WorldWideScience

Sample records for foreign countries growth

  1. Outward foreign direct investments and home country's economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielska, Dorota; Kołtuniak, Marcin

    2017-09-01

    The study examines the time stability of the causality direction and cross-correlations between the home country's economic growth and pace of growth of its outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) stocks within the complex system of the Polish national economy. The research has been performed in order to verify, using both the time and frequency domains time series analyses, if economic agents' long term decisions on outward foreign direct investments, leading to cross-border value chains and production fragmentation processes, are of adaptive or predictive character. Consequently, the aim was to check if the home country's economic growth leads the internationalization processes of domestic enterprises, which stays in line with Dunning's Investment Development Path (IDP) paradigm, or if these complex processes, thanks to entrepreneurs' ability to formulate relevant rational expectations, precede the home country's economic growth, which would be supported with the introduction of the policy on reinforcing the internationalization processes of domestic enterprises. The presence of the unidirectional economic growth-led internationalization, consistent with the IDP concept's base assumptions, has been ascertained by the results of the short term Granger causality tests. Nevertheless, the results of the wavelet analyses, supported with the results of the econometric block exogeneity long term causality Wald tests, have revealed that in the long term the OFDI stocks' growth permanently precedes the home country's economic growth, which stays in the unequivocal contrast with the IDP paradigm's premises, as well as with the indicated above short term Granger causality tests' outcomes and indicates that economic agents' choices are not strictly of adaptive but also of predictive character, which influences the current state of knowledge on economic complex systems' characteristics. Such a result is of a great importance in the light of the existence of the significant

  2. IMPACTS OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Bosanac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis raises many questions and the most important imperative is to find solutions and recover the world economy. Neoliberalism as a cause of the crisis has shown fundamental shortcomings and proved that the market is an imperfect self-regulating system. At the present time in the media, politicians and some economists mention foreign direct investment (FDI as a life-saving solution for economic problems and economic growth. The analysis of the economic indicators proved that FDI cannot be, to the necessary extent, a generator of economic growth and that development of each country should be based on endogenous components. The development of critical thinking and questioning of the neoliberal concept, especially with today's time distance through comparisons of indicators such as economic growth, absence of inflation, employment and the export-import ratio, has revealed major systemic defects of the market fundamentalist policies. A strong indicator and argument to this thesis is particularly evident in the industrial production indexes, in the number of industrial workers and in the share of industry in GDP of transition countries.

  3. Complementarity of Foreign Aid and Domestic Savings as Drivers of Economic Growth: Evidence from WAMZ Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola Felix Arawomo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of foreign aid and domestic savings on economic growth in the WAMZ countries, while including control variables: domestic investment, labour force, trade openness, financial liberalization and foreign direct investment. Panel Data Analysis and GMM were compared for the period 1980 and 2012. The paper found that economic growth obviously deteriorates with foreign aid and hence does not complement the role of saving on economic growth of the WAMZ countries. Savings on the other hand was found to be positively significant in increasing economic growth in the sub-region. Labour force and financial liberation (M2 and FDI exhibit economic growth. A policy implication of the result is that the countries in the West African Monetary Zone should be wary in soliciting for foreign aid. If foreign aids become expedient, then it should be channeled to productive ventures.

  4. DOES FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IMPROVE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CEMAC COUNTRIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMMANUEL BRUNO  ONGO NKOA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research work is to assess the influence of FDI on economic growth in the CEMAC region. The ratio of FDIs in the actual GDP of countries of the CEMAC region has recorded a steady annual increase for the past three decades. Moreover, the high variability of FDI, given the various crises and fluctuations in the prices of raw materials invites us to reflect and question the impact of FDI on growth by studying the case of CEMAC countries. The theoretical analysis is based on the neoclassical growth theory and its extensions. After the selection of a model crafted from Imoudu (2012 and Boreinsztein et al. (1998. The results show that FDI have a positive impact on the growth of the sub-region and these are conveyed by human capital.

  5. THE DUALITY OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH FOR COMPANIES AND COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Current civilization increasingly relies more and more on economic interdependence. In this context, the organizations, be they companies or states, are forced to grow by integrating these interdependencies into their development process. In this process of interdependent integration each participant identifies advantages wishing to exploit their own development process, pursuing a sustainable kind of development by avoiding any risks and identify as many opportunities. Direct investments in various world economies represent the spearhead for this process of identifying opportunities and reduce risk in a global development process. This process ensures both the safety on medium and long-term development and rapid application for their development plans of both companies and the economies of various countries of the world. Through this study we identified the main opportunities sought by world states in this process of internationalization of business and globalization of markets. But we also highlighted the limitations of this process and regulation needs of investing processes in order to ensure the sustainability of the process. The second advantaged component in this process of international expansion and increase of economic interconnection is represented by multinationals enjoying benefits far superior to those of states in the medium-term development. However the limits of investing process force the companies to require certain advantages or guarantees during the progress of investment processes. Thus, we highlight a duality of foreign direct investment opposing on the one hand the companies interested to secure their international operations and liberalization of markets and states requiring a relatively regulated investment process to avoid dependence on foreign capital.

  6. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH – EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Cornel Dumiter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization and globalization of economical problems, industrial manufacturing, and the movement of financial capital, determine the investment activities to become a global one, with implications for all the national and world wide economies. As a result, the foreign direct investments, throughout their economical constitution and substance, form a part of the economical relationships and international cooperation, which bring an essential contribution to the economical growth, creating work places, optimize the allocation of resources, enabling technology transfer and stimulate trading. Foreign Direct Investments have presently become the most important source of external funding for all the countries, regardless of their level of development. This kind of investments proved to be a more stable and used source of funding than the portfolio investments or the bank loans, as they are less affected by the financial crisis. Against this background, global direct financial investments flows remain one of the main manifestations of globalization, which is easily demonstrated if we reflect on the fact that currently over 50% of everything that happens in the world, be it product or services, is carried out by subsidiaries of transnational corporations, namely companies resulting from direct financial investments. It is estimated that the volume, structure and geographical distribution of foreign direct investments will be "patterned" in the proportion of 50% by the international economic situation, the implications of the crisis on the global financial system.

  7. Foreign Direct Investment in China; Some Lessons for Other Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Harm Zebregs; Wanda S Tseng

    2002-01-01

    China's increasing openness to foreign direct investment (FDI) has contributed importantly to its exceptional growth performance. This paper examines China's experience with FDI and identifies some lessons for other countries. Most of the factors explaining China's success have also been important in attracting FDI to other countries: market size, labor costs, quality of infrastructure, and government policies. FDI has contributed to higher investment and productivity growth, and has created ...

  8. Transport jet aircraft noise abatement in foreign countries: Growth, structure, impact. Volume 1: Europe, July 1980. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, F.A.

    1980-07-01

    The development and implementation of aircraft noise control regulations in various European states are described. The countries include the United Kingdom, France, Switzerland, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Topics discussed include noise monitoring, airport curfews, land use planning, and the government structure for noise regulation.

  9. IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS ON CROATIAN FINANCIAL GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments are for the transition and less developed countries very important source of capital. Such investments have very positive impact on country’s economy in terms of employment growth, industrial production growth, gross domestic product growth, favorable effects on the balance of payments and many other positive impacts for country economy, so it’s not strange that countries in the absence of its domestic investors, are trying to attract foreign investors. Foreign investors analyze in detail possibilities and risks of each country, and if the risks exceed the opportunities there will be no inflow of foreign capital. Therefore every country which is trying to attract foreign direct investments must take care about the policy and its economy and try to be most attractive as it can be.

  10. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilia Loukil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A large number of countries have enacted laws aimed at making it easier for firms to invest in their country, while many countries offer various monetary incentives and tax incentives to encourage inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. The desire to attract FDI is due not only to the fact that FDI brings in new investment boosting national income and employment, but also due to the expectation that inward FDI would also provide additional spillover benefits to the local economy that can result in higher productivity growth and increased export growth. This study aims to examine the impact of foreign direct investment on innovation in developing countries. The estimation of a panel threshold model on a sample of 54 developing countries for the 1980-2009 period shows the presence of non linear effects in the relationship between FDI and innovation. We find a threshold value of technological development below which FDI has a negative impact on innovation and above which FDI has a significant positive impact on innovation. We conclude that it is not enough for economic policy to attract foreign investments, it is still necessary to support domestic firms to build an absorptive capacity allowing them to enjoy the benefits of multinational firms.

  11. Recent growth trends in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    The unprecedented economic conditions of the mid-1970s have created problems with economic development for all countries of the world. Recent economic growth trends in the following main groups of developing countries are reviewed: 1) low-income countries; 2) lower middle-income countries; 3) intermediate middle-income countries; 4) upper middle-come countries; and 5) balance of payments deficit oil exporting countries. Economic indicators for each group of countries are tabulated. The tables show that the developing countries have continued domestic economic growth at only moderately slower rates during the years since 1973. They have been helped by foreign aid or private-source borrowing. As a group, they have, in fact, helped to keep the world economy from plunging deeper into recession and to prevent world trade from contracting more than it actually did already in 1974 and 1975. The performance of these developing economies during these difficult years contributes to continued optimism regarding their future prospects.

  12. Foreign minorities from developing countries in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, V; Aguilera, M J; Gonzalez-yanci, M P

    1993-07-01

    "Spain, which has always been a land of emigrants, is currently a centre of attraction for immigrants, as are other countries in Mediterranean Europe. The proportion is not as high as in other countries with a longer tradition of immigration. In this survey we selected the six nationalities which provide the highest numbers of immigrants from the developing world, and which have the greatest racial or cultural contrast to the native population. We analyse their structural features, whether or not immigrants from the same country...collect in the Madrid Metropolitan Area, the recent mobility of the immigrant population, and the evolution of immigration since the Administration carried out a regularization process, as well as Spaniards' opinion of foreign immigrants."

  13. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is followed by a foreign capital outflow which at the end will destabilize the balance of external payments and will overall result in no favorable effect upon the economy of their countries.

  14. Macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility: A case of South Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Waqas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic factors play a pivotal role in attracting foreign investment in the country. This study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility in South Asian countries. The monthly data is collected for the period ranging from 2000 to 2012 for four Asian countries i.e. China, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka because monthly data is ideal for measuring portfolio investment volatility. For measuring volatility in foreign portfolio investment, GARCH (1,1 is used because shocks are responded quickly by this model. The results reveal that there exists significant relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility. Thus, less volatility in international portfolio flows is associated with high interest rate, currency depreciation, foreign direct investment, lower inflation, and higher GDP growth rate of the host country. Thus findings of this study suggest that foreign portfolio investors focus on stable macroeconomic environment of country.

  15. A Correlative Analysis on the Foreign Trade of Xinjiang-Five Central Asian Countries and Economic Growth of Xinjiang%中亚五国对外贸易与新疆经济增长的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骥; 王志远

    2015-01-01

    新疆对中亚五国的外贸在新疆对外贸易中的比重达到70%以上,对新疆经济增长具有重要作用。文章以1999-2013年为样本期,利用统计数据,对新疆-中亚五国的对外贸易进行了统计分析,并对新疆-中亚五国的对外贸易与新疆经济增长的关系进行了实证研究。研究结果显示:新疆-中亚五国的对外贸易与经济增长之间存在长期动态均衡关系;新疆对中亚五国的出口是经济增长的Granger因,新疆地区GDP的增长是新疆对中亚五国进口的Granger因。因此,加强中国新疆与中亚五国的双边贸易有益于双方经济增长。%Astract: Foreign trade between Xinjiang and five central Asian countries accounts for more than 70% of the total volume of foreign trade of Xinjiang, and has played an important role in the economic growth of Xinjiang. This paper analyzes the features of foreign trade of Xinjiang and the relationship of the foreign trade between Xinjiang and five central Asian countries based on statistics from 1999 to 2013. It shows that there lies the relationship of long-term dynamic equilibrium between the foreign trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries and the economic growth of Xinjiang, export trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries is the Granger cause of the economic growth of Xinjiang, and the economic growth of Xinjiang is the Granger cause of import trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries. Therefore, the strengthening bilateral trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries is beneficial to the economic growth of both sides.

  16. Problems with packaged sources in foreign countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeyta, Cristy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matzke, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zarling, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tompkin, J. Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP), which is administered by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), removes excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential threat to national security, public health, and safety. In total, GTRI/OSRP has been able to recover more than 25,000 excess and unwanted sealed sources from over 825 sites. In addition to transuranic sources, the GTRI/OSRP mission now includes recovery of beta/gamma emitting sources, which are of concern to both the U.S. government and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper provides a synopsis of cooperative efforts in foreign countries to remove excess and unwanted sealed sources by discussing three topical areas: (1) The Regional Partnership with the International Atomic Energy Agency; (2) Challenges in repatriating sealed sources; and (3) Options for repatriating sealed sources.

  17. TAX COMPETITION REGARDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT BETWEEN TRANSITION EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona DUMITRIU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the fiscal measures adopted in the transition European countries in order toencourage the foreign direct investment. There were analysed six countries: Albania, Macedonia,Moldova, Russian Federation, Union of Serbia and Muntenegro, Ukraine, based on the four criteria:corporate and capital gains tax rates, withholding taxes, tax incentives, foreign tax relief andtransfer pricing rules. Finally, the conclusion is that all the analysed countries offer favourable fiscalconditions for the foreign direct investment. Serbia, Muntenegro, Macedonia and Moldova haveattractive fiscal regimes, showing that the authorities from these countries count on the foreign directinvestment as a solution of solving the social and economic problems.

  18. Rethinking Fast Growth in China's Foreign Exchange Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanlong Wang

    2006-01-01

    The sustained surpluses in the current and capital accounts of balance of payments are the main reason for the continuing rapid expanse of China's foreign exchange reserves in recent years. However, flaws in the formation of the renminbi exchange rate regime are the institutional root cause of the sustained high growth in foreign exchange reserves. Various theoretical misconceptions about the scale of foreign exchange reserves have swayed policies and contributed to its sustained fast growth. Sustained high growth of China's foreign exchange reserves, and its extraordinary large scale, carry tremendous risks.Because the security of foreign exchange reserves affects a country's financial safety, China urgently needs to adjust its foreign exchange reserve policies.

  19. FDI AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CEE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenuta CARP (CEKA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current paper is to emphasize the correlation between FDI inflows and GDP growth rate in selected countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. The dynamic of FDI inflows and GDP growth rate have been significantly affected by the current economic crisis, which has led to a decrease in foreign capital inflows and a restrained of investment projects. However, macroeconomic imbalances and increased volatilities have determined a strong contraction of GDP growth rates in these economies, except Poland which was the most resilient to worldwide shocks. The results show a unidirectional causality between FDI and GDP growth in all cases, except Hungary. Further analysis will be developed testing the impact of foreign flows volatility on GDP growth.

  20. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms....

  1. Foreign Remittances, Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Imports and Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research paper focuses on establishing a relationship between external determinants and economic growth of Pakistan economy. Empirical analyses are carried out with time series econometric techniques using data over the period of 1977-2013. The main finding is that external determinants such as foreign remittances, foreign direct investment, and foreign imports matter from a growth perspective. Foreign remittances and foreign direct investment have a significant positive role in the growth process of Pakistan economy. Furthermore, it is found that foreign imports have adversely influenced the economic growth of Pakistan. The study recommends that policy makers shall take appropriate steps to increase the inflow of both foreign remittances and foreign direct investment in order to achieve the long run economic growth.

  2. Attracting Foreign Direct Investment for Growth and Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) plays an important role in fostering economic growth and ... for their growth and development efforts, it also brings with it skills and new technology. ... Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and China, FDI inflows into sub-Saharan Africa pale. ... What policy options are available to these countries?

  3. Economic growth and the volatility of foreign aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Chervin; S. van Wijnbergen

    2010-01-01

    Foreign aid’s effectiveness in promoting economic growth remains mired in controversy.We examine the impact of the volatility of aid on economic growth, controlling for the level of aid. A four-year panel analysis is conducted encompassing 155 countries over the period 1966-2001. We find that once t

  4. Influence of Sociocultural Context on Language Learning in Foreign Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pazyura Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Professional foreign language training is offered to cultivate the ability to master cross-cultural communication in the sphere of future professional activity. By means of intercultural competence of foreign language we are raising professional competence, too. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other languages as an additional language to enable them to participate in all spheres of life of that country. In many countries where it is an official l...

  5. Influence of Sociocultural Context on Language Learning in Foreign Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pazyura Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Professional foreign language training is offered to cultivate the ability to master cross-cultural communication in the sphere of future professional activity. By means of intercultural competence of foreign language we are raising professional competence, too. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other languages as an additional language to enable them to participate in all spheres of life of that country. In many countries where it is an official l...

  6. Influence of corruption on economic growth rate and foreign investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Boris; Shao, Jia; Njavro, Djuro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Stanley, H. E.

    2008-06-01

    We analyze the dependence of the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP) per capita growth rates on changes in the Corruption Perceptions Index ( CPI). For the period 1999 2004 for all countries in the world, we find on average that an increase of CPI by one unit leads to an increase of the annual GDP per capita growth rate by 1.7%. By regressing only the European countries with transition economies, we find that an increase of CPI by one unit generates an increase of the annual GDP per capita growth rate by 2.4%. We also analyze the relation between foreign direct investments received by different countries and CPI, and we find a statistically significant power-law functional dependence between foreign direct investment per capita and the country corruption level measured by the CPI. We introduce a new measure to quantify the relative corruption between countries based on their respective wealth as measured by GDP per capita.

  7. Foreign trade, environmental protection and sustainable economic growth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jiyong; LIU Wei; HU Yi

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1990s,China has exhibited growth in both foreign trade and the economy.Promoting environmental protection and sustainable economic growth are main concerns in the academic profession in the country.This paper makes an empirical analysis of trade and environmental pollution,and discusses the inherent relationship between foreign trade,environmental protection and sustainable economic growth.In addition,this paper makes several policy suggestions with a view to adjusting trade structure,enforcing environmental protection and promoting sustainable economic growth in China.

  8. IMMIGRATION GROWTH TENDENCIES IN OECD COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran SARIHASAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Immigration became one of the relevant economic topics in recent years. Over the centuries millions of people have migrated, despite the physical, cultural etc. obstacles, to other lands in search of better lives for themselves and their children. In the context of development, globalization and labor market mobility, it is necessary to further analyze the determinants and consequences of migration not only on the host country, but also on the sending country. The increased interest and availability of data keeps this subject in the attention of economists all over the world. In this case an increase in immigration became very significant ıssue for policymakers. The aims of this study are to describe immigration growth tendencies and to answer how much is the average growth rate of foreıgn born population. Thus, in order to measure the native and foreign-born unemployed migrants, twenty-seven OECD countries were used in this research paper.

  9. IMMIGRATION GROWTH TENDENCIES IN OECD COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran SARIHASAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Immigration became one of the relevant economic topics in recent years. Over the centuries millions of people have migrated, despite the physical, cultural etc. obstacles, to other lands in search of better lives for themselves and their children. In the context of development, globalization and labor market mobility, it is necessary to further analyze the determinants and consequences of migration not only on the host country, but also on the sending country. The increased interest and availability of data keeps this subject in the attention of economists all over the world. In this case an increase in immigration became very significant ıssue for policymakers. The aims of this study are to describe immigration growth tendencies and to answer how much is the average growth rate of foreıgn born population. Thus, in order to measure the native and foreign-born unemployed migrants, twenty-seven OECD countries were used in this research paper.

  10. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...

  11. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technologic...

  12. Influence of Sociocultural Context on Language Learning in Foreign Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazyura, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Professional foreign language training is offered to cultivate the ability to master cross-cultural communication in the sphere of future professional activity. By means of intercultural competence of foreign language we are raising professional competence, too. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other…

  13. FOREIGN-EXCHANGE CONSTRAINTS AND DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LENSINK, R

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a model of developing countries in which a foreign exchange constraint and imported intermediates are central features, The model is used to carry out different scenarios with respect to developing countries' economic performance in the 1990s, A baseline simulation shows that the

  14. Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Foreign Exchange Reserves to Economic Growth in Emerging Economics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the effect of the accumulation of foreign exchange reserves to economic growth in emerging countries. In order to empirical estimates of the impact of foreign exchange reserves to economic growth in emerging countries, were collected annual data on real GDP per capita, share of investment in GDP and population from the database of the International Monetary Fund (IMF WEO) in October 2013, while data from the level of foreign exchange reserves statistics collected fro...

  15. CUJU'S SPREAD TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔乐泉

    2004-01-01

    In history,the sport of cuju or kemari has had a significant influence on the world, and China's neighbouring countries in particular, such as Japan and Korea. What's more, the impact has been profound.Here I would oke to explain my point by using Japan as an example, since Japan is one of the countries that have absorbed the richest variety of China's ancient traditions and culture.Its absorption of ancient China's tsu chu also bears quite some features.

  16. 22 CFR 92.66 - Depositions taken before foreign officials or other persons in a foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... submitted to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs by the American diplomatic representative). A usual... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depositions taken before foreign officials or other persons in a foreign country. 92.66 Section 92.66 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND...

  17. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    This paper analyses the effect of foreign acquisition on survival probability and employment growth of target plant using data on Swedish manufacturing plants during the period 1993-2002.  An improvement over previous studies is that we take into account firm level heterogeneity by separating...... the targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms before foreign takeover. The results, controlling for possible endogeneity of the acquisition dummy using an IV and propensity score matching approach suggest that acquisition by foreign owners increases...

  18. A Comparison of Foreign Direct Investments in Eurosian Countries to World Trend in the Period of 1995 - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayri Tuzla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The world which rapidly globalizes and where the boundaries diminish day by day, the foreign direct investments affect many diverse macroeconomic variables, specifically economic growth and unemployment. Most current studies support that there exists a strong causality relationship between foreign direct investments and economic growth.On the other hand, there exists a weaker positive causality relationship between economic growth and foreign direct investments. Moreover, it is an undeniable fact that the economic growth leads to a decline in unemployment. This study aims to compare the foreign direct investment trends of seven Eurasian countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan in the period of 1995 and 2011. The results are compared to both the world foreign direct investment trend and the other Central Asian countries.

  19. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    2010-01-01

    endogeneity of acquisition using IV and propensity score matching approaches suggest that acquisition by foreign owners increases the lifetime of the acquired plants only if the plant was an exporter. The effect is robust to controlling for domestic acquisitions and differs between horizontal and vertical...... acquisitions. We find robust positive employment growth effects only for exporters and only if the takeover is vertical.......This paper analyzes the effect of foreign acquisition on survival and employment growth of targets using data on Swedish manufacturing plants.We separate targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. The results, controlling for possible...

  20. Growth and Inequality: The Role of Foreign Trade and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Richard

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the influence of foreign trade and investment on inequality or, more generally, on the distribution of income, with a focus on developing countries. There has been some scholarly debate on the influence on economic growth of economic openness to the rest of the world. Since growth affects the level of poverty and the distribution of income, the trade–growth nexus is also addressed. "Distribution of income" has several quite different meanings, apart from the issue of th...

  1. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of foreign acquisition on survival and employment growth of targets using data on Swedish manufacturing plants.We separate targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. The results, controlling for possible en...

  2. Teaching thanatology in a foreign country: implications for death educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Mark A

    2002-06-01

    Although an increasing number of death educators will have the opportunity to teach abroad, many may not be fully aware of the issues that arise in intercultural instruction and are not prepared to handle the pedagogical challenges associated with teaching thanatology in a foreign country. On the basis of experience of teaching in China, the author describes the challenges of intercultural teaching, strategies for adapting instruction to address the pedagogical obstacles, and the ways an international teaching experience can enrich instruction.

  3. Japan’s foreign aid sanctions policy toward African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Furuoka, Fumitaka

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines Japan’s aid sanctions policy toward African countries since new guidelines for Japanese ODA were introduced. There were three cases of positive reinforcement in Africa, i.e. in Madagascar, Zambia) and Guinea. Also, the Japanese government implemented nine negative reinforcements in the region, i.e. in Kenya, Zaire, Malawi, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Togo, Nigeria and Gambia. Although Japan applied positive reinforcement and provided additional foreign aid to assist the p...

  4. The Effect of Foreign Direct Investment in Economic Growth from the Perspective of Nonlinear Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. K. Volos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized economy one of the most crucial factors for the economic growth of a country, especially of a developing country, is the foreign direct investment, not only because of the transfer of capital but also of technology. In this work, the effect of foreign direct investments in a county’s economic growth by using tools of nonlinear dynamics is studied. As a model of the economic growth of a country, a well-known nonlinear discrete-time dynamical system, the Logistic map, is used. The system under study consists of two countries with a strong economic relationship. The source country of foreign direct investments is an industrialized, economically powerful and technologically advanced country that makes significant investments in the host country, which is a developing country and strong dependent from the source country. Simulation results of system’s behavior and especially the bifurcation diagrams reveal the strong connection between the countries of the proposed system and the effect of foreign direct investments in the economic growth of the host country.

  5. Sources of change in foreign policy. A review of foreign policy models for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba E. Gámez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of what could be called the reorientation of State foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. Changes in alliances, economic partners and attitudes in the face of international issues have been reflected in myriad texts. Nevertheless, few theoretical frameworksdeal with this issue as an area of study in and of itself. Overcoming this situation would contribute to identifying and comparing the changes in attitude and discourse in the relations between countries, especially in the case of developing countries, and, by extension, thesources of these changes. This article reviews the different models for the analysis of foreign policy, using the conceptual framework of Hermann (1990 as its starting point. This framework suggests the existence of four graded levels of change which allow for studying forms of change which are subtle but important in foreign policy; it also offers a reasoned analysis for testing the relative importance of their sources. This conceptual framework can be situated in the traditional division of levels of analysis: the characteristics of the leader, bureaucratic proposer, internal adjustment, and external impact; and, while it does not provide a conclusive answer, it may be a useful tool in clarifying the ways of using empirical evidence and establishing the relative importance of the sources of change in foreign policy orientation.

  6. Influence of Sociocultural Context on Language Learning in Foreign Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazyura Natalia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Professional foreign language training is offered to cultivate the ability to master cross-cultural communication in the sphere of future professional activity. By means of intercultural competence of foreign language we are raising professional competence, too. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other languages as an additional language to enable them to participate in all spheres of life of that country. In many countries where it is an official language and language of instruction, as most communication outside school is in the local languages it is taught as language to learn other disciplines. These are two contrasting contexts for enhancing the English language skills. In both settings there are concerns about students’ difficulties in developing adequate English proficiency to successfully learn content through that language. This paper analyzes the influence of sociocultural factors on the students’ motivation to learn English in different countries, reveals main problems and difficulties in oral English teaching practice, illustrates the relationship between oral English teaching and cross-cultural communication competence. On the one hand, cross-cultural communication plays an essential role in oral English teaching; besides, oral English teaching promotes cross-cultural communication competence. On the other hand, in some countries English is not the prerequisite of future successful career. But anyway the author insists on consistency of English teaching concept with that of the world. Improving the students’ cross-cultural oral communication ability is impossible without laying equal stress on cross-cultural communication competence and oral English teaching.

  7. Information Technology of Study of the State Foreign Debt in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvieieva Iuliia M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to expansion of international relations, growth of interest of states in attraction of foreign capital, appearance of excessive debts and problems connected with them, urgency of the issue of the state foreign debt significantly increased. The problem of state foreign debt is especially sharp in developing countries. Taking into account specific features of functioning of economies of these states, it is necessary to develop information approaches with the aim of studying macro-economic processes, which could assist in creation of improved mechanisms of functioning of the debt policy. The goal of the article is building an information technology of study of the state foreign debt, which would allow conduct of a complex analysis of the studied problem. The article offers a three-stage information technology of study of the state foreign debt, which gives a possibility to analyse and assess the study problem. This article also reveals properties, functions and tasks, which are solve by the information technology. It gives a detailed description of each stage and its notional elements. It forms the structured database for a possibility to carry out an experiment. On the basis of the first stage the article builds econometric models, which reflect interrelations between macro-economic factors, which gives an opportunity to forecast, analyse and assess the state foreign debt.

  8. 22 CFR 123.13 - Domestic aircraft shipments via a foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic aircraft shipments via a foreign... REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.13 Domestic aircraft shipments via a foreign... United States to another location in the United States via a foreign country. The pilot of the...

  9. FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF TEACHER CERTIFICATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina N. Yakovleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to review foreign experience of teacher certification according to requirements of the Teacher Professional Standards.Methods. The authors use analysis and generalization of official documents and methodical recommendations of the European Commission on introduction of a system of professional competences (standards of the teacher; guides for certification of teachers in the EU countries, the USA and Australia according to standards of the teacher; regulations of Russian centers for certification of pedagogical workers using in their activities overseas experience of similar centers and the international standard of personnel certification.Results. Various options for the use of a system of the teacher professional competencies (standards, as well as models of independent certification of teachers in terms of approaches, goals, objectives and organizational forms used in the EU, the USA and Australia are considered and analysed.Scientific novelty. As a result of the analysis of teacher certification experience in a number of foreign countries some general tendencies are identified and taken into account in the recommendations on the establishment of the system of Russian teachers certification as consistent with the Professional Standard «Teacher (pedagogical activity in the field of pre-school, primary general, basic general, secondary general education (educator, teacher».Practical significance. The results can be used while developing of regional centres for teachers’ independent certification.

  10. Scaling of foreign attractiveness for countries and states

    CERN Document Server

    Bojic, Iva; Ratti, Carlo; Sobolevsky, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    People's behavior on online social networks, which store geo-tagged information showing where people were or are at the moment, can provide information about their offline life as well. In this paper we present one possible research direction that can be taken using Flickr dataset of publicly available geo-tagged media objects (e.g., photographs, videos). Namely, our focus is on investigating attractiveness of countries or smaller large-scale composite regions (e.g., US states) for foreign visitors where attractiveness is defined as the absolute number of media objects taken in a certain state or country by its foreign visitors compared to its population size. We also consider it together with attractiveness of the destination for the international migration, measured through publicly available dataset provided by United Nations. By having those two datasets, we are able to look at attractiveness from two different perspectives: short-term and long-term one. As our previous study showed that city attractivene...

  11. Development of the human potential in Russian and foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, theoretical and methodical approaches to human development in Russia and foreign countries are analyzed. The contribution of the various countries to its formation and development is revealed. The indicators showing a level of development of human potential and components forming it in the creation of gross domestic product are analyzed. The alternative options of development of education, health care and science, expenses and benefit from their commercialization are revealed. The role of the state, federal regions and local authorities in management and development of health care, education, science during periods of crises, depressions and increases of economic activity is investigated. The interrelation of levels of development of the economy and human potential, with the levels and the population living conditions are revealed. The reasons of close attention of the governments of the developed countries to human development, and also the measures undertaken on minimization of interregional disproportions in its development become clear. Mechanisms and tools of development of health care, education, science in various regions of the world, a way of use of transfers, subsidies and grants on their development are investigated

  12. Attracting Foreign Direct Investment : What Can South Asia's Lack of Success Teach Other Developing Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Gould; Tan, Congyan; Sadeghi Emamgholi, Amir S.

    2013-01-01

    Like many other developing countries, South Asian nations have been experiencing increased foreign direct investment inflows over the past decade as developing countries get a larger share of cross-border investments that were once sent to developed countries. Nonetheless, South Asia's inflows of foreign direct investment remain the lowest relative to gross domestic product among developin...

  13. LEGAL REGULATION AND PRACTICE OF ELECTRONIC VOTING IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of legal regulation of electronic voting an e-democracy in foreign countries. The possibility of informationalcommunication technologies introduction into the voting process is studied. In the absence of a unified approach to the understanding of the legal nature of edemocratic processes, the authors give the special attention to the analysis of state policy in the sphere of the e-democracy improvement. There were considered the systems of electronic voting system which were used in elections in Estonia, Germany, Austria, UK, Switzerland and Finland. There were analyzed the practice of Internet-voting as a prototype of electronic democracy and problems of identification of voters, calculation of votes, ensuring of secrecy of the ballot. There were marked means the use of electronic voting as positive sides and considerable risks connected with the possibility of interference into the system of electors’ votes and complexity of securing of control of procedure of electronic voting. Authors make conclusions on possibility of the use of positive foreign experience of distant voting during the elections in Russia and on the necessity of working out of legal claims to informational space and given information to increase its quality and credibility

  14. The Composition Effect of Macroeconomic Factors on Foreign Direct Investment in Selected SAARC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish MALIK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate the most promising economic variables i.e., foreign direct investment (FDI, exports and financial development on economic growth in selected South Asian Association of Regional Co-corporation (SAARC countries. In addition, this study argued that whether FDI, Exports and financial development fosters or hinder economic growth in SAARC countries, for this purpose, panel data set of selected five SAARC countries namely, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Srilanka considered for empirical consideration over a period of 1975 to 2011. By using two-stage least square (2SLSL technique, empirical evidence on the effects of FDI, exports and financial development on economic growth is mix in terms of apriori expectations. In case of Bangladesh, exports and broad money supply (M2 is the positive and significant contributor to increase economic growth, whereas, M2 increases India’s GDP. FDI is the only significant contributor to increase Pakistan’s economic growth. In case of Nepal and Srilanka, broad money supply increases economic growth, whereas, due to high dependency on imports, exports could not considerably increases economic growth in those regions.

  15. Cross-cultural investigations of preschool education in foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazranova L.Zh.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the theoretical review and analysis of cross-cultural investigations carried out in the sphere of preschool education in foreign countries in recent decades. The article introduces the results of the studies aimed at estimation ofpreschool children’s understanding of racial cues, disclosure of ethno-cultural and socio-cultural conditions affecting children’s school readiness; criteria which parents from different ethno-cultures use to estimate the efficiency of preschool education; specificity of child-educator and mother-child relationships; problems and resources of children-migrants adaptation in terms of multi-cultural settlements. Stated problems, their analysis and solutions make it possibleto increase the efficiency of educational process in modern socio-cultural environment.

  16. Macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility: A case of South Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Waqas, Yahya; Hashmi, Shujahat Haider; Nazir, Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    Macroeconomic factors play a pivotal role in attracting foreign investment in the country. This study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility in South Asian countries. The monthly data is collected for the period ranging from 2000 to 2012 for four Asian countries i.e. China, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka because monthly data is ideal for measuring portfolio investment volatility. For measuring volatility in foreign portfolio inve...

  17. Economic and financial relations of Serbia with foreign countries in the period 2000-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Mlađen Đ.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The dissolution of the federation, war in the immediate environment, the UN sanctions, scarce investment as well as the NATO air-attacks had disastrous consequences for trade and financial relations of Serbia with foreign countries. Simultaneously, its foreign debt rose sharply due to the accrued interests, being at the end of 2000 substantially higher than Serbian gross domestic product. Thanks to the write-off of 51% of debt towards the Paris club, a windfall of donations and obtaining new favorable medium-term and long-term credits, the condition of Serbia's international financial relations considerably improved in the period 2001-2003, thus enabling it to run a foreign-exchange surplus during this period. Due to the policy of de facto floating exchange rate, sudden and drastic liberalization of imports and the lack of non-tariff protection, exports of goods and services in the last three years, contrary to plans, have increased much more slowly than imports, resulting in a large increase in growth and an enormously high level of trade deficit unsustainable in the long run. Due to new credits euro-denominated and other foreign-currency denominated debts being converted into the increasingly weaker dollar and the accrual of interests Serbian foreign debt increased sharply reaching an all-time high at the end of last year and being twice as high as was officially predicted three years before. The level of foreign debt is very high. Trade deficit and foreign indebtedness have become the most serious problems of Serbian economy and unless appropriate measures are taken, it will soon face a serious debt crisis.

  18. How Do Foreign Direct Investment and Growth Interact in Turkey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan ILGUN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the relation between growth and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in Turkey. There are mixed conclusions about the impact of FDI on growth and the literature includes many studies where FDI has negative, positive and no significant effects on growth. Turkey serves like an open lab for such empirical studies since the country has experienced high and persistent levels of inflation for about thirty years as well as several economic crises in the last decade after which the inflation is taken under control and high growth rates are attained. Furthermore, Turkey has managed to start receiving considerable FDI recently. We establish a VAR Model with 5 variables to examine the FDI-Growth relation and consequently the impulse-response analysis are carried out to see the impact of shocks on the variables entering the VAR equations. We also included the variance decomposition to work out the sources of variance in both growth and FDI. Our model provides empirical support to bi-directional causality between FDI and growth.

  19. Staffing Foreign Subsidiaries with Parent Country Nationals or Host Country Nationals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dörrenbächer, Christoph; Gammelgaard, Jens; McDonald, Frank

    to the local institutional environment (HRM). Our study finds that this is also the case with regard to strategic decisions on financial control as well as on R&D and new product development. Third: On average, HCN led subsidiaries perform significantly better than PCN led subsidiaries with regard to sales......This paper investigates the relationship between the use of parent company nationals (PCN) and home country nationals (HCN) and various attributes in foreign owned subsidiaries in Denmark, Germany and the UK. The study explores whether the existing literature on international staffing adequately...

  20. 31 CFR 500.303 - Nationals of more than one foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such control or a substantial part of such stock, shares, bonds, debentures, notes, drafts, or other... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS... designated foreign countries and/or nationals thereof are sufficient in the aggregate to constitute control...

  1. Public Education and Growth in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuppert, Christiane; Wirz, Nadja

    governments can invest in human capital to facilitate the adoption of new technologies invented abroad or, instead, focus on consumptive public spending. Although human capital is pivotal for growth, the model reveals that incentives to invest in public education vanish if a country is poorly endowed......Human capital plays a key role in fostering technology adoption, the major source of economic growth in developing countries. Consequently, enhancing the level of human capital should be a matter of public concern. The present paper studies public education incentives in an environment in which...... with human capital. Rather, governments of these poorly-endowed countries focus on consumptive public spending. As a result, while their better-endowed counterparts build up human capital thereby promoting technology adoption and growth, the growth process in poorly-endowed countries stagnates....

  2. Economic development and growth in transition countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinova, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, commonly referred to as "transition countries", have undergone transformations unparalleled in recent economic history. This book concentrates on three aspects of the transition process: the factors driving growth, the effect

  3. Economic development and growth in transition countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinova, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, commonly referred to as "transition countries", have undergone transformations unparalleled in recent economic history. This book concentrates on three aspects of the transition process: the factors driving growth, the effect o

  4. Effect of economic growth and environmental quality on tourism in Southeast Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah

    2017-02-01

    The tourism is an important sector in generating income for a country, nevertheless, tourism is sensitive toward the changes in economy, as well as changes in environmental quality. By employing econometric models of error correction on annual data, this study examines the influence of environmental quality, domestic and global economic growth on foreign tourist arrivals in selected Southeast Asian countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Singapore. The findings of this study showed that all of countries long run model were proved statistically, indicated that world economic growth as well as environmental quality affect foreign tourism arrivals.

  5. Do Elites Benefit from Democracy and Foreign Aid in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Abstract: A popular argument for the absence of any beneficial effects of foreign aid is that it is skimmed by political elites in recipient countries. However, studies also suggest that aid may be more effective in relatively democratic developing countries. This paper provides some simple theory...... indicating how foreign aid and democracy can be associated with a more, not less, skewed income distribution. By using data on income quintiles derived from the World Income Inequality Database for 88 developing countries, the results indicate that foreign aid and democracy in conjunction are associated...... with a higher share of income held by the upper quintile. It thus appears that foreign aid, contrary to popular beliefs, leads to a more skewed income distribution in democratic developing countries while the effects are negligible in autocratic countries....

  6. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  7. POVERTY, GROWTH AND INEQUALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiga Housseima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the position of some developing countries in relation to different theories about the relationship between poverty, growth and inequality. We conducted an econometric analysis through a study using panel data from 52 developing countries over the period 1990-2005, to determine the main sources of poverty reduction and show the interdependence between poverty, inequality and growth by using a system of simultaneous equations. This method is rarely applied econometric panel data and especially in the case studies on poverty. Our results indicate that the state investment in social sectors such as education and health and improving the living conditions of the rural population can promote economic growth and reducing inequality. Therefore, the Kuznets hypothesis is based on a relationship between economic growths to income inequality is most appropriate.

  8. THE MIGRATING NATURE OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghean Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis of 2008-2009 has reignited the debate concerning the pertinence of financial integration, both in industrially advanced and emergent economies as well. Thus, the crisis provides a new chance to revise the analysis comparing the international capital flows and economic growth. The foreign direct investments of the past few years have become increasingly important for the global economic activity, and the professional literature has developed a numerous number of hypotheses concerning the relationship between FDI and economic growth. The idea that the increased FDI inflows result in stronger economic growth is currently very topical in several debates. Some of the previously conducted research argue that FDIs can have both positive and negative effects on the GDP. The careful analysis of the effects that FDIs may have on economic growth in various economic sectors of the recipient country has resulted in various findings. FDIs can have negative effects on the economic growth prospects of the recipient countries when they lead to substantial reversed flows in the form of revenues from dividends or when multinationals obtain substantial privileges or other advantages in the recipient country. There are numerous research papers in professional literature that approach the relationship between foreign direct investments and economic growth. The research in the field has intensified in the past decade, due to the increasingly important weight of FDI in the total capital flows. The present research will analyse the relation between economic growth and the amount of international capital flows in order to identify to what extend foreign direct investments help increase the level of economic growth. The analysis we are suggesting encompasses the group of developed countries, developing countries, as well as those countries identified as transitioning during 1970-2013. The main objective of the present research is to identify and

  9. Public Education and Growth in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuppert, Christiane; Wirz, Nadja

    Human capital plays a key role in fostering technology adoption, the major source of economic growth in developing countries. Consequently, enhancing the level of human capital should be a matter of public concern. The present paper studies public education incentives in an environment in which...

  10. Short-Term Effects of Foreign Bank Entry on Bank Performance in Selected CEE Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Janek Uiboupin

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the short-term impact of foreign bank entry on bank performance in ten Central and Eastern European countries. A panel of 319 banks was analysed over the period 1995–2001. The Arellano-Bond dynamic panel estimation technique was used. The results indicate that foreign bank entry is associated with lower beforetax profits, non-interest income, interest income on interest earning assets and loan loss provisions. Foreign bank entry tends to increase the overhead costs of loca...

  11. The Effects of Various Regional and Global Integration Indices on Foreign Direct Investment (Case Study: OPEC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekoofe Nagheli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration at global and regional level is one of the most important consequences of mutual relationships of countries. Given that capital is the stimulant of economic growth and development and developing countries are often faced with lack of capital, they are trying to compensate this with foreign borrowing but regarding crises resulted from it foreign direct investment is being used as its substitute. The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of economic integration and globalization on FDI attraction. In order to achieve the above goal foreign direct investment equation for Asian countries is estimated by Stata software using panel data during 2001-2011 based on theoretical literature of gravity model and using of econometric methods. Our results, as we expected reveal that there is a positive relation between economic integration and foreign investment. Comparison of results in different cases shows that co-integration has more impacts on FDI for OPEC Countries under globalization conditions. In globalization cases, integration is the best choice for attracting of FDI in OPEC.

  12. Can Foreign Direct Investment Sustain CEE Countries’ Economic Growth and Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacovoiu Viorela Beatrice

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of foreign direct investment (FDI in economic growth is perceived differently by the experts in the field. Some researchers argue that foreign direct investment can sustain the economic growth both directly, by supplementing the internal capital directed to the acquisition of fixed assets and indirectly, by stimulating the local investments. On the other hand, researches conducted at microeconomic level frequently underlined that “FDI per se” does not boost economic growth, as the effects of FDI on economic growth and domestic investments depend on many different conditions existing in the host country. The purpose of this study is to underline several major aspects related to the relationship between the foreign direct investment inflows and the economic growth and development of poorer EU member states, analyzing empirically a set of representative macroeconomic indexes covering three main directions – the volume of inward FDI; the economic growth of the receiving economy; the existing conditions in the host country. The results of the presented analyses demonstrate that a high volume of FDI inflows can sustain the economic growth of the Central and Eastern European countries but not necessarily will generate spillover effects, boosting the productivity and competitiveness of all firms, including domestic companies, and influencing, significantly and positively, their economic development.

  13. FISCAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS OF STABILIZATION OF PUBLIC FINANCES IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zaichykova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues to use the experience of foreign countries on measures of fiscal policy in reducing the public deficit, streamlining expenditure in terms of financial instability.

