检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑾; 丁振辉

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the terms of Japanese foreign trade from 1960 to 2009, which is divided into three stages, then analyzes the determinants for the terms of foreign trade by connecting the economic development in Japan, further explores the terms of Japanese foreign trade and developing process of the six main product departments, such as foodstuff, textile materials, chemicals and metallic materials. By using mathematic methods, this paper divides the volatility into absolute terms of foreign trade effect and relative terms of foreign trade effect and analyzes their volatile reasons. Combining the process of the terms of Japanese foreign trade with the reality of China, this paper gives some advice, such as strengthening innovation of science and technology, enhancing product additional value, promoting the optimization of industrial structure and dominant industry upgrade, establishing and improving foreign trade early-warning mechanism and the stability of commodities' supply and price fluctuation.%本文研究了1960~2009年日本对外贸易条件的发展过程,并将其分为三个主要阶段,同时结合日本经济发展的大致轨迹分析了对外贸易条件变动的原因。并进一步探讨了食品、纺织、化学、金属等6类主要产品部门的贸易条件及其发展过程。通过对贸易条件方程式进行分解,将对外贸易条件波动分为绝对贸易条件效应和相对贸易条件效应,并利用方差分解的方法分析了日本对外贸易条件波动的原因。结合日本对外贸易条件变动的历程和我国的现实,提出了加强科技创新、提升产品附加值,促进产业结构优化和主导产业升级,建立完善对外贸易预警机制和稳定大宗商品供给和价格波动等建议。

  12. Main Directions of Increasing Efficiency of Foreign Trade Activities of the Fishing Industry of the European North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii Mikhailovich Vasil’ev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the List of Orders of the Russian Federation President Vladimir Putin has shown that many priority challenges of the fishing industry development, including promotion of fish production with a high degree of processing and its exports have not been solved. Analysis of exports of cod, haddock and saithe from Russia (Murmansk Oblast and Norway proves that there is a wider range of products from Norway with high added value. The unit cost of the same products from Norway is also significantly higher. The consequence of these factors is the low unit cost of Russian exports, compared to Norwegian. For 2009–2013 the average unit cost of cod is lower by 2.66 US dollars (47.9%, of haddock – by 0.23 US dollars (10.6%. The article estimates foreign currency revenues, which were not fully received due to the reasons mentioned above. The author points out key directions of increase of economic efficiency of Russian exports of cod, haddock and saithe: 1. Change in the access of economic agents to marketable resources by stimulating the obtainment of larger quotas of biological resources at the expense of profit ratio. 2. Establishment of an organization for the export of fish products. The purpose of the organization is to study international markets, to regulate foreign trade activities and perform other functions as set forth above, in accordance with the Russian legislation. 3. Exclusion of intermediaries in the sales of fish products by organizing electronic auctions. 4. Prohibition of using fishery products for the payment of loans obtained from foreign banks. 5. Use of trawlers that are not able to produce products with added value, to provide fish processing enterprises of Russia with fish resources

  13. 高职《外贸单证》课程教学改革探讨%Higher Vocational Teaching Reform on the Foreign Trade Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨路

    2011-01-01

    The lading and business skills of Foreign Trade Documents course have strong operability. To train high-quality international trade documents operation personnel, the traditional teaching model can not meet the needs of real development, so we should be actively trying to reform the teaching content, innovate the foreign trade document production and audit practice teaching system.%《外贸单证》课程传授的外贸单证的缮制和业务处理技能具有很强的操作性.要培养高素质国际贸易单证操作人才,传统的教学模式难以适应现实发展的需要,应积极尝试教学内容改革,创新外贸单证制作与审核课程实践教学体系.

  14. Time interval between successive trading in foreign currency market: from microscopic to macroscopic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2004-12-01

    Recently, it has been shown that inter-transaction interval (ITI) distribution of foreign currency rates has a fat tail. In order to understand the statistical property of the ITI dealer model with N interactive agents is proposed. From numerical simulations it is confirmed that the ITI distribution of the dealer model has a power law tail. The random multiplicative process (RMP) can be approximately derived from the ITI of the dealer model. Consequently, we conclude that the power law tail of the ITI distribution of the dealer model is a result of the RMP.

  15. Biophysical structure of the Ecuadorian economy, foreign trade, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallejo, Maria Cristina [Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Pradera E7-174 y Avenida Diego de Almagro, Quito (Ecuador)

    2010-12-15

    At the core of this paper lays the notion that a systematic analysis of material flow accounts enables us to discuss the sustainability of an economic model. Ecuador is going through a socio-ecological transition from an agrarian towards an industrial regime, based on the use of nonrenewable sources of materials and energy. Direct material flow indicators are used in this article to analyze the ecological dimension of the economy of Ecuador during 1970-2007. This approach enables the concept of societal metabolism to become operative. The paper compares societal metabolic profiles showing that per capita use of materials is still at about one-fifth of the average in the high income countries of the world. Physical flows of trade indicate that there is an ecologically unequal exchange. Whereas a positive trade balance is desirable from an economic policy, its counterpart in physical units has been a persistent net outflow of material resources, the extraction of which causes environmental impacts and social conflicts. (author)

  16. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE AND THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS INFLOWS AFTER 2007. A CRITICAL SURVEY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurgiu Adriana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing more on the evolution of the Romanian external trade and FDI inflows after 2007 - the year of Romania's EU integration - the paper provides insights in the trade and FDI inflows determinants in the context of the convergence process and also in relation to the financial global crisis. As the statistic data envisage, Romanian exports and imports were high over the period 2000-2010, and there were also large FDI inflows in the economy, mostly until 2008. Although the data appear to be encouraging, it seems that Romania did not succeed to maximize the benefits which should result from such a situation. Moreover, the situation after 2008 shows that Romania is in a deep recession accelerated and maintained by uninspired government policy measures with a strong negative impact on the Romanian economy. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate Romanian export and import demand functions after the year 2007, and to compare them with those of the period 2000-2006, using quarterly data, in correlation with the FDI inflows. The main contribution of the paper is that it is an empirical analysis on Romania's FDI and external trade, providing the impact of the main determinants of export and import of Romania, by using the Engle-Granger two step method. Following Allard (2009 rather than just providing the elasticity, this method combines the elasticity with the evolution of the explanatory variables to quantify their impact during the analysed period. The analysis aim to cover all possible factors underlying the external sector performance of Romania and thus, they are complemented with country specific analysis. The empirical analysis will therefore provide some interesting insights not only in the context of the convergence process of the country with the Eurozone but also in relation to the exchange rate regime. The theoretical framework relies on the 'imperfect substitutes' model (Goldstein and Khan; 1985, and it is used in the paper

  17. The Impact of Free Trade Agreements on Foreign Direct Investment: The Case of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chankwon Bae

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to empirically identify the effects of FTAs on outward and inward FDIs in Korea. Considering the income differences between Korea and its FTA partners, we hypothesize that FTAs have a positive effect on outward FDI to developing countries and inward FDI from developed countries. An underlying source of the hypothesis is the Knowledge-Capital model, addressing the positive (negative relationship between trade costs and horizontal (vertical FDI. We test for the hypothesis using data on Korea's FTAs and FDI over the period 2000-2010. We find that our empirical results support the hypothesis, and additionally, FTAs in general encourage FDI by creating an FDI-friendly environment.

  18. Ordinals in Frobenius Monads

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides geometrical descriptions of the Frobenius monad freely generated by a single object. These descriptions are related to results connecting Frobenius algebras and topological quantum field theories. In these descriptions, which are based on coherence results for self-adjunctions (adjunctions where an endofunctor is adjoint to itself), ordinals in $\\epsilon_0$ play a prominent role. The paper ends by considering how the notion of Frobenius algebra induces the collapse of the hierarchy of ordinals in $\\epsilon_0$, and by raising the question of the exact categorial abstraction of the notion of Frobenius algebra.

  19. Study on Professional Foreign Language Training Methods from Foreign Trade Business Demand%从外贸业务实践需求研究专业外语训练方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝淑伟

    2015-01-01

    上世纪90年代起,全国各地许多高等院校纷纷开展国际贸易专业,但培养出来的人才特色与针对性不够明显。外贸企业抱怨国际经贸人才数量之少,同时,国际经济与贸易专业日益增加且逐渐成为就业高危专业。是什么造成现今尴尬的局面,致使外贸业务的实践需求与教学目标不相吻合结合调查,本文对当前我国高校国际贸易专业的外语教学中存在的一些问题进行了较深入的分析,对如何改进这些问题和提高人才培养质量提出了粗浅的建议。%Since the 1990s, many colleges and universities across the country have launched international trade specialty, but the specific features and pertinence of the trained personnel is not obvious. Foreign trade enterprises complain less number of international trade personnel, at the same time, the international economy and trade specialty is increasing and gradually becomes the high-risk specialty. What causes the current embarrassing situation and result in the demand for foreign trade business practice and teaching goals do not coincide? Combined whith investigation, the paper analyzes the problems in the foreign language teaching of international trade specialty and makes superficial recommendations for improving these problems and the quality of personnel training.

  20. Revision without ordinals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivello, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    We show that Herzberger’s and Gupta’s revision theories of truth can be recast in purely inductive terms, without any appeal neither to the transfinite ordinal numbers nor to the axiom of Choice. The result is presented in an abstract and general setting, emphasising both its validity for a wide ran

  1. Ordinal Bivariate Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept of inequality comparisons with ordinal bivariate categorical data. In our model, one population is more unequal than another when they have common arithmetic median outcomes and the first can be obtained from the second by correlation-increasing switches and...

  2. PEST Analysis of Chinese Foreign Cultural Trade Development%中国对外文化贸易发展的 PEST模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珂

    2014-01-01

    以对外文化贸易发展的国际背景为基础,利用PEST模型,从政治、经济、社会文化和技术环境的角度,研究影响我国文化产业以及文化贸易发展的因素,分析我国对外贸易发展的现状和优劣势,提出了发展我国对外文化贸易的对策建议:加快经济增长,推动文化贸易发展;加强法制建设,保障文化贸易发展;以技术创新、人才培养奠定文化贸易发展的基石;大力发展产业集群,重视建设创意城市。%Based-on-international-cultural-trade-background-,it-used-PEST-model-to-research-on-the-influ-encing-factors-of-Chinese-foreign-cultural-trade-development-and-analyze-the-current-situation-,advantages-and-disadvantages-of-Chinese-cultural-trade-development-from-political-,economic-,social-cultural-and-tech-nological-aspects-in-this-paper-.It-gave-some-suggestions-to-put-forward-the-development-of-Chinese-foreign-trade-in-culture-by-accelerating-economic-growth-to-promote-cultural-trade-development-,strengthening-the-rule-of-law-to-protect-cultural-trade-development-,innovating-technological-and-personnel-training-to-lay-the-cornerstone-of-cultural-trade-development-,developing-industrial-clusters-to-build-creative-cities-.

  3. Teaching Foreign Trade in English Through the Modalities Based on Competences and Using Moodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa Díaz Ana María

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    With the new approach to guide the learning process of students with a model based on the development of competences, and in comparison with the traditional lecture-based learning, it is necessary to start working with the teaching modalities that help to achieve this objective. With that in mind, the aim of the study reported in this article was to show that through the use of active teaching methods focusing on the development of competences we can improve the writing, speaking and research competences in English of the students who nowadays take university subjects in a foreign language in Colombia. The results showed that the support provided by the platform promotes student motivation in carrying out their self-learning, which contributes to the development of the mentioned competences. 


    Gracias al nuevo enfoque que guía el proceso de aprendizaje de los estudiantes a través de un modelo basado en el desarrollo de competencias, en comparación con el discurso expositivo tradicional, se hace necesario empezar a implementar un modelo de enseñanza basado en el desarrollo de competencias. Con esto en mente, el objetivo de la investigación que se reporta en este artículo fue demostrar que mediante el uso de métodos de enseñanza activa centrados en el desarrollo de competencias se pueden mejorar las habilidades de escritura, habla e investigación en inglés de estudiantes universitarios que actualmente cursan asignaturas en una lengua extranjera en Colombia. Los resultados del estudio muestran que en este proceso educativo la plataforma Moodle favorece la motivación de los estudiantes hacia la realización de su trabajo autónomo y el desarrollo de las mencionadas competencias. 

  4. 外贸企业全面风险管理探究%On the Comprehensive Risk Management of the Foreign Trade Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张弘

    2016-01-01

    本文针对外贸企业风险管理现状,提出全面风险管理体系构建顶层设计理念和具体流程设计,并结合外贸企业面临的国别风险、信用风险以及合同风险提出应对策略,完善外贸企业风险管理。通过应用成效,证明该方法的有效性。%According to the current risk management situation of foreign trade enterprises, this paper puts forward the specific process design to build the top-level design ideas by the comprehensive risk management system. Combined with the country risk, credit risk and contract risk of the foreign trade enterprises, the countermeasures are put forward to perfect the risk management of foreign trade enterprises. The validity of this method is proved by the effect of results.

  5. Implications of the Eu Enlargement on the Foreign Trade Activity of the Eastern and Central European Countries which Recently Joined the Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa-Aurelia Chitiba

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU-27 is by far the largest exporter of goods worldwide: in 2007, goods worth EUR 1 240 billionwere exported, against EUR 848 billion by the United States and EUR 889 billion by China. The United States importedslightly more than the EU-27 (EUR 1 472 billion and EUR 1 426billion respectively, more than double the value of totalimports registered by China (EUR 698 billion.Under the influence of a lot of general and specific factors, the foreign trade of Central and Eastern European(CEE countries which recently joined the European Union has been constantly growing till the second part of 2008 year,registering higher yearly growth rates than the total of EU-27.In the last years, for the foreign trade of all the ten new EU members CEE states it appears like a common tracethe deeply process of growing the importance of the intra EU commercial relationship within the total internationaleconomic relationship of these countries. Between the new EU members, the most important weight of the intra EUcommerce in their total foreign trade is registered by the Check Republic (83%, Slovakia (80%, Latvia (76%, Poland(75%, and Estonia (75%.In business environment, institutional, and logistics performance, the EU accession countries stand out as the bestperformers. Most new EU member states are in fact catching up to OECD countries on some measures of logisticsperformance, and all rank in the top 50 with the exception of Lithuania (ranked 58th.

  6. Effects Of Country Risk Forecasts Based On Foreign Trade Performance And Currency Choices In Asset - Liability Management On Banks’ Liquidity Performance: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Muzır

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available he foremost purpose of this paper that presents some parametric and non-parametric model proposals towards measuring banks’ risk of technical insolvency (failure as based on their liquidity performance is to discern how specific choices regarding asset- liability structure of banks and country risk predictions concerning overall foreign trade performance affect liquidity position of those banks. Moreover, possible impacts of lending efficiency and capital adequacy on liquidity performance are argued. For this purpose, some parametric and non-parametric risk estimation models have been developed using the consolidated financial and non-financial data that were reported on a quarterly basis by 26 Turkish and foreign deposit banks within the period between March 2003 and March 2009 to predict changes in the balances of both net cash flows from banking activities and overall net cash flows. According to the findings of the models developed by undertaking Binary Logistic Regression and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS, it is concluded that foreign trade performance based country risk forecasts are positively correlated with technical failure risk exposure while currency compositions of assets and liabilities are significantly effective on risk level. In addition, we also observe that foreign banks are relatively less exposed to technical failure risk and infer that increasing lending efficiency and better capital adequacy could lead to pretty liquidity performance, as expected

  7. 中国外贸企业的生存模式研究%Modes of Survival of Chinese Foreign Trade Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江剑敏

    2014-01-01

    通过对外贸公司负责人的实地访谈和相关资料调研,归纳总结了后危机时代中国外贸企业的各类较为成功的生存模式,这些模式主要包括联合营销、跨境电商平台合作、海外办事处与全球化贸易、直销型国内贸易组合进口、产品扩展等。%Through field interview and relevant literature study, this paper summarizes the types of successful modes of survival of Chinese foreign trade enterprises, including strategic operations of joint marketing, cross-bor-der E-commerce cooperation, overseas operation offices, globalized trade and marketing, direct selling domestic trade, combined importation, product extension and etc.

  8. 新常态下提高外贸跟单员素质的思考%Thoughts on Enhancing the Quality of Foreign Trade Merchandisers under the New Normal status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄肇丹

    2016-01-01

    At present,China's economy has entered the new normal state,China's foreign trade has also entered the new normal state which characterized by growing steadily,adjusting structure and improving quality.The new foreign trade situation has brought opportunities and challenges to foreign trade enterprises and has put forward higher requirements on the quality of for-eign trade merchandisers.This paper discusses the importance and the current situation of foreign trade merchandisers and puts forward the proposals for enhancing the quality of foreign trade merchandisers.%当前,我国经济已步入新常态,我国的对外贸易也随之进入稳增长、调结构、提质量为特征的新常态。新的外贸形势给外贸企业带来了机遇和挑战,对外贸企业的外贸跟单员素质提出了更高的要求。本文从外贸跟单员的重要性和现状出发,就如何提高外贸跟单员的素质提出了建议。

  9. 77 FR 23221 - Foreign-Trade Zone 200-Mercer County, NJ; Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and... via www.trade.gov/ftz . For further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov...

  10. 77 FR 43806 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26-Atlanta, GA; Application for Reorganization (Expansion of Service Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and... via www.trade.gov/ftz . For further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov...

  11. 78 FR 37203 - Foreign-Trade Zone 28-New Bedford, Massachusetts, Application for Subzone, Talbots Import, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... FTZ Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to review the....trade.gov/ftz . For further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov (202)...

  12. 76 FR 36080 - Foreign-Trade Zone 37-Orange County, NY; Application for Reorganization (Expansion of Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ staff is designated examiner to evaluate and analyze the facts and....trade.gov/ftz . For further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202)...

  13. 78 FR 25698 - Foreign-Trade Zone 99-Wilmington, Delaware; Application for Expansion of Subzone 99E; Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to review the application....trade.gov/ftz . For further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov at (202)...

