WorldWideScience

Sample records for foreign dna acquisition

  1. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...... no effects on overall, skilled or less-skilled wage growth neither in targeted Swedish MNEs nor in targeted Swedish non-MNEs and neither if the acquisition was motivated by vertical or horizontal motives. However, the results indicate that both targeted Swedish MNEs and non-MNEs have better growth in TFP...

  2. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...... no effects on overall, skilled or less-skilled wage growth neither in targeted Swedish MNEs nor in targeted Swedish non-MNEs and neither if the acquisition was motivated by vertical or horizontal motives. However, the results indicate that both targeted Swedish MNEs and non-MNEs have better growth in TFP...

  3. Employment effects of foreign acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    that the employment of skilled labor increasesmore than that of less-skilled labor. Our results indicate that the positive employment effects are more pronounced in acquired non-MNEs than in Swedish MNEs. Furthermore, we observe shifts in skill intensities toward higher shares of skilled labor in non-MNEs taken over......This paper investigates the employment effects of foreign acquisitions in acquired firms in Swedish manufacturing during the 1990s; a period characterized by a dramatic increase in foreign ownership. We find some evidence of positive employment effects in acquired firms and it seems...

  4. MOTIVATION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura BASEL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of Foreign Language Acquisition and the role of a teacher in achieving the goal. The main attention is given to Motivation and strategies to foster students to study the language in enjoyable and productive way.MOTIVAREA ÎN ACHIZIŢIA UNEI LIMBI STRĂINE În articol este abordată problema privind însuşirea unei limbi străine şi rolul unui profesor în atingerea obiectivu-lui respectiv. Atenţia principală este acordată motivaţiei şi strategiilor de încurajare a studenţilor să studieze limba în mod plăcut şi productiv.

  5. Incidental Foreign Language Acquisition from Media Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, An H.

    2010-01-01

    A number of experimental studies have demonstrated the incidental acquisition of a foreign language by children and adolescents when watching foreign language television. While such experiments can only establish short-term effects, this article investigates the extent to which children's foreign language skills benefit from their long-term…

  6. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    2010-01-01

    endogeneity of acquisition using IV and propensity score matching approaches suggest that acquisition by foreign owners increases the lifetime of the acquired plants only if the plant was an exporter. The effect is robust to controlling for domestic acquisitions and differs between horizontal and vertical...... acquisitions. We find robust positive employment growth effects only for exporters and only if the takeover is vertical.......This paper analyzes the effect of foreign acquisition on survival and employment growth of targets using data on Swedish manufacturing plants.We separate targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. The results, controlling for possible...

  7. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    This paper analyses the effect of foreign acquisition on survival probability and employment growth of target plant using data on Swedish manufacturing plants during the period 1993-2002.  An improvement over previous studies is that we take into account firm level heterogeneity by separating...... the targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms before foreign takeover. The results, controlling for possible endogeneity of the acquisition dummy using an IV and propensity score matching approach suggest that acquisition by foreign owners increases...

  8. Foreign Language Acquisition and Melody Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Carmen Fonseca

    2000-01-01

    Considers the value of relating music and language in the English-as-Foreign-Language (EFL) classroom. This "melodic" approach is based on evidence that musicality of speech has an effect not only on the pronunciation skills of EFL students but also their entire acquisition process. (Author/VWL)

  9. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  10. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of foreign acquisition on survival and employment growth of targets using data on Swedish manufacturing plants.We separate targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. The results, controlling for possible en...

  11. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  12. Foreign-Grammar Acquisition while Watching Subtitled Television Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lommel, Sven; Laenen, Annouschka; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2006-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that watching a subtitled foreign movie (i.e. foreign language in the soundtrack and native language in the subtitles) leads to considerable foreign-language vocabulary acquisition; however, acquisition of the grammatical rules has failed to emerge. Aims: The aim of this study was to obtain evidence for the…

  13. Foreign acquisitions, domestic multinationals, and R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger; Karpaty, Patrik

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the causal effect of foreign acquisition on R&D intensity in targeted domestic firms. We are able to distinguish domestic multinationals and non-multinationals, which allows us to investigate the fear that the change in ownership of domestic to foreign...... endogeneity of the acquisition dummy.  Overall, our results give no support to the fears that foreign acquisition of domestic firms lead to a brain drain of R&D activity in Swedish MNEs. Rather, this paper finds robust evidence that foreign acquisitions lead to increasing R&D intensity in acquired domestic...

  14. Foreign acquisitions, domestic multinationals, and R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the causal effect of foreign acquisition on R&D intensity in targeted domestic firms. We are able to distinguish domestic multinationals and non-multinationals, which allows us to investigate the fear that the change in ownership of domestic to foreign...... to the fears that foreign acquisition of domestic firms lead to a relocation of R&D activity in Swedish MNEs. Rather, this paper finds robust evidence that foreign acquisitions lead to increasing R&D intensity in acquired domestic MNEs and non-MNEs....

  15. COOPERATIVE LEARNING AS AN ENVIRONMENT FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    OpenAIRE

    SERNIAK O.M.

    2012-01-01

    The article concentrates on ways of providing opportunities for meaningful interaction in foreign language classroom settings. The investigation deals with the analysis of cooperative learning as an environment for foreign language acquisition at a university level. The article explores several methods and activities that are for most part compatible with an interactional approach. Special techniques of implementation cooperative learning activities in foreign language classroom settings are ...

  16. The Effects of Foreign Language Motivation in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Miao-ru

    2013-01-01

    Foreign language motivation is regarded as one source of individual differences in second language acquisition. Learn-ing motivation is a dynamic mechanism which gives rise to learning activities. Learners ’motivation is a decisive factor for the suc-cess of second language acquisition.

  17. Speaking and Instructed Foreign Language Acquisition. Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Miroslaw; Waniek-Klimczak, Ewa; Majer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Developing the ability to speak in a foreign language is an arduous task. This is because it involves the mastery of different language subsystems, simultaneous focus on comprehension and production, and the impact of a range of social factors. This challenge is further compounded in situations in which learners have limited access to the target…

  18. Cerebral Dominance, Language Acquisition, and Foreign Accents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovel, Tom

    1969-01-01

    Implicit in the discussion of views taken by Wolfe, Geschwind, and Newmark is a claim that no learning theory based solely on "nurture" can account for the fact that language acquisition in childhood is a trait, in adulthood a skill. The child can master the language system completely, regardless of his intellectual capacity or his social…

  19. Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition in French as a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Beatrice; Krashen, Stephen D.

    1993-01-01

    Third semester college students of French viewed part of a film, read part, and then were given a surprise vocabulary test with colloquial words from the text. Their performance, compared to a control group, suggests that incidental vocabulary acquisition is possible in a foreign language situation. The test is appended. (Contains eight…

  20. Incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary through brief multi-modal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    First language acquisition requires relatively little effort compared to foreign language acquisition and happens more naturally through informal learning. Informal exposure can also benefit foreign language learning, although evidence for this has been limited to speech perception and production. An important question is whether informal exposure to spoken foreign language also leads to vocabulary learning through the creation of form-meaning links. Here we tested the impact of exposure to foreign language words presented with pictures in an incidental learning phase on subsequent explicit foreign language learning. In the explicit learning phase, we asked adults to learn translation equivalents of foreign language words, some of which had appeared in the incidental learning phase. Results revealed rapid learning of the foreign language words in the incidental learning phase showing that informal exposure to multi-modal foreign language leads to foreign language vocabulary acquisition. The creation of form-meaning links during the incidental learning phase is discussed.

  1. Incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary through brief multi-modal exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Bisson

    Full Text Available First language acquisition requires relatively little effort compared to foreign language acquisition and happens more naturally through informal learning. Informal exposure can also benefit foreign language learning, although evidence for this has been limited to speech perception and production. An important question is whether informal exposure to spoken foreign language also leads to vocabulary learning through the creation of form-meaning links. Here we tested the impact of exposure to foreign language words presented with pictures in an incidental learning phase on subsequent explicit foreign language learning. In the explicit learning phase, we asked adults to learn translation equivalents of foreign language words, some of which had appeared in the incidental learning phase. Results revealed rapid learning of the foreign language words in the incidental learning phase showing that informal exposure to multi-modal foreign language leads to foreign language vocabulary acquisition. The creation of form-meaning links during the incidental learning phase is discussed.

  2. 78 FR 6189 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Unallowability of Costs Associated With Foreign Contractor Excise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... 9000-AM13 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Unallowability of Costs Associated With Foreign Contractor... excise tax on certain Federal procurement payments to foreign persons. The rule disallows the cost associated with the 2 percent excise tax on certain foreign procurements. DATES: Effective Date: February 28...

  3. Incidental Foreign-Language Acquisition by Children Watching Subtitled Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Lekkai

    2014-01-01

    Series of international studies have shown that subtitled television programs provide a rich context for foreign language acquisition. This study investigated whether incidental language acquisition occurs from watching a television program with/without subtitles. Children in the experimental conditions watch: (a) a 15 minute snapshot of a well…

  4. PERSONALITY TRAITS AND SUCCESS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The article considers such personality traits as persistence, responsibility and sociability in the vein of the system-functional approach to the research of the personality and their impact on successful foreign language learning.

  5. Neural Stimulation Has a Long-Term Effect on Foreign Vocabulary Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, Achille; Kobanbay, Begüm; Proulx, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of a foreign language is a challenging task that is becoming increasingly more important in the world nowadays. There is evidence suggesting that the frontal and temporal cortices are involved in language processing and comprehension, but it is still unknown whether foreign language acquisition recruits additional cortical areas in a causal manner. For the first time, we used transcranial random noise stimulation on the frontal and parietal brain areas, in order to compare its effect on the acquisition of unknown foreign words and a sham, or placebo, condition was also included. This type of noninvasive neural stimulation enhances cortical activity by boosting the spontaneous activity of neurons. Foreign vocabulary acquisition was tested both immediately and seven days after the stimulation. We found that stimulation on the posterior parietal, but not the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or sham stimulation, significantly improved the memory performance in the long term. These results suggest that the posterior parietal cortex is directly involved in acquisition of foreign vocabulary, thus extending the "linguistic network" to this area.

  6. The Power of Students’ Subjectivity Processes in Foreign Language acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    of the students in reading and communicating in French and German as part of their academic learning process (Bojsen 2012). In this framework we are already on new ground within the established practice of FL teaching and learning in Denmark as this practice has traditionally been confined to language courses...... and degrees and diplomas in particular foreign languages. However in this case, the students are not inscribed as students of foreign languages. Their subjectivity process is thus not that of a student of French or German, but rather of pedagogy, cultural studies, economics, development studies or other...

  7. The Power of Students’ Subjectivity Processes in Foreign Language acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    and degrees and diplomas in particular foreign languages. However in this case, the students are not inscribed as students of foreign languages. Their subjectivity process is thus not that of a student of French or German, but rather of pedagogy, cultural studies, economics, development studies or other...... of the students in reading and communicating in French and German as part of their academic learning process (Bojsen 2012). In this framework we are already on new ground within the established practice of FL teaching and learning in Denmark as this practice has traditionally been confined to language courses...

  8. Raising Multilingual Children: Foreign Language Acquisition and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhama-Espinosa, Tracey

    This book illustrates how children learn foreign languages and when they can do so with the best results. The most recent studies in linguistics, neurology, education, and psychology are evaluated, and the findings are presented in a recipe format. Parents are encouraged to evaluate the multilingual children in their lives with the use of tools…

  9. Analysis of Foreign Military Sales (FMS) in U.S. Army Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    foreign military sales (FMS), integrate within the Army’s domestic acquisition programs. Research explores what effect FMS has on the Army’s...maintain the ability to ramp up for a future conflict. One way to preserve our domestic industrial base is to promote the sale of our defense...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN MILITARY SALES (FMS) IN U.S. ARMY

  10. Destabilization of the human epigenome: consequences of foreign DNA insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stefanie; Hofmann, Andrea; Herms, Stefan; Hoffmann, Per; Doerfler, Walter

    2015-08-01

    We previously reported changes of DNA methylation and transcription patterns in mammalian cells that carry integrated foreign DNA. Experiments were now designed to assess the epigenetic consequences of inserting a 5.6 kbp plasmid into the human genome. Differential transcription and CpG methylation patterns were compared between transgenomic and nontransgenomic cell clones by using gene chip microarray systems. In 4.7% of the 28.869 gene segments analyzed, transcriptional activities were up- or downregulated in the transgenomic cell clones. Genome-wide profiling revealed differential methylation in 3791 of > 480,000 CpG's examined in transgenomic versus nontransgenomic clones. The data document genome-wide effects of foreign DNA insertions on the epigenetic stability of human cells. Many fields in experimental biology and medicine employ transgenomic or otherwise genome-manipulated cells or organisms without considering the epigenetic consequences for the recipient genomes.

  11. The Power of Students’ Subjectivity Processes in Foreign Language acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    of the students in reading and communicating in French and German as part of their academic learning process (Bojsen 2012). In this framework we are already on new ground within the established practice of FL teaching and learning in Denmark as this practice has traditionally been confined to language courses......Since September 2012, Roskilde University offers a new series of supplementary courses to all students within human and social sciences – in addition to their specific studies. The overall aim of these courses, which run from 1st to 3rd semester, is to sustain and develop the competences...... and degrees and diplomas in particular foreign languages. However in this case, the students are not inscribed as students of foreign languages. Their subjectivity process is thus not that of a student of French or German, but rather of pedagogy, cultural studies, economics, development studies or other...

  12. Language Learning Strategies in Second & Foreign Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEUCHI, Osamu; 竹内, 理

    1991-01-01

    This article is an attempt to the work on language learning strategies(LLS) in second & foreign language acquisiton (SFLA) research, and to give suggestions for future language learning strategies research. In the first section, I will discuss briefly the background of language learning strategies reserch, and in the ensuing sections, I will review articles on: (ⅰ) the identification & classification of language learning strategies; (ⅱ) the variables affecting the use of language learning str...

  13. Economic nationalism and foreign acquisition completion: The case of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; He, X.

    2014-01-01

    Extending institutional theory, we incorporate a neglected but important component of formal institution, economic nationalism, into a model that specifies its effects on cross-border acquisition success. We suggest that economic nationalism has a dynamic nature and sees the interaction between prot

  14. Foreign Language Acquisition Of Souvenir Seller In Bawomataluo Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saniago Dakhi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is addresses language functional and lexical acquisition domains of souvenir seller in Bawomataluo village, South Nias, North Sumatera. The reasons of lexical items acquired by souvenir seller is regarded as the function of language acquisition. On the contrary, form and process of lexical items acquired are totally viewed as language lexical domains. To obtain the whole accurate data of these research problems interview and observation were conducted. The research finding indicates four specified language lexical acquisition reasons: internal motivation, external motivation, access to native speaker and experience. In addition, eight English part of speech are acquired.It is discovered that lexical items acquired are dominated by noun. Verb and adjective posites at the next level of the amount of lexicals acquired. Adverb, conjunction, pronoun are less acquired. Interjection is more easily acquired by souvenir sellers. The processes involved to acquire the lexical consist of social, memory, compensation, and affective process. Finally, the research finding is thoroughly expected to be language teacher’s consideration in employing material selection and determining natural, contextual and situational language teaching model. Language leaners are highly advised to recall the language competence theoretically mastered in naturall setting in attempt to obtain practical competence.

  15. Insights from Skill Acquisition Theory for Grammar Activity Sequencing and Design in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for the elaboration of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) grammar materials for adults based on the application to SLA of Skill Acquisition Theory (SAT). This theory is argued to compensate for the major drawbacks of FLT settings in comparison with second language contexts (lack of classroom learning time and limited…

  16. Border Crossings? Exploring the Intersection of Second Language Acquisition, Conversation Analysis, and Foreign Language Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Junko

    2007-01-01

    This article explores recent changes in the landscape of second language acquisition (SLA) and foreign language pedagogical (FLP) research. Firth and Wagner's (1997) proposal for the reconceptualization of SLA has been supported by SLA and FLP researchers who share the sentiment concerning the need for increased attention to social and contextual…

  17. Incidental foreign language vocabulary acquisition from social network games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çetin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that young people use social networks not only for sharing and communication purposes but also as means of entertainment and pleasure by playing various online games. Furthermore, there is a common belief among pedagogues that spending valuable amount of time on social networks to play online games can lead to negative academic, personal and social outcomes. However, the findings of this study based on survey conducted with 248 high school students reveal that social network games can also have pedagogical benefits. The results of this research have shown that students can incidentally learn an important number of foreign language words from popular online games on social networks.

  18. 75 FR 1567 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign Participation in Acquisitions in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... and South Asian (SC/CASA) states; and Determination of inapplicability of the Balance of Payments... 302(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979, as amended, which prohibits acquisitions of products or...

  19. Fodor's modularity of mind and foreign language acquisition: a critical reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Vasconcellos

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    In the context of psychological theories assuming an internal structure of mental representations, Fodor (1983 proposes a mandatory informationally encapsulated autonomous processing of specifically linguistic input, maintaining that cognitive skills are neurally localized. He advances the hypothesis of a vertical and modular psychological organization underlying biologically coherent behaviors. This paper offers a critical reading of Fodor's theoretical position in relation to some aspects of Foreign Language Acquisition (FLA, calling into question untenable claims as to information processing, mental representation and perceptual analysis. In view of factors other than grammatical affecting FLA, a strictly modular view of sentence understanding is disputed while a radical connectionist perspective is also found fault with. It is argued that a compromise position might better account for the complex phenomenon of foreign language acquisition.

  20. Environmental Influence on Language Acquisition: Comparing Second and Foreign Language Acquisition of Swedish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakansson, Gisela; Norrby, Catrin

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the influence of the learning environment on the second language acquisition of Swedish. Data were collected longitudinally over 1 year from 35 university students studying Swedish in Malmo, Sweden, and in Melbourne, Australia. Three areas were investigated: grammar, pragmatics, and lexicon. The development of grammar was…

  1. L1 Frequency in Foreign Language Acquisition: Recurrent Word Combinations in French and Spanish EFL Learner Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquot, Magali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated French and Spanish EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' preferred use of three-word lexical bundles with discourse or stance-oriented function with a view to exploring the role of first language (L1) frequency effects in foreign language acquisition. Word combinations were extracted from learner performance data…

  2. L1 Frequency in Foreign Language Acquisition: Recurrent Word Combinations in French and Spanish EFL Learner Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquot, Magali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated French and Spanish EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' preferred use of three-word lexical bundles with discourse or stance-oriented function with a view to exploring the role of first language (L1) frequency effects in foreign language acquisition. Word combinations were extracted from learner performance data…

  3. Linking abnormal mitosis to the acquisition of DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellman, David

    2012-01-01

    Cellular defects that impair the fidelity of mitosis promote chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy. Increasing evidence reveals that errors in mitosis can also promote the direct and indirect acquisition of DNA damage and chromosome breaks. Consequently, deregulated cell division can devastate the integrity of the normal genome and unleash a variety of oncogenic stimuli that may promote transformation. Recent work has shed light on the mechanisms that link abnormal mitosis with the development of DNA damage, how cells respond to such affronts, and the potential impact on tumorigenesis. PMID:23229895

  4. Cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA transfer and their impact on genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucken, Karina; Koch, Robin; Dagan, Tal

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria display a large diversity of cellular forms ranging from unicellular to complex multicellular filaments or aggregates. Species in the group present a wide range of metabolic characteristics including the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, resistance to extreme environments, production of hydrogen, secondary metabolites and exopolysaccharides. These characteristics led to the growing interest in cyanobacteria across the fields of ecology, evolution, cell biology and biotechnology. The number of available cyanobacterial genome sequences has increased considerably in recent years, with more than 140 fully sequenced genomes to date. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria is widely applied to the model unicellular strains Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. However the establishment of transformation protocols in many other cyanobacterial strains is challenging. One obstacle to the development of these novel model organisms is that many species have doubling times of 48 h or more, much longer than the bacterial models E. coli or B. subtilis. Furthermore, cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA pose a physical and biochemical barrier to DNA insertion in most strains. Here we review the various barriers to DNA uptake in the context of lateral gene transfer among microbes and the various mechanisms for DNA acquisition within the prokaryotic domain. Understanding the cyanobacterial defense mechanisms is expected to assist in the development and establishment of novel transformation protocols that are specifically suitable for this group.

  5. Foreign Agricultural Land Acquisition and the Visibility of Water Resource Impacts in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Woodhouse

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The many headlines focusing on 'land grabbing' have distracted attention from the role that access to water plays in underpinning the projected productivity of foreign direct investment in acquisition of agricultural land in developing countries. This paper identifies questions that arise about the explicit and implicit water requirements for irrigation in agricultural projects on land that is subject to such foreign investment deals. It focuses particularly on land acquisition in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where, for savanna ecosystems that cover some two thirds of the region, rainfall uncertainty is the principal constraint to increased agricultural productivity. The paper argues that, even where land acquisition deals do not specify irrigation, choice of location and/or crop type indicates this is invariably an implicit requirement of projects. It is arguable that private investment in water infrastructure (e.g. for water storage could provide wider benefits to neighbouring small-scale producers, thus reducing the risk inherent in much of African agriculture. However, it is also possible that foreign investment may compete with existing water use, and some land deals have included provisions for priority access to water in cases of scarcity. Empirical studies are used to identify the mechanisms through which large-scale land investments influence water availability for smaller-scale land users. The paper concludes that, although effects on water resources may constitute one of the main impacts of land deals, this is likely to be obscured by the lack of transparency over water requirements of agricultural projects and the invisibility of much existing local agricultural water management to government planning agencies.

  6. Proceed With Caution China adopts security review system for foreign mergers and acquisitions of domestic companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2011-01-01

    China's Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) recently gave Nestle the nod of approval for the international food giant's acquisition of Yinlu Food Group.A signing ceremony was held on September 8 in Xiamen,southeast China's Fujian Province,where Yinlu is headquartered.This is the first merger and acquisition (M&A) case of a domestic enterprise by a foreign investor since the Provisions on the Safety Review System for M&As of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors came into effect on September 1,2011.Nestle,the largest food and nutrition company in the world,has been accelerating its development in the Chinese market in recent years.On April 18,2011,it announced plans to purchase a 60-percent stake in Yinlu,a family-owned food maker with sales of 5.46billion yuan ($854 million) in 2010.The deal was submitted to MOFCOM's for anti-monopoly review on May 24 and was approved after a three-month review period.In July,the food conglomerate said it would buy a 60-percent stake in leading Chinese confectioner Hsu Fu Chi International.MOFCOM's approval of the deal is still pending.

  7. The Role of Repeated Exposure to Multimodal Input in Incidental Acquisition of Foreign Language Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has reported incidental vocabulary acquisition with complete beginners in a foreign language (FL), within 8 exposures to auditory and written FL word forms presented with a picture depicting their meaning. However, important questions remain about whether acquisition occurs with fewer exposures to FL words in a multimodal situation and whether there is a repeated exposure effect. Here we report a study where the number of exposures to FL words in an incidental learning phase varied between 2, 4, 6, and 8 exposures. Following the incidental learning phase, participants completed an explicit learning task where they learned to recognize written translation equivalents of auditory FL word forms, half of which had occurred in the incidental learning phase. The results showed that participants performed better on the words they had previously been exposed to, and that this incidental learning effect occurred from as little as 2 exposures to the multimodal stimuli. In addition, repeated exposure to the stimuli was found to have a larger impact on learning during the first few exposures and decrease thereafter, suggesting that the effects of repeated exposure on vocabulary acquisition are not necessarily constant.

  8. How mother tongue and the second language interact with acquisition of a foreign language for year six students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slåttvik, Anja; Nielsen, Henrik Balle

    2017-01-01

    This is a presentation of a current study of how teaching of fiction is carried out in the subjectEnglish as a foreign language in year six in two Danish Schools. There is a particular focus on 6multilingual students and their third language acquisition perspective. The aim is to establishknowledge...... on multilingual students’ understanding of material and content in the EFLclassroom and on a long-term basis to focus foreign language teachers’ attention tocircumstances that challenge students learning a foreign language in a multilingualenvironment....

  9. THE PROCESS OF CZECH LANGUAGE ACQUISITION BY FOREIGN PUPILS AT LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSTELECKA, Yvona

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study results show that there is a significant difference between the needs of learners. Learners from related linguistic areas reach the threshold level of language skills very quickly, whereas children with a very different language (in our case, children from Asia reach the threshold level of receptive skills quickly, but have big difficulties with productive skills. It is therefore necessary to focus on these areas and pay attention to this in Czech-language instruction. The study also shows that children who were born to foreigners in the Czech Republic or who moved to the country at a very young age do not usually have language problems that complicate their integration into the Czech school system, while children born outside the Czech Republic who move to the country at a later age face problems fulfilling the requirements of the school curricula, which are connected with their insufficient acquisition of the Czech language.

  10. Prospective Foreign Language Teachers' Preference of Teaching Methods for the Language Acquisition Course in Turkish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    GüvendIr, Emre

    2013-01-01

    Considering the significance of taking student preferences into account while organizing teaching practices, the current study explores which teaching method prospective foreign language teachers mostly prefer their teacher to use in the language acquisition course. A teaching methods evaluation form that includes six commonly used teaching…

  11. Prospective Foreign Language Teachers' Preference of Teaching Methods for the Language Acquisition Course in Turkish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    GüvendIr, Emre

    2013-01-01

    Considering the significance of taking student preferences into account while organizing teaching practices, the current study explores which teaching method prospective foreign language teachers mostly prefer their teacher to use in the language acquisition course. A teaching methods evaluation form that includes six commonly used teaching…

  12. Bad Influence?--An Investigation into the Purported Negative Influence of Foreign Domestic Helpers on Children's Second Language English Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alex Ho-Cheong

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the purported negative influence of foreign domestic helpers (FDHs) on child second language acquisition (SLA) by studying Hong Kong Cantonese children's listening ability in second language (L2) English. 31 kindergarten third graders aged 4;6 to 6, and 29 first year secondary students aged 11-14 who have had a Filipino…

  13. Toward Mastering the Discourses of Reasoning: Use of Grammatical Metaphor at Advanced Levels of Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    Situated within the framework of the systemic-functional linguistics (Halliday, 1994) and language-based theory of learning (Halliday, 1993), this article examines a shift toward a more objectified and "scientific" representation of reality in texts written by foreign language (FL) learners at various levels of acquisition. It argues that…

  14. The role of verbal and pictorial information in multimodal incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to investigate the allocation of attention to multimodal stimuli during an incidental learning situation, as well as its impact on subsequent explicit learning. Participants were exposed to foreign language (FL) auditory words on their own, in conjunction with written native language (NL) translations, or with both written NL translations and pictures. Incidental acquisition of FL words was assessed the following day through an explicit learning task where participants learned to recognize translation equivalents, as well as one week later through recall and translation recognition tests. Results showed higher accuracy scores in the explicit learning task for FL words presented with meaning during incidental learning, whether written meaning or both written meaning and picture, than for FL words presented auditorily only. However, participants recalled significantly more FL words after a week delay if they had been presented with a picture during incidental learning. In addition, the time spent looking at the pictures during incidental learning significantly predicted recognition and recall scores one week later. Overall, results demonstrated the impact of exposure to multimodal stimuli on subsequent explicit learning, as well as the important role that pictorial information can play in incidental vocabulary acquisition.

  15. CRISPR Outsourcing: Commissioning IHF for Site-Specific Integration of Foreign DNA at the CRISPR Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunzhou; Terns, Michael P

    2016-06-16

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Nuñez et al. (2016) report that site-specific integration of foreign DNA into CRISPR loci by the Cas1-Cas2 integrase complex is promoted by a host factor, IHF (integration host factor), that binds and bends CRISPR leader DNA.

  16. First Language Proficiency as a Facilitator in Foreign/ Second Language Acquisition: A Case Study in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Marajan Awad Adam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available English is taught as a foreign language in the Arab world even though practical concerns call for greater emphasis on the language. In all personal interactions too Arabic is the preferred language. Thus the environment for English is really very limited as by the time the learners are exposed to the language they are well entrenched in Arabic. While this may be a handicap in some EFL situations (for example where adults are concerned, in the Arab context this can prove a big boon. This is because young language learners who are proficient in their first language can apply the learning techniques while acquiring the second language. This paper targets the teaching fraternity in the Arab world to help them understand how first language proficiency can aid second/foreign language acquisition.Keywords: language acquisition, Saudi EFL learners, language proficiency, Arabic as a first language 

  17. Can lexical errors inform about word class acquisition in FL?: evidence from greek learners of Spanish as a foreign language

    OpenAIRE

    Kiriaki Palapanidi; María Pilar Agustín Llach

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the order of acquisition of words of four different classes: verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs in three different levels of proficiency in the FL. We apply the procedure of Error Analysis to a corpus of written compositions and analyze the interlingual and intralingual lexical errors (formal and semantic) of the Greek students of Spanish as a Foreign Language (SFL). Our results have shown us that there is relationship between the type of word and the production of l...

  18. Perceived Foreign Accent in First Language Attrition and Second Language Acquisition: The Impact of Age of Acquisition and Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger; Schmid, Monika S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates constraints on ultimate attainment in second language (L2) pronunciation in a direct comparison of perceived foreign accent of 40 late L2 learners and 40 late first language (L1) attriters of German. Both groups were compared with 20 predominantly monolingual controls. Contrasting participants who acquired the target…

  19. Perceived foreign accent in first language attrition and second language acquisition : The impact of age of acquisition and bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopp, Holger; Schmid, Monika S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates constraints on ultimate attainment in second language (L2) pronunciation in a direct comparison of perceived foreign accent of 40 late L2 learners and 40 late first language (L1) attriters of German. Both groups were compared with 20 predominantly monolingual controls. Contra

  20. Perceived foreign accent in first language attrition and second language acquisition : The impact of age of acquisition and bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopp, Holger; Schmid, Monika S.