  14. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in South East European Countries and New Member States of European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardhyl Dauti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper accounts for the main determinants of Foreign Direct Investment flows to 5-SEEC and the 10-New Member States of the EU countries by using an augmented Gravity Model. The study takes into account country specific institutional factors that determine foreign investors’ decisions from 14 core European Union countries to invest into SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. From the results of the study we find that gravity factors and institutional related determinants like control of corruption, political stability, bilateral FDI agreement, WTO membership and transition progress appear to significantly determine inward FDI flows from core EU countries to host economies of South East European region and new European Union member states.

  15. DIFFERENT ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST THE ROLE AND IMPACT OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT ON THE DEVELOPMENT POTENTIALS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÜSEYİN ŞEN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores different arguments for and against the role of foreign investment on the development potentials of developing countries. Generally, foreign investment comes to host countries through transnational corporatios (TNCs. These corporations are global profit-seeking organisations, investing in more than one country and supplying financial capital, management, technology and marketing enterprise. The arguments for and against the role and impact of foreign investment focus mainly on the following areas: economic growth, technology transfer, balance of payments, export performance, employment, environment, and transfer pricing as well as socio-cultural aspects of TNCs. The study concludes that with the appropriate government policies, such as unbiased trade regime, market reform and cooperation, developing countries could provide more benefits from foreign investment.

  16. Population and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Quang Dao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollinearity among explanatory variables, we find that per capita GDP growth linearly depends on population growth, the old dependency ratio, the mortality rate, and the interactions between population growth and both the young and old dependency ratios, between population growth and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year, and the interaction term between the young dependency ratio and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Statistical results of such an empirical examination will assist governments in devising policies aimed at influencing the economic effects of the demographic transition. Data for all variables are from the 2010 World Development Indicators. We apply the least-squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression. We also test for the nonlinear effect of population growth on economic growth and note that the introduction of interaction terms between population growth and dependency ratios as well as those between whether or not the population growth rate is less than 1.2 percent and population growth and the young dependency ratio yields better statistical results.

  17. EFFICIENCY OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKETS: A DEVELOPING COUNTRY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guneratne B Wickremasinghe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tests weak and semi-strong form efficiency of the foreign exchange market in Sri Lanka during the recent float using six bilateral exchange rates. Weak-form efficiency is examined using unit root tests while semi-strong form efficiency is tested using co-integration, Granger causality tests and variance decomposition analysis. Results indicate that the Sri Lankan foreign exchange market is consistent with the weak-form of the efficient market hypothesis (EMH. However, the results provide evidence against the semi-strong version of the EMH. These results have important implications for government policy makers and participants in the foreign exchange market of Sri Lanka.

  18. Remittances, Economic Freedom, and Economic Growth in North African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed Zghidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution investigates the causal interactions between foreign direct investment (FDI, economic freedom and economic growth in a panel of 4 countries of North Africa (Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria and Egypt from 1980 to 2012. Using System Generalized Method of Moment (GMM panel data analysis, we find strong evidence of a positive link between remittances and economic growth. We also find evidence that economic freedom appear to be working as a complement to remittances and, moreover, that the effect of remittances is more pronounced in the presence of the economic freedom variable. Thus, to the extent that remittances have become a major source of external development finance, policies promoting greater freedom of economic activities gain significantly from the presence of remittances.

  19. The evaluation of Foreign Direct Investments and their impact in the economics of some transition countries: the case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Kukaj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Foreign Direct Investment is suggested to have a positive impact on the economic growth of many countries, especially in the transition countries such as Kosovo. During the last century, the world has witnessed remarkable growth of FDI because they impact positively the overall strategy for economic and social development. This article will provide a general review of the FDIs and will focus on their economic implication on the developing countries and especially in Kosovo and some other Western Balkan countries. The paper will clarify the main causes of failure of foreign direct investments and will revile the importance of indicators that are mainly of institutional nature. It is estimated that FDIs impact the economic development of the host country through two main channels: firstly, FDIs increase the domestic capital and increase the efficiency through the improvement of managerial skills, the transfer of new technology or through the bringing of more effective marketing strategies, innovations and best practices, secondly: the effect of FDIs varies much from the specifications of the country in terms of their capacity to absorb the FDIs, the ability to diversify them and their ability to connect the FDIs with the domestic investments.

  20. Student interest in cultural content of a foreign country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Krželj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study on the interest of students of non-philological faculties (of universities in Serbia in contents from foreign cultures and how high importance students attach to learning about the target culture in foreign language teaching and learning at non-philological faculties. The goal of modern foreign language teaching at non-philological faculties, in addition to the development of communicative competence in the profession, is also to develop pluricultural competence. In order to test the chances of attaining this goal, it is necessary to perform an analysis of the legislative framework in which teaching foreign languages for special purposes takes place, an analysis of learning aims and the possibility of developing cross-cultural sensitization. An analysis of the needs for and interests in the contents of the target culture must be precededed by an analysis of the specificities of intercultural learning and intercultural competence. Based on these results, it is possible to establish the correlation between the elements of the culture already present in the existing teaching material and the interests and needs of the target group which these materials are intended for.The data thus obtained will serve as a basis for defining the guidelines for selecting contents of the target culture, which, on one hand, will be based on methodological and didactical principles of interculturally oriented foreign language teaching, and on the other hand, will reflect the real needs and interests of the students from a number of non-philological faculties.

  1. Do Elites Benefit from Democracy and Foreign Aid in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A popular argument for the absence of any beneficial effects of foreign aid is that it is skimmed by political elites in recipient countries. However, studies also suggest that aid may be more effective in relatively democratic developing countries. By exploring data on income quintiles derived...... from the World Income Inequality Database for 88 developing countries, a set of results indicate that foreign aid and democracy in conjunction are associated with a higher share of income held by the upper quintile. It thus appears that foreign aid, contrary to popular beliefs, leads to a more skewed...... income distribution in democratic developing countries while the effects are negligible in autocratic countries. The paper closes with a discussion of potential mechanisms generating this perverse effect....

  2. Inward foreign direct investment and industrial restructuring: micro evidence – the Slovenian firms’ growth model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Zajc Kejžar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the impact of inward foreign direct investment (FDI on the growth of local firms in terms of employment and total factor productivity (TFP for the Slovenian manufacturing sector in the 1994-2003 period. The theoretically predicted channels through which inward FDI affects the firm dynamics in a host country prove to be in general significant. First, there is evidence of the direct impact offoreign firms through so-called direct technology transfer as foreign-owned firms have higher growth of TFP compared to domestically-owned firms after controlling for other determinants. Secondly, the entry of foreign firms stimulates the reshuffling of the resources from less to more efficient local firms. The firm selection process is, namely, characterised by the least efficient firms experiencing a drop in their employment growth upon a foreign firm’s entry. Thirdly, regarding the productivity spillover effects from foreign to local firms we provide indirect evidence that they mostly operate through vertical linkages rather than within the same industry.In general, it seems that not all firms are equally able to benefit from foreign firms’ presence and that absorptive capacity plays an important role.

  3. INFLUENCE OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN ON FOREIGN PRODUCT EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan ANASTASIEI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers form their expectations (usually regarding the quality based on the perceived image of a certain country. The original country of origin scale was developed in 1994 by Parameswaran and Pisharodi and had 40 items measuring general country attributes, general product attributes, and specific product attributes (automobile product category. This paper aims to highlight the role of the country of origin in shaping perceptions of the country and the manufactured products.The goal of the present research is to validate the COI scale for the Romanian market, in order to find out if it can be used as it was initially built by its authors or if it requires modifications. The research results led to the decision of keeping 37 items out of 40 and removing 3 items given that they were highly intercorrelated or insignificant.

  4. Foreign Remittances and Economic Growth in Pakistan: An empirical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of foreign remittances on economic growth of Pakistan. We use secondary time series data for the period of 1978 to 2011. The multiple regression analysis is used to identify the relationship among the variables. GDP is taken as dependent variable while foreign remittances, FDI, inflation and exchange rate as independent variables. Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test is used to check the stationary of variables and all variables found stationary at...

  5. Do Elites Benefit from Democracy and Foreign Aid in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Abstract: A popular argument for the absence of any beneficial effects of foreign aid is that it is skimmed by political elites in recipient countries. However, studies also suggest that aid may be more effective in relatively democratic developing countries. This paper provides some simple theor...

  6. Do Elites Benefit from Democracy and Foreign Aid in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A popular argument for the absence of any beneficial effects of foreign aid is that it is skimmed by political elites in recipient countries. However, studies also suggest that aid may be more effective in relatively democratic developing countries. By exploring data on income quintiles derived f...

  7. "Political Risk": Sources that Assess or Advise on Risks in Foreign Country Business or Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need for data on political risk or country risk among business library patrons and describes some of the factors and methods used in foreign country risk analysis. Also provides an annotated list of political risk sources, including paper and electronic resources. (LRW)

  8. "Political Risk": Sources that Assess or Advise on Risks in Foreign Country Business or Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need for data on political risk or country risk among business library patrons and describes some of the factors and methods used in foreign country risk analysis. Also provides an annotated list of political risk sources, including paper and electronic resources. (LRW)

  9. The implications of IFRS adoption on foreign direct investment in poor countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Florentina PRICOPE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has contributed to the acceleration of international capital transactions and has increased investors’ need to access homogeneous, reliable and comparable financial reports. The objective of the study is to investigate the impact of International Financial Reporting Standards adoption on foreign direct investment flows in poor countries. In order to achieve this objective, the propensity score matching method was applied on a sample of 38 poor countries between 2008 and 2014. Results indicate that International Financial Reporting Standards adoption has a positive impact on foreign direct investment flows in poor countries.

  10. The FDI-Growth Nexus in Latin America : The Role of Source Countries and Local Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, P.; Tondl, G.

    2008-01-01

    Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has surged in Latin America (LA) since the mid 1990s. European and North American FDI is of capital importance. We investigate the FDI-growth nexus in LA allowing for different source countries, regional hetero- geneity, interaction terms with FDI, and more than 20 gr

  11. The FDI-Growth Nexus in Latin America : The Role of Source Countries and Local Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, P.; Tondl, G.

    2008-01-01

    Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has surged in Latin America (LA) since the mid 1990s. European and North American FDI is of capital importance. We investigate the FDI-growth nexus in LA allowing for different source countries, regional hetero- geneity, interaction terms with FDI, and more than 20

  12. Problems of Foreign Economic Relations Development of Ural Regions with BRICS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the basic vocabulary of BRICS countries, its regional tendencies of business development, and its share taken in the foreign-economic activity are analyzed. Contribution of different foreign trade fields of regions into economic development is revealed. Indicators of development levels of external economic links are reviewed. Alternative options of the foreign trade development, expenses and benefits from its reorientation, and the reason of low indicators of development of foreign trade activity of the Ural regions with BRICS countries are evaluated, and measures for their improvement and development are offered. The mechanism and tools of stimulation of foreign economic relations development of regions with BRICS countries are investigated. The internal and external motives and incentives of expansion of these relations are examined. The factors influencing the regional markets development and revealing multidirectional tendencies in activities of business, government, society for development of foreign economic relations of the Ural regions with BRICS countries, and first of all with Brazil, India, China and the Republic of South Africa are investigated. The export-import features of the foreign trade operations with these countries, and also possible ways and the directions of expansion of the prognostics of foreign economic relations in the conditions of toughening and restriction of similar operations and financial sources from the developed countries, first of all the USA and EU countries are represented. Author examines the reasons and scenario, problems and difficulties for the country and the Ural regions in refocusing of international economic relation from Western Europe to the South-East Asia countries. Real opportunities of participation of regions of the country in the import substitution and development of own resource and production base are analyzed. The research is focused on analysis of international economic

  13. Originality of Foreign Language Teaching Technologies in Higher Educational Establishments of the Danube River Basin Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Demchenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at investigating the originality of foreign language teaching technologies in higher educational establishments of the Danube river basin countries. Definitions of teaching technologies, typology of some foreign language teaching technologies, analysis of activity learning technologies are given. The stress is made on the importance of competence and communicative approaches in Maritime English teaching in the Danube basin higher educational establishments.

  14. Role of Foreign Direct Investment in Restructuring of Agribusiness in the CEE Countries Following the Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Takacs, Istvan; Liebmann, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    The foreign direct investment (FDI) is a form of the capital flow having several century traditions. In the privatization as well as modernization of economies following the economic and political transition of the countries in the Central and Eastern Europe at the 1990s the role of the foreign direct investment was significant. According to the research, besides to the general positive effects of the FDI (production culture, market demand orientated product and technology innovation, supplie...

  15. Nanjing’s Cultural Exchanges with Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    AS an ancient capital city,Nanj-ing has a long history of cul-tural exchanges with foreigncountries.The ruler of the Kingdom ofEastern Wu(222-280 A.D.)sent en-voys to over 100 states in Hainan andSoutheast Asian islands.Some of thestates paid return visits.For instance,in243 the ruler of Funan(present-dayCambodia)sent a musical group to theEastern Wu King,who then built aFunan Music Hall for court maids tolearn Funan music and dances.Dur-ing the Southem Dynasties(420-589A.D.)exchanges with foreign countriesincreased and Funan sent envoysto Jianye and Jiankang(present-dayNanjing)over 30 times.Ancient SriLanka,which was known as the LionState in ancient China,Tianzhu(an-cient India).Persia,the Korean Penin-

  16. Foreign direct investment, financial development and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert

    2000-01-01

    FDI may help to raise economic growth in recipient countries. Yet, the contribution FDI can make may strongly depend on the circumstances in the recipient countries. This paper argues that the development of the financial system of the recipient country is an important precondition for FDI to have a

  17. Transplants in Foreign Countries Among Patients Removed from the US Transplant Waiting List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merion, R M; Barnes, A D; Lin, M; Ashby, V B; McBride, V; Ortiz-Rios, E; Welch, J C; Levine, G N; Port, F K; Burdick, J

    2008-04-01

    Transplant tourism, where patients travel to foreign countries specifically to receive a transplant, is poorly characterized. This study examined national data to determine the minimum scope of this practice. US national waiting list removal data were analyzed. Waiting list removals for transplant without a corresponding US transplant in the database were reviewed via a data validation query to transplant centers to identify foreign transplants. Additionally, waiting list removal records with text field entries indicating a transplant abroad were identified. We identified 373 foreign transplants (173 directly noted; 200 from data validation); most (89.3%) were kidney transplants. Between 2001 and 2006, the annual number of waiting list removals for transplant abroad increased. Male sex, Asian race, resident and nonresident alien status and college education were significantly and independently associated with foreign transplant. Recipients from 34 states, plus the District of Columbia, received foreign transplants in 35 countries, led by China, the Philippines and India. Transplants in foreign countries among waitlisted candidates in the US are increasingly performed. The data reported here represent the minimum number of cases and the full extent of this practice cannot be determined using existing data. Additional reporting requirements are needed.

  18. Foreign Direct Investments (FDI in Developing Countries – the Case of Southeast Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharem Klapić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment is one of the most important forms of international capital flow. Developed countries play a key role in capital flows, mainly as investors but also as beneficiaries. From the long-term perspective, the cyclic nature of investment flows in the global economy has been confirmed; however, over the past ten years, the participation of developed countries in FDI inflows has been declining, whereas at the same time the participation of developing countries has increased. In view of the above, this paper aims to highlight foreign direct investment importance and trends in the regional and sectoral structure in the developing countries, in particular the countries of Southeast Europe.

  19. Determinants of loans and deposits strategies of foreign bank subsidiaries in emerging countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper focuses on the transmission of bank liquidity shocks in Loan and deposit in emerging markets. First, we attempt to identify factors affecting the credit strategy of foreign banks in emerging countries. Second, we test whether depositors exert market discipline on foreign subsidiaries. By combining financial variables of subsidiaries and their parent banks and macroeconomic variables of host and home countries, we investigate the factors that may affect the behavior of depositors. Our empirical approach is based on a Partial Least Squares-Path model that allows us to indentify the causal relationships between the various groups of variables. Our results show that foreign bank lending is determined by the specific financial variables of the parent bank and macroeconomic variables of the country of origin. This support that the strategy's credit of foreign subsidiary is centrally managed at the parent bank and credit supply of subsidiaries depends primary on the financial situation of its parent bank. Finally we find evidence of market discipline exercised over foreign subsidiaries in emerging countries. We show that market discipline is strongly affected by the specific characteristics of the subsidiary.

  20. Anti-corruption system in the foreign countries

    OpenAIRE

    Indarbaev, Ashab

    2015-01-01

    There is no country where corruption would not take a place all. Just need to distinguish between petty corruption when officials take bribes from citizens, and corruption at the highest level, when a major government official receives a reward, for example, the allocation of public orders or pushing favourable laws for someone interests. In this regard, the particular interest attracts the state, attained some success in the fight against corruption. The idea of isolating anti-corruption pro...

  1. Analysis of China's Foreign Trade Growth and Discussion of Related Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChanghongPei

    2005-01-01

    China’s foreign trade experienced three consecutive years of super-speed growth in 2002-2004, even though the country was stricken by the SARS epidemic in 2003 and power shortages in 2004. What has gone beyond expectations is that the exports trade still grew with momentum after the central government lowered the export rebate rates by an average of 3 percentage points, starting from January 2004. Such growth momentum is apparently associated with external demand and the performance of the domestic macroeconomy, and even more associated with a series of support policies. This paper tries to raise issues issues associated with these policies on the basis of an analysis of foreign trade performance in 2002-2004, in order to enhance understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of these policies, and to recommend a new line of thought for improving policy arrangements for the growth of import and export trade and for the harmonious development of the macroeconomy.

  2. THE IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ON THE HOST COUNTRY – THE CASE OF SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Lesáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment is the way by which transnational corporations increase its profitability by getting the share on a new foreign market, by reducing the production costs or by exploiting other factor inputs (such as availability of raw materials for production and others. The drivers, or push and pull factors, exist both in home and host countries. The aim of the article is to present the role of foreign direct investment and transnational corporations in the economy of Slovakia. The article is divided into three parts. In the first part is explained the economic view and the main motivators for foreign direct investment. In the second part we present the impact of foreign direct investment on the host country Third part of the article is presented the analysis and evaluation of foreign direct investment and transnational corporations in the economy of Slovakia. The paper was elaborated as a part of VEGA project 1/0654/11 „Innovative small and medium enterprises as a part of knowledge-based economy in Slovakia“.

  3. Examining the Regional Aspect of Foreign Direct Investment to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    at improving the investment climate for foreign investors. This also means that there is no African bias. Among a large number of return and risk variables applied in the empirical literature, growth and inflation turn out to be the only robust and significant FDI determinants across regions although the size......This paper applies a general-to-specific analysis to detect regularities in the driving forces of foreign direct investment (FDI) that can explain why some regions are more attractive to foreign investors than others. The results suggest that regional differences in FDI inflows to African, Asian...

  4. Examining the Regional Aspect of Foreign Direct Investment to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    This paper applies a general-to-specific analysis to detect regularities in the driving forces of foreign direct investment (FDI) that can explain why some regions are more attractive to foreign investors than others. The results suggest that regional differences in FDI inflows to African, Asian...... at improving the investment climate for foreign investors. This also means that there is no African bias. Among a large number of return and risk variables applied in the empirical literature, growth and inflation turn out to be the only robust and significant FDI determinants across regions although the size...

  5. State and Trend Analysis of Industrial Plantation Development in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper firstly reviewed industrial plantation development in the main forestry countries worldwide, and then summarized the state and trend of the R & D of industrial plantation in foreign countries in terms of genetic improvement, breeding techniques, site evaluation techniques, density control techniques, long-term productivity maintenance techniques and diseases and pests control techniques. In the meantime, the three management models employed in industrial plantations abroad was introduced, i.e. int...

  6. The contribution of tourism industry on the GDP growth of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čerović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry records various economic, social, political and others influences and provides itself important position in the overall economic development of many countries. The analysis of the available data of tourist arrivals and number of tourist overnight stays in observed countries of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro led us to conduct research in order to determine tourism contribution to the overall economic growth. Based on the modified methodology used by Brida et al. (2008 for calculating real GDP growth rates and tourism contribution to the overall economic growth, the paper indicates that tourism makes a modest direct contribution to the overall economic growth in the examined countries, regardless of the continuous increase in the number of foreign tourist arrivals. The level of tourism contribution to the overall economic growth varies and it is primarily related to diversity and quality of supply (the highest contribution is recorded in Montenegro, while lowest contribution is observed in Macedonia.

  7. Telecommunications Research in the United States and Selected Foreign Countries: A Preliminary Survey. Volume I, Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Committee on Telecommunications.

    At the request of the National Science Foundation, the Panel on Telecommunications Research of the Committee on Telecommunications of the National Academy of Engineering has made a preliminary survey of the status and trends of telecommunications research in the United States and selected foreign countries. The status and trends were identified by…

  8. 28 CFR 0.64-2 - Delegation respecting transfer of offenders to or from foreign countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation respecting transfer of offenders to or from foreign countries. 0.64-2 Section 0.64-2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.64-2 Delegation respecting transfer...

  9. 32 CFR 552.70 - Applications by companies to solicit on installations in foreign countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... installations in foreign countries. (a) Each May and June only, DOD accepts applications from commercial life insurance companies for accreditation to solicit the purchase of commercial life insurance on installations... Logistics), ATTN: Directorate, Personnel Services, ODASD(MPP), WASH DC 20301. (c) Advice of action taken...

  10. Will and its form by the legislation of Kazakhstan Republic and foreign countrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester L. Babadzhanyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to define a laquowillraquo notion and to extinguish its forms according to the legislation of Kazakhstan Republic and foreign countries. Methods method of comparative legal analysis and formal legal method. Results basing on the analysis of hereditary legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan and foreign countries the necessity is proved to introduce innovations into the procedure of secret wills opening in the Civil Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The importance of this procedure is justified. Scientific novelty determination and analysis of the forms of wills in the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan and foreign countries notary Kazakhstan Russia oral Hungary holographic UK handwritten continental Europe. The detailed analysis of the specific forms of wills and problems in regulation of secret private wills is provided. Practical value the possibility to apply basing on the positive experience of foreign countries the procedure of secret wills opening in order to eliminate the grounds for hereditary disputes and recognizing the will as void.

  11. Statutes of the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>(Adopted at the Tenth National Council Meeting in May 2012) Chapter One General Principles Article 1 This Association is a national people’s organization of the People’s Republic of China, called the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries, abbreviated as CPAFFC.

  12. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments Outflow From a Developing Country: the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Onder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments (FDI outflows of Turkey have remarkably been raising over the last decade. This rapid increase brings about the need for questioning the determinants of FDI outflows. The aim of this paper is to estimate the factors affecting outflow FDI from Turkey from 2002 to 2011 by using Prais-Winsten regression analysis. According to estimation results, population, infrastructure, percapita gross domestic product of the host country, and home country exports to the host country are the factors having positive effects on outflow FDI. We found, on the other hand, that the annual inflation rate of the host country, its tax rate collected from commercial profit, and its distance from Turkey have a negative relation with investment outflows. Moreover our results show that while investment outflows to developed countries are in the form of horizontal investments, investment outflows to developing countries are in the form of vertical investments.

  13. 42 CFR 413.202 - Organ procurement organization (OPO) cost for kidneys sent to foreign countries or transplanted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... kidneys sent to foreign countries or transplanted in patients other than Medicare beneficiaries. 413.202... (OPO) cost for kidneys sent to foreign countries or transplanted in patients other than Medicare beneficiaries. An OPO's total costs for all kidneys is reduced by the costs associated with procuring...

  14. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country. (a) General. (1) A child born... laws of the nation in which she is a citizen. (2) A child born out of wedlock in a foreign country to... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true U.S. citizenship determinations on children born...

  15. Preliminary Findings of a Format-based Foreign Language Teaching Method for School Children in the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpillaga, Beronika; Arzamendi, Jesus; Etxeberria, Feli; Garagorri, Xabier; Lindsay, Diana; Joaristi, Luis

    2001-01-01

    Describes the preliminary findings in the Basque Country of a project shared by four European countries to teach a second language or a foreign language to preschool and school-age children. The method used to teach the foreign language--English--is based on the use of dramatized formats. Examines level of language proficiency achieved with each…

  16. 42 CFR 413.203 - Transplant center costs for organs sent to foreign countries or transplanted in patients other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transplant center costs for organs sent to foreign countries or transplanted in patients other than Medicare beneficiaries. 413.203 Section 413.203 Public...) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.203 Transplant center costs for organs sent to foreign countries...

  17. Country of Origin Effect and Animosity on The Attitude and Purchase Intention of Foreign Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadania

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine COO effect and Animosity on the attitude and purchase intention of foreign products in ethnic subculture within a country. This research is tested in Malay and Chinese ethnic subculture in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The categories of product are foods from Malaysia. Sample in this study is 435 respondents, consists of 218 Malay respondents from Ma-lay and 217 Chinese respondents. The collection of data was using non probability sampling method by combining accidental and snowball sampling. Data analysis uses structural equation modeling (SEM Multi-group.The results show that, there is a positive influence of COO on attitudes of foreign products for both Malay and Chinese ethnic. This study also show that, the influence of COO on the purchase intentions of foreign products can only be proven in Chinese ethnic. Furthermore, the results show that animosity have a negative influence on attitude toward foreign products. In addition, attitude also have a positive influence on the intention to purchase. However, this study fails to prove the influence of animosity on the intention to purchase of foreign products. These results indicate that there are differences in consumer behavior between Malay and Chinese ethnic in the evaluation of foreign products.

  18. EXPORTS, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MALAYSIA (1971-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haseeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to empirically investigate the relationship between exports, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and the economic growth in Malaysia. Records of annual time series data from the year 1971 till 2013 have been utilized for this purpose. Upon testing the data for stationarity, the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model has been applied for the purpose of empirical investigation. The empirical results indicate that the productivity factor and externality effect of exports on the non-export sector are found to be statistically, positively significant, with the exports also having a positive impact on the economic growth and FDI of the country. The results support Exports Led Growth (ELG and FDI-Led economic Growth (FLG in Malaysia. The finding further suggests that Malaysia should continuous pursue exports promotion and a liberal investment economic policy in order to maintain and bolster overall economic growth.

  19. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Export Performance: Empirical Evidence for Western Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nasir Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently there are many authors that have studied and analyzed the impact of foreign direct investments (FDI on the export performance. They have different opinions about the effect of foreign direct investments on the export performance. Some of them in their papers conclude that FDI have positive effect on the export performance and some not. There are also findings that FDI do not have any impact on the export performance. Of course for economic benefit of host country it is not important only the amount of FDI, but also their structure. To measure the effect of FDI on the export performance is not easy. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to analyze empirically the foreign direct investments and exports performance during the period of 1996-2013 in Western Balkan countries. The paper also investigates for the fixed effects and individual heterogeneity across countries and years. Based on the panel regression techniques and Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV regression method, FDI positively affect export performance in the sample countries in various model specifications. The results and conclusions of this paper we hope that will help everybody who are interested and studying this matter, especially the policy makers.  The last ones have the obligation to facilitate and promote the export if they award confirm that FDI contribute on developing their economy.

  20. Electricity consumption and economic growth in seven South American countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea); Kwak, So-Yoon [Department of Economics, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    This paper attempts to investigate the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth among seven South American countries, namely Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela using widely accepted time-series techniques for the period 1975-2006. The results indicate that the causal nexus between electricity consumption and economic growth varies across countries. There is a unidirectional, short-run causality from electricity consumption to real GDP for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, and Ecuador. This means that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth in those countries. In Venezuela, there is a bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. This implies that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further electricity consumption in that country. However, no causal relationships exist in Peru. The documented evidence from seven South American countries can provide useful information for each government with regard to energy and growth policy. (author)

  1. Tuberculosis in foreign students in Japan, 2010–2014: a comparison with the notification rates in their countries of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ota

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the foreign students with tuberculosis (TB registered in Japan from 2010 to 2014 and compares their TB notification rates with those in their countries of origin. The TB notification rates in foreign students were retrieved from the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Disease system in Japan. National TB notification data from 16 countries and areas were extracted from the World Health Organization’s and the official health websites of the countries and areas. There were 1128 foreign students in Japan who developed TB between 2010 and 2014; nearly half of the cases were from China (n = 530, 46.9%, and 688 (61.0% were male with a median age of 23 years. The TB notification data for foreign students were highest in students from the Philippines (675/100 000 person years, 95% confidence interval: 372–977. The notification rates in foreign students from seven countries were significantly higher than the average notification rate in their countries of origin (China, Indonesia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, the Philippines and Viet Nam. The Republic of Korea and Taiwan, China had significantly lower rates in foreign students than in their countries of origin. The notification rates for foreign students in Japan may reflect a more accurate risk of developing TB among the immigrants to Japan than the TB notification rates in their countries of origin. These results may be helpful to identify the immigrants’ countries/areas of origin with the necessity of pre-entry TB screening.

  2. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad POPOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available That influences the inflow of foreign direct investments (FDIs into South-Eastern Europe (SEE, whereby main emphasis will be put on republics of Former Yugoslavia, but also with some references to Romania’s case.Choice of the countries for comparison is made upon assumption that they were characterized by relatively the same industrial, market and social development before they entered the process of transition, so comparisons from the aspect of achieved results is of scientific importance. Special attention will be directed to the result made by the Republic of Serbia in the process of attracting FDIs. First of all, main terms of foreign direct investments will be defined in this paper and we will give general review of literature related to allocation of foreign direct investments. Then, recent trends of foreign direct investments in south-astern Europe will be described. Finally, the factors that influence allocation of FDIs,as well as relationship between index of global competitiveness of observed countries and accumulated FDIs during period of transition will be analyzed.

  3. Country of Origin Effect and Animosity on The Attitude and Purchase Intention of Foreign Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadania; Sri Gunawan; Jamaliah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine COO effect and Animosity on the attitude and purchase intention of foreign products in ethnic subculture within a country. This research is tested in Malay and Chinese ethnic subculture in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The categories of product are foods from Malaysia. Sample in this study is 435 respondents, consists of 218 Malay respondents from Ma-lay and 217 Chinese respondents. The collection of data was using non probability sampling method by combi...

  4. Relating annual migration from high tuberculosis burden country of origin to changes in foreign-born tuberculosis notification rates in low-medium incidence European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanway, Aidan; Comiskey, Catherine M; Tobin, Katy; O'Toole, Ronan F

    2016-12-01

    The level of immigration from high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries (HBCs) which impacts on the foreign-born TB notification rate is largely unknown. In this work, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological data from 2000 to 2013 from nine European countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Crude notification rates were calculated for foreign- and native-born populations and a multiple-linear regression model predicting notification rates with HBC population data was generated. From 2000 to 2013, the population percentage with a foreign birthplace increased on average each year in all nine countries, ranging from +0.11%/year in the Netherlands to +0.66%/year in Spain. An annual increase in HBC migrants above +0.43% per year (95% Confidence Interval: 0.24%-0.63%) corresponded with higher TB notification rates in the foreign-born population of the countries analyzed. This indicates that migration from HBCs can exert a measurable effect on the foreign-born TB notification rate. However, an increase in the foreign-born TB notification rate coincided with an average annual rise in national TB notification rates only in countries, Norway (+3.85%/year) and Sweden (+2.64%/year), which have a high proportion (>80%) of TB cases that are foreign-born.

  5. Japanese men's success in altered fatherhood role in a foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Shimada, Mieki; McIntyre, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the meaning of the lived experience of childbirth and parenting of Japanese men who became fathers in a foreign country. Japanese men have been raised to maintain very strict gender roles, excluding them from sharing with their wives the experience of childbirth and the day-to-day parenting of young children. The study employed a descriptive phenomenological approach with in-depth interviews. Participants included nine Japanese men born and raised in Japan who were living in Honolulu. Three theme categories emerged from the data: "making active efforts in preparation for childbirth in a foreign country"; "challenges in pregnancy, childbirth, child care, and as husbands or partners"; and "challenges in transition to parenthood." Japanese men successfully altered their transitional and authoritarian gender role to a family orientated social structure, under the influence of Western values, when living in foreign country. By spending more time with their new family, they acknowledged the processes of becoming a father. The ability to adapt their expectations of fatherhood in line with Western values was enhanced by the support of coworkers, their mature age, rich educational background, and the personal financial resources of the male participants in the study.

  6. Foreign direct investment and policy framework: New Granger causality evidence from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiu Adewale Aregbeshola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The strategic importance of foreign direct investment in the contemporary economies has been tremendous.While various countries (developed and developing economies have benefitted from the direct and spillovereffects of FDI, which range from improved technology and knowledge diffusion through to individual andcorporate capability enhancement, FDI outflow remains largely channelled to the developed countries, andthe rapidly developing countries in Asia and South America. Evidence suggests that the developmentenhancingeffects of FDI are felt more highly in the developing economies, such as economies in Africa.However, FDI inflow to the developing economies has been very low. Using data generated from the AfricanDevelopment Indicators (ADI between 1980 and 2008 in econometric estimations, this paper finds thatgovernment policies (especially fiscal and monetary policies play significant roles in facilitating FDI inflow tothe African countries studied. The study thereby suggests an improved regulatory framework to make Africamore attractive to inflow of FDI.

  7. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggoh, Jude C.; Bangake, Chrysost; Rault, Christophe [Orleans Univ. (France). LEO

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 21 African countries over the period from 1970 to 2006, using recently developed panel cointegration and causality tests. The countries are divided into two groups: net energy importers and net energy exporters. It is found that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, prices, labor and capital for each group of countries as well as for the whole set of countries. This result is robust to possible cross-country dependence and still holds when allowing for multiple endogenous structural breaks, which can differ among countries. Furthermore, we find that decreasing energy consumption decreases growth and vice versa, and that increasing energy consumption increases growth, and vice versa, and that this applies for both energy exporters and importers. Finally, there is a marked difference in the cointegration relationship when country groups are considered. (orig.)

  8. The Position of Suitcase Trading in Turkey’s Foreign Trade and Growth-Suitcase Trading Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem YAPAR SAÇIK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Suitcase trading which is defined as a purchasing process of merchandises in a country that is implemented by travelers (nonresidents to sell those merchandises in their own country; it has started to take place in balance of payments of Turkey since 1996. After the collapse of USSR in 1991 Turkey became a net exporter in suitcase trading so the country reached significant figures occasionally. In this paper the position of suitcase trading in Turkey’s foreign trade is analyzed in consideration of statistical indicators. According to the findings acquired from the study, suitcase trading is a significant variable for Turkey to have currency and to close foreign deficits. Suitcase trading and growth connection is also analyzed by econometric method which is co-integration test and the result is affirmative. And also it is found that this connection is unilateral causation from growth towards suitcase trading according to the findings of Granger causality test

  9. IMMIGRATION GROWTH TENDENCIES IN OECD COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Imran SARIHASAN

    2016-01-01

    Immigration became one of the relevant economic topics in recent years. Over the centuries millions of people have migrated, despite the physical, cultural etc. obstacles, to other lands in search of better lives for themselves and their children. In the context of development, globalization and labor market mobility, it is necessary to further analyze the determinants and consequences of migration not only on the host country, but also on the sending country. The increased interest and avail...

  10. Restrictive Factors for Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bucur Ion; Bucur Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Economic growth reflects the ability of an economy to produce more goods, in the structure and quality demanded by consumers. Growth influence decisive the existing living standard in a country. Developing countries are characterized in a greater extent than developed countries by insufficient financial resources designed both to increase the volume of investment resources and their efficient use. Increasing economic resources requires investments and lead to increased production.

  11. Economic Growth in India: Does Foreign Direct Investment Inflow Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Dukhabandhu Sahoo; Maathai K. Mathiyazhagan

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the role of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in promoting economic growth via export promotion by using quarterly data relating to the period 1991-I to 2000-IV. The study uses the Johansen co-Integration test, and the results demonstrate that there is a long-run relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP), FDI, and Export (EX) and Industrial Production (IIP), FDI, and EX. However, the elasticity coefficients between FDI and GDP and FDI and IIP turned out to be negativ...

  12. Foreign direct investment, financial development and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    2003-01-01

    This article argues that the development of the financial system of the recipient country is an important precondition for FDI to have a positive impact on economic growth. A more developed financial system positively contributes to the process of technological diffusion associated with FDI. The

  13. Growth and project finance in the least developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lisbeth F. la Cour; Jennifer Müller

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effects of project finance on economic growth in the least developed countries (LDC). Inspired by the neoclassical growth model we set up an econometric model to estimate the effects of project finance for a sample consisting of 38 of the least developed countries using data from the period 1994-2007. The results of our study suggest, that project finance has a significant positive effect on economic growth and therefore constitute an important source of ...

  14. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggoh, Jude C., E-mail: comlanvi-jude.eggoh@univ-orleans.fr [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Bangake, Chrysost [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Artois and Laboratoire EQUIPPE, Lille 1, FSES, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Rault, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Toulouse Business School (France)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 21 African countries over the period from 1970 to 2006, using recently developed panel cointegration and causality tests. The countries are divided into two groups: net energy importers and net energy exporters. It is found that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, prices, labor and capital for each group of countries as well as for the whole set of countries. This result is robust to possible cross-country dependence and still holds when allowing for multiple endogenous structural breaks, which can differ among countries. Furthermore, we find that decreasing energy consumption decreases growth and vice versa, and that increasing energy consumption increases growth, and vice versa, and that this applies for both energy exporters and importers. Finally, there is a marked difference in the cointegration relationship when country groups are considered. - Highlights: > We assess the energy consumption and economic growth nexus in 21 African countries. > There exists a long-run relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. > This result is robust to cross-country dependence and for structural breaks. > Our findings finally support the feedback hypothesis of bidirectional causality.

  15. Determinants of Economic Growth in V4 Countries and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The middle and long-term slowdown in growth dynamics could bring serious social and political problems for V4 countries (Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania. It would threaten reaching benefits from potential of convergence process with the developed countries of the European Union. As a result, the V4 economies and Romania should find solutions to achieving a sustainable growth that is associated with an improvement of their international competitiveness. This paper provides an empirical analysis of factors that might determine a stable economic growth in the five mentioned countries. The empirical analysis conducted for the period of 2003-2016 employed Bayesian generalized ridge regression. The main results indicated that the FDI promoted economic growth in all countries, except the Slovak Republic. Only in the Czech Republic, the expenditure on education generated economic growth, while the expenditure on R&D had positive effects in Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic.

  16. Interactions between Financial Sector Development, Foreign Direct Investment, and Economic Growth in Japan!

    OpenAIRE

    Gharib, Hedieh

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between financial development, foreign direct investment, and economic growth in Japan by using time series annual data. Results show that financial sector and foreign direct investment in Japan have a long term and significant impact on economic growth. Real income significantly converges to its long-term equilibrium path through financial sector and foreign direct investment. Furthermore, real income growth also exerts statistic...

  17. Foreign direct investment with regard to the economic growth of the Japanese economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment presents an indivisible part of the global economy and a major catalyst to development. The paper stresses out the importance of FDI in boosting the growth of the nation’s economy and is aimed at assessing the flow of inward FDI into Japan in the frame of the economic development of the country. Many studies reflected the superior managerial efficiency and productivity of foreign business companies operating in Japan and this is considered to be an asset of inward FDI into Japan. From the beginning of the reference period (with an exception of last two decades the ratio of FDI on gross domestic product in Japan remained quite stable. This economy witnessed augmented FDI flows in the 1990s but current economic situation aggravated by the global financial and economic crisis differs significantly from the development in previous years. A fitted developmental series using a logarithmic polynomial indicate the described trend of FDI in Japan. Based on results of methods of regression and correlation analysis (including testing the statistical significance, the correlation is evident between FDI and gross domestic product in the monitored country and the existence of a growth impact of FDI can be thus accepted.

  18. Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Green Growth? Evidence from China’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Yue

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI not only affects the economic growth but also affects the environmental protection of the host country. With China’s background of pursuing green growth, we need to consider the performance of FDI from the economic and environmental benefit aspects. On this basis, using slacks-based measure directional distance function (SBMDDF to build up green growth efficiency, economic efficiency and environmental efficiency indexes, empirical research on FDI in 104 Chinese cities from 2004 to 2011 has shown that: (1 Different cities have differences in their green growth efficiency. Shenzhen city is always efficient in green economic growth. (2 Overall, FDI is positive on Chinese cities’ green growth. (3 When the green growth efficiency is broken down into economic efficiency and environmental efficiency, FDI promotes China’s economic green growth through both environmental benefits and economic benefits. (4 The effect of FDI differs in different sectors. FDI in the emission-intensive sector promotes green efficiency mainly through the improvement of economic efficiency. FDI in the non-emission-intensive sector promotes economic efficiency, environmental efficiency and green efficiency.

  19. The practice of working with children left without parental care in foreign developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Larin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss different approaches to work with children left without parental care, implemented in developed foreign countries. We emphasize that, to facilitate socialization and adaptation of these children in Russia, we should take into account the experience of all the systems of education, take the best of them, adapt them to the Russian mentality, increase funding for children's homes system, develop a comprehensive approach to prevent homelessness and neglect of children, and create conditions for promoting adoption of children by foster families

  20. Peculiarities of Design Competence Formation in Future Clothing Engineering Educators in Ukraine and Foreign Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilyk Victoria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of engineering pedagogical education for the global labour market has been characterized. The peculiarities of modern engineering pedagogical education formation in foreign countries consisting in economy globalization, transition to a high quality education and international cooperation enhancing have been presented. The essence of clothing engineering educators’ design competence being the professional’s ability to provide educational process with didactic design and productive one with technical documentation for the garment manufacture in accordance with the production norms and standards has been revealed.

  1. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Apolzan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration refers to trade unification between different states , and one of its most important aspects is liberalisation of capital movement. In this paper is presented a brief evolution of economic integration cases focusing on one of the most integrated economies European Union. We concentrate on the participation of foreign investors in different economies and their impact, taking the example of Central and Eastern European Countries and their markets. Also , the level of influence that direct investments in capital markets entails on the Stock Exchange evolution is presented for the case of Romania .

  2. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively analyse the long-run effect of foreign aid (ODA) on key macroeconomic variables in 36 sub-Saharan African countries from the mid-1960s to 2007, using a well-specified cointegrated VAR model as statistical benchmark. Results provide broad support for a positive long-run impact...... of ODA flows on the macroeconomy. In contrast, we find little evidence supporting the thesis that aid has been harmful. From a methodological point of view we highlight the importance of transparency in reporting results, especially when the hypothesis being tested differs from theoretical expectations...

  3. Developing Rural Cooperative Finance with Reference to Experience of Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aihua; WU; Mingxian; LI

    2014-01-01

    At present,rural credit cooperative is an essential part of rural financial system in China. Since the foundation of new China,especially since the reform and opening-up,rural credit cooperative has become the largest financial organization in rural areas. However,its operation mode needs further improvement and service functions are to be strengthened. Therefore,learning successful mode of rural cooperative finance in foreign countries has important theoretical and realistic significance for promoting development of China’s rural cooperative finance.

  4. Foreign Aid and Security Sector Reform in Latin America: mapping donors and recipient countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maura Tomesani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: this article is part of a PhD thesis interested in confronting the demands of Latin American law enforcement institutions with programs in the security sector reform fostered by foreign agencies for international assistance on the continent. The guiding hypothesis of this study is that programs of international aid focused on the security sector reform in Latin America overlook law enforcement demands for institutional strengthening. I suggest that the international offering in this area follows a regional agenda, which is basically preventive and is very resistant to work with law enforcement organizations. Part of the work is mapping donor and recipient countries for analyzing programs implemented in Latin American countries. This article presents the literature review for this investigation and the first results of our empiric research.

  5. Statutes of the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>(Amended and Adopted by the Ninth National Council Meeting on May 18, 2007)Chapter One General Principles Article 1 The Association is a national people’s organization of the People’s Republic of China known as the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries, and abbreviated as CPAFFC. Article 2 As an institute of people-to-people diplomacy, on behalf of the Chinese people, the Association makes friends extensively and makes close friends on the international arena and works to win broad international sympathy for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics and to provide a consolidated social basis for the establishment of good state relations between China and all other countries. Article 3 To enhance people’s friendship, further international cooperation, safeguard world peace and promote common development are purposes which the Association pursues indefatigably in its work.

  6. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments in Transition Economies: Case of Commonwealth of Independent Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobir Shukurov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While there has been voluminous research on the determinants of FDI for developed and developing countries, little has been done on this issue for transition economies, especially, for the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS countries. the present paper examines the determinants of inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI flows in the CIS during 1995–2010. the results of empirical analysis using panel data models, conducted with the purpose of identifying the factors that determine the motivation and decision of multinational companies (MNC to invest in CIS economies, show that regardless of the presence of high investment risk in transition economies, the choice of FDI location always depends on a preliminary analysis of countries’ advantages (FDI stock, market size, abundance in natural resources and disadvantages at macro level (fiscal imbalance and inflation. These pre‑existing conditions can always roughly predict the type of FDI (resource-seeking, market‑seeking, efficiency-seeking.