  14. Trade Advantages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest trading nation,its largest exporter and second largest importer,China wields extensive influence on global trade and the world economy,China's advantages of course lie not only in the stable foreign trade policy decided by the recently held Central Economic Work Conference,but also in the strength and resilience of a broadbased and fast-growing economy.

  15. Discussion on stable increase of foreign trade of Datong Coal Mine Group%同煤集团稳定外贸增长初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓龙

    2013-01-01

    Influenced by the slow development of international economy,the spread of global economic crisis and the protectionism of international trade,the export of state-owned trade enterprises has been blocked seriously and the trade environment has been continually worsening.How to keep the stable increase of foreign trade business in such complex and severe environment was discussed from ac-tively utilizing preferential policies and actively expanding trade scope,and so on.%受世界经济放缓、全球金融危机蔓延以及国际贸易保护主义等不利因素影响,国有外贸企业出口严重受阻,贸易环境不断恶化。从积极争取利用优惠政策、积极拓展业务种类等方面探讨了在复杂和严峻的外贸形势下,如何保持外贸业务的稳定增长。

  16. 非洲国家对外贸易增长缓慢的主要原因%The Main Reasons for the Slow Growth of African Countries' Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖

    2012-01-01

    非洲国家对外贸易在全球贸易中的地位下降,表现为非洲国家对外贸易增长速度低于世界贸易的增长速度,非洲国家之间的贸易发展缓慢。除了通常所知道的阻碍非洲经济发展的不利因素之外,本文认为,导致非洲国家对外贸易发展缓慢的主要原因是:区域经济一体化的贸易效应不显著;贸易自由化的政策对贸易促进作用不明显;制造业水平偏低对贸易的制约作用。了解非洲国家的对外贸易有助于中国发展与非洲国家的经贸关系。%The status of African countries' foreign trade has declined in glob- al trade. It is indicated that African countries' foreign trade growth rate is lower than that of world trade and the trade among African countries develops slowly. In addition to the commonly recognized unfavorable factors that hinder the eco- nomic development in Africa, this study believes that the main reasons for the slow growth of African countries' foreign trade are as following: The trade ef- fect of regional economic integration is not significant. The trade liberalization cannot promote trade effectively. The low level of manufacturing industry re- stricts the trade. Understanding the African countries' foreign trade helps China to develop economic and trade relations with African countries.

  17. Strategy to Improve Competitiveness of Current China Foreign Trade%论提升我国对外贸易竞争力的策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜

    2014-01-01

    2008年由美国次贷危机引发的全球金融危机,使世界经济陷入衰退之中,国际贸易大幅度萎缩。之后各国纷纷采取措施使世界经济走出金融危机,出现了整体复苏的迹象。但当前国内外经济形势依然复杂,在这种情况下,提升我国对外贸易竞争力,才能在激烈的世界市场竞争中占有一席之地。我国外贸目前占全球份额上升、高新技术产品和民营企业出口增长较快、新兴市场和中西部市场出口表现强劲,对外贸易顺差基本合理。但我国也面临着国际市场需求不足及企业技术创新能力差等挑战,为此要通过扩大内需、积极应对贸易摩擦、优化出口商品和市场结构,以及加强品牌建设和促进企业创新等措施,来提升我国对外贸易竞争力。%World economy fell into a recession and international trade experienced a dramatic slow dow n as a result of US financial crisis occurred in 2008 .After that countries throughout the world took effective measures to help world economy recover ,but in view of the complicated economic and political situation home and abroad we should improve our competitiveness of foreign trade in order to make presence in in-ternational market .Now our global share of foreign trade increased and hi-tech enterprises as well as pri-vate enterprises also increased export quickly .Besides ,new markets and mid-west markets export sharp-ly .Generally speaking we maintained a favorable trade surplus .But we still face the following challenges :insufficient demand of international market and weak innovation ability .Therefore ,we should stimulate domestic demand ,deal with trade friction actively ,and upgrade export structure .In the meantime brand building and innovation should be intensified in order to improve competitiveness of foreign trade .

  18. When Can Information from Ordinal Scale Variables Be Integrated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Simon; Grace, Randolph C.

    2010-01-01

    Many theoretical constructs of interest to psychologists are multidimensional and derive from the integration of several input variables. We show that input variables that are measured on ordinal scales cannot be combined to produce a stable weakly ordered output variable that allows trading off the input variables. Instead a partial order is…

  19. Difficult Development Situation of Foreign Trade English Major and Countermeasures%高职外贸英语专业发展的困境与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晶晶

    2015-01-01

    Combined with talent cultivation objectives of foreign trade English major,difficult po-sition of this major's development situation is analyzed:lack of pertinence in curriculum,simplici-ty in teachers'team structure,difficulty in integrating professional certificate system with course teaching and poor quality of practical teaching.In order to break through the predicament,work should start with such aspects as professional orientation,cultivation objective,curriculum sys-tem framework,curriculum provision,teachers'team construction and so on.Emphasis should be put on cultivation of both English language application ability and foreign trade professional skills.Curriculum should be reconstructed according to the principle of applicability and practica-bility;industrial and professional standards be introduced in course teaching;professional teach-ers'team be enriched;training of students'professional post skills be strengthened;and the char-acteristics of multidiscipline in foreign trade English be reflected.%结合高职外贸英语专业的人才培养目标,分析当前高职外贸英语专业发展的困境,而要突破这一困境,就要从专业定位、培养目标、课程体系构架、课程设置、师资队伍建设等方面入手,将英语语言应用能力与外贸职业技能的培养并重,将行业和职业标准融入课程教学,充实专业教师队伍结构,强化学生职业岗位技能锻炼,体现外贸英语“语言+外贸”多学科交叉特色。

  20. To China's Foreign Trade magazine for her 50th anniversary & the Organizers of the 100th Session of the Chinese Export Commodities Fair:

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Goldberg

    2006-01-01

    @@ On behalf of the United States of America,U.S.Ambassador Clark T.Randt,Jr.and the American Embassy in Beijing and for the U.S.Consulate General in Guangzhou,I am pleased to extend congratulations on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of China's Foreign Trade magazine and the 100th Session of the Chinese Export Commodities Fair.Fifty years have passed since the 1st Session of the Trade Fair and the changes have been significant,but the intent - providing China with an opportunity to exhibit its increasingly sophisticated wares and an appreciative global market - remains the same.Moreover,during this time,China has moved from a command economy guided by administrative decree to one which is largely market-oriented and is now the fourth-largest economy in the world.This is a tremendous achievement.

  1. 外商直接投资对江苏进出口贸易的影响%The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Jiangsu International Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐惟

    2015-01-01

    随着改革开放的不断深入,江苏省的外商直接投资和进出口贸易都实现了跨越式发展,江苏成为吸引外资的重要地区,进出口贸易总量也持续攀升。根据1995-2012年的数据结合计量经济模型分析发现,外商直接投资与进出口总额之间有高度相关性,两者之间存在着长期稳定的均衡关系。外商直接投资带动了江苏进出口贸易的总量的增加,优化了进出口商品和外贸产业的结构,并带动了江苏进出口产业技术水平的提升。%With the rapid development of reform and opening up,FDI and international trade in Jiangsu have achieved leap-forward development.Jiangsu has become an important area for attracting foreign investment and its total trade number continues to rise.By using 1995-2012 data combined with econometric model,we find high relationship between FDI and trade.There is a long-term stable equilibrium relationship between the two.FDI has led an increase in total import-export trade number,optimized the structure of goods and trade industry,and prompted the upgrading of trade industry technology in Jiangsu.

  2. 76 FR 63282 - Foreign-Trade Zone 140-Flint, Michigan; Application for Subzone; Dow Corning Corporation (Silicon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... sulfate, methallyl chloride, monochlorobenzene, trifluoromethane sulfonic, ethylene glycol, 2-ethyl- 1,3... payments on the foreign components used in export production. The company anticipates that some 20 percent.... Customs duties also could possibly be deferred or reduced on foreign status production equipment. The...

  3. 高职外语类专业的跨境电商人才培养%Higher vocational foreign language major cultivate cross-border electricity trade talents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟铃

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border electricity trades have become a new engine of foreign trade, how to innovate cross-border electricity traders to higher vocational foreign language training, cultivate enterprise urgently needed a large number of cross-border electricity business talents, is the current higher vocational foreign language class teaching is an urgent need to solve the problem. Explore training mode to cultivate cross-border electricity traders, this paper based on garden production and education, innovation cooperation mode, explore the cross-border higher vocational foreign language personnel training of e-commerce, summarizing the business English majors in higher vocational school cross-border electricity traders training mode to implement some successful experience, provides some valuable reference for other business English professional talent training in higher vocational school practice.%跨境电商已经成为外贸的新引擎,如何创新高职外语类专业的跨境电商人才培养,培养企业急需的大量跨境电商人才,是当前高职外语类专业教学迫切需要解决的问题。本文深入探索跨境电商人才培养模式,依托产教园,创新合作方式,开拓了高职外语类专业进行跨境电子商务的人才培养,总结得到了高职学校商务英语专业进行跨境电商人才培养模式实施的一些成功经验,为其他高职学校商务英语专业的人才培养实践,提供了一些有价值的参考和借鉴。

  4. 77 FR 16536 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh/Durham, NC; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... authorized subzones. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is..., which is accessible via www.trade.gov/ftz . For further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: March 7, 2012. Andrew McGilvray, Executive Secretary....

  5. Influence of Russia's Accession to WTO on Russian Foreign Trade%俄罗斯加入世贸组织对其外贸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴薇

    2012-01-01

    俄罗斯是世界上自然资源最富集的转型经济国家,也是我国对外经济合作的重点市场之一,在我国沿边开放中有举足轻重的战略地位。加入世界贸易组织后,俄罗斯将成为世界各国关注和争夺的目标市场。研究加入世界贸易组织对俄罗斯外贸的影响,有利于为我国深化对俄经贸合作提供决策借鉴。%Russia is not only a transition economic country with rich natural resources reserves but also one of key markets of China's foreign economic cooperation,which occupies an important strategic position in the policy of opening borders to the neighborhood.After accession to WTO,Russian enormous development potential is the focus and the target market of countries in the world.Research into influence of Russia's accession to WTO on Russian foreign trade is beneficial to provide measures for deepening the economic and trade cooperation between China and Russia.

  6. Competitiveness analysis of Czech agrarian foreign trade in the context of world agrarian market and agrarian trade of EU-27 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Svatoš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the commodity structure of Czech (CR agrarian trade in relation to the EU countries. An emphasis is put on comparative advantages of particular aggregations from the view-point of their application on the EU internal market. This analysis is based on an evaluation of comparative advantages by means of a modified Balassa index. It is studied in two stages, for the internal EU market and the world market. The analysis results are then shown in a graph. Subsequently, the authors implement an idea arising from a BCG matrix on the results of the graphic presentation. The aim is to identify those aggregations (SITC, rev. 3 which are or have a potential to be a pillar of agri-business (ie, the “cash cows” and “stars”, and vice versa to show the aggregation which are non-prospective in the long term or problematic (ie, the “dogs” and “problem children”. As start are identified as those aggregations which are characterised by the highest growth rate of comparative advantage value. From the analysis results, changes are apparent if we compare the CR trade commodity structure in relation to the EU countries. Findings also concern the development of comparative advantages and following CR specialisation on trade with certain aggregations.

  7. 75 FR 69621 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, CA; Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...-Trade Zone 50--Long Beach, CA; Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under Alternative Site Framework...)--909 East Colon Street, Wilmington; Site 2 (1,844 acres)-- California Commerce Center, Ontario; Site...

  8. 77 FR 66796 - Foreign-Trade Zone 185-Culpeper County, VA Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and analyze the facts and... information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: November 2,...

  9. 77 FR 19003 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone, Caledonia, Essex and Orleans Counties, VT, Under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... to the Board on a case-by-case basis. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of... Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: March 23, 2012. Andrew...

  10. 76 FR 25301 - Foreign-Trade Zone 141-County of Monroe, New York; Application for Reorganization Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ..., Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and analyze the facts and information..., contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: April 28, 2011. Andrew...

  11. 77 FR 43047 - Foreign-Trade Zone 104-Savannah, GA; Application for Reorganization (Expansion of Service Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    .../31/2014. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated... Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: July 17, 2012. Pierre Duy, Acting...

  12. 77 FR 19001 - Foreign-Trade Zone 79-Tampa, FL; Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and....gov/ftz . For further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202)...

  13. 77 FR 17012 - Foreign-Trade Zone 64-Jacksonville, FL; Application for Reorganization (Expansion of Service Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and analyze the facts and... information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: March 19,...

  14. 75 FR 12731 - Foreign-Trade Zone 204-Tri-Cities Area, Tennessee/Virginia; Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... the Board on a case-by-case basis. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the... further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or 202-482-1346. Dated:...

  15. 76 FR 39378 - Foreign-Trade Zone 215-Sebring, FL; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... being requested at this time. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ..., contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: June 29, 2011. Andrew...

  16. 78 FR 68813 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, New Jersey Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and analyze the.../ftz . For further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at ] Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202)...

  17. 76 FR 70110 - Foreign-Trade Zone 109-County of Jefferson, NY; Application for Reorganization and Expansion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and analyze the....gov/ftz . For further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202)...

  18. 77 FR 17408 - Foreign-Trade Zone 204-Tri-Cities Area, TN/VA; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... no impact on FTZ 204's authorized subzone. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce... Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: March 20, 2012. Andrew...

  19. 77 FR 2698 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, NC; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... FTZ 230's authorized subzones. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ... Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: January 11, 2012. Andrew...

  20. Comparative study on foreign trade development patterns of the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta%长三角与珠三角对外贸易发展模式的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱诗娥; 杨汝岱

    2009-01-01

    Based on a massive collection of data,this paper tries to make a detailed comparison between the foreign trade development patterns of two export-oriented regional economies:the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta.It is shown that both of the deltas have made spectacular progress in foreign trade development.However,the Yangtze River Delta is catching up with the Pearl River Delta,and China's foreign trade development pattern has changed in recent years from a Pearl River Delta-dominated foreign trade environment to a situation in which the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta together dominate China's foreign trade.The primary difierence in the foreign trade development patterns of these two deltas is that foreign trade in the Pearl River Delta relies more on processing trade,while that in the Yangtze River Delta is more government-oriented with special political zones playing a significant role in its foreign trade.%利用相关数据,对长江三角洲经济区和珠江三角洲经济区的对外贸易发展模式进行详尽比较分析.结果显示:两个经济区在对外贸易方面都取得了巨大的成就.然而长二三角作为后发者,正在追赶珠三角,并且中国的外贸发展正在从以珠三角的外贸模式为主转变成两个经济区共同主宰的局面.两个经济区外贸模式的主要区别是:珠三角经济区以加工贸易为主;长三角经济区以政府导向为主,其中政策支持至关重要.

  1. Challenges, Opportunities and Strategies of Foreign Trade Enterprises under the Financial Crisis%金融危机下外贸企业面临的挑战、机遇及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛

    2011-01-01

    This global financial crisis led to the international economic environment worsening, and thus the impact and influence to China's foreign trade are becoming increasingly worse.By analyzing the challenges and opportunities of China's foreign trade enterprises in the financial crisis, this paper presented the internat rectification and reform proposals of foreign trade enterprises in order to reduce the adverse impact of the crisis.%本次全球性的金融危机导致国际经济环境不断恶化,从而对我国外贸行业的冲击和影响也日趋加剧.本文通过分析我国外贸企业在金融危机中的挑战和机遇,提出了外贸企业的内部整改建议,以减轻此次危机造成的不利影响.

  2. Application of the Internet of Things (IOT) in Foreign Trade Management Information System of Guangdong Power Grid%浅析物联网在广东电网外贸管理信息系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩松; 陈启雄; 石岚

    2013-01-01

    通过分析广东电网外贸业务的特点及物联网技术,探讨了将物联网技术应用于广东电网外贸管理信息系统,有效进行外贸物流管理的必要性和可行性,提出了将物联网技术应用于电网外贸物流管理的技术方案.%Based on an analysis of the characteristics of foreign trade business of Guangdong power grid and the IOT (Internet of things) technology, the necessity and feasibility of applying IOT to the foreign trade management information system of Guangdong power grid to effectively manage the foreign trade logistics are discussed and the corresponding technical schemes are proposed in this paper.