    This study investigates constraints on ultimate attainment in second language (L2) pronunciation in a direct comparison of perceived foreign accent of 40 late L2 learners and 40 late first language (L1) attriters of German. Both groups were compared with 20 predominantly monolingual controls.

  1. Localized degradation of foreign DNA strands in cells: Only excising the first nucleotide of 5' region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Shen, Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Liang, Haojun

    2017-09-15

    Intracellular delivery of foreign DNA probes sharply increases the efficiency of various biodetection protocols. Spherical nucleic acid (SNA) conjugate is a new type of probe that consists of a dense oligonucleotide shell attached typically to a gold nanoparticle core. They are widely used as novel labels for in vitro biodetection and intracellular assay. However, the degradation of foreign DNA still remains a challenge that can cause significant signal leakage (false positive signal). Hence, the site and behavior of intracellular degradation need to be investigated. Herein, we discover a localized degradation behavior that only excises the first nucleotide of 5' terminal from a DNA strand, whereas the residual portion of this strand is unbroken in MCF-7 cell. This novel degradation action totally differs from previous opinion that foreign DNA strand would be digested into tiny fragments or even individual nucleotides in cellular environment. On the basis of these findings, we propose a simple and effective way to avoid degradation-caused false positive that one can bypass the degradable site and choose a secure region to label fluorophore along the DNA stand, when using DNA probes for intracellular biodetection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, and the Teaching of Foreign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire

    2000-01-01

    Argues that applied linguistics, as the interdisciplinary field that mediates between the theory and practice of language acquisition and use, is the overarching field that includes second language acquisition (SLA) and SLA-related domains of research. (Author/VWL)

  3. Language Acquisition and the Second/Foreign Language Classroom. Anthology Series 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadtono, Eugenius, Ed.

    A selection of papers on second language learning includes: "Second Language Acquisition Research in the Language Classroom" (David Nunan); "A Place for Second Language Acquisition in Teacher Development and in Teacher Education Programmes" (Rod Bolitho); "Dimensions in the Acquisition of Oral Language" (Martin Bygate, Don Porter); "The Learner's…

  4. Episomal and integrated maintenance of foreign DNA in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S M; Yee, J; Nash, T E

    1998-04-01

    Giardia lamblia is an early diverging eukaryote which causes gastrointestinal disease throughout the world. Different subgroups of Giardia have been defined based on several biochemical and genetic criteria. We have developed a method for stably introducing DNA into the nuclei of the parasite using puromycin acetyltransferase (pac) as a dominant selectable marker. Transfected circular DNAs were maintained as episomes in the isolate WB, a representative of one Giardia subgroup. When input DNAs were linearized, integration was observed to occur by homologous recombination producing gene replacements in this isolate. In isolate GS, which represents a different subgroup, both linear and circular transfected DNAs were integrated into the genome by homologous recombination. In GS, linear DNA again produced gene replacements, while circular DNA produced duplicative integration events. The failure of GS to replicate episomes may reflect differences in the structure or recognition of DNA replication origins between these subgroups. A plasmid shuttle vector was also developed for expression of other genes in Giardia lamblia. Utilizing the green fluorescent protein as a reporter gene in the WB isolate, we show that gene expression from this vector correlated with plasmid copy number over a range of two orders of magnitude. Together these tools should greatly enhance our ability to study both the basic biology and the pathogenesis of this ubiquitous parasite.

  5. Intragenic vectors for gene transfer without foreign DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conner, A.J.; Barrell, P.J.; Baldwin, S.J.; Lokerse, A.S.; Cooper, P.A.; Erasmuson, A.K.; Nap, J.P.H.; Jacobs, J.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    The intragenic vector system involves identifying functional equivalents of vector components from the genome of a specific crop species (or related species to which it can be hybridised) and using these DNA sequences to assemble vectors for transformation of that plant species. This system offers a

  6. A Cross-Departmental Approach to Supporting Students with a Disability Affecting Foreign Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lys Franziska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance mobility, competitiveness, and opportunities for work, the European Union lists the ability to communicate in a foreign language and to understand another culture as an important objective in their language education policy. Knowledge of a foreign language is also an important objective for many American universities, which require students to study a foreign language as a prerequisite to graduate. Students with documented disabilities affecting the learning of a foreign language or students with poor foreign language learning skills, therefore, pose a significant challenge, since a foreign language requirement may prevent such students from graduating unless universities are willing to make special arrangements such as having students graduate without fulfilling the requirement or letting them take substitution classes. The question of what to do with such students is at the heart of this article. It describes how one mid-sized private university with a two-year language proficiency requirement has approached the problem to ensure that policies are implemented fairly. Rather than pulling students out of the foreign language classroom, the university succeeded in keeping students engaged with foreign language study through advising and mentoring across departments

  7. The Perceptions of Community College Students to Foreign Language Acquisition Grounded in Multiple Intelligence Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Richard Le Roy Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine and gain a clearer understanding of the perceptions of foreign language learning of adult foreign language learners attending a South-West Missouri community college. This study was based on the Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory of Howard Gardner. It examined the perceptions of adult language…

  8. "Appropriateness" in Foreign Language Acquisition and Use: Some Theoretical, Methodological and Ethical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution, I focus on the concept of "appropriateness" in the usage, the learning and the teaching of foreign languages. Using a participant-based emic perspective, I investigate multilinguals' perceptions of appropriateness in their foreign languages. Referring to the existing literature, and using previously unpublished material…

  9. What happens to R&D in domestic multinationals after foreign acquisition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    With foreign ownership of domestic companies becoming increasingly common, questions are mounting as to the consequences. One area of concern is the effect on research and development. This column presents new evidence from Sweden, where flagship firms such as Volvo and Saab are now foreign owned...

  10. Impact of foreign DNA integration on tumor biology and on evolution via epigenetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Walter

    2012-02-01

    The insertion of foreign DNA into mammalian genomes can alter their methylation and transcription patterns at remote sites from the locus of foreign DNA integration. The mechanisms leading to these fundamental changes and their frequencies are unknown. Sites and extent of changes in the recipient cells might depend on the location of foreign DNA integration. In the second part of this review, it will be hypothesized that the insertion event itself, for example, of tumor viral DNA via its epigenetic genome-wide consequences, plays an important role in oncogenesis. During evolution, the impact of ancient retrotransposon or retroviral genomes and the ensuing epigenetic alterations in the recipient genomes might have generated cells with completely different transcriptional profiles. Due to the continued presence of the transgenomes these alterations were genetically stable and were selected for or against by the environmental conditions prevalent at the time. These evolutionary effects are very different from those postulated for insertional mutagenesis, added genetic information or regulatory elements placed into the vicinity of cellular functions.

  11. Premethylation of foreign DNA improves integrative transformation efficiency in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Yu, Jianping; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2015-12-01

    Restriction digestion of foreign DNA is one of the key biological barriers against genetic transformation in microorganisms. To establish a high-efficiency transformation protocol in the model cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (Synechocystis 6803), we investigated the effects of premethylation of foreign DNA on the integrative transformation of this strain. In this study, two type II methyltransferase-encoding genes, i.e., sll0729 (gene M) and slr0214 (gene C), were cloned from the chromosome of Synechocystis 6803 and expressed in Escherichia coli harboring an integration plasmid. After premethylation treatment in E. coli, the integration plasmid was extracted and used for transformation of Synechocystis 6803. The results showed that although expression of methyltransferase M had little impact on the transformation of Synechocystis 6803, expression of methyltransferase C resulted in 11- to 161-fold-higher efficiency in the subsequent integrative transformation of Synechocystis 6803. Effective expression of methyltransferase C, which could be achieved by optimizing the 5' untranslated region, was critical to efficient premethylation of the donor DNA and thus high transformation efficiency in Synechocystis 6803. Since premethylating foreign DNA prior to transforming Synechocystis avoids changing the host genetic background, the study thus provides an improved method for high-efficiency integrative transformation of Synechocystis 6803. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Molecular mechanism of immune response induced by foreign plasmid DNA after oral administration in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study immune response induced by foreign plasmid DNA after oral administration in mice.METHODS: Mice were orally administered with 200 μg of plasmid pcDNA3 once and spleen was isolated 4 h and 18 h after administration. Total RNA was extracted from spleen and gene expression profile of BALB/c mice spleen was analyzed by using Affymetrix oligonucleotide GeneChip. Functional cluster analysis was conducted by GenMAPP software.RESULTS: At 4 h and 18 h after oral plasmid pcDNA3 administration, a number of immune-related genes,including cytokine and cytokine receptors, chemokines and chemokine receptor, complement molecule,proteasome, histocompatibility molecule, lymphocyte antigen complex and apoptotic genes, were up-regulated. Moreover, MAPPFinder results also showed that numerous immune response processes were up-regulated. In contrast, the immunoglobulin genes were down-regulated.CONCLUSION: Foreign plasmid DNA can modulate the genes expression related to immune system via the gastrointestinal tract, and further analysis of the related immune process may help understand the molecular mechanisms of immune response induced by foreign plasmid via the gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Some Implications of Research in Second Language Acquisition for Foreign Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Linda

    On the continuum along which theories of first and second language acquisition are located, the two extremes represent the classic controversy of nature (nativist) vs. nurture (environmentalist), while those in the middle view language acquisition as a result of a more or less balanced interaction between innate capacities and linguistic…

  14. Programmed protection of foreign DNA from restriction allows pathogenicity island exchange during pneumococcal transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calum Johnston

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria, transformation and restriction-modification (R-M systems play potentially antagonistic roles. While the former, proposed as a form of sexuality, relies on internalized foreign DNA to create genetic diversity, the latter degrade foreign DNA to protect from bacteriophage attack. The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is transformable and possesses either of two R-M systems, DpnI and DpnII, which respectively restrict methylated or unmethylated double-stranded (ds DNA. S. pneumoniae DpnII strains possess DpnM, which methylates dsDNA to protect it from DpnII restriction, and a second methylase, DpnA, which is induced during competence for genetic transformation and is unusual in that it methylates single-stranded (ss DNA. DpnA was tentatively ascribed the role of protecting internalized plasmids from DpnII restriction, but this seems unlikely in light of recent results establishing that pneumococcal transformation was not evolved to favor plasmid exchange. Here we validate an alternative hypothesis, showing that DpnA plays a crucial role in the protection of internalized foreign DNA, enabling exchange of pathogenicity islands and more generally of variable regions between pneumococcal isolates. We show that transformation of a 21.7 kb heterologous region is reduced by more than 4 logs in dpnA mutant cells and provide evidence that the specific induction of dpnA during competence is critical for full protection. We suggest that the integration of a restrictase/ssDNA-methylase couplet into the competence regulon maintains protection from bacteriophage attack whilst simultaneously enabling exchange of pathogenicicy islands. This protective role of DpnA is likely to be of particular importance for pneumococcal virulence by allowing free variation of capsule serotype in DpnII strains via integration of DpnI capsule loci, contributing to the documented escape of pneumococci from capsule-based vaccines. Generally, this finding is the

  15. Learning to expand internationally : The pace and success of foreign acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadolska, A.

    2006-01-01

    In an era of rapid technological progress and major political and economic transformations accross the globe, the ability to acquire internationally becomes an important skill for internationalizing companies. Cross border mergers and acquisitions are growing rapidly in importance precisely becuase

  16. Acquisition versus greenfield foreign entry : diversification mode choice in Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikova, Desislava; Witteloostuijn, Adriaan van

    2005-01-01

    Departing from the traditional transaction cost approach in diversification mode literature, this study investigates the influence of experimental organizational learning on the choice between acquisition and a greenfield investment. We provide empirical support that prior experience with acquisitio

  17. Acquisition versus greenfield foreign entry : diversification mode choice in Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikova, Desislava; Witteloostuijn, Adriaan van

    2005-01-01

    Departing from the traditional transaction cost approach in diversification mode literature, this study investigates the influence of experimental organizational learning on the choice between acquisition and a greenfield investment. We provide empirical support that prior experience with

  18. Acquisition versus greenfield foreign entry : diversification mode choice in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dikova, Desislava; Witteloostuijn, Adriaan van

    2005-01-01

    Departing from the traditional transaction cost approach in diversification mode literature, this study investigates the influence of experimental organizational learning on the choice between acquisition and a greenfield investment. We provide empirical support that prior experience with acquisitions and/or greenfield investments, firm?s predominant international strategy (global or multidomestic) and the technological intensity of the parent play a crucial role in subsequent diversification...

  19. Inhibiting DNA methylation alters olfactory extinction but not acquisition learning in Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwen; Wang, Chao; Nieh, James C; Tan, Ken

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation plays a key role in invertebrate acquisition and extinction memory. Honey bees have excellent olfactory learning, but the role of DNA methylation in memory formation has, to date, only been studied in Apis mellifera. We inhibited DNA methylation by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with zebularine (zeb) and studied the resulting effects upon olfactory acquisition and extinction memory in two honey bee species, Apis cerana and A. mellifera. We used the proboscis extension reflex (PER) assay to measure memory. We provide the first demonstration that DNA methylation is also important in the olfactory extinction learning of A. cerana. DNMT did not reduce acquisition learning in either species. However, zeb bidirectionally and differentially altered extinction learning in both species. In particular, zeb provided 1h before acquisition learning improved extinction memory retention in A. mellifera, but reduced extinction memory retention in A. cerana. The reasons for these differences are unclear, but provide a basis for future studies to explore species-specific differences in the effects of methylation on memory formation.

  20. Multilingual Learners and Foreign Language Acquisition: Insights into the Effects of Prior Linguistic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Anahí Alba; Lacroix, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    In foreign language classrooms we often find that, in addition to their mother tongue (L1), learners already speak--or are learning--at least one other language. As a result, they already have an array of linguistic and cognitive skills that may prove very useful if they are adequately exploited during the language learning process. However, in…

  1. Multilingual Learners and Foreign Language Acquisition: Insights into the Effects of Prior Linguistic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Anahí Alba; Lacroix, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    In foreign language classrooms we often find that, in addition to their mother tongue (L1), learners already speak--or are learning--at least one other language. As a result, they already have an array of linguistic and cognitive skills that may prove very useful if they are adequately exploited during the language learning process. However, in…

  2. Transforming Ways of Enhancing Foreign Language Acquisition in the Spanish Classroom: Experiential Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-López, Isabel; Ramos-Sellman, Aida; Miranda-Aldaco, Citlali; Gomis Quinto, Maria Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The researchers used qualitative and quantitative instruments to measure students' linguistic gains and their opinions and attitudes toward intercultural awareness while studying Spanish as a foreign language under four different pedagogical models: a traditional face-to-face classroom, face-to-face classes with a community-based learning…

  3. Role-Play in Foreign Language Acquisition: A Causal-Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elena A.

    2013-01-01

    Foreign language educators have been striving to improve practices that support language teaching for adults for many years. Common knowledge insists that children are better language learners than adults. Creation of the new field of neurolinguistics at the end of the 20th century brought about new opportunities for both teachers of foreign…

  4. 78 FR 63461 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Canada--Submission with Offer, and 252.225-7004, Report of Intended Performance Outside the United States and Canada-- Submission after Award, as prescribed in 225.7204(a) and (b) respectively, require... list any qualifying country, NAFTA country, or other foreign end product that it intends to furnish...

  5. Language Acquisition in Foreign Language Contexts and the Differential Benefits of Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Jenefer; Tognini, Rita

    2009-01-01

    This paper specifically focuses on the findings of research on interaction in foreign language contexts in which time and L2 input are both limited. Although theoretical work on the relationship between interaction and second language development has placed great emphasis on the benefits of input, feedback and modified output when they arise from…

  6. Circular of the General Office of the State Council on The Establishment of Security Review System Regarding Meruer And Acquisition of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the in-depth development of economic globalization and the further expansion of China's opening up in recent years,the investment made by foreign investors through merger and acquisition has been on the gradual increase,which has promoted the diversified utilization of foreign investment in China and played a positive role in optimizing the allocation of resources,promoting technical progress,improving business management level and other aspects.

  7. [Distribution of foreign mitochondrial DNA during the first splittings of the transmitochondrial mouse embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustova, M E; Sokolova, V A; Bass, M G; Zakharova, F M; Sorokin, A V; Vasil'ev, V B

    2008-01-01

    Distribution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) among separate murine blastomeres was analyzed during the splitting of embryos in which the suspension of human mitochondria had been injected at the one- or two-cell stage. Human mtDNA was detected by PCR with species specific primers. The total amount of the two- and four-cell murine embryos analyzed in the study was 339. In all embryos examined the copies of human mitochondrial genome were revealed along with murine mtDNA, which indicated the phenomenon of an artificially modeled heteroplasmy. The foreign mtDNA was not ubiquitous among the blastomeres of transmitochondrial embryos. Mathematical analysis of the results showed that in the period between the injection of human mitochondria and the subsequent splitting no equal distribution of the human mtDNA occurred in the cytoplasm. These results also point at the presence of more than 2-3 segregation units of mtDNA in the entire pool of mitochondria (about 5 x 10(2)) introduced into an embryo by microinjection.

  8. Incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary through multi-modal situations

    OpenAIRE

    Bisson, Marie-Josee

    2013-01-01

    There are many advantages to learning a foreign language, such as a better understanding of another culture, a better chance of employment, as well as metalinguistic and cognitive benefits. Unfortunately, language learning can be a long and difficult process, partly because of the amount of words necessary to achieve fluency in a language. However, informal exposure to languages can help language learning. The aim of this thesis was to explore the impact of informal exposure on the incidental...

  9. Lexical Errors and Accuracy in Foreign Language Writing. Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pilar Agustin Llach, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Lexical errors are a determinant in gaining insight into vocabulary acquisition, vocabulary use and writing quality assessment. Lexical errors are very frequent in the written production of young EFL learners, but they decrease as learners gain proficiency. Misspellings are the most common category, but formal errors give way to semantic-based…

  10. Mobile Learning in Foreign Language Learning: Podcasts and Lexicon Acquisition in the Elementary Instruction of Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrainer, Eva Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the research design (including the pilot study) of a work-in-progress study aimed at examining the potential of bilingual podcasts for the vocabulary acquisition in Italian as an L3 in the Austrian school context for beginning learners. The longitudinal study tries to link findings of the Lexical Approach (Lewis, 1993, 1997)…

  11. The Influence of Foreign Scripts on the Acquisition of a Second Language Phonological Contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in the acquisition of a second language (L2) phonology have revealed that orthography can influence the way in which L2 learners come to establish target-like lexical representations (Escudero et al., 2008, 2014; Escudero and Wanrooij, 2010; Showalter, 2012; Showalter and Hayes-Harb, 2013). Most of these studies, however, involve…

  12. The Influence of Foreign Scripts on the Acquisition of a Second Language Phonological Contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in the acquisition of a second language (L2) phonology have revealed that orthography can influence the way in which L2 learners come to establish target-like lexical representations (Escudero et al., 2008, 2014; Escudero and Wanrooij, 2010; Showalter, 2012; Showalter and Hayes-Harb, 2013). Most of these studies, however, involve…

  13. Utility of Krashen's Five Hypotheses in the Saudi Context of Foreign Language Acquisition/Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Malik Ajmal; Gulnaz, Fahmeeda; Ijaz, Attiya

    2014-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the paradigm that has dominated the discipline of language teaching is the SLA theory and Krashen's five hypotheses which are still proving flexible to accommodate earlier reforms. This paper reviews second language acquisition (SLA) theory to establish an understanding of its role in the EFL/ESL classrooms. Other areas…

  14. Epigenetic consequences of foreign DNA insertions: de novo methylation and global alterations of methylation patterns in recipient genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Walter

    2011-11-01

    The insertion of foreign DNA into mammalian or plant genomes is a frequent event in biology. My laboratory has pursued a long-standing interest in the structure of integrated adenovirus genomes and in the mechanism of foreign DNA insertions in mammalian cells. The long-term consequences of the integration of alien DNA are only partly known, and even less well understood are the mechanisms that bring them about. Evidence from viral systems has contributed to the realization that foreign DNA insertions entail a complex of sequelae that have also become apparent in non-viral systems: (i) The de novo methylation of integrated foreign DNA sequences has frequently been observed. (ii) Alterations of DNA methylation patterns in the recipient genome at and remote from the site of foreign DNA insertion have been demonstrated but it remains to be investigated how generally this phenomenon occurs. Many viral genomes find and have found entry into the genomes of present-day organisms. A major portion of mammalian genomes represents incomplete retroviral genomes that frequently have become permanently silenced by DNA methylation. It is still unknown how and to what extent the insertion of retroviral or retrotransposon sequences into established genomes has altered and shaped the methylation and transcription profiles of present day genomes. An additional reason for concern about the effects of foreign DNA integration is the fact that in all fields of molecular biology and medicine, the generation of transgenic or transgenomic cells and organisms has become a ubiquitously applied experimental technique. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellander, Martin; Berggren, Rasmus; Mårtensson, Johan; Brehmer, Yvonne; Wenger, Elisabeth; Li, Tie-Qiang; Bodammer, Nils C; Shing, Yee-Lee; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10weeks. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N=33) compared to an active control group (N=23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus.

  16. Embryonic imprinting perturbations do not originate from superovulation-induced defects in DNA methylation acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denomme, Michelle M; Zhang, Liyue; Mann, Mellissa R W

    2011-09-01

    To investigate whether superovulation disrupts maternal imprint acquisition in oocytes. Animal model. Academic institute. Spontaneously ovulated and superovulated mice. Low and high hormone dosage treatments were administered to females, and ovulated metaphase II oocytes were collected. Imprinted DNA methylation was analyzed at Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, and H19 in individual oocytes. Examination of 125 individual oocytes derived from females subjected to low and high hormone treatments revealed normal imprinted methylation patterns that were comparable to oocytes derived from spontaneously ovulated females. Maternal imprint acquisition was not affected by superovulation. Given its aberrant effects during preimplantation development, superovulation must instead disrupt maternal-effect gene products that are required after fertilization for imprint maintenance. These results eliminate imprint acquisition per se as the initial stage of imprint loss and point to the importance of analyses on early embryos after procedures involving oocyte manipulation. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Selection of Mergers and Acquisitions by Foreign Capital in Open Economies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ying-fei; CHEN Hong-min; XU Li

    2007-01-01

    By a linear Cournot model, the factors associated with the integration of two firms are discussed in terms of their effects on the private surplus and the social welfare in economies with varying extent of openness. Meanwhile, the trade policy of the host government is taken into account. It is concluded that the more open the economy and the more intense the competition, the less profitable the integration; the most important determinant to the changes of the domestic social welfare is the industry strength of the host country. The host authority can enhance the domestic social welfare in two ways: to adjust the trade policy and to only approve the socially desirable cross-border mergers and acquisitions.

  18. Computer-based programs on acquisition of reading skills in schoolchildren (review of contemporary foreign investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhoda N.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a description of 17 computer-based programs, which were used over the last 5 years (2008—2013 in 15 studies of computer-assisted reading instruction and intervention of schoolchildren. The article includes a description of specificity of various terms used in the above-mentioned studies and the contents of training sessions. The article also carries out a brief analysis of main characteristics of computer-based techniques — language of instruction, age and basic characteristics of students, duration and frequency of training sessions, dependent variables of education. Special attention is paid to efficiency of acquisition of different reading skills through computer-based programs in comparison to traditional school instruction.

  19. Foreign Language Acquisition: Fostering Social Justice and Internalization within Web 2.0 environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lojacono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of mobile teaching the winds of change are coming from the “Steve Job Galaxy” confirming the vision Illich described in Deschooling Society (1971. The success of mobile learning is primarily due to easily searchable databases. Therefore a Copernican Revolution is on the go and will revise the way educational contents are accessed. In this paper we discuss a specific aspect of this the radical shift: collaborative teaching through globally networked learning environments. Within educational institutions, collaboration means the ability to harness ideas, resources and educational practioners from across boundaries. While it is clear that collaboration is acknowledged as a required win-win practice for any business organizations, in the field of education the most important outcome brought by Web 2.0 tools is social justice, in terms of equity in mobility and cross-cultural experiences. Therefore this paper describes practices aimed at fostering social justice within a language learning framework. Internet-based tools are analyzed in terms of hardware and software requirements as well as in terms of second language acquisition theories and cognitive approaches. In sum, this paper is aimed at serving the innovative teacher in the exploration of collaborative teaching in a Web 2.0 context.

  20. Introduction of foreign DNA into the water flea, Daphnia magna, by electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yasuhiko; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Watanabe, Hajime; Iguchi, Taisen

    2010-03-01

    Daphnids inhabit a diverse array of aquatic environments and they are a good model for understanding response and adaptation to environmental changes and they have been used one of standard organisms in ecotoxicology. Recent progress of genomics changed the tools for analyzing responses of daphnids, because gene expression changes can be observed before the emergence of prominent adverse effect such as immobility of the organism. Thus understanding of biological changes from gene expression level can be one of the sensitive tools for the evaluation of environmental response of organisms. However, there was no technique for genetic manipulation in daphnids. Hence, we have developed a gene introduction technique based on electroporation. There are two critical points for the successful introduction of foreign DNA into D. magna. (1) Injection of DNA into blood stream. (2) Usage of very low voltage for the electroporation. The injected DNA containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) could be introduced daphnids and the expression of GFP could be detected in living daphnids. This is the first report of gene introduction to daphnids and, together with the emerging genome sequences, will be useful for the expanding our use of daphnid in ecotoxicology.

  1. Single-Center Study Investigating Foreign Language Acquisition at School in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Uni- or Bilateral Cochlear Implants in the Swiss German Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeres-Scheenstra, Renske; Ohnsorg, Claudia; Candreia, Claudia; Heinzmann, Sybille; Castellanos, Susana; De Min, Nicola; Linder, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate foreign language acquisition at school in cochlear implant patients. Cohort study. CI center. Forty three cochlear implants (CI) patients (10-18 yr) were evaluated. CI nonusers and patients with CI-explantation, incomplete datasets, mental retardation, or concomitant medical disorders were excluded. Additional data (type of schooling, foreign language learning, and bilingualism) were obtained with questionnaires. German-speaking children with foreign tuition language (English and/or French) at school were enrolled for further testing. General patient data, auditory data, and foreign language data from both questionnaires and tests were collected and analyzed. Thirty seven out of 43 questionnaires (86%) were completed. Sixteen (43%) were in mainstream education. Twenty-seven CI users (73%) have foreign language learning at school. Fifteen of these were in mainstream education (55%), others in special schooling. From 10 CI users without foreign language learning, one CI user was in mainstream education (10%) and nine patients (90%) were in special schooling. Eleven German-speaking CI users were further tested in English and six additionally in French. For reading skills, the school objectives for English were reached in 7 of 11 pupils (64%) and for French in 3 of 6 pupils (50%). For listening skills, 3 of 11 pupils (27%) reached the school norm in English and none in French. Almost 75% of our CI users learn foreign language(s) at school. A small majority of the tested CI users reached the current school norm for in English and French in reading skills, whereas for hearing skills most of them were not able to reach the norm.

  2. Language Acquisition Theories and the Second Foreign Language Learning Models%语言习得理论与第二外语学习模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范荣玲

    2001-01-01

    Based on linguistice acquisition theory and from the respect of psychology,this paper analyses children's languageaequisition approaches and the learning models of the second foreign language. The paper draws a conclusion that although language acquisition differs from language learning ,its learning approaches bring light on the latter. Besides,the learning models of the second foreign language are not fixed or perfect methods,but with their positive effects,they can be applied to foreign language lèarning and be expected to achieve better results.%本文从心理学言语角度,以语言习得理论为基础,解析了儿童语言习得的方式和第二外语学习模式。文章指出语言学习不同于语言习得,但是后者的学习方式对前者具有很大的启发意义;第二外语学习模式也并不是一条完美而又固定的方法,但是却对外语学习起着积极的参考作用,能够帮助提高外语学习的效果。

  3. 26 CFR 1.6046-1 - Returns as to organization or reorganization of foreign corporations and as to acquisitions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 5 percent or more in value of the outstanding stock, a chart showing the foreign corporation's... consideration paid to the foreign corporation for such transfer or issue; and (3) An analysis of the changes in... execution of power of attorney. The use of technical language in the preparation of the power of attorney...

  4. Learning for life, a structured and motivational process of knowledge construction in the acquisition/learning of English as a foreign language in native Spanish speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Miño-Garcés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As language learning theory has shifted from a highly guided to a more open learning process, this paper presents the teaching/learning philosophy called Learning for Life (L for L as a great way to motivate native Spanish speaker students learning English as a foreign language, and to help them be the constructors of their own knowledge. The Learning for Life philosophy was created by Patricia López de Jaramillo, M.A. and Fernando Miño-Garcés, Ph.D. at the Andean Center for Latin American Studies (ACLAS in Quito – Ecuador. In the Learning for Life philosophy, the learner is the center of the process and becomes the creator of his/her own knowledge. To get to this new dimension in learning, acquisition is emphasized, and the principles of this philosophy are applied in the EFL classroom. The definition of the philosophy and its principles are presented, and explained in detail as to how they can be applied in the teaching of a foreign language. This paper also explains the difference between acquisition versus learning, and what process should be applied in the classroom to emphasize on acquisition, and not so much on learning.