  7. Dynamics of Investment and Growth in Developing Countries during the 1980s Dynamics of Investment and Growth in Developing Countries during the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Soto

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of Investment and Growth in Developing Countries during the 1980s Since the outbreak of the debt crisis in 1982 growth and investment in developing countries have been persistently low by historical standards. Most of the adjustment processes undertaken during the 1980s included strong devaluations and fiscal adjusrment relying heavily on lower public investment.The asessment of the consistency of these policies with expected increases in private investment and growth has been based up to now mainly on static crosscountry models that show contradictory results, specially with regard to the role of foreign debt, the real exchange rate, and public investment.This paper discuss why static approaches are inapproonate for an essentialy dynamic problem and proposes the estimation if a VAR-data model which may help clarify the relations between private investment and growth. The simulations of growth and investment responses to changes in the real exchange rate and the level of public investment show that dynamic responses through lagged effects differ substantially from what available static models suggest.

  8. Growth and Project Finance in the Least Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth F.; Müller, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    data from the period 1994-2007. The results of our study suggest, that project finance has a significant positive effect on economic growth and therefore constitute an important source of financing in the selected set of countries. Additionally, the project sheds light on other factors of importance......This article examines the effects of project finance on economic growth in the least developed countries (LDC). Inspired by the neoclassical growth model we set up an econometric model to estimate the effects of project finance for a sample consisting of 38 of the least developed countries using...... for economic growth in LDCs. We find that a higher regulatory quality, lower government consumption and a higher level of education helps increase growth. The significance of these variables are, however, not as consistently robust as the results for project finance....

  9. Growth and Project Finance in the Least Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth F.; Müller, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effects of project finance on economic growth in the least developed countries (LDC). Inspired by the neoclassical growth model we set up an econometric model to estimate the effects of project finance for a sample consisting of 38 of the least developed countries using...... data from the period 1994-2007. The results of our study suggest, that project finance has a significant positive effect on economic growth and therefore constitute an important source of financing in the selected set of countries. Additionally, the project sheds light on other factors of importance...... for economic growth in LDCs. We find that a higher regulatory quality, lower government consumption and a higher level of education helps increase growth. The significance of these variables are, however, not as consistently robust as the results for project finance....

  10. 26 CFR 1.955-2 - Amount of a controlled foreign corporation's qualified investments in less developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... qualified investments in less developed countries. 1.955-2 Section 1.955-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...'s “qualified investments in less developed countries” are items of property (other than property... following: (1) Stock of a less developed country corporation if the controlled foreign corporation...

  11. Foreign direct investment and technology spillovers in low and middle-income countries : a comparative cross-sectoral analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, J.; Sasso, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the trends in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows worldwide across sectors and across value-chain activities, with a particular focus on low- and middle-income countries in comparison with advanced countries. We begin by discussing the growing fragmentation of global produ

  12. Foreign Product Perceptions and Country of Origin Analysis across Black Sea:Studies on Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia and Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali R; za Apil

    2006-01-01

    ...) as the most important cue to assess the quality. This study analyses approaches toward foreign products, country of origin effect and the ethnocentric behavior of consumers of the selected countries. The study is a literature review of related studies in Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia and Turkey.

  13. On the importance of macroeconomic factors for the foreign student’s decision to stay in the host country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljeva, Kristine

    The paper tests empirically whether the macroeconomic variables suggested by migration theories have a significant impact on the foreign student’s decision to stay in their host country. The analysis is based on the combination of country level variables and individual register data. The mean...

  14. Foreign direct investment in the health care sector and most-favoured locations in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outreville, J François

    2007-12-01

    Given the growing importance of the health care sector and the significant development of trade in health services, foreign direct investment (FDI) in this sector has gathered momentum with the General Agreement on Trade in Services. Despite extensive case based research and publications in recent years on health care markets and the rise of private sectors, it is surprisingly difficult to find evidence on the relative importance of the largest multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in the health care sector. The objective of the paper is to identify some of the determinants of foreign investment of the largest MNCs operating in this industry. The list of the largest MNCs has been compiled using company websites and data is available for 41 developing economies for which at least two MNCs have an office (branch and/or affiliate). The results of this study have some important implications. They indicate that location-specific advantages of host countries, including good governance, do provide an explication of the internationalization of firms in some developing countries rather than others.

  15. Deficiencies of regulation of euthanasia in legal acts of foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polaks R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today in most countries the practising of euthanasia is not permissible and as in any case of a criminal offence, which endangers the life of a person, criminal liability applies here. However, the analysis of legal norms in foreign criminal codes reveals several deficiencies, ranging from – the absence of legal regulation which leads to a paradoxical situation, when ignoring the motive and aim of the offence, euthanasia is qualified according to the article of the criminal code which provides for liability for murder with no mitigating circumstances, but assisted suicide liability does not apply at all, – to including special legal norms pertaining to this problematic issue, in the structure of criminal codes, in the disposition of which there is an absence of several mandatory constituent elements of these particular criminal offences, thus unduly extending the provision of these norms in practice also in the cases not related to “easy death”. The deficiencies of legal acts are observed also in those few countries which allow a definite form of euthanasia and its practising by means of special laws. And most importantly, foreign legislators ignore such forms of terminating the lives of incurably ill persons as active and passive non-voluntary euthanasia, which depending on the nature of the offence requires an appropriate legal framework, which so far has not been observed.

  16. CHANGES IN THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS’ INFLOWS INTO THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DURING THE LAST DECADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura DIACONU (MAXIM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the share of the foreign direct investments (FDI attracted by the developing countries has considerable increased into the global FDI inflows. This increase has also been accompanied by significant changes in their sectorial composition and, implicitly, in their determinants. Considering these aspects, the main objective of the present paper is to analyse the evolution of the FDI inflows into the developing countries from the point of view of their destinations, structure and major determinants. The relevance of the paper results from the fact that, knowing these aspects, the developing countries may focus more on improving or augmenting the advantages sought by the multinational companies. In order to reach the established objective, we have conducted an analysis of the secondary data offered by the specialized literature. These secondary sources included various statistical yearbooks and reports, as well as different empirical investigations. The present paper starts from the hypothesis that, unlike 45 years ago, when the multinationals were looking especially for low production costs and resources’ availability when investing into the developing countries, at the beginning of the XXI century, the human capital, together with the socio-economic, financial and political stability and the presence of the efficient institutions play a more important role in attracting the FDI into these states.

  17. Implications of the Eu Enlargement on the Foreign Trade Activity of the Eastern and Central European Countries which Recently Joined the Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa-Aurelia Chitiba

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU-27 is by far the largest exporter of goods worldwide: in 2007, goods worth EUR 1 240 billionwere exported, against EUR 848 billion by the United States and EUR 889 billion by China. The United States importedslightly more than the EU-27 (EUR 1 472 billion and EUR 1 426billion respectively, more than double the value of totalimports registered by China (EUR 698 billion.Under the influence of a lot of general and specific factors, the foreign trade of Central and Eastern European(CEE countries which recently joined the European Union has been constantly growing till the second part of 2008 year,registering higher yearly growth rates than the total of EU-27.In the last years, for the foreign trade of all the ten new EU members CEE states it appears like a common tracethe deeply process of growing the importance of the intra EU commercial relationship within the total internationaleconomic relationship of these countries. Between the new EU members, the most important weight of the intra EUcommerce in their total foreign trade is registered by the Check Republic (83%, Slovakia (80%, Latvia (76%, Poland(75%, and Estonia (75%.In business environment, institutional, and logistics performance, the EU accession countries stand out as the bestperformers. Most new EU member states are in fact catching up to OECD countries on some measures of logisticsperformance, and all rank in the top 50 with the exception of Lithuania (ranked 58th.

  18. Optimal public investment, growth, and consumption : Evidence from African countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosu, A.K.; Getachew, Y.Y.; Ziesemer, T.H.W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a model positing a nonlinear relationship between public investment and growth. The model is then applied to a panel of African countries, using nonlinear estimating procedures. The growth-maximizing level of public investment is estimated at about 10% of GDP, based on System GMM

  19. Financial Deepening, Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: Are They Cointegrated

    OpenAIRE

    Rudra Prakash Pradhan

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the long run equilibrium nexus between financial deepening, foreign direct investment (FDI) and economic growth in India during 1970-2007. Using Johansen¡¯s cointegration technique, the paper finds that financial deepening; foreign direct investment and economic growth are cointegrated, indicating the continuation of long run equilibrium relationship between them. The Error Correction Model (ECM) further confirms the presence of bidirectional causality between foreign direc...

  20. Inequality, Economic Growth and Trade Openness: a Study Case for Central and Eastern Countries (ECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the phenomenon of income inequality in ten countries from Eastern and Central Europe (ECE, by highlighting two aspects: (1 the link between growth and income inequality; (2 the effects of trade openess and other key factors on income inequality, such as: foreign direct investment (FDI, market capitalization and educational level of labour force. The method used was the Panel Data Analysis with statistical data from the period of 2000-2014. An increasing effect in income inequality was identified due to the trade openess, the inward stock of ISD and the market capitalization and an equalizing effect in the income distribution generated by the educational level of labour force. A positive association was also found between the growth of PIB per capita level and the increase of income inequality in the examined countries.

  1. Aid and the growth of income in aid-favoured developing countries: policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, H; Yeboah, D

    1994-04-01

    This paper opens by expressing disappointment in the disparities between published estimations of the effectiveness of foreign aid to developing countries and effectiveness data which arise from the application of complex econometric methods. The new dilemmas for aid policy include the fact that aid increasingly devoted to human development at the expense of productive activity is unlikely to create the material development which will allow maintenance of human development targets. The second part of the paper presents comparative statistics on gross national product, official development assistance, and savings growth which paint a disturbing picture because the growth of domestic savings has been negative in the period 1967-87 in nine of the 11 less developed countries with data available. Section 3 covers the shortcomings of econometric experiments which neither confirm nor deny the findings of other studies on the effectiveness of aid. The fourth section describes constraints to the growth of income imposed by the foreign exchange, the rate of return on investment, and the growth of labor productivity and presents statistical evidence supporting aid policy which would 1) take advantage of opportunities to rehabilitate output growth in traditional industries without the addition of a great deal of capital, 2) direct attention to increasing the absolute gross national product (GNP) to raise the growth of per capital income, and 3) strategically reorient the structure of aid to increase the absolute GNP faster to accelerate reversal of the negative savings pattern and speed the reduction of fertility. Section 5 considers suggested shifts in aid policy orientation dealing with 1) population growth, income level, and food security; 2) reconstruction and structural adjustment; 3) rationalizing aid for social, institutional, and human development and technical assistance. The concluding section notes that the suggested strategic reorientation of the structure of aid

  2. Electricity consumption and economic growth: A cross-country analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon, E-mail: shyoo@hoseo.ed [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo-Suk, E-mail: leejoosuk@hoseo.ed [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Electricity has been the foundation of economic growth, and constitutes one of the vital infra-structural inputs in socio-economic development. The world faces a surge in demand for electricity that is driven by such powerful forces as population growth, extensive urbanization, industrialization, and the rise in the standard of living. This paper attempts to ascertain whether there is a systematic relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. To this end, we use a large set of data that spans 88 countries during the period, 1975-2004. A statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between per-capita consumption of electricity and per-capita income is detected. Nevertheless, by using a purchasing power parity that is much higher than the per-capita income of all the countries in the world, the level of per-capita income is estimated at the peak point of per-capita electricity consumption to be $61,379 in 2000 constant international dollars. Moreover, we segment the sample into Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and non-OECD countries, and separately analyze the developed and developing countries. The separate estimation shows that even though the peak income is higher than the average per-capita income, a statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship is found in OECD and developed countries but not in non-OECD and developing countries.

  3. Electricity consumption and economic growth. A cross-country analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Joo-Suk [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    Electricity has been the foundation of economic growth, and constitutes one of the vital infra-structural inputs in socio-economic development. The world faces a surge in demand for electricity that is driven by such powerful forces as population growth, extensive urbanization, industrialization, and the rise in the standard of living. This paper attempts to ascertain whether there is a systematic relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. To this end, we use a large set of data that spans 88 countries during the period, 1975-2004. A statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between per-capita consumption of electricity and per-capita income is detected. Nevertheless, by using a purchasing power parity that is much higher than the per-capita income of all the countries in the world, the level of per-capita income is estimated at the peak point of per-capita electricity consumption to be $61,379 in 2000 constant international dollars. Moreover, we segment the sample into Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and non-OECD countries, and separately analyze the developed and developing countries. The separate estimation shows that even though the peak income is higher than the average per-capita income, a statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship is found in OECD and developed countries but not in non-OECD and developing countries. (author)

  4. Does the Rabbit's Foot Actually Work? The Causal Effect of Foreign Ownership on Firm Productivity in Three ASEAN Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inggrid Inggrid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Voluminous studies have examined the relationship between foreign ownership and firm productivity. Two general patterns emerge at the empirical level: they are essentially correlational and results are mixed. This paper estimates the causal effect of foreign presence on a variety of productivity measures. We rely on a selection on observables approach based on the idea that all variables that influence foreign ownership status and firm productivity are fully captured by the available control variables, eliminating the problem of selection bias. Using firm-level data from three ASEAN countries, the study finds that productivity of foreign-owned firms is consistently above that of domestically-owned firms regardless of different productivity measures and types of matching algorithms. This result suggests to a large extent the benefits of foreign participation in the economy.

  5. The relation between economic growth and foreign direct investment during the economic crisis in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to investigate the relationship between economic growth and foreign direct investment inflows in the European Union (EU-28 in the period of the recent economic crisis. Panel data approach and Bayesian techniques are employed to solve the problem of a short set of data (2008–2014. The panel data approaches (panel vector-autoregressive model and Bayesian random effect models identified a reciprocal and positive relationship between FDI and economic growth in EU-28 starting with 2008. The individual approach based on Bayesian linear regressions identified this tendency as being specific for most of the EU-28 countries. However, there are some countries for which higher FDI did not generate economic growth and some countries where higher GDP did not attract more FDI and FDI did not bring economic growth. According to cluster analysis, the disparities among countries regarding the FDI distribution according to GDP growth and GDP rate distribution according to FDI diminished in 2014 compared to 2008. The basic conclusion is that on overall in the European Union there was a reciprocal relationship between economic growth and FDI since the beginning of the crisis with a tendency of reducing disparities between countries in attracting FDI.

  6. Introduction of elements of accounting systems of foreign countries in accounting practice in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmatkovska Tatjana Oleksandrivna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of national and international approaches to regulation of accounting, generally modern system of accounting, defined the features of accounting principles to International Financial Reporting Standards and methodology developed countries, considered factors of influence on the development of national accounting systems for the analysis of developments domestic and foreign researchers, examined the nature of their influence and interdependence ‘relationship between them, identified and analyzed existing in the world management accounting practice models that differ in the degree of state regulation, austerity regulations for the implementation of accounting procedures, display order of business transactions in accounting accounts reveals trends of accounting in Ukraine at the present stage of integration of the economy into the world economy.

  7. Quality Education and Skills of Indonesian Labor, Towards Equality Wages in Foreign Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriani Febriani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of the quality of education and skills of prospective Indonesia Labor from West Sumatra on income. Wage income is expected equivalent to the level of wage labor which comes from other countries. Therefore, in order to obtain equal wage, prospective Indonesian labors sent abroad should be a good level of education, skill trained so that labor productivity increased. The method used in this study is Test Crosstab, and, Chi Square test to see the effect between the two variables used. It is shown that Indonesian labors do not able to compete in terms of quality of education and skills, compared to foreign labors, so that the income received by the Indonesian labor is lower. In addition, professional job that has been chosen by the Indonesian labor is the operator, profession which does not necessarily require a high level of educational and skills qualifications.

  8. Bilateral Trade and SEE–Eurozone Countries Growth Rate Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Botrić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explore the role of trade in aligning the synchronisation patterns between the South Eastern European (see countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, FYR of Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia – and members of the euro area. More precisely, we investigate whether bilateral trade flows affect output synchronisation between the euro area countries and see countries and compare trade-synchronisation patterns between the see countries and new member states that have not yet introduced the euro (NMS. The results show that the levels of output similarities between the see countries and NMS are different and that the see countries exhibit lower output correlation with the euro area members than the NMS. Exploring the role of trade in aligning growth patterns has in some cases found positive effects, much stronger for the see countries, which have lower trade intensity levels. We argue that the reason for these results is related to the fact that other factors could be dominant in the NMS countries (policy measures alignment within the EU, while for the see countries only trade relationships had the opportunity to exert noticeable effects in the analysed period.

  9. Foreign funds utilisation growth in Western China exceeds national average%中国西部利用外资增速高于全国平均

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The western part of China approved the founding of 254 foreign-funded enterprises in the first two months of this year, rising 5% over the year-earlier period, and attracted foreign funds of US$ 1.393 billion, surging 204%, which was 128 percentage points higher than the average growth of the country, according to the Ministry of Commerce. Western China accounted for 7% of the national utilisation of foreign funds in the first two months as compared with the 4% in the same period of last year.

  10. The Nexus between FDI and Growth in the SAARC Member Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjoon Jun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI on South Asian economies' output growth, utilizing recent panel cointegration testing and estimation techniques. Annual panel data on eight SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation member countries' macroeconomic variables over the period 1960- 2013 are employed in empirical analysis. Using various heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel causality tests, a bi-directional relationship between FDI and growth is found. We find evidence for both FDI-led growth and growth-induced FDI hypotheses for the South Asian economies over the sample period. Individual member countries exhibit heterogeneity in terms of the direction or existence of causality subject to their idiosyncratic economic conditions. Among various regressors, FDI, financial development, human capital, and government consumption show the most significant positive effects on output growth. As determinants of FDI, GDP, financial development, human capital, and government consumption are found significant in the region. The bi-directional causality between FDI and growth is found robust to the inclusion of other control variables and using different estimation techniques.

  11. Foreign liquidity, economic openning and growth in Latin American economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Holland

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The main concern of our empirical study is to shed light on the question of whether or not and in which direction long-term growth has been associated with financial (liquidity and trade opening since early the 1970s using a panel data approach for 11 Latin American countries. Previous empirical studies reported mixed results in terms of finding a stable association between capital account liberalization and growth or even for trade opening and growth. Our empirical results suggest an important link between international liquidity and growth, but the same does not apply for trade opening and growth.O propósito central deste estudo empírico é discutir as relações entre o crescimento econômico de longo prazo e a liquidez externa, assim como deste com a abertura comercial, desde começo dos anos 70, usando a abordagem de painel para onze economias da América Latina. Estudos anteriores encontraram resultados controversos em termos da existência de relações estáveis entre a liberalização da conta de capital e o crescimento econômico, ou ainda, entre a abertura comercial e o crescimento de longo prazo do PIB. Nossos resultados empíricos sugerem um importante vínculo entre a liquidez externa e crescimento, mas o mesmo não pode ser observado para a relação entre abertura comercial e crescimento econômico.

  12. Growth, Poverty Reduction and Governance in Developing Countries: a Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cagé, Julia

    2009-01-01

    According to the World Bank (World Bank, 2007), the aim of the Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) is to assess “how conducive [a country’s policy and institutional] framework is to fostering poverty reduction, sustainable growth and the effective use of development assistance.” We review the most recent (since 2001) empirical and theoretical literature on the determinants of sustained growth, poverty reduction and the effective use of development assistance, distinguishing bet...

  13. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN POST-CONFLICT COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF IRAQ’S OIL AND ELECTRICITY SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Faraj Hanna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment is new phenomenon to Iraq, a post conflict country with abundance of natural resources. With dominant state-controlled public sector, attracting foreign investment is an added challenge to an economy devastated by years of wars. A qualitative case study was conducted to assess determinants of foreign direct investment in Iraq’s energy sector. Data was collected from interviews with business and government subject matter experts, and a review of publically available documents. Lack of security, political instability, corruption, and inadequate government policies towards foreign direct investment as symptoms found and typically shared by other post-conflict countries. The persistence of violence was not seen as a deterrent; however, foreign direct investment activity in the energy sector was virtually limited to the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Investments were either wholly-owned or joint-venture enterprises. Implications to other post conflict countries, using Kuwait and Nigeria as illustrative examples, are presented and recommendations made.

  14. Modeling Fractal Dimension Curve of Urban Growth in Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    The growth curve of fractal dimension of cities can be described with sigmoid function such as Boltzmann's equation and logistic function. The logistic models of fractal dimension curves have been presented for the cities in developed countries. However, these models cannot be well fitted to the observational data of fractal dimension of urban form in developing countries (e.g. China). By statistic experiments of fractal parameters, we find that the quadratic Boltzmann's equation can be used to describe fractal dimension change of Chinese cities. For the normalized fractal dimension values, the Boltzmann's equation can be reduced to a quadratic logistic function. In practice, a fractal dimension dataset of urban growth can be approximately fitted with the quadratic logistic function. Thus, a series of models of fractal dimension curve can be proposed for the cities in developing countries. The models are applied to the city of Beijing, Chinese capital, and yield satisfying trend lines of the observational dat...

  15. Do foreign direct investment and renewable energy consumption affect the CO2 emissions? New evidence from a panel ARDL approach to Kyoto Annex countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Mehmet; Bölük, Gülden

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) and the potential of renewable energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 21 Kyoto countries using an unbalanced panel data. For this purpose, Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis was tested using panel cointegration analysis. Panel causality tests show that there are significant long-run causalities from the variables to carbon emissions, renewable energy consumption, fossil fuel energy consumption and inflow foreign direct investments. The results of our model support the pollution haloes hypothesis which states that FDI brings in clean technology and improves the environmental standards. However, an inverted U-shaped relationship (EKC) was not supported by the estimated model for the 21 Kyoto countries. This means that economic growth cannot ensure environmental protection itself or environmental goals cannot await economic growth. Another important finding is that renewable energy consumption decreases carbon emissions. Based on the empirical results, some important policy implications emerge. Kyoto countries should stimulate the FDI inflows and usage of renewable energy consumption to mitigate the air pollution and meet the emission targets. This paper provides new insights into environment and energy policies through FDI inclusion.

  16. Technical cooperation within the context of foreign aid: trends for the CEE countries in transition (1991—2004)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobis, I; Vries, M.S. de

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates technical assistance (TA) to CEE countries in relation to development aid in general. There is plenty of literature examining the foreign aid, but specific components of aid, like technical assistance, remain largely unexplored. One debate about development aid focuses on

  17. 76 FR 22804 - Technical Amendment to List of CBP Preclearance Offices in Foreign Countries: Addition of Dublin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... Offices in Foreign Countries: Addition of Dublin, Ireland AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: This document amends U.S. Customs and Border Protection... further CBP processing. Preclearance facilities primarily serve to facilitate low risk travelers, relieve...

  18. Telecommunications Research in the United States and Selected Foreign Countries: A Preliminary Survey. Volume II, Individual Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Committee on Telecommunications.

    At the request of the National Science Foundation, the Panel on Telecommunications Research of the Committee on Telecommunications of the National Academy of Engineering has made a preliminary survey of the status and trends of telecommunications research in the United States and selected foreign countries. The status and trends were identified by…

  19. Professional Training of Future Teachers in Foreign Countries in Terms of Intercultural Interaction of Educational Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desyatov, Tymofiy

    2015-01-01

    The problem of professional training of teachers in foreign countries in terms of intercultural interaction of educational space objects has been studied in the paper. It has been stated that the current stage of human civilization development which is defined as the transition to a knowledge society, is characterized by qualitatively new…

  20. Globalization, Foreign Investment Dependence and Agriculture Production: Pesticide and Fertilizer Use in Less-Developed Countries, 1990-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Kuykendall, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Bridging the areas of political-economic sociology, the sociology of agriculture and environmental sociology, this study tests two hypotheses derived from a refined theory of foreign investment dependence. The hypotheses state that pesticide and fertilizer use intensity in less-developed countries are both positively associated with foreign…

  1. Measuring economic growth in OPEC countries : A panel data approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Taiwo Olajide

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the developing and under-developed countries have been facing a lot of challenges on the issue of economic growth, despite the fact that they are endowed with both natural and human resources. This study examines the determinants of real per Capita GDP growth in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC using a panel of twelve countries for the period of 1986 and 2010.The pooled Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, Fixed Effect (FE and Random Effect (RE models were employed to assess the relationship between CGDP and other economic variables used. The result showed that price level of consumptions (pc and investment share (ci are the important factors of CGDP that contribute to the economic growth of OPEC countries. The result also established that exchange rate (Xrat, price of GDP (p, purchasing power parity (ppp and ci have a positive influence on CGDP. The test statistic revealed that Random Effects Model (REM estimator is more efficient than OLS and that there is no significance difference between Fixed Effects Model (FEM and REM estimators.

  2. Seeking new growth hotspots in absorbing foreign direct investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴长洪

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, China’s service industries have absorbed an increasing amount of foreign direct investment (FDI); foreign investors have taken wholly foreign-owned enterprise (WFOE) as the most preferred vehicle of making investment in China; free ports have become a major source of FDI inflows to China; China’s FDI inflows as a percentage of global FDI inflows have been in decline. In the export-oriented or import-substitution manufacturing industries, China still needs to vigorously absorb FDI in the future. In addition, China should continue opening its infrastructure and social service industries. It is therefore imperative to further improve the institutional and policy environment for foreign investment utilization.

  3. Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)], E-mail: choongck@utar.edu.my

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

  4. Growth and oil price. A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations. (author)

  5. 37 CFR 5.11 - License for filing in a foreign country an application on an invention made in the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... foreign country an application on an invention made in the United States or for transmitting an... TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL SECRECY OF CERTAIN INVENTIONS AND LICENSES TO EXPORT AND... filing in a foreign country an application on an invention made in the United States or for transmitting...

  6. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS – AN ESSENTIAL FACTOR FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this analysis is to analyse the connection between foreign direct investments and economic growth in transition economies during a period of increased integration of financial systems in the global financial system. The research focuses on the relationship between foreign direct investments and economic growth during 1970-2013, by means of methods such as the graphic, the regression and the correlation ones. The research findings show that there is a direct and strong connection between the inward financial flows of foreign direct investments and the GDP during the period under analysis in transition economies. In transition economies, a high inward flow of foreign direct investments leads to an increase of the Gross Domestic Product per capita, while a positive development of the standard of living will attract new inward FDI flows, since transition economies are seen as attractive recipients/hosts for foreign direct investments.

  7. Travel Series as TV Entertainment: Genre characteristics and touristic views on foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marit Waade

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Why is it not the deprived developing country, but rather the tempting destination the host arrives in when guiding the audience in a travel series? And how can we explore the specific combination of entertainment and education that travel series represent? Basically the travel series genre is a hybrid of journalistic documentary, entertaining lifestyle series and TV ads and the different series put different emphasis on the different genre elements. Travel series represent a certain kind of mediated consumption and they reflect lifestyle identity in relation to touristic consumer cultures. Like other lifestyle series dealing with consumption products and lifestyle markers encompassing fashion, food, garden, design and interior that balance somewhere between journalism and advertising, travel series typically deal with destinations, travel modes, cultural experiences and food as commodities. To understand the cultural and democratic value of travel series as a popular TV genre in the context of public service broadcasting, it is not the fact that the series contain educative and enlightening information about foreign cultures told in an entertaining and popular way that are of my interest. Rather it is tourism and media consumer culture as such, one has to expound as valuable democratic and cultural practice. The article presents different matrices of the respectively cultural and consumer knowledge that the different types of travel series include.

  8. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane [135 Carnwath Road, London SW6 3HR (United Kingdom); Menyah, Kojo [London Metropolitan Business School, London Metropolitan University, 84 Moorgate, London EC2M 6SQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth. (author)

  9. The role of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in a dualistic growth framework: A smooth coefficient semi-parametric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeb Aurangzeb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and economic growth. We extend the dualistic growth framework by Feder (1982, whereby we divide the economy into an exports and a non-exports sector and assume that the FDI is mainly entering the former. In order to empirically estimate the effects of FDI on economic growth, we employ a smooth coefficient semi-parametric approach. Our results show that countries with higher levels of FDI inflows experience higher productivity in the exports sector as compared with those with low level of FDI inflows. In general, we provide some evidence that FDI inflows play an important role during the development process: Initially, as an important determinant of growth, later on, by helping improve factor productivity in the exports sector and finally, through spillover effects due to fostering the linkages between the Multinational Corporations (MNC and their host economy partners.

  10. Electricity consumption and projected growth in selected Caribbean countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, B.M. [University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados). Dept. of Economics; Moseley, L. [University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados). Dept. of Computer Science, Mathematics and Physics; Sunday Osaretin Iyare [University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados). Dept. of Economics

    2007-11-15

    This paper examines two issues that are central to the understanding of the need to increase efficiency in the use, distribution, and production of energy in the Caribbean region. The empirical results of this Paper suggest the following: first, the three Caribbean countries provide evidence of short-run bi-directional Granger-causality from energy consumption to real gross domestic product per capita. Second, the forecasts with A BVAR model indicate that significant growth in energy demand could be expected in Haiti, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago until at least 2010. Third, the increased growth in energy consumption suggests the need for long-term commitments from Caribbean countries to undertake a series of policy, economic, market, and research and development measures to advance the adoption and deployment of new energy technologies. (author)

  11. Economic growth and its determinants in countries in transitio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kestrim Avdimetaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this scientific research is to analyze the countries in transition; in particular, through this research we will explain the economic growth and its determinants in the countries in transition. Referring to the fact that many ex-communist countries were faced with a transition from a socialist economic system into the economic system of free market, and this phase of transformation is also known as transition, we will analyze this phase in details. The materials contained in this research are based on data taken directly from Financial Institutions, European Central Bank, as well as many other relevant prestigious institutions of countries in transition. The first section of this research begins with the introduction, presenting broadly the economic growth in countries in transition and the manner of their transformation, as well as the identification of hypothesis contained in this research. The second section contains the review of the literature, where we have cited parts from many authors who conducted studies in this broadly and productive field. In the third section are explained the mathematical formulas, that specify the econometric model, as well as the method of assessment, i.e. multiple regression analysis. Then, through the calculations of STATA, we will substitute the values of variables obtained in formula and test them through the selected model. In the last section we will interpret the outcomes derived from calculations in the program, supporting or dismissing hypothesis presented in this scientific research. This scientific research is limited, because many other important variables impacting the economic growth, such as instruments of monetary and fiscal policy, economic freedom, etc., have not been incorporated.

  12. Analysis of training experience of military men to hand-to-hand combat in the foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marakushyn A.I.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the main systems of hand-to-hand combat on the bases of hand-to-hand military men training in the world leading countries armies. Summarized the experience of hand-to-hand combat training. It is analyzes the main existing systems hand-to-hand training of servicemen of foreign armies. The analysis of publications, guidance documents, manuals, statutes which display the contents of hand-to-hand combat training of servicemen of foreign armies. Defined views, concerns and tendencies of hand-to-hand training to develop guidelines an advanced hand-to-hand combat training of servicemen.

  13. A Factor Analytic Model of Economic Growth Basing on Domestic and Foreign Resource and a Positive Study of Korean Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍青生; 蔡来兴; 李湛

    2001-01-01

    The most popular and traditional method to analyze the source of economic growth is created by Robert. M.Solow, but it has some localizations and is not very precise in some sense. In this paper, we will classify all sources of economic growth into domestic part and foreign part. Gross domestic products (GDP) growth is decomposed into labor input, domestic capital formation, imported foreign capital formation, and total factor productivity (TFP) growth. TFP growth is again divided into scale economies, capital utilization, human capital, domestic research and development (R&D)effort, and imported foreign technology. In this way,foreign resources include imported foreign capital formation and foreign technology. By model and demonstration, we analyze the impact of foreign resource to an economy, and the contribution of each factor (especially technological progress) to economic growth.

  14. The effects of foreign direct investment on economic growth: evidence for Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Tachiwou ABOUDOU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI on economic growth. I use data running over 33 years from 1975 to 2008. Generally, the results, obtained by using the ordinary least squares (OLS methods show foreign direct investment (FDI, Trade volume, and Human capital to have a positive impact on economic growth. There is some evidence that inflation and Government consumption to found to have a negative impact on economic growth. The empirical analysis shows that FDI alone plays an ambiguous role in contributing to economic growth.

  15. Foreign Direct Investments As A Factor For Economic Growth In Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr MISZTAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to present the influence of foreign direct investments (FDI on the economic growth in Romania between 2000 and 2009. The article consists of two parts. The first part presents a theoretical analysis of the FDI-led growth hypothesis. This part overviews empirical research, while the next one analyses the importance of foreign direct investments for economic growth in Romania using the Vector Autoregression Model (VAR. The elasticity coefficients of gross domestic product (GDP to changes in gross fixed capital formation, employment, exports of goods and services, and foreign direct investments in Romania are estimated on the basis of impulse response function. Finally, the author offers a decomposition of the gross domestic product variance to assess the degree of GDP determination by changes in gross fixed capital formation, employment, exports of goods and services, and foreign direct investments in Romania.

  16. Report to Congress: Expressions of interest in commercial clean coal technology projects in foreign countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report was prepared in response to the guidance provided by the Congress in the course of the Fiscal Year 1995 appropriations process for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). As described in detail below, DOE was directed to make the international dissemination of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) an integral part of its policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Congress directed DOE to solicit ``Statements of Interest`` in commercial projects employing CCTs in countries projected to have significant growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, DOE was asked to submit to the Congress a report that analyzes the information contained in the Statements of Interest, and that identifies the extent to which various types of Federal incentives would accelerate the commercial availability of these technologies in an international context. In response to DOE`s solicitation of 18 November 1994, 77 Statements of Interest were received from 33 companies, as well as five additional materials. The contents of these submittals, including the requested Federal incentives, the CCTs proposed, the possible host countries, and the environmental aspects of the Statements of Interest, are described and analyzed in the chapters that follow.

  17. Cervical cancer epidemiology in foreign women in Northern Italy: role of human papillomavirus prevalence in country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Felice, Enza; Caroli, Stefania; Paterlini, Luisa; Campari, Cinzia; Prandi, Sonia; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    This study compares the incidence and treatments of cervical neoplasia in foreigners from high migration countries and Italians in the Reggio Emilia province (Northern Italy) in 2002-2009. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and cancer were calculated for foreigners versus Italian women; foreigners were also classified according to the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in their country of origin. The proportion of hysterectomies is presented as an indicator of inappropriate surgery in CIN3 and microinvasive cancers. A higher risk was observed in women from high human papillomavirus prevalence countries (HHPVC) both for cancer and for CIN3 (SIR=4.1, 95% CI=2.2-6.9; SIR=2.0, 95% CI 1.7-2.5, respectively), whereas in those from low human papillomavirus prevalence countries (LHPVC), no difference for cancer and a lower risk for CIN3 were observed (SIR=1.0, 95% CI 0.2-2.2; SIR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, respectively). A lower CIN3/cancer ratio was found in women from HHPVC (2.6) and in women from LHPVC (3.6) than in Italians (7.4). The percentage of hysterectomies for CIN3 or microinvasive cancers was 3.4 in foreigners and 4.7 in Italians. A higher risk of cervical cancer was found in women from HHPVC compared with Italians and women from LHPVC, suggesting a role of HPV prevalence in the country of origin in the excess risk. The CIN3/cancer ratio was lower for both women from HHPVC and women from LHPVC, also suggesting a role of low screening uptake for cervical cancer incidence in immigrants.

  18. Economic Growth and Budget Constraints: EU Countries Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimčík Petr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the impacts of different taxes and expenditures on economic growth. The research is focused on 20 selected European Union Member States. These countries are equally divided into four groups based on their average tax burden as presented in the World Tax Index. A comparison of fiscal attributes among these groups is important for the analysis. Annual government finance data from the years 1995 to 2012 are used for an empirical study. The indicators observed are real GDP change, the composition and volume of total government expenditures, tax quotas of individual taxes and total budget balance. These indicators are used within an endogenous growth model together with capital stock and an approximation of human capital. A panel regression with fixed effects is used as an analytic tool. The main results are that an increase in social contributions, property, production and personal income tax quotas has an adverse effect on economic growth.

  19. Comparison of Electric Utility Restructuring in Major Foreign Countries: Empirical Analysis on the Pool Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The object of this study is to suggest policy directions about the market structure and the trading system of TWBP (two-way bidding pool) under the ongoing electric power restructuring scheme in Korea. For this purpose, major foreign countries' restructuring experiences, especially the market forms and trading systems, were reviewed. Based on the review, I suggested the introduction of electricity contract markets and the short- and long-term policy alternatives for adopting them. In order to test the feasibility of the policy alternatives, an empirical analysis was performed on the comparative advantage between gross pool and net pool. The data used in the empirical analysis includes simulation results of year 2000 from KPX (Korea Power Exchange), six generators' fuels costs, etc. A supply function model was modified to an operational model to calculate the generators' bidding prices and quantities, and their variable profits. In addition, the effects of introducing contracts for differences (CfDs) and bilateral contracts were analyzed in terms of market efficiency. In this study, the criteria of market efficiency are the means and the standard deviations of generators' bidding prices and their variable profits. Based on the empirical results, the following policy implications were proposed. As a short-term alternative, it would be necessary to incorporate the concept of hedging contracts into current gross pool mechanism. Related to this, through the promotion of contract markets it should be induced to decrease the general levels of bidding prices and to manage the volatility of market prices. As a long-term alternative, the possibility to transfer gross pool into net pool should be considered. (author). 53 refs., 32 figs., 38 tabs.

  20. The Training Requirements of Foreign-Born Workers in Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Chris; Sinning, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    The training requirements of foreign-born workers may be different from those of native-born workers in similar jobs. Over recent decades Australian immigration policy has focused predominantly on accepting high-skilled migrants. Although this focus has resulted in the successful integration of foreign-born workers into the Australian labour…

  1. Outward Foreign Direct Investment and Human Capital Development: A Small Country Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) by Irish MNCs, and more specifically, to investigate their approach to human capital development and how these correspond to foreign MNCs in Ireland. In particular, it seeks to investigate training and development expenditure, adoption of…

  2. Asymmetric Information under the Kafala Sponsorship System: Impacts on Foreign Domestic Workers' Income and Employment Status in the GCC Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Malit, Froilan T.; Naufal, George S

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the legal and policy implications of information asymmetry on foreign domestic workers employed under the Kafala sponsorship system in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Drawing from ethnographic and field-based observations in large GCC migrant destinations – including Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) – we investigate the information flows and market uncertainties between five key stakeholders: labor-receiving governments, labor-sending governm...

  3. Urgency Required in Changing the Growth Mode of China’s Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简新华; 张皓

    2008-01-01

    Presently China mainly relies on the low cost of production factors and introducing advanced foreign technology to create an international competitive edge.Thepresent foreign trade growth mode,which is charaterized of quantitative expansion,labor-intensive and low prices,low e ciency,unsustained,is facing lots ofdifficulties.The problems such as the worsening terms of trade,the huge trade surplus,too much dependence on foreign trade,the rising prices of production factors,difficulties in the introduction of high technology,excessive consumption of resources,environmental pressures exacerbated the situations.Therefore,China mustadopt effective measures into a sustained and high efficiency foreign trade growth mode,which is supposed to be described as optimization of export commoditystructure,market diversification,mainly relying on independent innovation and independent brands,promoting trade with science and technology,rationaliztion ofindustrial structure,focusing on high added value.

  4. Population and labour force growth and patterns in ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S

    1988-01-01

    "The paper shows that the diverse labor dimensions prevailing in the ASEAN region can be attributed to changes in the structure of the society and economy in the course of recent economic development. It observes the considerable variety in the growth of the population and its effect on the labor force in the ASEAN region.... The paper details the similarity and diversity in the level and type of labor force participation rates. A common feature shared by ASEAN countries is a general pattern in the age-specific participation rate of men. In contrast, the women, aside from participating in the labor force at a much lower level than men at almost all ages, display diverse patterns of participation over the working age range. Lastly, the distribution of the labor force according to major industrial sectors in the six ASEAN countries is presented...."

  5. On the causal links between FDI and growth in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the Granger causal relationships between foreign direct investment (FDI) and GDP in a sample of 31 developing countries covering 31 years. Using estimators for heterogeneous panel data we find bi-directional causality between the FDI-to-GDP ratio and the level of GDP. FDI has a lasting...... impact on GDP, while GDP has no long-run impact on the FDI-to-GDP ratio. In that sense FDI causes growth. Furthermore, in a model for GDP and FDI as a fraction of gross capital formation (GCF) we also find long-run effects from FDI to GDP. This finding may be interpreted as evidence in favour...... of the hypotheses that FDI has an impact on GDP via knowledge transfers and adoption of new technology...

  6. The Effects of Country of Origin and Country of Service Delivery on Students’ Attitude Towards Foreign University

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Mei Chee

    2014-01-01

    Internationalization of higher education leads to the interest of examining the effect of country of origin on students’ perception of university since study abroad and establishment of international branch campus in different countries are becoming a choice for students to further their higher education. Due to the growing of demand of higher education, it is important to understand students’ attitude toward university and what makes the university attractive to them. Therefore, in order to ...

  7. State of Country Report——Foreign Trade 2009-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ The active financial policy and proper monetary policy have achieved initial success. Local aovernments implement central policies and measures seriously, help and give support to enterprises to solve practical problems and explore international markets. Meanwhile majority of foreign trade enterprises have speeded up structural adjustment and enhanced their competitive capacity effectively, succeed to develop new customers. In general, there have been positive changes in China's foreign trade in this particular year. Followings are some main features of foreign trade performance in the first three quarters 2009.

  8. Introducing foreign capital in development of petroleum upstream development in Middle East gulf coast countries producing oil; Chuto wangan sanyukoku no sekiyu joryu kaihatsu eno gaika donyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Ryuhei

    1999-03-01

    Developments by foreign countries are activated in gulf coast countries producing oil (Iran,Iraq,Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman) where produced oil quantity occupies seventy percents among produced oil quantity of world. But the situation differs between countries. For example, the oil production development in Iraq is drawn back largely because of punishment by America. Forecast of raw oil production quantity in gulf coast countries where the increase of oil production is expected from now, situation of introduction of foreign capitals, investment forecast in each country from now, contract situation and production quantity were explained. (NEDO)

  9. FOREIGN TRADE, Still An Important Engine for Economic Growth?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ Declined forign demand In 2009,trapped in the global financial meltdown,the world economy is still struggling its way out of an economiC crisis,though little signs of recovery began to surface with stimulus packages in developed countries gradually taking some effects.But,all these countries have learned some lessons from this crisis.One is that it is never too late to save more and spend leSS.With this common rule.people in these countries have begun to cut spending to cease their consumption binge,and showed strong appetite for austerity,which means that China Will be saddled with declining exports demand.

  10. Foreign capital and the impact of exchange rate adjustments in oil-exporting developing countries with an application to Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadjuddin, A.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of exchange rate adjustments as an instrument of economic policy in developing countries has long been the subject of considerable controversy. Theoretical treatments of currency devaluation generally conclude that it improves the trade balance and stimulates economic activity. However, this traditional view has been challenged in recent years on the grounds that trade flows, including factor imports, are relatively insensitive to price and exchange rate changes, especially in developing countries. This study analyzes the effects of exchange rate changes in oil exporting developing countries which host foreign capital by using a modified model of the Krugman-Taylor (l978) and Barbone-Batiz (1987) types. It is shown that the impact of devaluation on GNP is influenced by (a) the initial state of the current account balance, (b) the elasticity of demand for non-oil exports, (c) the elasticity of demand for final good imports, (d) the foreign ownership effects, and (e) the impact of devaluation on the government revenues. Devaluation can lead to an increase in national output, but only if the elasticity effects in the non-oil export sector and in the final good imports are large enough to dominate the government revenue effect, the foreign-ownership effect in the oil sector and the impact of any initial current account deficit. The model was applied to the economy of Indonesia, an oil exporting developing country. The net effect of devaluation on national output is known to be contradictory following devaluation, thus supporting the structuralist view that devaluation has negative real effects in this country, at least in the short run. It was also found that the estimated price elasticities of non-oil imports and exports are low in the short-run. Devaluation would lead to improvement in the non-oil trade account in the long run after devaluation.

  11. Do foreign portfolio flows increase risk in emerging stock markets? Evidence from six Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo, Diego A.; Castaño, Milena M.

    2011-01-01

    Foreign portfolio flows have been blamed for causing instability in emerging markets, especially during financial crises. This study measured the effect of foreign capital flows on volatility and exposure to world market risk in the six largest Latin American stock markets: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru, for around 10 years including the 2008 World financial crisis. This will test whether these flows cause instability for those markets and increase their exposure to inte...