  3. 对外贸易与工薪差距:文献述评%A Literature Review on Foreign Trade and Wage Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张占东; 王怀民

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews literatures on international trade and wage gap .The results show that tech-nological change and foreign trade are main causes of wage gap .The wage disparity in developed coun-tries is highly related to the change of skill workers ’ employment within the industries , which is due to outsourcing activities of developed countries .Therefore, the wage gap in developed countries can be ex-plained by SS theorem under FH framework instead of SS theorem under HO framework .However , when it comes to China , we can’ t treat trade as a whole , and we should distinguish general trade and process-ing trade .But fortunately neither SS theorem under FH framework and SS theorem under HO framework is suitable for the relationship between China ’ s processing trade and wage disparity , it is still a theoretic blank of explaining China ’ s processing trade and wage gap .%本文梳理了对外贸易与工薪差距的有关文献。研究表明,技术进步和对外贸易都是引起工薪差距扩大的主要原因,发达国家工薪差距的扩大是与技术工人产业内就业的变化高度相关的,这与发达国家开展的外包活动(中间产品贸易)有关,发达国家对外贸易与工薪差距问题可以用FH框架下的SS定理而不是HO模型中的SS定理来解释。对中国而言,应该对一般贸易和加工贸易与工薪差距的关系分别进行研究。但是,HO模型中的SS定理和FH框架下的SS定理都不适合解释中国的加工贸易与工薪差距问题。目前能够解释中国加工贸易与工薪差距关系的理论研究还是空白。

  4. The Empirical Analysis On the Impact of E-commerce on Chinese Foreign Trade%电子商务对中国外贸进出口影响的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炎亮; 吴頔

    2016-01-01

    by using the vector autoregressive (VAR) model, the paper investigates the influence of e-commerce on Chinese foreign trade and depicts the impulse response relations among the exchange rate, foreign trade and FDI in different situations. The research has shown that the e–commerce development has direct and indirect effects on foreign trade. The development of electronic commerce in China has not only a significant direct role in promoting foreign trade import and export growth, but also enhances the long-term impact of the FDI and the exchange rate on the foreign trade. It also increases the contribution rate of the FDI and exchange rate on the import and export growth of foreign trade, especially on the latter.%采用向量自回归(VAR)模型,探讨电子商务对中国外贸进出口的影响,刻画不同情形下FDI、汇率与外贸进出口的脉冲响应关系,从而得出电子商务发展对我国外贸进出口的直接与间接影响。研究表明,电子商务的发展对中国外贸进出口增长具有显著的直接促进作用。同时,电子商务的发展,还增强了FDI和汇率等因素对外贸进出口的长期影响,并增加了FDI和汇率对外贸进出口增长的贡献率,尤其是后者的贡献率。

  5. Trade and foreign direct investment: Evidence from South East European countries and new European Union member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardhyl Dauti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to provide an empirical assessment of the complementarity or substituting relationship between Trade and FDI in a link to country characteristics, using bilateral level data between FDI and trade for the period 1994 – 2010. In the research, an augmented gravity model has been used to test the relationship between Trade (both export and import, FDI stock and country characteristics between OECD-20 countries and SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. The empirical model considers how the relationship between FDI and Trade determine whether type of FDI into SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 from core OECD-20 countries, is vertical or horizontal. With regard to the relationship between exports and FDI, the findings of the research showed mixed evidence, thus supporting vertical FDI for EU-NMS-10 countries, and horizontal FDI for SEE-5 countries. On the other hand, based on the relationship between imports and FDI, the results of the research supported vertical FDI for both EU-NMS-10 and SEE-5 group of countries. The basic conclusion is that the research provides an empirical evidence on the mixed nature of FDI into the host SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries, supporting both complementary and substituting relationship between trade and FDI in the host countries.

  6. ORDINAL REGRESSION FOR INFORMATION RETRIEVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This letter presents a new discriminative model for Information Retrieval (IR), referred to as Ordinal Regression Model (ORM). ORM is different from most existing models in that it views IR as ordinal regression problem (i.e. ranking problem) instead of binary classification. It is noted that the task of IR is to rank documents according to the user information needed, so IR can be viewed as ordinal regression problem. Two parameter learning algorithms for ORM are presented. One is a perceptron-based algorithm. The other is the ranking Support Vector Machine (SVM). The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been evaluated on the task of ad hoc retrieval using three English Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) sets and two Chinese TREC sets. Results show that ORM significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art language model approaches and OKAPI system in all test sets; and it is more appropriate to view IR as ordinal regression other than binary classification.

  7. 78 FR 2657 - Foreign-Trade Zone 141-Rochester, NY, Application for Manufacturing Authority, Firth Rixson, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... titanium, Firth Rixson would be able to apply to the foreign-sourced titanium the lower duty rates... retain tight control over the specifications and quality of the titanium used to produce components for... actual supplier of the titanium alloy to be processed by Firth Rixson) and a transaction price(s) (i.e...

  8. 75 FR 29723 - Foreign-Trade Zone 29-Louisville, KY; Application for Expansion and Expansion of Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ..., ignition coils, electronic sensors and modules, fuel injectors, emissions control equipment, valves, pumps, and electronic control units for engines and transmissions (capacity--up to 8.5 million units annually... HAP from customs duty payments on the foreign-origin components used in production for export...

  9. 78 FR 40427 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 32-Miami, Florida; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Almod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Activity; Almod Diamonds, Ltd. (Jewelry and Precious Stones); Miami, Florida The Greater Miami Foreign... (restoration and repair) of jewelry comprised of precious metals and gemstones. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b... able to choose the duty rates during customs entry procedures that apply to jewelry, precious...

  10. 76 FR 34203 - Foreign-Trade Subzone 78A Application for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority Nissan North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... vehicles and lithium-ion batteries: Acid-based additives, wash fluid (acrylic/ ] vinyl polymers), brake... passenger vehicles and lithium-ion batteries manufactured for export. On its domestic shipments, NNA would... vehicles (duty rate -- 2.5%) and lithium-ion batteries (3.4%) for the foreign inputs noted above. Customs...

  11. 75 FR 61696 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN; Application for Subzone; Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... grade carbon fiber for industrial and recreational uses, including wind turbine blades, specialty... aircraft brakes, but is also used in some technical yarns. Foreign-origin PAN fiber (HTSUS 5501.30, duty... information presented in the application and case record and to report findings and recommendations to...

  12. 77 FR 17409 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, OR Expansion of Manufacturing Authority Epson Portland, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... of certain PF status inputs in the manufacturing of ink for inkjet printer cartridges within Subzone... Portland, Inc. (Inkjet Ink); Notice of Approval of Restricted Authority On December 22, 2011, the Port of... involved the use of privileged foreign (PF) status (19 CFR 146.41) inputs in manufacturing of ink...

  13. 77 FR 4006 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, Oregon; Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Epson Portland, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ...), warehousing and distribution of inkjet printer cartridges. The current request involves the production of ink...) of ink per year. The finished product would be either inkjet ink (duty rate-- 1.8%) or inkjet printer... inkjet ink (duty rate--1.8%) or inkjet printer cartridges (duty-free) for the additional foreign...

  14. 78 FR 64196 - Foreign-Trade Zone 3-San Francisco, California; Application for Subzone; Phillips 66 Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... with the FTZ Board's regulations, Christopher Kemp of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to review... during the foregoing period may be submitted during the subsequent 15-day period to December 23, 2013. A... accessible via www.trade.gov/ftz . For further information, contact Christopher Kemp at...

  15. 75 FR 24571 - Foreign-Trade Zone 5-Seattle, WA; Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... regulations, Christopher Kemp of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and analyze the facts and... submitted during the subsequent 15- day period to July 19, 2010. A copy of the application will be available... further information, contact Christopher Kemp at Christopher.Kemp@trade.gov or (202) 482-0862....

  16. 77 FR 8804 - Foreign-Trade Zone 202-Los Angeles, CA; Application for Reorganization and Expansion Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ..., Christopher Kemp of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and analyze the facts and information... subsequent 15- day period to April 30, 2012. A copy of the application will be available for public... Christopher Kemp at Christopher.Kemp@trade.gov or (202) 482-0862. Dated: February 9, 2012. Andrew...

  17. 77 FR 36997 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, PR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Pfizer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... pharmaceutical products in bulk mixture or dosage form under FTZ procedures at the Guayama site. Production under... (Subzone 61A); (Ibuprofen Pharmaceutical Products); Guayama, PR The Puerto Rico Trade and Export Company... various pharmaceutical products under zone procedures (Board Order 617, 12/11/ 1992, 57 FR 61046,...

  18. 76 FR 61667 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone-West Tennessee Area Under Alternative Site Framework; Application Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ..., adjacent to the Memphis Customs and Border Protection (CBP) port of entry, under the alternative site... International Trade Development Corporation, Board Order 904, July 2, 1997); FTZ 262, Southaven, Mississippi... allows for the possible exemption of one magnet site from the ``sunset'' time limits that generally...

  19. 26 CFR 1.897-9T - Treatment of certain interest in publicly traded corporations, definition of foreign person, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such class are effected, other than in de minimis quantities, on at least 15 days during the calendar... regularly traded for any calendar quarter during which it is regularly quoted by brokers or dealers making a... dealer holds himself out to buy or sell interests in such class at the quoted price. Stock of...

  20. 75 FR 8918 - Approval for Subzone Expansion and Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 119B...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ...-Trade Subzone 119B, Uponor, Inc. (Polyethylene Tubing); Apple Valley, MN Pursuant to its authority under... of Uponor, Inc. (Uponor), operator of Subzone 119B at the Uponor polyethylene tubing manufacturing and distribution facilities in Apple Valley, Minnesota, to expand and reorganize the subzone and...

  1. 外贸函电自我言语充实研究%On the Self-enrichment Speech in Correspondence of Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永全

    2014-01-01

    Besides providing true and supportive information, self-enrichment speech in correspondence of foreign trade can sometimes be described as giving false and unsupportive information. From a viewpoint of underlying pragmatic motivation, self-enrichment committed by addressor helps to justify itself with the purpose of reinforcing the economic goals and status of the ad-dressor without damaging the relationship with the addressee.%函电中的自我言语充实可分成实型自我充实和虚型自我充实两个类型。实型自我充实补充真实相关的信息,虚型自我充实补充非真实的信息。语用学原理和商业利益驱使可以帮助找出两种充实的语用理据。

  2. 高职高专外贸跟单实务课程教学改革探析%Vocational College Foreign Trade Merchandising Practice Teaching Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冲

    2014-01-01

    外贸跟单课程是商务英语专业的一门核心课程,但目前存在教学内容陈旧、重理论轻实践的不足。湖南环境生物职业技术学院应用语言系从提高教师积极性,改进教学内容和方法等方面探讨了该课程的改革,取得了一些效果。%Foreign trade course is a core curriculum of business English professional, but teaching outdated content, theory and practice of light weight deficiencies exist. Hunan Vocational College of Environmental Biology from the Department of Applied Linguistics improve teacher motivation, improve teaching contents and methods and other aspects of the course dis-cusses the reforms, and achieved some results.

  3. Forecasting of foreign exchange rates of Taiwan’s major trading partners by novel nonlinear Grey Bernoulli model NGBM(1, 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-I.; Chen, Hong Long; Chen, Shuo-Pei

    2008-08-01

    The traditional Grey Model is easy to understand and simple to calculate, with satisfactory accuracy, but it is also lack of flexibility to adjust the model to acquire higher forecasting precision. This research studies feasibility and effectiveness of a novel Grey model together with the concept of the Bernoulli differential equation in ordinary differential equation. In this research, the author names this newly proposed model as Nonlinear Grey Bernoulli Model (NGBM). The NGBM is nonlinear differential equation with power index n. By controlling n, the curvature of the solution curve could be adjusted to fit the result of one time accumulated generating operation (1-AGO) of raw data. One extreme case from Grey system textbook is studied by NGBM, and two published articles are chosen for practical tests of NGBM. The results prove the novel NGBM is feasible and efficient. Finally, NGBM is used to forecast 2005 foreign exchange rates of twelve Taiwan major trading partners, including Taiwan.

  4. Introducing INSPIRE: an implementation research collaboration between the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada and the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Pierre; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Mason, Elizabeth; Shaffer, Nathan; Lipa, Zuzanna; Baller, April; Rollins, Nigel

    2014-11-01

    The government of Canada, through the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD) has supported global efforts to reduce the impact of the HIV pandemic. In 2012, WHO and DFATD launched an implementation research initiative to increase access to interventions that were known to be effective in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and to learn how these could be successfully integrated with other essential services for mothers and children. In addition to facilitating the implementation research projects, DFATD and WHO promoted four approaches: (1) Country-specific implementation research prioritization exercises, (2) Ministry of Health involvement, (3) Country-led, innovative, high-quality research, and (4) Leveraging regional networks and learning opportunities. While no single aspect of INSPIRE is unique, the process endeavors to promote and support high-quality, rigorous, locally-led implementation research that will have a substantial impact on the health and survival of HIV-infected women and their children.

  5. KOBİ’lerde Girişimcilik Değerleri ve Dış Ticaret Faaliyetleri Arasındaki İlişki: Sanayi İşletmeleri Örneği - The Relationship Between The Values Of Entrepreneurship And Foreign Trade Activities In SME’s: The Case Of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayberk ŞEKER

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, SME’s and entrepreneurs have important roles in the national and international economy in terms of countries. SME’s and entrepreneurs have several advantages in competitive market economy. These advantages are adapting increasing competition, gaining knowledge of market and production, undertaking the risks that may occur, adapting quickly to innovations in the organization. In this study, it is analyzed relationship between SME’s entrepreneurship values and foreign trade activities. It has been included to study that foreign trade firms in Ankara, Istanbul, Adana, Mersin, Bursa and Kocaeli in order to evaluate their views of foreign trade activities and determine relationship between entrepreneurship and foreign trade. In the scope of the research, it is used primary data that belong to 180 SMEs. The empirical result of research shows that there are positive relationship between entrepreneurship values and foreign trade.

  6. 广东省的FDI与对外贸易的关系研究%Research on the Relationship between FDI and Foreign Trade in Guangdong Province --An Empirical Analysis Based on VAR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛伟

    2012-01-01

    选取广东省1994—2009年FDI和进出口数据,建立VAR模型,运用Granger因果检验和脉冲响应函数,定量地分析了广东省FDI和贸易额之间的动态关系.结果表明:FDI是贸易额的格兰杰原因,但贸易额不是FDI的格兰杰原因.贸易和FDI彼此之间受对方的冲击影响幅度较小,且持续时间不长.%This paper makes use of the data in Guangdong Province from 1994 to 2009, and analysis quantita- tively the relationship between FDI and foreign trade through VAR model, Granger Causality Test and impulse re- sponse functions. The result indicates that FDI is granger causality of foreign trade, but foreign trade isn' t granger causality of FDI. There are small shocks to each other between FDI and foreign trade, and the effect does not last long.

  7. 中国外贸乍暖还寒%China foreign trade warming up,but still in cold weather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ After outstripping Germany to become the world biggest exporter in 2009,China's total import and export value managed a year on year 44.8% growth in January-February of this year to reach US $386.4 billion,including US $204.08 billion of exports,up31.4%,and US$182.32 billion of import,up 63.6%,leading to 50.4%fall of trade surplus to US $21.76 billion.

  8. 75 FR 63437 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist... CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, Office of Trade Programs, FAS, USDA,...

  9. The Impact of the Processing and Foreign Trade of Agricultural Products on Agricultural Modernization: An Empirical Analysis Based on Cointegration and VEC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; YAO

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data related to the Chinese and world agricultural production and trade from 1986 to 2011,this paper uses the principal component analysis,cointegration and vector error correction model to perform the empirical analysis of the impact of processing,import and export of agricultural products on the agricultural modernization in China. The results show that the processing and export of agricultural products play a role in promoting the agricultural modernization in China,while the import of agricultural products has some negative effects on the agricultural modernization in China. The negative effects of the import of agricultural products are from the limitations of farmers’ small-scale operation and foreign trading partners’ protectionism. China should further develop the processing industry of agricultural products,and strengthen the role of downstream industries in promoting the agricultural modernization; improve the level of large-scale and intensive operation,and make good use of WTO rules,in order to provide the necessary market conditions for the agricultural modernization.

  10. Opportunities and Threats from Ukrainian Membership in WTO in Foreign Trade for Meat and Milk Products with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of Ukrainian membership in World Trade Organisation (WTO in foreign trade of meat and milk products with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that meat and milk products are one of the main export agricultural commodities of the country. It analyses the structure of export of agro-industrial products from Ukraine. It studies situation and changes that took place in the market of meat and meat processing products in Ukraine after its membership in WTO. It shows that Ukrainian export of meat products mainly consists of products with low added value, while products with high added value are imported to Ukraine. It also shows that due to liberalisation of customs rules and the system of trade allocation in the world market of meat and meat products the internal market of Ukraine became unprotected from imported products, which resulted in significant increase of cheaper import into Ukraine and uncompetitiveness of domestic producers of meat products. The article studies situations and shifts that took place in the market of milk and milk products in the result of Ukrainian WTO membership. It proves that the CU market stays, in the middle-term prospect, the most powerful for domestic producers of milk products. It shows that standards of milk quality, applied in EU countries, are higher than in Ukraine and CU, which means it is impossible to compete with EU high technology production. It holds that milk quality increase pursuant to EU standards requires additional investments into re-equipment of the production technology.