  5. 母语补缺与外语习得策略%On the Native Language Migration and the Strategy of Foreign Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭杰; 马晶

    2015-01-01

    The native language migration is one of the important mental phenomena that influence foreign language acquisition ,the fundamental reason lies in the context migration which is caused by the differ-ences between the internal and the external context .Therefore,it is necessary to pay more attention to the role of context in the process of foreign language acquisition ,create a real and effective language learning context actively , cultivate the cross-cultural awareness of students , make use of the flexibility of the students′cognitive to avoid the negative transfer of native language context ,at the mean while ,foreign lan-guage teachers and students should improve their pragmatic consciousness ,so as to cultivate the pragmatic competence of students .%母语补缺影响外语习得,其产生的根本原因在于内部语境与外部语境的差异及引起的语境迁移。因此,在外语的习得过程中应重视语境的作用,积极创造真实有效的外语学习语境,培养学生的跨文化意识,利用学生的认知灵活性来尽量避免母语语境的负迁移,同时需要提高教师及学生的语用意识,进而培养学生的语用能力。

  6. Providing English Foreign Language Teachers with Content Knowledge to Facilitate Decoding and Spelling Acquisition: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study adds to the small existing literature on orthographic-related teacher knowledge in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The study examined the impact of a course on English orthography on predominantly non-native-speaking EFL preservice and inservice teachers' orthographic content knowledge, and the extent…

  7. The International Corpus of Learner English: A New Resource for Foreign Language Learning and Teaching and Second Language Acquisition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Sylviane

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the International Corpus of Learner English, outlining the learner and task variables in the corpus of texts written by English-as-a-Foreign-Language university undergraduates. The design of the corpus and sampling of students with different native languages make contrastive interlanguage analyses and error analyses…

  8. Providing English Foreign Language Teachers with Content Knowledge to Facilitate Decoding and Spelling Acquisition: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study adds to the small existing literature on orthographic-related teacher knowledge in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The study examined the impact of a course on English orthography on predominantly non-native-speaking EFL preservice and inservice teachers' orthographic content knowledge, and the extent…

  9. Foreign Language Acquisition in Eva Hoffman’s Lost in Translation a Life in a New Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    普正芳

    2014-01-01

    Eva Hoffman’s Lost in Translation:A life in a New Language occupies a unique place in American migrant literature in that it serves as an autobiographical account of the author’s personal experiences of acquiring English as a otherness. In this light, by exploring the coveted relationship between foreign language learners’own cultural and language identity, the paper aims to investigate the probabilities of optimizing L2 learners culminate in both cultural and social domains of life.

  10. On two language acquisition communicative strategies and foreign language anxiety%试论二语习得交际策略与外语焦虑感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥瑞

    2012-01-01

      Foreign language anxiety refers to the two language in the process of communication, people for the reality of the other person or anticipated communication to generate fear or anxiety. Personal communication anxiety or lack of communication skills may cause cross-cultural communication anxiety. This paper tries to combine the two language acquisition communicative strategy is introduced to solve or alleviate the two language learners in the process of communication produce more or less foreign language anxiety, to improve learning efficiency.%  外语焦虑感指的是在二语交际过程中,个人对于他人的真实或者预期交际产生的恐惧或者焦虑程度。个人交际焦虑感高或者缺乏交际技巧都可能引起跨文化交际焦虑。本文试图将二语习得交际策略引入解决或缓解二语习得者在交际过程中产生的或多或少的外语焦虑感,以提高学习者的学习效率。

  11. Acquisition of the non-generic definite article by Spanish learners of English as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Isabelli-García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the acquisition of the non-generic uses of the English definite article "the" by L2 learners. Chilean university students completed a questionnaire containing deleted obligatory uses of "the". In all, four identified categories showed to have different accuracy rates. Of the four categories, the one most similar to the L1 was the least difficult to acquire while the most different resulted as the most difficult. This concurs with other research and can be explained by L1 rules that are transferred to the L2. The other two categories did not show the same acquisition rate as compared to previous studies and cannot be explained by L1 transfer given that both languages share the same rules. Time spent studying the English increases accuracy rates across all categories. Knowing that difficulty with the definite article can be attributed to L1 interference is useful when implementing pedagogical recommendations to teach the English article system.

  12. TRANSLATION ACQUISITION, TRANSLATION COMPERISON AND IST USAGE IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE COURSES UBERSETZUNGSFERTIGKEIT, UBERSETZUNGSVERGLEICH UND IHRE ANWENDUNG IM FREMDSPRACHENUNTERRICHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Zeki KARAKAYA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to enlighten the definition of translation acquisition, the differentiation from language acquisition by comparing translations of two authors having translation acquisition in different levels and through using these differences how can it be used in language teaching.In the first section, translation acquisition issue has been accentuated; by giving place to the definitions of different Scientifics a general survey about translation acquisition has been elicited. Moreover, in this section, in order to see how translation acquisition will be differentiated from language acquisition and bring out the difference; an application has been conducted on Students and the results have been ascertained.As it is known, translation comparison is a appliance for bringing in language teaching, comparative linguistics, comparative graphology, translation criticism and translation acquisition. However, in this study it has been tried out representing some suggestions and examples about translation on the subject of how can be benefited only in language teaching with translation comparison which is one of the medium of methodology. In the study comparative translation method has been applied and examples and suggestions about its functions on language teaching have been presented. Bu çalışmanın amacı çeviri edincinin tanımına, dil edincinden ayrışımına, farklı düzeylerde çeviri edincine sahip iki yazarın çevirilerinin karşılaştırılmasıyla bu farklılıklardan yararlanarak nasıl dil öğretiminde kullanılabileceğine ışık tutmaktır.İlk bölümde çeviri edinci konusu üzerine durulmuş, farklı bilim adamlarının tanımlarını yer vererek, çeviri edincine yönelik genel bir bakış sağlanmıştır. Ayrıca bu bölümde çeviri edincinin dil edincinden nasıl ayırt edileceğini görmek, aradaki farkı göz önüne sermek için öğrencilerle uygulama yapılmış ve sonuçları tespit edilmi

  13. First Language Proficiency as a Facilitator in Foreign/ Second Language Acquisition: A Case Study in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    English is taught as a foreign language in the Arab world even though practical concerns call for greater emphasis on the language. In all personal interactions too Arabic is the preferred language. Thus the environment for English is really very limited as by the time the learners are exposed to the language they are well entrenched in Arabic. While this may be a handicap in some EFL situations (for example where adults are concerned), in the Arab context this can prove a big boon. This is b...

  14. Effects of Visible and Invisible Hyperlinks on Vocabulary Acquisition and Reading Comprehension for High- and Average-Foreign Language Achievers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia R. Nikolova

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of visible and invisible links for annotated words in a computer module for learning French on the vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension of two types of students – high – and average-achievers. Two hundred and sixty four second-semester students of French were identified as high- or average-achievers. Each type of students was then randomly assigned to two groups – with visible or invisible hyperlinks. All students were instructed to read a short passage in French (181 words for general comprehension and allowed to consult the annotated words (made visible by bold face for the visible links group as much as they needed. The students took a vocabulary pretest and an immediate and delayed (two weeks vocabulary and reading comprehension posttest. The results of the study showed that average- achievers benefited more from the visible links for vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension than high-achievers. The results are discussed in light of second language acquisition and gifted-student theories and suggestions for future research are made.

  15. An analysis of various scholarly approaches to the acquisition of Chinese characters by students of Chinese as a foreign language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptaszynski, Signe Overgaard

    2007-01-01

    Wang Bixia et al. (1997) and Jiang Liping (1998) investigated what learning strategies students of Chinese as a foreign language employ when learning Chinese characters. On the basis of their research they suggest what pedagogical methods the teacher should apply in order to make the task easier...... are that the studies by Wang et al. and Jiang do not offer an exhaustive answer to the question of which teaching strategies should be employed to make the learning of Chinese easier. They do, however, contribute to a better understanding of the subject matter....... for the students. In the present study, Wang Bixia et al.'s and Jiang Liping's research is analysed in order to find out whether the methodology of their investigations can provide an exhaustive answer to the question of what pedagogical methods should be applied in teaching Chinese characters. My conclusions...

  16. An analysis of various scholarly approaches to the acquisition of Chinese characters by students of Chinese as a foreign language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptaszynski, Signe Overgaard

    2007-01-01

    Wang Bixia et al. (1997) and Jiang Liping (1998) investigated what learning strategies students of Chinese as a foreign language employ when learning Chinese characters. On the basis of their research they suggest what pedagogical methods the teacher should apply in order to make the task easier...... for the students. In the present study, Wang Bixia et al.'s and Jiang Liping's research is analysed in order to find out whether the methodology of their investigations can provide an exhaustive answer to the question of what pedagogical methods should be applied in teaching Chinese characters. My conclusions...... are that the studies by Wang et al. and Jiang do not offer an exhaustive answer to the question of which teaching strategies should be employed to make the learning of Chinese easier. They do, however, contribute to a better understanding of the subject matter....

  17. DNA methylation and transcription in HERV (K, W, E) and LINE sequences remain unchanged upon foreign DNA insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stefanie; Jung, Susan; Doerfler, Walter

    2016-02-01

    DNA methylation and transcriptional profiles were determined in the regulatory sequences of the human endogenous retroviral (HERV-K, -W, -E) and LINE-1.2 elements and were compared between non-transgenomic and plasmid-transgenomic cells. DNA methylation profiles in the HERV (K, W, E) and LINE sequences were determined by bisulfite genomic sequencing. The transcription of these genome segments was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. In HERV-K, HERV-W and LINE-1.2 the levels of DNA methylation ranged between 75 and 98%, while in HERV-E they were around 60%. Nevertheless, the HERV and LINE-1.2 sequences were actively transcribed. No differences were found in comparisons of HERV and LINE-1.2 CpG methylation and transcription patterns between non-transgenomic and plasmid-transgenomic HCT116 cells. The insertion of a 5.6 kbp plasmid into the HCT116 genome had no effect on the HERV and LINE-1.2 methylation and transcription profiles, although other parts of the HCT116 genome had shown marked changes. These repetitive sequences are transcribed, probably because the large number of HERV and LINE-1.2 elements harbor copies with non- or hypo-methylated long terminal repeat sequences.

  18. Providing English foreign language teachers with content knowledge to facilitate decoding and spelling acquisition: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina

    2016-04-01

    This quasi-experimental study adds to the small existing literature on orthographic-related teacher knowledge in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The study examined the impact of a course on English orthography on predominantly non-native-speaking EFL preservice and inservice teachers' orthographic content knowledge, and the extent to which these teachers retained orthographic-related content knowledge four months after participating in a semester course on the topic. In addition, the study examined the relationship between participants' acquired orthographic-related content knowledge and EFL spelling. Both groups of teachers that studied in the course improved on overall orthographic-related content knowledge, both immediately following the course and longitudinally. Preservice and inservice participants showed similar levels of orthographic knowledge prior to course participation and both showed significant improvements compared to controls following course participation. Participants also retained knowledge four months after course completion. Overall, the inservice teachers scored higher on orthographic-related knowledge, possibly as a result of the immediate application of their newly acquired knowledge. An unexpected finding was a lack of interaction between acquired orthographic-related content knowledge and pseudo word spelling scores. Possible methodological limitations, such as number of participants as well as the length and scope of the course, may explain this outcome. This paper also discusses practical implications of this study for EFL decoding and spelling instruction.

  19. [Study of the Sociodemographic Factors and Risky Behaviours Associated with the Acquisition of Sexual Transmitted Infections by Foreign Exchange Students in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravata, Andreia; Castro, Rita; Borges-Costa, João

    2016-06-01

    Sexual transmitted infections are a main cause of morbidity, being a public health problem due to its reproductive complications, mostly observed in teenagers and young adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sociodemographic factors and risky behaviours associated with sexual transmitted infections acquisition and to assess personal awareness of risky behaviour and the knowledge about Chlamydia trachomatis infection between foreign exchange students in Portugal. The main instrument for data collection was a questionnaire, applied to foreign students in university exchange in Portugal, during the years 2012/2013, 2013/2014 e 2014/2015 Results: Three hundred and thirty eight (338) questionnaires were evaluated, being 58.3% female students, aged between 17 and 30 years old. Mean age for the beginning of the sexual activity was 17.5 years old and the mean number of lifetime sexual partners was 6.9. Concerning the answers given: 11.8% mentioned a sexual relationship with the same gender, 9.5% mentioned that they have never done oral sex and 29% assumed they had practiced anal sex; 82.1% mentioned alcohol/drugs consumption; 21% did not know that Sexual transmitted infections can be transmitted through oral sex and 42.3% did not recognize Chlamydia trachomatis as an Sexual transmitted infections agent. Although sexual transmitted infections can affect individuals of all ages, races and sexual orientation, various demographic, social and behavioral factors have revealed influence in their prevalence rates. Despite knowing about sexual transmitted infections, these students maintain sexual risky behaviours, mainly early age for starting sexual activity, multiple sexual partners and the absence of protection during sexual activities.

  20. Foreign meat identification by DNA breed assignment for the Chinese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Wei, S; Ripoli, M V; Guo, B L; Carino, M H; Castillo, N; Villegas Castagnaso, E E; Lirón, J P; Morales Durand, H F; Melucci, L; Villarreal, E; Peral-García, P; Wei, Y M; Giovambattista, G

    2014-12-01

    Methods for individual identification are usually employed for traceability, whereas breed identification is useful to detect commercial frauds. In this study, Chinese Yellow Cattle (CYC) samples plus data from six Bos taurus breeds, two Bos indicus breeds, and one composite breed were used to develop an allocation test based on 22 microsatellites. The test allowed discriminating all foreign breeds from the CYC, although some CYC individuals were wrongly allocated as Limousin or Holstein, probably due to the recent introduction of these breeds into China. In addition, CYC evidenced a previously reported Zebu cline (south-north) and a possible structure within the B. taurus component that should be confirmed. An independent test performed with meat samples of unknown breed origin from Argentina allocated 92% of them to either Angus, Hereford, or their crossbreed, but none was identified as CYC. We conclude that the test is a suitable tool to certify meat of foreign breed origin and to detect adulterations of CYC beef labeled as imported meat.

  1. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    New procedures will help facilitate mergers and acquisitions by foreign companies in China The State Council,or China’s cabinet,said in a February statement that China will establish a ministerial panel to review foreign firms’ attempts to buy,or merge with,domestic companies.The committee, led by the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of

  2. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ New procedures will help facilitate mergers and acquisitions by foreign companies in China The State Council, or China's cabinet, said in a February statement that China will establish a ministerial panel to review foreign firms' attempts to buy, or merge with, domestic companies.

  3. 外资并购系列法规陆续出台%Series of rules on foreign acquisitions to be promulgated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Following the promulgation of the Administrative Procedures on Acquisition of Listed Companies,the China Securities Regulatory Commission(CSRC)will promulgate one after another supporting documents related to acquisition of listed companies and a series of laws and regulations aimde to standerdize mergers and acquisition,

  4. Do Modification and Interaction Work?--A Critical Review of Literature on the Role of Foreigner Talk in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, John Paul O.; Arguelles, Diana C.

    2016-01-01

    This critical review of literature provides a detailed description of foreigner talk as a simplified register and critically discusses findings entrenched in studies done about this SLA issue. The studies cited are classified as researches concerning foreigner talk that occurs in both natural and classroom settings. Based on the critical review,…

  5. 重视外资并购中的中方知识产权保护问题%Emphasis on Chinese Intellectual Property Protection in Foreign Mergers and Acquisitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍

    2012-01-01

    M A companies entering the Chinese market has become the main form.Wave of foreign acquisitions in this context,how to protect our country in foreign acquisitions of national brands and to safeguard national security and economic security industry is China's integration into the international market and the real economy to adapt to international competition,a required course,and it is a topic for us to discuss.%并购已经成为跨国公司进入中国市场的主要方式。在外资并购浪潮风起云涌这一背景下,如何在外资并购中保护我国的民族品牌,维护国家的产业安全以及经济安全,是我国融入国际市场并真正适应国际竞争经济环境的必修课,是值得我们探讨的问题。

  6. Introducing a Second Foreign Language in Swiss Primary Schools: The Effect of L2 Listening and Reading Skills on L3 Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenni Hoti, Andrea U.; Heinzmann, Sybille; Muller, Marianne; Oliveira, Marta; Wicki, Werner; Werlen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    In German-speaking Central Switzerland, French used to be the only foreign language (FL) taught in primary schools (from Grade 5 onwards). According to the ongoing school reform, a second FL should be introduced in primary schools. Some cantons have now implemented a programme including English as the first FL to be learnt at school (from Grade 3…

  7. Learning for Life, a Structured and Motivational Process of Knowledge Construction in the Acquisition/Learning of English as a Foreign Language in Native Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino-Garces, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    As language learning theory has shifted from a highly guided to a more open learning process, this paper presents the teaching/learning philosophy called Learning for Life (L for L) as a great way to motivate native Spanish speaker students learning English as a foreign language, and to help them be the constructors of their own knowledge. The…

  8. An Annotated Bibliography on Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes representative literature in second language acquisition and learning. Writings by the major theorists and researchers were...Summaries of the articles are provided. Second language acquisition , Retention, Foreign language, Language. Interlanguage,

  9. OneBac 2.0: Sf9 Cell Lines for Production of AAV1, AAV2, and AAV8 Vectors with Minimal Encapsidation of Foreign DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietzsch, Mario; Hering, Henrik; Hammer, Eva-Maria; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Heilbronn, Regine

    2017-02-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors for human gene therapy require efficient and economical production methods to keep pace with the rapidly increasing clinical demand. In addition, the manufacturing process must ensure high vector quality and biological safety. The OneBac system offers easily scalable rAAV vector production in insect Sf9-derived AAV rep/cap-expressing producer cell lines infected with a single baculovirus that carries the rAAV backbone. For most AAV serotypes high burst sizes per cell were achieved, combined with high infectivity rates. OneBac 2.0 represents a 2-fold advancement: First, enhanced VP1 proportions in AAV5 capsids lead to vastly increased per-particle infectivity rates. Second, collateral packaging of foreign DNA is suppressed by removal of the Rep-binding element (RBE). In this study we show that this advancement of AAV5 packaging can be translated to OneBac 2.0-derived packaging systems for alternative AAV serotypes. By removal of the RBE, collateral packaging of nonvector DNA was drastically reduced in all newly tested serotypes (AAV1, AAV2, and AAV8). However, the splicing-based strategy to enhance VP1 expression in order to increase AAV5 infectivity hardly improved infectivity rates of AAV-1, -2, or -8 compared with the original OneBac cell lines. Our results emphasize that OneBac 2.0 represents an advancement for scalable, high-titer production of various AAV serotypes, leading to AAV particles with minimal packaging of foreign DNA.

  10. It Is More than Knowledge Seeking: Examining the Effects of OpenCourseWare Lectures on Vocabulary Acquisition in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Chi; Sun, Yu-Chih

    2013-01-01

    OpenCourseWare (OCW) has received increasing attention over the past few years in higher education. These courses provide appealing opportunities to view classes taught in well-established universities worldwide. The current study aims to examine how OCW lectures can serve as authentic learning materials to facilitate vocabulary acquisition for…

  11. A Study of the Relationship Between the Reconstruction of Gendered Social Identity and Foreign Language Acquisition%性别化身份重构与外语学习关系之研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐珺; 史兴松

    2011-01-01

    在对早期语言与性别研究的主要论题和理论流派进行梳理与评述的基础上,本研究以女权后结构主义理论为框架,探讨在多重语言、社会和文化环境中,外语学习者复杂曲折的社会身份重构以及性别身份对其言语行为和外语学习的影响,并就如何提高我国外语教学质量提出了若干建议。%This study begins with a brief introduction to the major topics and theoretical approaches that have shaped early language and gender studies.Then,research and theoretical shifts that problematize the early work in language and gender are discussed.Specifically,current research,which draws on insights from feminist poststructural theory was highlighted as the theoretical framework to explain L2 learners' reconstruction and transformation of gendered performance during their discursive reconstruction of social identities in heterogeneous sociocultural contexts,as well as its influence on their language behavior and foreign language acquisition.Based on the study,the article concludes with a brief discussion of educational implications that might help to facilitate foreign language education.

  12. 外资并购中国上市企业的动因研究——基于目标企业的视角%On the Motive of Foreign Merger and Acquisition of Chinese Listed Companies Based on the Perspective of Target Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁奋强

    2012-01-01

    The paper, using a sample of foreign companies' merger and acquisition of Chinese listed target firms from 1998 to 2007, studies the M&A motive of foreign firms from the perspective of target firms. It finds that the foreign mergers and acquisitions have built financial synergies from the formation of internal capital markets, which are one of the main motives of foreign mergers and acquisitions; speculations are not the motive of mergers and acquisitions, but investments should be the main motive; as an investmentoriented foreign merger and acquisition, after it quickly enters the host country market, it has a motive of freezing the target brand and promoting its own brand.%文章以1998~2007年外资并购上市公司的事件为研究样本,从目标企业的视角分析了外资并购的动因。研究发现:外资并购通过内部资本市场的构建形成了财务协同效应,所以财务协同效应应该是外资并购的主要动因之一;外资并购并非持投机性的动机,而应该是以投资性并购为主要动因;作为投资性的外资并购,外资在快速进入东道主国市场后,具有雪藏目标企业品牌、推广自有品牌的动机。

  13. Foreign Sources of Supply. FY2007 Report. Annual Report of United States Defense Industrial Base Capabilities and Acquisitions of Defense Items and Components Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    spares A1B Aircraft engines and related spares and spare parts A1C Other aircraft equipment and supplies A2 Missile and space systems A3 Ships A4A ...Total 3,278 1,855,983,343$ 3,441 8,483,002,947$ 6,719 10,338,986,290$ A4A Combat Vehicles U.S. 3,150...0.2% A4A Combat Vehicles U.S. 98.1% 99.1% 94.2% 98.5% 97.0% 98.8% Foreign 1.9% 0.9% 5.8% 1.5% 3.0% 1.2% A4B Non-combat Vehicles U.S. 91.6% 96.7

  14. QUESTIONING FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IN ISLAMIC PRE-SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Rohmani Nur Indah

    2011-01-01

    This paper questions the urgency of foreign language learning at early age by covering some arguments on the acquisition and bilingualism. Nowadays in Indonesia, under the interest of education, bilingual learning is undertaken by adopting the theory of bilingual acquisition referring to Chomsky’s ideas. In fact, the foreign language learning is not always in line with the principle of language acquisition especially for the early age children. The globalization era requires foreign language ...

  15. 48 CFR 1825.1101 - Acquisition of supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Acquisition of supplies. 1825.1101 Section 1825.1101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses 1825.1101 Acquisition of supplies. (c)(1) NASA...

  16. Foreign Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Lee W.

    2006-01-01

    The admirable ideal of "total" immersion in a foreign culture privileges students who plan early on for foreign study, establish early language fluency and elect majors and activities that make it easier to leave campus. Other students often find that they lack the language skills to qualify for many foreign programs or are unable to reconcile…

  17. Foreign Language Education Policies, Age of Second Language Acquisition and Chinese Language Teaching%外语教育政策、二语习得年龄和对外汉语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈菊咏

    2012-01-01

    为了提高学生的外语(或二语)水平,很多国家降低了学生学习外语的年龄。这种做法和神经科学关于双语者二语习得起始年龄的研究结果相一致。相关的研究表明,早期的二语习得者其二语大脑加工模式类似于第一语言和母语单语者,而晚二语者的二语加工有激活脑区扩大、激活水平提高的倾向。早二语者更有可能获得接近母语者的二语水平。让学习者在较小的年龄接触外语是一个有效的方法。汉语是外语教育低龄化的受益语言,覆盖低龄学习者,帮助国外解决低龄学习者汉语教学师资问题应该成为汉语国际推广的重要内容。国内的对外汉语教学界要加强针对低龄儿童的教学研究,建立低龄儿童汉语教学师资培训机制,以顺应国外外语教育的发展趋势,促进汉语国际推广。%To enhance learners' foreign language proficiency, a lot of countries lower the age of students exposed to foreign language. The change in policies of foreign language education is supported by the neural scientific researches on the effect of age of second language acquisition. Relative researches indicate that neural mechanismof early learners processing second language is similar to that of the first language and native speakers of that language, so early learners are easier to acquire high second lan- guage proficiency. Chinese is benefited from such policy change. In some countries the number of programs on Chinese language teaching is increased. Researchers from China should do more studies on how to teach Chinese to early learners. Training more teachers who can be qualified toteach young learners Chinese is also important. More programs covering lower learners and more teachers for lower learners are what is needed by Chinese language teaching abroad.

  18. Sequencing the hypervariable regions of human mitochondrial DNA using massively parallel sequencing: Enhanced data acquisition for DNA samples encountered in forensic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Carey; Peters, Dixie; Warshauer, David; King, Jonathan; Budowle, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Mitochondrial DNA testing is a useful tool in the analysis of forensic biological evidence. In cases where nuclear DNA is damaged or limited in quantity, the higher copy number of mitochondrial genomes available in a sample can provide information about the source of a sample. Currently, Sanger-type sequencing (STS) is the primary method to develop mitochondrial DNA profiles. This method is laborious and time consuming. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) can increase the amount of information obtained from mitochondrial DNA samples while improving turnaround time by decreasing the numbers of manipulations and more so by exploiting high throughput analyses to obtain interpretable results. In this study 18 buccal swabs, three different tissue samples from five individuals, and four bones samples from casework were sequenced at hypervariable regions I and II using STS and MPS. Sample enrichment for STS and MPS was PCR-based. Library preparation for MPS was performed using Nextera® XT DNA Sample Preparation Kit and sequencing was performed on the MiSeq™ (Illumina, Inc.). MPS yielded full concordance of base calls with STS results, and the newer methodology was able to resolve length heteroplasmy in homopolymeric regions. This study demonstrates short amplicon MPS of mitochondrial DNA is feasible, can provide information not possible with STS, and lays the groundwork for development of a whole genome sequencing strategy for degraded samples.

  19. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  20. Effect of various types of intrauterine foreign bodies on the incorporation of 35S into mucoprotein and of thymidine 2-14C into DNA of rat's endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, R

    1969-01-01

    The metallic ions, copper and zinc, are extensively associated with biological processes. An imbalance in the normal concentration of these metals can alter the reproductive function. The experiments reported here were done to determine whether the insertion of a metallic device into the uterus of rats is associated with metabolic changes in the endometrium. For this purpose the effect of IUDs on the incorporation of 2Na 35S40 into the mucoproteins and of thymidine 2-carbon-14 into the DNA of the endometrium of normal rats was studied. Estradiol benzoate, 20 mcg, was injected im the day before instillation with radioisotopes in order to have all the rats under similar estrogenic stimulation. In Experiment 1 either .2 mc of 2Na35S40 or 2.5 mcc of thymidine 2-carbon-14 in .1 ml of distilled water was instilled into each uterus. To avoid expulsion of the isotope a ligature was placed in the lower portion of each horn. The opposite horn served as a control. The horns were excised at different intervals from 1 to 88 hours later. The results showed that the accumulation of radioactivity in the endometrium reaches its maximum concentration in about 22 hours and then gradually declines. In Experiment 2 copper wire, zinc wire, or nylon thread was used as an IUD. The opposite horn was used as a control. About 14 days later the isotope was instilled as in Experiment 1 and left for 24 hours. In the presence of an inert foreign body, such as nylon thread, a significant decrease in the accumulation of sulfur-35 in the endometrium (18.5%; p less than .05) was noted. With zinc wire the assimulation decrese was 44.2% (p less than .001), and with copper wire, it was 69.6% (p less than .001). Absorption of thymidine 2-carbon-14 was the same in both horns in the control group. Nylon thread produced no significant difference. Copper and zinc produced statistically significant depressions of absorption (p less than .001). Copper depression was greater than zinc depression (p less than

  1. The value of foreign ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Romalis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    We use firm level data on cross-border mergers and acquisitions and share prices to explore the extent to which foreign ownership increases the profitability of firms in emerging markets. We find that cross-border ac¬quisitions add value to target firms. However, there is only weak evidence that such acquisitions add more value than purely domestic acquisitions. Further, most of this latter effect occurs when the target firm’s country is in a crisis.

  2. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  3. Culture in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire

    2013-01-01

    In foreign language education, the teaching of culture remains a hotly debated issue. What is culture? What is its relation to language? Which and whose culture should be taught? What role should the learners' culture play in the acquisition of knowledge of the target culture? How can we avoid essentializing cultures and teaching stereotypes? And…

  4. Foreign Language Research in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bot, Kees, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from a conference on empirical research on foreign language instruction in Europe and the United States include: "Foreign Language Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Research in the United States" (Charles A. Fergurson, Thom Huebner); "Empirical Foreign Language Research in Europe" (Theo van Els, Kees de Bot, Bert Weltens);…

  5. 48 CFR 25.1002 - Use of foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of foreign currency... foreign currency. In unusual circumstances, the contracting officer may permit submission of offers in... foreign currency, the agency must ensure that adequate funds are available to cover currency...