  12. Epidemiology of MRSA in southern Sweden: strong relation to foreign country of origin, health care abroad and foreign travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, A-K; Gustafsson, E; Johansson, P J H; Odenholt, I; Petersson, A C; Melander, E

    2014-01-01

    All notified MRSA cases in Skåne County have been followed since 2000. We have investigated the MRSA epidemiology over time, method of acquisition, whether some spa types are more prone to spread, and/or cause more infections, and the connection between spa type and country of acquisition/origin. All cases between 2000 and 2010 were included. Infection or colonization and the presence of PVL genes were noted. The spa types of the index cases were correlated with community or healthcare acquisition, proportion of MRSA-positive household contacts, country of origin of families and country of acquisition of MRSA. The number of cases increased from 31 in 2000 to 315 in 2010. Most cases were community-acquired and the median age was 30 years. Thirty-two per cent of the MRSA cases were found because of a clinical infection. Of the household contacts 35 % were MRSA-positive. Only 24 % of the MRSA cases were both of Swedish origin and had contracted MRSA in Sweden. An association between spa type and certain regions of acquisition/origin was noted. Spa types t044, t002 and t008 were the most predominant strains. PVL-positive spa types t008, t019 and t044 caused more skin infections than the other spa types. Our results support screening for MRSA in patients with health care contacts abroad, culturing of patients with skin infections contracted outside Sweden and performing contact tracing among household members. Knowledge of spa type might give guidance in the process of contact tracing. Eradication treatment of MRSA spa types causing more skin infections may be warranted.

  13. Foreign Direct Investment and China’s Productivity Growth during the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgence Dominick Waryoba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study estimates the fixed effect model using cross–section weights to estimate panel EGLS for 7 years in 29 regions of China. Though for the sample period, foreign direct investment influences productivity positively, the effect is very lower compared to other factors in the model. Conversely, labor has a very high influence on productivity for the period under consideration. Nevertheless, the years after 1997 have shown more productivity growth compared to the years before 1997. This is probably due to the fact that the government acted quickly to recover by boosting the external demand. Consequently, the contribution of export on productivity growth is significantly large. As long as China’s productivity keeps growing, high technological foreign direct investments will continue to flow into the economy. Chinese government should continue to invest in human capital to match with high technology embodied in foreign direct investments for the economy to continue experiencing high productivity growth.

  14. LINGUODIDACTIC BASIS OF THE FORMATION OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCE OF THE SCHOOLCHILDREN IN THE CONDITIONS OF MULTILINGUISM (ON THE EXAMPLE OF GERMAN SPEAKING COUNTRIES)

    OpenAIRE

    Купчик, Лариса

    2016-01-01

    basis of the analysis of language didactic approaches of foreign language teaching at the end of the XX – the beginning of the XXI century in schools of German-speaking countries it highlights the dissemination of communicative language didactics. Besides, the author distinguishes the key principles of modern foreign language didactics, such as learner autonomy, cooperative learning, authentic teaching material. It is highlighted in the article that early foreign language learning stimulates ...

  15. Outward Foreign Direct Investment from BRIC countries: Comparing strategies of Brazilian, Russian, Indian and Chinese multinational companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Andreff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An overall comparative study of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI from BRIC countries and strategies conducted by multinational companies (MNCs based in the BRICs is elaborated on with a same methodology for Brazil, Russia, India and China. The comparison pertains to the historical emergence of firms’ internationalisation, their booming expansion in the 2000s then their muddling through the current crisis, the specificities of OFDI from each home country, OFDI geographical distribution and industrial structure, econometric testing of the respective determinants of Brazilian, Russian, Indian and Chinese OFDI, and the role of home countries’ governments vis-à-vis home-based MNCs. Beyond some common characteristics, BRICs’ MNCs exhibit a number of major country-specific features.

  16. Skill Intensity in Foreign Trade and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Worz

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explores the link between trade structure, trade specialization and per capita income growth. It is argued that industrial upgrading in export specialization patterns has a positive long-run growth effect, while the effect of structural change in industrial import patterns is

  17. The Use of Biofuel for Sustainable Growth in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The biofuel industry is divided into four categories comprising of feedstocks used in 1st and 2nd generation bioethanol and biodiesel. In order to identify and quantify each biofuel feedstock's potential for sustainable growth, each were evaluated according to self-developed social, financial, and environmental criteria. From the investigation and analysis carried out, 1st generation biodiesel and bioethanol were determined to be feedstocks not capable of facilitating sustainable growth. Results showed low earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) of -0.5 to 1 USD per gallon for biodiesel and 0.25 to 0.5 USD per gallon for bioethanol. Results also showed a poor return on asset (ROA). The energy required to produce one MJ of 1st generation biofuel fuel was at least 0.4 MJ, showing poor energy balance. Furthermore, high land, water, pesticide, and fertilizer requirements strained surrounding ecosystems by affecting the food web, thus reducing biodiversity. Over 55% of land used by the biodiesel industry in Indonesia and Malaysia involved the deforestation of local rainforests. This not only displaced indigenous organisms from their habitat and decreased their scope of nutrition, but also contributed to soil erosion and increased the probability of flooding. If left unregulated, imbalances in the ecosystem due to unsustainable growth will result in a permanent reshaping of tropical rainforest ecosystems in Southeast Asia. Algae, an example of 2nd generation biodiesel feedstock, was concluded to be the biofuel feedstock most capable of supporting sustainable growth. This is due to its low production costs of $1-1.5/gal, high biological productivity of 5000 gallons of biodiesel per acre per year, and high ROA of 25-35%. Additionally, algae's adaptability to varying environmental conditions also makes it an appealing candidate for businesses in developing countries, where access to resource supplies is unstable. Additionally, its reduced net

  18. The Notions of "A Border", "A Foreign Country (Abroad" and "A Foreigner": In the Relations between the USSR (Russia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A border and related concepts of “abroad” and “a foreigner” are analyzed from the linguistic, semiotic and socio-cultural points of view with regard to the USSR (Russia –Bulgaria relations. In spite of being very close to, even regarded as the 16th republic of the USSR and imitating many Soviet ideas, Bulgaria was a foreign country. The reasons for that on the lingua-cultural data partly of biographical character are discussed in the paper. The border can be a synonym to the language barrier, which exists or does not exist between native speakers of Bulgarian and Russian. The new developments of mutual Russian-Bulgarian language communication on the Bulgaria seashore provide us new data of the symbolism of temporal and spatial borders.

  19. 31 CFR 515.303 - Nationals of more than one foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., association, corporation or other organization, but such control or a substantial part of such stock, shares... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS... are sufficient in the aggregate to constitute control or ownership of 25 per centum or more of the...

  20. 14 CFR 399.12 - Negotiation by air carriers for landing rights in foreign countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiation by air carriers for landing... Relating to Operating Authority § 399.12 Negotiation by air carriers for landing rights in foreign..., landing rights abroad for United States flag air carriers will be acquired through negotiation by the...

  1. Bilateral Trade and SEE-Eurozone Countries Growth Rate Alignment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valerija Botriæ; Tanja Broz

    2016-01-01

    .... More precisely, we investigate whether bilateral trade flows affect output synchronisation between the euro area countries and see countries and compare trade-synchronisation patterns between the see...

  2. 我国外资利用的经济增长效应——基于内生经济增长模型的分析%Economic growth effects of the utility of foreign capital of China——Analysis based on endogenetic economic growth model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战明华

    2003-01-01

    The flowing of foreign capital is related with the economic security of one countries. The experiencesand lessons of many developing countries show that the impact of the foreign capital to the domesticeconomic is often the most important factors of the financial crisis. So it is important to a analysis theforeign capital economic growth effect. Based on the endogenous economic growth model, this paper firstdistricts the three cases of the foreign capital impact and give the three factors of the foreign capitalaffecting to the economic path. The using the sample data of China, we analyze the three factors. Theresults show that all the three factor effets are all positive, which means that the foreign capital utility ofChina is efficiency.

  3. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B among foreign-born persons living in the United States by country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowdley, Kris V; Wang, Chia C; Welch, Sue; Roberts, Henry; Brosgart, Carol L

    2012-08-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the United States differ significantly, and the contribution of foreign-born (FB) persons has not been adequately described. The aim of this study was to estimate the number of FB persons in the United States living with CHB by their country of origin. We performed a systematic review for reports of HBsAg seroprevalence rates in 102 countries (covering PubMed from 1980 to July 2010). Data from 1,373 articles meeting inclusion criteria were extracted into country-specific databases. We identified 256 seroprevalence surveys in emigrants from 52 countries (including 689,078 persons) and 1,797 surveys in the general populations of 98 countries (including 17,861,035 persons). Surveys including individuals with lower or higher risk of CHB than the general population were excluded. Data were combined using meta-analytic methods to determine country-specific pooled CHB prevalence rates. Rates were multiplied by the number of FB living in the United States in 2009 by country of birth from the U.S. Census Bureau to yield the number of FB with CHB from each country. We estimate a total of 1.32 million (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.61) FB in the United States living with CHB in 2009; 58% migrated from Asia and 11% migrated from Africa, where hepatitis B is highly endemic. Approximately 7% migrated from Central America, a region with lower CHB rates, but many more emigrants to the United States. This analysis suggests that the number of FB persons living with CHB in the United States may be significantly greater than previously reported. Assuming 300,000-600,000 U.S.-born persons with CHB, the total prevalence of CHB in the United States may be as high as 2.2 million.

  4. A New Trend of Foreign Direct Investment and Sustainable Growth of Emerging Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of globalisation concept, the opportunity of going global for companies has become so influential that many of the companies that are doing well in the home country are staring up their businesses in other countries to maximise the profit. The trend of investing in other economies has become very popular that's why the trend of foreign direct investment between developed and developing economies has not only been increased but significantly a new trend has emerged for foreign direct investment among developing to developing economies. It has been seen that foreign direct investment (FDI as foreign capital is playing very wider and important role in the socio-economic development of a nation. Evidently, it played an important role to the development of the developed nations, and playing a significant role in the development of the number of developing nations. Today, FDI is considered to be the core incentive for economic and social development as far as the developing nations are concerned.

  5. Factors that influence business strategies of direct foreign investments in emerging countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Wirz Leite Sá

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose in this article is to propose an analytical model of the factors that influence business strategies of direct foreign investment in emerging markets. To this end, a literature review was conducted to identify the factors considered relevant to business investment in developing economies. The analytical model was developed on the basis of this review. This model includes external factors (driving mechanisms and internal factors (leveraging mechanisms. Two dimensions of external factors were identified: macroenvironmental (localization advantages and micro environmental (internalization advantages. The third dimension, internal factors, is composed of characteristics of the investing firms themselves (proprietary advantages. This model can be applied to the analysis of industries as a whole or to specific industrial segments, in terms of their attractiveness to foreign direct investment.

  6. The Changing Patterns of Foreign Direct Investment in EU Accession Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Ionascu, Delia Simona; Kulawczuk, Przemyslaw

    2005-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has been maturing as the region prepared to join the European Union (EU). Since the beginning of transition the pattern of FDI has evolved, reflecting new business strategies pursued in anticipation of EU membership. Based on first...... results from a questionnaire survey conducted in 2003 in Hungary, Lithuania and Poland, we portray the recent patterns and developments in foreign investment, the motives for investment, and managers' assessment of the local business environment. Some questions have been replicated from a study conducted...... in the emerging economies of Egypt, India, South Africa, and Vietnam, which allows us to benchmark FDI patterns in CEE against other emerging economies in different parts of the world. We find that find fewer changes over the period of the 1990s then we expected, but some interesting differences across the three...

  7. [Bibliometrics study of the development trend of acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trials in foreign countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Ying-Kai; Rong, Pei-Jing; Wang, Hong-Cai

    2012-04-01

    On the basis of MEDLINE and EMBASE database, through bibliometrics, the quantitative research was conducted on the published literatures on the acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trial abroad. The situation of published articles in each continent, country and institution was analyzed statistically. It was found that the number of published articles was higher in Germany, America, England, Sweden, Austria, Japan, South Korea, etc. In Europe, the clinical trial of acupuncture and moxibustion was in the tendency of more country participants, wider distribution and larger amount of research. In North America, America was the main country for the study. In Asia, Japan and South Korea played the leading role. Of those countries, some institutions in Germany America, and South Korea were on the top of the list. In future, the above-mentioned countries and institutions should be monitored specifically so as to launch the active cooperation and strategic project.

  8. ON THE RELATIONSHI¬¬¬P BETWEEN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH. ROMANIA IN TIMES OF CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Ramona SOCOLIUC

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments might be perceived as the engine of growth and economic development for both developed and developing economies. For of Romania, a country with a closed regime in the past, their role is even more important in promoting prosperity and social wealth. In the context of EU integration, Romania had benefited from a large amount of foreign direct investments coming especially from the major European economies, but such ascending trend with positive implications towards economic and social areas was all at once interrupted by the recent financial crisis. The deep recession in Romania along with numerous internal disequilibria had a negative impact on those who want to invest in this perimeter. In such circumstances the purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the crisis on FDI flows and consequently, on Romania’s development potential using a Granger causality analysis. The results highlight that FDI inflows have a prominent benefic influence on economic growth and that Romanian economic climate is not ready to ensure the bidirectional nexus.

  9. Perspectives on Total Factor Productivity and Foreign Direct Investment in OECD Countries based on Panel Data Econometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Dias Karunaratne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of FDI inflows and outflows to host countries and from the source countries emerged in the 1980s as the major vehicle technology transfer that accelerated the globalization or international integration of 25 leading OECD economies over a period of 25 years (1983-2007. Although neoclassical and endogenous growth theories provide unequivocal support for FDI flows because they generate positive externalities or spillover effects through channels of GDP growth, capital formation and R&D, the empirical evidence in support of these claims are mixed. The panel data econometrics performed using a new multiplicatively complete index of total factor productivity provide fresh insights on the cross-border FDI generated through technology transfer and other channels. The empirical findings for the OECD countries are markedly different from the spillover effects on developing countries that are plagued by technology absorptive capacity effects due to the operation of threshold effects of underdeveloped human capital resources. The empirics on cross-border FDI flows and the spillover effects that they generate in OECD countries will provide much needed information to design and implement policies to harness the net benefits from cross-border FDI flows and shed light on the design of policies to reconcile the conflicting policies of austerity and growth that are required to prevent the sovereign debt racked euro-zone countries from imploding the single currency union based on the euro.

  10. Human Capital Formation and Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 211 (Formerly Technical Paper No. 211)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Koji

    2003-01-01

    This paper synthesises the existing literature on human capital formation and foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries. The aim is to take a bird's eye view of the complex linkages between the activities of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and policies of host developing countries. In doing so, general trends, best practices and…

  11. Fiocruz as an actor in Brazilian foreign relations in the context of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries: an untold story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Alejandra Carrillo; Baptista e Silva, Felipe Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian foreign policy paradigms and changes in the global scenario since the Cold War created conditions for stronger ties between Brazil and Portuguese-speaking African countries. Recently, Brazil took the lead in regional integration processes and in South-South cooperation initiatives. These strategies and Fiocruz's acknowledged technical expertise resulted in its direct involvement in Brazilian foreign public health policy in the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. Fiocruz developed cooperation projects in various areas, sharing its know-how and best practices in the most critical fields in partner countries, consolidating "public health framework cooperation" and contributing to diversifying Brazil's partners and promoting Brazil as a global actor.

  12. Impact of technology diffusion on economic growth and international competitiveness. Empirical evidence for four East Asian countries; Gijutsu hakyu no koka to Asia keizai no seichoryoku, yushutsu kyosoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Y.; Sakurai, N.

    1999-06-01

    Asian economies hit by the currency crisis in 1997 are still in struggle to recover their growth and to boost again their exports. Although several short-term policy measures to stimulate the demand- side of the economy is certainly necessary, in a longer-term perspective, the key to real recovery would exist in their ability to absorb foreign technologies through trade and/or FDI, as stressed by recent new theories of growth and trade. This paper examines empirically the role of technology diffusion from advanced countries to total factor productivity (TFP) and export competitiveness in four major East-Asian countries: Korea, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia, three of which were seriously damaged by the currency crisis. Our major findings are summarized as follows. First, we found that technology acquisition from abroad is quite important for TFP growth of most industries in Asia, in particular for two ASEAN countries (Malaysia and Indonesia), while such productivity impact from foreign technology was relatively small for Korea and Singapore. Second, the impact of technology diffusion was much larger in that through trade than in that through foreign direct investment. Some FDI practices to preclude technology access for developing countries might explain such weaker role of FDI on TFP. Third, the nexus between TFP and export competitiveness was surely positive, in particular for industries of high export performance. However, the magnitude of impact was relatively small in Korea, in spite of its overwhelming productivity performance. (author)

  13. Foreign direct investment of Central and Eastern European countries, and the investment development path revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian GORYNIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates long-term developments in inward and outward FDI of 10 Central and Eastern European (CEE countries using Dunningĺs investment development path (IDP paradigm as a theoretical framework. Its main purpose is to determine how far the CEE countries have progressed along their IDPs since the beginning of transition. The results show that half of the analyzed countries have already reached Stage 3 of the IDP, while the other half are either firmly in Stage2 or are approaching Stage 3. With some notable exceptions, the study points to conformity of the analyzed IDP trajectories with Dunningĺs model.

  14. Contextual explanations for numeracy and literacy skill disparities between native and foreign-born adults in western countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencks, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Using new direct measures of numeracy and literacy skills among 85,875 adults in 17 Western countries, we find that foreign-born adults have lower mean skills than native-born adults of the same age (16 to 64) in all of the examined countries. The gaps are small, and vary substantially between countries. Multilevel models reveal that immigrant populations’ demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, employment, and language proficiency explain about half of the cross-national variance of numeracy and literacy skills gaps. Differences in origin countries’ average education level also account for variation in the size of the immigrant-native skills gap. The more protective labor markets in immigrant-receiving countries are, the less well immigrants are skilled in numeracy and literacy compared to natives. For those who migrate before their teens (the 1.5 generation), access to an education system that accommodates migrants’ special needs is crucial. The 1 and 1.5 generation have smaller numeracy and literacy skills gaps in more ethnically diverse societies. PMID:28301541

  15. Consumer affinity for foreign countries: construct development, buying behavior consequences and animosity contrasts

    OpenAIRE

    Nes, Erik B.; Yelkur, Rama; Silkoset, Ragnhild

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose is to extend affinity theory in construct domain, scale development, model testing and by discerning affinity and animosity. Design/methodology/approach: We carry out exploratory and empirical research in order to explore the domain and to test the factor structure and the hypotheses through confirmatory analysis. Findings: We find (1) four target country affinity dimensions, (2) consumer affinity impacts micro country image, buying intentions and actual product own...

  16. On the growth of foreign affiliates: multinational plant networks, joint ventures, and flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Belderbos, Rene; Zou, J.

    2007-01-01

    We take a flexibility perspective to analyse employment growth in a large sample of Japanese manufacturing affiliates in nine Asian countries during the years leading up to and into the Asian financial crisis (1995–1999). We find that joint ventures are less flexible than wholly owned affiliates in responding to changing environmental conditions in the focal country, and underperform in high-growth environments. Multinational enterprises (MNEs) use the flexibility created by their multination...

  17. [Review of studies on Deqi of acupuncture mainly in foreign countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi; Yuan, Hong-wen; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Yu-qi; Li, Chun-hua; Li, Jing; Xin, Si-yuan; Qi, Dan-dan; Zhu, Jiang

    2013-04-01

    Deqi (needle sensation), is closely related to clinical therapeutic effect of acupuncture in the treatment of different clinical conditions. In the present paper, the authors summarized various components or concepts of Deqi mainly in the foreign studies collected from Pubmed database. At present, foreign researches about Deqi mainly include 1) the subjects' subjective qualitative and quantitative descriptions about Deqi, 2) correlation between acupuncture stimulation induced Deqi and clinical therapeutic effects, and 3) responses of different brain regions or the connectivity of brain network shown by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during Deqi by needling different acupoints. According to the current commonly used 6 questionnaires, aching, tingling, numbness, heaviness, dull pain, throbbing, and deep pressure sensation are the most frequently seen components of Deqi of acupuncture stimulation. The factors influencing Deqi are psychological state, personal previous experience and cultural background. Regarding the degree of Deqi and clinical effects or outcomes, the conclusions are controversial. of fMRI analysis shows that in spite of extensive deactivation of the limbic system has been found in many studies, and the connectivity of the intrinsic brain functional networks is increased during acupuncture-induced Deqi, the significance of activation or deactivation of some brain regions remains unclear, and the related mechanisms need to be studied further. No matter activation or deactivation of different brain regions during Deqi, the most important issue is the relationship between Deqi and clinical therapeutic effects. Further studies are definitely needed.

  18. [Resident foreigners in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, A M; Pascual De Sans, A

    1994-01-01

    The authors review trends in the size of the resident foreign population in Spain over time since the 1940s. A continuing growth over time, with temporal fluctuations, is noted, with a rapid rise in immigration in the 1980s, leading to new legislation designed to control immigration in 1985-1986 and 1991. The authors note that Europeans, particularly from countries of the European Union, make up a large percentage of the foreign population, but that the number of immigrants from developing countries has increased significantly in the last 10 years.

  19. On the Location Attractiveness of Emerging Countries for Foreign Direct Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian BELASCU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates the FDI attracting potential of emerging markets by in terms of their location attributes. We use Statistical cluster analysis to study the dynamic evolution of emerging markets’ clusters, based on country attributes that are relevant for the MNEs location decision. We find that countries tend to be grouped at a geographical level or depending on the various resources they possess, except for China that clusters independently. Also, there are numerous countries’ transitions from one cluster to another over the years, which indicate a natural process of changing location attributes and market development for many emerging economies.

  20. Subnaitonal [i.e. Subnational] institutional environments within a host country, entry mode choices of multinational corporations,foreign affiliate performance and subsequent expansions of foreignaffiliates

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tingting; 张婷婷

    2013-01-01

     Based on the institution-based view, this thesis investigates the effects of subnational institutional environments within a host country on foreign direct investment decisionsand the performance of foreign affiliates. Subnational institutional environments refer to the rules of the game of a society in a subnational region, shaping the manners of individual and organizational activities in the region. I focus on two aspects ofsubnational institutional environments, the level of subnati...

  1. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investments on Economic Growth in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Petre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the current priority objectives for Romania is the integration into euro zone. To achieve this objective, Romania must record progress on economic growth. Various empirical studies have analyzed the influence of foreign direct investment (FDI on economic growth to see whether investment flows positively influence the economic development. The results revealed that positive connection depends on certain features of the economy at a time. The purpose of this research is to highlight the impact of the FDIs on the Romanian economic development because the debates on capital flows, both in the political and academic environment, associate these flows with a number of benefits for beneficiary states. In order to fulfill the objective of this research is analyzed, mainly, the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI and gross domestic product (GDP.

  2. Research of Causal Relations between Components of Foreign Trade and Economic Performance of the Region, Country and World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Sergey M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Causal relations between components of the region foreign trade turnover and indicators, which characterize the economic situation of the region, country and the world, have been studied. 3 groups of indicators, which can have an impact on the region export-import activity, were formed by the degree of the covered influence level: the level of region, country and world. All the selected indicators were tested for causality by Granger test. As a result of the study it has been found that the export of Sumy region is directly affected by the volume of industrial production, inflation rate in Ukraine and the world price for wheat. The export of services is affected by the volume of extended credits, income of the population per person, the world prices for corn and wheat. Causality has also been determined between the import of goods in Sumy region and indicators of extended credits, turnover of retail trade and wholesale trade of enterprises. As regards the import of services, the influence was recorded from the side of the official exchange rate of hryvnia to the US dollar and the price index of industrial producers. The prospect of further research in this direction is expansion of the set of indicators characterizing the economic activity of the region, country and the world. The further research can contribute to building up the export-import potential of the region.

  3. CONTINUING EDUCATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHANGING SOCIETY AND PERSONALITY: THE INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH POSITIONS IN RUSSIA AND FOREIGN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Pushkareva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article analyzes the problems of continuous education (lifelong education formation in the modern changing environment. The author identify characteristic features and mechanisms of Continuous Education functioning, to integrate basic research position on the issue in Russia and foreign countries. The purpose of this article is to determine the nature of those changes which affect the operation of continuous education and their details. Materials and Methods: the research methodology is a synthesis of the philosophical analysis of the education continuity problems, its orientation and contents at different levels of the modern educational system that allows you to explore Continuing Education primaril y as a process. Results: the author of the article compares key approaches to the problem, the Russian and foreign researchers. It is noted that in the foreign research literature also pays considerable attention to various approaches to the definition of concepts in the field of Continuous Education: primarily, such as “education throughout life” (lifelong learning or “continuing education” (continuing education; and, to this approach as the “adult education” (adult education. The author focuses on the fact that the fundamental factor in the functioning of Continuing Education is its definition, primarily as a process of personality adaptation to the diverse and constantly changing conditions of social development. Discussion and Conclusions: in conclusion of this article author’s research conclusions, revealing defining the specifics of the changes affecting the operation of Continuing Education. The author emphasizes that the conditions of society and the personality development constantly changing and significantly determine the character of Continuous Education development.

  4. The Impact of Different Forms of Foreign Capital Inflow on GDPpc in CEE Countries during the Crisis up to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Pitic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents further analysis of the authors of previous research on the impact of foreign capital inflow on GDPpc. The analysis includes nine countries of Central and Southeastern Europe - CEE-9 in the period 2005-2012. The previous research has shown that foreign capital inflow (foreign direct investment /FDI/, portfolio investment /PI/, remittances /REM/ and cross-border credits/CBC/ had an impact on an increase in GDPpc and that CBC inflow had the greatest impact on an increase in GDPpc in the period 2005-2012. In this paper, we use correlation and panel regression in order to determine the cause and impact of the available source of financing on the level of GDPpc. Research showed that the influence of the crisis was evident from 2008 onwards and that CBC had the greatest impact on an increase in GDPpc in the period 2005-2012. Under conditions of a lack of financial resources from domestic sources, coupled with an insufficiently attractive business environment, CBCpc inflow had the greatest impact on an increase in GDPpc. Such a high significance of CBCpc is the result of the fact that CEE-9 failed to create a sufficiently attractive business environment. In an attempt to catch up with advanced EU economies, CEE-9 had to finance the increasing amount of investment from the relatively most expensive sources, such as CBCs, during the crisis. The problems related to the quality of the business environment and underdeveloped institutions contributed to a weak relationship between FDIpc and GDPpc. A weak indirect relationship also exists between PIpc and the level of GDPpc. A strong indirect relationship between REMpc and GDPpc was also observed. The correlation analysis showed that GDPpc was directly and strongly related to CBCpc.

  5. Tourism and Economic Growth in Latin American Countries: A Panel Data Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio-Martín, Juan Luis; Morales, Noelia Martín; Scarpa, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    We consider the relationship between tourism and economic growth for Latin American countries since 1985 until 1998. The analysis proposed is based on a panel data approach and the Arellano-Bond estimator for dynamic panels. We obtain estimates of the relationship between economic growth and growth in tourists per capita conditional on main macroeconomic variables. We show that the tourism sector is adequate for the economic growth of medium or low-income countries, though not necessarily for...

  6. [Modern approaches to the formation of antidote stocks at medical institutions in Russia and foreign countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonenko, V E; Sarmanaev, S Kh; Kovalev, E V; Sarmanaeva, R R; Kukhanov, A V

    2014-11-01

    This article analyses the approaches to the formation of specific treatment of acute poisoning in the various countries. The authors present a systematic review of scientific publications about the formation of reserves of antidote agents at medical institutions of the Russian Federation, the US, Canada, France, Spain, Greece, Norway, Czech Republic, Taiwan and Poland. A search for a variety of databases, as well as by reviewing reference lists of publications on the subject of "stockpiling antidote means". It is concluded that the antidote provision at health care institutions in different countries is insufficient. State of affairs with the formation of antidote stocks is better at hospitals of Czech Republic, France and Spain. To determine the range and volume of the stock of fixed assets necessary antidote coordination and approval of the list and the number of mandatory for every medical institution antidotes.

  7. Determinants of Economic Growth for EU - 27 Countries and Turkey: An Implem e ntation with Static Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Pala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to figure out the determinants that explain the economic growth for EU27 countries and Turkey for the years 2000-2011. The database consists of GDP, population, total local credits to GDP, private sector credits to GDP, foreign trade to GDP, consumer inflation and total savings to GNI. Initially, unit root tests such as LLC and Hadri are implemented. Then, Breusch-Pagan LM, Breusch-Pagan/Cook-Weisberg LM and White tests are run for heterogeneity and Wooldridge (2000 test for autocorrelation. Static panel regression have been used to analysis. As a result of the analysis, economic growth has been explained by human capital, credits providing by banking sector, inflation, financial development and savings.

  8. Information-communication technology impact on labor productivity growth of EU developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Lovrić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the ICT impact on labor productivity growth of EU developing countries. Empirical studies of the role of ICT as one of the main determinants of productivity growth, for developing countries have produced disagreement. To help clear up the subject, this paper employs a Generalized Method of Moments (GMM through a dynamic panel data approach on the sample of 25 European developed and developing countries over the period of 2001-2010. The results indicate a positive and significant impact of ICT on labor productivity growth in developed and developing countries, but the terms of impact in developing countries rely on human capital, a contribution of a higher educational level, advanced research qualifications and development activity. Comparing to developed countries, the growth accounting approach indicate that developing countries have similar relative ICT contribution to labor productivity growth, but their average growth rate of labor productivity is 6.8 times higher. The main conclusion is that education, especially of higher levels, is the critical factor of productivity and growth of EU developing countries and that must be taken as development policy implication in these countries.

  9. Is Tourism Development a Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy in the Long Run? Evidence from GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim K. Alhowaish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the causal relationship between tourism development and economic growth in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries in a multivariate model, using panel data for the period 1995–2012. The study adopts a panel Granger causality analysis approach to assess the contribution of tourism to economic growth in GCC countries as a whole, and in each individual country. In the case of GCC countries as a whole, the results show a one-way Granger causality, from economic growth to tourism growth. Furthermore, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates follow the path of economy-driven tourism growth, as hypothesized. The reverse hypothesis (i.e., tourism-led growth hypothesis holds true for Bahrain, while there is no causal relationship between tourism and economic growth in the case of Oman.

  10. Does Development Make You Happy? Subjective Well-Being and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The evidence for any relationship between GDP/capita growth and growth in subjective wellbeing (SWB) in wealthier countries is disputed, at best. However, there are a number of reasons commonly articulated for thinking the relationship should be stronger in less developed countries (LDCs). This paper looks at both reasons for expecting the…

  11. Implications Of Foreign Direct Investment, Financial Development And Real Exchange Rate For Economic Growth In Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victalice Ngimanang Achamoh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI, financial development and real exchange rate (RER on economic growth in Cameroon using Cameroon’s annual time series data spanning the period 1977 - 2010. To address these objectives, residual based Engle-Granger test, the OLS based Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL bound testing and maximum likelihood based Johansen cointegration techniques are employed. Results of Unit roots tests show that all the series possessed unit roots at level or first difference form. The ARDL model and VECM results reveal that the RER has a significant negative effect on economic growth, while FDI and Financial Development relate positively to economic growth. These findings have implications for stimulating economic growth by increasing efficiency of the financial sector in allocating credit to the private sector and preventing real exchange rate appreciation in the shortrun.

  12. DETERMINANTS OF GROWTH ASPIRATIONS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijana Močnik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to explore the growth aspirations of south-eastern European (SEE countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina,Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania and Slovenia early stage entrepreneurs, concentrating on therelationship between a firm's innovative and international orientation and its growth aspirations. Innovative orientation andinternational orientation are referred as the most important dimensions of the growth aspirations and can be used for strengthening of a firm from SEE countries. We used firm's aspirations about the future employment as the operational measure of entrepreneurial growth. The data for our analysis is obtained from the 2010 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Adult Population Survey (APS in which 1,106 early stage entrepreneurs from eight countries were identified. The results of the binary logistic regression show that innovative orientation is negatively related to the firms' growth aspirations. This means that the adoption of new technology as well as offering new products/services weakens the growth aspirations of the early stage entrepreneurial SEE countries firms. The predictor of international orientation, too, is negatively and significantly associated with the growth aspirations. This means that internalisation impedes SEE countries firms’ growth aspirations. The results also show that firms from innovation driven countries haveless negative growth aspirations compared to those from efficiency driven countries.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Agricultural Exports on Economic Growth of ECOWAS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Kojo Edeme

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Towards the acceleration of the attainment of sustainable growth, most countries have focused on agricultural exports as a means of driving their economy. Developing countries of Africa are highly dependent on the agricultural sector and agricultural exports are a major determinant of economic growth of these countries. However, the impact of agricultural exports on economic growth of ECOWAS countries remains unclear. This study therefore evaluates the impact of agricultural exports on the economic growth of fifteen ECOWAS countries using panel data for the period 1980–2013. Variables employed are labour force participation rate, capital stock, agricultural exports, non-agricultural exports, inflation and economic growth. The results of the fixed-effect model show that agricultural exports have not impacted significantly on the economic growth of ECOWAS countries such as Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria with respect to the Republic of Benin, which is the selected baseline. The study also analysed the country combined effect of the agricultural exports and found that it was significant but the rate of impact was weak. The study recommends, among others, that even though agricultural exports had a significant impact on economic growth, there is still a need for ECOWAS governments to improve their agricultural sector as its significance is more noticeable in some countries such as Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria.

  14. Teaching medicine to non-English speaking background learners in a foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Gurpreet

    2009-06-01

    Teaching abroad exposes medical educators to unfamiliar teaching methods and learning styles that can enhance their overall teaching repertoire. Based on the author's experience teaching residents for one month at a community hospital in Japan and a review of the non-English speaking background (NESB) educational literature, pedagogical principles and lessons for successful international NESB instruction are outlined. These methods include understanding the dissimilar linguistic, cultural, and academic backgrounds of the learners, emphasizing pace and clarity of speech, presenting a conceptual framework instead of detailed discourse on subjects, and regular visual reinforcement of spoken words. The limitations introduced by the language barrier and the use of interpreters are briefly discussed. As society and institutions of higher learning become more global and multicultural, clinician-educators may benefit from teaching in other countries in order to enhance their teaching skills with NESB learners, both abroad and in their own institutions.

  15. The Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth - Case Study for Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Myrvete Badivuku - Pantina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper will explain the impact and relationship between the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and economic growth, Kosovo case. The used data in research are secondary data and cover a period of time between 2008 and 2013. By using STATA program for calculation and by various regression analyses (descriptive statistics, linear regression and correlation relationships have been identified between involved variables in research, where economic growth is defined as dependent variable, whereas FDI, interest rate and real effective and exchange rate (REER are defined as independent variables. The main results in this research paper indicate that FDI has a positive relation (0.011 but non-significant effect (T2 on economic growth in Kosovo. The real effective exchange rate has a negative (-0.347 and non-significant relation (T<2 with economic growth. The main activities of FDI in overall Kosovo's economy are: real estate, transport and telecommunication, financial and manufacture services, construction, etc. The main conclusion is that the Kosovo institutions should create a favorable environment, such as: political stability, enforcement of justice, reduction of trade barriers, Kosovo should also create appropriate policy for protection of foreign investors, investment security, fair competition and institutional support. This will impact the drastic improvement and increase of FDI. In 2013 Kosovo had an FDI percentage of 5% of GDP while in 2007 it was over 13% of Kosovo's GDP.

  16. Determinants of economic growth and bank intermediation: empirical analysis for Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Carton, Christine; Ronquillo, Cely

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the contribution of the banking sector to the economic growth of 16 Latin American countries, from 1979 to 2006. The econometric procedure is based on a panel data technique with fixed effects, classifying the countries in two samples according to their income level. Findings tend to corroborate the positive effects of banking expansion on growth rates, according to the predictions of endogenous growth models. However, they also indicate that credit acti...

  17. The impact of home-host cultural distance on foreign affiliate sales : The moderating role of cultural variation within host countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Slangen, Arjen; Maseland, Robbert; Onrust, Marjolijn

    2014-01-01

    Research on how multinational firms deal with home-host cultural differences argues that cultural differences are minimized and assumes that foreign cultures are homogenous. In this paper we relax the cultural homogeneity assumption. In the presence of cultural variation in host countries the minimi

  18. Comparative estimates of Kamchatka territory development in the context of northern territories of foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Shelomentsev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article promotes an approach to assess the prospects of regional development on the basis of the synthesis of comparative and historical methods of research. According to the authors, the comparative analysis of the similar functioning of the socio-economic systems forms deeper understanding what part factors and methods of state regulation play in regional development, and also their place in socio-economic and geopolitical space. The object of the research is Kamchatka territory as the region playing strategically important role in socio-economic development of Russia and also northern territories of the other countries comparable with Kamchatka on the bass if environmental conditions such as Iceland, Greenland, USA (Alaska, Canada (Yukon, and Japan (Hokkaido. On the basis of allocation of the general signs of regional socio-economic systems and creation of the regional development models forming the basis for comparative estimates, the article analyses the territories, which are comparable on the base of climatic, geographic, economic, geopolitical conditions, but thus significantly different due to the level of economic familiarity. The generalization of the extensive statistical material characterizing various spheres of activity at these territories, including branch structure of the economy, its infrastructure security, demographic situation, the budgetary and financial sphere are given. It allows defining the crucial features of the regional economy development models. In the conclusion, the authors emphasize that ignoring of the essential relations among the regional system elements and internal and external factors deprives a research of historical and socio-economic basis.

  19. Country of Origin Image and Foreign Markets Strategy: Analysis of the Brazilian Cosmetics Company Natura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bassi Sutter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of country of origin image (COI by an emerging market multinational (EMMN on their internationalization process. To this end, we integrate COI literature with the attributes that make up Brazil’s image abroad. This study conducts a qualitative and descriptive approach using the single case study on the case of the Brazilian company Natura Cosméticos S.A. Case analysis, relying on discourse analysis, allowed us to find out that the company uses COI as part of its international strategy; COI attributes can be used positively by an EMMN and might contribute to their image abroad. About the first finding, the study also points out ways Natura integrates Brazilianness attributes into its international marketing strategy, since Natura’s competitive differential is sustained on product development based on the biodiversity of Brazilian fauna and flora. Our study shows ways how an EMMN might use COI concept into their international marketing strategy in order to build their image abroad and differentiate itself positively.

  20. Financing Secondary Education in Developing Countries: Strategies for Sustainable Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Keith; Caillods, Francoise

    This book explores the problems and issues of secondary-school financing in developing countries. It outlines the rationale for expanding secondary education, investigates under what conditions it might be possible to do so at sustainable cost levels, presents case studies of secondary-school financing, and offers policy recommendations. The first…

  1. What founders in developing countries learn about organizing microenterprise growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    organizational failure. In this regard, we find that only those founders that rapidly make sense of ineffective processes, gain management knowledge from different sources, and devote time and energy to managerial tasks, manage to sustain organizational growth by learning to make ‘fixes’ for internal problems...... of microenterprise growth in Tanzania, this study therefore investigates what microenterprise founders learn about effective resource orchestration (RO) from organizational process experience. Our findings suggest that they first learn to orchestrate relatively simple and informal ‘micro-programs’ for gathering...... resources. Only upon organizational growth, they experience an internal ‘organizing shock’ that draws their attention to more effective RO. However, due to environmental conditions, this experience can take place comparably late in the growth process, thereby increasing the chances of unnecessary and costly...

  2. Foreign workers in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Lim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global age many people cross national borders in search of better work and more wages. According to IOM, more than 100 000 000 workers leave their homeland and migrate to another country for this reason. Europe and North America have already experienced increase in foreign labor for many decades but nowadays, it is very common to see foreign laborers in Asian countries. As the number of foreign laborers rapidly increased, however, so did many social problems in relation to these workers. No country is safe from or immune to such social problems in regards to the foreign workers especially with a much easier and more efficient transportation system. In case of South Korea, the history of foreign labor may not be as long as other nations but as of 2007, it boasts of more than 250 000 foreign laborers and is thus facing just as many social problems as well. In order to investigate such social issues, this article explores the history of foreign laborers and their current situation in South Korea. Furthermore, this artticle examines both internal and external factors which may have caused exponential growth of foreign labor market in South Korea in the past decade.

  3. How Do Output Growth Rate Distributions Look Like? Some Time-Series Evidence on OECD Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Fagiolo, G; Roventini, A; Fagiolo, Giorgio; Napoletano, Mauro; Roventini, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the statistical properties of within-country GDP and industrial production (IP) growth rate distributions. Many empirical contributions have recently pointed out that cross-section growth rates of firms, industries and countries all follow Laplace distributions. In this work, we test whether also within-country, time-series GDP and IP growth rates can be approximated by tent-shaped distributions. We fit output growth rates with the exponential-power (Subbotin) family of densities, which includes as particular cases both the Gaussian and the Laplace distributions. We find that, for a large number of OECD countries including the U.S., both GDP and IP growth rates are Laplace distributed. Moreover, we show that fat-tailed distributions robustly emerge even after controlling for outliers, autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity.

  4. The Relationship Among Electricity Consumption, Economic Growth and Population in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül İSMİÇ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of electiricity as a type of energy is the main obejective of this study. This study aims to test the relationship between variables of electricity consumption, economic growth and population for 8 developing countries according to the IMF list. Data were analyzed for 8 countries for 1990-2012 period to test the direction and impact of economic growth and population on electricity consumption by using panel data analysis. Our model is analyzed through Swamy’s Random Coefficient Model and Seemingly Unrelated Model; the positive effect of economic growth on electricity consumption is observed and the effect of population seems insignificant for 2 countries.

  5. Influences of Corporate Governance on the Relationship between Corruption and Economic Growth--Developed Countries versus Emerging Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-Yun Tseng; Tsaur-Chin Wu

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have proposed that corporate governance has a positive effect on anti-corruption. The paper further investigates the effects of corporate governance on the corruption-economic growth relationship at the national level. Three major corporate governance mechanisms are discussed: efficacy of corporate boards, strength of auditing and financial reporting standards, and protection of minority shareholders’ interests. Using a balanced panel data set of 55 countries (26 developed cou...

  6. Summary of Productive Landscapes in China and Foreign Countries%中外生产性景观的概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芃

    2012-01-01

    生产性景观起源于人类社会的生产活动,随着人类文明的发展,生产性景观的作用已经不仅限于它的生产功能,其休闲娱乐功能、审美启智功能、生态恢复和保护功能也逐渐地被人们察识并加以推广利用.本文回顾了中西生产性景观的起源,比较了当代中西方生产性景观的特点,并就目前中国生产性景观的局限性做了探讨.%The productive landscapes originated from the productive activities of human society. As the development of human civilization, the productive landscapes play important roles not only in the production, but also in the entertainment, aesthetic and intellective education, ecological restoration and protection, which are gradually known and used by the people. This paper looked back the origin of the productive landscapes at home and abroad, compared the characteristics of productive landscapes between China and foreign countries, and probed into the limitation of the current productive landscapes in China.

  7. 中外幼儿图书比较%A Comparison of Child Books between China and Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Through comparing child books between China and foreign countries in the current market, reading relevant psycho-logical research and analyzing the publishing status, the writer finds that China's child books still need improvement and further planning from various aspects. The designers of child books should not only consider the education function, but also make overall planning on the pictures, format and words.%  通过对目前市面上的一些国内外幼儿读物进行对比,在阅读了一些心理学相关研究及市场出版状况分析的资料后,研究者发现,我国与国外的幼儿图书确实在图画、装帧、出版发行等方面还有着一些有待改进的地方。我国的幼儿读物市场还要进一步的规划与发展。在选择幼儿图书时不仅要考虑书籍的教育性,出版者还应从设计之初就对图画书图画、版式、文字等方面进行规划。

  8. 国外主观幸福感研究%Studies on the Subjective Well-being of Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚雪枫

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy,the level of people's material life continuously improved,at the same time personal feelings,family relationship,and Parent-child relationship etc concern gradually,happy or not has become an issue of concern by people.Through the systematic study of the foreign theory in subjective well-being,from the basic concept,development status and influence factors of subjective well-being research provide the reference for subjective well-being research in our country.%伴随着经济的飞速发展,人们的物质生活水平在不断提高,同时个人感受、家庭关系、亲子关系等逐渐受到人们重视,幸福与否成为人们所关注的话题。通过系统地研究国外主观幸福感理论,从基本概念、发展状况和影响因素对国外主观幸福感研究进行梳理,为我国主观幸福感的研究提供参考。

  9. International Trade as an Engine of Growth in Developing Countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... The primary objective of the study is to test the impact of international trade on ... relationship between trade and economic growth, and the result vary accordingly. ..... http://www.jubileeastralia.org/512 Jubilee Debt Jargon. Php (April. 4, 2007). ... Review of Economics and Business, Vol. 43, April – June ...