  11. Development and Practice on the Course of "Foreign Trade Document" in Higher Vocational Colleges%高职高专《外贸单证实务》课程的开发与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许妍

    2011-01-01

    《外贸单证实务》是高职高专国际贸易专业学生必修的一门专业核心课程。本文主要从课程定位、教学内容、教学方法与手段、课程实施保障、课程评价、特色与创新等六个方面进行阐述如何开发与实践。%Foreign Trade Document is a required core among the courses of International Trade in higher vocational curriculum. This paper tries to discuss how to researches and practice applications of the curriculum from seven aspects of the position of foreign trade document, teaching content, teaching method and means, curriculum imple- mentation.Curriculum evaluation,features and innovative

  12. De Smith a Porter: um ensaio sobre as teorias de comércio exterior From Smith to Porter: an analysis of foreign trade theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Senra Coutinho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A teoria clássica de comércio exterior procura explicar o comércio internacional a partir da produtividade relativa dos fatores de produção, determinando que o fluxo do comércio resulta de uma dotação inicial desses fatores. Ou seja, os países devem se especializar na produção dos bens para os quais possuam vantagens comparativas, oriundas da abundância dos fatores utilizados na produção desses bens. Por outro lado, a teoria das vantagens competitivas buscou elucidar empiricamente as determinantes da capacidade competitiva de determinados países, com o objetivo de verificar como emergem as vantagens obtidas no comércio internacional. Trata-se de buscar uma resposta para aquela que parece ser a pergunta central a ser respondida: por que empresas baseadas em determinadas nações alcançam sucesso internacional em segmentos e indústrias distintos? Diante disso, este trabalho procura realizar uma análise comparativa entre as teorias clássicas de comércio internacional e seus desenvolvimentos posteriores, os modelos baseados no desenvolvimento do mercado interno e na concorrência monopolística e a contribuição de Porter para o assunto.The classic theory of foreign trade explains international trade beginning with the relative productivity of the factors of production to show that the flow of commerce results from an initial endowment in these factors. Countries must specialize in the production of goods for which they have a competitive advantages stemming from the abundance of the factors involved in this production. The theory of competitive advantages further empirically explains the competitive capacity determinants of certain countries in order to perceive how these advantages are achieved in international commerce. An answer is sought for the key question of why companies based in certain countries attain international success in the diverse segments and industries. A comparative analysis includes the classic theories

  13. Accumulation and foreign trade from a center-periphery perspective Acumulación y comercio exterior desde una perspectiva centro-periferia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García José Guillermo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The theories which have attempted to explain the insertion of the countries of the periphery in the international division of labor haven't been able to explain in a satisfactory way the economic foundations and mechanisms of foreign trade in that contexto To understand the logic of the mechanism of peripheral insertion, the function served by foreign
    trade in the capital accumulation process must be analyzed. By going back to this problem in the classical analysis, some pieces of a new puzzle can be found. Smith's theory of the extension of the market, the structural heterogeneity of capitalism expressed in the differentiation of national price systems and profit rates according to Ricardo, and the foundations of the forms of mercantile and industrial accumulation in Marx are the new elements. The profit rate improves the conditions of accumulation when it exploits the differences in the national price systems. In the process of accumulation, the mechanisms of industrial accumulation operate in the interior, and they are strengthened by the
    mechanisms of mercantile accumulation which operate in external trade. As a consequence, the extension of the market outward to the periphery is only viable to the extent that this zone offers compensations which improve the condi tions determining the rates of profi t and accumulation
    in the center.Las teorías que han intentado explicar en forma satisfactoria los fundamentos y los mecanismos económicos del comercio exterior en ese contexto. Para entender la lógica del mecanismos de inserción periférica, es necesario analizar la funci´pon que cumple el comercio exterior en el proceso de acumulación de capital. Retomando está problemática en el análisis clásico, se pueden sacara las piezas del nuevo romprecabezas. La teroría de la extensión de mercados de Smith, la heterogenidad estructural del capitalismo expresada en la diferenciación de sistemas de precios nacionales y de tasas

  14. Evaluation System of Sustainable Development of Foreign Trade in Hunan%对外贸易可持续发展评价指标体系的构建及运用——以湖南省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳强; 谢兮晨

    2012-01-01

    Based on the research achievements from home and abroad, the en- tropy method is used as the evaluation method of sustainable development of provincial foreign trade and a evaluation system of sustainable development of provincial foreign trade is established, which consists of 2 system layers, 7 target layers, and 22 indicators. On these bases, comprehensive analysis of the general trend and the development efficiency and condition of the sustainable development of foreign trade of Hunan Province are made, with the empirical study of the condition of the sustainable development of foreign trade in Hunan Province of the year 2006 to 2010. It naturally reaches conclusions that the ability of sustainable development of foreign trade of Hunan Province shows ascendant trend as a whole and it' s in a recovery stage after the affection of global economic crisis in 2008.%本文采用熵值法作为省域对外贸易可持续发展的评价方法,构建了2大系统层、7大目标层,以及22个指标共同组成的省域对外贸易可持续发展评价体系,通过对湖南省2006—2010年的对外贸易发展情况进行实证研究,分析湖南省对外贸易可持续发展的总体趋势及其发展绩效和状况,得出湖南省的对外贸易可持续发展能力整体呈上升趋势,在2008年受全球经济危机影响后正处于恢复性增长阶段的结论。

  15. Viewing Balanced Development of China's Foreign Trade from FCF%从FCF看中国外贸均衡发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景楠

    2012-01-01

    The global crisis is forcing China's economy to become less dependent on foreign markets. Manufacturing industry has to adjust to changes in international demand. Foreign affiliates' processed exports are vulnerable to the slow-down of Western demand, while Chinese exporting firms are better placed to switch to dynamic emerging markets. China's ordinary imports have risen fast. Asia has enlarged its share in the domestic market, Europe has kept a strong position while North-America has lost ground. China has become the engine of the regional economic growth. Foreign-capital firms (FCF)have played an increasing part in China's imports and industrial production. China's policy towards FDI is at least as important as its exchange rate policy to determine foreign partners' access to its domestic market%全球经济危机迫使中国经济降低了对国外市场的依赖程度.制造业也同样必须适应国际需求的变化.外国子公司的加工出口容易受到西方需求放缓的影响,而中国的出口企业却在转型进入活跃的新兴市场中处于有利地位.同时,中国的一般进口正日益增长.亚洲国家扩大了其国内市场的份额,欧洲国家也留有强势地位,而北美国家却失去了自己的市场.中国成为了区域经济增长的动力.在中国的进口及工业生产中,外资企业起到了越来越重要的作用.中国对外国直接投资的政策与确定外国伙伴进入其国内市场的汇率政策至少是同等重要的.

  16. Escherichia coli deletion mutants illuminate trade-offs between growth rate and flux through a foreign anabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Kelly C; Williams, Aimee L; Bryksin, Anton V; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic engineers strive to improve the production yields of microbial fermentations, sometimes by mutating the genomes of production strains. Some mutations are detrimental to the health of the organism, so a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the trade-offs could inform better designs. We employed the bacterial luciferase operon (luxABCDE), which uses ubiquitous energetic cofactors (NADPH, ATP, FMNH2, acetyl-CoA) from the host cell, as a proxy for a novel anabolic pathway. The strains in the Escherichia coli Keio collection, each of which contains a single deletion of a non-essential gene, represent mutational choices that an engineer might make to optimize fermentation yields. The Keio strains and the parental BW25113 strain were transformed with a luxABCDE expression vector. Each transformant was propagated in defined M9 medium at 37 °C for 48 hours; the cell density (optical density at 600 nanometers, OD600) and luminescence were measured every 30 minutes. The trade-offs were visualized by plotting the maximum growth rate and luminescence/OD600 of each transformant across a "production possibility frontier". Our results show that some loss-of-function mutations enhance growth in vitro or light production, but that improvement in one trait generally comes at the expense of the other.

  17. A Correlative Analysis on the Foreign Trade of Xinjiang-Five Central Asian Countries and Economic Growth of Xinjiang%中亚五国对外贸易与新疆经济增长的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骥; 王志远

    2015-01-01

    新疆对中亚五国的外贸在新疆对外贸易中的比重达到70%以上,对新疆经济增长具有重要作用。文章以1999-2013年为样本期,利用统计数据,对新疆-中亚五国的对外贸易进行了统计分析,并对新疆-中亚五国的对外贸易与新疆经济增长的关系进行了实证研究。研究结果显示:新疆-中亚五国的对外贸易与经济增长之间存在长期动态均衡关系;新疆对中亚五国的出口是经济增长的Granger因,新疆地区GDP的增长是新疆对中亚五国进口的Granger因。因此,加强中国新疆与中亚五国的双边贸易有益于双方经济增长。%Astract: Foreign trade between Xinjiang and five central Asian countries accounts for more than 70% of the total volume of foreign trade of Xinjiang, and has played an important role in the economic growth of Xinjiang. This paper analyzes the features of foreign trade of Xinjiang and the relationship of the foreign trade between Xinjiang and five central Asian countries based on statistics from 1999 to 2013. It shows that there lies the relationship of long-term dynamic equilibrium between the foreign trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries and the economic growth of Xinjiang, export trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries is the Granger cause of the economic growth of Xinjiang, and the economic growth of Xinjiang is the Granger cause of import trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries. Therefore, the strengthening bilateral trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries is beneficial to the economic growth of both sides.

  18. Material Consumption in the Czech Republic: Focus on Foreign Trade and Raw Material Equivalents of Imports and Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kovanda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparison of indicators based on an economy-wide material flow analysis, namely imports, exports, domestic material consumption, raw material equivalents of imports, raw material equivalents of exports and raw material consumption. These indicators were calculated for the Czech Republic for 1995-2010 using, besides economy-wide material flow analysis, the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method, which allows for a calculation of raw material equivalents of imports and exports. The results showed that calculation of indicators including raw material equivalents is useful, as they provided some important information which was not obvious from imports, exports and domestic material consumption. This includes the facts that the latter indicators tended to underestimate environmental pressure related to consumption of materials, high dependency of the Czech production system on metal ores from abroad and quite unequal and unfair distribution of environmental pressures between the Czech Republic and its trading partners.

  19. Opportunities and Challenges for the Foreign Trade in Guangdong Province under the Background of Cross-border E-commerce%跨境电商背景下广东省对外贸易的机遇与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢育玲

    2016-01-01

    从广东省近年来外贸总额来看,广东省的外贸增长乏力,甚至出现负增长,但其中跨境电商进出口总额则呈倍数增长。在跨境电商背景下,全球网络经济市场形成,创造额外的外贸需求,加上近年来政府的政策支持,广东省的外贸发展迎来新契机,但与此同时,广东省的对外贸易在平台、物流、诚信以及监管等方面也面临着新的挑战。跨境电商背景下,广东省应建立完善的外贸综合服务平台;加大投入,支持跨境物流企业的发展;提升产品国际竞争力,加强知识产权保护,以此促进广东省外贸实现真正的跨国传递和共享,从而给外贸带来新的增长和发展机遇。%The recent-year foreign trade gross in Guangdong province indicates that the foreign trade increase is sluggish, in some cases, negative growth even appears. Fortunately, the import and export gross of cross-border e-commerce grows in multiple times. With govern-ment support for the past few years, Guangdong province meets a new foreign trade growth opportunity as the global online economic mar-ket comes into being under the background of cross-border e-commerce, which creates extra foreign trade demand. In this connection, Guangdong should build a sound and comprehensive service platform for foreign trade, invest more in the developing cross-border logis-tics, raise product competitiveness in the international market, strengthen intellectual property protection in ways that facilitate the cross-border transfer and share of foreign trade in Guangdong province and bring about new growth opportunity.

  20. The Theory of Sets of Ordinals

    OpenAIRE

    Koepke, Peter; Koerwien, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We propose a natural theory SO axiomatizing the class of sets of ordinals in a model of ZFC set theory. Both theories possess equal logical strength. Constructibility theory in SO corresponds to a natural recursion theory on ordinals.

  1. Changes in China's Trade Policy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xi; Zhang Yong

    2010-01-01

    @@ We will steadily develop foreign trade. The main issues are to exploit new markets, adjust the trade structure and promote trade balance", Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao delivered a government work report at the opening meeting of the annual full session of the National People's Congress (NPC), China's top legislature, which started in Beijing on March 5, declaring a new development path of Chinese foreign trade in 2010.

  2. A Comprehensive Evaluation and Countermeasures of Fishery Development in China Based on Its Domestic Development and Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixiu ZHANG; Qi ZHANG; Yanyuan ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] The aim was to make a comprehensive evaluation and explore strategies on fishery development. [Method] Fishery development in China was ana- lyzed and concerning evaluation system was established based on its development stage, international competiveness and exportation. In addition, a comprehensive evaluation was made on fishery and countermeasures were proposed considering from government, department of quality control, fishery guild, producing and process- ing enterprises. [Result] Although progresses have been made in fishery in China, some problems still exist, such as overdose of drug residues, overloading breeding, lower additional value of products, and fewer excellent and famous products. Hence, local governments should give much support to fishery and enhance competitiveness to improve the products in global market; departments of quality control should strengthen supervision and management on fishery products against technical trade barriers; fishery guilds or researching institutions should provide technical support for concerning breeding and processing which should be mainly relied on science and technology. [Conclusion] The research provided references for fishery development.

  3. 75 FR 11842 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... the Export Trade Activities and Methods of Operation described below in the following Export Trade and...; foreign trade and business protocol; consulting; market research and analysis; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management;...

  4. Application Strategy of Business English in Foreign Trade Negotiations%商务英语在对外贸易谈判中的应用策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操林英

    2012-01-01

    Business English is the basic language tools of the world, so business English has played an integral role in foreign trade negotiations. If you want to achieve the expected goal, the negotiators need to be familiar with the communication skills, cultural differences and expertise, as well as related strategies of business English. This review focuses on the flexible use of the negotiation strategy of the business English.%商务英语是世界的基础语言工具,因此商务英语在对外贸易谈判中起到了不可或缺的作用.想要实现预计目标,企业的谈判人员需要熟知商务英语的交流技巧、文化差异和专业知识以及相关的策略.本文主要就商务英语中谈判策略的灵活运用谈一些本人的观点.

  5. Ordinal Comparison of Multidimensional Deprivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    This paper develops an ordinal method of comparison of multidimensional inequality. In our model, population distribution g is more unequal than f when the distributions have common median and can be obtained from f  by one or more shifts in population density that increase inequality. For our be...... benchmark 2x2 case (i.e. the case of two binary outcome variables), we derive an empirical method for making inequality comparisons. As an illustration, we apply the model to childhood poverty in Mozambique.......This paper develops an ordinal method of comparison of multidimensional inequality. In our model, population distribution g is more unequal than f when the distributions have common median and can be obtained from f  by one or more shifts in population density that increase inequality. For our...

  6. Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Statistical science's first coordinated manual of methods for analyzing ordered categorical data, now fully revised and updated, continues to present applications and case studies in fields as diverse as sociology, public health, ecology, marketing, and pharmacy. Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data, Second Edition provides an introduction to basic descriptive and inferential methods for categorical data, giving thorough coverage of new developments and recent methods. Special emphasis is placed on interpretation and application of methods including an integrated comparison of the available st

  7. 17 CFR Appendix D to Part 30 - Information That a Foreign Board of Trade Should Submit When Seeking No-Action Relief To Offer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... circuit breakers, price limits, position limits or other controls on trading; (2) Surveillance agreements... Board of Trade Should Submit When Seeking No-Action Relief To Offer and Sell, to Persons Located in the... Board of Trade D Appendix D to Part 30 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING...

  8. On the Application of Virtual Enterprise Teaching Mode in the Course of Foreign Trade English Correspondence%虚拟企业教学模式在外贸英语函电课程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许平珍; 许爱瑜

    2012-01-01

    To solve the problem of disconnection between school teaching and real post needs facing the course of foreign trade English correspondence,this paper proposes to adopt a project-directed and task-driven teaching method,a virtual enterprise teaching model,and reintegrates the overall teaching contents according to the real foreign trade workflow and job responsibility to improve students' vocational skills and comprehensive quality.%针对外贸英语函电课程教学与岗位需求脱钩的问题,提出应按照实际外贸工作流程和岗位职责重新整合教学内容,采用虚拟企业教学模式,以项目引导、任务驱动,培养学生的职业技能和综合素质。

  9. 建设喀什经济特区对新疆对外贸易带来挑战及应对措施%Construct Kashi economy special zone's challenge on Sinkiang foreign trade and its measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    再娜甫·依米提

    2012-01-01

    China declared at a high-profile summit the establishment of Kashgar Special Economic Zone.This paper analyses the possible challenges of kashgar special economic zone on xinjiang foreign trade and introduces some countermeasures to enhance SEZ's role in xinjiang foreign trade development.%2010年5月中央新疆工作座谈会议决定设立喀什经济特区。本文分析设立喀什经济特区给新疆对外贸易带来的挑战,并提出发挥喀什经济特区在推动新疆对外贸易发展中作用的对策和建议。

  10. 中职外贸教学与企业文化的有效融合%Effective Integration of Foreign Trade Education of Secondary Vocational Schools with Corporate Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马芸芳

    2015-01-01

    中职外贸教学一定要紧跟市场趋势,结合外贸专业行业需求,适时调整教学结构和培养模式,为地方输送优秀的技能型人才,真正做到为地方经济服务。作为一名外贸专业的专业课任课教师,通过对中职外贸教学现状的分析,从专业理论教学着手,阐述企业文化与中职外贸教学有效融合的途径,通过团队合作意识的培养与建设为切入点,拉近学生与企业之间的距离,做到在专业课上教学与企业文化的有效融合。%Foreign trade education in vocational schools must keep pace with market trends,combine with foreign trade industry demands,and adjust the structure of teaching and training model in order to deliver outstanding skilled personnel to local area and truly serve the local economy.As a professional teacher of foreign trade major,through analysis of the present situation of foreign trade teaching of secondary vocational schools,started with cultivation and construction of teamwork awareness,the distance between students and enterprises can be reduced so that professional courses can be effectively integrated with corporate culture.

  11. Strategic Choice for China’s Foreign Trade Liberalization under the Background of Low Carbon%低碳背景下我国对外贸易自由化战略选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛伟贤; 肖冰

    2015-01-01

    面对全球气候变化,发展低碳经济已成为必然趋势,这个过程会对我国对外贸易自由化的发展带来新的挑战,同时也为我国对外贸易结构优化以及发展方式转变提供机遇。基于SWOT-AHP模型,分析我国对外贸易自由化的内外部环境,得出战略重心位于第四象限的结论,应积极采取ST战略,即“低碳平衡协调发展战略”,依托国家政策和未来绿色能源的广阔发展前途,积极应对低碳壁垒以及碳污染转移问题,促进我国对外贸易自由化的发展。%Facing the global climate change, developing low-carbon economy has become an inevitable trend. The process will not only bring new challenges to the development of China’s foreign trade liberalization, but also offer opportunity for foreign trade structure optimization and pattern change of economic development. Based on the SWOT-AHP model, this paper analyzes the internal and exter-nal environment of foreign trade liberalization. It is concluded that strategic center of gravity is located in the fourth quadrant and ST strategy should be taken, namely “low-carbon balanced coordination development strategy”. China should rely on the national policy and the future of green energy broad development prospects, coping with barriers to low carbon and carbon pollution transfer problem to promote the development of China’s foreign trade liberalization.