  6. Interference-driven spacer acquisition is dominant over naive and primed adaptation in a native CRISPR–Cas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staals, Raymond H. J.; Jackson, Simon A.; Biswas, Ambarish; Brouns, Stan J. J.; Brown, Chris M.; Fineran, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR–Cas systems provide bacteria with adaptive immunity against foreign nucleic acids by acquiring short, invader-derived sequences called spacers. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing to analyse millions of spacer acquisition events in wild-type populations of Pectobacterium atrosepticum. Plasmids not previously encountered, or plasmids that had escaped CRISPR–Cas targeting via point mutation, are used to provoke naive or primed spacer acquisition, respectively. The origin, location and order of spacer acquisition show that spacer selection through priming initiates near the site of CRISPR–Cas recognition (the protospacer), but on the displaced strand, and is consistent with 3′–5′ translocation of the Cas1:Cas2-3 acquisition machinery. Newly acquired spacers determine the location and strand specificity of subsequent spacers and demonstrate that interference-driven spacer acquisition (‘targeted acquisition') is a major contributor to adaptation in type I-F CRISPR–Cas systems. Finally, we show that acquisition of self-targeting spacers is occurring at a constant rate in wild-type cells and can be triggered by foreign DNA with similarity to the bacterial chromosome. PMID:27694798

  7. Weapons Acquisition. Processes of Selected Foreign Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    period from 1977 to 1985: (1) 5.56mm calibre assault rifle. (2) Milan and Hot antitank weapon systems. (3) Roland ground-to-air weapon system. (4) AMX 30...and standardization edicts . Awards and penalties are laid on accordingly. (7/17, 13/20) The ministries stand apart from one another in the same way

  8. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  9. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life. This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists. On this basis, it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness, while language learning is connected with conscious system. Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  10. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life.This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists.On this basis,it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness,while language learning is connected with conscious system.Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  11. China's Foreign Direct Investment - Case Study of Geely acquired Volvo

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huihui

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the acquisition case of Volvo Car by Geely including the environment scanning, strategic management and acquisition implementation. The theoretical overview to strategic management explained the acquisition decision making process with various management tools. Furthermore, the benefits and principles of foreign direct investment which were presented in this part are sound base for the detailed discussion about foreign direct investment in Chi...

  12. Cas1–Cas2 complex formation mediates spacer acquisition during CRISPR–Cas adaptive immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez, James K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Noeske, Jonas; Wright, Addison V.; Davies, Christopher W; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The initial stage of CRISPR–Cas immunity involves the acquisition of foreign DNA spacer segments into the host genomic CRISPR locus. The nucleases Cas1 and Cas2 are the only proteins conserved amongst all CRISPR–Cas systems, yet the molecular functions of these proteins during immunity are unknown. Here we show that Cas1 and Cas2 from Escherichia coli form a stable complex that is essential for spacer acquisition and determine the 2.3-Å resolution crystal structure of the Cas1–Cas2 complex. M...

  13. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SPERM AS VECTOR FOR INTRODUCING FOREIGN DNA INTO CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS)%以精子为载体把外源DNA导入中华绒螯蟹的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向宇; 王铁辉; 张菁; 邱涛; 陆仁后

    2002-01-01

    @@ The study of crustacean genetics and breeding has been received more and more attention due to the rapid development of the shrimp and crab aquaculture. Chromosome set manipulation on shrimp and crab[1][2],and the work on transgenic shrimp[3][4]have got some progress. However, there is no transgenic research reported on crab to our knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to study the feasibility of using sperm as vector to introduce foreign DNA into Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis H.milne-Edwards), an economically important crab in China.

  14. Academic Listening: A Source of Vocabulary Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Karina

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study of the acquisition of English-as-a-Foreign-Language vocabulary through academic listening. Explored the effects of EFL proficiency and lecture comprehension on vocabulary acquisition as well as the relationship between vocabulary gain and the following factors: frequency of occurrence, types of word, type of word elaboration, and…

  15. Foreign correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, John Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of foreign news, its history, transformation and indeed its future have not been much studied. The scholarly community often calls attention to journalism's shortcomings covering the world, yet the topic has not been systematically examined across countries or over time. The need to redress this neglect and the desire to assess the impact of new media technologies on the future of journalism - including foreign correspondence - provide the motivation for this stimulating, exciting and thought-provoking book. While the old economic models supporting news have crumbled in

  16. DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1970-01-01

    This history for molecular genetics and its explanation of DNA begins with an analysis of the Golden Jubilee essay papers, 1955. The paper ends stating that the higher nervous system is the one major frontier of biological inquiry which still offers some romance of research. (Author/VW)

  17. Banking Efficiency, Consolidation and Foreign Ownerhip: Evidence from the Polish Banking Market

    OpenAIRE

    Havrylchyk, Olena

    2007-01-01

    The thesis consists of four separate papers that can be read individually. In the first paper “Efficiency of the Polish Banking Industry: Foreign versus Domestic Banks” we analyze the efficiency of foreign and domestic banks. The second paper entitled “Foreign Acquisitions and Industry Wealth Effects of Privatisation: Evidence from the Polish Banking Industry” investigates the reaction of Polish bank stocks to acquisition by foreign investors. The third paper “Consolidation of the Polish Bank...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...

  19. Foreign grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program, a national research grants program, offers opportunities for support of research in Burma, Guinea, India, and Pakistan in astrophysics and earth sciences; anthropology, archeology, and related disciplines; systematic and environmental biology; and museum programs.Grants in the local currencies of the countries are awarded to U.S. institutions for research by senior scientists; collaborative programs involving host country institutions are welcome. Awards are determined on the basis of competitive scholarly review.

  20. PDA对我国外文电子期刊资源联合采购的影响研究%Study on the Inlfuence of Patron Driven Acquisition(PDA)on the Joint Purchase of the Foreign Electronic Periodical Resources Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴进琼

    2016-01-01

    Patron driven Acquisition,PDA(读者决策采购)在国外图书馆电子图书联合采购中效益非常明显。如果把它引进我国高校图书馆电子期刊文献资源特别是外文电子期刊联合采购中,将会对我国的电子期刊文献资源建设起到非常重要的作用。本文主要对把读者决策采购PDA模式对我国高校图书馆外文电子期刊文献资源联合采购的影响进行论述。%The Benefit of Patron-driven Acquisition(PDA)is very obvious in the foreign library electronic book purchase.PDA will play an very important role to our country's electronic resources construction especially foreign electronic journal if it is introduced into the electronic journal literature resources joint purchase in our country university libraries.This article mainly discusses the influence of the PDA mode on the purchase of the foreign electronic journals of University Libraries in China.

  1. 浅谈克拉申的“输入假说”与留学生“使”字兼语句的习得%A Brief Discussion on Krashen's "Input Hypothesis" and Foreign Students' Acquisition of Pivotal Sentences with“Shi”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响

    2014-01-01

    克拉申的“输入假说”阐述了人们习得语言的过程,是第二语言习得的一个重要理论。“使”字兼语句是留学生在汉语语法学习过程中的重难点。“使”字兼语句是兼语句的一种,但与一般兼语句又有所不同,它是汉语中特殊的动词谓语句中非常重要的一块。本文主要尝试将克拉申的“输入假说”运用到留学生“使”字兼语句的习得过程中,帮助留学生更快更好地理解和掌握“使”字兼语句以及在教学的过程中教师应采取哪些适当的教学方法。%Krashen's"input hypothesis",as an important theory of second language acquisition, expounds the process of people's acquisition of language. Pivotal sentences with"shi"is one kind of pivotal sentences, but different from common pivotal sentences, and it is a very important part of special verb predicate sentences in Chinese. This paper mainly attempted to apply Krashen's"in-put hypothesis"in the process of foreign students' acquisition of pivotal sentences with“shi”, aiming to help foreign students bet-ter understand and grasp pivotal sentences with"shi", and pro-vide appropriate teaching methods for teachers in the teaching process.

  2. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS DURING FINANCIAL CRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINTILA DENISIA MARIANA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental idea of International capital flows is that short-term flows can be easily reversed, while flows on a longer time horizon are more stable. Crises are associated with withdrawals of short-term capital flows and growth of the foreign direct investment flows. The current crisis has meant a major decline of international capital flows, also of the foreign direct investment. The analysis in this article tries to establish if and under which conditions foreign direct investments can bring greater stability during the crisis, comparing the evolution of foreign direct investments in the current crisis with their response in previous crises. We show that during previous crises foreign direct investments were stable, behaving differently from other types of capital. Yet, during the current crisis, foreign direct investments have proven to be not so stable and all the components declined, raising questions about the resumption of the positive trend. The stability of foreign direct investments in the past was given by the increase of mergers and acquisitions during the crisis, reflecting fire-sale FDI. This feature is not found in the current crisis as mergers and acquisitions were severe affected by the crises and recorded a major decline. The current paper is realized in the doctoral program entitled PhD in economics at the standards of European knowledge- DoEsEc, scientific coordinator Prof. PhD Rodica Zaharia, institution The Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, Faculty of International Business, period of research 2009-2012.

  3. Foreign Views

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    When the Fourth Session of the 11th National People’s Congress was held on March 5-14 and drew the nation’s attention, expats in Beijing also followed the meeting. Beijing Review reporter Liu Xinlian interviewed foreign nationals completing their master’s degrees in public administration at School of Public Policy and Management of Tsinghua University about the government work report delivered by Premier Wen Jiabao and the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) approved at the session.

  4. Transfer and access to universal grammar in adult second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Summary This dissertation focuses on the roles of first language transfer and Universal Grammar in adult second (or foreign) language acquisition. It contributes to the ongoing debate whether second language acquisition is constrained by Universal Grammar. According to generative linguists,

  5. Multinationals, Cross-border Acquisitions and Wage Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyman, Fredrik; Sjöholm, Fredrik; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic multinati......We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic...... multinationals and local firms increase wage dispersion but so do also other types of cross-border acquisitions. Hence, it is the acquisition itself rather than foreign ownership that increases wage dispersion. The positive wage effect is concentrated to CEOs and other managers, whereas other groups are either...

  6. 16 CFR 802.53 - Certain foreign banking transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certain foreign banking transactions. 802.53 Section 802.53 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND... foreign banking transactions. An acquisition which requires the consent or approval of the Board of...

  7. 48 CFR 227.7203-16 - Providing computer software or computer software documentation to foreign governments, foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Providing computer software or computer software documentation to foreign governments, foreign contractors, or international... Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-16 Providing computer...

  8. 48 CFR 1845.405 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations. 1845.405 Section 1845.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Rental of Government Property 1845.405 Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations....

  9. TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TO FOREIGNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Claudia Horea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English as a foreign language requires very different approaches if we consider the recipients of the didactic process. Concerning the practical aspects of the primary task of a language instructor, namely teaching, skills of all sorts are required in order to be able to use best methods and most appropriate resources and up to date materials and devices. Moreover, to teach students of your own mother tongue is one very distinct thing from teaching foreigners. These two categories, namely students of the same mother tongue as their teacher and foreigners, have two things in common, namely: first, they are the subjects on whom the activity of teaching English is to be applied and second, this language is not their native tongue. These facts can thus be reduced to one idea: addressing to recipients of EFL teaching. Still, there is a big difference between teaching the first category mentioned, those who have the same mother tongue as the teacher and teaching the second category, foreigners, to whom not even the vaguest hints can be provided in other language than English. There comes a new challenge, an extra endeavour for an even more special approach. This study undertakes to present some of the distinctions entailed at the level of teaching methods and to parallel the diverse methodological approaches for the two situations presented. Are the four skills that language acquisition assumes to be taught distinctly and shall the approaches in each particular situation differ from one case to the other or not too much? It takes some distinct features to be or, better saying, to become a teacher of languages; and to teach English as foreign language to foreigners is a new development within this typology, a diverse dimension. New levels of character traits are instinctively reached by instructors in order to better cope, unconsciously, psychologically and emotionally, with the upgraded’ challenges.

  10. Foreign language proficiency and working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hugdahl, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that working memory capacity interacts with (foreign) language proficiency was tested on multilinguals, who were native (L1) Dutch speakers, were fluent in their second (L2) language, German, and had recently started the acquisition of their third (L3) language,

  11. Seventeen Values of Foreign Language Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Alan C.

    1996-01-01

    Lists the values acquired through the study of foreign languages. These include an acquisition of a sense of a relevant past; expansion of one's world view; contribution to the creation of a student's personality; development of the intellect; encouragement of respect for other peoples; and exposure to modes of thought outside one's native…

  12. Foreign language proficiency and working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hugdahl, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that working memory capacity interacts with (foreign) language proficiency was tested on multilinguals, who were native (L1) Dutch speakers, were fluent in their second (L2) language, German, and had recently started the acquisition of their third (L3) language, Norwegi

  13. Conceptualising "Communication" in Foreign Language Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenchlas, Susana

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of communicative language teaching as the dominant paradigm in foreign language pedagogy cast "communication" in a central role in language acquisition, both as an aim and as a medium of instruction. Despite its centrality, the concept of "communication" is generally taken as widely understood and is seldom defined. This paper…

  14. A Study of Reflection of Culture Acquisition and Reconstruction of College Foreign Language Teaching%文化习得的反思与大学外语教学的重构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐利芹

    2015-01-01

    我国大学外语教学中的文化教学不尽如人意。对目前大学外语教学中文化教学的现状及其存在的问题进行反思,根据大学外语教学中文化教学的迫切性和必要性,提出文化教学应该遵循的原则,在对文化教学进行反思的基础上,提出重新构建文化教学的方法和途径,从而说明文化教学对大学外语教学的重大意义。%Culture teaching in foreign language teaching is not very satisfactory.At first,the article mainly studies and reflects the status quo and problems of culture teaching in the college foreign languages teaching.Then,the principles in culture teaching are put forward in terms of urgency and necessity.Finally,based on the reflection of culture teaching,different approaches of culture teaching are presented,thus showing that culture teaching is very significant to foreign language teaching.

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract ... blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the ... or computed tomography (CT). top of page How is the procedure performed? There are a number of ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ... good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks While foreign body removal procedures are safe and ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... soft tissues. About 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through ... account for about 80 percent of foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed ...

  19. Greenfields and acquisitions: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae MARINESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares greenfields and acquisitions as foreign direct investment (FDI alternatives used by transnational corporations (TNCs. First, the determinants leading to the choice of companies between the two modes of entry into a foreign market are laid out. Then, specific features of each alternative are highlighted, by contrasting the advantages and disadvantages of both types of FDI. Based on this analysis, some conclusions are drawn in the end concerning the most important factors that influence the decision of a company whether to choose a greenfield investment or an acquisition.

  20. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  1. 48 CFR 706.302-70 - Impairment of foreign aid programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impairment of foreign aid... Impairment of foreign aid programs. (a) Authority. (1) Citation: 40 U.S.C. 474. (2) Full and open competition... the purposes of foreign aid, relief, and rehabilitation. (b) Application. This authority may be...

  2. What is the role of reinforcement in early language acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, G J; Valdez-Menchaca, M C

    1988-04-01

    Monolingual American and Mexican 2- and 3-year-old children were exposed to a foreign language in a naturalistic but controlled environment. Children were randomly assigned to 2 groups. 1 group was differentially reinforced throughout the study for the use of foreign vocabulary. The control group was first reinforced nondifferentially for use of the native language or the foreign language and later was switched to differential reinforcement for the foreign language. Frequencies of spontaneous foreign word production and other verbal responses were computed, and formal assessments of comprehension and production of the foreign words were conducted. Differential reinforcement resulted in accelerating frequencies of spontaneous foreign language use and better performance on both comprehension and production tests. Under nondifferential reinforcement, rates of spontaneous foreign language use were low and static. Results are interpreted as evidence that the acquisition of expressive vocabulary is a function of socially mediated reinforcement.

  3. Foreign Ownership and Skill-biased Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Michael; Smolka, Marcel

    Understanding the effects of foreign direct investment and the behavior of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is a core issue in the study of international economics. We exploit within-firm variation in ownership structure induced by foreign acquisitions in Spain to provide a new angle on the relat......Understanding the effects of foreign direct investment and the behavior of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is a core issue in the study of international economics. We exploit within-firm variation in ownership structure induced by foreign acquisitions in Spain to provide a new angle...... firms due to access to foreign markets through the foreign parent. This market size effect, coupled with a technology-skill complementarity, raises the demand for high-skilled workers as well as worker training upon acquisition. The largest productivity gains predicted by the model accrue to those firms...... empirical evidence that foreign-acquired firms, not only increase their technology level, but also engage in skill upgrading upon acquisition (through both hiring and training). Moreover, we show that these changes are driven by the market size effect, and not by changes in the ownership structure per se...

  4. Universal Grammar in Second Language Acquisition and its Enlightenment on Foreign Language Teaching%二语习得中的普遍语法及对外语教学的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军

    2013-01-01

    Study shows that second language acquisition is governed by universal grammar and develops in natural or -der.No matter what the learner’ s native language, their age, intelligence difference, class teaching would not change the order in second language acquisition.In other words, each language learner acquires second language in similar nat-ural order, the error appeared in the process of acquisition shows regularities , different learner has similar error order.These studies have important influence on language teaching , and the order of language teaching should correspond to the order of second language acquisition.We should have different attitude towards students ’ errors.%研究表明二语习得受普遍语法的支配按一种自然的顺序发展,不论学习者的母语是什么,他们的年龄,智力是否有差距,甚至课堂教学对二语习得的顺序也没有改变。也就是说,每一个学习者都按相似的自然顺序习得第二语言,他们在习得过程中出现的错误呈规律性,而且不同的学习者错误出现的顺序也是相似的。这些研究对语言教学有着很重要的影响,语言教学的顺序应与二语习得的顺序相符合,对待学生的“错误”也应有不同的态度。

  5. OneBac 2.0: Sf9 Cell Lines for Production of AAV5 Vectors with Enhanced Infectivity and Minimal Encapsidation of Foreign DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietzsch, Mario; Casteleyn, Vincent; Weger, Stefan; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Heilbronn, Regine

    2015-10-01

    Scalable production of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors (rAAV) in baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells yields high burst sizes but variable infectivity rates per packaged AAV vector genome depending on the chosen serotype. Infectivity rates are particularly low for rAAV5 vectors, based on the genetically most divergent AAV serotype. In this study we describe key improvements of the OneBac system for the generation of rAAV5 vectors, whose manufacturing has been unsatisfactory in all current insect cell-based production systems. The Sf9 cell-based expression strategy for AAV5 capsid proteins was modified to enhance relative AAV5 VP1 levels. This resulted in a 100-fold boost of infectivity per genomic AAV5 particle with undiminished burst sizes per producer cell. Furthermore, the issue of collateral packaging of helper DNA into AAV capsids was approached. By modifications of the AAV rep and cap expression constructs used for the generation of stable Sf9 cell lines, collateral packaging of helper DNA sequences during rAAV vector production was dramatically reduced down to 0.001% of packaged rAAV genomes, while AAV5 burst sizes and infectivity rates were maintained. OneBac 2.0 represents the first insect cell-based scalable production system for high per-particle AAV5 infectivity rates combined with minimal collateral packaging of helper DNA, allowing the manufacturing of safe AAV5-based gene therapies for clinical application.

  6. Affective Factors and Foreign Languages Teaching in the Acquisition as a Second Language%第二语言习得中的情感因素与外语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昕

    2004-01-01

    情感因素(Affective Factors)是语言习得中的重要因素.积极、自信、放松的心理状态有助于语言习得(Language Acquisition);反之,消极、压抑、焦虑的情绪会阻碍语言习得.本文通过对Krashen的情感过滤说(Affective Filter Hypothesis)及第二语言习得中的情感因素的介绍,对外语教学提出了一些建议.

  7. Melatonin Protects Human Cells from Clustered DNA Damages, Killing and Acquisition of Soft Agar Growth Induced by X-rays or 970 MeV/n Fe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, B.; Sutherland, B.; Bennett, P. V.; Cutter, N. C.; Sutherland, J. C.

    2011-06-01

    We tested the ability of melatonin (N-acetyl-5 methoxytryptamine), a highly effective radical scavenger and human hormone, to protect DNA in solution and in human cells against induction of complex DNA clusters and biological damage induced by low or high linear energy transfer radiation (100 kVp X-rays, 970 MeV/nucleon Fe ions). Plasmid DNA in solution was treated with increasing concentrations of melatonin (0.0-3.5 mM) and were irradiated with X-rays. Human cells (28SC monocytes) were also irradiated with X-rays and Fe ions with and without 2 mM melatonin. Agarose plugs containing genomic DNA were subjected to Contour Clamped Homogeneous Electrophoretic Field (CHEF) followed by imaging and clustered DNA damages were measured by using Number Average length analysis. Transformation experiments on human primary fibroblast cells using soft agar colony assay were carried out which were irradiated with Fe ions with or without 2 mM melatonin. In plasmid DNA in solution, melatonin reduced the induction of single- and double-strand breaks. Pretreatment of human 28SC cells for 24 h before irradiation with 2 mM melatonin reduced the level of X-ray induced double-strand breaks by {approx}50%, of abasic clustered damages about 40%, and of Fe ion-induced double-strand breaks (41% reduction) and abasic clusters (34% reduction). It decreased transformation to soft agar growth of human primary cells by a factor of 10, but reduced killing by Fe ions only by 20-40%. Melatonin's effective reduction of radiation-induced critical DNA damages, cell killing, and striking decrease of transformation suggest that it is an excellent candidate as a countermeasure against radiation exposure, including radiation exposure to astronaut crews in space travel.

  8. Foreign Workers, Refugees and Prospects for an Israeli-Palestinian Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    David Bartram

    2000-01-01

    David Bartram argues that Israel's recent acquisition of a sizable foreign labour force carries the potential to complicate negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians, especially concerning Palestinian refugees. Though officially temporary, many foreign workers in Israel show signs of long-term settlement, recalling foreign worker experiences in Western Europe and elsewhere. As the Israeli government attempts to manage foreign workers' demands for proper treatment and respect for human ...

  9. Foreign Workers, Refugees and Prospects for an Israeli-Palestinian Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    David Bartram

    2000-01-01

    David Bartram argues that Israel's recent acquisition of a sizable foreign labour force carries the potential to complicate negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians, especially concerning Palestinian refugees. Though officially temporary, many foreign workers in Israel show signs of long-term settlement, recalling foreign worker experiences in Western Europe and elsewhere. As the Israeli government attempts to manage foreign workers' demands for proper treatment and respect for human ...

  10. Mergers + acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-05-01

    The hospital sector in 2001 led the health care field in mergers and acquisitions. Most deals involved a network augmenting its presence within a specific region or in a market adjacent to its primary service area. Analysts expect M&A activity to increase in 2002.

  11. Acquisition of Three Word Knowledge Aspects through Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalovska, Nina

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that second or foreign language learners can acquire vocabulary through reading. The aim of the study was to investigate (a) the effects of reading an authentic novel on the acquisition of 3 aspects of word knowledge: spelling, meaning, and collocation; (b) the influence of reading on the acquisition of partial and…

  12. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

      The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show that the th......  The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...

  13. Differences between SLA and Foreign Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康晓会

    2009-01-01

    Theories of Second Language Acquisition have been applied in the English teaching of Chinese schools for a long time.However,some of them are not applicable actually because of the differences between the two notions,second language and foreign language.Understanding these differences is significant for the language teaching in China.In other words,language educators should have a clear comprehension of the differences between Second Language Learning(SLA)and Foreign Language Learning,so that they cau use the proper teaching methods to teach English efficiently.

  14. An Exploration of Foreign Language Anxiety and English Learning Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihua Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perceived to be two important affective variables, anxiety and motivation have been found to be highly correlated to second/foreign language acquisition. In order to examine the relationship between foreign language anxiety, English learning motivation, and performance in English, the present study investigated 980 undergraduate students from three universities in China who answered a 76-item survey. Analyses of the data revealed that (1 the respondents generally did not feel anxious in English and were moderately motivated to learn English, (2 foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly negatively correlated with each other, and (3 both foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly correlated with students' performance in English. Among the scales, foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCAS, intrinsic motivation (IntrinM, instrumental motivation (InstruM, fear of being negatively evaluated (FLCAS1, and interest in foreign languages and cultures (IFLC proved to be powerful predictors for the latter.

  15. Mergers & Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    and functioning of provisions of European federal corporate law and internationally accepted principles of the law of obligations. This book, however, is not about clarification of the reasons that urge for M&A operations, nor is it about judging the outcome of the transactions. It is about synthesizing......MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS: Counseling and Choice of Method describes and analyzes the current state of law in Europe in regard to some relevant selected elements related to mergers and acquisitions, and the adviser’s counsel in this regard. The focus is aimed and maintained at application......, on the one hand, the methods of M&A and, on the other hand, several selected key elements. Any participating party - as well as their respective advisers - must be aware of these elements prior, throughout, and after the transaction: consideration, succession, taxes and fiscal neutrality, group...

  16. Cross-border acquisitions in the global food sector

    OpenAIRE

    Herger, Nils; Kotsogiannis, Christos; McCorriston, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Cross-border acquisitions constitute the main form of foreign direct investment in the world economy, the focus of this paper being to consider the determinants of the location and growth of cross-border acquisitions in the global food sector. The data relates to over 2,000 international acquisitions in the food sector from 45 source to 46 host countries. The results highlight the importance of market size, relative costs and stock market growth as important determinants. We also report diffe...

  17. 48 CFR 225.7303-2 - Cost of doing business with a foreign government or an international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... limited by FAR Part 31), such as— (i) Maintaining international sales and service organizations; (ii) Sales commissions and fees in accordance with FAR Subpart 3.4; (iii) Sales promotions, demonstrations... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions for Foreign Military Sales 225.7303-2 Cost of doing business...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to remove ... the foreign body. top of page What does the equipment look like? A variety of x-ray ...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the ... may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or CT scan to locate and remove the object. Tell your ...

  20. ForeignAssistance.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — ForeignAssistance.gov provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...

  1. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to remove ... the foreign body. top of page What does the equipment look like? A variety of x-ray ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... surrounding tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is ... air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common equipment for identifying and removing foreign bodies from ...

  4. Foreign Investment Expanded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The paid-in foreign direct investment in China totaled $74.8 billion in 2007,up 13.6 percent year on year Foreign investment in China has continued robust growth despite the new corporate income tax poli- cies. Figures from the National Bureau of Statistics show that paid-in foreign direct investment(FDI)(excluding investment from foreign financial institutions)totaled $74.8 billion in 2007,up 13.6 percent year

  5. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  6. 76 FR 11411 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Multiyear Contracting (DFARS Case 2009-D026)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... aircrew members or foreign language training); (4) Base services (e.g., ground maintenance, in-plane... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 217 RIN 0750-AG89 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Multiyear Contracting (DFARS Case 2009-D026) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition...

  7. 75 FR 57690 - Acquisition Regulation: Sustainable Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Parts 907, 923, 936, 952, and 970 RIN 1991-AB95 Acquisition Regulation: Sustainable Acquisition AGENCY... (DOE) is amending the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to implement Executive Order... to leverage agency acquisitions to foster markets for sustainable technologies and energy...

  8. Analyzing Foreign Market Entry Strategies: Extending the Internalization Approach

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    A new fully integrated analysis of the foreign market entry decision is presented, encompassing the choice between exporting, licensing, joint venturing and wholly owned foreign investment. The choice between acquisition and greenfield investment is examined, and so too are options based on subcontracting and franchising. The model extends the insights of internalization theory, and draws on concepts from the economics of industrial organization. A special feature of the model is the distinct...

  9. An Exploration of Foreign Language Anxiety and English Learning Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Meihua Liu; Wenhong Huang

    2011-01-01

    Perceived to be two important affective variables, anxiety and motivation have been found to be highly correlated to second/foreign language acquisition. In order to examine the relationship between foreign language anxiety, English learning motivation, and performance in English, the present study investigated 980 undergraduate students from three universities in China who answered a 76-item survey. Analyses of the data revealed that (1) the respondents generally did not feel anxious in Engl...

  10. An Exploration of Foreign Language Anxiety and English Learning Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Meihua Liu; Wenhong Huang

    2011-01-01

    Perceived to be two important affective variables, anxiety and motivation have been found to be highly correlated to second/foreign language acquisition. In order to examine the relationship between foreign language anxiety, English learning motivation, and performance in English, the present study investigated 980 undergraduate students from three universities in China who answered a 76-item survey. Analyses of the data revealed that (1) the respondents generally did not feel anxious in Engl...

  11. Krashen’s Input Hypothesis and Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭辉

    2013-01-01

    Krashen’s Input Hypothesis is one of the most important theories in second language acquisition.The theory provides a good theoretical framework for foreign language teaching in China.The paper introduces the basic ideas of Krashen’s second language acquisition theories,the concept of comprehensible input,and Krashen’s interpretation of input hypothesis.Thus,this paper aims to study Krashen’s Comprehensible Input and attempts to discover how to facilitate China’s foreign language teaching.

  12. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    that the theoretical relationship between foreign aid and FDI is indeterminate. Aid may raise the marginal productivity of capital by financing complementary inputs, such as public infrastructure projects and human capital investment. However, aid may also crowd out productive private investments if it comes......  The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...... in the shape of physical capital transfers. We therefore turn to an empirical analysis of the relationship between FDI and disaggregated aid flows. Our results strongly support the hypotheses that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in foreign capital while aid invested in physical capital crowds out...