  10. Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: Evidence from COMESA Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chali, Nondo; Mulugeta, Kahsai

    2009-01-01

    This study applies panel data techniques to investigate the long-run relationship between energy consumption and GDP for a panel of 19 African countries (COMESA) based on annual data for the period 1980-2005. In the first step, we examine the degree of integration between GDP and energy consumption by employing three panel unit root tests and find that the variables are integrated of order one. In the second step, we investigate the long-run relationship between energy consumption and GDP. Re...

  11. International Trade and Productivity Growth; Exploring the Sectoral Effects for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The paper estimates an empirical relation based on Krugman's "technological gap" model to explore the influence of the pattern of international trade and production on the overall productivity growth of a developing country. A key result is that increased import competition in medium-growth (but not in low- or high-growth) manufacturing sectors enhances overall productivity growth. The authors also find that a production-share weighted average of (technological leaders') sectoral productivity...

  12. Nuclear energy-economic growth nexus in OECD countries. A panel data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Burcu [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Dept. of Economics; Ari, Ayse [Nigde Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Economics

    2016-01-15

    The relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in 13 OECD countries from 1980 to 2012 is analyzed. The panel causality results supported the feedback hypothesis in both the short-run and long-run. There is a positive relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth. As such, nuclear energy consumption and economic growth complement and reinforce each other. Nuclear energy conservation policies may negatively affect economic growth rates.

  13. Financial Development and Economic Growth in European Countries: Bootstrap Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Lebe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, it was investigated whether there was a causality relationship between financial development and economic growth for sixteen European countries. Data from the period of 1988-2012 was analyzed using the bootstrap panel causality test, which takes cross-section dependence and heterogeneity into account. The results of the test showed that there was a strong causality relationship between financial development and economic growth in European countries. In European countries, there was a causality relationship from economic growth to financial development and from financial development to economic growth. These results support both the supply-leading and the demand-following hypotheses. Therefore, it can be said that the feedback hypothesis is valid for European countries.

  14. Honesty, trust and economic growth - A cross-cultural comparison of western industrialized countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetchenhauer, D; van der Vegt, G

    2001-01-01

    This article investigates cross-country differences in economic growth rates from a psychological perspective. Based on social capital theory it is argued that 1) financial honesty and trust are positively correlated with each other when they are aggregated on a country level and that 2) a high leve

  15. National culture and cultural orientations of owners affecting the innovation-growth relationship in five countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauch, Andreas; Frese, Michael; Wang, Zhong-Ming; Unger, Jens; Lozada, Maria; Kupcha, Vita; Spirina, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the cross-cultural validity of the relationship between innovation and growth in a sample of 857 business owners from five different countries: China, Germany, the Netherlands, Peru and Russia. We found that innovation is effective in each country, suggesting universal relationships

  16. Resource nationalism and credit growth in FSU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyuzhnova, Yelena; Nygaard, Christian [The Centre for Euro-Asian Studies, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 218, Reading RG6 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    This paper analyses the connection between resource nationalism and financial sector intervention in the FSU countries. We consider recent financial development in the FSU and the special features of energy rich emerging economies (Russia and Kazakhstan, in particular) which are influencing recent credit expansions. We find that the hydrocarbon sector has boosted boosting domestic credits through a number of direct and indirect routes. Recent decline in oil prices may change government attitudes to a continued resource nationalist strategy. Sovereign wealth funds that were established in a majority of energy rich emerging economies may, to the extent that they enable the selection of winners in specific economic sectors, create path dependency or exacerbate longer term allocative inefficiency arising from the governance structure associated with resource nationalism. (author)

  17. Institutions and the finance–growth nexus: Empirical evidence from MENA countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouthar Gazdar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of institutional quality on the finance–growth nexus. To this end, an empirical model with linear interaction between financial development and institutional quality is estimated. Our main findings show that, while most indicators of financial development have a significantly negative effect on economic growth, the sign of the coefficients of interaction variables are significantly positive. This provides strong evidence that institutional quality mitigates the negative effect of financial development on economic growth. Looking to the subcomponents of our institutional index, our findings show a development of the banking sector in a country with an important score in Law and Order, Bureaucracy and Investment Profile facilitate growth. Also, countries, with an important score of investment profile, can benefit from stock market development in terms of economic growth. These results suggest that, in order to benefit from financial development, financial systems in MENA countries must be embedded within a sound institutional framework.

  18. Unemployment and Economic Growth of Developing Asian Countries: A Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the new regression estimates of the relationship between unemployment and economic growth for 12 selected Asian countries over the period 1982-2011. Fixed effect and Pooled OLS techniques are used to analyze the panel data for measuring individual country effects, group effects and time effects while exploring the relationship between Unemployment rate and the Economic Growth. The results showed that higher unemployment rate has significant negative impact on GDP per capita growth (a proxy for economic growth. The results also investigated that economic growth seems to be significantly affected by traditional determinants such as Inflation (consumer price index, Population growth, Gross Capital Formation, Trade openness etc. Based on our results the author has concluded that reduction in unemployment rate would be a better option for more and sustained economic growth and also improving the welfare of the people.

  19. Economic openness and economic growth: A cointegration analysis for ASEAN-5 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimis Vogiatzoglou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers three channels of economic openness, namely FDI, imports, and exports, and examines their short-run and long-run effects on the economic growth in the five founding member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN over the period from 1980 to 2014. Besides the impact on the economic growth, the authors analyze all possible causal interrelationships to discern patterns and directions of causality among FDI, imports, exports, and GDP. The quantitative analysis, which is based on the vector error correction co-integration framework, is conducted separately for each country in order to assess their individual experiences and allow for a comparative view. Although the precise details differ across countries, the findings indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between economic openness and GDP in all ASEAN-5 economies. FDI, imports and exports have a significantly positive short-run and long-run impact on the economic growth. Our results also show that export-led growth is the most important economic growth factor in most countries, followed by FDI-led growth. Another crucial finding is the bi-directional causality between exports and FDI across the ASEAN-5 countries. This indicates the presence of direct and indirect effects on GDP and a self-reinforcing process of causality between those two variables, which strengthens their impact on the economic growth.

  20. Foreign trade elasticities in centre-periphery models of growth and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Philip Thirlwall

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available The Author looks at the difference in growth rates among countries and argues that they can be traced to the strength of the balance of payments position, determined largely by the propensity to export relative to the propensity to import. Relative growth performance, thus, can be understood by looking to income elasticities of demand for exports and imports. This insight into the process of income determination in open economies, found in Harrod as well as in the literature on economic development, is developed through so-called centre-periphery models of growth and development. However, their essential conclusions were already contained in the early classic papers. The author concentrates on three of them (prebisch, seers, kaldor to argue that a country’s growth rate relative to another’s can be approximated by the ratio of its income elasticity of demand for exports to its income elasticity of demand for imports.

  1. Foreign trade elasticities in centre-periphery models of growth and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. THIRLWALL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Author looks at the difference in growth rates among countries and argues that they can be traced to the strength of the balance of payments position, determined largely by the propensity to export relative to the propensity to import. Relative growth performance, thus, can be understood by looking to income elasticities of demand for exports and imports. This insight into the process of income determination in open economies, found in Harrod as well as in the literature on economic development, is developed through so-called centre-periphery models of growth and development. However, their essential conclusions were already contained in the early classic papers. The author concentrates on three of them (Prebisch, Seers, Kaldor to argue that a country’s growth rate relative to another’s can be approximated by the ratio of its income elasticity of demand for exports to its income elasticity of demand for imports.

  2. Effects of capital markets development on economic growth of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Artor Nuhiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this research paper we have tried to elaborate the issue whether capital market development is an alternative towards economic growth and economic prosperity of developing countries in general, the Western Balkan countries in particular. The focus of the paper is to study the effects of proper functioning of capital markets and their im-pact on increasing the level of savings, capital investments and in locating relevant resources for long-term financing of the economy. The research paper presents positive and negative arguments, linking the establishment and development of a capital market and its impact on economic development of developing countries, particularly Western Balkan countries.

  3. Effects Of Country Risk Forecasts Based On Foreign Trade Performance And Currency Choices In Asset - Liability Management On Banks’ Liquidity Performance: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Muzır

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available he foremost purpose of this paper that presents some parametric and non-parametric model proposals towards measuring banks’ risk of technical insolvency (failure as based on their liquidity performance is to discern how specific choices regarding asset- liability structure of banks and country risk predictions concerning overall foreign trade performance affect liquidity position of those banks. Moreover, possible impacts of lending efficiency and capital adequacy on liquidity performance are argued. For this purpose, some parametric and non-parametric risk estimation models have been developed using the consolidated financial and non-financial data that were reported on a quarterly basis by 26 Turkish and foreign deposit banks within the period between March 2003 and March 2009 to predict changes in the balances of both net cash flows from banking activities and overall net cash flows. According to the findings of the models developed by undertaking Binary Logistic Regression and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS, it is concluded that foreign trade performance based country risk forecasts are positively correlated with technical failure risk exposure while currency compositions of assets and liabilities are significantly effective on risk level. In addition, we also observe that foreign banks are relatively less exposed to technical failure risk and infer that increasing lending efficiency and better capital adequacy could lead to pretty liquidity performance, as expected

  4. Foreign labor and regional labor markets: aggregate and disaggregate impact on growth and wages in Danish regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben Dall; Jensen, Peter Sandholt

    2013-01-01

    non-negative effects on the job opportunities for Danish workers in regional labor markets, whereas the evidence of a regional wage growth effect is mixed. We also present disaggregated results focusing on regional heterogeneity of business structures, skill levels and backgrounds of foreign labor....... The results are interpreted within a specific Danish labor market context and the associated regional outcomes. This adds to previous findings and emphasizes the importance of labor market institutions for the effect of foreign labor on regional employment growth....

  5. Saving, growth, and investment: a macroeconomic analysis using a panel of countries

    OpenAIRE

    Attanasio, O.; L. Picci; A. E. Scorcu

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the long- and short-run correlations among saving, investment, and growth rates for 123 countries over the period 1961-94. Three results are robust across data sets and estimation methods: i) lagges saving rates are positively related to investment rates; ii) investment rates Granger cause growth rates with a negative sign; iii) growth rates Granger-cause investment with a positive sign.

  6. Does Gender Inequality Reduce Growth and Development? Evidence from Cross-Country Regressions

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2000-01-01

    Using cross-country and panel regressions, this paper investigates to what extent gender inequality in education and employment may reduce growth and development. The paper finds a considerable impact of gender inequality on economic growth which is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education has a direct impact on economic growth through lowering the average quality of human capital. In addition, econom...

  7. The Role of Parent-Country Nationals in Reducing the Adverse Effect of Perceived Value Inconsistency on the Commitment of Foreign Subsidiary Employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Rabbiosi, Larissa; Stahl, Guenter K.

    2013-01-01

    in foreign subsidiaries, and ultimately MNC performance. Drawing on data from a global survey of 1567 work groups in a large European MNC, we demonstrate the adverse effects of perceived gaps in corporate core values and demonstrate that by acting as culture carriers and translators of corporate messages......Use of the parent country nationals as work group leaders is an important tool for creating alignment within the MNC network. We argue that the parent country expatriates have a key role in mitigating the adverse effects of perceived values’ inconsistency on affective commitment of employees...

  8. Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? Evidence from some selected african countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alege P.O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? What are the implications of growth on output performances in Africa? Does the effect of Africa’s growth on sectorial output have any implication for inequality in Africa? The study investigates the effect of shocks on a set of macroeconomic variables on inequality (measured by life expectancy and the implication of this on sectors that are perceived to provide economic empowerment in form of employment for people living in the African countries in our sample. Studies already find that growth in many African countries has not been accompanied with significant improvement in employment. Therefore inequality is subject to a counter cyclical trend in production levels when export destination countries experience a recession. The study also provides insight on the effect of growth on sectorial output for three major sectors in the African economy with the intent of analyzing the impact of growth on sectorial development. The method used in this study is Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR estimation and the obvious advantage of this method lies in the fact that it allows us to capture both static and dynamic interdependencies and to treat the links across units in an unrestricted fashion. Data is obtained from World Bank (WDI Statistics for the period 1985 to 2012 (28 years for 10 African Countries. Our main findings confirm strong negative relationship between GDP growth and life expectancy and also for GDP and the services and manufacturing sector considering the full sample.

  9. Economic Growth, Foreign Direct Investment and CO2 Emissions in China: A Panel Granger Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfeng Peng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of province-level panel data, this paper investigates the Granger causality associations among economic growth (GDP, foreign direct investment (FDI and CO2 emissions in China. By applying the bootstrap Granger panel causality approach (Kónya, 2006, we consider both cross-sectional dependence and homogeneity of different regions in China. The empirical results support that the causality direction not only works in a single direction either from GDP to FDI (in Yunnan or from FDI to GDP (in Beijing, Neimenggu, Jilin, Shanxi and Gansu, but it also works in both directions (in Henan. Moreover, we document that GDP is Granger-causing CO2 emissions in Neimenggu, Hubei, Guangxi and Gansu while there is bidirectional causality between these two variables in Shanxi. In the end, we identify the unidirectional causality from FDI to CO2 emissions in Beijing, Henan, Guizhou and Shanxi, and the bidirectional causality between FDI and CO2 emissions in Neimenggu.

  10. Energy consumption and economic growth relationship: Evidence from panel data for low and middle income countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Ilhan, E-mail: ilhanozturk@cag.edu.t [Cag University, Faculty of Economics and Business, 33800 Mersin (Turkey); Aslan, Alper, E-mail: alperaslan@erciyes.edu.t [Nevsehir University, Faculty of Economics and Business, 50300, Nevsehir (Turkey); Kalyoncu, Huseyin, E-mail: hkalyoncu@meliksah.edu.t [Meliksah University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 38010 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    This paper uses the panel data of energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (GDP) for 51 countries from 1971 to 2005. These countries are divided into three groups: low income group, lower middle income group and upper middle income group countries. Firstly, a relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is investigated by employing panel cointegration method. Secondly, panel causality test is applied to investigate the way of causality between the energy consumption and economic growth. Finally, we test whether there is a strong or weak relationship between these variables by using method. The empirical results of this study are as follows: i) Energy consumption and GDP are cointegrated for all three income group countries. ii) The panel causality test results reveal that there is long-run Granger causality running from GDP to EC for low income countries and there is bidirectional causality between EC and GDP for middle income countries. iii) The estimated cointegration factor, {beta}, is not close to 1. In other words, no strong relation is found between energy consumption and economic growth for all income groups considered in this study. The findings of this study have important policy implications and it shows that this issue still deserves further attention in future research.

  11. Energy consumption and economic growth relationship. Evidence from panel data for low and middle income countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Ilhan [Cag University, Faculty of Economics and Business, 33800 Mersin (Turkey); Aslan, Alper [Nevsehir University, Faculty of Economics and Business, 50300, Nevsehir (Turkey); Kalyoncu, Huseyin [Meliksah University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 38010 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    This paper uses the panel data of energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (GDP) for 51 countries from 1971 to 2005. These countries are divided into three groups: low income group, lower middle income group and upper middle income group countries. Firstly, a relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is investigated by employing panel cointegration method. Secondly, panel causality test is applied to investigate the way of causality between the energy consumption and economic growth. Finally, we test whether there is a strong or weak relationship between these variables by using method. The empirical results of this study are as follows: (1) Energy consumption and GDP are cointegrated for all three income group countries. (2) The panel causality test results reveal that there is long-run Granger causality running from GDP to EC for low income countries and there is bidirectional causality between EC and GDP for middle income countries. (3) The estimated cointegration factor, {beta}, is not close to 1. In other words, no strong relation is found between energy consumption and economic growth for all income groups considered in this study. The findings of this study have important policy implications and it shows that this issue still deserves further attention in future research. (author)

  12. Hierarchical structure of the countries based on electricity consumption and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Ersin; Aslan, Alper; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the hierarchical structures of countries based on electricity consumption and economic growth by using the real amounts of their consumption over a certain time period. We use electricity consumption data to detect the topological properties of 64 countries from 1971 to 2008. These countries are divided into three clusters: low income group, middle income group and high income group countries. Firstly, a relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth is investigated by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT)). Secondly, we perform bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MST. Finally, we use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure more clearly. The results of the structural topologies of these trees are as follows: (i) we identified different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic growth, (ii) we found a strong relation between energy consumption and economic growth for all the income groups considered in this study and (iii) the results are in good agreement with the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth.

  13. Energy demand, energy substitution and economic growth : Evidence from developed and developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Aziz, Azlina

    This thesis contributes to the literature on energy demand in three ways. Firstly, it examines the major determinants of energy demand using a panel of 23 developed countries and 16 developing countries during 1978 to 2003. Secondly, it examines the demand for energy in the industrial sector and the extent of inter-fuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, using data from 5 advanced countries and 5 energy producer's developing countries. Third, the thesis investigates empirically the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for these groups of countries over a 26-year period. The empirical results of this study confirm the majority of the findings in energy demand analysis. Income and price have shown to be important determinants for energy consumption in both developed and developing countries. Moreover, both economic structure and technical progress appear to exert significant impacts on energy consumption. Income has a positive impact on energy demand and the effect is larger in developing countries. In both developed and developing countries, price has a negative impact but these effects are larger in developed countries than in developing countries. The share of industry in GDP is positive and has a greater impact on energy demand in developing countries, whereas technological progress is found to be energy using in developed countries and energy saving in developing countries. With respect to the analysis of inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution in industrial energy demand, the results provide evidence for substitution possibilities between factor inputs and fuels. Substitutability is observed between capital and energy, capital and labour and labour and energy. These findings confirm previous evidence that production technologies in these countries allow flexibility in the capital-energy, capital-labour and labour-energy mix. In the energy sub-model, the elasticities of substitution show that large

  14. An Econometric Analysis of the Relationship between Health and Economic Growth in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih YARDIMCIOĞLU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the long-run relationship between health (life expectancy and economic growth in the 25 OECD countries over the period from 1975 to 2008 by utilizing the Pedroni panel cointegration, Pedroni FMOLS and Canning-Pedroni causality methods. The cointegration test results show that there is a cointegration relationship between health and economic growth in the long run. According to Panel Panel FMOLS results the elasticity coefficient of health is % 0.18, the elasticity coefficient of economic growth is % 0.17. The results of Lamda-Pearson statistics indicate the long-run bilateral causality between health and economic growth. It is concluded that there is a strong cointegration relationship between health and economic growth in OECD Countries in the long run.

  15. Consumer Ethnocentrism and Conspicuous Consumption of Domestic and Foreign Consumer Goods in Mozambique, a Less-Developed SADC Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna V John; Malcolm P Brady

    2010-01-01

    ... ethnocentric consumption of domestic products on the one hand, and conspicuous consumption of foreign products on the other, depends upon the consumption mode of products - whether products are publicly or privately consumed. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT

  16. Energy consumption, prices and economic growth in three SSA countries. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M. [Economics Department, University of South Africa (UNISA), P.O. Box 392, UNISA 0003, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper we examine the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in three sub-Saharan African countries, namely South Africa, Kenya and Congo (DRC). We incorporate prices as an intermittent variable in a bivariate setting between energy consumption and economic growth - thereby creating a simple trivariate framework. Using the ARDL-bounds testing procedure, we find that the causality between energy consumption and economic growth varies significantly across the countries under study. The results show that for South Africa and Kenya there is a unidirectional causal flow from energy consumption to economic growth. However, for Congo (DRC) it is economic growth that drives energy consumption. These findings have important policy implications insofar as energy conservation policies are concerned. In the case of Congo (DRC), for example, the implementation of energy conservation policies may not significantly affect economic growth because the country's economy is not entirely energy dependent. However, for South Africa and Kenya there is a need for more energy supply augmentations in order to cope with the long-run energy demand. In the short-run, however, the two countries should explore more efficient and cost-effective sources of energy in order to address the energy dependency problem. (author)

  17. Energy consumption, prices and economic growth in three SSA countries: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M., E-mail: nmbaya99@yahoo.co [Economics Department, University of South Africa (UNISA), P.O. Box 392, UNISA 0003, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper we examine the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in three sub-Saharan African countries, namely South Africa, Kenya and Congo (DRC). We incorporate prices as an intermittent variable in a bivariate setting between energy consumption and economic growth-thereby creating a simple trivariate framework. Using the ARDL-bounds testing procedure, we find that the causality between energy consumption and economic growth varies significantly across the countries under study. The results show that for South Africa and Kenya there is a unidirectional causal flow from energy consumption to economic growth. However, for Congo (DRC) it is economic growth that drives energy consumption. These findings have important policy implications insofar as energy conservation policies are concerned. In the case of Congo (DRC), for example, the implementation of energy conservation policies may not significantly affect economic growth because the country's economy is not entirely energy dependent. However, for South Africa and Kenya there is a need for more energy supply augmentations in order to cope with the long-run energy demand. In the short-run, however, the two countries should explore more efficient and cost-effective sources of energy in order to address the energy dependency problem.

  18. Foreign Direct Investment Decisions into China and India

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Zelaya; Ayse Yüce

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the foreign direct investment projects of the multinational companies into the two major BRIC countries: India and China. Our results indicate that wage levels and country population and GDP growth are the major factors that affect company directors’ decision to invest into these countries.

  19. Causality Relationship Between Import, Export and Growth Rate in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat YUKSEL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we tried to determine the relationship between imports, exports and growth rate in developing countries. Within this scope, 6 developing countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Malaysia, Mexico and Turkey were analyzed in this study. In order to achieve this purpose, annual data for the periods between 1961 and 2014 was tested by using Engle Granger co-integration analysis, Vector Error Correction Model and Toda Yamamoto causality analysis. According to the result of the analysis, it was determined that there is not any relationship among three variables in Brazil and Mexico. On the other hand, we defined that increase in export causes higher growth rate in Argentina. Moreover, it was concluded that there is a causal relationship from import to export in China and Turkey. Furthermore, it was determined that export causes higher import in Malaysia. Therefore, it can be concluded that the relationship between import, export and growth rate is not same for all developing countries..

  20. Small Countries with Volatile Revenue

    OpenAIRE

    Naoko C. Kojo

    2015-01-01

    Bhutan and Botswana share a number of similarities. The two countries, land locked small states, have grown rapidly over the past few decades, boosted by sustained, large-scale inflows of foreign exchange. Botswana’s annual real growth rate averaged 9 percent over the past 40 years, driven by diamond exploration, whereas Bhutan has taken full advantage of generous foreign aid inflows to ac...

  1. Data on examining the role of human capital in the energy-growth nexus across countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes two publicly available data sources: the new generation of Penn World Table (www.ggdc.net/pwt and the BP Statistical Review of World Energy (http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview which can be used to examine the role of human capital in the energy-growth nexus across countries. The critical human capital measure across countries is for the first time made available in the Penn World Table 8.0 and it enables empirical researchers to conduct cross-country analysis involving human capital much easily than ever before.

  2. Data on examining the role of human capital in the energy-growth nexus across countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zheng

    2016-12-01

    This article describes two publicly available data sources: the new generation of Penn World Table (www.ggdc.net/pwt) and the BP Statistical Review of World Energy (http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview) which can be used to examine the role of human capital in the energy-growth nexus across countries. The critical human capital measure across countries is for the first time made available in the Penn World Table 8.0 and it enables empirical researchers to conduct cross-country analysis involving human capital much easily than ever before.

  3. The Role of Parent-Country Nationals in Reducing the Adverse Effect of Perceived Value Inconsistency on the Commitment of Foreign Subsidiary Employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Rabbiosi, Larissa; Stahl, Guenter K.

    2013-01-01

    in foreign subsidiaries, and ultimately MNC performance. Drawing on data from a global survey of 1567 work groups in a large European MNC, we demonstrate the adverse effects of perceived gaps in corporate core values and demonstrate that by acting as culture carriers and translators of corporate messages......Use of the parent country nationals as work group leaders is an important tool for creating alignment within the MNC network. We argue that the parent country expatriates have a key role in mitigating the adverse effects of perceived values’ inconsistency on affective commitment of employees......, parent country expatriates can create alignment around core espoused values and limit the negative consequences of values’ inconsistency at subsidiary level....

  4. The Effects of Gaps and Disparities on Economic Growth. A Study of 10 Former Socialist Countries from the CEE, Members of the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marușa Pescu (Beca

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research paper is to empirically assess the potential effects of macroeconomic determinants of economic growth and to determine the impact of income inequality on economic growth in the long-run in ten former socialist countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE which are members of the European Union (EU during the period 2006-2014, using the System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM as the research method. In order to achieve all the desired research objectives the following explanatory variables were used: income inequality (Gini Index, foreign direct investments (FDI, education, research and development expenditure, exports, population growth, labour productivity, tax rate, inflation rate and the Corruption Perception Index (CPI. The dependent variable employed in the empirical analysis, a proxy for the economic growth, is GDP per capita growth (annual %. The main finding of this paper’s investigations is that income inequality has a positive and statistically significant impact on economic growth and a 1% increase in the Gini coefficient enhances the GDP by 0.68% in the ten former socialist Central and Eastern European (CEE countries which are members of the European Union (EU during the period 2006-2014.

  5. Do foreign portfolio flows increase risk in emerging stock markets? Evidence from six Latin American countries 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Agudelo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign portfolio flows have been blamed for causing instability in emerging markets, especially during financial crises. This study measured the effect of foreign capital flows on volatility and exposure to world market risk in the six largest Latin American stock markets: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru, for around 10 years including the 2008 World financial crisis. This will test whether these flows cause instability for those markets and increase their exposure to international stock market returns. A proprietary database, from Emerging Portoflio.com and time series models, both univariate (ARCH-GARCH and multivariate (VAR, are used to estimate the effect foreign portfolio flows on the risk variables and the causality of these effects. We found no strong evidence to support the hypothesis that foreign flows cause instability in the Latin American stock markets, in spite of some evidence of causing price pressure. Instead, the evidence points to a strong dependence of market returns on international stock and foreign exchange markets, both in means and in volatility, instrumental to transmit crisis to those markets.

  6. THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN OECD COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    SEVGİ SEZER; TEZCAN ABASIZ

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of information and communication technologies on economic growth. For this purpose, telecommunications infrastructure investments, number of Internet and telephone subscribers and human capital figures of 34 OECD countries between 1968 and 2013 were utilized to conduct an unbalanced panel data analysis. Study findings demonstrated that number of Internet and telephone subscribers increased per capita growth rate.

  7. Estimating the Relationship between Economic Growth and Health Expenditures in ECO Countries Using Panel Cointegration Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Hatam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing knowledge of people about health leads to raising the share of health expenditures in government budget continuously; although governors do not like this rise because of budget limitations. This study aimed to find the association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. We added health capital in Solow model and used the panel cointegration approach to show the importance of health expenditures in economic growth. For estimating the model, first we used Pesaran cross-sectional dependency test, after that we used Pesaran CADF unit root test, and then we used Westerlund panel cointegration test to show if there is a long-term association between variables or not. After that, we used chaw test, Breusch-Pagan test and Hausman test to find the form of the model. Finally, we used OLS estimator for panel data. Findings showed that there is a positive, strong association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. If governments increase investing in health, the total production of the country will be increased, so health expenditures are considered as an investing good. The effects of health expenditures in developing countries must be higher than those in developed countries. Such studies can help policy makers to make long-term decisions.

  8. Estimating the Relationship between Economic Growth and Health Expenditures in ECO Countries Using Panel Cointegration Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Nahid; Tourani, Sogand; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Bastani, Peivand

    2016-02-01

    Increasing knowledge of people about health leads to raising the share of health expenditures in government budget continuously; although governors do not like this rise because of budget limitations. This study aimed to find the association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. We added health capital in Solow model and used the panel cointegration approach to show the importance of health expenditures in economic growth. For estimating the model, first we used Pesaran cross-sectional dependency test, after that we used Pesaran CADF unit root test, and then we used Westerlund panel cointegration test to show if there is a long-term association between variables or not. After that, we used chaw test, Breusch-Pagan test and Hausman test to find the form of the model. Finally, we used OLS estimator for panel data. Findings showed that there is a positive, strong association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. If governments increase investing in health, the total production of the country will be increased, so health expenditures are considered as an investing good. The effects of health expenditures in developing countries must be higher than those in developed countries. Such studies can help policy makers to make long-term decisions.

  9. Fostering ICT Development for Growth: Measuring the Payoffs for Australia and the Asean-5 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudiarasan Kuppusamy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades the brisk development of information and communication technologies (ICT has had a phenomenal impact on the economic stability and development of many countries. Empirical studies show that most developed economies have gained significant payoffs (in terms of economic growth from their ICT investments. This study investigates the hypothesis that ICT-based investment has paid off for Australia and the ASEAN-5 countries (Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines between 1992 and 2006. Applying a new cointegration technique[12], which takes into account the presence of a potential structural break, shows that ICT investment has had a positive and significant long-run relationship with economic growth in Australia, Malaysia and Singapore. However, in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand ICT investment did not contribute significantly to economic growth during the same period. These three countries have yet to reap the benefits of ICT. Our empirical results suggest that the three lagging ASEAN countries should increase their ICT investment in order to achieve sustainable economic growth in the new knowledge-based economy.

  10. Effects of Female Education on Economic Growth: A Cross Country Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztunc, Hakan; Oo, Zar Chi; Serin, Zehra Vildan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which women's education affects long-term economic growth in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on the time period between 1990 and 2010, using data collected in randomly selected Asia Pacific countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.…

  11. Productivity and Unemployment in a Two-country Model with Endogenous Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Relative to the United States, most European countries have high rates of unemployment and low levels of productivity in manufacturing. To relate these issues, we develop a leader-follower model with endogenous growth and dual labour markets, stressing the role of high-tech and high-wage sectors in

  12. PROMOTING AND ATTRACTING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CHIRILA DONCIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available FDI is an important element of the economic development of any country and its functioning on market principles. They have a great importance for strengthening the economy of countries in transition and their integration into the world’s economy. The modernization of national economies occurs with FDI help, by implementing advanced technologies, know-how sites, the most powerful equipment and the new quality standards by switching to a higher type of growth. The purpose of this research is to identify of the policies to attract and promote FDI, adopted by host countries for foreign investors and are highlighted beneficial aspects of foreign investments flows on recipient economies. The research results show that policies aimed at ensuring access to foreign markets, those that are considering providing commercial facilities and last, but not least, policies focused on tax incentives are very important for foreign investors.

  13. Implementation of the 1958 New York Convention in Several Asian Countries: The Refusal of Foreign Arbitral Awards Enforcement on the Grounds of Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Radjagukguk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The national character of public policy indicates that the decision is up to the court of national country concerned. Therefore, each country can rule whether public policy and its related issues are part of the country’s public policy. Courts around the world have recognized that Article V of the Convention is discretionary. The courts of Civil Law countries appear to be interpreting public policy broadly. This is quite evident from decisions made by courts in Indonesia, The People’s Republic of China, Japan and Korea. The Indonesian Court considered Article V (2 (b of the New York Convention which states that the court may deny the enforcement of an arbital award if enforcement would violate public policy of the place of enforcement. In addition, before the enactment of Law No. 30 of 1999 concerning Arbitration and Alternative Disptue Resolution, the Court referred to Indonesian Supreme Court Regulation No. 1 of 1999, which provides that the enforcement of foreign arbital awards in Indonesia imitatively applies to awards which do not violate public policy order in terms of all underlying principles of the Indonesian legal system and society. In Indonesia, Bakrie Brothers v. Trading Corporation of Pakistan Ltd., was the first case in which the Indonesian court rejected the enforcement of foreign arbital awards for the reason of violating public policy.

  14. A review on visual landscape study in foreign countries%国际视觉景观研究评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐童; 王亚娟; 王卫华

    2013-01-01

    .Secondly,visual impact caused by urban and rural buildings and renewable-energy facilities received much attention.GIS and 3D visualization techniques enlarged temporal-spatial scales and improved the precision of quality and impact assessment.Thirdly,scholars investigated visual landscape preference from two perspectives:human and landscape which was respectively subjective and objective part of appreciation.Not only human natural and cultural attributes but also landscape features were deeply explored to demonstrate the influence in landscape preference.It was confirmed that landscape preference could promote landscape preservation and rational land use.In conclusion,the progresses of the studies on visual landscape were summarized as follows:visual landscape study was more instructive in landscape planning and construction,because the subjective and objective methods were gradually integrated and the techniques were diversified; study areas were unbalanced and study objects were a little dull,so more relevant researches should be made in the developing countries and scholars should pay much attention to visual impact of a large variety of landscape types;there was a need for comprehensive perspectives as the number of interdisciplinary studies was increasing; the foreign researches had some enlightenment for the domestic ones.

  15. Negotiating Historical Distance: Or, How to Deal with the Past as a Foreign Country in Heritage Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grever, Maria; de Bruijn, Pieter; van Boxtel, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The current heritage fascination signals the omnipresence of the Present. Recently it has spawned a distinct type of teaching and learning: "heritage education". In this article we argue that, despite its presentist connotations, heritage education offers interesting opportunities for understanding the foreignness of the past, a…

  16. Trade and foreign direct investment: Evidence from South East European countries and new European Union member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardhyl Dauti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to provide an empirical assessment of the complementarity or substituting relationship between Trade and FDI in a link to country characteristics, using bilateral level data between FDI and trade for the period 1994 – 2010. In the research, an augmented gravity model has been used to test the relationship between Trade (both export and import, FDI stock and country characteristics between OECD-20 countries and SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. The empirical model considers how the relationship between FDI and Trade determine whether type of FDI into SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 from core OECD-20 countries, is vertical or horizontal. With regard to the relationship between exports and FDI, the findings of the research showed mixed evidence, thus supporting vertical FDI for EU-NMS-10 countries, and horizontal FDI for SEE-5 countries. On the other hand, based on the relationship between imports and FDI, the results of the research supported vertical FDI for both EU-NMS-10 and SEE-5 group of countries. The basic conclusion is that the research provides an empirical evidence on the mixed nature of FDI into the host SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries, supporting both complementary and substituting relationship between trade and FDI in the host countries.

  17. Threshold cointegration and causality relationship between energy use and growth in seven African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esso, Loesse Jacques [CES, Universite Paris 1-Pantheon-Sorbonne (France); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Statistique et d' Economie Appliquee (ENSEA), Cellule d' Analyse de Politiques Economiques du CIRES (CAPEC) (Ivory Coast)

    2010-11-15

    The paper investigates the long-run and the causality relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for seven Sub-Saharan African countries during the period 1970-2007. Using the Gregory and Hansen testing approach to threshold cointegration, we find that energy consumption is cointegrated with economic growth in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa. Moreover, this test suggests that economic growth has a significant positive long-run impact on energy consumption in these countries before 1988 and this effect becomes negative after 1988 in Ghana and South Africa. Furthermore, causality tests suggest bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real GDP in Cote d'Ivoire and unidirectional causality running from real GDP to energy usage in the case of Congo and Ghana. (author)

  18. THE ROLE OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN SUSTAINING CHINA’S ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-CRISTINA BÂLGĂR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available n over three decades and a half of spectacular economic growth – starting in 1979 with the launch of reform processes and with the dynamic mutations from an autarchic to a global model – the introduction and implementation of the policies targeting the use and attraction of foreign direct investment (FDI represented an exceptionally important stage in China’s history of international “openness,” playing an active role in the promotion, support and enhancement of its economic development. The aim of this article is to outline China’s sinuous investment path, from the autarchic pattern followed by the stage of economic openness characterised by the application of the “open doors” policy and up to the rethinking of the development paradigm and the country’s affirmation on the market as a new powerhouse in the global economy. Our research also aims to outline the implications that all these stages had on China’s current position of world leader in terms of inward FDI. As such, by means of comparative, quantitative and qualitative analyses, we will examine the evolution in time and the external impact of policies regarding the attraction of FDI, as well as the strategy aiming at incentivising Chinese outward investment – a relatively recent phenomenon – and the related support measures, in order to identify the country’s current development stage and its position in the global landscape, as well the possible challenges that China might face in the future.

  19. The Accumulation of the Foreign Debt of Ukraine: Hope for Economy Growth, or Decline (Empirical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenova Olena V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with influence of the external public debt of Ukraine on the country’s basic macroeconomic indicators. An analysis was carried out using the impulse response of the specified indicators and the external public debt on the basis of building the vector autoregressive models (VAR. A comparison of the results obtained with the results of the computer simulations of the dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model of effect of the external public debt has been done. It has been determined that a positive shock of the external public debt can affect the growth of public expenditures. It has been proven that the most significant is the interference of the external public debt, volume of foreign investment, and the total consumption expenditures. However, interdependence between the external public debt, inflation and the rate of the national currency is insignificant. This is confirmed by the real trends in the Ukrainian economy in recent years, when both the significant inflation and the devaluation of the national currency in any way do not reduce demand of the State on external borrowings. These results correspond with the findings obtained on the basis of building a dynamical stochastic general equilibrium model.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND GOVERNMENT SPENDING: A CASE STUDY OF OIC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Sudarsono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results for testing for causal relationship between economic growth and goverment spending for OIC countries covering the time series data 1970~2006. There are usually two propositions regarding the relation between economic growth and government spending: Wagner’s Law states that as GDP grows, the public sector tends to grow; and the Keynesian framework postulates that public expenditure causes GDP to grow. The primary strength and originality of this paper is that we used aggregate data as well as disaggregate data for Granger causality test. By testing for causality between economic growth and government spending, we find that government spending does cause economic growth in Iran, Nigeria and Tunisia, which are compatible with Keynesian’s theory. However, the economic growth does cause the increase in goverment spending in Algeria, Burkina Faso, Benin, Indonesia, Libya Malaysia, Marocco, and Saudi, which are well-suited with Wagner’s law.

  1. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyup Dogan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the causality relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in four low-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using the econometrics in time-series methods. Along the estimation process, I use the annual data on energy consumption and real GDP per capita over the years of 1971 and 2011. The results of the ADF unit root test show that the time series are not stationary for all countries at levels, but log of economic growth in Benin and Congo become stationary after taking the differences of the data, and log of energy consumption become stationary for all countries and LGR in Kenya and Zimbabwe are found to be stationary after taking the second differences of the time-series. The findings of the Johansen co-integration test demonstrate that the variables LEC and LGR are not co-integrated for the cases of Kenya and Zimbabwe, so no long-run relationship between the variables arises in any country. The Granger causality test indicates that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy use to economic growth in Kenya and no causality linkage between EC and GR in Benin, Congo and Zimbabwe.

  2. The Impact of Financial Crises and Economic Growth of East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir MS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In last quarter of 1997, the economic crises came in the East Asian countries. However, the countries those are affected by these crises are Malaysia, South Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Philippians, Thailand and Taiwan. The reason behind these crises were due to miss management of economic system and bankruptcy because mostly bank became corrupt during these crises and real GDP effected by these crises, whereas GDP in some countries are less effected as compared by the remaining countries after the crises in 2000. But the investment ration fell during that period, whereas, a comparative analysis are done in this paper that showed the investment ratio decreased during the period but slightly recovered after the crises. We explored the growth of the Asian economy and determinants of the economic growth before and after the crises. In the first part of the paper, we review the East Asian economy before 1997 while in second part we discuss the crises development of East Asia countries after the crises. The crisis resulted in the stock market values have failed to pre-crisis values retain is supported by the result. A picture of currency and banking crises exhibited a slightly different image study in the result.

  3. DIFFERENT DYNAMICS FOR SOME COUNTRIES OF CEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian SPIRIDON

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses the economic development of four European countries - Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic, and Poland beginning with 1990. It will be employed a descriptive analysis of their trade and growth dynamics. Emphasis will be placed on the determinants of economic growth of this group of countries in general and foreign trade in particular. The results indicate a heterogeneous dynamics of economic performances explained by specific characteristics and less by exogenous aspects related to trade partners and commercial structure, regional integration or foreign policy influenced by geographic proximity. In what concerns Romania, it appears to have been driven by a weaker engine of economic growth in the last two centuries.

  4. 76 FR 2915 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Indonesia should no longer continue to be designated as an eligible country because Indonesia is not meeting...)(1). Accordingly, DHS has removed Indonesia from the list of eligible countries. Further, the... Lithuania Macedonia Mexico Moldova Nauru The Netherlands Nicaragua New Zealand Norway Papua New Guinea...

  5. Education Experienced by Foreign-Born Faculty Whose Native Countries Have Undergone Major Socio-Economical Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Mitra; Korenman, Tamara; Zhao, Liang

    2010-01-01

    Three professors of education reflected on education in their countries of origin, and compare their education with learning, teaching and the education in the United States. The three countries represented are China prior to the political and economical reforms starting from 1979, Iran prior to the Islamic Republic of 1979, and the Russian…

  6. New Structures of American Foreign Strategy Since 9/11-Seeking Cooperation with Asia-Pacific Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    When George W. Bush entered the White House in early 2001,American foreign policy was based on unilateral principles and favored disengagement from global conflict resolution. The United States declared it's decision to withdraw from the Kyoto protocol, refused to negotiate with North Korea, and, in particular, it's pursuit of a national ballstic missile defense system,in face of global opposition, further reinforced the position of its unilateralism.The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 came as a shock to the world. The United States suffered not only physical casualties, but felt a psychological blow as well. For the first time since the 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States had been attacked at home. Unlike Pearl Harbor, the attacks on September 11 targeted civilians and the cornerstones of the American way of life- their financial and government centers. The terrorist attacks forced the Bush administration to re-examine it approach to foreign policy Seeking cooperation with other powers will be the new choice for American foreign strategy.

  7. 浅谈中亚文献在国外的分布情况%Talking about the Distribution of Central Asian Literature in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞娥; 张沛黎

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, along with the rise of Central Asian countries' international strategic position, domestic scholars have intensified the research on political, historical, economic, cultural and other fields of Central Asian countries. Scholars have also paid more and more attention to Central Asian literature. They have the same important guiding significance to understand the distribution and collection status of Central Asian literature in China and to understand the distribution status of Central Asian literature in foreign countries. This paper introduces the distribution of Central Asian literature in foreign countries from two aspects od geographical area and collection system in order to provide a reference for vast scholars' research in this filed.%近年来,随着中亚国家国际战略地位的提升,国内加大了对中亚国家政治、历史、经济、文化等领域的研究力度,学者们对中亚文献的重视程度亦与日俱增,在了解国内中亚文献分布和收藏情况的同时,从宏观上了解中亚文献信息资源在国外的分布情况,同样具有重要的指导意义. 从地理区域和收藏系统两方面介绍了国外中亚文献的分布情况,以期为广大学者在该领域的研究提供参考.

  8. The Impact of Taxation on Economic Growth: Case Study of OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macek Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of individual types of taxes on the economic growth by utilizing regression analysis on the OECD countries for the period of 2000–2011. The impact of taxation is integrated into growth models by its impact on the individual growth variables, which are capital accumulation and investment, human capital and technology. The analysis in this paper is based on extended neoclassical growth model of Mankiw, Romer and Weil (1992, and for the verification of relation between taxation and economic growth the panel regression method is used. The taxation rate itself is not approximated only by traditional tax quota, which is characteristic by many insufficiencies, but also by the alternative World Tax Index which combines hard and soft data. It is evident from the results of both analyses that corporate taxation followed by personal income taxes and social security contribution are the most harmful for economic growth. Concurrently, in case of the value added tax approximated by tax quota, the negative impact on economic growth was not confirmed, from which it can be concluded that tax quota, in this case as the indicator of taxation, fails. When utilizing World Tax Index, a negative relation between these two variables was confirmed, however, it was the least quantifiable. The impact of property taxes was statistically insignificant. Based on the analysis results it is evident that in effort to stimulate economic growth in OECD countries, economic-politic authorities should lower the corporate taxation and personal income taxes, and the loss of income tax revenues should be compensated by the growth of indirect tax revenues.