  12. Research on Strategy of Foreign Trade Enterprises in Guangxi Based on the Aggravation of European Debt Crisis%欧债危机加剧下广西外贸企业对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林赵华

    2012-01-01

      The global economic, financial and trade situations deteriorate sharply with the European debt crisis erupting, spreading and upgrading. China's foreign trade is impacted tremendously and the development of foreign trade enterprises in Guangxi will inevitably be affected. In the paper, the aggravation of the European debt crisis is described. Its adverse effects on the development of foreign trade enterprises in Guangxi are analyzed through several aspects of the transmission mechanism in external demand, exchange rate fluctuations, exchange risk and trade frictions. And the development strategies coping with aggravation of the European debt crisis are proposed.%  欧债危机的爆发、蔓延和加剧,使全球经济、金融、贸易形势急剧恶化,我国外贸经济遭受巨大冲击,广西外贸企业的发展也不可避免地受到影响。文章就欧债危机加剧的态势,通过其外部需求、汇率变动、汇兑风险和贸易摩擦等几方面的传导机制,分析了欧债危机对广西对外贸易发展的不利影响,并相应地提出了外贸企业应对欧债危机日益加剧的策略。

  13. 陈云与新中国50-70年代的对外贸易%Chen Yun and China's Foreign Trade From 1950s to 1970s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶明勇

    2015-01-01

    From 1950s to 1970s ,both the New China and its foreign trade faced a very complicated in‐ternational and domestic situation .Chen Yun led the work of foreign trade during this period in line with the principle of the supremacy of the state and the people ,and finally broke down the blockade of western capitalist countries toward China which not only made a good start for the new China's foreign trade ,but al‐so provided a strong support for the subsequent construction of China's national economy .%新中国建立后,面临十分复杂的国际国内形势,20世纪50-70年代的中国对外贸易也在艰难的环境中展开。陈云本着国家和人民利益至上的原则,领导了这一时期中国的对外贸易工作,最终打破西方资本主义国家对中国的封锁。不但使新中国的对外贸易有了一个良好开端,也为随后中国的国民经济建设提供了有力支持。

  14. Germany Enjoys Splendid Trade Partnership with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ "China and Germany are longterm trade partners, The volume of our bilateral trade has reached more than $54 Million in 2004, Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder have agreed to double our bilateral trade volume by the year 2010." Dr. Volker Stanzel,German Ambassador gave an active appraise on the bilateral trade relations when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.

  15. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45... Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except... retail trade, subject to review by the Board when the zone grantee requests such a review with a...

  16. Ordinal Comparison of Multidimensional Deprivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    This paper develops an ordinal method of comparison of multidimensional inequality. In our model, population distribution g is more unequal than f when the distributions have common median and can be obtained from f  by one or more shifts in population density that increase inequality. For our be...... benchmark 2x2 case (i.e. the case of two binary outcome variables), we derive an empirical method for making inequality comparisons. As an illustration, we apply the model to childhood poverty in Mozambique....

  17. Free Trade: A Misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Robert R.

    1983-01-01

    Billions of dollars are lost each year in our balance of payments because U.S. multinationals have not entered foreign markets due to trade restrictions and restrictions on the remittance of profits and royalties. Formal and informal government obstructions to free trade are examined. (RM)

  18. Trade Back on Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s foreign trade gains momentum but still face suncertainties China is taking up a larger piece’of the global trade pie as its 2009 I exports accounted for almost one’10th of the world total that year. The Ministry of Commerce(MOFCOM)

  19. 外贸企业向内外贸一体化转型研究——以“改革试点”中的义乌为例%Research of foreign trade enterprise changing to integration of domestic tradeand foreign trade——take "reform experiment" Yiwu city as example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季晓伟

    2011-01-01

    Under the action of factors such as the CNY appreciation,labor and raw material costs rising,international market volatility,foreign trade enterprise needs to integrate domestic and foreign trade,so as to benefiting from both domestic and overseas market,improving the ability to resist risks and realizing sustainable development.The approve of Yiwu international trade comprehensive reform brings great opportunities to Yiwu foreign trade enterprise,and the main obstacles of transformation are sell model difference,sales channel construction,make the independent brand and talent team organizing.With the help of comprehensive reform,Yiwu foreign trade enterprise should change the idea to adapt to domestic sales mode,use of electronic commerce to develop domestic market,integrate resources to make independent brand,train compound talents team which is adapt to the integration of domestic and foreign trade.%在人民币升值、劳动力和原材料成本增加、国际市场波动等因素作用下,外贸企业需要向内外贸一体化转型,以同时利用国内外两个市场,提高抗风险能力,实现持续的发展。义乌市获批国际贸易综合改革试点,为义乌外贸企业的转型带来了重大的机遇,而转型的障碍主要在于内外销模式差异、销售渠道建设、打造自主品牌和人才团队组建等方面。在国际贸易综合改革试点"先行先试"的政策和措施帮助下,义乌外贸企业应转变观念以适应内销模式、利用电子商务开拓国内市场、整合资源打造自主品牌、培养适应一体化的复合型人才团队。

  20. Suggestions on Optimization of the Structure of Chinese Foreign Trade under the Background of Global Trade Recession%全球贸易不景气背景下优化我国对外贸易结构的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沄沄

    2015-01-01

    在全球经济萎缩的背景下,从优化对外贸易商品结构、优化对外贸易方式结构、优化对外贸易区域结构和优化对外贸易企业结构4个方面进行探讨分析,提出优化我国对外贸易结构、推进外贸稳定增长的政策和措施,以促进经济的稳定发展。%In recent years,the global economy has still been under adjustment and recovery after the international financial crisis.Under this background,this article discusses which policies and measures should be taken to optimize the structure of China’s foreign trade and to promote the steady development of China’s foreign trade in four aspects,including the optimi-zation of commodity structure,mode structure,regional structure and enterprise structure of foreign trade.

  1. Thailand in Regional and Bilateral Free Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanaphan, Chalakorn

    2009-01-01

    The Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) and the bilateral Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) have increasingly been a new wave of international trade around the world. The countries who seek to establish these agreements, be regionally or bilaterally, realize that the trade agreements are in fact tools to increase trade with their trading partners, to extend and expand their foreign markets, as well as to encourage foreign investments but the overall goal is to strengthen economic tie with the trading...

  2. 75 FR 23667 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... site for the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program. The URL is...

  3. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... for Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief... assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers...

  4. 75 FR 59681 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist... adjustment assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for...

  5. 苏北地区中小企业出口贸易收汇风险及应对措施%North Jiangsu SME Export Trade Foreign Exchange Risks and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尧飞

    2015-01-01

    The SMEs play a decisive role in the economic and social development in Northern Jiangsu area, as the continuous development of Northern Jiangsu and open in recent years, SMEs in foreign trade is very active, but they are also facing many risks in the process of export receipts of foreign exchange, including financial risk, business risk and environment risk. Investigate its reason, which mainly due to the drab trade way, ex-concentrated export market, single settlement way, the weak exporter risk awareness, and lack of professional talents of foreign trade and other factors. In view of this, the countermeasures should be adopted including to strengthen the scientific and technological innovation, improve the export commodity competitiveness in the international market, implement the diversification strategy, optimize the export market structure, make full use of trade financing policy, avoid settlement risk rationally, improve the credit guarantee system, improve the export risk awareness, culture external simultaneously, and create high-quality foreign trade staff.%中小企业在苏北地区经济社会发展中占有举足轻重的地位,随着近年来苏北的不断开发和开放,中小企业在对外贸易中表现得十分活跃,但它们在出口收汇过程中也面临着许多风险,主要包括金融风险、商业风险和环境风险。究其原因,主要是由于贸易方式过于单调、出口市场过于集中、结算方式过于单一、出口商风险意识不强以及外贸专业人才缺乏等因素造成的。鉴于此,应采取的对策包括:加强科技创新,提高出口商品的国际市场竞争力;实行多元化战略,优化出口市场结构;充分利用贸易融资政策,合理规避结算风险;完善信用保障体系,提高出口商风险意识;内培外引并举,打造高素质外贸人员队伍。

  6. Figure out the Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wenhao

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1.Introduction The global economy suffered the financial crisis in the first three quarters of 2008. Since China deeply integrated into the global economy, it's already faced with a number of problems in economy. As Premier Wen Jiabao said in an article published in Qiushijournal that the global economic situation had been worsening and the negative impact of the volatile international market on Chinese economy would become more obvious as the days go by.

  7. 外贸B2C模式下浙江纺织企业发展策略研究%Development of Zhejiang Textile Companies Based on B2C Foreign Trade Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯曦涓

    2016-01-01

    Affected by the development stagnation of global trading market, the export business development of Zhejiang textile companies slows down recently. It is now very difficult for the companies to survive by traditional trading method under the fierce competition of international trade environment;however, E-business becomes a new choice which can help companies to survive. The paper studies on the concept of B2C foreign trade model and its advantages compared to B2B foreign trade model, combined with the current situation of Zhejiang textile companies, proposes some suggestions to realize the development of Zhejiang textile companies based on B2C foreign trade model, which are improving the team quality to create better online shopping webpage, carrying out precision marketing to improve customers’loyalty, and establishing the brand awareness to open the international market.%近年来,受全球贸易市场发展停滞不前的影响,浙江纺织企业的出口业务也受到了冲击,在竞争激烈的国际贸易环境下企业很难再以传统的外贸方式生存,而跨境电子商务的迅猛发展为浙江纺织企业的发展提供了一条新路。本文研究了外贸B2C模式的概述及其相比外贸B2B模式的优势,并在此基础上结合浙江纺织企业的现状,提出了在外贸B2C模式下,浙江纺织企业可通过提高团队素质、打造优质网络购物环境,实施精准营销、提高客户忠诚度和打造品牌知名度、开拓国际市场等策略来促进自身发展,从而使其在竞争激烈的国际贸易市场上生存下来并获得长足的发展。

  8. 基于促进外向型经济的湖南外贸英语人才培养策略研究%Based on the promotion of export-oriented economy of human foreign trade English talent cultivation strategy research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣海龙

    2015-01-01

    近年来,随着湖南省对外经济交流不断加强,湖南省外贸经济发展对外贸英语专业人才的需求不断提升.本文主要研究外贸英语人才对湖南省外向型经济的影响,湖南省外贸型经济人才培养存在的问题以及湖南省加强外贸英语人才培养的策略.%In recent years, along with human province's foreign economic exchanges continue to strengthen, foreign trade economic development in human province to improve the demand for professional talents of foreign trade English. This paper mainly studies the effect of foreign trade English talents of export-oriented economy of human province, human province foreign trade economy problems in personnel training and strengthening of human province foreign trade English talents training strategy.

  9. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  10. Economic Analysis of a Living Wage Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, George; Bernstein, Peter

    A study estimated the costs of the "Chicago Jobs and Living Wage Ordinance" that would require firms that receive assistance from the city of Chicago to pay their workers an hourly wage of at least $7.60. An estimate of the additional labor cost that would result from the proposed Ordinance was calculated. Results of a survey of…

  11. From an accounting point of view of cost control challenges current export foreign trade enterprises%从会计成本控制的角度分析当前外贸企业出口挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴哲敏

    2016-01-01

    As a cost control basic functions of accounting personnel, has a very important impact on daily business operations and cost savings. At this stage of international development trend, especially foreign trade enterprises in the face of all kinds of domestic and foreign markets dynamic challenges of cost control means, methods, results and other concerns, naturally become the pursuit of sustainable development an important starting point. In the current paper the impact of various types of foreign trade enterprises business factors of cost control, such as raising the cost of human resources, marketing costs increased rapidly, energy price fluctuations as the analysis starting point for analysis, and strive to provide some advice to optimize trade and export policy opinion.%成本控制作为会计人员的基本职能,对企业的日常运营及成本节约具有极为重要的影响。现阶段在我国国际化发展的大趋势下,尤其是外贸企业在面对国内外市场的各类动态性挑战中,对成本控制的方式、方法、成效等关注,自然就成为企业谋求可持续发展的重要切入点。文中以当前影响外贸企业贸易成本控制的各类因素,如人力资源成本的提升、营销费用快速递增、能源价格波动等作为分析的切入点进行分析,力求为外贸企业出口策略的优化提供一定建议和意见。

  12. 人民币汇率波动对安徽省外贸企业的影响%The Influence of the Fluctuations of RMB Exchange Rate on Foreign Trade Enterprise in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄润源

    2014-01-01

    随着安徽省经济对外开放水平的不断提升,人民币汇率的波动对安徽外贸的影响愈发显著。安徽作为我国中部崛起战略的重要经济增长极,其外贸企业合理应对汇率波动对于安徽的发展至关重要。本文采用PEST分析,通过研究安徽省经济发展水平及其产业布局结构,结合05年汇率改革以来人民币汇率走势和对于未来的预期。分析其对安徽外贸发展带来的现实影响,同时提出相应的措施建议。以期促进安徽省经济又好又快发展。%With the continuous opening of Anhui economy, the influence of the fluctuations of RMB exchange rate on foreign trade enterprises in Anhui is more and more prominent. Anhui is an important economic growth pole in the rise of central China strategy, so the rational handling of the fluctuations of RMB ex-change rate by foreign trade enterprises in Anhui is of great sig-nificance to Anhui development. Adopting PEST analysis, through studying the economic development level and industrial layout structure in Anhui Province, combined with the tendency and future expectations of RMB exchange rate since the exchange rate reform in 2005, this paper analyzed its influence on the de-velopment of foreign trade enterprises in Anhui, and proposed corresponding measures and suggestions, hoping to promote the sound and fast economic development in Anhui Province.

  13. Development of Foreign Trade Correspondence Curriculum Based on Working-process%基于工作过程的“外贸函电写作”课程开发与实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑; 牛春林

    2014-01-01

    工作过程导向的“外贸函电写作”课程开发以前期调研原始数据为依据,参照外贸业务基本流程、选择外贸交易条件为载体,设计三个递进关系的学习情境。学习内容设计源于外贸企业真实业务项目,教学实施过程模拟工作过程,运用引导文教学法,教与学遵循资讯、计划、实施、检查、评估、反馈六步。课程能有效培养学生职业能力,实现课程学习与外贸企业岗位能力需求对接。%The design of Foreign Trade Correspondence based on working -process simulates the foreign trade working process , converting working circumstance into learning situation .The integrity of the working process characterizes the learning process .Un-der the systemized learning situation students have definite tasks in their mind , make a plan , carry out the plan , self-examine and evaluate their learning process .Since the learning contests are adopted from true foreign trade cases , the teaching and learning process is close to the working circumstance and post skill -targeted, beneficial to the cultivation of students ’ vocational ability .

  14. Ordinality and the nature of symbolic numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2013-10-23

    The view that representations of symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers are closely tied to one another is widespread. However, the link between symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers is almost always inferred from cardinal processing tasks. In the current work, we show that considering ordinality instead points to striking differences between symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers. Human behavioral and neural data show that ordinal processing of symbolic numbers (Are three Indo-Arabic numerals in numerical order?) is distinct from symbolic cardinal processing (Which of two numerals represents the greater quantity?) and nonsymbolic number processing (ordinal and cardinal judgments of dot-arrays). Behaviorally, distance-effects were reversed when assessing ordinality in symbolic numbers, but canonical distance-effects were observed for cardinal judgments of symbolic numbers and all nonsymbolic judgments. At the neural level, symbolic number-ordering was the only numerical task that did not show number-specific activity (greater than control) in the intraparietal sulcus. Only activity in left premotor cortex was specifically associated with symbolic number-ordering. For nonsymbolic numbers, activation in cognitive-control areas during ordinal processing and a high degree of overlap between ordinal and cardinal processing networks indicate that nonsymbolic ordinality is assessed via iterative cardinality judgments. This contrasts with a striking lack of neural overlap between ordinal and cardinal judgments anywhere in the brain for symbolic numbers, suggesting that symbolic number processing varies substantially with computational context. Ordinal processing sheds light on key differences between symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing both behaviorally and in the brain. Ordinality may prove important for understanding the power of representing numbers symbolically.

  15. Evolución del perfil sectorial del comercio exterior en la provincia de León, 1995-2014 = Foreign trade sector evolution in the province of León 1995-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Placer Galán

    2014-12-01

    On the one hand, the analysis carried out highlights that productive activities focused on foreign trade have doubled in the last twenty years, especially in the recent five. On the other hand, export sectors have changed mainly, from exporting pharmaceutical chemistry products and extractors to currently exporting electrical equipment and metal assembly. However, import sectors that are more diversified than export, have maintained a similar sector profile during the full period analysed. Import sectors in Leon are mainly focused on legumes and in a smaller proportion on electrical appliance equipment and metal assembly.

  16. 柬埔寨对外贸易依存的时空变迁分析(1993~2012)%Study on the Tempo -spatial Change of Cambodia's Foreign Trade Dependence (1993 ~2012)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊理然; 蒋梅英; 骆华松

    2015-01-01

    本文利用世界银行国别数据库(data.worldbank.org.cn)的相关数据,对1993年~2012年柬埔寨对外贸易依存度及其空间差异进行了比较分析。研究结果表明,柬埔寨的经济发展高度依赖于对外贸易,2012年其对外贸易依存度高达136.77%;柬埔寨的对外贸易长期以来处于贸易逆差状态,2012年时其进口依存度(78.36%)高于其出口依存度(58.41%)近20个百分点,进出口贸易失衡极为明显;从柬埔寨的进出口市场来看,柬埔寨的出口高度依赖“高收入经济体”市场,而商品进口市场主要集中在“东亚和太平洋地区发展中经济体”,这在一定程度上形成了明显的出口市场和进口市场的不均衡问题。%Based on related data of the World Bank's country database (data.worldbank.org.cn),this paper comparatively an-alyzes the degree of dependence on foreign trade of Cambodia and its spatial difference during 1993 -2012.The results indicate that the development of Cambodian economy is highly dependent on foreign trade,the degree of which is as high as 136.77% in 2012.The foreign trade of Cambodia has been strapped in deficit for a long time,whose import dependency is 78.36% in 2012, nearly 20% higher than its export dependency,and the foreign trade imbalances are obvious.Cambodian export is highly de-pendent on the high -income economies'market and the import mainly concentrates in the developing -economies in the east A-sia and Pacific region.That explains to some extent the imbalance between its export and import markets.