  13. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  14. QUESTIONING FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IN ISLAMIC PRE-SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmani Nur Indah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the urgency of foreign language learning at early age by covering some arguments on the acquisition and bilingualism. Nowadays in Indonesia, under the interest of education, bilingual learning is undertaken by adopting the theory of bilingual acquisition referring to Chomsky’s ideas. In fact, the foreign language learning is not always in line with the principle of language acquisition especially for the early age children. The globalization era requires foreign language mastery so that for many institutions of children education have got the bilingual learning. As the example, some of Islamic educational institutions at the level of playgroup have applied the instruction in English and teaching Arabic words, by considering that the earlier foreign language learning is the better, and the fact that the golden age of brain development occurs at the first five years. This needs to be analyzed further, because there is also important task to have mother tongue language acquisition. For the community of multilingual such as in Indonesia, the acquisition of many languages is unavoidable. Therefore, parents are faced with two choices: To prior the mother tongue and bahasa Indonesia as second language or encourage the bilingual learning of Arabic and English.

  15. Les effets des hyperliens visibles ou invisibles sur l'acquisition lexicale et sur la compréhension en lecture chez des apprenants intermédiaires et avancés en langue étrangère Effects of Visible and Invisible Hyperlinks on Vocabulary Acquisition and Reading Comprehension for High- and Average-Foreign Language Achievers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia R. Nikolova

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est consacré à l'étude des effets des hyperliens visibles et invisibles pour les mots annotés dans un environnement informatique centré sur l'acquisition de vocabulaire et la compréhension en lecture pour deux types d'apprenants, intermédiaires et avancés, en français. Deux cent soixante-quatre étudiants de français de deuxième semestre ont été identifiés comme intermédiaires ou avancés. Les étudiants de chaque type ont été ensuite assignés par tirage au sort en deux groupes ; un groupe utilisant des liens visibles et un autre des liens invisibles. Tous les étudiants ont reçu pour instruction de lire un court passage en français (181 mots dans un but de compréhension générale. Les étudiants ont reçu également la permission de consulter à loisir tous les mots annotés (marqués par des caractères gras pour le groupe avec liens visibles. Les apprenants ont été soumis à un prétest de vocabulaire et à des post-tests, immédiats et différés de deux semaines, de vocabulaire et de compréhension en lecture. Les résultats de l'étude ont démontré que les apprenants intermédiaires bénéficient mieux des liens visibles en ce qui concerne leur acquisition de vocabulaire et leur compréhension en lecture que les apprenants avancés. Ces résultats sont discutés dans le cadre des théories de l'apprentissage des langues secondes et des apprenants doués. Des suggestions de pistes pour des recherches futures sont proposées.This study investigated the effects of visible and invisible links for annotated words in a computer module for learning French on the vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension of two types of students – high – and average-achievers. Two hundred and sixty four second-semester students of French were identified as high- or average-achievers. Each type of students was then randomly assigned to two groups – with visible or invisible hyperlinks. All students were instructed

  16. Mergers & Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    This dissertation is a legal dogmatic thesis, the goal of which is to describe and analyze the current state of law in Europe in regard to some relevant selected elements related to mergers and acquisitions, and the adviser’s counsel in this regard. Having regard to the topic of the dissertation...... the focus is aimed and maintained at application and functioning of provisions of European federal corporate law and internationally accepted principles of the law of obligations. This study, however, is not about clarification of the reasons that urge for M&A operations, nor is it about judging the results...... of the transactions. This study is about synthesizing, on the one hand, the methods of M&A, and, on the other hand, several selected key elements, which any participating party, as well as their respective advisers, must be aware of, prior, throughout, and after the transaction: consideration, succession, taxes...

  17. Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign- exclusively Exhibition Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign-exclusively Exhibition Corporations In Feb, Ministry of Commerce issued its 1st decree on temporary regulation for foreign-investing corporations; the regulation allows foreign investors to set up foreign-investing convention & exhibition corporations exclusively or through cooperation with other Chinese corporations, enterprises or organizations. With legal protection on their regulatory management and legal rights, these foreign-investing corporations are in the charge of Department of Foreign Investment Administration, Ministry of Commerce.

  18. The Influence of Second Language Attrition on Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李臻

    2012-01-01

    Besides the sessions of teaching and learning in language learning activities,language attrition,as the concomitant product of language acquisition,exerts significant impact on language teaching,especially on foreign language teaching.By exploring this phenomenon,some effective ways against language attrition can be found in order to maximize foreign language teaching.This paper is about to illustrate the relevant theories from scholars at home and abroad,and providing some ways to help foreign language learners maintain the language proficiency.

  19. Comparison between Second Language Teaching and Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良妍

    2011-01-01

    Second language acquisition is an inter-disciplinary research field.It develops quickly and it has got various theoretical models,hypotheses and researching results.In the Process of foreign language teaching,directing and developing this process by means of Second language acquisition theory will have an extreme significance in improving both the teaching method and the quality of teaching.In recent years

  20. CHALLENGES FOR FOREIGN TEACHERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DengJing

    2004-01-01

    The learner differences and contrasts between the two cultures involved are important aspects that influence foreign language teaching and learning. The foreign teacher as an outsider of the learner's native culture, inevitably faces quite a few challenges. With the focus on the self-esteem, character types, and motivation of the learner, the paper analyses how these factors influence the foreign teacher's teaching. Relevant solutions are also proposed.

  1. Foreign Operation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Lawrence S.; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent

    Introduction and theory -- Introduction -- Theoretical approaches -- Modes of operation -- Franchising -- Licensing -- Management contracts -- International subcontracting -- Project operations -- Exports -- Alliances -- Foreign direct investment -- Strategies -- Mode switching and stretching...

  2. Foreign Operation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Lawrence S.; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent

    Introduction and theory -- Introduction -- Theoretical approaches -- Modes of operation -- Franchising -- Licensing -- Management contracts -- International subcontracting -- Project operations -- Exports -- Alliances -- Foreign direct investment -- Strategies -- Mode switching and stretching...

  3. 2017 NAIP Acquisition Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Planned States for 2017 NAIP acquisition and acquisition status layer (updated daily). Updates to the acquisition seasons may be made during the season to...

  4. 2016 NAIP Acquisition Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Planned States for 2016 NAIP acquisition and acquisition status layer (updated daily). Updates to the acquisition seasons may be made during the season to...

  5. 48 CFR 1852.227-85 - Invention reporting and rights-Foreign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Invention reporting and... Provisions and Clauses 1852.227-85 Invention reporting and rights—Foreign. As prescribed in 1827.303-70(f), insert the following clause: Invention Reporting and Rights—Foreign (APR 1986) (a) As used in this clause...

  6. The Impact of Adventure Video Games on Foreign Language Learning and the Perceptions of Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Jan Howard; Yang, Ting-Yu Christine

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have highlighted the potential of applying adventure video games in second language acquisition; however, few studies have investigated the impact of adventure games on foreign language learning. This study aimed to examine the effects of a commercial adventure video game on foreign language learning and learners'…

  7. Foreign Language Reading Anxiety in a Jordanian EFL Context: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shboul, Murad M.; Ahmad, Ismail Sheikh; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari; Rahman, Zainurin Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, investigating the sources of foreign language anxiety in general has increasingly attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of foreign language teaching. However, the sources of anxiety that influence the acquisition of certain specific language skills such as reading in particular have rarely been…

  8. Foreign-funded M&A Poses No Threatto China’s Economic Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志乐

    2007-01-01

    Foreign funded M■A(Mergers ■ Acquisitions) activity is becoming increasingly common in China.In this article Wang Zhile assesses the effects and risks associated with M■A,finding that foreign funded M■A activity is immensely beneficial to China and poses no threat to economic security.

  9. The Bibliographic Control of Foreign Monographs: A Review and Baseline Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leazer, Gregory H.; Rohdy, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of the acquisition of foreign research publications focuses on a study that assessed the extent of bibliographic control of foreign published materials in bibliographic utilities. Highlights include a review of previous studies; sources and quality of bibliographic records; timeliness; and presence of Library of Congress Classification…

  10. The Impact of Adventure Video Games on Foreign Language Learning and the Perceptions of Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Jan Howard; Yang, Ting-Yu Christine

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have highlighted the potential of applying adventure video games in second language acquisition; however, few studies have investigated the impact of adventure games on foreign language learning. This study aimed to examine the effects of a commercial adventure video game on foreign language learning and learners' perceptions…

  11. Usability of English Note-Taking Applications in a Foreign Language Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debopriyo; Brine, John; Murasawa, Fuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The act of note-taking offloads cognitive pressure and note-taking applications could be used as an important tool for foreign language acquisition. Its use, importance, and efficacy in a foreign language learning context could be justifiably debated. However, existing computer-assisted language learning literature is almost silent on the topic.…

  12. 48 CFR 45.302 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... governments or international organizations. 45.302 Section 45.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Government Property 45.302 Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations. Requests by, or for the benefit of, foreign Governments or international organizations to use Government...

  13. 48 CFR 3445.405 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... governments or international organizations. 3445.405 Section 3445.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Rental of Government Property 3445.405 Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations. Requests by, or for the benefit of, foreign governments or international organizations to use ED...

  14. A Comparison of Four Strategies for Teaching a Small Foreign-Language Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Haflidadottir, Rakel Dogg

    2009-01-01

    We compared the effects of tact training, listener training, and two types of intraverbal training on 2 children's acquisition of foreign-language tact, listener, and intraverbal relations. The children received all four types of training simultaneously with different stimulus sets. Native-foreign intraverbal training presented the greatest…

  15. Changes in Affective Profiles of Postsecondary Students in Lower-Level Foreign Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo-Brown, Kimi

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys and research on second language (L2)/foreign language acquisition help explain the challenges that postsecondary students in lower-level foreign language (FL) courses may experience. The present study extends this line of research by examining changes in students' affective profiles in a two-year Japanese program (n = 382) at an…

  16. WHAT ABOUT FOREIGN LANGUAGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARTNER, JUDITH; AND OTHERS

    THE IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IS STRESSED IN A BRIEF BROCHURE DESIGNED FOR STUDENTS OF ALL LEVELS, PARENTS, TEACHERS, COUNSELORS, AND ADMINISTRATORS. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ON WHEN TO BEGIN A LANGUAGE, THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING ABLE TO SPEAK A LANGUAGE, USES FOR A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AT HOME, LANGUAGE JOB OPPORTUNITIES, AND LANGUAGE…

  17. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    BusinessWeek recently published an article reporting that China is becoming hostile to foreign capital and that China's policy on foreign investment will change to reflect that attitude. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, explains China's position in an article posted on People's Daily Online.

  18. [Foreign immigration in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Yoldi, I

    1997-01-01

    This article, translated from the original Spanish, analyzes recent trends in immigration to Spain. Information is provided on annual totals of immigrants and emigrants, 1976-1991; resident foreigners by nationality, 1990-1994; resident foreigners by province and continent of origin, 1991; occupations of immigrants, 1990-1991; migrant characteristics; attitudes toward immigration; and assimilation of immigrants.

  19. Personality Factors as Predictors of Foreign Language Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    The study addresses a problem which is inadequately investigated in second language acquisition research, that is, personality predictors of foreign language aptitude. Specifically, it focuses on the Five Factor model which includes Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism (Costa & McCrae, 1992) as…

  20. Quantum Linguistics and Didactics of Foreign Language Intensive Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarelli, Larissa I.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on quantum linguistics, a sub-field of philosophy of language, preoccupied with studying of the processes on a virtual drive of the human mind: patterns and dynamics of thoughts, verbal and non-verbal codification, cultural conditioning, and foreign language acquisition. While adopting an educational perspective fitting…

  1. Quantum Linguistics and Didactics of Foreign Language Intensive Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarelli, Larissa I.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on quantum linguistics, a sub-field of philosophy of language, preoccupied with studying of the processes on a virtual drive of the human mind: patterns and dynamics of thoughts, verbal and non-verbal codification, cultural conditioning, and foreign language acquisition. While adopting an educational perspective fitting…

  2. Syntax acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  3. EFL Teaching Guided by Krashen’s Hypotheses in Second Language Ac-quisition Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Li-ping; YUAN Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Based on discussion of the second language acquisition theories, the thesis aims at improving foreign language teach-teaching, and states the implications on our teaching ideas, and what we teachers should do in our EFL practice.

  4. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2017-01-01

    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis.......'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  5. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    2012-01-01

    We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...

  6. 48 CFR 904.7003 - Disclosure of foreign ownership, control, or influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure of foreign ownership, control, or influence. 904.7003 Section 904.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... undue risk to the common defense and security through the possible compromise of that information or...

  7. [Foreign Body in Esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeki, Yasushi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    An esophageal foreign body is the term for a foreign body in the esophagus. The 2 age groups most prone to this condition are children age 9 and under (and especially toddlers age 4 and under) and elderly individuals age 70 and over. A foreign body often lodges where the esophagus is most constricted. In toddlers, the foreign body is often currency or coins or a toy. In adults, the body is often a piece of fish, dentures, a piece of meat, a pin or needle, or a drug in its blister pack packaging. In children, an esophageal foreign body is treated by fluoroscopically guided removal of the body with a balloon catheter or magnetic catheter or removal of the body via endoscopy or direct esophagoscopy under general anesthesia. In adults, the best choice for treating an esophageal foreign body is removing the body with an endoscope but there are instances where surgery is performed because the body is hard to remove endoscopically, a puncture has occurred, or empyema or mediastinitis has developed. This paper reviews the diagnosis and treatment of an esophageal foreign body.

  8. Acquisition Support Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Principles of Effective Acquisition © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University page 31 Summary The SEI, through the Acquisition Support Program , works directly...2006 by Carnegie Mellon University page 1 Acquisition Support Program Overview Brian Gallagher Director, Acquisition Support Program 9 March, 2006...MAR 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acquisition Support Program Overview 5a. CONTRACT

  9. A Study on the Inclusion of Pronunciation Instruction in the Foreign Language Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Research on instruction of pronunciation in a foreign language setting has seen an increase in recent decades, but often this research focuses specifically on the acquisition of English pronunciation. This paper aims to investigate the direction that research based on the acquisition of pronunciation has taken up to this point. Further, this paper aims to specifically explore whether the vast progress made in research for English pronunciation acquisition can be utilized in a non-English fore...

  10. Unusual ictal foreign language automatisms in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Naing Ko; Lee, Sang Kun

    2014-12-01

    The distinct brain regions could be specifically involved in different languages and the differences in brain activation depending on the language proficiency and on the age of language acquisition. Speech disturbances are observed in the majority of temporal lobe complex motor seizures. Ictal verbalization had significant lateralization value: 90% of patients with this manifestation had seizure focus in the non-dominant temporal lobe. Although, ictal speech automatisms are usually uttered in the patient's native language, ictal speech foreign language automatisms are unusual presentations of non-dominent temporal lobe epilepsy. The release of isolated foreign language area could be possible depending on the pattern of ictal spreading of non-dominant hemisphere. Most of the case reports in ictal speech foreign language automatisms were men. In this case report, we observed ictal foreign language automatisms in middle age Korean woman.

  11. Different perceived foreign accents in one patient after prerolandic hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, D H; de Freitas, G R; Dos Santos, D P; Lima, M A S D; Araújo, A Q C; Carota, A

    2004-01-01

    Foreign accent syndrome (FAS), a rare disorder characterized by the emergence of a new accent perceived as foreign by listeners, is usually reported with left brain damage. We here report the case of a 28-year-old native Brazilian who appeared, to the examiner, to show a North American accent during recovery from Broca's aphasia. The lesion was due to a frontal hematoma. Without referring specifically to speech, we asked 10 independent observers to comment on a videotape of the patient's interview. Seven reported that the patient had a foreign accent, while 3 simply noted a 'strange' accent. The observers did not agree on the origin of the accent, 5 identifying it as Spanish, 1 as German, and 1 as south Brazilian. These findings suggest that FAS is not due to the acquisition of a specific foreign accent, but to impairment of the suprasegmental linguistic abilities (tone, accent, pauses, rhythm, and vocal stress) that make it possible to distinguish native language.

  12. FOREIGN EXPERIENCE IN INTERNET INSURANCE OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tlusta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current state and characteristics of the relationship between the insurance entities in the implementation of online insurance in foreign countries. Studied the basic conditions and development trends of the Internet insurance market in the process of informatization of insurance companies. The basic concept of interaction between the subjects of the insurance market through the website were noticed. The study reveals the necessity and expediency of using new approaches of the acquisition of insurance services via Internet. The problems of implementation and development of online insurance remains valid for all countries, regardless of the state of the insurance market and the financial market as a whole.

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type of ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  14. Foreign Body Extraction Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavy

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract are common. Mostly they are swallowed accidentally by children but also by adults. When round and slippery, foreign bodies cause a technical problem for removal. After several days in the stomach they are covered with mucus and extraction becomes even harder. There are various devices designed for use through the flexible endoscope for grasping foreign bodies but due to the great variety of objects, one may face a real problem while trying to remove them. We faced a challenge in a woman who underwent vertical band gastroplasty and was obstructed by a round and slippery hazelnut. We managed to remove the nut using a simple homemade device. This device is easy to make, cheap, and simple to use and maybe useful for various foreign bodies.

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to numb your throat. This eliminates the gag reflex and enables the physician to perform the examination ... chances of suffering an infection or an allergic reaction. Prompt removal of the foreign body will ensure ...

  16. Multiple foreign body granulomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panvelkar V

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of multiple foreign body granulomas occurring after mine-blast injury in a soldier is reported. Systemic steroids with antibiotics given essentially for eczematoid dermatitis produced good clinical improvement with marked resolution of granulomas.

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... especially to iodinated contrast materials. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... relative or friend accompany you and drive you home afterward. Foreign bodies are typically dealt with in ...

  18. FOREIGN BANKS WELCOMED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Honoring its WTO commitments, China has begun to allow local incorporation by foreign banks, endowing them with the same status as their Chinese counterparts in an attempt to encourage diversified development in the Chinese banking sector On March 18, Wi

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... but the foreign body remains trapped in the lung. This typically occurs in children and requires removal ... the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common equipment for ...

  20. The Foreign Student Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical introduction and 313-item annotated bibliography address foreign student infrastructure, highlighting academic experiences and performance; adaptation problems; policies (institutional, industrialized nations, Third World nations); educational studies (attitudinal, behavioral, disciplinary, historical, statistical); issues (non-return,…

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like ...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. If the foreign body is ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small toys or pieces of toys and fish ... foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury within the batteries can ...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the esophagus, you may receive an intravenous drug to relax the esophagus and allow the object to pass through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may become lodged in the esophagus and cause pain, even though they are able to swallow. Larger ... the stomach or intestines can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without complication, and endoscopic ... be dislodged rather than removed so that they pass safely through the digestive system. top of page ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and damage to surrounding tissues. top of page What are ... will reduce chances of an infection that could damage tissue, nerves and blood vessels, block blood flow ...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examination consists of a radiographic table, one or two x-ray tubes and a television-like monitor ... to orient foreign bodies with the use of two snares. The catheter is guided into place just ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type of ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... saved. Using an ultrasound transducer to visualize the location of the object, the physician may make an ... the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of the nervous system. ... the foreign body. You will remain in the recovery room until you are completely awake and ready ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue, such as a splinter embedded under the skin, you may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or ... that gets embedded in the tissue under the skin. Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue, such as a splinter embedded under the skin, you may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or ... that gets embedded in the tissue under the skin. Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of the nervous system. ... the foreign body. You will remain in the recovery room until you are completely awake and ready ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the esophagus, you may receive an intravenous drug to relax the esophagus and allow the object to pass through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including ... Many foreign bodies, like coins and batteries, are radio-opaque, meaning that x-rays will not pass ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is located near vital structures like nerves and blood vessels, so your physician may choose to leave it ... other areas of the body, or enter your blood vessels. Removal of larger foreign bodies will ensure that ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Foreign Body Retrieval ...

  19. Unusual orbital foreign bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Retained intraorbital organic foreign bodies, particularly wooden, are commonly encountered in ophthalmologic practice. We treated two children who had sustained such injury while playing. They presented to us with non-healing sinus with purulent discharge. In one of the patients, X-rays and CT scan helped to clinch the diagnosis, whereas in the other patient diagnosis was possible by correlating history with clinical findings. Surgical exploration in both patients helped us to remove the foreign bodies. Surprisingly, both the foreign bodies were 7 cm long wooden pieces. We, however, caution that management of such cases should be conservative and that surgical exploration be done only in case of complication. From our experience, we recommend proper localisation by all possible means, blunt dissection, careful haemostasis coupled with excellent lighting and exposure in the atraumatic removal of intraorbital foreign bodies.

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the soft tissues. Commonly swallowed objects include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small toys ... of foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury within the batteries ...

  1. Foreign Firms Partner Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ There is an important strategic adjustment occurring on the part of foreign dairy companies seeking to capitalize on the China market. Rather than going it alone,with local partnerships little more than an entry mechanism,global giants such as Danone,Arla, and Fonterra are taking advantage of the country's more relaxed foreign investment rules by upping their stakes in established local firms and expanding the role they play in business and industrial operations.

  2. Speed in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The advantage of speed is often invoked by academics and practitioners as an essential condition during post-acquisition integration, frequently without consideration of the impact earlier decisions have on acquisition speed. In this article, we examine the role speed plays in acquisitions across...... the acquisition process using research organized around characteristics that display complexity with respect to acquisition speed. We incorporate existing research with a process perspective of acquisitions in order to present trade-offs, and consider the influence of both stakeholders and the pre......-deal-completion context on acquisition speed, as well as the organization’s capabilities to facilitating that speed. Observed trade-offs suggest both that acquisition speed often requires longer planning time before an acquisition and that associated decisions require managerial judgement. A framework for improving...

  3. ‘ SILENT’ LARYNGEAL FOREIGN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal foreign bodies in adults are rare. The foreign bodies accidentally entering the larynx are symptomatic in the form of choking , stridor or even death. We are presenting a rare case of foreign body in the larynx in a 42 year old male who was symptom free except for dysphonia. The foreign body was removed successfully under local anesthesia.

  4. Corpus oral para el estudio de la adquisición y aprendizaje del componente fónico del español como lengua extranjera Oral corpus for the study of the acquisition and learning of the phonic component of spanish as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA BLANCO CANALES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La falta de atención prestada al componente fónico en la enseñanza de español como lengua extranjera repercute decisivamente en un desarrollo deficitario e incompleto de la competencia comunicativa de los alumnos, habida cuenta de la importancia de este componente para las destrezas orales (expresiva, auditiva y de interacción y de sus múltiples interrelaciones con las demás subcompetencias (lingüísticas, pragmática y sociolingüística. Al mismo tiempo, el propio proceso de aprendizaje se ve enturbiado como consecuencia de la ansiedad y falta de confianza que supone no dominar los elementos fónicos de la lengua que se estudia. Para poder hacer frente a esta situación se requiere contar con materiales orales y herramientas de análisis con los que se puede desarrollar estudios de distinta naturaleza sobre la adquisición y aprendizaje del componente fónico, cuyos resultados puedan aplicarse o transferirse a la mejora de la enseñanza, a la elaboración de materiales didácticos, a la programación curricular y diseño de cursos y a la formación de profesores. Esto son los objetivos del corpus AACFELE; a lo largo de estas páginas mostraremos su diseño, sus características y la metodología de trabajo que se ha seguido en su elaboración.The lack of attention to the phonics component in teaching Spanish as a foreign language decisively impacts the communicative competence of students, in terms of oral expression, comprehension and interactive skills and other related sub-competence (linguistic, pragmatic and sociolinguistic. With regard to students, both anxiety and lack of confidence in their ability to pronounce also cloud their process of learning. This situation, therefore, requires compiling oral materials and analysis tools aimed at improving studies on the acquisition and learning of the phonics component. The results obtained from these studies can be used to improve teaching, develop training materials, program and design

  5. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  6. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  7. Is Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition Feasible to EFL Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    For learning English as a foreign language, the efficiency of the approach of incidental vocabulary acquisition depends on the word frequency and text coverage. However, the statistics of English corpus reveals that English is a language that has a large vocabulary size but a low word frequency as well as text coverage, which is obviously not in…

  8. Sociopsychological and Pedagogic Considerations in L2 Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Cem

    1981-01-01

    Criticizes Brown's (TESOL Quarterly, 1980) optimal distance model of target language acquisition for having neglected the issue of possibly harmful effects of sociocultural factors upon learners. A distinction is made between second and foreign language learners' motivations. Pedagogic implications are drawn. (Author/AMH)

  9. Water Implications of Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Olalekan Williams

    2012-06-01

    The paper offers recommendations which can help the government to achieve its stated objective of developing a "policy framework and guidelines for large-scale land acquisitions by both local and foreign investors for biofuels that will protect the interests of investors and the welfare of Ghanaian farmers and landowners".

  10. A Study of Multimedia Application-Based Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The development of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has created the opportunity for exploring the effects of the multimedia application on foreign language vocabulary acquisition in recent years. This study provides an overview the computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and detailed a developing result of CALL--multimedia. With the…

  11. Spanish Second Language Acquisition: State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafford, Barbara A., Ed.; Salaberry, Rafael, Ed.

    This collection of papers provides an overview of previous studies on the acquisition of Spanish as a second or foreign language, theoretical approaches used in these studies, and effects of various pedagogical approaches on the development of Spanish interlanguage systems. The 10 chapters include the following: (1) "Phonology: Staking Out…

  12. A Probe into Classroom Teaching and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengdan

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularization of foreign language study, more and more people from education field further enhance their exploration and researches in how to apply second acquisition theories into classroom teaching. This paper probes into the orientation, research objects, age, language environment and classroom activities of second language…

  13. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  14. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  15. The Development of Theories of Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a relatively new field of enquiry. Before the late 1960s, educators did write about L2 learning, but very much as an adjunct of language teaching pedagogy, underpinned by behaviourism, the then-dominant learning theory in psychology. In this view, the task facing learners of foreign languages was to rote-learn…

  16. Simulation/Gaming and the Acquisition of Communicative Competence in Another Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Carbonell, Amparo; Rising, Beverly; Montero, Begona; Watts, Frances

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of communicative competence in second language acquisition focuses on a theoretical and practical meshing of simulation and gaming methodology with theories of foreign language acquisition, including task-based learning, interaction, and comprehensible input. Describes experiments conducted with computer-assisted simulations in…

  17. Transfer and access to universal grammar in adult second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Summary This dissertation focuses on the roles of first language transfer and Universal Grammar in adult second (or foreign) language acquisition. It contributes to the ongoing debate whether second language acquisition is constrained by Universal Grammar. According to generative linguists, Universa

  18. Assessment of Language Learners' Strategies: Do They Prefer Learning or Acquisition Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate learning and acquisition strategies used by second/foreign language learners. This study is a comparative investigation of learning and acquisition strategies of successful and less successful language learners. The main question of the study is to investigate if there is a relationship between the learners'…

  19. Transfer and access to universal grammar in adult second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Summary This dissertation focuses on the roles of first language transfer and Universal Grammar in adult second (or foreign) language acquisition. It contributes to the ongoing debate whether second language acquisition is constrained by Universal Grammar. According to generative linguists, Universa

  20. Personality factors as predictors of foreign language aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Biedroń

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses a problem which is inadequately investigated in second language acquisition research, that is, personality predictors of foreign language aptitude. Specifically, it focuses on the Five Factor model which includes Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism (Costa & McCrae, 1992 as traits differentiating gifted and nongifted foreign language learners and predicting results of foreign language aptitude tests. Although contemporary researchers generally agree that affect is an important variable in second language acquisition, most empirical studies demonstrate that personality factors are weakly correlated with cognitive abilities and that their contribution to the ultimate attainment is minor (cf. Robinson & Ellis, 2008. On the other hand, these factors constitute an integral part of cognitive ability development (cf. Dörnyei, 2009; therefore, neglecting them in research on foreign language aptitude would be unjustified. The following study is an attempt to analyze the Five Factors in two groups of learners: gifted and nongifted. In order to answer the question as to which and to what extent personality factors have a predictive effect on foreign language aptitude, the results were subjected to a multiple regression analysis. The findings of the study are presented and discussed in a wider context of research on cognitive abilities.

  1. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  2. Software Acquisition Program Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    techniques to avoid these problems The Objective • Improve acquisition program staff decision-making, and thus improve acquisition program outcomes...classroom training, eLearning , certification, and more—to serve the needs of customers and partners worldwide.

  3. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  4. Playing at Serial Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); T. Moraitis (Thras)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral biases can result in suboptimal acquisition decisions-with the potential for errors exacerbated in consolidating industries, where consolidators design serial acquisition strategies and fight escalating takeover battles for platform companies that may determine their future co

  5. Underground Data Acquisition and Telemetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-28

    c~ LEYE ~ DNA 4459F SUNDERGROUND DATA ACQUISITION f AND TELEMETRY SYSTEM SDEVELCO, Inc. S404 Tasman Drive Sunnyvale, California 94086 fr 28 February...Connections are as follows: 2-104 POWER SUPPLY TERMINAL WIRE COLOR CONNECTOR PIN +(Power) Red (#18) C -(Power) Grey (#18) J A9 & +S Orange (#22) K A5

  6. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    2012-01-01

    We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...... investments), but aid may crowd out private investments when it comes in the shape of pure physical capital transfers. Empirically, we find that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in FDI, while aid invested in physical capital crowds it out. The paper shows that the composition of aid matters for its...

  7. On Foreign Language Learning Anxiety and Its Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽海

    2008-01-01

    Foreign language learning is influenced by anxiety,one of the main blocking affective factors.Research indicated that anxiety could interfere with the acquisition.retention and production of the new language.It also indicated that serious language anxiety might cause other related problems with self-esteem,self-confidence,risk-taking ability,and ultirately hampered proficiency in foreign language.This paper discusses the main anxiety-generating factors.Basing on the conclusions of the discussion,we put forward somecountermeasures to reduce learners'anxiety,and hence optimize teaching methods and techniques.