  9. The economic growth of oil countries; La croissance economique des pays petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbod, G

    2007-02-15

    The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

  10. Trade Openness and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration and Causality Analysis for the Newest EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Dritsakis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between trade openness and economic growth using data for the thirteen newest European Union members. The study covers the period of 1995–2013. We have applied panel cointegration and causality approaches to examine the long-run and the causal relationship between the variables. Empirical results confirm the presence of a cointegrating vector between trade openness and economic growth, in this group of the thirteen countries. An error correction model (ECM, followed by the two steps of Engle and Granger was used to capture the short and long-run dynamics. The impact of economic growth and trade openness is found to be positive. Finally, the panel Granger causality analysis reveals a unidirectional causal relationship running from trade openness to economic growth, both in the short and in the long-run

  11. Financial Development and Output Growth: A Panel Study for Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjoon Jun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between financial markets and output growth for a panel of 27 Asian countries over 1960-2009. It utilizes the recently-developed panel cointegration techniques to test and estimate the long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP and financial development proxies. Real GDP and financial development variables are found to have unit roots and to be cointegrated, based on various panel unit root tests and panel cointegration tests. We find that there is a statistically significant positive bi-directional cointegrating relationship between financial development and output growth by three distinct methods of panel cointegration estimation. Empirical findings suggest that financial market development promotes output growth and in turn output growth stimulates further financial development.

  12. Do Oil-Producing Countries Have Normal Oil Overconsumption? An Investigation of Economic Growth and Energy Subsidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mirnezami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The data shows that oil-producing countries have low oil retail prices and low economic growth compared with other countries. Considering that oil-producing countries experience high oil consumption and low economic growth, it is possible to argue that economic growth is not an appropriate justification for oil consumption and that the main cause for high oil consumption is the low retail price. In addition, it should be noted that the global environmental movement against increasing greenhouse gas emissions—for example, the Kyoto 1998 agreement—seems to have had no effect on oil consumption in oil-producing countries.

  13. Sources of growth: Evidence from ten central and Eastern European countries during 1993-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Silaghi Monica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out a growth accounting exercise for the 10 Central and Eastern European (CEE countries that are part of the European Union over the period 1993-2008. We estimate the capital share (α from a Cobb-Douglas production function in an intensive form, by employing panel data techniques. The Hausman and Chi-Square tests indicate that a Cross- Section Random Effects with Period Fixed Effects model best suits our data. Based on this model, we find a capital share between 0.45 and 0.83, higher than the usual 0.3-0.4 used in growth accounting literature. When we take into consideration the quality of labour force the estimated capital share slightly decreases, but still remains high, in a range between 0.39 and 0.79. Our growth accounting results reveal that, on average, capital per worker accumulation is the main engine of growth in CEE, followed by the contribution of total factor productivity (TFP. However, when dividing by sub-periods, we found that the contribution of TFP cannot be neglected since during 1997-2004 it proved to be the main engine of growth in some CEE countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania and Romania. Some policy implications are offered based on our results.

  14. The growth of public health expenditures in OECD countries: do government ideology and electoral motives matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrafke, Niklas

    2010-12-01

    This paper empirically evaluates whether government ideology and electoral motives influenced the growth of public health expenditures in 18 OECD countries over the 1971-2004 period. The results suggest that incumbents behaved opportunistically and increased the growth of public health expenditures in election years. Government ideology did not have an influence. These findings indicate (1) the importance of public health in policy debates before elections and (2) the political pressure towards re-organizing public health policy platforms especially in times of demographic change. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas, E-mail: napergis@unipi.g [Chair and Professor of Economics, Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus Karaoli and Dimitriou 80 Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E., E-mail: jepayne@ilstu.ed [College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    This study examines the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for a panel of twenty OECD countries over the period 1985-2005 within a multivariate framework. Given the relatively short span of the time series data, a panel cointegration and error correction model is employed to infer the causal relationship. The heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The Granger-causality results indicate bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run.

  16. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth. Evidence from a panel of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus Karaoli and Dimitriou, Piraeus (Greece); Payne, James E. [Interim Dean and Professor of Economics, College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    This study examines the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for a panel of twenty OECD countries over the period 1985-2005 within a multivariate framework. Given the relatively short span of the time series data, a panel cointegration and error correction model is employed to infer the causal relationship. The heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The Granger-causality results indicate bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run. (author)

  17. Natural gas consumption and economic growth: A panel investigation of 67 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E. [College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    This study examines the relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth for a panel of 67 countries within a multivariate framework over the period 1992-2005. Pedroni's heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, natural gas consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force. The results of the panel vector error correction model reveal bidirectional causality between natural gas consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run. (author)

  18. 77 FR 2558 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... eligibility of 38 of the countries listed in the 2010 notice, removed Indonesia from the list, as Indonesia... The Netherlands Nicaragua New Zealand Norway Papua New Guinea Peru Philippines Poland Romania...

  19. Decomposing productivity growth in OECD countries: domestic R&D vs. international technology diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Growiec; Lukasz Marc; Dorota Pelle

    2009-01-01

    This paper decomposes productivity growth across highly developed OECD countries in the period 1972-2000 into components attributable to domestic R&D output, a catchup effect, and international technology diffusion via imports of hi-tech products. Two alternative specifications of “productivity growth” are considered: (i) increments of the conventional residual measure of total factor productivity (computed under the assumption that the production function takes both physical and human capita...

  20. Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Nexus: Evidence from Developed Countries in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Okyay Uçan; Ebru Arýcýoðlu; Fatih Yücel

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth for a panel of fifteen European Union countries over the period 1990-2011 within a multivariate framework. The heterogeneous panel cointegration tests present a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and research and development. The Granger-causality results demonstrate unidirectional causality be...

  1. Resetting the Growth Engines of the BRICS Countries as a Reaction to the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Șincai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, our main objective is to bring to the forefront two notable processes, as a result of the world financial and economic crisis. On the one side, we underline the increasing role of the emerging countries (especially that of China, Brazil, Russia and India in the world economy and, on the other side, we underscore the remodelling of the patterns of economic growth and development in the case of the BRICS countries. The Russian Federation, Brazil and South Africa rapidly eased out of the recession in 2009, while China and India continued to record robust growth rates. Nevertheless, in 2012, one can remark the precipitate slowdown of the GDP growth in all the five analysed economies. This demonstrates that the emerging economies were not able to “decouple” from the world economy and, on the contrary, they were deeply affected by the adverse economic situation in the USA and the EU (especially the Euro Zone. At the same time, China’s economic slowdown negatively influences Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa, as China represents the largest trading partner for them, after the EU. At the same time, one should not ignore the actual weaknesses of these economies. For instance, inflation represents a “common vulnerability” of the BRICS. In this situation, the selection of the most viable instrument of monetary policy represents a veritable challenge for the authorities in these countries, as the economic growth should be stimulated but, at the same time, inflation has to be tempered. Besides, unemployment rate in South Africa is already at high levels. The fiscal deficit, as a percentage of GDP is excessive in India and South Africa and the public debt to GDP ratio is extremely high in India and Brazil. During the world financial and economic crisis, the authorities and companies, both public and private, concentrated their attention more and more on the internal markets, with a high absorption capacity. Without giving

  2. EFFECTS OF THE ECONOMIC FREEDOMS ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM THE EU AND COMCEC COUNTRIES (1996-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALİL İBRAHİM AYDIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of the economic freedoms on the economic growth for EU and COMCEC countries at different development/income level are econometrically analyzed via panel data analysis for the period of 1996- 2014 by being considered the improvement of economic growth theories for the key determinants of economic growth. From this aspect, it is aimed at this research that to evaluate the effects of the economic freedoms on the long termed economic growth performances and income level differences of EU and COMCEC countries which have different statuses in terms of economic freedoms and income level indicators. It is determined at the end of the study that the economic freedoms have a positive and statistically significant effect on the economic growth of EU countries in investigation period, on the other hand, these freedoms have not any effect on the economic growth of COMCEC countries. Moreover, the existence of a one-way causality relation operates from economic freedoms to the economic growth in EU countries is specified while there is any causality link found between these freedoms and the economic growth for the countries in COMCEC group. All these results indicate that also the economic freedoms besides the physical human capital accumulation, in other words, whether the EU and COMCEC countries have a market economy adopts outward-oriented liberal fiscal policies plays a major role in differentiating the income levels or the economic growth performances.

  3. Foreign grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program, a national research grants program, offers opportunities for support of research in Burma, Guinea, India, and Pakistan in astrophysics and earth sciences; anthropology, archeology, and related disciplines; systematic and environmental biology; and museum programs.Grants in the local currencies of the countries are awarded to U.S. institutions for research by senior scientists; collaborative programs involving host country institutions are welcome. Awards are determined on the basis of competitive scholarly review.

  4. The Growth of English for Academic Communication in the Nordic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2001-07-01

    This article discusses the danger of subtractive English in higher education in Norway. If the use of a mother tongue as the medium of communication at the highest academic levels ceases, is drastically reduced and replaced through the use of a foreign tongue, we may speak of subtractive learning. If the mother tongue is being replaced by a foreign tongue in academic writing, in research and university level teaching, the mother tongue will stagnate. The vocabulary needed has not been allowed to develop at the highest academic level. The author maintains that the Norwegian language is threatened as an academic language and here discusses the following five phenomena, all contributing to this threat: 1. The increasing use of English words in Norwegian academic, bureaucratic or technological language. 2. The sale of more academic literature in English and stagnation of academic literature in Norwegian. 3. The recruitment of teaching staff who do not speak Norwegian. 4. The growth in Master degree courses taught in English. 5. The financial rewards being given to academic staff publishing in an international language (read: English) instead of in the mother tongue.

  5. The Link between National Foreign Policy and the Performance of a Country in the European Union: The Polish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kaminska

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the link between the adaptation of national executives and diplomats to the EU and the capacity of a state to influence EU foreign policy outcomes. It argues that, in the case of Poland, the politicization of the domestic administrative structures before 2004 constrained the ability of the state to impact on the EU’s external agenda after the enlargement. It also claims that a rapid adaptation to the EU occurred only after the Polish accession to the EU, as the will to influence the EU’s policy towards Eastern Europe was a main driver for changes in the national diplomacy.

  6. REMITTANCES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin KARAMELIKLI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Savings are one of the important determinants beyond the theories of economic growth. Therefore remittances and foreign direct investment inflows have importance for the countries having insufficient savings. This study examines the relationship between economic growth, remittances, foreign direct investment inflows and gross domestic savings in Turkey during the period 1974-2013 by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach. We found that remittances, foreign direct investment and gross domestic savings had positive impact on economic growth.

  7. Interrelationship between growth and development in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Nguyen, Phuong

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood growth failure is a significant public health problem in developing countries. We examine relationships between low birthweight and stunting with child development. Compared to children born with normal birthweight, low birth-weight children have substantially poorer cognitive and schooling outcomes later in life. Linear growth failure leading to stunting mostly occurs before age 2 years, with stunting in older children reflecting growth failure in early life. Many studies show that stunting is associated with poor mental and motor development in infants and with low scores in cognitive tests, increased frequency of behavioral problems and poor school achievement in older children. Very few studies have assessed the relative importance for development of prenatal vs. postnatal growth failure and even fewer have done so using appropriate statistical techniques. The limited evidence to date suggests growth during the first 2 years of life is more important than growth at any other time, including the prenatal period, for predicting later cognitive development, schooling and educational achievement. In conclusion, children in settings of poverty who experience growth failure prior to age 2 years have reduced potential to succeed in school and to be productive members of society. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Public debt and growth: evidence from Central, Eastern and Southeastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Čeh Časni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to quantify the long run and short run relationship between debt and economic activity in Central, Eastern and Southeastern European countries. In order to investigate the impact of public debt on economic growth, the paper uses pooled mean group estimator (PMG for the period between 2000 and 2011. A battery of panel unit root as well as panel cointegration tests is used prior to performing the dynamic panel analysis based on PMG estimator. According to the empirical results, in the long-run debt significantly influences the GDP growth having a negative sign as expected and pointing out that government gross debt lowers the GDP growth. In the short run, debt has statistically significant negative influence on the GDP growth as well, controlling for other determinants of growth (trade openness, total investment and industry value added. Designing policy frameworks that encourage export, promote industrial development and create better environment for long-term investment should foster sustainable growth. Therefore, we find that a credible fiscal consolidation strategy is needed combined with policies to promote lasting growth in order to reach debt-stabilizing levels.

  9. 《孙子兵法》域外千年传播概说%Overview of Millennial Spread of The Art of War in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏桂亮

    2014-01-01

    《孙子兵法》在域外传播已逾千年,其影响越来越大,并形成世界性孙子研究热潮。迄今《孙子兵法》已有40余种文字译本问世,发行遍及全球各地。《孙子兵法》走向世界,大致经历了东传萌芽时期(2世纪?—1771年)、西渐兴盛时期(1772—1980年)和全球繁荣时期(1981年至今)三个发展阶段。研究《孙子兵法》域外传播历史,对提升中华文化的国际影响力具有重要意义。%The spread of The Art of War in foreign countries has more than one thousand years ,which has a more increasing influence and formed a research trend of Sun Tzu in the world .Up to now ,there are over 40 kinds of translation versions of The A rt of War and is published all over the world .The spread of The A rt of War in for‐eign countries has experienced three development stages .The historic research of the spread of The Art of War in foreign countries is of great importance for promoting the international influence of Chinese culture .

  10. Foreign homosexual marriages and their adaptability in our country%国外同性婚姻在我国的法律适用问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙湘元

    2012-01-01

      法律界和医学界对待同性恋的立场经历了宽容、视为罪孽、视为病态、视为正常的历史演变。世界上已经有越来越多的国家和地区立法认可同性恋和同性婚姻。目前我国不承认同性婚姻,法院在审理国外同性婚姻所涉及的案件时对其均以公共秩序保留予以排除。实践证明,完全否认国外同性婚姻的域外效力会导致诸多不良后果,特别是依附该关系而成立的其他民事权益将无法保护。国外同性婚姻在我国的法律适用方面的立法尚属空白,我国应该借鉴国外经验并加快立法构建。%  In the homosexual history, people’s attitude towards the gay has switched from the tolerance to sin, from sin to sick, sick to normal. Legislation on homosexuality and gay marriage also has become a trend in the world today. In one country the same-sex marriage legislation problems can be ignored forever, but the problem of validity of the foreign same-sex marriage cannot be avoided. At present the foreign same-sex marriage cannot be recognized in China, for the reason of reservation of public order. The legal practice has proved that denying the effectiveness of foreign gay marriage will lead to many bad legal consequences. Other civil relationship attached to the homosexual marriage will not be protected. The legislation on foreign gay marriages and their adaptability in China is still a blank. We should draw lessons from other countries and accelerate the legislation construction.

  11. The Effect of Exchange Rate and Inflation on Foreign Direct Investment and Its Relationship with Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ehimare OMANKHANLEN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is on the effect of exchange rate and inflation on foreign direct investment and its relationship with economic growth. Its main objective is to find the effect of inflation and exchange rate and the bidirectional influences between FDI and economic growth in Nigeria. A thirty year period was studied. A linear regression analysis was used on the thirty year data to determine the relationship between inflation, exchange rate, FDI inflows and economic growth. The study reveals that FDI follow economic growth occasioned by trade openness which saw the entry of some major companies especially the telecommunication companies, while Inflation has no effect on FDI. However exchange rate has effect on FDI.

  12. Effects of Currency Unions on Foreign Direct Investment Inflows: The European Economic and Monetary Union Case

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cuneyt Kilic; Yilmaz Bayar; Feyza Arica

    2014-01-01

    .... We found that real GDP, GDP growth rate and exchange rates of 16 Group20 countries affect inflows of real foreign direct investment positively while exchange rate volatility, inflation volatility...

  13. Foreign Direct Investment in the Visegrad Countries after 2004: Have the Visegrad Countries’ Membership in the European Union Changed Something?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek KLICH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to identify the volume and dynamics of FDI in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia (V4 after their full accession to the European Union. The following hypothesis is tested: the Visegrad countries’ membership in the European Union has not resulted in higher increases of FDI in these countries. The methodology is based on the concept of Investment Development Path (IDP and Net Outward Investment position (NOI of a country. The most current data (as of 2012 on FDI is derived from UNCTAD. The literature available in ScienceDirect and EBSCO has been reviewed.

  14. The Impact of Social Factors on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence for Romania and European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the social factors and the economic growth. A summary of social and economic environment is presented for Romania. As such, the paper analyzes the global evolution of social and economic environment over time and establishes a direct correlation between human development and economic welfare. An econometric model and a clustering model are tested for European Union countries. The results of the paper reveal the social factors that are positively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the expected years of schooling and the life expectancy and, respectively, the factors that are negatively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the population at risk of poverty and the unemployment rate.

  15. The relationship between energy and economic growth: Empirical evidence from 66 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Susan Sunila [School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Law, 70 Elgar Road, Burwood, 3125 Victoria, Melbourne (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, we use dynamic panel data models to examine the impact of electricity and non-electricity variables on economic growth for a global panel consisting of 66 countries. The time component of our dataset is 1986-2005 inclusive. We also estimate this relationship for four regional panels; namely, East/South Asian and the Pacific region, Europe and Central Asian region, Latin America and Caribbean region, and Sub-Saharan, North Africa and Middle Eastern region. In total, we use six proxies for energy. The empirical analysis is based on a sound theoretical framework, in that we draw on growth theory and augment the classical growth model, which consists of inflation, capital stock, labour force and trade, with energy. Generally, the results on the impact of energy are mixed. (author)

  16. Banks and economic growth in developing countries: What about Islamic banks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida Daly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banks (IBs have a significant role in the growth of gross domestic product of the developing countries. The Islamic participatory schemes integrate the assets of lenders and borrowers. They allow enable IBs to lend on a longer term basis to create projects with higher risk-return profiles and, thus, to support economic growth. Our investigation examines the contribution of Islamic finance in economic growth. Using a panel data-set, we compare between IBs and conventional banks in their adding to economic growth. We studied a sample of 120 banks between 2005 and 2012. By means of three ordinary least-square regressions, our empirical investigation reveals that the development of non-usurious banks supports economic growth. Moreover, the cooperation between the two financing modes improves economic growth. The integration of this new funding never neglected the role of the conventional method of financing. The practice of IBs is also away from their theoretical mode in terms of participation results.

  17. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy...

  18. 78 FR 4154 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... the H-2A and H-2B Nonimmigrant Worker Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DHS. ACTION: Notice... Services (USCIS) may approve petitions for H-2A and H-2B nonimmigrant status only for nationals of... identifying 59 countries whose nationals are eligible to participate in the H-2A and H-2B programs for...

  19. 75 FR 2879 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... the H-2A and H-2B Visa Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Under... approve petitions for H-2A and H-2B nonimmigrant status for nationals of countries that the Secretary of... nationals are eligible to participate in the H-2A and H-2B programs for the coming year. DATES: Effective...

  20. Foreign direct investment in the Polish economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gutowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI plays an extraordinary and increasingly important role in global and local business. This type of investment gives the country a better position to prepare for rapidly changing economic conditions. Considering the external effects of FDI, it should be assumed that the most important one is coinvolvement in the development of a country in which they are located. In the Polish economy the value of foreign direct investment is very high and it is one of the most important causes of the economic growth.

  1. Growth of language-related brain areas after foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, Johan; Eriksson, Johan; Bodammer, Nils Christian; Lindgren, Magnus; Johansson, Mikael; Nyberg, Lars; Lövdén, Martin

    2012-10-15

    The influence of adult foreign-language acquisition on human brain organization is poorly understood. We studied cortical thickness and hippocampal volumes of conscript interpreters before and after three months of intense language studies. Results revealed increases in hippocampus volume and in cortical thickness of the left middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus for interpreters relative to controls. The right hippocampus and the left superior temporal gyrus were structurally more malleable in interpreters acquiring higher proficiency in the foreign language. Interpreters struggling relatively more to master the language displayed larger gray matter increases in the middle frontal gyrus. These findings confirm structural changes in brain regions known to serve language functions during foreign-language acquisition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. How do output growth-rate distributions look like? Some cross-country, time-series evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiolo, G.; Napoletano, M.; Roventini, A.

    2007-05-01

    This paper investigates the statistical properties of within-country gross domestic product (GDP) and industrial production (IP) growth-rate distributions. Many empirical contributions have recently pointed out that cross-section growth rates of firms, industries and countries all follow Laplace distributions. In this work, we test whether also within-country, time-series GDP and IP growth rates can be approximated by tent-shaped distributions. We fit output growth rates with the exponential-power (Subbotin) family of densities, which includes as particular cases both Gaussian and Laplace distributions. We find that, for a large number of OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries including the US, both GDP and IP growth rates are Laplace distributed. Moreover, we show that fat-tailed distributions robustly emerge even after controlling for outliers, autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity.

  3. 中外极限运动研究的对比分析%Comparative Analysis of Researches of Extreme Sport between China and Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周细琴

    2012-01-01

    The paper combs the current researches of Chinese and foreign extreme sports and compares the conception,assortment,connotation,essential attribution,motivation,participants' personality characteristics,the stratum attribution,transmission,commercialization and environmental protection of the extreme sport.The paper indicates that there is a gap in both breath and depth of extreme sports researches of Chinese and foreign countries.%对中外极限运动的研究状况进行了梳理,特别是对极限运动的概念、分类、内涵、本质属性、参与动机、参与者的个性特征、极限运动的阶层属性、传播、商业化、环境保护等方面进行了对比分析。在此基础上,认为我国极限运动研究在广度和深度方面与国外研究存在较大的差距。

  4. Why Foreign Direct Investment- Albanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlira Luçi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among other financial inflows, foreign direct investment makes a major stimulus to economic growth in many developing countries. The ability to deal with two major obstacles, namely, the shortages of financial resources and the lack of technology and skills, has put foreign direct investments in the centre of attention for policy-makers, particularly in developing countries. Albania is committed to maintaining an open environment for investments. This is vital for a long-term and sustainable economic growth. As a lowsavings developing economy, with high domestic investment requirements, Albania needs to attract foreign direct investment in order to support domestic investment financing requirements. However, Albania has not been successful in obtaining substantial and consistent FDI inflows. Furthermore, the meagre inflows that the country has received have not been utilized appropriately to enhance the economic performance. The type of FDI and its structural composition matter as much for economic growth. This paper reviews the recent evidence on the scale of FDI to Albania. The paper reviews also some of the main areas of the existing policy framework for inward FDI in Albania among the major factors determining foreign companies' decisions to invest in Albania. We discuss these issues and try to make the case for a more coherent, harmonized and transparent framework to cover all foreign direct investment into Albania. The regulation of inward investment is one of several policy and institutional variables likely to influence the volume of FDI.

  5. CONSIDERATIONS ON TRANSACTIONS OF FOREIGN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliu-Popa Lucia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the complex connection process of national economies to global economy flows, an important role has the foreign trade, which in recent decades has become, in the market economy conditions, one of the factors determining for economic growth. Foreign trade, as a separate branch of the national economy is an important factor of economic growth, caused by the internationalization of business and determining for the process of globalization. For Romania, a country still in transition and recent member of the European Union is particularly important to enhance the participation to international trade in goods and services, but also attracting foreign investments in the economy as the main possibilities for the re-industry and restructuring the national economy in order to creation and maintenance of sustainable competitive advantages. Starting from these considerations, in this article I addressed/aproached the theoretical aspects of foreign trade, without omitting intracomunity purchases and deliveries of goods.

  6. Foreign correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, John Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of foreign news, its history, transformation and indeed its future have not been much studied. The scholarly community often calls attention to journalism's shortcomings covering the world, yet the topic has not been systematically examined across countries or over time. The need to redress this neglect and the desire to assess the impact of new media technologies on the future of journalism - including foreign correspondence - provide the motivation for this stimulating, exciting and thought-provoking book. While the old economic models supporting news have crumbled in

  7. Interrelationships among Growth, Confidence and Governance in the Globalized World-An experiment of some selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Das

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The countries in the world in the globalized era have faced heterogeneity in challenges in managing their growth factors as well as the stake holders of such growth profiles. The political and economic turmoil of the last two decades around the world have opened the eyes of the consumers, business houses and the governments of different countries to read and follow the economic events. The paper has tried to study the causal relation and interrelationships among different growth factors like the confidence levels of the consumers and business houses, inflation, unemployment like economic factors and governance like non-economic factors over a selection of 17 countries across all continents for the period 1996-2010. Because of limited sources of data we have applied the pooled regression technique to justify our study. Confidence levels of both the consumers and business houses cause the growth rates whereas governance causes growth only under pooled data. But for individual country data we observe that in majority of the countries there are absences of causalities between the variables. It has been observed that pooled annual growth rates of GDP of the countries are significantly related to the business and consumer confidence indexes, unemployment rate, debt ratio and overall governance indicators that shows improvement over the individual country analysis where in majority of the cases there is no significant factor for growth and confidence. By segregating the entire data the study find a few countries where a few variables like BCI, stock prices and governance make significant impact upon growth rates. In majority of the countries BCI is explained by CCI, Stock prices and governance while CCI is explained by stock prices, governance and debt ratio.

  8. The population growth and distribution of the foreign-borns in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yakar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of the 20th century the migrations into Turkey from abroad in conjunction with the process of becoming a nation-state have changed correspondingly to the political and economic conditions which have changed on a global scale towards the end of this century. The migration of people of Turkish descent at the beginning of the century has turned into foreign migration towards the end of the century. The aim of this study was to analyze the development and distribution of the overseas borne population from a spatial aspect in order to describe the migration process from abroad into Turkey and its dimensions. Although the overseas borne population has displayed an uneven development depending on the waves of migration from the Balkans a rapid increased trend has taken place after 1980 contributed with the impact of the foreign nationals. It has been determined that the overseas borne population is mainly concentrated in the western part of Turkey and particularly on the coast as well as metropolitan municipalities. Nevertheless the areas of concentration for overseas borne Turkish population and foreign nationals display differences. While the migrant Turkish population from the Balkans has settled/been settled in certain areas since the 19th century to date, the foreign nationals have gathered in the tourism centers on the western coast of Turkey.

  9. 非洲国家对外贸易增长缓慢的主要原因%The Main Reasons for the Slow Growth of African Countries' Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖

    2012-01-01

    非洲国家对外贸易在全球贸易中的地位下降,表现为非洲国家对外贸易增长速度低于世界贸易的增长速度,非洲国家之间的贸易发展缓慢。除了通常所知道的阻碍非洲经济发展的不利因素之外,本文认为,导致非洲国家对外贸易发展缓慢的主要原因是:区域经济一体化的贸易效应不显著;贸易自由化的政策对贸易促进作用不明显;制造业水平偏低对贸易的制约作用。了解非洲国家的对外贸易有助于中国发展与非洲国家的经贸关系。%The status of African countries' foreign trade has declined in glob- al trade. It is indicated that African countries' foreign trade growth rate is lower than that of world trade and the trade among African countries develops slowly. In addition to the commonly recognized unfavorable factors that hinder the eco- nomic development in Africa, this study believes that the main reasons for the slow growth of African countries' foreign trade are as following: The trade ef- fect of regional economic integration is not significant. The trade liberalization cannot promote trade effectively. The low level of manufacturing industry re- stricts the trade. Understanding the African countries' foreign trade helps China to develop economic and trade relations with African countries.

  10. The Effects of Institutional Structure on Economic Growth: An Application on G-20 Countries (1996-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Yalçınkaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In parallel to the evolution of the economic growth theories regarding the main indicators of long term economic growth, this article econometrically analyses the long term effects of the institutional structure on the economic growth of G-20 countries with different development levels for the period of 1996-2014. In order to examine the impact of the institutional structure on economic growth more coherently and to compare the results, G-20 countries are included in the analysis under two sub-groups respectively as economically developed G-9 countries and developing G-10 countries. Thus the article aims to evaluate the impact of the institutional structure on the differentiation of the long term economic growth performances and economic development levels of the countries under the groups G-9 and G-10. The article concludes that, effects of the institutional structure indicators on the economic growth have been positive and significant in statistical terms in the sub-group G-9, while they have been usually negative and significant in sub-group G-10 during the period analysed. Nonetheless, the article indicates that, along with the physical and human capital accumulation, possession of different institutional structures are more effective in differentiation of the long term economic growth performances and development levels of the countries in the groups of G-9 and G-10 during the sample period.

  11. Remittances, Financial Development and Economic Growth: The Case of North African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouheir Abida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the causal linkage between remittances, financial development, and economic growth in a panel of 4 countries of North Africa (Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria and Egypt over the period 1980-2011. Using system Generalized Method of Moment (GMM panel data analysis, we find strong evidence of a positive relationship between remittances and economic growth. We also find evidence that remittances appear to be working as a complement to financial development and, moreover, that the effect of remittances is more pronounced in the presence of the financial development variable. The policy implications of this study appeared clear. Improvement efforts need to be driven by local-level reforms to ensure the development of domestic financial system in order to take advantage of remittances.

  12. Coal consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas, E-mail: napergis@unipi.g [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E., E-mail: jepayne@ilstu.ed [College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Campus Box 4100, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    This study examines the relationship between coal consumption and economic growth for 25 OECD countries within a multivariate panel framework over period 1980-2005. The panel cointegration test indicates there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, coal consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force. The respective coefficients for real gross fixed capital formation and the labor force are positive and statistically significant whereas the coefficient for coal consumption is negative and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model reveal bidirectional causality between coal consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run; however, the bidirectional causality in the short-run is negative.

  13. Coal consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Apergis; James E. Payne [University of Piraeus, Piraeus (Greece). Department of Banking and Financial Management

    2010-03-15

    This study examines the relationship between coal consumption and economic growth for 25 OECD countries within a multivariate panel framework over period 1980-2005. The Larsson et al. (2001) panel cointegration test indicates there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, coal consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force. The respective coefficients for real gross fixed capital formation and the labor force are positive and statistically significant whereas the coefficient for coal consumption is negative and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model reveal bidirectional causality between coal consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run; however, the bidirectional causality in the short-run is negative. 31 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Coal consumption and economic growth. Evidence from a panel of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E. [College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Campus Box 4100, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    This study examines the relationship between coal consumption and economic growth for 25 OECD countries within a multivariate panel framework over period 1980-2005. The panel cointegration test indicates there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, coal consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force. The respective coefficients for real gross fixed capital formation and the labor force are positive and statistically significant whereas the coefficient for coal consumption is negative and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model reveal bidirectional causality between coal consumption and economic growth in both the short- and long-run; however, the bidirectional causality in the short-run is negative. (author)

  15. Financial Development, Trade Openness and Economic Growth in North African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed Zghidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution investigates the causal interactions between financial development, trade openness and economic growth in a panel of 3 countries of North Africa (Tunisia, Morocco, and Egypt over the period 1980-2012. Using system Generalized Method of Moment (GMM panel data analysis, we find strong evidence of a positive link between trade openness and economic growth. We also find evidence that trade openness appear to be working as a complement to financial development and, moreover, that the effect of trade openness is more pronounced in the presence of the financial development variable. The policy implications of this study appeared clear. Improvement efforts need to be driven by local-level reforms to ensure the development of domestic financial system in order to take advantage of trade liberalization.

  16. Productivity in physical and chemical science predicts the future economic growth of developing countries better than other popular indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus; Caicedo, Mario; Manzanares, Marcos; Gil, Mario; Rios, Alfredo; Florez, Astrid; Montoreano, Claudia; Davila, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Scientific productivity of middle income countries correlates stronger with present and future wealth than indices reflecting its financial, social, economic or technological sophistication. We identify the contribution of the relative productivity of different scientific disciplines in predicting the future economic growth of a nation. Results show that rich and poor countries differ in the relative proportion of their scientific output in the different disciplines: countries with higher relative productivity in basic sciences such as physics and chemistry had the highest economic growth in the following five years compared to countries with a higher relative productivity in applied sciences such as medicine and pharmacy. Results suggest that the economies of middle income countries that focus their academic efforts in selected areas of applied knowledge grow slower than countries which invest in general basic sciences.

  17. The effects of HIV/AIDS on economic growth and human capitals: a panel study evidence from Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shongkour

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) affects economic growths by reducing the human capitals are among the most poorly understood aspect of the AIDS epidemic. This article analyzes the effects of the prevalence of HIV and full-blown AIDS on a country's human capitals and economic growths. Using a fixed effect model for panel data 1990-2010 from the Asia, I explored the dynamic relationships among HIV/AIDS, economic growths, and human capitals within countries over time. The econometric effects concerned that HIV/AIDS plays an important role in the field of economic growths and it is measured as a change in real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and human capitals. The modeling results for the Asian countries indicates HIV/AIDS prevalence that has a hurtful effect on GDP per capita by reducing human capitals within countries over time.

  18. On the cointegration and causality between oil market, nuclear energy consumption, and economic growth: evidence from developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naser, Hanan [Arab Open University, Faculty of Business Studies, A' ali (Bahrain)

    2017-06-15

    This study uses Johansen cointegration technique to examine both the equilibrium relationship and the causality between oil consumption, nuclear energy consumption, oil price and economic growth. To do so, four industrialized countries including the USA, Canada, Japan, and France are investigated over the period from 1965 to 2010. The cointegration test results suggest that the proposed variables tend to move together in the long run in all countries. In addition, the causal linkage between the variables is scrutinized through the exogeneity test. The results point that energy consumption (i.e., oil or nuclear) has either a predictive power for economic growth, or feedback impact with real GDP growth in all countries. Results suggest that oil consumption is not only a major factor of economic growth in all the investigated countries, it also has a predictive power for real GDP in the USA, Japan, and France. Precisely, increasing oil consumption by 1% increases the economic growth in Canada by 3.1%., where increasing nuclear energy consumption by 1% in Japan and France increases economic growth by 0.108 and 0.262%, respectively. Regarding nuclear energy consumption-growth nexus, results illustrate that nuclear energy consumption has a predictive power for real economic growth in the USA, Canada, and France. On the basis of speed of adjustment, it is concluded that there is bidirectional causality between oil consumption and economic growth in Canada. On the other hand, there is bidirectional causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP growth in Japan. (orig.)

  19. Is foreign direct investment good for health in low and middle income countries? An instrumental variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Darren K; Jones, Andrew P; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc

    2017-03-28

    There is a scarcity of quantitative research into the effect of FDI on population health in low and middle income countries (LMICs). This paper investigates the relationship using annual panel data from 85 LMICs between 1974 and 2012. When controlling for time trends, country fixed effects, correlation between repeated observations, relevant covariates, and endogeneity via a novel instrumental variable approach, we find FDI to have a beneficial effect on overall health, proxied by life expectancy. When investigating age-specific mortality rates, we find a stronger beneficial effect of FDI on adult mortality, yet no association with either infant or child mortality. Notably, FDI effects on health remain undetected in all models which do not control for endogeneity. Exploring the effect of sector-specific FDI on health in LMICs, we provide preliminary evidence of a weak inverse association between secondary (i.e. manufacturing) sector FDI and overall life expectancy. Our results thus suggest that FDI has provided an overall benefit to population health in LMICs, particularly in adults, yet investments into the secondary sector could be harmful to health.

  20. The Nexus between Military Spending and Economic Growth in Newly Industrialized Countries: Panel Evidence from CrossSectional Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Akif DESTEK

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the long term relationship between military spending and economic growth in newly industrialized countries is analyzed with panel data methods for the years of 1988-2013. The study, where panel unit root, panel co-integration, panel co-integration estimator and panel causality tests that allow cross-sectional dependence are used, shows that the feedback hypothesis is valid in newly industrialized countries. And when these countries are analyzed separately, it is ...

  1. Taxation of Corporations and Their Impact on Economic Growth: The Case of EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranová Veronika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most debated questions in economy is the relationship between tax rates and economic growth. Especially taxation of corporations has great importance because a corporate tax base is quite a mobile factor of production and simultaneously the tax competition is currently still tougher due to required economic development particularly in the context of the economic crisis. Based on the available literature, we can deductively derive and suppose an inverse relationship between tax burden and economic growth; on the other side, the degree of correlation is not so obvious. The aim of this article is to verify the expected negative relationship between corporate taxation and long-term economic growth in the sample countries. This analysis is based on the neoclassical growth model extended with human capital. Furthermore, the model associated with the variable reflecting the different possibilities to measure the tax burden on corporations, especially tax quota separated on income taxation of corporations, the implicit tax rate on capital and effective tax rates secured by micro-forward looking methods. The default is a panel regression methodology and related methods of data analysis. The sample consists of EU member states. The reference periods are the annual frequencies in the time frame 1998 - 2010.

  2. Effect of Ease of Doing Business to Economic Growth among Selected Countries in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorica G. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic activity requires a streamlined regulatory environment and effectual policies that are transparent and accessible to all. The study aimed to explain the effect of ease of doing business to economic growth among selected economies in Asia for the year 2014. The study covered 29 economies in East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Ease of doing business is determined by the ten Doing Business indicators (DBI of the World Bank. In the study, Gross Domestic Product (GDP was used as the proxy variable for economic growth. Descriptive research was the research design used. Multiple regression determined the effect of doing business to economic growth. Compared to other economies, Singapore has the best regulatory performance. It achieved the easiest to do business to five indicators, namely, Starting Business, Registering Property, Protecting Investors, Trading Across Borders, and Enforcing Contracts. In addition, China showed the highest economic growth. The study found out that the variations in ease of doing business was explained by dealing with construction permits, getting credit, registering property and trading across borders. Dealing with construction permits and getting credit have negative effect to Gross Domestic Product while registering property and trading across borders have positive effect. Trading across borders greatly affect gross domestic product among selected countries in Asia. The research proposed inputs to policy which may increase the awareness of local government units of different economies on the simplification of the policies of the different components used in measuring doing business.

  3. Public health information searching behaviors in foreign countries:A review%国外公众健康信息查询行为研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小利; 刘海通; 张士靖

    2014-01-01

    The concept,theory model and practical studies of public health information searching behaviors in foreign countries were summarized in order to provide the international experiences that should be learned by domestic scholars and the evidence for domestic health education institutions to work out health education-related policies, and open up a novel approach for improving the public health management ability in our country.%梳理归纳了国外公众健康信息查询行为的概念、理论模型与实践研究,以期为我国学者提供可借鉴的国际经验,为国内健康教育机构制定相关政策,对公开开展健康教育提供重要的参考和依据,为提高我国公众自我健康管理能力开辟一条新路径。

  4. Structural Change, Economic Growth and Poverty in OIC countries: the case of Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria and Turkey.

    OpenAIRE

    Naiya, Ismaeel Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper uses available data to compare and analyzes the relationships between structural change and economic growth in four OIC member countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria and Turkey). The paper uses descriptive statistics to analyze and compare structural transformation in the study countries. It finds that Malaysia, Indonesia and Turkey succeeded achieving sustained economic growth and development because they were able to effectively transform their productive activities from low to ...

  5. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period…

  6. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in BRIC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pao, Hsiao-Tien; Tsai, Chung-Ming [Department of Management Science, National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2010-12-15

    This paper examines dynamic causal relationships between pollutant emissions, energy consumption and output for a panel of BRIC countries over the period 1971-2005, except for Russia (1990-2005). In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions, while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis with the threshold income of 5.393 (in logarithms). In the short term, changes in emissions are driven mostly by the error correction term and short term energy consumption shocks, as opposed to short term output shocks for each country. Short-term deviations from the long term equilibrium take from 0.770 years (Russia) to 5.848 years (Brazil) to correct. The panel causality results indicate there are energy consumption-emissions bidirectional strong causality and energy consumption-output bidirectional long-run causality, along with unidirectional both strong and short-run causalities from emissions and energy consumption, respectively, to output. Overall, in order to reduce emissions and not to adversely affect economic growth, increasing both energy supply investment and energy efficiency, and stepping up energy conservation policies to reduce unnecessary wastage of energy can be initiated for energy-dependent BRIC countries. (author)

  7. Air Pollution and Economic Growth in MENA Countries: Testing EKC Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Al-Rawashdeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC hypothesis is one of the models describing the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between economic growth and the two environmental indicators (SO2 emissions, SO2 emissions in 22 Middle East and North Africa (MENA countries. Based on a country level analysis and by using time series data, the study revealed that there is an evidence for SO2 - EKC for Algeria, Tunisia, Yemen, Morocco, Turkey and Libya. Our findings for CO2 emissions also support an inverted U-shape pattern associated with the EKC hypothesis for Tunisia, Morocco, Turkey and Jordan. The results also showed that MENA region as a whole did not show EKC for SO2 emissions and CO2 emissions. Stricter policy measures and higher demands for the adoption of best environmental practices are required in order to generate an inverted U shaped curve relationship between GDP per capita and environmental degradation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.70.4.7743

  8. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in nine OECD countries: bounds test approach and causality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries-United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  9. "O Brasil em 1889": um país para consumo externo "Brazil in 1889": a country for foreign consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Nunes Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 1889, patrocinada pelo governo do Império e organizada por Francisco J. de Santa-Anna Nery para a Exposição Universal de Paris, era publicada a obra Le Brésil en 1889. O livro tinha como objetivo exaltar o Império do Brasil, fazendo um balanço dos "progressos" vividos pela monarquia nas últimas décadas - dentre os quais se destacava a abolição da escravidão. Entre seus autores estão alguns nomes importantes da elite política e intelectual brasileira desse período, como Rio Branco, André Rebouças e Eduardo Prado. Nosso objetivo é analisar os textos dos autores da coletânea sob a dupla perspectiva da modernização econômico-social e da questão da formação do povo brasileiro. Trata-se de verificar como esses temas foram tratados numa obra desenvolvida para "consumo externo". Enfim, que imagem de Brasil se projetava - oficialmente - em 1889, finda a escravidão e às vésperas da República.Le Brésil en 1889 is a publication organized by Francisco J. de Santa-Anna Nery, and sponsored by the Brazilian imperial government, for the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889. Its main purpose was to highlight the recent achievements of the Brazilian Monarchy, especially the abolition of slavery, for a foreign audience. Among its contributors were some of the most important intellectuals and politicians from that time, such as Rio Branco, André Rebouças and Eduardo Prado. This article goal is to analyze their essays, particularly how they have portrayed the issues of socialeconomic modernization and the formation of Brazilian people. We are interested in the kind of image that Brazil was - officially - trying to project in 1889, after the abolition and just before the proclamation of the Republic.

  10. RISK AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Drob

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to present the main categories (types of risks that affect the inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI in Romania, such as: country risk, political risk, economic risks, sovereign risks and so on. FDI is an important factor contributing to the economic development and to the economic growth of a country. In order to recuperate its economic handicap as compared to the other countries in the EU, Romania needs a massive inflow of foreign capital, especially in the form of direct investment. The paper also presents the evolution of FDI inflows in Romania and how they were influenced by the main factors affecting the FDI. In principle, between risk and the level of FDI inflows there is a direct dependency relationship: the higher the risk is in a country, the lower the level of FDI inflows is in that country. This is demonstrated by the empirical studies regarding FDI. These studies show that countries with high risk have major difficulties in attracting foreign investment. Therefore, it is important to identify very precisely the main risks that may affect the level of FDI inflows in Romania, in order to propose and implement strategies to mitigate these risks and to attract more foreign direct investment in Romania.

  11. Economic growth in Kosovo and in other countries in terms of globalization of world economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumnije Thaçi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis causes, as among the greatest crises and consequences, reflected the world in continuously increase of unemployment, poverty and inequality. This crisis was reflected in both developed and developing countries including countries in transition. The fact cannot be denied that the effects of financial crisis are even felt in the Republic of Kosovo where during this period of time following consequences could be clearly noted: decrease of the real economy, poverty, reduction in remittances, decrease of external investments, contracting criteria for bank loans and other direct and indirect effects. However, the global economy did continue to recover during 2010 and 2011. Nevertheless, uncertainty regarding to the volatility of global economic recovery in this period is greater than in the previous period. This setting is mainly extracted from instability of financial market due to problems with public finances in several EU member States and entry of protective measures by some rapidly growing economies and developing countries, in response to large capital inflows. It is important to consider the fact that, despite the recent crisis, economic growth model, based on the deepening of EU integration process, in terms of finance, trade, labour markets and institutions, remains as best model for developing countries and Kosovo itself. Special treatment is given to achieved achievements and projections for the following years under policies compiled by the Government of the Republic of Kosovo to enable generic analysis for concrete situation of our national economy. Also, this paper shall explain the underlying factors which will influence on a more accelerated economic development.

  12. Opportunities and Threats from Ukrainian Membership in WTO in Foreign Trade for Meat and Milk Products with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of Ukrainian membership in World Trade Organisation (WTO in foreign trade of meat and milk products with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that meat and milk products are one of the main export agricultural commodities of the country. It analyses the structure of export of agro-industrial products from Ukraine. It studies situation and changes that took place in the market of meat and meat processing products in Ukraine after its membership in WTO. It shows that Ukrainian export of meat products mainly consists of products with low added value, while products with high added value are imported to Ukraine. It also shows that due to liberalisation of customs rules and the system of trade allocation in the world market of meat and meat products the internal market of Ukraine became unprotected from imported products, which resulted in significant increase of cheaper import into Ukraine and uncompetitiveness of domestic producers of meat products. The article studies situations and shifts that took place in the market of milk and milk products in the result of Ukrainian WTO membership. It proves that the CU market stays, in the middle-term prospect, the most powerful for domestic producers of milk products. It shows that standards of milk quality, applied in EU countries, are higher than in Ukraine and CU, which means it is impossible to compete with EU high technology production. It holds that milk quality increase pursuant to EU standards requires additional investments into re-equipment of the production technology.