  17. 77 FR 21748 - Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Internet Web sites, press releases to general and trade media, direct mail, notices by industry trade... International Trade Administration Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce (DOC), International Trade Administration (ITA), U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS), is...

  18. 78 FR 22237 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... sites, press releases to general and trade media, direct mail, notices by industry trade associations... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. & Foreign Commercial Service (US&FCS), is organizing an...

  19. 76 FR 17621 - Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... releases to general and trade media, direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing a...

  20. 78 FR 49283 - Chicken Ranch Rancheria-Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Chicken Ranch Rancheria--Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No... the Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of the Chicken Ranch...

  1. Research of Guangxi foreign trade development under late finance crisis background%后金融危机背景下广西对外贸易发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石峡

    2012-01-01

    Under post-global financial crisis,Guangx i foreign trade is faced with:Renminbi appreciation trend keeping;global trade protectionism rising;expo-rt rebates policy room smaller;export with dominant of labour intensive product which is subject to impact;un-der trade partner economic fluctuation thumb.None the less,opportunities still,as being second-tire cities to carry on service outsourcing;e-business;Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Region being established for the national strategy;China_ASEAN Expo platform acting increasingly.To this end,Guangxi should carry on service outsorcing,perfect e-business,extend bioindustry,make privatem private enterprises more participating in,market diversification strategy to expand foreign trade.%在当前后金融危机时代背景下,广西外贸面临的困境包括:人民币升值势头不减;全球贸易保护主义抬头;出口退税政策余地已很小;出口以劳动密集型产品为主,易受冲击;受贸易伙伴经济波动影响较大。但是,机遇也是有的,如二线城市承接服务外包;电子商务;广西北部湾经济区被确立为国家战略;中国—东盟博览会平台作用日益凸现。为此,广西应积极承接服务外包,拓展电子商务,发展生物产业,私营企业更多参与,市场多元化战略,以发展对外贸易。

  2. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indicators of the efficiency of foreign trade from the economic and environmental perspectives are proposed. Underlining the need for enterprises to switch over to environmentally responsible trade, the author proposes instruments to achieve this end.

  3. 75 FR 80456 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... of Review to engage in the Export Trade Activities and Methods of Operation described below in the... federal programs; foreign trade and business protocol; consulting; market research and analysis; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping;...

  4. Bilateral trade, openness and asset holdings

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between bilateral trade flows, trade openness, and asset holdings in a three-country stochastic general equilibrium model. The threecountry model set-up enables me to disentangle and separate the effects bilateral trade flows and trade openness have on bilateral portfolio patterns. I find that both factors independently influence bilateral asset holdings. Higher bilateral trade as well as higher trade openness lead to a higher bilateral foreign asset posit...

  5. New Curbs on Processing Trade for A New Trade Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China recently announced a new policy that seeks to rein in the development of processing trade in restricted commodities, in a bid to optimize the country's exporting structure, put strong curbs on the export of "high-energy-consuming, highpolluting and resource-dependent"products, and discourage the export of commodities with low added value and poor technology content, so as to gradually eliminate trade frictions,and promote trade balance to ease tension caused by the too wide trade surplus. The change is instrumental in upgrading the present processing trade system, transforming the pattern of foreign trade growth mode,and promoting the sustainable development of social economy.

  6. 推动湖南外贸“扩总量、转方式”的对策探讨%Measures of Promoting Economic Aggregate Expansion and the Transformation of Development Pattern of Hunan' s Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文秋林

    2011-01-01

    湖南省对外贸易在开放型经济发展中呈现短板效应,需要通过扩总量、转方式推动其大力发展。建议:一要发掘农业资源优势,扩大优质农副产品出口额;二要配合新型工业化战略,扩大高技术含量、高附加值产品的出口比重;三要加快承接产业转移,优化贸易方式结构;四要推行外经外贸联动,让湖南制造借船出海;五要优化贸易主体结构,全面提升各类企业开拓国际市场能力;六要积极参与国际区域经济合作,优化贸易市场结构;七要改善进口商品结构,扩大资源性产品和高新技术及产品进口。%Hunan' s foreign trade is suffering from the buckets effect in the open economy; therefore, we ought to promote the economic aggregate and the transformation of development pattern so as to push forward the overall development. First, we should make use of the superiority of agricultural resources so as to expand the export of high-quality?agricultural products; Second, we have to increase export proportion of the products with higb technology or high added values in accordance with the new industrialization strategy; Third, we should speed up the industrial transfer ,which enables us to optimize the?trade?structure ;Fourth, we should link foreign economy and foreign trade, which can facilitate the export of products made in Hunan; Fifth, we should optimize the main trade structure so as to speed up business capability to explore the international market; Sixth, it is necessary for us to actively participate in the international or regional economic cooperation, through which we are able to optimize the trade market structure; Seventh, it is essential for us to improve the structure of imported goods , in which resource-based products ,high technology and high-tech products should be increased.

  7. Model‐based approaches to unconstrained ordination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hui, Francis K.C; Taskinen, Sara; Pledger, Shirley; Foster, Scott D; Warton, David I; O'Hara, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Unconstrained ordination is commonly used in ecology to visualize multivariate data, in particular, to visualize the main trends between different sites in terms of their species composition or relative abundance...

  8. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  9. Ordinal models of audiovisual speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual information is integrated in speech perception. One manifestation of this is the McGurk illusion in which watching the articulating face alters the auditory phonetic percept. Understanding this phenomenon fully requires a computational model with predictive power. Here, we describe...... ordinal models that can account for the McGurk illusion. We compare this type of models to the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception (FLMP) in which the response categories are not ordered. While the FLMP generally fit the data better than the ordinal model it also employs more free parameters in complex...... experiments when the number of response categories are high as it is for speech perception in general. Testing the predictive power of the models using a form of cross-validation we found that ordinal models perform better than the FLMP. Based on these findings we suggest that ordinal models generally have...

  10. Allegheny County Municipal Land Use Ordinances

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Many municipalities have their own land use ordinances and establish standards and requirements for land use and development in that municipality. This dataset is...

  11. An empirical study on the correlation between import structure optimization and foreign trade growth mode transformation——based on the input-output table%进口结构优化与外贸增长方式转变的相关性研究——基于投入产出表的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林存文

    2012-01-01

    By using the input-output table and indicators of foreign trade product structure rationality,this empirical study showed that the optimization of foreign trade structure has a positive promotion effect on foreign trade growth mode transformation,and put forward suggestions for implementing of strategy of innovation-oriented import structure optimization.%本文基于投入产出表,借助外贸产品结构合理度指标,通过实证检验,不仅分析了当前我国进出口商品结构的优化情况,而且验证了进口结构优化对外贸增长方式转变具有正向促进作用,并提出了实行创新导向型进口结构优化战略的政策建议。

  12. Research on the Project-based Teaching Reform of High-er Vocational "Foreign Business Correspondence" Course Based on Foreign Trade Process%基于外贸流程的高职“外贸函电”课程项目教学改革的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱青

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of the features of project-based teaching based on working process, and the characteristics of"Foreign Business Correspondence" course, the paper discusses the rationality of reforming the teaching mode of higher vocational"Foreign Business Correspondence" course by project-based teaching. It also upholds the design scheme for the project-based teaching which combines higher vocational "Foreign Business Correspondence" course with foreign trade process. At last, it stresses the change of teachers' role in the project-based teaching mode.%在分析了“基于工作过程”的项目教学的特点和高职外贸函电课程特点的基础上,本文探讨了外贸函电课程项目教学模式改革的合理性。提出了将外贸业务流程与外贸函电课程相结合的项目教学设计方案,从课程项目安排,课堂教学组织到课程评价方式等方面都提出了改革办法,并强调了教师在项目教学中角色的转变。

  13. The Analysis of Foreign Trade Competitiveness Based on the Trade Structure Data-For the Example of Jiangsu Province%基于贸易结构数据的对外贸易竞争力分析-以江苏为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2015-01-01

    文章通过建立面板数据模型,实证分析了人民币实际有效汇率、规模以上工业增加值定基增速、大宗商品价格对一般贸易、加工贸易和五大类商品竞争力产生的影响程度和方向。从江苏省数据的研究结果看,加工贸易竞争优势优于一般贸易;汇率和大宗商品价格变动对一般贸易和加工贸易的竞争力有着负向影响,工业发展水平能提升一般贸易和加工贸易的竞争力;汇率、工业发展水平和大宗商品价格变动对不同类别商品竞争力的影响差异显著。在此基础上,文章提出推动外贸转型、优化贸易结构、加大金融支持力度及监测分析等政策建议。%Through building Panal data model, the article empirically analysed the extent and direction of general trade, processing trade and five categories commodity’s competitive that RMB REER ,industrial output growgh and commodity prices should be responsible to. The results showed that processing trade were better than general trade;the changes of exchange rate and commodity price took a negative effects on the competitiveness of general trade and processing trade;the development in industry was good for promotion of general trade and processing trade’s competitiveness;exchange rate, the level of industrial development and commodity price fluctuation had significant influence on different categories of products competitiveness. At the end. the article gave some recommendations such as promoting the transformation of foreign trade, optimizing trade structure、increasing financial support and monitoring analysis and so on.

  14. Trade Back on Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China is taking up a larger piece of the global trade pie as its 2009 exports accounted for almost one 10th of the world total that year.The Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM)released a report on April 27 summarizing foreign trade in 2009 and the first quarter of 2010.MOFCOM also cautioned exporters of international market volatili ties in the next half of 2010.

  15. 应收账款管理的新视角--应收账款保理业务初探%New Perspective of the Management of Account Receivable by Foreign Trade Enterprises during the Monetary crisis Exploration on Account Receivable Factoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凡

    2014-01-01

    本文从外贸企业应收账款现状分析出发,提出了运用应收账款保理业务加强外贸企业应收账款管理,并进一步分析了外贸企业在运用应收账款保理业务所面临的困难和问题,提出了加强运用应收账款保理业务,解决海外应收账款的几点建议。%American subprime crisis solicited the monetary crisis, which made Chinese foreign trade enterprises experience external credit risks brought by the global financial crisis. Chinese enterprises should strengthen the risk management of receivables during the trade and set up the mechanism of receivables risk management. From the perspective of the present situation of receivables in foreign trade enterprises, this paper proposes to strengthen receivables management of foreign trade enterprises with the aid of account receivable factoring. It also analyses the problems and dif iculties faced by foreign trade enterprises when use account receivable factoring. In addition, it of ers some suggestions on how to strengthen account receivable factoring and how to resolve overseas receivables.

  16. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade...

  17. The Prospect of China's Foreign Trade in Context of Labor Cost Increase%劳动力成本上涨背景下我国对外贸易展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏; 吴崇宇

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 ,the total volume of China's import and export trade has passed four trillion dollars for the first time ,becoming the world's biggest trading country .As the age structure of the population changes ,however ,the increase of China's laboring population slows down and the so‐called “demo‐graphic dividend”is disappearing .The present paper takes multiple factors into consideration such as la‐bor productivity and labor cost per unit to conduct a descriptive statistic of China's urban employment average salary ,to comparatively analyzs the data of the average salary among 27 main OECD countries from 2002 to 2012 ,to report on the comparative advantages of China's labor cost and its impact upon China's foreign trade .To analyze the effect of labor cost increase upon foreign trade ,correlation test is validated through the NTB index and the margin of unit labor costs between China and other countries . Through such analysis ,the paper concludes that the rising labor costs have limited effects on the com‐parative advantage of China's export trade and proposes a more healthy ,more sustained development strategy for China's foreign trade .%2013年,我国商品进出口贸易总额首次突破4万亿美元,成为全球最大贸易国。然而,随着人口年龄结构的改变,我国劳动年龄人口增长速度减缓,“人口红利”正在消失。本文综合考虑了劳动生产率,单位劳动成本等因素,通过对我国城镇单位就业人员实际平均工资进行描述性统计,并与27个O ECD主要国家2002年至2012年平均工资数据做比较分析,报告了我国劳动力成本比较优势的现状,及其对我国对外贸易的影响。为了更直观地分析劳动力成本上涨对我国对外贸易的影响,作者引入可比净出口指数、他国单位劳动成本与我国单位劳动成本差额两项指标,对其进行相关性检验。通过分析,得出目前劳动力成本上涨对我国出口

  18. 基于博弈视角分析我国外贸企业融资问题%Financing Problem Analysis of China's Foreign Trade Enterprises from the Perspective of Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣红霞; 石孟悦

    2015-01-01

    Financing activities of foreign trade enterprises could be seemed as a kind of dynamic game;information in the dynamic game is not complete. China's foreign trade enterprises have serious financial difficulties. The main cause for capital scarce of the enterprises is the insufficient exogenous financing. There is information asymmetry between the enterprise and banks;however, the two could not survive in-dependently. They affect, play chess against and facilitate the growth of each other. By building a game theoretical model, the importance of information disclosure by enterprises themselves and the significance of improving business reputation are understood profoundly. With governmental support, bank cooperation and enterprises effort, foreign trade businesses in China could overcome the financing difficulties by solving the problem of information asymmetry.%外贸企业的融资活动可以看成是一种动态博弈,这种动态博弈的信息是不完全的。我国外贸企业目前的融资是十分困难的,外源性融资的不足是我国外贸企业资金不充足的重要原因。企业与银行中的信息存在不对称现象,银行与企业都不是可以单独存在的,二者相互影响,相互博弈,相互促进。通过建立博弈论模型,能够更深刻的了解到企业披露自身信息的重要性,以及提高商誉的重要性。随着政府的支持,银行的配合以及企业自身的努力,我国外贸企业一定能解决信息不对称的问题,克服融资困难。

  19. 15 CFR 806.15 - Foreign direct investment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign direct investment in the... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.15 Foreign direct investment in the United States. (a) Specific definitions—(1) Foreign...

  20. Ordinal preference elicitation methods in health economics and health services research: using discrete choice experiments and ranking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shehzad; Ronaldson, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    The predominant method of economic evaluation is cost-utility analysis, which uses cardinal preference elicitation methods, including the standard gamble and time trade-off. However, such approach is not suitable for understanding trade-offs between process attributes, non-health outcomes and health outcomes to evaluate current practices, develop new programmes and predict demand for services and products. Ordinal preference elicitation methods including discrete choice experiments and ranking methods are therefore commonly used in health economics and health service research. Cardinal methods have been criticized on the grounds of cognitive complexity, difficulty of administration, contamination by risk and preference attitudes, and potential violation of underlying assumptions. Ordinal methods have gained popularity because of reduced cognitive burden, lower degree of abstract reasoning, reduced measurement error, ease of administration and ability to use both health and non-health outcomes. The underlying assumptions of ordinal methods may be violated when respondents use cognitive shortcuts, or cannot comprehend the ordinal task or interpret attributes and levels, or use 'irrational' choice behaviour or refuse to trade-off certain attributes. CURRENT USE AND GROWING AREAS: Ordinal methods are commonly used to evaluate preference for attributes of health services, products, practices, interventions, policies and, more recently, to estimate utility weights. AREAS FOR ON-GOING RESEARCH: There is growing research on developing optimal designs, evaluating the rationalization process, using qualitative tools for developing ordinal methods, evaluating consistency with utility theory, appropriate statistical methods for analysis, generalizability of results and comparing ordinal methods against each other and with cardinal measures.

  1. 75 FR 60736 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Water Technology Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. ] Water Technology Trade Mission to India; February 28... Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS), is organizing a Water Technology Trade Mission to...

  2. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    .../tmcal.html ) and other Internet web sites, press releases to general and trade media, direct mail... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing a...

  3. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    .../tmcal.html ) and other Internet web sites, press releases to general and trade media, direct mail... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing a...

  4. Thinking about the Development Trend of China's Foreign Trade E-Business Mode%中国外贸电子商务模式的发展趋势思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边庆超

    2011-01-01

    Foreign trade involves many aspects of e-commerce model,most of the e-commerce businesses in order to ensure the user experience,have to do addition,in order not to be controlled by others,companies do their own marketing,warehousing,logistics,and even payto consolidate its position in the industry.But for foreign trade enterprises,such behavior is not appl/cable, a number of external factors of enterprises expand their business overseas.Foreign power suppliers want to go out,it is necessary to break the form of a single module,this time overseas marketing integration solutions provider on the need arise,I think independent companies in brand building integrated B2C platform+model is superior to foreign outsourcing several other models.%外贸电子商务的模式涉及许多环节,大部分电子商务企业为了保证用户体验,纷纷在做加法,为了不受制于人,企业自己做营销、仓储、物流,甚至是支付,以巩固自身的行业地位。但是对于外贸企业来讲,这种行为是无法适用的,众多的外在因素制约着企业的海外拓展业务。外贸电商想要走出去,就要打破单一模块的形式,这时候海外营销整合解决方案的提供商就急需出现,我个人认为在品牌塑造方面企业独立B2C平台+整合外贸服务外包模式要优于别的几种模式。

  5. Emission trade balances CO2 emission. The benefits of investing in foreign environmental projects; Emissiehandel brengt CO2-uitstoot in balans. Investeren in buitenlands milieuproject loont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, A. [ed.

    2000-02-17

    Several plans to trade CO2 emission certificates are developed by companies and institutes such as BP Amoco, Shell and the World Bank. One can make the most advantageous choice to invest in the reduction of greenhouse gases. A brief overview is given of the developments so far. 3 refs.

  6. Regenerating time series from ordinal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Michael; Sakellariou, Konstantinos; Stemler, Thomas; Small, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Recently proposed ordinal networks not only afford novel methods of nonlinear time series analysis but also constitute stochastic approximations of the deterministic flow time series from which the network models are constructed. In this paper, we construct ordinal networks from discrete sampled continuous chaotic time series and then regenerate new time series by taking random walks on the ordinal network. We then investigate the extent to which the dynamics of the original time series are encoded in the ordinal networks and retained through the process of regenerating new time series by using several distinct quantitative approaches. First, we use recurrence quantification analysis on traditional recurrence plots and order recurrence plots to compare the temporal structure of the original time series with random walk surrogate time series. Second, we estimate the largest Lyapunov exponent from the original time series and investigate the extent to which this invariant measure can be estimated from the surrogate time series. Finally, estimates of correlation dimension are computed to compare the topological properties of the original and surrogate time series dynamics. Our findings show that ordinal networks constructed from univariate time series data constitute stochastic models which approximate important dynamical properties of the original systems.