  8. Firm Productivity and the Foreign-Market Entry Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Raff, Horst; Ryan, Michael; Stähler, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We use Japanese firm-level data to examine how a firm?s productivity affects its choice of foreign-market entry strategy. We study a sequence of decisions, starting with the choice between exporting and foreign direct investment (FDI). In the case of FDI, the firm faces two options: greenfield investment or merger and acquisition (M&A). If it selects greenfield investment, it has two ownership choices: whole ownership or a joint venture. Controlling for industry- and country-specific characte...

  9. The Relationship between Gender and Iranian EFL Learners’ Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Mesri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language anxiety is widely used to describe the feeling of tension and apprehension, which is specifically associated with foreign language learning contexts, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA is related to foreign language anxiety and language-skill-specific anxiety, and fairly recently identified as distinguished from other forms of anxiety. FLCA is a more general type of anxiety in learning a foreign language with a strong speaking anxiety element; and low self-confidence is identified as an important component of its construct. Research shows that FLCA is a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon; it has many potential sources; and it interferes with the acquisition, retention, and production of a foreign language. It seems that in most of English classes in Iran little attention has been paid to the role of the gender on EFL learners' Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA. Hence, this study attempted to investigate the relationship between EFL learners’ Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA with regard to gender. The data were gathered through questionnaire: the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986.The participants were 52 students studying English at Salmas University. The findings revealed a significant relationship between FLCA and females. It was recommended that foreign language teachers should be aware of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA level, its causes and results. The study also offers some context-specific pedagogical implications for Iranian EFL teachers and practitioners.

  10. Mergers and Acquisitions in Russian Legal Framework and Their Impact on Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I. Shkol'nik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with different approaches to the notions “merger” and “acquisition” in legal science, analyses Russian practice and compares it with the foreign one and considers the impact of mergers and acquisitions on modern economy, as mergers and acquisitions are crucial for the modern corporate law. Potential benefits from company acquisition are obvious, but, in fact, the acquiring company loses its shareholder value in the course of transaction

  11. Issues With Access to Acquisition Data and Information in the Department of Defense: Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    U.S. Navy, UK MoD, and the Australian DoD. Riposo’s projects have covered reviews of domestic and foreign acquisition programs, Department acquisition...permission of the firm that owns the information to use it. The process of getting permission to use the information can be time- consuming , may...government and nongovernment employees in the acquisition process. We identified their basis in law and policy and determined whether the policy

  12. Culture in foreign language teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kramsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In foreign language education, the teaching of culture remains a hotly debated issue. What is culture? What is its relation to language? Which and whose culture should be taught? What role should the learners’ culture play in the acquisition of knowledge of the target culture? How can we avoid essentializing cultures and teaching stereotypes? And how can we develop in the learners an intercultural competence that would shortchange neither their own culture nor the target culture, but would make them into cultural mediators in a globalized world? This paper explores these issues from the perspective of the large body of research done in Australia, Europe and the U.S. in the last twenty years. It links the study of culture to the study of discourse (see, e.g., Kramsch 1993, 1998, 2004 and to the concept of translingual and transcultural competence proposed by the Modern Language Association (e.g., Kramsch, 2010. Special attention will be given to the unique role that the age-old Persian culture can play in fostering the cultural mediators of tomorrow.

  13. Using a Humanoid Robot to Develop a Dialogue-Based Interactive Learning Environment for Elementary Foreign Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Gwo-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Elementary school is the critical stage during which the development of listening comprehension and oral abilities in language acquisition occur, especially with a foreign language. However, the current foreign language instructors often adopt one-way teaching, and the learning environment lacks any interactive instructional media with which to…

  14. Using a Humanoid Robot to Develop a Dialogue-Based Interactive Learning Environment for Elementary Foreign Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Gwo-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Elementary school is the critical stage during which the development of listening comprehension and oral abilities in language acquisition occur, especially with a foreign language. However, the current foreign language instructors often adopt one-way teaching, and the learning environment lacks any interactive instructional media with which to…

  15. [Resident foreigners in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, A M; Pascual De Sans, A

    1994-01-01

    The authors review trends in the size of the resident foreign population in Spain over time since the 1940s. A continuing growth over time, with temporal fluctuations, is noted, with a rapid rise in immigration in the 1980s, leading to new legislation designed to control immigration in 1985-1986 and 1991. The authors note that Europeans, particularly from countries of the European Union, make up a large percentage of the foreign population, but that the number of immigrants from developing countries has increased significantly in the last 10 years.

  16. Foreign Policies and Foreign Exchanges for Chinese Publishing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's present foreign publishing policies Chinese Government respects and protects intellectual property rights. Chinese Government always attaches importance to the exchange and cooperation between Chinese publishing industry and that of other countries, encourages and supports Chinese publishing industry to actively introduce foreign excellent works to Chinese readers, and meanwhile, also actively advocates introduction of Chinese excellent works to foreign readers. Our persistent guideline is to support and promote exchanges between Chinese and foreign publishing industries in all fields.

  17. 75 FR 832 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign Participation in Acquisitions in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ..., Balance of Payments Program--Construction Material Under Trade Agreements, in solicitations and contracts...-7035 Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in... given in the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Balance of Payments Program clause of this...

  18. 75 FR 81915 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign Participation in Acquisitions in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...--Free Trade Agreements--Balance of Payments Program; or (E) All line items will be acquired using a...-7036, Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Balance of Payments Program. (ii) Use the provision with... Act--Free Trade Agreements--Balance of Payments Program, instead of the clause at FAR 52.225-3, Buy...

  19. A New Foreign Policy Consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the achievements of Reagan's foreign policy. Explores the question: Did Reagan reconstruct a domestic foreign policy consensus? Concludes that no consensus was reached. Analyzes Reagan's political beliefs, including his antinuclear sentiments, and examines relations between Reagan and Congress. (RW)

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of foreign ...

  1. Morality and Foreign Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)

  2. Foreign Language Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkmaier, Emma; Lange, Dale

    1967-01-01

    This review of research in foreign language instruction summarizes and interprets selected studies produced during the period 1963-66. Topics covered include the psychology of learning, comparisons o f methods, language skills, visual-auditory relationships, vocabulary, grammar, and FLES, as well as programed instruction, technological media,…

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and push the object farther down. In some cases, prompt removal of the foreign body is necessary. Common procedures include: Flexible esophagoscopy Flexible esophagoscopy is a common diagnostic examination that enables a safe and detailed visual study of the esophagus while the patient is under ...

  4. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; R. Markusen, James

    2013-01-01

    Three types of theories have been used to explain the wage premium in foreign firms: the theories of heterogeneous workers, heterogeneous learning, and heterogeneous firms. We set up a model that explicitly encompasses two of these theories, and that can illustrate the third. This unifying....... In particular, the theory of heterogeneous workers can explain up to 75 percent of the premium....

  5. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    Many papers have documented a wage premium in foreign-owned and large firms. However, there is very little formal theory in the literature and empirical analyses are typically not based on hypotheses which are rigorously derived from theory. This paper contributes to the theory-empirics gap by de...

  6. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...

  7. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; R. Markusen, James

    2013-01-01

    Three types of theories have been used to explain the wage premium in foreign firms: the theories of heterogeneous workers, heterogeneous learning, and heterogeneous firms. We set up a model that explicitly encompasses two of these theories, and that can illustrate the third. This unifying framew...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and push the object farther down. In some cases, prompt removal of the foreign body is necessary. Common procedures include: Flexible esophagoscopy Flexible esophagoscopy is a common diagnostic examination that enables a safe and detailed visual study of the esophagus while the patient is under ...

  9. Unpacking Dimensions of Foreignness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Goerzen, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    While recent research has pointed to the importance of regional strategy and the ‘interregional liability of foreignness,’ critics have pointed out that this argument obscures important differences within regions as well as the similarities across them. Bridging these diverging viewpoints, our re...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the type of foreign body and how it was introduced. If it was swallowed, you may undergo a direct examination ... and esophagus or an x-ray examination. If it is lodged in a soft tissue, such as ...

  11. Learning Foreign Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, John

    2003-01-01

    Two hypotheses have recently been put forward to account for listeners' ability to distinguish and learn contrasts between speech sounds in foreign languages. First, Best's Perceptual Assimilation Model and Flege's Speech Learning Model both predict that the ease with which a listener can tell one non-native phoneme from another varies directly…

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foreign bodies. You might require stitches or other treatments to close the wound, and your caregiver may give you antibiotics if the wound has a high risk of infection. You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foreign bodies. You might require stitches or other treatments to close the wound, and your caregiver may give you antibiotics if the wound has a high risk of infection. You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be inhaled into the airway, swallowed or lodged in the throat or stomach, or embedded in the soft tissues. About 80 percent of foreign ... an x-ray examination. If it is lodged in a soft tissue, such as a splinter embedded ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depend on the type of foreign body and nature of the symptoms. You should inform your physician of any medications being taken and if there are any allergies, especially to iodinated contrast materials . Also inform your doctor about recent illnesses or ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body ... to locate and remove the object. Tell your doctor if there’s a possibility you are pregnant and ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the type of foreign body and how it was introduced. If it was swallowed, you may undergo a direct examination ... and esophagus or an x-ray examination. If it is lodged in a soft tissue, such as ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to guide the foreign body removal procedure. After you are positioned on the examination table, the radiologist or sonographer will apply some warm water-based gel on your skin and then place the transducer firmly against your ...

  19. Foreign Diplomats Help the Disabled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Charity sate stalls set up by foreign envoys were the most popular stands at this year’s fundraising charity fair, an event initiated by Mme. Zhou Hanqiong, wife of Vice Premier and former minister of foreign affairs Qian Qichen. The fundraising activity has been held annually since 1996, thanks to the support of foreign diplomats in

  20. Incidental Lexicon Acquisition through Playful Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Wilhelm Ansteeg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an educational game which aids learners with foreign lexicon acquisition while entertaining them at the same time. An overview over existing language learning tools is given, and a general platform for educational games for second language acquisition (SLA is described. It introduces a specific prototype video game which teaches Italian vocabulary to the user. The application puts learning at the core of its game mechanics and combines it with a narrative and role-playing elements. In a user study, the game is compared to two other learning methods with focus on long term retention of vocabulary and enjoyment of the exercise. The game is found to perform within 10% of the efficiency of pure vocabulary learning exercises, while being considerably more enjoyable to the user.

  1. Watching the brain during meaning acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres-Missé, Anna; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2007-08-01

    Acquiring the meaning of a new word in a foreign language can be achieved either by rote memorizing or, similar to meaning acquisition during infancy, by extracting it from context. Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning. Here we demonstrate, using event-related brain potentials, the rapid development of a brain signature related to lexical and semantic processing during contextual word learning. Healthy volunteers engaged in a simple word-learning task were required to discover the meaning of a novel word from a context during silent reading. After 3 exposures, brain potentials to novel words in meaningful contexts were indistinguishable from real words, although this acquisition effect was not observed for novel words, for which sentence contexts allowed no meaning derivation. Furthermore, when the learned novel words were presented in isolation, an activation of their corresponding meaning was observed, although this process was slower than for real words.

  2. A Comparison of Teacher Talk and Foreigner Talk in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Many people learning English believe that talking to native speakers,especially in natural settings is a desirable way to promote acquisition.It might be so.Yet it can be a myth because foreigner talk can’t serve as good a pedagogical purpose as teacher talk does in many ways.This paper compares some characteristics of the two kinds of talk and suggests the advantage teacher talk has over the latter.

  3. Teaching Intercultural Communication in Foreign Language Education through Video Conferencing

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Since 1980s, Western linguists and specialists on second language acquisition have emphasized the importance of enhancing students’ intercultural communication competence in foreign language education. At the same time, the demand for intercultural communicative competence increased along with the advances of communication technology with its increasingly global reach and the process of globalization itself.In the field of distance language education, these changes have resulted in a shift of...

  4. Lexical retrieval stages of momentarily inaccessible foreign language words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ecke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of foreign language (FL vocabulary involves two aspects: (1 learning to recognize a word’s meaning, and (2 becoming able to retrieve or produce the word’s form in speech production. The second aspect usually takes more time and practice to be developed. While learners may have no problem understanding a FL word’s meaning, they frequently are unable to recall the word when necessary.

  5. Foreign Remittances, Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Imports and Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research paper focuses on establishing a relationship between external determinants and economic growth of Pakistan economy. Empirical analyses are carried out with time series econometric techniques using data over the period of 1977-2013. The main finding is that external determinants such as foreign remittances, foreign direct investment, and foreign imports matter from a growth perspective. Foreign remittances and foreign direct investment have a significant positive role in the growth process of Pakistan economy. Furthermore, it is found that foreign imports have adversely influenced the economic growth of Pakistan. The study recommends that policy makers shall take appropriate steps to increase the inflow of both foreign remittances and foreign direct investment in order to achieve the long run economic growth.

  6. Lexical retrieval stages of momentarily inaccessible foreign language words Lexical retrieval stages of momentarily inaccessible foreign language words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ecke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of foreign language (FL vocabulary involves two aspects: (1 learning to recognize a word’s meaning, and (2 becoming able to retrieve or produce the word’s form in speech production. The second aspect usually takes more time and practice to be developed. While learners may have no problem understanding a FL word’s meaning, they frequently are unable to recall the word when necessary. The acquisition of foreign language (FL vocabulary involves two aspects: (1 learning to recognize a word’s meaning, and (2 becoming able to retrieve or produce the word’s form in speech production. The second aspect usually takes more time and practice to be developed. While learners may have no problem understanding a FL word’s meaning, they frequently are unable to recall the word when necessary.

  7. Excessive acquisition in hoarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Randy O; Tolin, David F; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-06-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an Internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms.

  8. The place of foreign direct investment in the global economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gutowski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI plays an extraordinary and growing role in global business. It can provide a firm with new markets and marketing channels, cheaper production facilities, access to new technology, products, skills and financing. For a host country or the foreign firm which receives the investment, it can provide a source of new technologies, capital, processes, products, organizational technologies and management skills and as such can provide a strong impetus to economic development. The sea change in trade and investment policies and the regulatory environment globally in the past decade, including trade policy and tariff liberalization, easing of restrictions on foreign investment and acquisition in many nations, and the deregulation and privitazation of many industries, has probably been been the most significant catalyst for FDI’s expanded role.

  9. Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Øhrgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The IT integration of acquisitions consists an important challenge for the many acquiring organizations. Complementing existing research, this paper searches for explanation to differences in acquirers’ abilities for acquisition IT integration in the external of the acquirer, by a study of the use...... of temporary agency workers. Following an analytic induction approach, theoretically grounded in the re-source-based view of the firm, we identify the complimentary and supplementary roles consultants can assume in acquisition IT integration. Through case studies of three acquirers, we investigate how...... of the acquisition IT integration team should consider the balance of these, in practice, commonly mutually excluding needs....

  10. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...... of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure...... created by foreign sales activities....

  11. Foreign direct investment in the financial sector of emerging market economies

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2004-01-01

    Executive summary Foreign participation in the financial sectors of emerging market economies (EMEs) increased rapidly during the 1990s. It has continued to expand so far in this decade, on balance – although its pace fell somewhat following problems in Argentina in 2002 and the global slowdown in mergers and acquisitions. While banks accounted for the majority of financial sector foreign direct investment (FSFDI), they were joined during this period by securities and investment firms. In a n...

  12. Peo Life Cycle Cost Accountability: Viability Of Foreign Suppliers For Weapon System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    multinational defense companies .2 This adds to the U.S. national security risks associated with our dependence on foreign industry providing raw...manufactures due to lack of indigenous production capabilities in country. Defense production and manufacturing companies will not develop and produce items... company mergers or acquisitions within our industrial base have driven an increase in U.S. reliance on foreign producers. This paper exposes these

  13. DNA vaccines for viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnelly J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA plasmids encoding foreign proteins may be used as immunogens by direct intramuscular injection alone, or with various adjuvants and excipients, or by delivery of DNA-coated gold particles to the epidermis through biolistic immunization. Antibody, helper T lymphocyte, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses have been induced in laboratory and domesticated animals by these methods. In a number of animal models, immune responses induced by DNA vaccination have been shown to be protective against challenge with various infectious agents. Immunization by injection of plasmids encoding foreign proteins has been used successfully as a research tool. This review summarizes the types of DNA vaccine vectors in common use, the immune responses and protective responses that have been obtained in animal models, the safety considerations pertinent to the evaluation of DNA vaccines in humans and the very limited information that is available from early clinical studies.

  14. Factor analysis of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale in Korean learners of English as a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Pyo

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the latent constructs of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) using two different groups of Korean English as a foreign language (EFL) university students. Maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis with direct oblimin rotation was performed among the first group of 217 participants and produced two meaningful latent components in the FLCAS. The two components of the FLCAS were closely examined among the second group of 244 participants to find the extent to which the two components of the FLCAS fit the data. The model fit indexes showed that the two-factor model in general adequately fit the data. Findings of this study were discussed with the focus on the two components of the FLCAS, followed by future study areas to be undertaken to shed further light on the role of foreign language anxiety in L2 acquisition.

  15. My Two Foreign Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐苗

    2006-01-01

    @@ Our former foreign teacher is a young man who comes from England.He is a reserved person who does not talk very much to strangers, does not show much emotion, and seldom gets excited.He always enters our classroom with a bottle of water and a single book in his hand, he likes wearing T-shirt and jeans, which looks very easy-going but neat1.

  16. Foreign Internal Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    basis for today’s FID doctrine. d. In recent times, the United States has provided the same type of NA in El Salvador, Colombia , Kuwait, the...transfers and related services have reached enormous dimensions and involve most of the world’s nations, either as a seller /provider or buyer...measures and consideration of the following: (1) Street or organized crime. (2) Foreign intelligence services. (3) Local populace animosity

  17. A comparison of four strategies for teaching a small foreign-language vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Haflidadóttir, Rakel Dögg

    2009-01-01

    We compared the effects of tact training, listener training, and two types of intraverbal training on 2 children's acquisition of foreign-language tact, listener, and intraverbal relations. The children received all four types of training simultaneously with different stimulus sets. Native-foreign intraverbal training presented the greatest difficulty with acquisition for both children. All types of training generated increases in correct responding on tests for emergent relations, and some emerged to criterion. However, no type of training resulted in criterion-level performance on all relations.

  18. Horizontal gene transfer regulation in bacteria as a "spandrel" of DNA repair mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliou Fall

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is recognized as the major force for bacterial genome evolution. Yet, numerous questions remain about the transferred genes, their function, quantity and frequency. The extent to which genetic transformation by exogenous DNA has occurred over evolutionary time was initially addressed by an in silico approach using the complete genome sequence of the Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000 strain. Methods based on phylogenetic reconstruction of prokaryote homologous genes families detected 151 genes (13.3% of foreign origin in the R. solanacearum genome and tentatively identified their bacterial origin. These putative transfers were analyzed in comparison to experimental transformation tests involving 18 different genomic DNA positions in the genome as sites for homologous or homeologous recombination. Significant transformation frequency differences were observed among these positions tested regardless of the overall genomic divergence of the R. solanacearum strains tested as recipients. The genomic positions containing the putative exogenous DNA were not systematically transformed at the highest frequencies. The two genomic "hot spots", which contain recA and mutS genes, exhibited transformation frequencies from 2 to more than 4 orders of magnitude higher than positions associated with other genes depending on the recipient strain. These results support the notion that the bacterial cell is equipped with active mechanisms to modulate acquisition of new DNA in different genomic positions. Bio-informatics study correlated recombination "hot-spots" to the presence of Chi-like signature sequences with which recombination might be preferentially initiated. The fundamental role of HGT is certainly not limited to the critical impact that the very rare foreign genes acquired mainly by chance can have on the bacterial adaptation potential. The frequency to which HGT with homologous and homeologous DNA happens in the environment

  19. Ethnography in Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huszti Ilona

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to describe ethnography as a qualitative approach frequently applied in foreign language acquisition research (Pollard,1985; Smith, 1992; Robinson-Stuart and Nocon, 1996. Reviews of two studies having used ethnographic techniques are presented in the paper to highlight the theoretical background for such an investigative method. The first study discusses issues about participant observation, while the second depicts the language learner in the role of the ethnographer. The paper also tries to throw light on the various tasks of the ethnographer as well as the values (emic and holistic view and limitations (the insider/outsider dilemma of ethnography. Key words: Culture, Ethnography, Ethnographer, Qualitative Research- Techniques, Participant Observation El objetivo de este artículo es describir la etnografía como un método cualitativo que es utilizado frecuentemente en la investigación de la adquisición de una lengua extranjera (Pollard, 1985; Smith, 1992; Robinson-Stuart and Nocon, 1996. En el documento se presentan reseñas de dos estudios que implementaron técnicas etnográficas, con el propósito de resaltar los antecedentes históricos de este tipo de método de investigación. El primer estudio trata acerca de temas relacionados con la observación de los participantes, mientras que el segundo estudio presenta al aprendiz de lengua en el rol de etnógrafo. El documento también da varias pautas sobre las tareas del etnógrafo, así como los valores (el punto de vista émico y holístico y las limitaciones (el dilema interno y externo de la etnografía. Palabras claves: Cultura, Etnografía, Etnógrafo, Técnicas InvestigaciónCualitativa, Observación Participativa

  20. Horizontal acquisition of multiple mitochondrial genes from a parasitic plant followed by gene conversion with host mitochondrial genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Weilong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is relatively common in plant mitochondrial genomes but the mechanisms, extent and consequences of transfer remain largely unknown. Previous results indicate that parasitic plants are often involved as either transfer donors or recipients, suggesting that direct contact between parasite and host facilitates genetic transfer among plants. Results In order to uncover the mechanistic details of plant-to-plant HGT, the extent and evolutionary fate of transfer was investigated between two groups: the parasitic genus Cuscuta and a small clade of Plantago species. A broad polymerase chain reaction (PCR survey of mitochondrial genes revealed that at least three genes (atp1, atp6 and matR were recently transferred from Cuscuta to Plantago. Quantitative PCR assays show that these three genes have a mitochondrial location in the one species line of Plantago examined. Patterns of sequence evolution suggest that these foreign genes degraded into pseudogenes shortly after transfer and reverse transcription (RT-PCR analyses demonstrate that none are detectably transcribed. Three cases of gene conversion were detected between native and foreign copies of the atp1 gene. The identical phylogenetic distribution of the three foreign genes within Plantago and the retention of cytidines at ancestral positions of RNA editing indicate that these genes were probably acquired via a single, DNA-mediated transfer event. However, samplings of multiple individuals from two of the three species in the recipient Plantago clade revealed complex and perplexing phylogenetic discrepancies and patterns of sequence divergence for all three of the foreign genes. Conclusions This study reports the best evidence to date that multiple mitochondrial genes can be transferred via a single HGT event and that transfer occurred via a strictly DNA-level intermediate. The discovery of gene conversion between co-resident foreign and native

  1. A Critique of What is the Logical Problem of Foreign Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xueqin

    2009-01-01

    The logical problem of foreign language learning has long been a very controversial Topic. Bley-Vroman claims that L2 acquistion is very different from L1acquisition in his paper 'What is the logical problem of foreign language learning'. This paper views differently from his points about the role of native language,negative evidence and domain-specific cognitive facility.He emphasizes the facilitative role of the native language and ignoring the negative role of it.He views that negative evidence plays no role in child language acquisition.The author argues that sometimes children need indirect negative evidence to help their language acquisition.Finally,the author argues that the difference between adult and child language learning is not because ofthat the lack of domain specific acquisition system in adults.The influencing factors are various.

  2. Acquisition Research Program Homepage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Includes an image of the main page on this date and compressed file containing additional web pages. Established in 2003, Naval Postgraduate School’s (NPS) Acquisition Research Program provides leadership in innovation, creative problem solving and an ongoing dialogue, contributing to the evolution of Department of Defense acquisition strategies.

  3. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  4. Robotization in Seismic Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquière, G.; Berkhout, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of sources and detectors in the seismic method follows "Moore’s Law of seismic data acquisition", i.e., it increases approximately by a factor of 10 every 10 years. Therefore automation is unavoidable, leading to robotization of seismic data acquisition. Recently, we introduced a new

  5. Second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, G.J.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Starren, M.B.P.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of second language acquisition research from a psycholinguistic perspective. The overview is mainly focused on cross-language interactions during word and sentence production and comprehension at different points in the second-language acquisition process. The

  6. Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette

    , employee experiences and communication. Mergers and acquisitions remain one of the most common forms of growth, yet they present considerable challenges for the companies and management involved. The effects on stakeholders, including shareholders, managers and employees, must be considered as well......Introduction to the study of mergers and acquisitions. This book provides an understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, how and why they occur, and also the broader implications for organizations. It presents issues including motives and planning, partner selection, integration...... by editorial commentaries and reflects the important organizational and behavioural aspects which have often been ignored in the past. By providing this in-depth understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, the reader understands not only how and why mergers and acquisitions occur, but also...

  7. More Evidence Concerning the Aspect Hypothesis: The Acquisition of English Progressive Aspect by Catalan-Spanish Instructed Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Carmen; Gilabert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    A robust finding from studies investigating the Aspect Hypothesis is that learners at the early stages of acquisition show a strong preference for using the progressive aspect as associated with activity verbs. As they advance in their acquisition of the second or foreign language, learners move from this prototypical association to associations…

  8. Molecular recordings by directed CRISPR spacer acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Seth L; Nivala, Jeff; Macklis, Jeffrey D; Church, George M

    2016-07-29

    The ability to write a stable record of identified molecular events into a specific genomic locus would enable the examination of long cellular histories and have many applications, ranging from developmental biology to synthetic devices. We show that the type I-E CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas system of Escherichia coli can mediate acquisition of defined pieces of synthetic DNA. We harnessed this feature to generate records of specific DNA sequences into a population of bacterial genomes. We then applied directed evolution so as to alter the recognition of a protospacer adjacent motif by the Cas1-Cas2 complex, which enabled recording in two modes simultaneously. We used this system to reveal aspects of spacer acquisition, fundamental to the CRISPR-Cas adaptation process. These results lay the foundations of a multimodal intracellular recording device.

  9. The Usefulness of Translation in Foreign Language Learning: Students’ Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Fernández-Guerra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several scholars have argued that translation is not a useful tool when acquiring a second or foreign language; since it provides a simplistic one-to-one relationship between the native and the foreign language, it can cause interference between them, and it is an artificial exercise that has nothing to do in a communicative approach to language teaching. Recent studies, however, show that, far from being useless, translation can be a great aid to foreign language learning. The aim of the present paper is twofold: (1 to summarize and assess the arguments that encourage the use of translation in the foreign language classroom, supporting the integration of several forms of translating; and (2 to present the results of a survey that focused on students’ perceptions and responses towards translation tasks and their effectiveness in foreign language acquisition. Results show that students’ attitudes were surprisingly positive for several reasons: translation is one of their preferred language learning tasks, it is motivating, it facilitates a deeper understanding of the form and content of the source language text, it increases learners’ awareness of the differences between both linguistic systems, it allows them to re-express their thoughts faster and easier, and it helps them acquire linguistic and cultural knowledge.

  10. FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING AND EDUCATION IN MINORITY CIRCUMSTANCES. PROBLEMS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Batyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some form of bi- and multilingualism means the natural lingual condition for more than the half of the population of the Earth. It is a substantial linguistic aim of the Transcarpathian Hungarian community that beside preservation of their mother tongue(the Hungarian, acquire the state language (the Ukrainian languageand the basis of at least one world language. But this aim is hindered by a lot of things in Transcarpathia. The goal of the study is to shed light on these problems and to find possible solutions based on two researches. The first research, which was carried out in the Tanscarpathian Hungarian schools, was to reveal the conditions and problems of foreign language education. The research threw light on numerous problems that approve the low level of foreign language knowledge of the Transcarpathian Hungarian youth. Attitudes and stereotypes influence the success of foreign language acquisition. For this reason in the second part of the study I would like to show, what kind of stereotypes and attitudes can be discovered in the parents (who are lay linguistically and language pedagogicallyconcerning foreign languages, and within this especially concerning the English language. It appears from the interviews,that nor the attitudes of the state towards foreign languages that was inherited from the soviet system, neither the impassiveness of the parents improves the positive attitudes in the Transcarpathian Hungarian students towards foreign languages, and nor the state,neither the parents approve the motivation of foreign language acquisition.

  11. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  12. North American Foreign Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Noonan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the phenomenon of so-called “foreign fighters” is in no way new the past thirty-plus years has shown a marked increase in the numbers of individuals traveling abroad to fight in civil conflicts in the Muslim world. The crisis in Syria (2011-present has created a massive influx of such individuals going to fight. Of particular concern in western capitals has been the numbers of individuals from those countries that have gone to fight in that conflict which has since crossed the border into neighboring Iraq with the establishment of the socalled “Islamic State” and threatens to broaden the conflict into a larger regional sectarian conflagration. While the numbers of such participants from Western Europe have been greater than those who have gone from the United States and Canada there are legitimate concerns in both Washington, DC, and Ottawa about American and Canadian citizens who have gone—or attempted to go—to fight there and in other locales such as the Maghreb and Somalia. The analysis here will provide some background on the foreign fighter phenomenon, discuss the foreign fighter flow model, explore the issue from both Canadian and US perspectives to include providing details of some original research categorizing the characteristics of a small sample of US and Canadian fighters and those who attempted to go and fight, discuss how both governments have attempted to deal with the issue, and offer some policy prescription for dealing with this issue that is of importance to both international security writ large and domestic security in the US and Canada.