  13. Social Assistance Reform of Foreign Countries and its References to China%当代国外社会救助改革及其借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟玉英

    2012-01-01

    Low--level and wide--covering Social Assistance System is built and got good anti--poverty effects in our country, while it still has some defects in system design and management mechanism. Economic and social problems make pov erty situation become more complex, so our SAS badly needs to be reformed. How should the system of social assis tahoe in our country be reformed? The answer to this question needs not only exploration based on our country's situa- tion but also experiences from foreign countries. This article collects and analyzes the literatures and materials about social assistance reform from 1990s of Britain, USA, Latin America and South Africa. The experiences from those countries told us we should attach importance to Work Motivation and training for the poor with labor capacity,and a- dopt social policy for developing and reconstructiong our social assistance system.%我国低水平、广覆盖的社会救助体系已初步成型,并取得良好的反贫困效果。但其自身也存在制度不完善、管理机制不健全等问题。新时期的经济社会难题又使贫困情势出现了新变化,现行救助制度亟待改革和完善。这需要基于国情的实践探索,也离不开国际经验的参考和启发。20世纪90年代以来国外的社会救助制度,既有英美等发达国家的收缩性改革,也有拉美中等发展程度国家和南非等发展中国家的扩张。我国救助制度的未来调整应从加强法制建设、增强发展性救助理念、提升制度设计系统性等方面展开。

  14. Stakeholders in the Process of E-Health Development: Theory and Practical Experience of Selected Foreign Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Rotomskienė

    2014-03-01

    -health development.Research limitations/implications – empirical part of the research encompasses the analysis of e-health development experience of two countries (England and Wales. Further research can assess the relevance of conclusions towards other countries as well as Lithuania.Practical implications – analytical part of the research is based on an in-depth analysis of qualitative empirical research results. As the outcome of the executed research, recommendations are provided for practitioners working in the field of e-health development.Originality/Value – the article presents an overview of the most recent scientific literature on the topic, which then theoretical overview links with new insights from the qualitative empirical research.Research type: research paper.

  15. European and Asian Countries through the Eyes of Foreigners (in 19th — beginning of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Ushakov

    2016-09-01

    understanding of different-scale processes, events, facts and the general vision of countries and peoples development within significant time periods. And in general the article determines fundamental importance of the sources of such types for comprehensive and precise study and understanding of Russian history and history of other countries.

  16. On the causal dynamics between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in developed and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [University of Piraeus, Department of Banking and Financial Management, Piraeus, Attiki (Greece); Payne, James E. [University of South Florida Polytechnic, Lakeland, FL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study extends recent work on the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth to the case of developed and developing countries over the period 1990-2007. Heterogeneous panel cointegration procedures show a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficient estimates positive and statistically significant for developed and developing country panels. The results from the panel error correction models reveal bidirectional causality between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in the short- and long-run for each country panel. (orig.)

  17. Does Renewable Energy Drive Sustainable Economic Growth? Multivariate Panel Data Evidence for EU-28 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ştefan Armeanu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy is crucial to economic progress, but the contemporary worldwide population increase that demands greater energy generated from conventional exhaustible resources, an energy price upsurge, and environmental concerns, imperils sustainable economic growth. Nevertheless, switching to renewable energy produced from naturally replenished resources promotes energy security, likewise addressing issues such as global warming and climate change. This paper aims at exploring the influence and causal relation between renewable energy, both overall and by type, and sustainable economic growth of European Union (EU-28 countries for the period of 2003–2014. We notice that the mean share of renewable energy in the gross final energy consumption is 15%, while the mean share of renewable energy in transport fuel consumption is 3%, which are below the thresholds of 20% and 10%, respectively, as set by the EU Directive 2009/28/EC. By estimating panel data fixed-effects regression models, the results provide support for a positive influence of renewable energy overall, as well as by type, namely biomass, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind power, and solar energy on gross domestic product per capita. However, biomass energy shows the highest influence on economic growth among the rest of renewable energy types. In fact, a 1% increase of the primary production of solid biofuels increases GDP per capita by 0.16%. Besides, cointegrating regressions set on panel fully modified and dynamic ordinary least squares regressions confirm the positive influence related to the primary production of renewable energies on economic growth. A 1% increase in primary production of renewable energies increases GDP per capita by 0.05%–0.06%. However, the results of Granger causality based on panel vector error correction model indicate both in short-run and long-run a unidirectional causal relationship running from sustainable economic growth to the primary production of

  18. An interactive environmental model for economic growth: evidence from a panel of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Suresh; Hishan, Sanil S; Nabi, Agha Amad; Arshad, Zeeshan; Kanjanapathy, Malini; Zaman, Khalid; Khan, Faisal

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to determine an interactive environmental model for economic growth that would be supported by the "sustainability principles" across the globe. The study examines the relationship between environmental pollutants (i.e., carbon dioxide emission, sulfur dioxide emission, mono-nitrogen oxide, and nitrous oxide emission); population growth; energy use; trade openness; per capita food production; and it's resulting impact on the real per capita GDP and sectoral growth (i.e., share of agriculture, industry, and services in GDP) in a panel of 34 high-income OECD, high-income non-OECD, and Europe and Central Asian countries, for the period of 1995-2014. The results of the panel fixed effect regression show that per capita GDP are influenced by sulfur dioxide emission, population growth, and per capita food production variability, while energy and trade openness significantly increases per capita income of the region. The results of the panel Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) show that carbon dioxide emission significantly decreases the share of agriculture and industry in GDP, while it further supports the share of services sector to GDP. Both the sulfur dioxide and mono-nitrogen oxide emission decreases the share of services in GDP; nitrous oxide decreases the share of industry in GDP; while mono-nitrogen oxide supports the industrial activities. The following key growth-specific results has been obtained from the panel SUR estimation, i.e., (i) Both the food production per capita and trade openness significantly associated with the increasing share of agriculture, (ii) food production and energy use significantly increases the service sectors' productivity; (iii) food production decreases the industrial activities; (iv) trade openness decreases the share of services to GDP while it supports the industrial share to GDP; and finally, (v) energy demand decreases along with the increase agricultural share in the region. The results emphasize the need for

  19. The European Convention of Human Rights and the Expulsion of foreigners. The danger of mistreatment in destination countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syméon Karagiannis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The right of States, for a variety of reasons, to expel aliens has never been disputed by the European Court of Human Rights insofar as a State party to the European Convention on Human Rights continues, quite naturally, to exercise its sovereignty over its territory. However, this right has to be reconciled with the obligation of States parties to the European Convention on Human Rights not to expose aliens and, more generally, persons under their jurisdiction to a risk of violation of the provisions of the Convention. Yet, guaranteeing that no human right recognized as such by the Convention be violated in case of expulsion is too heavy a task for States to assume. Imposing such an obligation would end up in invalidating the sovereign right of States to expel aliens. The Court of Strasbourg retains primarily the risk of Article 3 of the Convention being violated in expulsion cases, a provision according to which inhuman or degrading punishments or treatments and, of course, acts of torture are strictly prohibited. The Court’s case-law, abundant as well as rich in nuances, results in rather a thorough examination of the human rights situation in any country towards which a alien will be (or has already been expelled.

  20. Influence of Foreign Direct Investments on Commodity Exchange of the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Marijanović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all countries of the world try to ensure accelerated development of their economies with the help of foreign direct investments. Since the foreign direct investments, in addition to capital, potentially ensure the transfer of contemporary technology, management and marketing knowledge and skills respectively, they can be a signifcant growth factor of competitive abilities of national economies and involvement of countries into international exchange. Trough the RCA method and “Trade Overlap” index, this paper analyzes the infuence of foreign direct investments on the comparative advantages and specialization degree in international commodity exchange for the selected group of transition countries and the Republic of Croatia. The paper tries to determine how much the foreign direct investments have infuenced the structure change of the foreign trade exchange and whether they have contributed to export growth of more complex groups of products in the observed period.

  1. A global perspective on foreign contract labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J E; Casco, R R

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.

  2. Linear growth and child development in low- and middle-income countries: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudfeld, Christopher R; McCoy, Dana Charles; Danaei, Goodarz; Fink, Günther; Ezzati, Majid; Andrews, Kathryn G; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2015-05-01

    The initial years of life are critical for physical growth and broader cognitive, motor, and socioemotional development, but the magnitude of the link between these processes remains unclear. Our objective was to produce quantitative estimates of the cross-sectional and prospective association of height-for-age z score (HAZ) with child development. Observational studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) presenting data on the relationship of linear growth with any measure of child development among children 2 years old (95% CI, 0.05-0.12; I(2) = 78%). Prospectively, each unit increase in HAZ for children ≤ 2 years old was associated with a +0.22-SD increase in cognition at 5 to 11 years after multivariate adjustment (95% CI, 0.17-0.27; I(2) = 0%). HAZ was also significantly associated with earlier walking age and better motor scores (P development. Effective interventions that reduce linear growth restriction may improve developmental outcomes; however, integration with environmental, educational, and stimulation interventions may produce larger positive effects. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. PUBLIC POLICY, QUALITY OF INTITUTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOGARU DORIN-MADALIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between economic performance and institutional development in several Central and Eastern European Countries. Our meta-argument is that the structural transformations at the levels of the quantitative variables and mechanisms are only a part of the transition processes. In order to view the big picture, the qualitative aspects related to public policies and institutions should also be considered. We test the linkages between the quality of public policies and institutions for seven Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia and Romania for a time span between 2001 and 2011. These countries are displaying a certain degree of heterogeneity in terms of economic performances and the design and implementation of public policies. We use for our analysis the World Bank indicators from World Wide Governance Indicators. In order to deal with the potential reverse causality issues, we employ Generalized Method of Moments Framework (GMM by using the lagged variables as instruments. The impact of governance indicators is statistically significant even if we use several control variables: exchange rate, unemployment, current account deficit, taxes burden and price stability. The corresponding Sargan and Arellano-Bond test for zero autocorrelation in first-differenced errors tests shows that the results display a corresponding robustness. The main policy implications for our findings may be synthesized by the thesis, according to which a proper design of public policies, a high degree of their effectiveness and accountability, a stable social and political environment together with the rule of law and efficient anticorruption mechanisms are critical determinants of economic growth even in emerging markets. The impact of the government “size , economic structure and markets” mechanisms , monetary policy and price stability , ownership structure and legal rights

  4. Research on Anti-poverty Funds Administration of China and Foreign Countries%中外扶贫资金管理研究(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张季

    2001-01-01

    反贫困是全世界的任务。反贫困需要资金支持。研究资金、货币及其转化形式在扶贫工作中的运转效率和作用,是研究扶贫问题的一个切入点。国外扶贫工作中的许多资金管理和运作经验值得我们学习。事实上,我国目前进行的许多扶贫资金运行模式(如小额信贷)就是向国外学习的。值得注意的是,在经济全球化、和平与发展、可持续发展的主题下,反对贫困,拯救穷人已成为国际性话题,成为全球性的热点问题和共同行动之一。许多国家政府、国际合作组织、金融机构和民间组织都在不同的领域设立了专门基金,用于支持贫困国家、贫困地区和贫困人群的发展。因此,研究国际扶贫资金的资助渠道、支持领域及管理特点,对于我们更多地争取、利用国外资金,以弥补我国扶贫资金不足问题,具有重要的意义。%Anti-poverty, one of th major tasks facing the world today, needs the support of capital. It is necessary to study the effects and efficiency of capital, money and their variations in poverty reduction when we attempt to find ways to reduce poverty. Some foreign countries have accumulated more experiences in capital administration and operation and we can learn from them. In fact, many operation models of anti-poverty capital that we are using, for instance, small-amount loans, are learnt from other countries. It is to be noted that anti-poverty and helping the poor has been an international concern,and many countries have made joint efforts to deal with it, when global economy, peace, development and sustainable development are the themes of the world. A large number of governments, international cooperation organizations, financial setups and nongovernmental organizations have established special funds to aid poverty-stricken countries, regions and peoples. It is of significance to study the channels, covering fields and

  5. Foreign Investment Expanded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The paid-in foreign direct investment in China totaled $74.8 billion in 2007,up 13.6 percent year on year Foreign investment in China has continued robust growth despite the new corporate income tax poli- cies. Figures from the National Bureau of Statistics show that paid-in foreign direct investment(FDI)(excluding investment from foreign financial institutions)totaled $74.8 billion in 2007,up 13.6 percent year

  6. The Analysis on the Dynamic Correlation of the Foreign Exchange Rate of RMB and Currencies of ASEAN Countries%人民币与东盟国家货币汇率动态关联性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文慧

    2014-01-01

    Using VAR-MGARCH-BEKK model, from the perspective of rewards spillover and volatility spillover, the paper makes the empirical research on the dynamic correlation of the foreign exchange rate of RMB and currencies of ASEAN countries. The paper finds that compared with the secondary foreign exchange reform, there exists the bidirectional volatility spillover effect be-tween RMB and Philippine peso and Thai baht, while there doesn’t exist the volatility spillover effect with currencies of other ASEAN countries. That is to say, the correlation of the foreign exchange rate of RMB and currencies of ASEAN countries is obviously strengthened after the secondary foreign exchange reform. At last, the paper puts forward corresponding policy recommendations on attempting to deepen the foreign exchange rate cooperation of RMB with currencies of ASEAN countries to promote the process of re-gionalization of RMB in ASEAN countries.%本文运用VAR-MGARCH-BEKK模型,从报酬溢出和波动溢出的角度,对人民币与东盟国家货币汇率间动态关联性进行实证研究,发现相比二次汇改前,人民币与菲律宾比索、泰铢之间存在双向波动溢出效应而对东盟其他国家货币汇率不存在波动溢出效应,二次汇改后人民币与大部分东盟国家货币汇率之间联动有明显增强。最后,本文尝试对人民币深化与东盟国家货币汇率合作,提出相应的政策建议以推动人民币在东盟国家的区域化进程。

  7. The population growth and distribution of the foreign-borns in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Yakar

    2013-01-01

    In the beginning of the 20th century the migrations into Turkey from abroad in conjunction with the process of becoming a nation-state have changed correspondingly to the political and economic conditions which have changed on a global scale towards the end of this century. The migration of people of Turkish descent at the beginning of the century has turned into foreign migration towards the end of the century. The aim of this study was to analyze the development and distribution of the ove...

  8. What is the role of Financial Development and Energy Consumption on Economic Growth? New Evidence from North African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Mohamed Salman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to test the validity of the causality between financial development and economic growth on energy consumption in three of North African countries. The study employs error coreection model and Granger causaility test to analyza a dataset for three North African countries covering a period from 1980 to 2010. The applied model is based on demand function for energy to assess the existing of causal relationship of energy with financial development, and economic growth, in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia.  Empirical results provide a positive significant relating financial development and energy consumption in Algeria, and Tunisia. On the other hand, Egypt’s results show a negative significant relationship relating energy consumption and financial development. The paper is valuable to policy makers in North African countries in their pursuit for achieving economic growth as it clarifies the urge for the financial development reforms to stimulate investment and growth

  9. The impact of gender inequality in education and employment on economic growth in developing Countries: Updates and extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan; Lamanna, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Using cross-country and panel regressions, we investigate to what extent gender gaps in education and employment (proxied using gender gaps in labor force participation) reduce economic growth. Using most recent data and investigating a long time period (1960-2000), we update the results of previous studies on education gaps on growth and extend the analysis to employment gaps using panel data. We find that gender gaps in education and employment significantly reduce economic growth. The comb...

  10. The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth : New Evidence for a Panel of Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan; Lamanna, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-country and panel regressions, we investigate to what extent gender gaps in education and employment (proxied using gender gaps in labor force participation) reduce economic growth. Using the most recent data and investigating an extended time period (1960-2000), we update the results of previous studies on education gaps on growth and extend the analysis to employment gaps using panel data. We find that gender gaps in education and employment considerably reduce economic growth. ...

  11. Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Anshasy, Amany A.

    This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

  12. Growth potential of energy sector reforms: new evidence on EU and Southeast European countries by exploring impact on electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Vlahinić Lenz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of energy sector reforms on electricity generation and thus economic growth in EU and Southeast European countries. The paper aims at clarifying whether the impact of energy sector reforms on generation efficiency differs among countries according to their level of development and regional characteristics. Our hypothesis is that the EU reform model is not appropriate for all Member States and Southeast European countries since it does not improve efficiency in electricity generation in all countries and therefore, it can hamper economic growth. For testing the defined hypothesis the panel regression model with fixed effects has been used. The research results show that unlike in the EU-15 (old Member States, energy sector reforms in the EU-12 (new Member States, and selected Southeast European countries (Energy Community contracting parties have no significant impact on electricity transmission and distribution losses. These evidences imply that the uniform EU reform model does not improve efficiency of electricity generation in less developed countries. On the contrary it can even hamper economic growth and therefore it cannot be appropriate for all Member States. The reason lies in the fact that successful reform model requires adequate level of institutional resources that are missing in most transition and post-transition countries.

  13. WSPEEDI (worldwide version of SPEEDI): A computer code system for the prediction of radiological impacts on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Moriuchi, Shigeru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishikawa, Hirohiko

    1995-09-01

    A computer code system has been developed for near real-time dose assessment during radiological emergencies. The system WSPEEDI, the worldwide version of SPEEDI (System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) aims at predicting the radiological impact on Japanese due to a nuclear accident in foreign countries. WSPEEDI consists of a mass-consistent wind model WSYNOP for large-scale wind fields and a particle random walk model GEARN for atmospheric dispersion and dry and wet deposition of radioactivity. The models are integrated into a computer code system together with a system control software, worldwide geographic database, meteorological data processor and graphic software. The performance of the models has been evaluated using the Chernobyl case with reliable source terms, well-established meteorological data and a comprehensive monitoring database. Furthermore, the response of the system has been examined by near real-time simulations of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX), carried out over about 2,000 km area in Europe. (author).

  14. Developing Trend and Key Techniques of Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAVs) in Foreign Countries%国外无人机发展趋势及关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾

    2009-01-01

    The requests on the performance of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in Network Centric War-fare (NCW) are introduced. The hot points and trends in the field of UAV development in foreign countries are summerized. Features, current situations as well as development directions of state - of - art technolo-gies which have great effects on the essential performance of UAVs are analysed and described. Foreasts on the prospects of these necessary techniques in near term are given. Suggestions on developping China's UA-Vs are put forward.%介绍了网络中心战(NCW)对无人机(UAV)的性能需求,归纳了当前国外无人机发展领域的热点和趋势,着重针对影响无人机关键性能的几大前沿技术的各自特点、研制现状及方向进行了分析和综述,并对其近期发展前景做出了预测,最后对国内无人机的相关研制工作提出了一些建议.

  15. 国外情报、监视与侦察系统发展概况%Development of Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance for Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵培聪

    2012-01-01

    鉴于情报监视与侦察系统(ISR)在当前现代局部战争中起到的重要作用,文中阐述了国外主要军事国家在发展ISR系统方面取得进展.同时,从空间侦察系统、新型无人侦察机、远程预警机系统、防空反导一体化系统等4个重点发展方向上描述了一些典型的ISR系统发展状况.%Whereas the importance roles of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance(ISR) is played in modern local battle, development of ISR system is described for majoy foreign countries at military affairs. Meanwhile, several typical ISR systems are depicted at four key points, such as reconnaissace system of space, new unmanned airaraft, long range early waring system and air-defense anti-missle system.

  16. 数字图书馆领域国外开源软件研究%Research on Open-Source Software for Digital Libraries in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁苓

    2012-01-01

    The paper is targeted at the representative open-source projects in digital libraries in foreign countries and the open-source software for digital libraries. Multi-perspective analysis and reviews are made from digital targets organization, index and searching, visiting limit, mutual operability, to localized support. General ways of functional service are concluded so that a deep understanding of design concept of open-source software development for digital libraries can be achieved, and the research and development of applied system for digital libraries with intellectual property rights can be promoted.%针对国外数字图书馆有代表性的开源项目以及与数字图书馆建设相关的开源软件,从数字对象组织、索引与检索、访问控制、互操作性、本地化支持等多角度分析评述,并总结出性能实现的一般方法。以期深入理解和领悟数字图书馆开源软件的设计理念,促进具有自主知识产权的数字图书馆应用系统的研发。

  17. 中外教师合作教学研究概况%Research on co-teaching between teachers from China and foreign countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙乃玲; 张丽娜

    2013-01-01

    The paper summarizes the origin and theoretical basis of co-teaching, from the second language acquisition theory and action research to review the development of cooperative teaching, analyzes the results of co-teaching between teachers from China and foreign countries of English basic course and non-English majors, points out the problems to be solved, provides directions for the future research.%  总结了合作教学的起源及理论依据,从二语习得理论和行动研究层面回顾了合作教学的发展,概述了国内一些高校在英语专业基础课和非英语专业的大学英语教学中进行中外教师合作教学研究的成果,指出了目前研究中有待解决的问题,为今后的相关研究提供了方向。

  18. Polish and German Press Reports on Cooperation between the Foreign Ministers of Both Countries in Resolving the Conflict in Ukraine (February–June 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patecka-Frauenfelder Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polish-German relations in the first half of 2014 were dominated by the Ukraine crisis. This study is an attempt to answer the question of how Polish and German press assessed the cooperation of both countries in resolving the conflict in Ukraine; to what extent the most widely read magazines associated themselves with the decisions of their politicians and the feelings of their own societies and how much understanding they showed for the arguments of their EU partner. The analysis focuses on the unprecedented mission of the Weimar Triangle foreign ministers to Ukraine in February 2014, which led to an agreement between the Ukrainian opposition and President Viktor Yanukovych. A turning point was the visit paid by Radoslaw Sikorski and Frank-Walter Steinmeier to St. Petersburg in June 2014. The next meetings agreed on by EU partners were held without inviting the Polish partner. In view of the speed of events in the selected time interval, the articles subjected to analysis were taken from the most widely read online editions of national daily newspapers in Poland and Germany.

  19. 国外工作家庭冲突研究综述%A Review of Research on Work-Family Conflict in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱林

    2012-01-01

    Work characteristics and family structure have changed with the development of the economy and society. And work-family conflict (WFC) has become one of the focuses of organizational behavior research. Based on a review of the WFC research in foreign countries, the paper analyzes the definition and structure of WFC, explores its basic theories, summarizes the major results and existing deficiencies of the researches in this field, and pros- pects its future development.%由于经济和社会的发展导致了工作特点和家庭结构的变化,工作家庭冲突成了当前组织行为研究的热点问题。本文通过回顾国外工作家庭冲突研究文献,分析了工作家庭冲突的定义和结构,探讨了工作家庭冲突研究的理论基础,归纳了该领域已取得的研究成果和存在的不足,展望了未来研究的发展方向。

  20. Analysis of Case Studies on Experimental Research of Gas Generation in Foreign Countries for Low- and Intermediate-level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Beak; Lee, Sun Joung [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    In order to acquire a realistic forecast for the lifetime and post-closure period of the LILW (Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste) repository and to establish the overall management plan associated gas issues. it is essential to carry out the long-term experimental research in a similar condition to actual disposal environment. Regarding this, as a part of the following-up actions on a construction and operation license for the first stage of the LILW repository at Gyeongju city, a large-scale in-situ experiment is being planned. For securing basic data on the experiment, the experimental researches related to gas generation previously performed in foreign countries are reviewed in detail. Consequently, it is judged that data on the gas generation experiment in Finland could be practically applied as the benchmark for our large-scale in-situ experiment because the same disposal concept as the Korean repository is adopted and the experiment is performed in a scale large enough to allow the use of regular waste packages.

  1. Assessing Foreign Aid’s Long Run Contribution to Growth and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This paper confirms recent evidence of a positive impact of aid on growth and widens the scope of evaluation to a range of outcomes including proximate sources of growth (e.g., physical and human capital), indicators of social welfare (e.g., poverty and infant mortality), and measures of economic...

  2. Renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nine OECD Countries: Bounds Test Approach and Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE consumption and economic growth (EG in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries—United States of America (USA, Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK. The overall results indicate that (1 a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2 long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3 a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4 both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5 Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  3. Biomedical progress rates as new parameters for models of economic growth in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Litovchenko, Maria

    2013-11-08

    While the doubling of life expectancy in developed countries during the 20th century can be attributed mostly to decreases in child mortality, the trillions of dollars spent on biomedical research by governments, foundations and corporations over the past sixty years are also yielding longevity dividends in both working and retired population. Biomedical progress will likely increase the healthy productive lifespan and the number of years of government support in the old age. In this paper we introduce several new parameters that can be applied to established models of economic growth: the biomedical progress rate, the rate of clinical adoption and the rate of change in retirement age. The biomedical progress rate is comprised of the rejuvenation rate (extending the productive lifespan) and the non-rejuvenating rate (extending the lifespan beyond the age at which the net contribution to the economy becomes negative). While staying within the neoclassical economics framework and extending the overlapping generations (OLG) growth model and assumptions from the life cycle theory of saving behavior, we provide an example of the relations between these new parameters in the context of demographics, labor, households and the firm.

  4. Biomedical Progress Rates as New Parameters for Models of Economic Growth in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Zhavoronkov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available While the doubling of life expectancy in developed countries during the 20th century can be attributed mostly to decreases in child mortality, the trillions of dollars spent on biomedical research by governments, foundations and corporations over the past sixty years are also yielding longevity dividends in both working and retired population. Biomedical progress will likely increase the healthy productive lifespan and the number of years of government support in the old age. In this paper we introduce several new parameters that can be applied to established models of economic growth: the biomedical progress rate, the rate of clinical adoption and the rate of change in retirement age. The biomedical progress rate is comprised of the rejuvenation rate (extending the productive lifespan and the non-rejuvenating rate (extending the lifespan beyond the age at which the net contribution to the economy becomes negative. While staying within the neoclassical economics framework and extending the overlapping generations (OLG growth model and assumptions from the life cycle theory of saving behavior, we provide an example of the relations between these new parameters in the context of demographics, labor, households and the firm.

  5. Endogenous Population Dynamics and Economic Growth with Free Trade between Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds a model to deal with dynamic interdependence between different countries' birth rates, mortality rates, populations, wealth accumulation, and time distributions between working, leisure and children caring. The model shows the role of human capital, technological and preference changes on national differences in birth rates, mortality rates, time distributions, population change, and wealth accumulation. The economic mechanisms of wealth accumulation, production and trade are based the Solow growth model and the Oniki-Uzawa trade model. We use the utility function proposed by Zhang to describe the behavior of households. We model national and gender differences in human capital, propensity to have children, propensity to use leisure time, and children caring efficiency. We describe the dynamics of global economic growth, trade patterns, national differences in wealth, income, birth rates, mortality rates, and populations with differential equations. We simulate the model to show the motion of the system and identify the existence of equilibrium point. We also examine the effects of changes in the propensity to have children, the propensity to save, woman's propensity to use leisure, woman's human capital, and woman's emotional involvement in children caring on the dynamics of the global and national economies.

  6. The contribution of international trade to economic growth through human capital accumulation: Evidence from nine Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirajul Haq

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to test the hypothesis “international trade contributes to economic growth through its effects on human capital accumulation.” To assess the hypothesis empirically, we employed the extended Neo-Classical growth model that reflects some features of the endogenous growth models. We thus ended up with a model in which the change in human capital is sensitive to change in trade policies. Unlike conventional approaches, the model serves to assess and determine the impact of international trade on the accumulation of human capital. The empirical analysis estimates dynamic panel growth equations by using a data-set of nine Asian countries, over the period 1972–2012. The overall evidence substantiates the fact that in countries under consideration, international trade enhances the accumulation of human capital and contributes to economic growth positively through human capital accumulation.

  7. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Börnhorst

    Full Text Available Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences.The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008 and follow-up examination (2009/2010 supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences.Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers' smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found.Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association

  8. Impacts Of Globalization On Economic Growth - Evidence From Selected South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maqbool-ur-Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study uses overall index of globalization developed by Dreher (2006 in which all three types of integration were utilized such as political, economic and social integration. The data of three south Asian countries like Pakistan, India and Bangladesh were taken for the period from 1981 to 2011. Initially, stationary properties of selected variables were checked through conventional unit root tests such as Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF and Phillip Perron (PP test followed by ordinary least square (OLS, granger causality is applied and finally long-run relationship among variables were confirm by employing Johansen test of cointegration i.e. trace test and max-Eigen test. The study has very good model explaining variance in GDP growth. Probability value of F-stat is less than 0.05 which recognize that all the independent variables are regarded good to forecast the changing in dependent variable. The outcomes of Durbin Watson tests state that there is no autocorrelation in the chosen variables. Coefficients of independent variables are positive and significant. The outcomes of Johansen test of cointegration established a long-run equilibrium association among economic variables. It is clear that globalization and GDP both influence each other and illustrates bidirectional causality in India while Pakistan and Bangladesh show unidirectional causality between globalization and GDP. It is statistically found that overall index of globalization may affect the rate of growth. It has been recommended that authorities and government should realize the importance of globalization as factor of growth and concentrate on their weak component of globalization besides economic integration.

  9. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period 1981-2006.…

  10. Does Financial Development Induce Economic Growth in UAE? The Role of Foreign Direct Investment and Capitalization

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between financial development and economic growth in case of UAE over the period of 1975Q1-2012Q4. The issue of unit root properties of the variables is solved by employing structural break unit root test. We have employed Bayer-Hanck combined cointegration to test the long run relationship between the variables. Our analysis revealed the existence of cointegration between financial development and economic growth. Financial development induces economi...

  11. Interaction of Export Instability and Openness-Growth Nexus In East Asia and Pacific Countries (1990-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanian Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Because of the importance of the relation between instability of economic variables and making decision for determinants, this is so considerable to find the interaction between instability and economic variables’ activity. Approach: One of the efficacious factors to have a positive trade balance is export that is a factor of GNP growth too. Moreover, openness is an important factor for stimulus export. Results: For above reasons and to survey that what’s the relation of these factors, in this study we try to investigate the effect of Investment and export instability on growth of 22 East Asia and Pacific countries that is a new subject of done articles. We apply panel data method because this method allows us to use more countries in a shorter period of time series data. Using data span is from 1990-2006 (WDI 2008. The result showed that a co-integration relationship between growth and its determinants is supported in the model. The results of panel Random Effect model that is estimated by using data show that: (1 There is a negative relationship between growth and export instability of this set of countries, (2 According to the studied investigation, coefficient of export is about 0.5 that mean the factor of export has greater effect on growth in these countries rather than other factors, (3 The impact of gross fixed capital and labor force is positive on growth in this set of countries. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results of study recommend that the policy of export stability must be to attend in decision of policy makers in these countries.

  12. Correlation between Economic Growth, Oil Prices and the Level of Monetization of Economy in Oil and Gas Exporting Countries: Challenges for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Viktorovich Domashchenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of low monetization of the Russian economy occasionally provoked serious discussions on the necessity of a substantial increase for stimulating economic growth. However, this step will not change the crisis situation in resistance to structural factors, and mistakes in monetary regulation. The study of the level of monetization in the periods of stagnation and decline in oil prices for countries that export raw materials, testifies to the impossibility of stimulating economic growth only at the expense of additional money supply. Policy of inflation targeting in developing resource economies may lead to the execution of its objectives in the face of rising trend of commodity prices, monetary policy limits credit expansion. Currently falling oil prices and a liberal foreign exchange regime stimulates high inflation and curtailing loan activity. Therefore, during periods of negative commodity market conditions required a switch of monetary-credit regulation in ensuring financial stability and counteract the processes of deleverage in the real sector of the economy. Instead of the consumer price index dynamics of the credit activity should be the main indicator of regulation. The Bank of Russia should begin a cycle of lowering interest rates while reducing credit activity, even if the CPI remains high. A return to neutral monetary policy will become possible after stopping the falling of oil trend and the increase in loan activity

  13. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries: Cross-sectionally dependent heterogeneous panel causality analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazlioglu, Saban, E-mail: snazlioglu@pau.edu.tr [Department of Econometrics, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Lebe, Fuat, E-mail: fuat.lebe@bozok.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bozok University, Yozgat (Turkey); Kayhan, Selim, E-mail: selim.kayhan@bozok.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bozok University, Yozgat (Turkey)

    2011-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the direction causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries. The empirical model that includes capital and labor force as the control variables is estimated for the panel of fourteen OECD countries during the period 1980-2007. Apart from the previous studies in the nuclear energy consumption and economic growth relationship, this study utilizes the novel panel causality approach, which allows both cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity across countries. The findings show that there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in eleven out of fourteen cases, supporting the neutrality hypothesis. As a sensitivity analysis, we also conduct Toda-Yamamoto time series causality method and find out that the results from the panel causality analysis are slightly different than those from the time-series causality analysis. Thereby, we can conclude that the choice of statistical tools in analyzing the nature of causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth may play a key role for policy implications. - Highlights: > Causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth is examined for OECD countries. > Panel causality method, which allows cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity, is utilized. > The neutrality hypothesis is supported.

  14. Factors Contributing to Foreign Direct Investment in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariunzul Javzandorj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, globalization has led to a rapid increase in the growth of foreign direct investment (FDI all over the world. Mongolia for more than a decade has been in the process of radical transformation and has taken significant steps to build a market-based economic structure. Foreign Direct Investment plays a very important role in achieving rapid economic growth in the developing countries. This can be achieved by taking advantage of available mobilizing domestic savings, foreign capital, technology transfers, establishment of new premises and favorable foreign policies It is now widely acknowledged that FDI has potential benefits that can accrue to developing countries. This view is mainly based on the neo liberal and development economists. They suggest that FDI is crucial for economic growth as it provides the much needed capital for investment, increases competition in host countries economies, and helps local firms to become more productive by adopting more efficient technology or by investing in human or physical capital [1]. FDI is also said to contribute to growth in a substantive manner because it’s more stable than other forms of capital flows. This paper investigates the key drivers of foreign direct investment (FDI in Mongolia.

  15. Socioeconomic differences in children's growth trajectories from infancy to early adulthood: evidence from four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cathal; O'Leary, Neil; Fraga, Silvia; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Barros, Henrique; Kartiosuo, Noora; Raitakari, Olli; Kivimäki, Mika; Vineis, Paolo; Layte, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Height is regarded as a marker of early-life illness, adversity, nutrition and psychosocial stress, but the extent to which differences in height are determined by early-life socioeconomic circumstances, particularly in contemporary populations, is unclear. This study examined socioeconomic differences in children's height trajectories from birth through to 21 years of age in four European countries. Data were from six prospective cohort studies-Generation XXI, Growing Up in Ireland (infant and child cohorts), Millennium Cohort Study, EPITeen and Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study-comprising a total of 49 492 children with growth measured repeatedly from 1980 to 2014. We modelled differences in children's growth trajectories over time by maternal educational level using hierarchical models with fixed and random components for each cohort study. Across most cohorts at practically all ages, children from lower educated mothers were shorter on average. The gradient in height was consistently observed at 3 years of age with the difference in expected height between maternal education groups ranging between -0.55 and -1.53 cm for boys and -0.42 to -1.50 cm for girls across the different studies and widening across childhood. The height deficit persists into adolescence and early adulthood. By age 21, boys from primary educated maternal backgrounds lag the tertiary educated by -0.67 cm (Portugal) and -2.15 cm (Finland). The comparable figures for girls were -2.49 cm (Portugal) and -2.93 cm (Finland). Significant differences in children's height by maternal education persist in modern child populations in Europe. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Discussion On the Gains and Losses of the Attraction of Foreign Investment in the ASEAN Countries%试论东盟国家吸引外资的得失收

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹卫平

    2001-01-01

    东盟国家经济奇迹的创造,在很大程度上归因于吸引外资。大量外资的流入,使东盟国家经济和社会迅速发展;经济结构得以改善;获得了先进科技、设备和现代管理经验;促进了对外贸易的发展等。但外资的流入在资金结构上、产业流向上、地区分布上等均存在一些问题。东南亚金融危机的爆发使东盟国家在吸引外资上痛定思痛。继续吸引外资仍然是东盟国家经济发展的重要途径。%The economic miracle in ASEAN countries, to a great certain,is due to the attraction of foreign investment. On one hand,the attraction of a large amount of foreign invertment makes the economy and society of AEAN countries develop rapidly, improves the economical structure, gives them advanced technology, equipment and modern management experience and advances the development of foreign trade, etc.On the other hand, there exists some problems in capital structure, industrial flow direction and regional distribution. The cxplosion of financial crisis in ASEAN countrics, gives them a lesson from a bitter experience in attracting foreign investment. The attraction of foreign investment is still a very important way for ASEAN countries to develop their economy.

  17. ECONOMIC CRISIS AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bako

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments represent an essential factor of economic development and growth at all levels: national, regional and local (county. The authors analyse the evolution of foreign direct investments in Romania over the last decade, taking into consideration the influence of the economic and financial crisis, different territorial levels, types of foreign investments, the economic activities and also the main countries of origin. The aim of the paper is to explain some of the reasons for the illustrated evolution of FDI and to reveal some policy implications for the future period.

  18. The Impact of Financial Crises and Economic Growth of East Asian Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shabbir MS; Rehman AK

    2016-01-01

    In last quarter of 1997, the economic crises came in the East Asian countries. However, the countries those are affected by these crises are Malaysia, South Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Philippians, Thailand and Taiwan...

  19. Review on Global Talent Management in Foreign Countries%基于全球人才管理的海外研究成果评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵颖; 潘康宇

    2013-01-01

    Company's globalization poses a whole new set of challenges to human resource management,and the relevant studies of global talent management become research hotspots in recent years. For grasping the research frontier and aca-demic innovation,the article systematically summarizes and analyzes global talent management research in foreign countries in recent years. It especially emphasizes the followings points:connotation for global talent management,main contents of global talent management,the driving force and its effectiveness of global talent management. Finally,the paper puts for-ward the research direction in the future in the global talent management theory,global talent management system and driv-ing factors,global talent management effectiveness research,research methods and global talent management research of China and other developing nations.%公司全球化运营给人力资源管理带来了全新的挑战,全球人才管理相关研究成为近些年的研究热点。为了把握研究前沿,利于学术创新,系统地梳理和分析国外近年来有关全球人才管理的研究成果,针对全球人才管理的内涵、全球人才管理的主要内容、全球人才管理的驱动力及其有效性等热点问题进行综述和分析,并提出该领域在理论构建、驱动因素分析、有效性研究、研究方法以及针对中国等发展中国家的研究等后续的研究方向和研究内容。

  20. On Factors Influencing the Process of Government Innovation in Foreign Countries%国外政府创新过程中的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆友; 董健

    2014-01-01

    政府创新研究应当加强本体性关怀与过程性关怀。从政府创新本体视阈审思,政府创新本质上是一种多种影响因素之间相互作用的过程。这些影响因素在政府创新不同阶段所释放出不同的功能,总结各种影响因素在政府创新过程中的积极作用与负面障碍,以此实现政府创新成功经验与失效成因的理性观照,从而在政府创新的一般性规律与政府创新的运行现实之间建立起真实的关系。%The research of government innovation should pay more attention to the subject and the process of innovation. From the perspective of innovating subject, government innovation is a process of interactions among a variety of factors. However, nowadays, the study of the factors that influence government innovation is in lack of in-depth macroscopic classifications and microscopic interpretations in foreign countries. In this paper, we take political factors, governmental factors and social factors as the objects of our research, discuss their functions in the process of government innovation and describe their positive and negative effects. Our purpose is to engage in a rational reflection on the successes and failures in the process of government innovation, and establish real connections between the general patterns and the practical realities in the process of government innovation.

  1. Promotion of Organ Donation in Foreign Countries in Recent Five Years%2008-2012年国外器官捐献促进措施分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭振霞; 刘喜文

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解国外2008-2012年为器官捐献所采取的促进措施,分析其效果并探索促进中国器官捐献的途径。方法查阅英文数据库Science Direct和Socolar-open Access,输入organ donation 和 measure 2个关键词,搜索2008年1月-2012年12月的所有相关英文文献,最终纳入有效文献20条。阅读全文后找出文章中采取的积极措施,并分析实施这些措施后收到的效果。结果国外器官捐献率促进措施分为4类:制定法律、法规或协议,增强组织管理,增加宣传力度和提高医学技术。我国可以借鉴的经验包括:细化法律及规定,增强器官捐献的组织与管理,加大宣传力度。结论我国应在借鉴发达国家在器官捐献中经验的基础上,探索适合我国国情的器官捐献途径。%Objective To know promotion measures taken in foreign countries in recent five years, then analyze their effects in order to enhance organ donation in China. Methods With “organ donation” and “measure” as key words, data in Science Direct and Socolar-open Access from January of 2008 to December of 2012 were searched. Positive measures mentioned in these articles were involved and their effects were analyzed. Results All of the measures could be classified into four types: making laws and regulations, strengthening management, enhancement propaganda and improving technology. The first three ones could serve as a good reference for organ donation in China. Conclusion With the experiences of organ donation in developed countries, a way of organ donation with Chinese characteristic should be developed.

  2. 国外援潜救生装备体系及发展%The development of submarine rescue equipment in foreign countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠铭

    2011-01-01

    Submarine is becoming one of the most impotant equipment of the navy in any country of the world because of its elusive, long range and aggressivity. But how to rescue the marine in an accident submarine is a very difficult problem up to the present. In recent years, the navy of foreign countries attatch great importance to the submarine rescue. They put more and more money and energy in the study of submarine rescue equipments. After many years effort, they improved the performance and perfection of their submarine rescue equipment. Above all,they form the submarine rescue equipments system which is most appropriate for their navy. This article expounds the constitution and developing trend of the submarine rescue equipment system in America and Russia. By studying the idea and method of the submarine rescue equipment system in America and Russia, we can get a lot of benefits for the development of our own submarine rescue equipment system.%潜艇以它隐蔽性好、远程性及突击性强的特点为各国海军所公认,已成为各国海军最重要的装备之一.但潜艇在水下一旦发生事故,艇员的脱险和对其进行援救,目前仍然是较困难的问题.近年来,随着各国海军对援潜救生重要性认识的提高,纷纷加大研究投入,促使援潜救生装备不断完善和改进.经过多年的研究,美国、俄罗斯等国家逐步形成了一套完整的援潜救生装备体系.本文介绍了美国和俄罗斯援潜救生装备体系的构成及发展历史和现状,概括出国外援潜救生装备体系发展的特点和趋势,为我国援潜救生装备的发展提供借鉴和参考.

  3. Pathways among Caregiver Education, Household Resources, and Infant Growth in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Bradley, Robert H; Lansford, Jennifer E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver education is known to relate to the growth of children, but possible mediation mechanisms of this association are poorly characterized and generally lack empirical support. We test whether instructional capital (caregiver education) leads to improved infant growth through availability of physical capital (household resources) across a wide swath of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS3), we explore relations among caregiver education, household resources, and infant (M age = .99 years) growth in 117,881 families living in 39 LMIC. Overall, household resources mediated 76% of the small association between caregiver education and infant growth. When disaggregated by countries characterized by low, medium, and high levels of human development (as indexed by average life expectancy, education, and gross domestic product), household resources mediated 48% to 78% of the association between caregiver education and infant growth. Caregiver education had effects on infant growth through household resources in countries characterized by low, medium, and high levels of human development; for girls and boys; and controlling for indexes of infant feeding and health.

  4. Foreign Direct Investment and its Role in the Development of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki DELITHEOU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive characteristic of Global Economy over the last few decades has been the rising rate and impressive increase in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI globally. Due to the potential role that foreign direct investment may play in accelerating the growth rate and re-shaping the economy, many developing countries are seeking such types of investment that can multiply efforts being made towards the growth of their economy. Consequently, foreign direct investment has become an important source of private external finance for developing countries. For this reason, countries like Greece are attempting to focus on the implementation of policies that can attract specific FDI and thus achieve high rates of growth. Attracting FDI and the subsequent creation of sustainable enterprises that will provide an increase in jobs and will reinforce the productivity of the country, is today a national target.