  7. Regenerating time series from ordinal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Michael; Sakellariou, Konstantinos; Stemler, Thomas; Small, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Recently proposed ordinal networks not only afford novel methods of nonlinear time series analysis but also constitute stochastic approximations of the deterministic flow time series from which the network models are constructed. In this paper, we construct ordinal networks from discrete sampled continuous chaotic time series and then regenerate new time series by taking random walks on the ordinal network. We then investigate the extent to which the dynamics of the original time series are encoded in the ordinal networks and retained through the process of regenerating new time series by using several distinct quantitative approaches. First, we use recurrence quantification analysis on traditional recurrence plots and order recurrence plots to compare the temporal structure of the original time series with random walk surrogate time series. Second, we estimate the largest Lyapunov exponent from the original time series and investigate the extent to which this invariant measure can be estimated from the surrogate time series. Finally, estimates of correlation dimension are computed to compare the topological properties of the original and surrogate time series dynamics. Our findings show that ordinal networks constructed from univariate time series data constitute stochastic models which approximate important dynamical properties of the original systems.

  8. WTO's View: Improved China's Trade & Economic Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ After the first Trade Policy Review of the People's Republic of China in 2006,WTO Secretariat released the second Trade Policy Review of China on May 21,2008,which"provided an excellent opportunity to improve transparency,and thereby a better understanding of China's trade and related policies"remarked by the China's officer in WTO.China's Foreign Trade picks up the summary observations of the Review to help our readers to grasp clearer picture on China's trade and economy.

  9. Germany Enjoys Splendid Trade Partnership with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      "China and Germany are longterm trade partners, The volume of our bilateral trade has reached more than $54 Million in 2004, Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder have agreed to double our bilateral trade volume by the year 2010." Dr. Volker Stanzel,German Ambassador gave an active appraise on the bilateral trade relations when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.……

  10. Insider trading

    OpenAIRE

    Šatanová, Martina

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is dealing with trading based on nonpublic information (insider trading). It contains development of insider trading regulation and describes specifics of american, czech, japanese and chinese market consodering insider trading. It is focused on regulation, investigation and evidence.

  11. Foreign investment multinational companies and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    There is no universal answer on the question whether foreign investments stimulate economic development. The positive effect of foreign direct investments will follow when the investments is carried out under normal conditions of competition. That means, above all, low barriers for foreign trade and the low level of restrictions for foreign owned companies. In such circumstances, multinational corporations can assist the economies of penetration to make its businesses more efficient. Foreign ...

  12. The Course Development of Foreign Trade Documentation Based on the Systematization of Working Process%基于工作过程的“外贸制单”课程开发实践探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晶晶

    2012-01-01

    The higher vocational education should insist on the capability view of the intellectual abilities and skills, the professional view of confronting the jobs and job groups and the view of working process-based course theory. This paper, in accordance with the course design based on trade documentation course development and the teaching method design process, proposes a framework of a system for foreign guided by action.%以武汉职业技术学院省级精品课程《外贸制单》课程开发为例,探讨了基于工作过程的外贸单证课程的开发实践与设计。

  13. Effect of National Cultural Distance on China's Foreign Trade: Data Analysis of 31 Countries and Regions' Trade Based on Gravity Model%国家文化距离对中国对外贸易的影响——基于31个国家和地区贸易数据的引力模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晖; 蒋辰春

    2012-01-01

    随着国际贸易的不断发展,国家文化因素对它的影响作用逐渐得到重视。本文利用中国与31个国家和地区1995-2009年的贸易数据,引入Hofstede的国家文化维度建立中国对外贸易引力模型,研究国家文化距离对中国对外贸易的影响。研究显示,国家文化距离对中国贸易存在双重影响,作为整体变量,它对中国对外贸易有负面影响,作为组合变量,权力距离等几个维度对中国对外贸易有正面影响;此外,国家文化距离对中国进出口贸易的影响程度存在差异。%With the development of international trade,the effect of national cultural factors on international trade has drawn increasingly attention.Based on the data on trade between China and other 31 countries and regions from 1995 to 2009,this paper establishes a gravity model of China’ s foreign trade to study the effect of national cultural distance on China’s foreign trade by using Hofstede’ s national cultural dimensions.The results show that,national cultural distance has double influence on China’s foreign trade.As an entire variable,national cultural distance has a negative impact on China’s foreign trade,while as a combined variable,some cultural dimensions such as power distance have positive effect on it.Additional,there are some different effects between imports and exports.

  14. 多重外部因素下珠三角外贸企业适应性成长机制%Adaptive Growth Mechanism of Foreign Trade Enterprises in the Pearl River Delta with Multiple External Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁裕辉

    2012-01-01

    Multiple factors such as global social responsibility campaign, financial crisis, digital manufacturing, and virtual communities will change the ecological environment of the foreign trade enterprises in the Pearl River Delta. Through the a-nalysis on growth factors of foreign trade enterprises in the Pearl River Delta, its adaptive growth mechanism model has been constructed from the perspective of complex adaptive theory. Studies show that adaptive growth enterprises must be able to respond quickly to external environment' s change and reconstruct "internal model". Finally, in view of the multiple external factor, the paper puts forward the corresponding rapid response mechanisms consisting of technology innovation, system innovation, marketing innovation, and consciousness innovation.%全球社会责任运动、金融危机、制造业数字化、虚拟社区等多重因素将改变珠三角外贸企业的生态环境.基于复杂自适应理论的视角分析了影响珠三角外贸企业成长的因素,并构建了其适应性成长机制模型.研究结果表明:企业只有快速响应外部生态环境变化而重构“内部模型”,才能适应性成长.最后,针对目前多重外部因素的影响,提出了由技术创新、制度创新、营销创新、意识创新等构建的快速响应机制.

  15. Application Explore on Financial Derivatives to Profits Decline of Foreign Trade Enterprises%金融及衍生品对冲外贸企业利润下滑的应用研究--以江苏纺织进出口企业为样本

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 赵伟雄; 徐彪

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis about current situation of foreign trade enterprises in Jiangsu province, this article summarizes the main risks foreign trade enterprises facing, foreign trade enterprises has led to three types of risk of falling profits: exchange rate fluctuations, the cost of upgrading, interest rate fluctuations, analyzed the above items, take the textile export enterprises as example, proposed solutions to foreign trade enterprises in Jiangsu Province for the use of financial derivatives to hedge profit fell.%本文在对江苏省内外贸企业的经营现状分析的基础上,总结了外贸企业面临的主要风险,就导致外贸企业利润下滑的三类风险:汇率波动、成本提升、利率波动,进行了分析,并以纺织类进出口企业为例提出了解决方案,从而为江苏省外贸企业利用金融衍生品对冲利润下滑以启示。

  16. Book Trade Research and Statistics. Prices of U.S. and Foreign Published Materials; Book Title Output and Average Prices: 2001 Final and 2002 Preliminary Figures; Book Sales Statistics, 2002: AAP Preliminary Estimates; U.S. Book Exports and Imports:2002; Number of Book Outlets in the United States and Canada; Review Media Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sharon G.; Grabois, Andrew; Greco, Albert N.

    2003-01-01

    Includes six reports related to book trade statistics, including prices of U.S. and foreign materials; book title output and average prices; book sales statistics; book exports and imports; book outlets in the U.S. and Canada; and numbers of books and other media reviewed by major reviewing publications. (LRW)

  17. 75 FR 59685 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... analyzed by USDA's Economic Research Service and reviewed by the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program...

  18. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... analyzed by USDA's Economic Research Service and reviewed by the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, Office of Trade Programs, FAS, USDA, or by phone at...

  19. The Exploration and Practice of Foreign Trade Skill Training Based on the Guidance of the Constructivism Theory%基于建构主义理论指导的外贸技能实训探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡筱霞

    2012-01-01

    The Constructivism theory proposes a learning mode of "Learning by Doing".According to the characteristics of the course "International Trade Practice",the author analyzes the current student employment demand of the foreign trade,and puts forward the thinking of the foreign trade skill training subject to the students.It will truly realize the jobs docking.%建构主义理论提倡一种"Learning By Doing"的学习模式。笔者根据"国际贸易实务"课程的特点,分析了当前外经贸行业对学生的就业要求,提出了以学生为主的外贸技能实训设计思路,真正实现与就业岗位相对接。

  20. Opportunities and threats of WTO membership of Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of membership in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that after Ukraine joined WTO there were some rather significant reductions of tariff rates for Ukrainian products and liberalisation of access to the world markets, at the same time the internal Ukrainian market became more open for imported products. The article studies specific features and changes in the high-technology products market after Ukraine joined WTO. It analyses dynamics of volumes and specific weight of the world export-import of high-technology products and the structure of the world export and import of high technology products, including by individual countries and groups. The article makes a conclusion about a weak high-technology component of the Ukrainian export. It studies the structure of export of high-technology products of EU, CU and Ukraine. It shows that in order to develop the high-technology products market Ukraine needs to develop foreign trade with EU countries and also to continue co-operation with CU countries, in particular, with Russia. The article shows that the aerospace industry products takes the biggest specific weight in the export of high-technology products of Ukraine. It considers prospects of development of civil aircraft production in the world and Ukraine under the modern conditions. It analyses strengths and weaknesses of the aircraft construction industry and also threats and opportunities for aircraft construction of Ukraine due to external environment influence. The article shows that Ukraine cannot keep national aircraft building on its own, that is why it is necessary to develop close co-operation both with Russian enterprises and with the countries of the Western Europe. It offers recommendations on

  1. Ordinal ultrafilters versus P-hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Starosolski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    An earlier paper, entitled "P-hierarchy on $\\beta\\omega$", investigated the relations between ordinal ultrafilters and the so-called P-hierarchy. This study is continued in the present paper and focuses on the aspects of characterization of classes of finite index, existence, generic existence and the Rudin-Keisler-order.

  2. The Empirical Study on the Transforming Development Pattern of China's Foreign Trade under Global Value Chains%我国外贸发展方式转变的实证研究——基于全球价值链视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海波; 朱华丽

    2012-01-01

    在全球价值链视角下,从外贸增长、发展动力、外贸结构和可持续发展四个方面构建我国外贸发展方式转变的评价指标体系,以2001—2010年的数据,采用AHP方法对外贸发展方式转变进行实证分析。结果表明:2006年后外贸增长指标持续增长,发展动力指标波动明显,外贸结构指标逐年增加,可持续发展指标具有最强的持续转变趋势。最后提出加快外贸发展方式转变的对策建议。%Based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process, the paper establishes an evaluation index system of the foreign trade growth, the driving force of develop- ment, the foreign trade structure and the sustainable development at perspective of GVC. After that, the paper also conducts an empirical study on it based on Chinas data from 2001 to 2010.The result is: the foreign trade growth is arising from 2006;the driving force of development has obvious fluctuation; the structural indicators show the performance of its foreign trade structure enhancing is medio- cre; the transformation of the sustainable development is outstanding. Generally speaking, the task of speeding up the transforming development pattern of Chi- nas foreign trade remains arduous. At last the paper brings forward our own opinions and suggestions based on analyzing the weak points in terms of its eval- uation system.

  3. 对外贸易对我国碳排放的影响分析%Analyse the Influences of Foreign Trade on China's Carbon Emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路正南; 王颖婕

    2013-01-01

    The survival and development of human society depend on the energy. Energy is an important material basis , and it is one of the most basic elements to promote economic growth. With the rapid development of world economy , the impact of cli-mate change on human activity is more and more deep, and the international communities pay more attention to it. China is in the fast development process of industrialization and urbanization, economic growth and resource supply and environment protection has become an increasingly sharp contradictions, especially since China joined the WTO, its economic is developing fast, export trade is continuously expanding, and more and more people concern about the environmental problems. This paper applied the method of clustering analysis, shows that the influence's between China's carbon emissions and export trade is divided into two categories marked with the accession to the world trade organization. And by the way of regression analysis , compared the influ-ence's change between China's carbon emissions and export trade before and after China's entry into the WTO. The results show that:after China's entry into the WTO, the elastic value between domestic carbon emissions and export trade has been larger. That means China's export trade growth is accompanied by high energy consumption level , our government need to do more to harmo-nize the relationship between environment and development.%能源是人类社会赖以生存和发展的重要物质基础,是促进经济增长最基本的要素之一。随着世界经济的迅速发展,气候变化对人类活动的影响越来越深,也更加受到国际社会的重视。中国正处于工业化和城市化快速发展的过程,经济增长与资源供给和环境保护的矛盾日益尖锐,特别是加入世贸组织以来,经济高速发展,对外贸易不断扩大,随之而来的环境问题越来越受到人们的关注。本文应用聚类分析的方法,得出

  4. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... President as to which countries should be designated as beneficiary developing countries, and as to which... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign...

  5. 广西外贸企业面向东盟开展跨境电商的问题与对策%Problems and Their Countermeasures of Carrying out Cross-border Electronic Commerce ASEAN Foreign Trade Enterprises in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃伟赋

    2015-01-01

    在中国—东盟自由贸易区已建成的背景下,广西外贸企业与东盟各国开展跨境电子商务迎来了前所未有的发展机遇。文章分析了面向中国—东盟的广西外贸企业跨境电子商务的发展现状,探讨目前广西外贸企业发展跨境电子商务存在的主要问题,并提出广西外贸企业利用跨境电子商务开拓东盟市场对策,对提升面向东盟的广西外贸企业国际竞争力,保障广西经济取得持续增长的重要路径选择,具有重大实际应用价值。%In the background of Chinese ASEAN Free Trade Area has been built,Guangxi foreign trade enterpris⁃es on cross-border e-commerce has ushered in unprecedented opportunities for rapid development with ASEAN coun⁃tries. This paper analyzes the present situation of cross-border e-commerce in Guangxi foreign trade enterprises for China-ASEAN,and discusses the main problems existing in the development of cross-border e-commerce in Guangxi foreign trade enterprises,while puts forward the Countermeasures of Guangxi foreign trade enterprises to develop ASEAN market,Research on theoretical basis,for Guangxi foreign trade enterprises provide a necessary countermea⁃sures about cross-border electronic commerce to open up the ASEAN market,to promote the ASEAN Guangxi foreign trade international competitiveness of enterprises. For guarantee the important way of Guangxi’s economy has contin⁃ued to grow,it has great practical value.

  6. 中印外贸依存度及其行业结构解析的比较--全球价值链中的国内增加值视角%Research on Foreign Trade Dependence and Industrial Structure of China and India---An Domestic Trade Value Added Perspective in Global Value Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国姣; 杨来科

    2016-01-01

    在全球生产网络和国际分工日益深化的背景下,按出口贸易国内增加值核算可解决“统计幻象”问题,能更真实地反映出口对经济增长的贡献及拉动程度。从全球价值链的国内增加值视角,利用WIOD数据库考察基于出口贸易国内增加值的中印外贸依存度,并对其进行行业结构解析。结果表明:中国外贸依存度总体呈上升趋势,印度外贸依存度呈先上升后下降趋势,两者计算结果均低于传统外贸依存度测算的结果。增加值比例效应对中印外贸依存度的影响效应为负,说明中印参与全球价值链分工的强度不断增大。中印均由主要出口劳动密集型产品向资本技术密集型产品转变,且印度的互联网、软件开发等生产性服务业的出口竞争力明显大于中国。%In the context of international division of labor and deepening of the global production value chain,the domestic trade value added statistics can settle the“double accounting”issue. From the perspec-tive of domestic trade value added,this paper proposes a new method to calculate the foreign trade dependence of China and India by the WIOD database. And then we decompose its influential factors by industrial struc-ture decomposition analysis. The result shows that from 1995 to 2009,the foreign trade dependence in China takes on a upward trend,while it declines after a rise in India. Both results of China and India are lower than that calculated by traditional formula. The Vax ratio effect is negative in China and India,which shows the in-creasing intensity of their participation in the global value chains. Both China and India have stimulated the foreign trade dependence by turning labor-intensive products to technology-intensive and capital-intensive prod-ucts respectively. Besides,the competitiveness of India's Internet and related services,software and IT serv-ices is stronger than China's.

  7. Emission Trading

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The work concerns Emission Trading Scheme from perspektive of taxes and accounting. I should show problems with emission trading. The work concerns practical example of trading with emission allowance.

  8. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  9. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Rubinsten

    Full Text Available In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1 the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2 core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD. Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1 and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2. In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks, DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  10. 36 CFR 28.15 - Approval of local zoning ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of local zoning... INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING STANDARDS Federal Standards and Approval of Local Ordinances § 28.15 Approval of local zoning ordinances. (a) The Secretary shall approve local ordinances...

  11. An ordinal model of the McGurk illusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    an ordinal model, in which the response categories are ordered cyclically, that can account for the McGurk illusion. We compare this model to the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception (FLMP), which is not an ordinal model, based on an original data set. While the FLMP fitted the data better than the ordinal...

  12. Empirical Analysis of Xinjiang's Bilateral Trade: Gravity Model Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xuegang; YANG Zhaoping; LIU Xuling

    2008-01-01

    Based on the basic trade gravity model and Xinjiang's practical situation, new explanatory variables (GDP,GDPpc and SCO) are introduced to build an extended trade gravity model fitting for Xinjiang's bilateral trade. Fromthe empirical analysis of this model, it is proposed that those three variables affect the Xinjiang's bilateral trade posi-tively. Whereas, geographic distance is found to be a significant factor influencing Xinjiang's bilateral trade negatively.Then, by the extended trade gravity model, this article analyzes the present trade situation between Xinjiang and itsmain trade partners quantitatively in 2004. The results indicate that Xinjiang cooperates with its most trade partnerssuccessfully in terms of present economic scale and developing revel. Xinjiang has established successfully trade part-nership with Central Asia, Central Europe and Eastern Europe, Western Europe, East Asia and South Asia. However,the foreign trade development with West Asia is much slower. Finally, some suggestions on developing Xinjiang's for-eign trade are put forward.