  13. Longstanding Endobronchial Foreign Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Trisolini

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many circumstances in which the diagnosis of endobronchial inhalation of a foreign body (FB can be missed. Generally, in such cases, within weeks or at most months from the event, clinical bronchopulmonary symptoms develop which allow a correct diagnosis to be made and significant complications to be avoided. We report the case of a patient in whom an endobronchial FB remained undiagnosed, because of lack of symptoms, for almost three years, and then caused signifiicant complications before being identified and removed. Problems related to diagnosis and therapy are discussed.

  14. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction......; a residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  15. Foreign language didactics: Identity questions

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Píšová

    2011-01-01

    The efforts to emancipate foreign language didactics have been an ongoingand non-linear process launched in our country in the 50s of the previous century.Its key aspects may be presented as foreign language didactics identity questions.These include explicit delineation of the object and methodology of foreign languagedidactics on the basis of developmental analysis, current state of knowledge andtrends/approaches to the discipline. The issues related to the full-fledged scientificstatus of ...

  16. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis

    2005-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...

  17. STIS target acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Steve; Downes, Ron; Katsanis, Rocio; Crenshaw, Mike; McGrath, Melissa; Robinson, Rich

    1997-01-01

    We describe the STIS autonomous target acquisition capabilities. We also present the results of dedicated tests executed as part of Cycle 7 calibration, following post-launch improvements to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) flight software. The residual pointing error from the acquisitions are < 0.5 CCD pixels, which is better than preflight estimates. Execution of peakups show clear improvement of target centering for slits of width 0.1 sec or smaller. These results may be used by Guest Observers in planning target acquisitions for their STIS programs.

  18. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...... of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure...

  19. AN UNUSUAL RECTAL FOREIGN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Rectal foreign bodies are common, but foreign body made of glass with uneven sharp distal end and complicated with hypovolemic shock is very rare. It is very challenging to be removed by laparotomy and poses extra difficulty in emergency. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 45-year-old man with complains of rectal foreign body and bleeding per rectum reported in emergency room. On examination patient was in hypovolemic shock and continuous bleeding through anal opening. Emergency laparotomy was per-formed and foreign body was retrieved successfully. DISCUSSION: Rectal foreign body made of glass with uneven sharp distal end towards distal end of rectum is very rare. Retrieval of these foreign bodies will be very difficult, especially for the emergency cases that are complicated with hypovolemic shock. Emergency laparotomy can be successfully performed to stop the bleeding and minimize rectal and anal canal trauma. To the best of our knowledge, such rectal foreign body has been rarely reported. CONCLUSION: Rectal foreign body with uneven sharp edges towards anal opening are difficult to retrieve trough transanal route. Hypovolemic shock due to bleeding and rectal perforation is major complications of these foreign bodies. Emergency laparotomy should be done in these cases.

  20. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  1. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  2. The effect of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Neval

    2007-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2007. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2007. Includes bibliographical references leaves 82-87 This study investigated the effectiveness of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition, and the attitudes of teachers and learners towards keeping vocabulary notebooks. The study was conducted with the participation of 60 pre-intermediate level students, divided into one treatment ...

  3. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Foreign-Language Vocabulary Learning Enhanced by Phonological Rehearsal: The Role of the Right Cerebellum and Left Fusiform Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Kai; Yamazaki, Mika; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Koike, Takahiko; Kochiyama, Takanori; Yokokawa, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Haruyo; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Psychological research suggests that foreign-language vocabulary acquisition recruits the phonological loop for verbal working memory. To depict the neural underpinnings and shed light on the process of foreign language learning, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging of Japanese participants without previous exposure to the Uzbek…

  4. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Foreign-Language Vocabulary Learning Enhanced by Phonological Rehearsal: The Role of the Right Cerebellum and Left Fusiform Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Kai; Yamazaki, Mika; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Koike, Takahiko; Kochiyama, Takanori; Yokokawa, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Haruyo; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Psychological research suggests that foreign-language vocabulary acquisition recruits the phonological loop for verbal working memory. To depict the neural underpinnings and shed light on the process of foreign language learning, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging of Japanese participants without previous exposure to the Uzbek…

  5. FWS Approved Acquisition Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data layer depicts the external boundaries of lands and waters that are approved for acquisition by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in North America,...

  6. FWS Approved Acquisition Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data layer depicts the external boundaries of lands and waters that are approved for acquisition by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in North...

  7. Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Øhrgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The IT integration of acquisitions consists an important challenge for the many acquiring organizations. Complementing existing research, this paper searches for explanation to differences in acquirers’ abilities for acquisition IT integration in the external of the acquirer, by a study of the use...... of temporary agency workers. Following an analytic induction approach, theoretically grounded in the re-source-based view of the firm, we identify the complimentary and supplementary roles consultants can assume in acquisition IT integration. Through case studies of three acquirers, we investigate how...... the acquirers appropriate the use of agency workers as part of its acquisition strategy. For the investigated acquirers, assigning roles to agency workers is contingent on balancing the needs of knowledge induction and knowledge retention, as well as experience richness and in-depth under-standing. Composition...

  8. FWS Approved Acquisition Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data layer depicts the external boundaries of lands and waters that are approved for acquisition by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in North America,...

  9. USB data acquisition solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serges Lemo; Zhu June

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction In recent years, USB has evolved from a simple, low-speed peripheral bus for mice, keyboards, and other computer accessories to the bus of choice for more demanding applications, including data acquisition (DAQ).

  10. "The Limits of my Language are the Limits of my World." The effects of language learning disorders on foreign language learning and the possible solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ágústína Gunnarsdóttir 1983

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of learning disorders that affect language acquisition in the native language but chief among them are dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI). Their effects are found in the first language and extend to any subsequent languages, including foreign languages. As curriculum guidelines in Iceland feature the mandatory learning of a number of foreign languages and the Icelandic institutions of higher learning use foreign languages quite heavily in their instruction, pro...

  11. Coca-Cola's Acquisition Over Huiyuan Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Sun

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's Anti-Monopoly Law,the foundation stone of the market economy,started to be implemented since August 1st 2008.After half a year of investigation,.Coca Cola's acquisition of Huiyuan Juice was put to a stop by Ministry of Commerce on March 18th 2009.It became the first abortive case since the implementation of the Anti-Monopoly Law and caused strong repercussions home and abroad.While the nationalists applauded for the decision,overseas media generally took a skeptical attitude,considering it as a case of trade protectionism.This phenomenon requires a rational interpretation and guidance for the domestic and international media.On the one hand,acquisition by foreign capital may bring advanced technology and management experience and promote economic development;on the other hand,it may lead to the monopoly of relevant market,hamper competition and cause some domestic brands to disappear.We should look at Coca Cola's acquisition of Huiyuan Juice from two aspects.

  12. Graphics Display of Foreign Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Graphics Project for Foreign Language Learning at the University of Pennsylvania, which has developed ways of displaying foreign scripts on microcomputers. Character design on computer screens is explained; software for graphics, printing, and language instruction is discussed; and a text editor is described that corrects optically…

  13. Foreign Banks: Trends and Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; van Horen, N.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, foreign banks have become much more important in domestic financial intermediation, heightening the need to understand their behavior. We introduce a new, comprehensive database, made publicly available, on bank ownership (including the home country of foreign banks) for 5

  14. Foreign workers in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Lim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global age many people cross national borders in search of better work and more wages. According to IOM, more than 100 000 000 workers leave their homeland and migrate to another country for this reason. Europe and North America have already experienced increase in foreign labor for many decades but nowadays, it is very common to see foreign laborers in Asian countries. As the number of foreign laborers rapidly increased, however, so did many social problems in relation to these workers. No country is safe from or immune to such social problems in regards to the foreign workers especially with a much easier and more efficient transportation system. In case of South Korea, the history of foreign labor may not be as long as other nations but as of 2007, it boasts of more than 250 000 foreign laborers and is thus facing just as many social problems as well. In order to investigate such social issues, this article explores the history of foreign laborers and their current situation in South Korea. Furthermore, this artticle examines both internal and external factors which may have caused exponential growth of foreign labor market in South Korea in the past decade.

  15. English as a Foreign Language Spelling: Comparisons between Good and Poor Spellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russak, Susie; Kahn-Horwitz, Janina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling development amongst 233 fifth-grade, eighth-grade and 10th-grade Hebrew first-language speakers to examine effects of English orthographic exposure on spelling. Good and poor speller differences were examined regarding the acquisition of novel phonemes (/ae/, /?/ and /?/) and…

  16. China’s Foreign Direct Investments:Challenges of Due Diligence and Organizational Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ABDOL; S.SOOFI

    2015-01-01

    This paper critically reviews Chinese companies’ foreign direct investment practices of recent years. Using case studies involving overseas Greenfield as well as merger and acquisition(M&A;) of Chinese enterprises, we aim to draw lessons from these experiences. However, because of increasing importance of outbound acquisitions by Chinese companies, this paper focuses on Chinese M&A; activities. After presenting the theoretical discussions of post-acquisition organizational integration, this paper identifies factors that have contributed to less than expected performances of Chinese foreign investments. Three main factors are identified as the plausible causes of the less than satisfactory outcomes: inadequate due diligence, not considering political and country risks, and cultural differences. In all cases, inexperience of Chinese enterprises in foreign direct investment, either in Greenfield form or M&A;, has attributed to the problems. Therefore, summing the experiences of the Chinese enterprises that have foreign direct investment is essential for those Chinese investors that intend to invest overseas. Conduct of meaningful, in-depth due diligence before serious negotiations for investment or acquisition, inclusion of risk premium for political risk in cash flow analysis, and early post-merger integration planning are essential for avoidances of bitter outcomes many Chinese investors experienced overseas.

  17. Foreign language vocabulary learning: word-type effects during the labeling stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.M.B.; van den Brink, R.C.L.; Kail, M.; Hickmann, M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the results of a set of experiments that examined foreign-language (FL) vocabulary learning by late learners, exploiting the paired-associate-learning (PAL) paradigm. The effects on acquisition and retention of the concreteness and frequency of the native-language (L1) words, th

  18. 48 CFR 245.302 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... governments or international organizations. 245.302 Section 245.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... international organizations. (1) General. (i) Approval. A contractor may use Government property on work for foreign governments and international organizations only when approved in writing by the...

  19. 48 CFR 1445.302 - Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... governments or international organizations. 1445.302 Section 1445.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Government Property 1445.302 Contracts with foreign governments or international organizations. The HCA... governments or international organizations request use of Government production and research property...

  20. Foreign direct investment mode choice : entry and establishment modes in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikova, Desislava; van Witteloostuijn, Arien

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we bridge two streams of foreign direct investment literature, specifically studies on establishment mode choice (i.e., the choice between an acquisition and a greenfield establishment) and studies on entry mode choice (i.e., the choice between a wholly owned outlet and a subsidiary w

  1. Foreign Language Aptitude and Its Relationship with Grammar: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skehan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical overview of research studies which link foreign language aptitude to grammar. It starts by covering fundamental issues--of the structure of aptitude and its measurement. It is argued that the concept of aptitude needs to be updated, and that clear linkages to second language acquisition processes need to be…

  2. Context, Culture, and Construction: Research Implications of Theory Formation in Foreign Language Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Considers the extent to which constructionist epistemology provides a solution for achieving a link between qualitative-ethnographic and cognitivist research on foreign language acquisition. Points to the validity of qualitative research provided that there is clarity and explicitness of process so that those who read research can carry out their…

  3. Moving in(to) Imaginary Worlds: Drama Pedagogy for Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces drama pedagogy as an approach with great potential for foreign language acquisition, addressing students' multiple skills and facilitating their communicative and interactional competence. A strong emphasis is placed on social, emotional, and kinesthetic learning that is traditionally neglected in instructional settings.…

  4. Foreign language vocabulary learning: word-type effects during the labeling stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.B. de Groot; R.C.L. van den Brink

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the results of a set of experiments that examined foreign-language (FL) vocabulary learning by late learners, exploiting the paired-associate-learning (PAL) paradigm. The effects on acquisition and retention of the concreteness and frequency of the native-language (L1) words, th

  5. Foreign Language Aptitude and Its Relationship with Grammar: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skehan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical overview of research studies which link foreign language aptitude to grammar. It starts by covering fundamental issues--of the structure of aptitude and its measurement. It is argued that the concept of aptitude needs to be updated, and that clear linkages to second language acquisition processes need to be…

  6. English as a Foreign Language Spelling: Comparisons between Good and Poor Spellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russak, Susie; Kahn-Horwitz, Janina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling development amongst 233 fifth-grade, eighth-grade and 10th-grade Hebrew first-language speakers to examine effects of English orthographic exposure on spelling. Good and poor speller differences were examined regarding the acquisition of novel phonemes (/ae/, /?/ and /?/) and…

  7. Foreign language didactics: Identity questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Píšová

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to emancipate foreign language didactics have been an ongoingand non-linear process launched in our country in the 50s of the previous century.Its key aspects may be presented as foreign language didactics identity questions.These include explicit delineation of the object and methodology of foreign languagedidactics on the basis of developmental analysis, current state of knowledge andtrends/approaches to the discipline. The issues related to the full-fledged scientificstatus of foreign language didactics are discussed both on a domain-general level(questions relevant for the whole field of subject didactics and on a domain-specificlevel (foreign language didactics specific questions.

  8. Researches on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴均霞

    2013-01-01

      Foreign language anxiety is one of the factors of affecting foreign language achievement. It is negatively associated with language skill learning. This article will show some researches on foreign language anxiety from certain aspects.

  9. After the Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Selling domestic companies to foreign multinationals does not always yield desired expansions for Chinese brands Nestle Group, the world’s largest food manufacturer,announced on July 11 it had entered a partnership agreement with Chinese candy and pastry producer Hsu Fu Chi International Ltd.

  10. Negotiating land: Foreign Firms, Large Scale Mining and Human Rights in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Velasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sharp increase in land acquisitions by foreign firms in African, Asian and Latin-American countries reflects a new phase of global capitalism. Colombia is no exception to this new trend of global capitalism, and in the last decade foreign companies have been visibly involved in the local land market. In this regard, this paper reviews from a Human Rights perspective the land acquisition strategies implemented by three foreign companies engaged in open-pit coal mining operations in La Guajira and Cesar. The results indicate that formality of land ownership and the institutional constraints on firms -related to corporate governance, being listed in stock markets and the veto power of international buyers- have a significant effect on the respect for Human Rights.

  11. Growth of language-related brain areas after foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, Johan; Eriksson, Johan; Bodammer, Nils Christian; Lindgren, Magnus; Johansson, Mikael; Nyberg, Lars; Lövdén, Martin

    2012-10-15

    The influence of adult foreign-language acquisition on human brain organization is poorly understood. We studied cortical thickness and hippocampal volumes of conscript interpreters before and after three months of intense language studies. Results revealed increases in hippocampus volume and in cortical thickness of the left middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus for interpreters relative to controls. The right hippocampus and the left superior temporal gyrus were structurally more malleable in interpreters acquiring higher proficiency in the foreign language. Interpreters struggling relatively more to master the language displayed larger gray matter increases in the middle frontal gyrus. These findings confirm structural changes in brain regions known to serve language functions during foreign-language acquisition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mode of Entry and the Performance of Foreign Banks: Evidence from Turkish Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet AKIN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging economies have been attracting considerable amount of foreign direct investments to the banking industry through cross-border acquisitions and new establishments. Whether mode of entry influences the performance of foreign banks is an important question. This study analyzes the impact of entry mode on the foreign bank performance in Turkey for the period before and after the global financial crisis. Profitability and relative efficiencies are used to measure the performance of banks. Then, Tobit and multivariate regressions are performed to detect the performance differentials between the bank groups. Analysis reveals that greenfield banks have superior performance over the takeover banks in terms of only profitability. Mode of entry does not have a statistically significant effect on efficiency. Besides, there are no efficiency or profitability gains for takeover banks after acquisition.

  13. Post-Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...... serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we develop three propositions on the sequential effects on post-acquisition IT integration in acquisition programs. Their combined explanation is that serial acquirers must have a growth-by-acquisition strategy that includes the capability to improve...... IT integration capabilities, to sustain high alignment across acquisitions and to maintain a scalable IT infrastructure with a flat or decreasing cost structure. We begin the process of validating the three propositions by investigating a longitudinal case study of a growth-by-acquisition program....

  14. Mitochondrial DNA inheritance after SCNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiendleder, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis and function is under dual genetic control and requires extensive interaction between biparentally inherited nuclear genes and maternally inherited mitochondrial genes. Standard SCNT procedures deprive an oocytes' mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the corresponding maternal nuclear DNA and require it to interact with an entirely foreign nucleus that is again interacting with foreign somatic mitochondria. As a result, most SCNT embryos, -fetuses, and -offspring carry somatic cell mtDNA in addition to recipient oocyte mtDNA, a condition termed heteroplasmy. It is thus evident that somatic cell mtDNA can escape the selective mechanism that targets and eliminates intraspecific sperm mitochondria in the fertilized oocyte to maintain homoplasmy. However, the factors responsible for the large intra- and interindividual differences in heteroplasmy level remain elusive. Furthermore, heteroplasmy is probably confounded with mtDNA recombination. Considering the essential roles of mitochondria in cellular metabolism, cell signalling, and programmed cell death, future experiments will need to assess the true extent and impact of unorthodox mtDNA transmission on various aspects of SCNT success.

  15. Crystal Structure of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated Csn2 Protein Revealed Ca[superscript 2+]-dependent Double-stranded DNA Binding Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Kurinov, Igor; Ke, Ailong (Cornell); (NWU)

    2012-05-22

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated protein genes (cas genes) are widespread in bacteria and archaea. They form a line of RNA-based immunity to eradicate invading bacteriophages and malicious plasmids. A key molecular event during this process is the acquisition of new spacers into the CRISPR loci to guide the selective degradation of the matching foreign genetic elements. Csn2 is a Nmeni subtype-specific cas gene required for new spacer acquisition. Here we characterize the Enterococcus faecalis Csn2 protein as a double-stranded (ds-) DNA-binding protein and report its 2.7 {angstrom} tetrameric ring structure. The inner circle of the Csn2 tetrameric ring is {approx}26 {angstrom} wide and populated with conserved lysine residues poised for nonspecific interactions with ds-DNA. Each Csn2 protomer contains an {alpha}/{beta} domain and an {alpha}-helical domain; significant hinge motion was observed between these two domains. Ca{sup 2+} was located at strategic positions in the oligomerization interface. We further showed that removal of Ca{sup 2+} ions altered the oligomerization state of Csn2, which in turn severely decreased its affinity for ds-DNA. In summary, our results provided the first insight into the function of the Csn2 protein in CRISPR adaptation by revealing that it is a ds-DNA-binding protein functioning at the quaternary structure level and regulated by Ca{sup 2+} ions.

  16. Crystal structure of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Csn2 protein revealed Ca2+-dependent double-stranded DNA binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Kurinov, Igor; Ke, Ailong

    2011-09-02

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated protein genes (cas genes) are widespread in bacteria and archaea. They form a line of RNA-based immunity to eradicate invading bacteriophages and malicious plasmids. A key molecular event during this process is the acquisition of new spacers into the CRISPR loci to guide the selective degradation of the matching foreign genetic elements. Csn2 is a Nmeni subtype-specific cas gene required for new spacer acquisition. Here we characterize the Enterococcus faecalis Csn2 protein as a double-stranded (ds-) DNA-binding protein and report its 2.7 Å tetrameric ring structure. The inner circle of the Csn2 tetrameric ring is ∼26 Å wide and populated with conserved lysine residues poised for nonspecific interactions with ds-DNA. Each Csn2 protomer contains an α/β domain and an α-helical domain; significant hinge motion was observed between these two domains. Ca(2+) was located at strategic positions in the oligomerization interface. We further showed that removal of Ca(2+) ions altered the oligomerization state of Csn2, which in turn severely decreased its affinity for ds-DNA. In summary, our results provided the first insight into the function of the Csn2 protein in CRISPR adaptation by revealing that it is a ds-DNA-binding protein functioning at the quaternary structure level and regulated by Ca(2+) ions.

  17. Survey of foreign graduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In the 1983 American Institute of Physics (AIP) Graduate Student Survey, the issue of foreign versus national students in U.S. graduate programs was explored. In the past decade, the number of entering graduate students from foreign nations in American universities has risen from about 600 to about 1100, an increase from 23% in 1973 to 40% in 1983 of all entering physics graduate students in the United States. There are more than 10,000 graduate students in physics in the United StatesThe benefits, or lack thereof, of having foreign graduate students raises a number of philosophical points. Like all students, foreign students learn from academic programs; but at high competitive levels, they contribute as well. The essence of growth in any academic program is described by the creativity supplied by ever incoming students. In an academically competitive system the question of foreign students displacing U.S. students in graduate programs has no definition. On the other hand, what about the graduate job market after graduation? Some would point to the return of foreign graduates to their homeland as an example of U.S. education efforts not benefitting U.S. society, at least directly. Others worry about foreign graduates flooding the U.S. job market.

  18. Exploiting Information and Communication Technologies in Teaching a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculescu Brândușa-Oana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Education has to constantly adapt and renew itself in order to be compatible with the technology-dominated world we live in. There has been heated debate over the introduction of information and communication technology (ICT in the educational process. The ICT, especially in foreign language teaching, has become the researchers’ focus of attention in the last two decades. Today’s armed forces require highly-skilled military personnel to be digitally literate and to have well-developed cultural awareness, intercultural communication ability and critical thinking competence. In this context, foreign language classes in the military higher education system should become an environment in which language, culture and civilisation encounters may be facilitated and enhanced by ICT, promoting the acquisition of knowledge and skills demanded by the exercise of roles that the armed forces have in the international theatres of operations. This paper aims at examining the necessity of introducing ICT in foreign language teaching, pointing to the numerous advantages of using these new technologies. The paper also discusses the new role and skills of the teacher in the context of exploiting the various resources provided by the ICT. In addition, we mention some of the modalities in which ICT can be put to good use in developing the cadets’ foreign language skills.

  19. VERITAS Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, E.

    VERITAS employs a multi-stage data acquisition chain that extends from the VME readout of custom 500 MHz flash ADC electronics to the construction of telescope events and ultimately the compilation of information from each telescope into array level data. These systems provide access to the programming of the channel level triggers and the FADCs. They also ensure the proper synchronization of event information across the array and provide the first level of data quality monitoring. Additionally, the data acquisition includes features to handle the readout of special trigger types and to monitor channel scaler rates. In this paper we describe the software and hardware components of the systems and the protocols used to communicate between the VME, telescope, and array levels. We also discuss the performance of the data acquisition for array operations.

  20. VERITAS Data Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Hays, E

    2007-01-01

    VERITAS employs a multi-stage data acquisition chain that extends from the VME readout of custom 500 MS/s flash ADC electronics to the construction of telescope events and ultimately the compilation of information from each telescope into array level data. These systems provide access to the programming of the channel level triggers and the FADCs. They also ensure the proper synchronization of event information across the array and provide the first level of data quality monitoring. Additionally, the data acquisition includes features to handle the readout of special trigger types and to monitor channel scaler rates. In this paper we describe the software and hardware components of the systems and the protocols used to communicate between the VME, telescope, and array levels. We also discuss the performance of the data acquisition for array operations.

  1. Gene Acquisition Convergence between Entomopoxviruses and Baculoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Thézé

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisms from diverse phylogenetic origins can thrive within the same ecological niches. They might be induced to evolve convergent adaptations in response to a similar landscape of selective pressures. Their genomes should bear the signature of this process. The study of unrelated virus lineages infecting the same host panels guarantees a clear identification of phyletically independent convergent adaptation. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of genes in the accessory genome shared by unrelated insect large dsDNA viruses: the entomopoxviruses (EPVs, Poxviridae and the baculoviruses (BVs. EPVs and BVs have overlapping ecological niches and have independently evolved similar infection processes. They are, in theory, subjected to the same selective pressures from their host’s immune responses. Their accessory genomes might, therefore, bear analogous genomic signatures of convergent adaption and could point out key genomic mechanisms of adaptation hitherto undetected in viruses. We uncovered 32 homologous, yet independent acquisitions of genes originating from insect hosts, different eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. We showed different evolutionary levels of gene acquisition convergence in these viruses, underlining a continuous evolutionary process. We found both recent and ancient gene acquisitions possibly involved to the adaptation to both specific and distantly related hosts. Multidirectional and multipartite gene exchange networks appear to constantly drive exogenous gene assimilations, bringing key adaptive innovations and shaping the life histories of large DNA viruses. This evolutionary process might lead to genome level adaptive convergence.

  2. Contribution of Error Analysis to Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacide ERDOĞAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is inevitable that learners make mistakes in the process of foreign language learning.However, what is questioned by language teachers is why students go on making the same mistakeseven when such mistakes have been repeatedly pointed out to them. Yet not all mistakes are the same;sometimes they seem to be deeply ingrained, but at other times students correct themselves with ease.Thus, researchers and teachers of foreign language came to realize that the mistakes a person made inthe process of constructing a new system of language is needed to be analyzed carefully, for theypossibly held in them some of the keys to the understanding of second language acquisition. In thisrespect, the aim of this study is to point out the significance of learners’ errors for they provideevidence of how language is learned and what strategies or procedures the learners are employing inthe discovery of language.

  3. Contribution of Error Analysis to Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacide ERDOĞAN

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is inevitable that learners make mistakes in the process of foreign language learning.However, what is questioned by language teachers is why students go on making the same mistakeseven when such mistakes have been repeatedly pointed out to them. Yet not all mistakes are the same;sometimes they seem to be deeply ingrained, but at other times students correct themselves with ease.Thus, researchers and teachers of foreign language came to realize that the mistakes a person made inthe process of constructing a new system of language is needed to be analyzed carefully, for theypossibly held in them some of the keys to the understanding of second language acquisition. In thisrespect, the aim of this study is to point out the significance of learners’ errors for they provideevidence of how language is learned and what strategies or procedures the learners are employing inthe discovery of language.

  4. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation...

  5. Pragmatics and Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fei-fei

    2013-01-01

    Pragmatics has gotten more and more attention since its decades’long history. As a branch of studying linguistics, the studying of pragmatics is focusing on how to understanding and using language in special context, and to achieve the purpose that using foreign language to communicate. Pragmatics makes a new road to solve this problem. This paper is focusing on the rela-tionship between pragmatics and foreign language teaching, the using and the enlightenment. Then we can get more methods to improve the foreign language teaching.

  6. Pragmatics and Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建英

    2014-01-01

    pragmatics has gotten more and more attention since its decades’ long history.As a branch of studying linguistics, the studying of Pragmatics is focusing on how to understanding and using language in special context, and to achieve the purpose that using foreign language to communicate.Pragmatics makes a new road to solve this problem.This paper is focusing on the relationship between pragmatics and foreign language teaching, the using and the enlightenment.Then we can get more methods to improve the foreign language teaching.

  7. Uncommon, undeclared oesophageal foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenroye, M I; Osukoya, A T

    2012-01-01

    We report two cases of unusual and undeclared oesophageal foreign bodies. A small double-rounded calabash or bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria, stuffed with traditional medicine designed to acquire spiritual power. A whole tricotyledonous kola nut Cola nitida also designed to make medicine to gain love from a woman after passing it out in stool. Each case presented with a sudden onset of total dysphagia and history of ingestion of foreign bodies was not volunteered by any despite direct questioning. Plain radiograph of the neck and chest in either case did not reveal presence of foreign body. Both were successfully removed through rigid oesophagoscopy.

  8. HAVE THE RECENT CRISIS AFFECTED FOREIGN BANKS’ POSITIONS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE? (I – GENERAL OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Petria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the extension to what foreign banks reacted during recent crisis in supporting their subsidiaries and thus the host economies. The analysis focuses on a brief theoretical overview and an analysis in terms of foreign claims regarding selected Central and Eastern European countries. We are also interested in finding if the entry mode (acquisition of a existing local bank, greenfield investment, non-resident office did matter in this issue.

  9. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  10. Constitutional Limits of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    foreign policy. With the character of the legal framework surrounding the EU’s external relations increasingly coming under the spotlight, Constitutional Limits of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy critiques the current state of legal affairs in the EU’s external action.......The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the European Union (EU) is a highly exceptional component of the EU legal order. This constitutionalised foreign policy regime, with legal, diplomatic and political DNA woven throughout its fabric, is a distinct sub-system of law on the outer...... and judicial jurisdiction at Union level. There is constitutional significance to the choice of legal basis for foreign policy and external relations acts of the Union. Legal tensions therefore exist in EU external relations between CFSP and non-CFSP fields, as the institutional competences differ in terms...

  11. Cognitive grammar: marking new paths in foreign language teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Llopis García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the usefulness of cognitive grammar for teaching foreign languages, also because of a growing interest for this discipline in recent years. First the author exposes an overview of cognitive grammar, a language model framed in the cognitive linguistics. Although the concept exists since the late 1980s, its applications for second language acquisition is very recent. In the second part of the article the author explains basics of the cognitive grammar, as well as its most important concepts.

  12. Merger and acquisition medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, G S

    1997-01-01

    This discussion of the ramifications of corporate mergers and acquisitions for employees recognizes that employee adaptation to the change can be a long and complex process. The author describes a role the occupational physician can take in helping to minimize the potential adverse health impact of major organizational change.