  5. Does Innovation Performance Depend on Economic Growth?: The Case of a Country in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej H Jasinski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyze a possible influence of economic growth on innovation performance. Econometric model based on principal component analysis is the research tool. Poland, as a country in transition, is here a case-study. The analysis has confirmed an interesting pattern: in 1989-2007, corporate innovation performance was changing, in principle, in the same direction as macro-economic changes but with a one-to-two-year delay. This is some proof that the innovation activity followed the cyclical development of the national economy. Innovation performance was demand-driven, i.e., pulled by demand resulting from the economy's recovery and high economic growth. So, technological innovation appeared to be highly sensitive to the general economic situation in Poland as a transitional economy. Economic growth seems to be a kind of tag-boat pulling innovation activities in the business sector.Este artículo intenta analizar una posible influencia del crecimiento económico en el desempeño de la innovación. La herramienta de investigación empleada es el modelo econométrico basado en un componente principal de análisis. El estudio de caso es Polonia, una economía en transición. El análisis ha confirmado un patrón interesante: durante el periodo 1989-2007, el desempeño de la innovación cambió, en principio, en la misma dirección que los cambios macroeconómicos pero con un retraso de uno a dos años. Esto muestra de algún modo que la actividad innovadora correspondió al desarrollo cíclico de la economía nacional. El desempeño innovador se orientó por la demanda, es decir, una demanda impulsada por la recuperación económica y el alto crecimiento económico. Por lo tanto, la innovación tecnológica parece ser muy sensible a la situación económica en general de Polonia, como economía en transición. El crecimiento económico parece ser una especie de motor que impulsa las actividades innovadoras del sector de negocios.

  6. The dynamic links between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, health spending and GDP growth: A case study for 51 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabouni, Sami; Saidi, Kais

    2017-10-01

    This document investigated the causal relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, health spending and GDP growth for 51 countries (divided into three groups of countries: low-income countries; group of countries with lower and upper middle income; group of middle income countries) covering the annual period 1995-2013. Dynamic simultaneous-equations models and generalized method of moments (GMM) are used to investigate this relationship. The main results provide evidence of a causal relationship between the three variables. The empirical results show that there is a bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and GDP per capita, between health spending and economic growth for the three groups of estimates. The results also indicate that there is a unidirectional causality from CO2 emissions to health spending, except low income group countries. We found that health plays an important role in GDP per capita; it limits its effect on a growing deterioration in the quality of the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Co2 emission, economic growth, energy consumption and foreign trade in pakistan: causality analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Anees; Shaukat Amer; Ishfaq Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The alarming increase in global warming in the last century resulted in an intensive debate over issues of environmental degradation due to rapid economic growth on the basis of intensive utilization of the natural resources of the world economy. The literature is exhaustive on these issues and the underlying study fills the gap in literature by producing evidence in context of a relatively underdeveloped, open in context of international trade and significantly contributing to total global e...

  8. A note on the status of women as a factor in population growth in less developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, K A; Pugh, M D; Stockwell, E G

    1980-01-01

    The 1978 U.S. Bureau of the Census reported 4.3 billion as the world's population. 3.1 billion were living in the less developed areas where life is characterized by poverty and low levels of material well-being. In the develop countries the per capita income averaged $490, compared to $5,210 in developed areas. Little attention has been paid to the status of women in developing countries, where the impact of development often has a negative effect. As a measure of women's status, rates are given for male/female infant mortality. If the ratio is less than 1.14 the status of women is low. If the is 1.15-1.24 the status is medium. If the ratio is 1.25 and over, women enjoy high status. In countries where women have low status the population growth ra averages 3%. Where the status of women is medium, the growth rate is 2.5%. I countries of high status the population growth rate is 2.2. Further research is needed on correlations between population and economic growth, with particula emphasis on subtle factors behind population/economic development.

  9. Labor market reforms, growth, and unemployment in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik

    2007-01-01

    A general equilibrium model is used to study the impact of labor market policies on growth, employment, urban inequality, and rural welfare in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Various experiments are conducted, such as a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public...

  10. Economic Growth and Institutional Reform in Modern Monarchies and Republics: A Historical Cross-Country Perspective 1820-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    Standard theoretical arguments suggest that republics ought to grow faster than monarchies and experience lower transitional costs following reforms. We employ a panel of 27 countries observed from 1820-2000 to explore whether institutional reforms have differential growth effects in monarchies...

  11. Public Debt, Economic Growth and the Real Interest Rate : A Panel VAR Approach to EU and OECD Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, Elmer; Ogawa, Kazuo; Tokutsu, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the causal relationship between the public debt to GDP ratio and economic growth for 31 EU and OECD countries from 1995 to 2013. A number of studies have tackled this problem, but very few make the transmission mechanism explicit in their analysis. We estimate a panel VAR model that

  12. The Relationship between Youth Unemployment and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern European Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman ERDAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study has analyzed the relationship between youth unemployment and economic growth, in the context of Okun law, by using new generation panel data analysis and cointegration tests. In this study, 18 Central and Eastern European country have been selected as subject matter whose youth unemployment rate is above the EU-28 average (25 % for the period 2006-2012. The results show that, if youth unemployment is quite severe; even an exclusive economic growth will not be enough to reduce the youth unemployment rate in the country. It is recommended that the global and country-specific policies which are effective, result-driven on youth (Un employment and labour market issues, should be developed. This study is expected to make a significant contribution to the literature on unemployment and social conflict.

  13. Comparison of Macroeconomic Performance of Selected Asian Countries. An Econometric Analysis of China Economic Growth and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasret Benar Balcioglu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the key macroeconomics indicators for the selected countries: China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Rep. and India and also makes an econometric analysis for China for the period 1961-2007. These countries are chosen on the basis of comparability of data and time without measurement errors. This study also investigates six hypotheses considering the impact of several key macroeconomic variables such as domestic saving rate, domestic investment rate, and volatility of savings, volatility of inflation, growth rate of exports and growth rate of real GNP. By using suitable statistical and econometric tests, this paper finds that prevailing performance of China depends on its superior rates of domestic saving and exports. Policies are also suggested from the differentials between the economic performances of China and other chosen Asian countries.

  14. An empirical investigation on different methods of economic growth rate forecast and its behavior from fifteen countries across five continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yip Chee; Hock-Eam, Lim

    2012-09-01

    Our empirical results show that we can predict GDP growth rate more accurately in continent with fewer large economies, compared to smaller economies like Malaysia. This difficulty is very likely positively correlated with subsidy or social security policies. The stage of economic development and level of competiveness also appears to have interactive effects on this forecast stability. These results are generally independent of the forecasting procedures. Countries with high stability in their economic growth, forecasting by model selection is better than model averaging. Overall forecast weight averaging (FWA) is a better forecasting procedure in most countries. FWA also outperforms simple model averaging (SMA) and has the same forecasting ability as Bayesian model averaging (BMA) in almost all countries.

  15. Competitiveness analysis of Czech agrarian foreign trade in the context of world agrarian market and agrarian trade of EU-27 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Svatoš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the commodity structure of Czech (CR agrarian trade in relation to the EU countries. An emphasis is put on comparative advantages of particular aggregations from the view-point of their application on the EU internal market. This analysis is based on an evaluation of comparative advantages by means of a modified Balassa index. It is studied in two stages, for the internal EU market and the world market. The analysis results are then shown in a graph. Subsequently, the authors implement an idea arising from a BCG matrix on the results of the graphic presentation. The aim is to identify those aggregations (SITC, rev. 3 which are or have a potential to be a pillar of agri-business (ie, the “cash cows” and “stars”, and vice versa to show the aggregation which are non-prospective in the long term or problematic (ie, the “dogs” and “problem children”. As start are identified as those aggregations which are characterised by the highest growth rate of comparative advantage value. From the analysis results, changes are apparent if we compare the CR trade commodity structure in relation to the EU countries. Findings also concern the development of comparative advantages and following CR specialisation on trade with certain aggregations.

  16. The importance of foreign direct investments in Sumadija and Pomoravlje region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The terms of foreign investment and foreign direct investments are very often terms in foreign economics policy because they represent one of the key issues in foreign economics and practice. The relationship between investments and economic growth is the key question in the modern economic theory. Foreign direct investments are representing the most common shape of international capital movement wich are including the long term connections between more differents countries, regions. The Sumadija and Pomoravlje Region is located in the central Part of Serbia. This Region is the heart of Serbia. Economic development of this part of Serbia is important for the economic development of the whole Serbia as a country. It is very important for the longrange economic growth to define strategy for economic growth for the region of Sumadija and Pomoravlje. In this strategy we will determine the most important tasks and objectives of economic growth also the incentives in the ten year period to come. In the transition country which is Serbia with huge regional and economical problems, without its own funds it is important to attract foreign investment, first of all direct investment. Foreign direct investment which are the basics of all investments in Serbia especially in Shumadija and Pomoravlje region.

  17. An Empirical Analysis on the Relationship between Inward Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth in BRICs%金砖四国FDI与经济增长关系的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何菊香; 汪寿阳

    2011-01-01

    外国直接投资(FDI)是发展中国家谋求经济起飞的重要资源,外国直接投资通过资本形成和技术进步促进东道国经济增长,而东道国经济增长又进一步带动外国直接投资的流入。本文从数量分析的角度,利用协整理论考察了巴西、俄罗斯、印度和中国四国的FDI与经济增长的关系,并建立误差修正模型刻画它们的动态均衡关系。实证分析表明:长期内,巴西、印度和俄罗斯的FDI与经济增长之间存在显著的Granger因果关系,而中国的FDI与经济增长之间则不存在稳定的Granger因果关系;短期内,巴西和俄罗斯两国的FDI与经济增长具有显著的互补性,但中国的经济增长只能单方面吸引FDI的流入,印度的FDI也只能单方面对经济增长起推动作用。%Foreign direct investment has been viewed as an important resource for developing countries to pursue their economic take-off.Foreign direct investment can promote the transfer of technological and business know-how to poorer countries.These transfers may have substantial spillover effects for the entire economy and may boost the economic growth.This paper uses co-integration theory and error correction model to reassess the relationship between economic growth and FDI involving BRIC countries.The empirical analysis finds meaningful Granger causality relationships between FDI and the growth of Brazil,Russian and India in the long term,but no long-term Granger causality relationship exists in China.In the short term,we also find that FDI does not exert a robust,positive influence on growth except Russian,while economic growth does attract inward FDI except India.

  18. Growth recovery and faltering through early adolescence in low- and middle-income countries: Determinants and implications for cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, Sheikh; Reddy, Prudhvikar; Woldehanna, Tassew

    2017-04-01

    Child chronic undernutrition, as measured by stunting, is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and is among the major threats to child development. While stunting and its implications for cognitive development have been considered irreversible beyond early childhood there is a lack of consensus in the literature on this, as there is some evidence of recovery from stunting and that this recovery may be associated with improvements in cognition. Less is known however, about the drivers of growth recovery and the aspects of recovery linked to cognitive development. In this paper we investigate the factors associated with growth recovery and faltering through age 12 years and the implications of the incidence, timing, and persistence of post-infancy recovery from stunting for cognitive development using longitudinal data from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We find that the factors most systematically associated with accelerated growth both before and after early childhood and across countries include mother's height, household living standards and shocks, community wages, food prices, and garbage collection. Our results suggest that post-infancy recovery from stunting is more likely to be systematically associated with higher achievement scores across countries when it is persistent and that associations between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement in middle childhood do not persist through early adolescence across countries. Overall, our findings indicate that growth after early childhood is responsive to changes in the household and community environments and that growth promotion after early childhood may yield improvements in child cognitive development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Foreign Policies and Foreign Exchanges for Chinese Publishing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's present foreign publishing policies Chinese Government respects and protects intellectual property rights. Chinese Government always attaches importance to the exchange and cooperation between Chinese publishing industry and that of other countries, encourages and supports Chinese publishing industry to actively introduce foreign excellent works to Chinese readers, and meanwhile, also actively advocates introduction of Chinese excellent works to foreign readers. Our persistent guideline is to support and promote exchanges between Chinese and foreign publishing industries in all fields.

  20. The Correlation of FDI Foreign Trade and Economic Growth in Ethnic Minority Areas-Based on An Empirical Analysis of Guangxi during the Years 1990 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhen; Li Xuan

    2016-01-01

    International trade and investment have been two major topics in the field of interna-tional economics. They are also two main ways to deepen foreign economic ties. With the rapid de-velopment of the China—ASEAN free trade area and the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone, international trade and investment have had an important influ-ence on the ethnic areas of Guangxi. Guangxi is a frontier and coastal minority area, and as well as an important window opening on to the ASEAN e-conomic sphere and economic hinterland. It has great power and vitality for economic development within the ASEAN economic sphere. However, Guangxi, if compared with domestic developed are-as, is a relatively backward region within China’s economy. Its level for utilizing FDI( Foreign Direct Investment) lags behind, and its foreign trade vol-ume has definitely lagged far behind that in the more developed coastal provinces. This has severe-ly restricted the economic and social transformation of the Guangxi, and is an important obstacle for re-alizing a “well -off” society in ethnic areas. In recent years, resulting in the increasing external dependency in ethnic areas, the development of foreign investment has kept steady. This has played an important role in promoting technological progress and adjusting the industrial structure in ethnic areas. At the same time, foreign investment has also increased the speed of the ethnic minority areas’ ability to absorb advanced technology and management experience. This, in turn, has had great significance for further exploring international markets. However, the various regions in China have differences in their utilization of FDI and for-eign trade, so, effective an evaluation for exploring foreign trade and FDI has had a specific effect on the economic growth in ethnic areas, which can provide certain reference points for ethnic minority areas to formulate economic policy. Based on the relevant data of exports, imports and economic growth collected

  1. Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Post-Socialist Transition Countries / Kevin D. Curwin, Matthew C. Mahutga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Curwin, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Artiklis käsitletakse sotsioloogilisest aspektist välismaiste otseinvesteeringute kasvu mõju majandusarengule lähimas ja kaugemas perspektiivis, aluseks postsotsialistlikes riikides (sh Eesti) toimunud protsessid

  2. Transport jet aircraft noise abatement in foreign countries: Growth, structure, impact. Volume 2: Pacific Basin, August 1980. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, F.A.

    1980-08-01

    Noise control measures at the international airports of Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, and Singapore were studied. Factors in noise control, such as government structure are examined. The increasing power of environmental agencies vis-a-vis aviation departments is noted. The following methods of dealing with aircraft noise are examined by type of control: noise at the source control noise emmission controls, zoning, building codes, subsidies for relocation, insulation, loss in property values, and for TV, radio and telephone interference and noise-related landing charges.

  3. Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Post-Socialist Transition Countries / Kevin D. Curwin, Matthew C. Mahutga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Curwin, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Artiklis käsitletakse sotsioloogilisest aspektist välismaiste otseinvesteeringute kasvu mõju majandusarengule lähimas ja kaugemas perspektiivis, aluseks postsotsialistlikes riikides (sh Eesti) toimunud protsessid

  4. An Empirical Study on the Nexus of Poverty, GDP Growth, Dependency Ratio and Employment in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinnathurai Vijayakumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper has scrutinized the nexus among poverty, economic growth, employment and dependency ratio in developing countries. The primary intension behind this study is to find out the association between variables such as poverty, economic growth, agricultural and industrial employment and dependency ratio due to the gap in the existing literature. This study fully relies on cross country data and involves forty one countries which have been selected from Asia,Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. For this study, OLS method, correlation and econometric tools have been employed. Two models employed in the analysis are goodness of fit because both p-value and F-statistics in the models are less than 5%. The results bring to light the fact that age dependency ratio has had a tremendous impact on poverty and poverty has had a relatively very high impact on the age dependency ratio. Even though Industrial employment has anegative association with poverty incidence, it does not have a significant impact on poverty. The finding that economic growth, poverty and industrial employment significantly affect the agedependency ratio in model two is practicable and consistent with economic theories. Thus stable economic growth with an increase in labour productivity and labour intensive technology is anactive remedy for solving this problem.

  5. Nucleation-Mediated Lateral Growth of Crystalline Islands on Foreign Substrate: an Origin of Long-Range Ordering in Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mu; Shu, Dajun; Peng, Ruwen; Ming, Naiben

    2007-06-01

    Heteroepitaxial thin film growth may start by nucleating three-dimensional (3D) or two-dimensional (2D) islands on foreign substrate. Depending on the interfacial energies, heteroepitaxial growth can be categorized into three modes: Frank-van der Merwe (FM), Stranski-Krastanow (SK), and Volmer-Weber (VW). In this lecture, we concentrate on the detail process of horizontal extension of a crystalline island on foreign substrate via successive nucleation at the concave corner of the crystal facet and the foreign substrate. It is demonstrated that due to the difference of surface tensions at the concave corner, once a nucleus appears at the corner, the crystallographic orientation of the nucleus is spontaneously twisted. By successive nucleation at the concave corner, the crystalline layer develops laterally, with its crystallographic orientation continuously rotated. Such a previously untouched effect could be the physical origin to form a few regular spatial patterns in the interfacial growth. A theory is developed, which provides a criterion to observe such an effect in the nucleation-mediated lateral growth.

  6. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis

    2005-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...

  7. A Panel Estimation of the Relationship Between Trade Liberalization, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in BRICS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrara Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several studies have found an inverted-U relationship between per capita income and environmental degradation. This relationship, known as the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC, suggests that environmental degradation increases in the early stages of growth, but it eventually decreases as income exceeds a threshold level. However, this paper investigation relationship between per capita CO2 emission, growth economics and trade liberalization based on econometric techniques of unit root test, co-integration and a panel data set during the period 1960-1996 for BRICS countries. Data properties were analyzed to determine their stationarity using the LLC , IPS , ADF and PP unit root tests which indicated that the series are I(1. We find a cointegration relationship between per capita CO2 emission, growth economics and trade liberalization by applying Kao panel cointegration test. The evidence indi\tcates that in the long-run trade liberalization has a positive significant impact on CO2 emissions and impact of trade liberalization on emissions growth depends on the level of income Our findings suggest that there is a quadratic relationship between relationship between real GDP and CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. The estimated long-run coefficients of real GDP and its square satisfy the EKC hypothesis in all of studied countries. Our estimation shows that the inflection point or optimal point real GDP per capita is about 5269.4 dollars. The results show that on average, sample countries are on the positive side of the inverted U curve. The turning points are very low in some cases and very high in other cases, hence providing poor evidence in support of the EKC hypothesis. Thus, our findings suggest that all BRICS countries need to sacrifice economic growth to decrease their emission levels

  8. Evaluation of Foreign Direct Investment Contribution in the Economic Development of Sverdlovsk Region and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Mikhailovna Kapustina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of foreign direct investment in the economy of receiving region and country on the example of the Russian Federation and Sverdlovsk region. The positive and negative effects of foreign capital in national and regional economies are marked. A set of indicators to assess the impact of foreign direct investment in the host region economy is offered to determine the trends of attracting foreign capital in the last decade and the role of foreign direct investment in the economic development of the Sverdlovsk region and the Russian Federation. The examples of investment projects with the participation of foreign companies which were successfully implemented in the Sverdlovsk region have been considered. The conclusion about higher rates of the transnationalization of economic activity in Russia in comparison with similar processes in the Sverdlovsk region is made. In the paper, a comparative statistical analysis of the development of the economy of the country and Sverdlovsk region by attracting internal or investment resources is provided. The comparative analysis shows that the country and region economy does not depend much on the foreign direct investment inflows. With the help of the econometric analysis, we have confirmed the hypothesis about a weak impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in the Sverdlovsk region and the Russian Federation. The results of the calculations for the Sverdlovsk Region and the Russian Federation show that domestic investment in fixed assets is the key factor for the growth of the gross regional product and the gross domestic product.

  9. 外向型FDI能促进母国的对外贸易吗?--基于69个国家和地区样本的GMM检验%Can Outward FDI Promote Foreign Trade of Home Country?-Based on GMM Test of Samples from 69 Countries and Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董楠

    2014-01-01

    对外直接投资对母国经济的诸多方面有正面的影响。文章选取41个发展中国家和地区以及28个发达国家和地区2002-2011年的观测样本,实证考察外向型FDI对母国对外贸易的影响。实证结果发现,不管是在发达国家样本还是在发展中国家样本,在控制了外向型FDI的内生性之后,外向国际直接投资存量对母国的进出口贸易总额没有显著影响。%Outward FDI has a positive impact on many aspects of the home country’s economy. The paper, by selecting sam-ples of 41 developing countries and regions, 28 developed countries and regions from the year of 2002 to 2011, empirically inves-tigates the impact of outward FDI on foreign trade of home countries. The empirical results show that the stock of outward FDI has no significant impact on foreign trade of home countries after the control on the endogeneity of outward FDI, whether the samples are from developed countries or developing countries.

  10. Entrepreneurship by Graduates Returned from Foreign Countries and Development of Entrepreneur Park ——One of the Reports of Investigation on the Entrepreneurship by Graduates Returned from Foreign Countries%留学人员回国创业及创业园蓬勃发展 ——留学人员回国创业调研综述之一

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张酉水

    2001-01-01

    In recent year,more and more young people,who graduated in foreign countries,have returned motherland,and run new-high tech enterprises. They have become an important active force in developing knowledge economy in China. Many regional governments have created Entrepreneurship Park to improve entrepreneurship environment for them. This measure plays an important role in attracting their return. The governments from high level to local region all put great importance on this job,not only by formulating rather relax policy,but also by providing necessary conditions and services.%近几年留学人员回国创业日益增多,创办高新技术企业势头良好,已经成为我国发展知识经济的有生力量。许多地区举办留学人员创业园,积极改善创业环境,在吸引留学人员创业中发挥了重要作用。从中央到地方政府都很重视,不仅制定了宽松的政策,还推动各方面创造条件和提供服务。

  11. The effect of education and economic growth in the labour market in transition economies - Case study for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Mazalliu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper is analyzed labour market in transition economies with case study SEE countries and the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: the effects of education on labour market, improving labour market performance in SEE countries, structural reforms and economic policies for improving labour markets, relationship between level of education and growth on labour market. In methodology, the data is collected from international institutions and is calculated through STATA program. The main analyses include: descriptive statistic, multiple regression analysis and correlation matrix. The results of regression analysis and correlation matrix have shown that education has negative impact and negative correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation. But, economic growth has shown positive impact and positive correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation and all variables that are including in T-statistical analysis have shown non - significance on labour market.

  12. The Impact of Financial Sector Development on Economic Growth in Developing Countries over the Period 2001-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Alberto Cortés Villafradez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial system development is of great importance for economic growth, as it facilitates the transfer of financial resources and, through specific services performed directly or indirectly, it contributes to functions, such as savings mobilization, creation of liquidity, and risk diversification. This paper attempts to analyze, by means of an econometric model developed with panel data for 26 countries, the causal link between financial system development, capital market and economic growth, based on approaches and findings related to studies by Levine and Ross.

  13. WTO Accession, Foreign Bank Entry, and the Productivity of Chinese Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Tat-kei; Qian, Zhenjie; Wang, Luhang

    2016-01-01

    After China’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in December 2001, foreign banks are allowed to enter the Chinese banking market in phases. Using firm-level data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China which cover all state-owned and non state-owned manufacturing firms...... with sales over 5 million RMB, we examine the relationship between foreign bank entry and the industry-level productivity growth of China’s manufacturing sector. Our empirical results suggest that (a) on average, opening up a region for foreign bank entry has no impact on aggregate productivity growth, (b...... and manufacturing productivity in a fast growing developing country....

  14. Scaling-Up Access to Family Planning May Improve Linear Growth and Child Development in Low and Middle Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Günther Fink; Sudfeld, Christopher R.; Goodarz Danaei; Majid Ezzati; Wafaie W Fawzi

    2014-01-01

    Background: A large literature has indicated a robust association between birth spacing and child survival, but evidence on the association of birth timing with physical growth in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains limited. Methods and Results: Data from 153 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) across 61 LMICs conducted between 1990 and 2011 were combined to assess the association of birth timing with child stunting (height-for-age z-score

  15. Economic Growth and Institutional Reform in Modern Monarchies and Republics: A Historical Cross-Country Perspective 1820-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    Standard theoretical arguments suggest that republics ought to grow faster than monarchies and experience lower transitional costs following reforms. We employ a panel of 27 countries observed from 1820-2000 to explore whether institutional reforms have differential growth effects in monarchies a...... reforms in republics while monarchies benefit from such reforms in the ten-year perspective adopted here. We offer some tentative thoughts on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the results....

  16. The global financial crisis has led to a slowdown in growth of funding to improve health in many developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach-Kemon, Katherine; Chou, David P; Schneider, Matthew T; Tardif, Annette; Dieleman, Joseph L; Brooks, Benjamin P C; Hanlon, Michael; Murray, Christopher J L

    2012-01-01

    How has funding to developing countries for health improvement changed in the wake of the global financial crisis? The question is vital for policy making, planning, and advocacy purposes in donor and recipient countries alike. We measured the total amount of financial and in-kind assistance that flowed from both public and private channels to improve health in developing countries during the period 1990-2011. The data for the years 1990-2009 reflect disbursements, while the numbers for 2010 and 2011 are preliminary estimates. Development assistance for health continued to grow in 2011, but the rate of growth was low. We estimate that assistance for health grew by 4 percent each year from 2009 to 2011, reaching a total of $27.73 billion. This growth was largely driven by the World Bank's International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and appeared to be a deliberate strategy in response to the global economic crisis. Assistance for health from bilateral agencies grew by only 4 percent, or $444.08 million, largely because the United States slowed its development assistance for health. Health funding through UN agencies stagnated, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria announced that it would make no new grants for the next two years because of declines in funding. Given the international community's focus on meeting the Millennium Development Goals by 2015 and persistent economic hardship in donor countries, continued measurement of development assistance for health is essential for policy making.

  17. Economic growth, energy conservation and emissions reduction: A comparative analysis based on panel data for 8 Asian-Pacific countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Shuwen, E-mail: shuwenn@lzu.edu.c [College of Earth and Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environment Systems, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ding Yongxia; Niu Yunzhu; Li Yixin; Luo Guanghua [College of Earth and Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-04-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the causality between energy consumption, GDP growth and carbon emissions for eight Asia-Pacific countries from 1971 to 2005 using the panel data. The results indicate that there are long-run equilibrium relationships between these variables. Additionally, causality from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions was observed generally, but there were some opposite relationships also. Parameter estimations of the panel data model indicate that there are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. The base carbon emissions, per capita energy consumption and efficiency of energy use in developing countries are far lower than in developed countries; however, the CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of energy use is higher. Although developing countries may reduce their CO{sub 2} emission per unit energy use, total energy consumption will rise rapidly with economic development. Thus, developing countries must determine how to undergo economic growth while conserving energy and reducing emissions. To respond to global climate change, it is necessary to develop innovative technology for energy use, transform the energy structure and conduct the clean development mechanism. - Research highlights: {yields} There is a complex nexus between GDP-energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, the causalities from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions are observed generally, but there are some opposite relationships also. {yields} There are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. {yields} There is a large potential for carbon emission reduction in the developing countries through transforming the energy structure, improving energy utilization efficiency and controlling the total energy

  18. The effect of female labour force in economic growth and sustainability in transition economies - case study for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Mazalliu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: female labour force participation in transition countries, female employment in economic sectors and their main barriers, and the contributions of female labour force in economic growth. In methodology, the secondary data are used, and they are calculated through STATA program. The main analysis include: descriptive statistic, regression analysis and correlation matrix. Based on empirical results, the regression analysis has found that economic growth and government effectiveness has a negative impact on female labour force. Financial market development, enterprises reforms, and innovation have a positive impact on female labour force in SEE (South Eastern European countries. In T-statistic analysis all independent variables have shown a negative significance (T <2 on female labour force. In correlation, economic growth and financial development market have negative correlation on female labour force, but other variables have shown positive correlation. SEE countries should develop the female labour force in their economies, so their role may be crucial toward different economic problems and challenges in the modern economy.

  19. Communicating about the Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak to the international community and in-country foreigners, Republic of Korea, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minwon Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS outbreak in 2015, the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW of the Republic of Korea provided outbreak information targeting international visitors and foreign residents through multiple channels. The MOHW created a MERS portal website in Korean and English on 10 June 2015; in addition, the existing MOHW website provided English-language press releases beginning 28 May. A toll-free telephone hotline also started service in English on 12 June; it expanded to include 18 other foreign languages on 15 June. This report describes the usage of these multi-language communication channels during this MERS outbreak.

  20. Export and Economic Growth in the Case of the Manufacturing Industry: Panel Data Analysis of Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Kılavuz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between growth in export and economic growth, which is called “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” in the literature, is still a current issue in both the theoretical and empirical literature. In the present study, the effect of different classifications of export and import on economic growth in 22 developing countries in the 1998–2006 period was tested based on two models, via panel data analysis. According to the results of the first model, the analysis of which included variables such as high and low-tech manufacturing industry exports, investment and population, it was found that only two variables, high-tech manufacturing industry export and investment, have a positive and significant effect on growth. In addition to the first model which included the analysis of all variables, the second model investigated the effect of high and low-tech manufacturing industry imports on growth. The findings revealed that only high-tech manufacturing industry export, investment and low-tech manufacturing industry import have a positive and significant effect on growth.

  1. [Foreign immigration in Spain (1985-1994)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalvez Perez, V

    1996-01-01

    "During the decade 1985-94, Spain [has had]...some growing and unexpected flows of foreign immigrations. The tradition of emigration of Spanish people, some grave difficulties of [the] employment market in the country, irregular entrance of workers from developing countries, the fear of a very rapid growth of these immigrants, the instability and marginality of their work, and the agreement of Spain in the European Union have led the government to develop an active migratory policy, first against the illegal flows and, more recently, in direction of the integration of immigrants in Spanish society.... The article analyzes main features from some different groups of foreign workers, and in particular Africans: spatial repartition, demographic profile, migratory strategies and trajectories, uneasy insertion in the national employment market, and draws lastly the main features of the Spanish migratory policy." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  2. A Country in Focus: Foreign Language Learning and Teaching in Germany--A Review of Empirical Research Literature from 2005 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Claudia; Olson, Agnes Madeleine; Friedrich, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical research literature on foreign language (FL) learning and teaching published between 2005 and 2010 in Germany. It focuses on the empirical studies that have attracted the greatest interest among researchers during this period of time. These include research on educational standards, teacher education, early FL…

  3. Energy efficiency, low-carbon energy production, and economic growth in CIS countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazim, A.; Kochetkova, O.; Azimzhamov, I.; Shvagrukova, E.; Dmitrieva, N.

    2016-09-01

    The paper studies the peculiarities of energy efficiency increase in national economy and decrease of carbon dioxide emission for CIS countries. The conditions that allow achieving parameters of sustainable development are determined according to indexes of GDP energy intensity and carbon intensity. Focusing on the indexes of GDP energy intensity and carbon intensity dynamics as well as on carbon intensity of energy production, a real movement towards implementation of program conditions presented by international organizations is analyzed, namely, economic conversion to the model of sustainable development. The examples demonstrate both the presence of significant differences between 12 countries and the lack of fatality in these differences. At determining dependencies linear models are preferred to non-linear ones, with the explanation of reasons in each particular case. Attention to success of these countries may help to understand the advantages of conversion to the model of sustainable development and also it helps to decrease demands in terms of costs for this conversion.

  4. Methodology of Water Quality Criteria in Foreign Countries and Its Future Researching Prospects%国外水质基准方法体系研究与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解瑞丽; 周启星

    2012-01-01

    Water quality criteria are the scientific basis for the development of water quality standards.Many foreign countries or organizations have established relatively complete methodology systems of water quality criteria, while China has just started.So the research of foreign methodology systems of water quality criteria has great reference meaning to the water quality criteria research of our country.So here the main methodology systems of water quality criteria of foreign countries or organizations are analyzed and compared, such as the United States, France,Germany,the Netherlands,CSTE of the European Union etc.Then the current existent problems in the establishment of the water quality criteria methodology are summarized, with an outlook on the future of the water quality criteria research.%水质基准是制定水质标准的科学依据.国外很多国家或机构已建立了相对完整的水质基准方法体系,而我国才刚刚起步,因此研究国外的水质基准方法体系对我国的水质基准研究具有重要的借鉴意义.本文概述并比较了美国、法国、德国、荷兰、欧盟CSTE等国的水质基准方法体系,分析了水质基准方法体系研究目前存在的问题,并对今后的研究进行了展望.

  5. Massification and Diversification as Complementary Strategies for Economic Growth in Developed and Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndorf, Darryl; Glass, Chris R.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous microeconomic studies demonstrate the significant individual returns to tertiary education; however, little empirical evidence exists regarding the effects of higher education massification and diversification agendas on long-term macroeconomic growth. The researchers used the Uzawa-Lucas endogenous growth model to tertiary education…

  6. Convergence tests on tax burden and economic growth among China, Taiwan and the OECD countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David Han-Min

    2007-07-01

    The unfolding globalization has profound impact on a wide range of nations’ policies including tax and economy policies. This study adopts the time series and cluster analyses to examine the convergence property of tax burden and per capita gross domestic product among Taiwan, China and the OECD countries. The empirical results show that there is no significant relationship between the integration process and fiscal convergence among countries. However, the cluster analyses identify that the group of China, Taiwan, and Korea was stably moving toward one model during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. And, the convergence of tax burden is found in the group, but no pairwise convergence exists.

  7. Current Account Imbalances and Economic Growth: a two-country model with real-financial linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Barbosa de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    This paper builds a two-country stock-flow consistent model by com- bining a debt-led economy that emits the international reserve currency with an export-led economy. The model has two major implications. First, an initial trade deficit in the debt-led country leads to a perma- nent imbalance in the current account, even when the exchange rate is at parity. Second, different re-balancing mechanisms, namely a currency depreciation or the reduction of the propensity to import in the debt-led c...

  8. The Research Status and Analysis of Library Knowledge Community in China and Foreign Countries%国内外图书馆知识社区研究现状与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田军

    2015-01-01

    在知识经济时代,社会化服务模式将成为图书馆的发展方向。从社会网络理论的视角出发,介绍了国内外图书馆知识社区的研究现状,并进行了述评。%In the knowledge era, the socialized service pattern will become the development direction of the library. Starting from the perspective of social network theory, this paper introduces the research status of library knowledge community in china and foreign countries, and conducts a comment on it.

  9. Foreign Firms Partner Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ There is an important strategic adjustment occurring on the part of foreign dairy companies seeking to capitalize on the China market. Rather than going it alone,with local partnerships little more than an entry mechanism,global giants such as Danone,Arla, and Fonterra are taking advantage of the country's more relaxed foreign investment rules by upping their stakes in established local firms and expanding the role they play in business and industrial operations.

  10. Panel estimation for CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization of newly industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif Hossain, Md., E-mail: sharif@en.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Economic Engineering, Faculty of Economics, Kyushu University, 6-19-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    This paper empirically examines the dynamic causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization for the panel of newly industrialized countries (NIC) using the time series data for the period 1971-2007. Using four different panel unit root tests it is found that all panel variables are integrated of order 1. From the Johansen Fisher panel cointegration test it is found that there is a cointegration vector among the variables. The Granger causality test results support that there is no evidence of long-run causal relationship, but there is unidirectional short-run causal relationship from economic growth and trade openness to carbon dioxide emissions, from economic growth to energy consumption, from trade openness to economic growth, from urbanization to economic growth and from trade openness to urbanization. It is found that the long-run elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions with respect to energy consumption (1.2189) is higher than short run elasticity of 0.5984. This indicates that over time higher energy consumption in the newly industrialized countries gives rise to more carbon dioxide emissions as a result our environment will be polluted more. But in respect of economic growth, trade openness and urbanization the environmental quality is found to be normal good in the long-run. - Highlights: > Dynamic causal relationships are conducted for different panel variables of NIC. > Test results support only existence of unidirectional short-run causal relationships. > Environment will be polluted more due to energy consumption in the long-run. > But environmental quality is found to be normally good in respect of other variables. > NIC should use solar energy as the substitute of oil to control CO{sub 2} emissions.

  11. Carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth. Panel data evidence from developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Narayan, Seema [School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Law, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia); School of Economics, Finance, and Marketing, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    In this paper we test the Environment Kuznet's Curve (EKC) hypothesis for 43 developing countries. We suggest examining the EKC hypothesis based on the short- and long-run income elasticities; that is, if the long-run income elasticity is smaller than the short-run income elasticity then it is evident that a country has reduced carbon dioxide emissions as its income has increased. Our empirical analysis based on individual countries suggests that Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Yemen, Qatar, the UAE, Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela, Algeria, Kenya, Nigeria, Congo, Ghana, and South Africa - approximately 35 per cent of the sample - carbon dioxide emissions have fallen over the long run; that is, as these economies have grown emissions have fallen since the long-run income elasticity is smaller than the short-run elasticity. We also examine the EKC hypothesis for panels of countries constructed on the basis of regional location using the panel cointegration and the panel long-run estimation techniques. We find that only for the Middle Eastern and South Asian panels, the income elasticity in the long run is smaller than the short run, implying that carbon dioxide emission has fallen with a rise in income. (author)

  12. Carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: Panel data evidence from developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar, E-mail: paresh.narayan@deakin.edu.au; Narayan, Seema

    2010-01-15

    In this paper we test the Environment Kuznet's Curve (EKC) hypothesis for 43 developing countries. We suggest examining the EKC hypothesis based on the short- and long-run income elasticities; that is, if the long-run income elasticity is smaller than the short-run income elasticity then it is evident that a country has reduced carbon dioxide emissions as its income has increased. Our empirical analysis based on individual countries suggests that Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Yemen, Qatar, the UAE, Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela, Algeria, Kenya, Nigeria, Congo, Ghana, and South Africa-approximately 35 per cent of the sample-carbon dioxide emissions have fallen over the long run; that is, as these economies have grown emissions have fallen since the long-run income elasticity is smaller than the short-run elasticity. We also examine the EKC hypothesis for panels of countries constructed on the basis of regional location using the panel cointegration and the panel long-run estimation techniques. We find that only for the Middle Eastern and South Asian panels, the income elasticity in the long run is smaller than the short run, implying that carbon dioxide emission has fallen with a rise in income.

  13. Brazilian scientific funding agency budgets have not matched the country's economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helene, A F; Ribeiro, P L

    2013-02-01

    The growth of the Brazilian economy in recent years has created an atmosphere of optimism in various segments of Brazilian society, with several important international repercussions. In this paper, we analyze in detail how this economic growth is reflected in investments in science and technology made by major academic funding agencies. As a result, we observed a discrepancy in the growth of funding input and the growth of the Brazilian gross domestic product. This fact associated with an increased academic output entails negative consequences for the system. This may be a symptom of an academic community not fully understood by society and vice versa. Finally, we believe that a long-lasting important change in investment policy in science is necessary in order to ensure financial security for the academic system as a whole.

  14. Is Foreign Aid Panacea for African Problems? The Case of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Rena

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Namibia has experienced impressive growth since 21 years of independence. Current GDP growth rates, estimated at 4-5%, are fuelled mainly by the increasing competitiveness of the mining sector. Mining sector accounts for half of the national foreign exchange earnings. Low scores on capital investment and education, however, is a considerable barrier to greater economic diversification and may contribute to the poor innovation score. As a result, Namibia remains somewhat dependent on foreign aid, despite relatively high average incomes. This paper will discuss the impact of foreign aid on the Namibian economy by systematically analyzing its influence on developing countries using Namibian economy as focus reference. Fifty years since the first official development assistance (ODA programs were instituted, the question of the effectiveness of foreign aid remains an unresolved issue. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether foreign aid is effective in helping Namibia to achieve development goals.

  15. Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    Using cross-country and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long-term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects economic growth by lowering the ...

  16. O Brasil e a comunidade dos países de língua portuguesa (CPLP Brazilian foreign policy and the Community of Portuguse-speaking countries (CPLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiguenoli Miyamoto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma das atenções da política externa brasileira nos últimos anos tem sido concedida ao relacionamento Sul-Sul. Dentro deste, as relações com os países da CPLP tem adquirido papel crescente, pelo menos em termos retóricos. O objetivo desse texto é analisar a real importância concedida pelo governo brasileiro aos países de língua portuguesa desde a criação da CPLP.In the last years, one focus of Brazilian foreign policy has been south-south cooperation. Among them, the relationship with Portuguese speaking countries has taken an important role, at least in the official speech. This texts examines the real importance given by Brazilian government to Portuguese speaking countries since the beginning of CPLP.

  17. Economic growth-electricity consumption causality in 12 European countries. A dynamic panel data approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarreta, A. [Department of Economic Analysis II, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Avda, Lehendakari Aguirre, 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain); Zarraga, A. [Department of Applied Economics III, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Avda, Lehendakari Aguirre, 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    This paper applies recent panel methodology to investigate the long-run and causal relationship between electricity consumption and real GDP for a set of 12 European countries using annual data for the period 1970-2007. The sample countries have moved faster than other neighboring countries towards the creation of a single electricity market over the past 30 years. Energy prices are also included in the study due to their important role in affecting the above variables, thus avoiding the problem of omitted variable bias. Tests for panel unit roots, cointegration in heterogeneous panels and panel causality are employed in a trivariate VECM estimated by system GMM. The results show evidence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the three series and a negative short-run and strong causality from electricity consumption to GDP. As expected, there is bidirectional causality between energy prices and GDP and weaker evidence between electricity consumption and energy prices. These results support the policies implemented towards the creation of a common European electricity market. (author)

  18. Economic growth-electricity consumption causality in 12 European countries: A dynamic panel data approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarreta, A., E-mail: aitor.ciarreta@ehu.e [Department of Economic Analysis II, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Avda, Lehendakari Aguirre, 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain); Zarraga, A., E-mail: ainhoa.zarraga@ehu.e [Department of Applied Economics III, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Avda, Lehendakari Aguirre, 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    This paper applies recent panel methodology to investigate the long-run and causal relationship between electricity consumption and real GDP for a set of 12 European countries using annual data for the period 1970-2007. The sample countries have moved faster than other neighboring countries towards the creation of a single electricity market over the past 30 years. Energy prices are also included in the study due to their important role in affecting the above variables, thus avoiding the problem of omitted variable bias. Tests for panel unit roots, cointegration in heterogeneous panels and panel causality are employed in a trivariate VECM estimated by system GMM. The results show evidence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the three series and a negative short-run and strong causality from electricity consumption to GDP. As expected, there is bidirectional causality between energy prices and GDP and weaker evidence between electricity consumption and energy prices. These results support the policies implemented towards the creation of a common European electricity market.

  19. 国外公共图书馆健康信息服务研究进展%Study Progress of Health Information Services of Public Libraries in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永英; 何兰满

    2012-01-01

    The main content of studies on health information services of public libraries in foreign countries includes: the role and effect of public libraries, empirical studies, healthy collection development, reference, outspread services for special groups, librarians training and cooperation with other organizations. There is a big gap between our country and foreign countries in the study on the health information services, such as the relatively short study history and less literatures, narrow scope of study, less empirical investigations and more theoretical researches. How to provide health information services for the disadvantage groups, and more large scale investigations about the situation of health information services of public libraries in some regions are research trends in the future in our country.%国外公共图书馆健康信息服务研究的内容主要包括:公共图书馆的角色和作用、实证研究、健康馆藏资源建设、参考咨询、对特殊群体的延伸服务、馆员培训及与其他机构的合作。而我国在这一领域的研究与国外相比存在着一定的差距,如研究历史较短,文献数量较少,研究内容较为单一,实证调查少,理论探讨多。公共图书馆如何为弱势群体提供健康信息服务,对某一地区公共图书馆健康信息服务情况进行较大规模的调查等,都是我国未来研究的发展趋势。

  20. Foreign-catalyst-free growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires on Si (111) by molecular-beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hyok; Pan, Dong; Li, Lixia; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-03-01

    Epitaxial high-quality InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires are of great interest due to their distinct advantages in fundamental research as well as applications in semiconductor electronic and quantum devices. Currently, nearly all the growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires is assisted with foreign catalysts such as Au, and work on foreign-catalyst-free growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires is lacking. Here we report on the growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires on Si (111) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy without using any foreign catalysts. The Sb/In beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio is found to have important influence on the heterostructure nanowire morphology, and InSb nanowires can be epitaxially grown on InAs nanowire stems with a hexagonal prism and nanosheet-like shapes when the Sb/In BEP ratio varies from 10 to 20. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the InAs nanowire stems have a mixture of zincblende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) crystal structures, while InSb nanowire parts have a pure ZB crystal structure free of stacking faults. Composition analysis of axial heterostructure nanowires provides clear evidence that the InSb nanowires are epitaxially grown on InAs nanowires in an In self-assisted vapor-liquid-solid manner. This study paves a new route for growing narrow-gap semiconductor heterostructures with strong spin-orbit interaction for the study of topological states, and the growth manner presented here is expected to be used to grow other In-based axial heterostructure nanowires.