  13. 75 FR 41432 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Farmers Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist, Farm... Farmers' Program Should Contact: USDA, Farm Service Agency (at your local service center). FOR...

  14. 75 FR 41433 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... TAA for Farmers Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief... eligible for cash benefits. Producers Certified as Eligible For TAA for Farmers' Program Should...

  15. Model county ordinance for wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, D.A. [Oregon Office of Energy, Portland, OR (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Permitting is a crucial step in the development cycle of a wind project and permits affect the timing, cost, location, feasibility, layout, and impacts of wind projects. Counties often have the lead responsibility for permitting yet few have appropriate siting regulations for wind projects. A model ordinance allows a county to quickly adopt appropriate permitting procedures. The model county wind ordinance developed for use by northwest states is generally applicable across the country and counties seeking to adopt siting or zoning regulations for wind will find it a good starting place. The model includes permitting procedures for wind measurement devices and two types of wind systems. Both discretionary and nondiscretionary standards apply to wind systems and a conditional use permit would be issued. The standards, criteria, conditions for approval, and process procedures are defined for each. Adaptation examples for the four northwest states are provided along with a model Wind Resource Overlay Zone.

  16. The Three Amigos, energy trade and NAFTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Alexander

    1999-07-01

    This article examines the effect of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the energy sectors in the US, Canada and Mexico with the general opening of borders to trade and business opportunities. Details are given of Mexico joining GATT in 1986, and the bilateral trade agreement of Canada and the US which incorporates GATT rules for energy trade. Foreign investment, export restrictions, environmental concerns, and dispute resolution are discussed, and the advantages of the NAFTA agreement are outlined. (UK)

  17. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  18. DOS: the discrete-ordinates system. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoades, W. A.; Emmett, M. B.

    1982-09-01

    The Discrete Ordinates System determines the flux of neutrons or photons due either to fixed sources specified by the user or to sources generated by particle interaction with the problem materials. It also determines numerous secondary results which depend upon flux. Criticality searches can be performed. Numerous input, output, and file manipulation facilities are provided. The DOS driver program reads the problem specification from an input file and calls various program modules into execution as specified by the input file.

  19. CAFTA框架下广西提高农产品对外贸易竞争优势的思考%Considerations on Improving Competitive Advantages of Foreign Trade of Guangxi Agricultural Products in CAFTA Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林桂红

    2011-01-01

    The current situation of foreign trade and development of Cuangxi agricultural products and the existing problems in CAFTA framework were analyzed, the foreign trade of Cuangxi agricultural products showed increase trend quickly, when the single configuration of commodities was appeared; the distribution of export markets was not rational, export products were mainly resource-intensive and labor intensive, added value of products was not high; and lack of brand of agricultural products, the general international competitiveness was not strong. Thus, suggestions and countermeasures for training competitive advantages of Guangxi agricultural products under the background of CAFTA were put forward. The structure of export markets was transferred from simplification to diversity gradually; the structure of export commodities was changed from factor endowments oriented to the international market demand orientation gradually; agricultural products were changed from traditional agricultural products to advantage complementary feature agricultural products; trade structure was transferred from land intensive agricultural products to labor and technology intensive agricultural products; trade structure of products was transferred from low-cost malignant competition to high added value competition; government function was transferred from traditional one-way guidance to modem integrated service supervision what adjust to export requirements.%分析了CAFTA框架下广西农产品对外贸易发展的现状及存在的问题,广西农产品对外贸易在呈现快速增长态势的同时,商品结构单一;出口市场分布不合理;出口商品密集型和劳动密集型为主,产品附加值不高;农产品品牌缺乏,总体国际竞争力不强.提出了CAFIA背景下,培育广西农产品对外贸易竞争优势的对策建议:出口市场结构由现在的单一化逐步向多元化趋势转变;出口商品结构从现在的要素禀赋导向逐渐向国际市场

  20. Scoring ordinal variables for constructing composite indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Manisera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide composite indicators of latent variables, for example of customer satisfaction, it is opportune to identify the structure of the latent variable, in terms of the assignment of items to the subscales defining the latent variable. Adopting the reflective model, the impact of four different methods of scoring ordinal variables on the identification of the true structure of latent variables is investigated. A simulation study composed of 5 steps is conducted: (1 simulation of population data with continuous variables measuring a two-dimensional latent variable with known structure; (2 draw of a number of random samples; (3 discretization of the continuous variables according to different distributional forms; (4 quantification of the ordinal variables obtained in step (3 according to different methods; (5 construction of composite indicators and verification of the correct assignment of variables to subscales by the multiple group method and the factor analysis. Results show that the considered scoring methods have similar performances in assigning items to subscales, and that, when the latent variable is multinormal, the distributional form of the observed ordinal variables is not determinant in suggesting the best scoring method to use.

  1. Trade and Portuguese Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNO CARLOS LEITÃO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript examines the link between trade and migration flows using a gravity model for the period 1995-2007 between Portugal and European Union countries. We also include in our sample the Portuguese speaking countries (PALOPS, i.e., ex-colonies. Globalization drives people to migrate, in some countries, immigration being more pronounced las in Portugal, in last decade, this country receiving foreign residents. This is a new reality to Portuguese economy. For many years, the Portuguese have emigrated to European countries, the United States of America and other countries. Currently, Portugal is witnessing a reverse trend, Brazilian, Cape Verde, Ukrainian and Romanian communities choose Portugal as a destination country. We find evidence that immigration has a positive influence in bilateral trade. We also introduce economic size and regional trade agreements (RTA; these proxies confirming a positive impact of bilateral trade. These results show that the gravity model can explain the pattern of bloc’s trade. Our results also confirm the hypothesis that trade increases if the transport decreases. Classification-JEL:F14,F22Keywords:Trade, Immigration, Gravity model; PortugalJournal:Romanian Journal of EconomicsPages:38-48Volume:31Issue:2(40Year:2010(XXMonth: DecemberFile-URL: http://www.revecon.ro/articles/2010-2/2010-2-2.pdf

  2. On Incomplete Pass-through Effect of Exchange Rate in China''''s Textile Foreign Trade%我国纺织品进出口贸易的汇率不完全传递效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中志

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the incomplete pass-through effect of exchange rate on the textile industry. First,we calculate the nominal effective exchange rate of China's textile industry by setting weight according to the share of for-eign trade in each country. Then we conduct an empirical test through employing the data of both textile industry and typical firms. We find that there is incomplete and asymmetry exchange rate pass-through effect in China's textile import and export trade. The difference degree of textiles for export is not high and the price elasticity of demand is rather big-ger. In order to maintain their advantage of lower export price,China's textile companies have to absorb most of the ex-change rate fluctuations. Because the imports of China's textile companies are mostly textile raw material,and the gov-ernment implements quota management on the above-mentioned products, the textile companies can't make full use of foreign low-cost materials. As a result, China's textile companies can't reduce the risks brought by the exchange rate fluctuations through flexibly adjusting the quantity of import and export.%本文首先以贸易份额为权重,测算出我国纺织业进出口名义有效汇率指数,在此基础上分别利用行业和企业层面的数据进行实证检验.研究发现,中国纺织业进口和出口贸易中存在汇率不完全传递效应,并体现出明显的非对称性.原因在于中国出口纺织品差异化程度不高,需求价格弹性大,出口企业通过主动吸收大部分汇率波动,以维持低价竞争优势.纺织业进口主要以原料为主,由于国家对主要纺织原料进口实行配额或进口许可管理,纺织企业无法充分运用国外低成本资源,很难通过灵活调整进出口数量来降低汇率风险.

  3. 7 CFR 993.21b - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 993.21b Section 993.21b Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.21b Trade demand. (a) Domestic trade demand. The quantity of... domestic markets for human consumption as prunes and prune products. (b) Foreign trade demand. The quantity...

  4. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act... product,” “foreign end product,” “Free Trade Agreement country,” “Free Trade Agreement country end product... American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli Trade Act.” (b) The offeror certifies that the following...

  5. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade...

  6. Influences and Countermeasures of Green Trade Barrier on Export Trade of Chinese Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    With the worsening of environment, many countries pay more attention to the environmental protection. Green (organic) trade barrier gradually attracts more attention to the non-tariff barrier in the international trade. However, according to the economic levels of different countries, great differences exist in environment standards of these countries which resulted in the appearance of green trade barriers as trade protection. This study classified the connotations and characteristics of green trade barrier, gave the descriptions on the development and type of green trade barrier, and analysed the influences on China's export and put forward some countermeasures which aimed at stimulating the development of our foreign trade.

  7. China-US Business Forum:Trade Deficit Not Big,Not Hurt Sino-US Trade Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ "The trade between China and America has never been better." Bruce W.Blakeman, Special Councel to the USSecretary of Commerce said in August,2005 when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade. But the trade conflicts between the two countries have always been seen during the past a half year,especially on the issue of trade deficit.

  8. China-US Business Forum:Trade Deficit Not Big,Not Hurt Sino-US Trade Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Yongjian

    2006-01-01

      "The trade between China and America has never been better." Bruce W.Blakeman, Special Councel to the USSecretary of Commerce said in August,2005 when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade. But the trade conflicts between the two countries have always been seen during the past a half year,especially on the issue of trade deficit.……

  9. Fair Trade

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the behavior of fair trade organizations in an oligopolistic setting in which the vertically integrated fair trade firm produces a commodity which is a weak substitute for another commodity. Profit-maximizing oligopolists are vertically disintegrated and produce for both markets and the fair trade firm can charge a premium to consumers due to a "warm glow effect" that depends on the wage paid to fair trade producers. We show that trade integration will unambiguously incr...

  10. 我国外贸企业国际结算的风险及防范%The Risks and their Prevention of China's Foreign Trade Enterprises Facing in International Settlement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立龙

    2011-01-01

    目前,我国外贸企业在进出口业务中主要使用三种国际结算方式:汇付、托收、信用证。随着出口竞争的日趋激烈化,灵活多变的支付方式已成为外贸企业增加市场份额的重要手段,由此也带来了进出口收付汇风险的增加。本文在分析各种结算方式特点和风险的基础上,探讨了国际结算风险的防范措施。%Nowadays China's foreign trade enterprises mainly use three kinds of international settlement in the import and export trade: remittance, collection, L/C. With the intense competition in export and import business, flexible settlement choice is becoming a main method used by traders to win market share, which has brought the risk of settlement. Based on the analysis of the advantages and risk of the international settlement, this paper puts forward measures on how to prevent risks in international settlement.

  11. Recommendations for Foreign Trade Companies Established in Turkey on Making Charter Party Marine Bills of Lading in Accordance with Letter of Credit-L/C Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Özkan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses how charter party marine bills of lading should be made in accordance with the letter of credit-L/C method. In an L/C, in order that the obligation of payment of the applicant (issuing bank and of the confirming bank, if any, against the beneficiary can continue, exporting companies are required to prepare documents in accordance with the UCP 600, ISBP 745 and terms of documentary letter of credit and present them properly (complying presentation. In order to prepare appropriate documents, it is essential for the exporting companies to act according to the three important criteria (letter of credit requirements, UCP 600 and ISPB 745 prevailing in this regard. Since competence of complying presentation requires a certain level of expertise, the exporting companies established in Turkey have experienced difficulties in terms of how to prepare documents and could not get benefit from payment obligation undertaking of the applicant bank and of the confirming bank, if any, due to the presentation of discrepant documents, getting export prices late, and payment of extra fees/commissions. Due to trade property, importing company’s demands and the conditions required by the legislation of the country where the exporting company is established, exporting companies are required to prepare many types of documents. In this study, the common mistakes that exporting companies in Turkey made in preparation of the charter party and the other types of B/Ls are analyzed, the basic and critical features of the charter party B/Ls, in particular, are considered and different and common parts compared to other bill of ladings are evaluated and how they can be organized properly according to letter of credit payment is shown.

  12. Avrupa Birliği Sürecinde Türk İmalat Sanayi Dış Ticaretinin Rekabet Gücü:1989-2009 Dönemi VAR Analizi(Turkish Manufacturing Industry’s Foreign Trade Competitive Power in the EU Accession Process: A VAR Analysis of 1989-2009 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan YALÇINKAYA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental macro factors that have come to affect globalization are inclusive of intensifying internationalization of political economic and cultural relations among countries, reciprocal interaction of different cultures and social structures and the disappearances of different walls created by the Cold War, respectively.In the making of globalization, no one can underestimate the impact of technological progress and competitive and outward-oriented foreign trade policy strategies. In both the developing and developed countries, foreign trade policies and fiscal policies, in general , economic policies have formed the very basis of globalization. Among such unions, stands the most important one as the European UnionThe vantage point in the integration of Turkish economy to the EU has been the Customs Union. By means of this legal settlement, a variety of differentiations have been experienced and currency policies’ functionality have gained importance.

  13. 对外贸易谈判方式与策略拓展——英语多义词词义辨析%Expansion of Ways and Strategies of Foreign Trade Negotiations: The Discrimination of the Meanings of English Polysemous Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍燕杰

    2012-01-01

    In foreign trade negotiations, business English as a professional English has played an increasingly important role. For English, most vocabularies are polysemous. This paper made a theoretical introduction to prototype theory, metaphor and language situation, analyzed the guidance of them for studying polysemous words, and expanded ways and strategies of foreign trade negotiations.%在对外贸易谈判中,商务英语已经作为一种职业英语起到日益重要的作用.针对英语中,大多数词汇都是多义词的现象,文章对原型理论,隐喻和语境进行了理论介绍,并剖析了它们对多义词学习的指导,拓展了对外贸易谈判的方式与策略.

  14. Reducing pollution by adjusting China’s trade mix—A case study using SO2 emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈利生; 唐志

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of foreign trade on China’s pollution emissions using an input-output model. Generally speaking,as exports are more pollution-intensive than imports,foreign trade helps reduce China’s emissions. Given the huge surplus of trade in goods and declines in the ratio of import/export emission intensities,an emission deficit emerged in China’s foreign trade.The fundamental cause is the worsening product mix of foreign trade.With technical progress outpaced by foreign trade growth,however,total emissions of export goods have been on the rise.

  15. Calculating reliability measures for ordinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamsu, C V

    1986-11-01

    Establishing the reliability of measures taken by judges is important in both clinical and research work. Calculating the statistic of choice, the kappa coefficient, unfortunately is not a particularly quick and simple procedure. Two much-needed practical tools have been developed to overcome these difficulties: a comprehensive and easily understood guide to the manual calculation of the most complex form of the kappa coefficient, weighted kappa for ordinal data, has been written; and a computer program to run under CP/M, PC-DOS and MS-DOS has been developed. With simple modification the program will also run on a Sinclair Spectrum home computer.

  16. Ordinal-Measure Based Shape Correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Alaya Cheikh

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach to shape similarity estimation based on distance transformation and ordinal correlation. The proposed method operates in three steps: object alignment, contour to multilevel image transformation, and similarity evaluation. This approach is suitable for use in shape classification, content-based image retrieval and performance evaluation of segmentation algorithms. The two latter applications are addressed in this papers. Simulation results show that in both applications our proposed measure performs quite well in quantifying shape similarity. The scores obtained using this technique reflect well the correspondence between object contours as humans perceive it.

  17. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar;

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are ma...... another on the basis of available binary indicators by drawing upon linear programming theory. These approaches are applied to household survey data from Vietnam and Mozambique with a focus on child poverty comparisons over time and between regions....

  18. Measure and integral with purely ordinal scales

    CERN Document Server

    Denneberg, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    We develop a purely ordinal model for aggregation functionals for lattice valued functions, comprising as special cases quantiles, the Ky Fan metric and the Sugeno integral. For modeling findings of psychological experiments like the reflection effect in decision behaviour under risk or uncertainty, we introduce reflection lattices. These are complete linear lattices endowed with an order reversing bijection like the reflection at 0 on the real interval $[-1,1]$. Mathematically we investigate the lattice of non-void intervals in a complete linear lattice, then the class of monotone interval-valued functions and their inner product.

  19. Migrant Associations, Trade and FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdadi, Leila; Cheptea, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Recent literature sets forth the positive role of migrants in international trade and foreign direct investment. We use a new database on French migrant associations together with data on the stocks of migrants to diffe-rentiate between organized and, respectively, non-organized migrant-based networks. We find that the creation of a new association of migrants is accompanied by important jumps in bilateral trade and investment between the host and origin countries. This effect adds on top of ...

  20. 合肥市对外贸易发展的竞争力分析--基于长三角地区15个城市的比较%An Analysis of Hefei’s Foreign Trade Competitiveness:Based on the Comparison of Fifteen Cities in the Yangtze River Delta Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱一元

    2015-01-01

    With the aid of an evaluation index system construct from the angles of scale, effectiveness, and potential of a city’s foreign trade competitiveness, the paper makes a comparison of Hefei’s foreign trade competitiveness with other fourteen cities within the Yangtze River Delta Area by adopting the method of principal component analysis. The result shows that Hefei is less competitive, ranking 13th a-mong the 15 cities. Finally the paper puts forward policy suggestions in an effort to improve Hefei’s foreign trade competitiveness.%从对外贸易发展的规模、效益、潜力三个角度构建一个城市对外贸易发展的竞争力评价指标体系,采用主成分分析法,将合肥市的外贸发展竞争力与长三角区域内其他十四个城市进行比较。研究结果表明,合肥市对外贸易发展竞争力总得分在15个城市中排名第13位,外贸竞争力水平不高。对此为合肥市提高对外贸易水平提出相应的政策建议。