  13. Interaction and Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红叶

    2016-01-01

    Based on Long's Interaction Hypothesis (IH), the paper examines the aspects of interaction that might facilitate natu-ralistic language development and goes further to propose features of interaction that could encourage classroom second lan-guage acquisition, in the hope that improved classroom interation will enhance teaching effectiveness in language classroom.

  14. Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Barry; Harrington, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A distinction is drawn between representational and processing models of second-language acquisition. The first approach is derived primarily from linguistics, the second from psychology. Both fields, it is argued, need to collaborate more fully, overcoming disciplinary narrowness in order to achieve more fruitful research. (GLR)

  15. Competencies: requirements and acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenn, A.C.; Meng, C.M.; Peters, Z.; Verhagen, A.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is given the key task to prepare the highly talented among the young to fulfil highly qualified roles in the labour market. Successful labour market performance of graduates is generally associated with the acquisition of the correct competencies. Education as an individual investme

  16. Acquisition of Comparison Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaus, Vera; Tiemann, Sonja; Beck, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on the time course of the acquisition of comparison constructions. The order in which comparison constructions (comparatives, measure phrases, superlatives, degree questions, etc.) show up in English- and German-learning children's spontaneous speech is quite fixed. It is shown to be insufficiently determined by…

  17. Surviving mergers & acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Diane L

    2002-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are never easy to implement. The health care landscape is a minefield of failed mergers and uneasy alliances generating great turmoil and pain. But some mergers have been successful, creating health systems that benefit the communities they serve. Five prominent leaders offer their advice on minimizing the difficulties of M&As.

  18. China's Foreign Investment Develops Stably

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In 2006, with the promotion of economic globalization and the rapid development of Chinese economy, the foreign investment of Chinese companies got further accelerated and promoted the fast, coordinated, healthy development of national economy.

  19. Cuba's Revolutionary Foreign Policy Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcos Rodriguez Costa

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the invitation of Cui Liru, President of China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR), Cuban Deputy Foreign Minister Marcos Rodriguez Costa paid a visit to CICIR on November 13, 2006. Following are the contents of his speech in CICIR.

  20. Foreign body in the heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-min; ZHU Hong-yu; WANG Zhen-long; XU Zhao-hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ As an emergency, a foreign body in the heart should generally be removed as early as possible by surgical or non-surgical procedures in order to avoid any complications. Early treatment typically results in a better prognosis.

  1. Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. ... 39. Thomas SH, Goodloe JM. Foreign bodies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. ...

  2. Foreign body in the nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... 168. Thomas SH, Goodloe JM. Foreign bodies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. ...

  3. First Changchun Foreigners Sports Meet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The first Changchun Foreigners Sports Meet came to a successful close on June 3 after five days of fierce but friendly competition,in which participants showed that they attached great importance to participation and friendship.

  4. Development of measures on increase of economic security of merger and acquisition transactions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khmelenko Galyna G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the essence of merger and acquisition processes, characterises their types, analyses positive and negative consequences of these processes. It generalises main methods of assessment of effectiveness of merger and acquisition processes. It analyses dynamics, structure and effectiveness of activity of the banks with foreign capital in Ukraine. It offers measures on increase of effectiveness of regulation of merger and acquisition processes and develops an algorithm of assessment and analysis of the portfolio of bank products under conditions of consolidation of banking institutions.

  5. The Effects of Hypertext Glosses on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jee Hwan

    2010-01-01

    In the field of second language acquisition (SLA), "comprehensible input" (Krashen, 1985) has been considered a critical factor to help learners acquire foreign and second languages (L2). From this perspective, the notion of extensive or free voluntary reading (Day & Bamford, 1998; Krashen, 1993) has emerged that L2 learners should be given more…

  6. The Growth in Mergers and Acquisitions in the United States Publishing Industry: 1984-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Albert N.

    This paper argues that because of a recent, sizable increase in the number of mergers and acquisitions, especially by foreign corporations in the United States, it is possible that a small number of firms could dominate the publishing and information processing industry in the world. The paper outlines briefly the patterns of mergers and…

  7. The Growth in Mergers and Acquisitions in the United States Publishing Industry: 1984-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Albert N.

    This paper argues that because of a recent, sizable increase in the number of mergers and acquisitions, especially by foreign corporations in the United States, it is possible that a small number of firms could dominate the publishing and information processing industry in the world. The paper outlines briefly the patterns of mergers and…

  8. Determinants of cross-border bank acquisitions in transition economies1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; de Haan, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the microeconomic determinants of cross-border bank acquisitions in 11 transition economies over the period 1992-2006. We find that foreign banks target relatively large and efficient banks when they enter transition economies with weak institutions. This evidence provides support for the

  9. The Effect of Feedback and Practice on the Acquisition of Novel Speech Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-sop; LaPointe, Leonard L.; Stierwalt, Julie A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of manipulating several parameters of motor learning theory on participants' phonetic acquisition and retention of utterances in a foreign language (Korean). Method: Thirty-two native English-speaking participants naive to the Korean language were each given 10 Korean sentences to practice and learn. The…

  10. L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

  11. The Acquisition of English Restrictive Relative Clauses by Arab Adult EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroudhan, Hayat Eid

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the challenges faced by Arab adult learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in acquiring English restrictive relative clauses (RRCs), as well as the factors that affect the process of acquisition. This issue has received considerable attention in second language (L2) research. The present study discusses the…

  12. Implications of Second Language Acquisition Theory for Business English Teaching in Current China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzhong, Zhu; Muchun, Wan

    2015-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) as a sub-branch of applied linguistics has been researched by Chinese and foreign scholars for over 40 years, but few researches have been done on its implications for Business English teaching which needs more language teaching theories to support. This paper makes a review of related studies, and puts forward a…

  13. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  14. Investors in land: Perspectives on investors engaged in transnational land acquisitions in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlerken, T. van; Wal, F. van der; Westen, A.C.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Transnational land acquisitions have been a sensitive issue on the international agenda since about 2008. Although this phenomenon is by no means new, there is growing evidence that the scale at which foreign land is being acquired has vastly increased in recent years. , widely considered to be the

  15. The Impact of CLIL on the Acquisition of L2 Competences and Skills in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Moreno de Diezmas, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide new evidence on the effectiveness of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in the acquisition of English language competences (reading, writing, listening and spoken production and interaction) compared to traditional learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) in primary school settings. To do so,…

  16. Playing to Learn: A Review of Physical Games in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Brian; Masuhara, Hitomi

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the potential of competitive games involving physical movement to facilitate the acquisition of a second or foreign language and argues that such activities can promote educational development too. It first provides a critical overview of the literature on physical games in language learning. Then, it outlines our…

  17. The Effects of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies on Learners’ Motivation: A Controlled Investigation of Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovsky, Christo; Alrabai, Fakieh; Paolini, Stefania; Ratcheva, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    While consensus exists about the critical role of learners’ motivation in second language acquisition, controlled investigations of the effects of teachers’ motivational strategies are limited. The research reported here used a quasi-experimental design to assess the effects of motivational strategies used by Saudi English as a foreign language…

  18. Variables Afectivas en la Adquisicion de la segunda lengua (Affective Variables in Second Language Acquisition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Margarita; And Others

    This report focuses on a study of three affective variables in second language acquisition: anxiety, self-concept, and timidity. The study was conducted on 92 high school English-as-a-foreign-language students in Barcelona, Spain. Subject performance was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Scale, the Spanish version of the Tennessee Self-Concept…

  19. The Effects of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies on Learners’ Motivation: A Controlled Investigation of Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovsky, Christo; Alrabai, Fakieh; Paolini, Stefania; Ratcheva, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    While consensus exists about the critical role of learners’ motivation in second language acquisition, controlled investigations of the effects of teachers’ motivational strategies are limited. The research reported here used a quasi-experimental design to assess the effects of motivational strategies used by Saudi English as a foreign language…

  20. Review of Doctoral Research in Second Language Acquisition in Germany (2006-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrent, Sigrid; Doff, Sabine; Marx, Nicole; Ziegler, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Our overview of current dissertation work at German universities has identified four main strands of research interest within the field of second language acquisition (SLA). The 38 Ph.D. theses reviewed here were all read between 2006 and 2009 and fall into the subject areas of: foreign language (FL) teaching in primary school, Content and…

  1. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  2. More than Words: Fast Acquisition and Generalization of Orthographic Regularities during Novel Word Learning in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Matti; Polonyi, Tünde; Abari, Kálmán

    2014-01-01

    In literates, reading is a fundamental channel for acquiring new vocabulary both in the mother tongue and in foreign languages. By using an artificial language learning task, we examined the acquisition of novel written words and their embedded regularities (an orthographic surface feature and a syllabic feature) in three groups of university…

  3. Attenuated Shigella as a DNA Delivery Vehicle for DNA-Mediated Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Donata R.; Branstrom, Arthur A.; Sadoff, Jerald C.

    1995-10-01

    Direct inoculation of DNA, in the form of purified bacterial plasmids that are unable to replicate in mammalian cells but are able to direct cell synthesis of foreign proteins, is being explored as an approach to vaccine development. Here, a highly attenuated Shigella vector invaded mammalian cells and delivered such plasmids into the cytoplasm of cells, and subsequent production of functional foreign protein was measured. Because this Shigella vector was designed to deliver DNA to colonic mucosa, the method is a potential basis for oral and other mucosal DNA immunization and gene therapy strategies.

  4. Foreign investment multinational companies and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    There is no universal answer on the question whether foreign investments stimulate economic development. The positive effect of foreign direct investments will follow when the investments is carried out under normal conditions of competition. That means, above all, low barriers for foreign trade and the low level of restrictions for foreign owned companies. In such circumstances, multinational corporations can assist the economies of penetration to make its businesses more efficient. Foreign ...

  5. RF merger and acquisition market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya V. Vidishcheva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article gives brief characteristic of merger and acquisition market situation in Russia, brings in overview of bargains in 2009–2010. Russian merger and acquisition market is in early stage of development.

  6. RF merger and acquisition market

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeniya V. Vidishcheva; Merab S. Sichinava; Marina V. Kogan

    2011-01-01

    The article gives brief characteristic of merger and acquisition market situation in Russia, brings in overview of bargains in 2009–2010. Russian merger and acquisition market is in early stage of development.

  7. UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition For the UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition proposal, a new 400 MHz and an upgraded 500 MHz NMR ...UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition Report Title For the UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition proposal, a new 400 MHz and an upgraded 500...MHz NMR have been delivered, installed, and incorporated into research and two lab courses. While no results from these instruments have been

  8. Serbian language acquisition in communist Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorescu-Marinković Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a unique linguistic phenomenon characterizing Romania’s western border areas for almost a decade, in the 1980s: the acquisition of the Serbian language by Romanians in Timişoara under the communist regime, primarily through exposure to Yugoslav television programmes. It gives a necessarily sketchy overview of private life under communism, notably the situation in the Banat province, whose privileged position as a result of being closest to the West both geographically and culturally was reflected in the acceptance of pluralism and a critical attitude towards authoritarianism. Taking into account the literature on foreign language acquisition through exposure to television programmes, the study is based on a research involving Romanian natives of Timişoara who, although lacking any formal instruction in Serbian, intensively and regularly watched Yugoslav television programmes in the period in question, and on evaluating their competence and proficiency in Serbian, through language tests, narrative interviews in Romanian and free conversations in Serbian. The conclusion is that most respondents, despite the varying degree of proficiency in Serbian depending on their active use of the language before and after 1989, showed a strong pragmatic competence, which appears to contradict the author’s initial hypothesis.

  9. THE SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION OF ENGLISH CONCORD (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Setiawan Husada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the types and causes of errors in learning the English concord among Indonesian students of English. The errors would be focused on the students’ interlingual (mother tongue as well as intralingual (learning strategies interference. The data were all collected from the students at Satya Wacana Christian University, Indonesia. Two research questions were answered: 1 between interlingual and intralingual errors, which one did the participants make more in learning English concord? 2 Among intralingual errors, which source of errors was the most evident? Fifteen students (n = 15 participated in this study. In regard to the data collection and analysis, I used the steps suggested by Corder (1974, in Ellis and Barkhuizen, 2005. The results of this study suggest that the intralingual errors were more significant than interlingual ones in the acquisition of the concord. The results were in line with some of the previous findings found by Bataineh (2005, Chan (2004, Duskova (1983, Lim (2003, and Richards (1983. They also supported the claim in the field of SLA that acquisition of a foreign language is determined by the nature of the language that the learners are learning, rather than through contrast between the learners’ first language and the target language.

  10. The effects of international acquisitions in Serbia on status and engagement of human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Rakita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades globalization and deregulation of international economy has been noticeably accelerated. Consequently, new globalized business environment with numerous business opportunities as well as growing business risks has been made. The new business environment opened the door to intensive implementation of acquisitions as a market entry strategy. Foreign direct investments (FDI in most of transition countries, including Serbia, predominantly come in the form of international acquisitions. There is a wide theoretical analysis of the effects of FDIs on target country economy. The overall conclusion is that green field projects, in comparison with international acquisitions, have more favorable effects on all aspects of host country’s economy. This paper examines the effects of international acquisitions in Serbia on work practices, wages and productivity using the analysis of the financial statements and the results of survey carried out among the foreign investors. It was found that decline of employment; productivity growth and increase in real wages are the results of the acquisitions. The survey also shows that the foreign investors invested in training and development of the acquired employees.

  11. Locative Terms and Warlpiri Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavin, Edith L.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the influence of language specific properties in the acquisition of locative expressions. Some of the claims from literature on the acquisition of locative expressions are discussed and data from the acquisition of Warlpiri are presented and discussed in terms of these claims. (Author/CB)

  12. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  13. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  14. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    De Marcken, C

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unse...

  15. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloor, Robert

    1998-12-31

    Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  17. Stock market driven acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Shleifer, Andrei; Vishny, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of mergers and acquisitions based on stock market misvaluations of the combining firms. The key ingredients of the model are the relative valuations of the merging firms and the market’s perception of the synergies from the combination. The model explains who acquires whom, the choice of the medium of payment, the valuation consequences of mergers, and merger waves. The model is consistent with available empirical findings about characteristics and returns of merging firms,...

  18. Stock Market Driven Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Shleifer; Vishny, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    We present a model of mergers and acquisitions based on stock market misvaluations of the combining firms. The key ingredients of the model are the relative valuations of the merging firms, the horizons of their respective managers, and the market's perception of the synergies from the combination. The model explains who acquirers whom, whether the medium of payment is cash or stock, what are the valuation consequences of mergers, and why there are merger waves. The model is consistent with a...

  19. Defense ADP Acquisition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-30

    Government Operations Committee HOI - Headquarters Operating Tnstructions vii HOL - Higher Order Language HQ - Headquarters HW - Hardware I IFB...generates lengthy acquisition times, but rather, the basis for the delays is related to the Air Force acqusition process. -5- (2) The Current Air...information resources is stressed, the Senate language in the bill, and the specific wording in the law, dis- claim an expansion of GSA’s authority, as defined

  20. Second language acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Indefrey, P; Davidson, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews neurocognitive evidence on second language (L2) processing at speech sound, word, and sentence levels. Hemodynamic (functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography) data suggest that L2s are implemented in the same brain structures as the native language but with quantitative differences in the strength of activation that are modulated by age of L2 acquisition and L2 proficiency. Electrophysiological data show a more complex pattern of first and L2 ...

  1. Language Acquisition in Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Belzner, Megan; Colin-Ellerin, Sean; Roman, Jorge H.

    2012-01-01

    This project explores the nature of language acquisition in computers, guided by techniques similar to those used in children. While existing natural language processing methods are limited in scope and understanding, our system aims to gain an understanding of language from first principles and hence minimal initial input. The first portion of our system was implemented in Java and is focused on understanding the morphology of language using bigrams. We use frequency distributions and differ...

  2. Second language acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Indefrey, P.; Davidson, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews neurocognitive evidence on second language (L2) processing at speech sound, word, and sentence levels. Hemodynamic (functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography) data suggest that L2s are implemented in the same brain structures as the native language but with quantitative differences in the strength of activation that are modulated by age of L2 acquisition and L2 proficiency. Electrophysiological data show a more complex pattern of first and L2 ...

  3. Assessment of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Peter A; de Villiers, Jill G

    2010-03-01

    This review addresses questions of what should be assessed in language acquisition, and how to do it. The design of a language assessment is crucially connected to its purpose, whether for diagnosis, development of an intervention plan, or for research. Precise profiles of language strengths and weaknesses are required for clear definitions of the phenotypes of particular language and neurodevelopmental disorders. The benefits and costs of formal tests versus language sampling assessments are reviewed. Content validity, theoretically and empirically grounded in child language acquisition, is claimed to be centrally important for appropriate assessment. Without this grounding, links between phenomena can be missed, and interpretations of underlying difficulties can be compromised. Sensitivity and specificity of assessment instruments are often assessed using a gold standard of existing tests and diagnostic practices, but problems arise if that standard is biased against particular groups or dialects. The paper addresses the issues raised by the goal of unbiased assessment of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, especially speakers of non-mainstream dialects or bilingual children. A variety of new approaches are discussed for language assessment, including dynamic assessment, experimental tools such as intermodal preferential looking, and training studies that assess generalization. Stress is placed on the need for measures of the process of acquisition rather than just levels of achievement. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffs, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a field that investigates child and adult SLA from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This article provides a survey of some key areas of concern including formal generative theory and emergentist theory in the areas of morpho-syntax and phonology. The review details the theoretical stance of the two different approaches to the nature of language: generative linguistics and general cognitive approaches. Some results of key acquisition studies from the two theoretical frameworks are discussed. From a generative perspective, constraints on wh-movement, feature geometry and syllable structure, and morphological development are highlighted. From a general cognitive point of view, the emergence of tense and aspect marking from a prototype account of inherent lexical aspect is reviewed. Reference is made to general cognitive learning theories and to sociocultural theory. The article also reviews individual differences research, specifically debate on the critical period in adult language acquisition, motivation, and memory. Finally, the article discusses the relationship between SLA research and second language pedagogy. Suggestions for further reading from recent handbooks on SLA are provided. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 277-286 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.106 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form.

  6. Purchase Intention of Foreign Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate various factors that influence consumers’ intention of buying foreign products. The data were collected by means of self-structured questionnaires from a total of 260 Bangladeshi consumers residing in the two major cities of the country, Dhaka and Chittagong. At the initial stage, statistical analyses, particularly descriptive analysis as well as exploratory factor analysis, were conducted using SPSS, after which structural equation modeling was run by using AMOS. The findings have established that brand image and quality of foreign products carry significant positive influence on purchase intention of foreign products. However, religiosity leaves a significant negative effect on the purchase intention of foreign products. Furthermore, findings have also revealed that the image of the country of origin carries a significant positive effect on brand image but ethnocentrism carries a significant negative effect on perceptions about the quality of foreign products in their purchase intention. The major contribution of the current study is that it focuses on Bangladesh, as there is a vacuum in contemporary literature on this topic in the context of Bangladeshi consumers. The findings derived from the study could facilitate marketers in the creation of effective marketing strategies and at the same time are also valuable for academicians as well as consumers at large.

  7. EUROPEANIZATION OF ROMANIAN FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Popescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses various aspects of the Europeanization of Romanian foreign policy: elite socialization, bureaucratic reorganization, institutional and policy adaptation to the requirements and exigencies of EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP, projection of national interests onto CFSP agenda and decisions. There is very little written in the literature on the subject of Romanian foreign policy Europeanization. From this standpoint this article fills a gap and indicates an area of research in need to be explored. The paper is using a series of Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA documents related to its organizational changes as well as a number of interviews with diplomats. It is trying to test in the case of Romania a few relevant theses written by significant authors with reference to the Europeanization of other Member States. It draws a number of conclusions – most of them confirming important theses on Europeanization. It ends by remarking the uneven character and the short length of the Romanian foreign policy Europeanization.

  8. Foreign bodies in the torax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćerimagić Zenaida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metallic foreign bodies in the lung could be recognized using radiography. Non-metallic foreign bodies make difficulties because they are not as dense as metals. The aim of this report was to present the case of nonmetallic foreign bodies in the lung. Case report. A soldier of the Federation Army of Bosnia and Hertzegovina, injured in the explosion in 1998 was presented. The soldier was subjected to thoracic drainage and surgery tretment of the wound. After one year, the pulmologist treated him with tuberculostatics because of hemoptysis and pulmonary infiltration shown by a radiogram. This therapy had no effects, and the pulmologist presented this case to the thoracic surgeon who made thoracotomy removing a piece of wood (13 × 2 × 0.7 cm, 20 different-size pieces of wood, and a piece of textile from the lung. Conclusion. Patients with penetrating explosive lung injuries without metallic foreign bodies shown by a radiogram, with complications as hemoptisis, lung abscess, bronchiectasis, obstruction of the bronchus, chronic pneumonia should be subjected to thoracotomy for removing suspected foreign bodies without resecting the lung.

  9. 学前儿童汉语二语习得中的模仿策略研究--以菲律宾Clayton幼儿园教学实践为例%Simulation strategies in the acquisition of CSL of foreign pre-school children:a case study of Clayton Learning Center in the Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜

    2014-01-01

    关于模仿在儿童母语习得中的作用,许多学者已经做了深入研究。但是,模仿在学前儿童汉语二语习得中的具体作用似乎还没有得到详尽的论述。文章以两个年龄组的菲律宾儿童课堂汉语学习语料为基础,对学前儿童在汉语习得过程中采用初级模仿策略和高级模仿策略的具体情况进行分析。文章还阐释了汉语基础及年龄两个因素对儿童选择具体模仿策略的影响,并详尽分析了模仿在学前儿童汉语二语习得中的具体作用机制。%Though the function of simulation in mother-tongue acquisition has received much study, there is still a lot to be studied in the field of pre-school children learning Chinese as a second lan-guage.Based on the authentic dialogues of children in Chinese classes,this paper describes the details of the Philippine pre-school children using simulation strategies.It also discusses the effects of Chi-nese proficiency and age on the choosing of a particular simulation strategy by children,and finally re-veals the specific mechanisms of simulation in pre-school children's acquisition of Chinese as a second language.

  10. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival probabil......Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival...... probability. On average exit risk for domestic companies is 2.3 times higher than for foreign companies. First movers like Siemens, Philips, Kodak, Ford, GM or Goodyear have been active in the country for almost a century. Relative foreign survival increases with company age. However, the foreign survival...

  11. Input in Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Madden, Carolyn G., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers includes: "When Does Teacher Talk Work as Input?"; "Cultural Input in Second Language Learning"; "Skilled Variation in a Kindergarten Teacher's Use of Foreigner Talk"; "Teacher-Pupil Interaction in Second Language Development"; "Foreigner Talk in the University…

  12. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  13. Unusual Foreign Body of Pancreas: Surgical Management

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    Thakur Deen Yadav

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Context The foreign ingestion is common occurrence but migration to pancreas is rare entity. Most of foreign bodies passspontaneously through the anus but about 1% can perforate the wall of stomach or duodenum to reach solid organ.Pancreatic foreign body can results in fatal complication. Pancreatic foreign body can be removed endoscopically orsurgically. Case report We are reporting a case of successful removal of pancreatic foreign body (sewing needle by surgery. Conclusion Pancreatic foreign body is a uncommon entity and surgical removal is warranted in majority of cases.

  14. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  15. Foreign Body Aspiration in Pregnancy

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    Andrew L. Atkinson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old morbidly obese African American gravida 1, with a history of severe asthma complicated by multiple inpatient admissions, presents at 30 weeks gestation with a foreign body in her left main stem bronchus. After a failed bronchoscopy postpartum, the patient slipped into respiratory failure and was subsequently intubated, spending two weeks in the intensive care unit. After two more attempts of trying to retrieve the foreign object from her lung via bronchoscopy, she eventually contracted a postobstructive pneumonia and underwent a left lower lung lobectomy for curative treatment.

  16. Creativity in foreign language teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ševečková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing creativity in foreign language teaching provides students with the opportunity to effectively build language skills as well as increasing their motivation for learning. Practical examples are given using folklore materials (songs, tales, etc. in learning Russian, as well as contemporary materials reflecting the culture of Russian speaking countries (films, poems, etc.. As well as increasing their ability in the target foreign language students also acquire factual information (realia through creative language games. In this paper we describe recent findings in the field and propose possible directions for future research.

  17. Intravascular foreign bodies: danger of unretrieved fragmented medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Minori; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2009-01-01

    A warning on the danger of unretrieved device fragments and recommendations to mitigate the danger were issued by the Food and Drug Administration in January 2008. The causes of intravascular foreign bodies are classified into three main categories: improper manipulation and usage, device defects, and others, such as patient and anatomical factors. Device failure after long-term use is rarely predicted at the time of approval, since device abnormality is rarely experienced in animal studies and clinical trials conducted during development of the device. Stent fracture due to metal fatigue is one example. Complex complications could occur from simultaneous use of two or more devices with diverse characteristics. The success rate of percutaneous retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies has improved with the advances in commercially available devices. However, the procedure is not always successful and sometimes surgical removal becomes necessary. Appropriate device selection and acquisition of experience in using the device are important. When an intravascular foreign body cannot be retrieved, the risk of complication could be high. Magnetic resonance imaging examination sometimes causes adverse events, including burns due to the heat generated by metal movement. Such information should be correctly recorded. Furthermore, it is necessary to provide patients with adequate information about the characteristics of implanted devices and unretrieved fragments. We reviewed the literature on unretrieved medical device fragments and include articles that describe the Japanese experience.

  18. Lexical retrieval stages of momentarily inaccessible foreign language words1 Lexical retrieval stages of momentarily inaccessible foreign language words1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ecke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of foreign language (FL vocabulary involves two aspects: (1 learning to recognize a word’s meaning, and (2 becoming able to retrieve or produce the word’s form in speech production. The second aspect usually takes more time and practice to be developed. While learners may have no problem understanding a FL word’s meaning, they frequently are unable to recall the word when necessary. Probably the most frustrating form of word retrieval failures is the so-called tip-of-the-tongue (TOT phenomenon: Sometimes we look for a certain word or phrase which we feel we know but at the time cannot find and articulate it. The acquisition of foreign language (FL vocabulary involves two aspects: (1 learning to recognize a word’s meaning, and (2 becoming able to retrieve or produce the word’s form in speech production. The second aspect usually takes more time and practice to be developed. While learners may have no problem understanding a FL word’s meaning, they frequently are unable to recall the word when necessary. Probably the most frustrating form of word retrieval failures is the so-called tip-of-the-tongue (TOT phenomenon: Sometimes we look for a certain word or phrase which we feel we know but at the time cannot find and articulate it.

  19. The NUSTAR data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeher, B.; Toernqvist, H.T. [TU Darmstadt (Germany); GSI (Germany); Agramunt, J. [IFIC, CSIC (Spain); Bendel, M.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Le Bleis, T.; Winkel, M. [TU Muenchen (Germany); Charpy, A.; Heinz, A.; Johansson, H.T. [Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden); Coleman-Smith, P.; Lazarus, I.H.; Pucknell, V.F.E. [STFC Daresbury (United Kingdom); Czermak, A. [IFJ (Poland); Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Pietri, S.; Schaffner, H.; Simon, H. [GSI (Germany); Scheit, H. [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Taieb, J. [CEA (France)

    2015-07-01

    The diversity of upcoming experiments within the NUSTAR collaboration, including experiments in storage rings, reactions at relativistic energies and high-precision spectroscopy, is reflected in the diversity of the required detection systems. A challenging task is to incorporate the different needs of individual detectors within the unified NUSTAR Data AcQuisition (NDAQ). NDAQ takes up this challenge by providing a high degree of availability via continuously running systems, high flexibility via experiment-specific configuration files for data streams and trigger logic, distributed timestamps and trigger information on km distances, all built on the solid basis of the GSI Multi-Branch System. NDAQ ensures interoperability between individual NUSTAR detectors and allows merging of formerly separate data streams according to the needs of all experiments, increasing reliability in NUSTAR data acquisition. An overview of the NDAQ infrastructure and the current progress is presented. The NUSTAR (NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions) collaboration represents one of the four pillars motivating the construction of the international FAIR facility. The diversity of NUSTAR experiments, including experiments in storage rings, reactions at relativistic energies and high-precision spectroscopy, is reflected in the diversity of the required detection systems. A challenging task is to incorporate the different needs of individual detectors and components under the umbrella of the unified NUSTAR Data AQuisition (NDAQ) infrastructure. NDAQ takes up this challenge by providing a high degree of availability via continuously running systems, high flexibility via experiment-specific configuration files for data streams and trigger logic, and distributed time stamps and trigger information on km distances, all built on the solid basis of the GSI Multi-Branch System (MBS). NDAQ ensures interoperability between individual NUSTAR detectors and allows merging of formerly separate

  20. The Behavioral Bias of Foreign Debt Usage in Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    Euro (forward contract) or borrows in US dollars (foreign debt) instead of borrowing in Euro makes no difference in foreign exchange exposure terms. Accordingly, Géczy et al. (1997) note that foreign debt can act as a hedge of foreign revenues and displace the need to hedge with derivatives. We analyze......We investigate the behavioral bias in the use of debt denominated in foreign currency (foreign debt) in managing foreign exchange risks. From a strictly financial (rational) point of view foreign debt and derivates are close substitutes. Whether e.g. a European firm sells forward US dollars against...... foreign exchange risk management in medium-sized, non-financial firms in Denmark and find a behavioral bias in the use of foreign debt. Among the firms that are internationally involved (operating revenues, costs and/or assets in foreign currency), on average a quarter of the financial debt is denominated...