WorldWideScience

Sample records for forearm bone mineral

  1. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT) and ante......Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT...

  2. Forearm bone mineralization in recently diagnosed female adolescents with a premenarchal onset of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggen, Inge; Vanbesien, Jesse; Gies, Inge; Van den Eede, Ursula; Lampo, Annik; Louis, Olivia; De Schepper, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Data available on bone mineralization by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in adolescents with an early onset anorexia nervosa (AN) is limited. We investigated whether a disturbed bone mineralization can be observed at the distal radius in recently diagnosed female adolescents with AN and a premenarchal onset of this disease. Twenty-four premenarchal patients with AN and 22 healthy females which were age and height matched, were selected from our reference database; both groups underwent a pQCT bone assessment at the distal radius of the nondominant arm. The patients age ranged between 13.3 and 18.4 years. Their percent weight loss ranged between 5 and 36% (median 23%) and occurred within the preceding 3 to 44 months. Trabecular volumetric bone mineral density of the patient group was significantly lower than the comparison group (185.6 ± 30.2 vs.209.3 ± 34.0 mm(2) ; p = 0.02). Bone cross-sectional area, bone mineral content, total volumetric bone mineral density and periosteal circumference were also lower, albeit not significantly. The bone parameters were unrelated to the under nutrition severity and duration. In premenarchal patients with AN the trabecular bone mineralization of the forearm is significantly reduced, this might be an early indicator of altered bone mineral accrual. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:809-812). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cross calibration of Hologic QDR2000 and GE Lunar Prodigy for forearm bone mineral density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D; Horton, B; Green, D J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out an in vivo cross calibration for forearm bone mineral density (BMD) between a Hologic QDR2000 (Hologic Inc., Bedford MA, USA) and Lunar Prodigy (GE Healthcare, Madison WI, USA) during equipment upgrade. Nineteen subjects (17 females and 2 males, mean age 57 yr, range: 42-79yr) attending for routine dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning were recruited. BMD of the nondominant forearm was measured on both instruments. Cross-calibration equations were derived for total forearm, ultradistal radius and ulna, and 33% radius and ulna. A Bland & Altman plot was used to calculate the mean difference and limits of agreement between instruments. There were significant differences in BMD at all sites. The Prodigy BMD was 15% higher at the total forearm and 20-25% higher in the cortical regions of the 33% ulna and 33% radius. The differences are smaller in the ultradistal regions, as it appears that the Prodigy underestimates BMD at low BMD. The standard error of estimate about the cross calibration was such that it cannot be used to transfer individual patients between instruments, but could be applied to clinical trial data.

  4. Association of Obesity with Forearm Fractures, Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk (FRAX® During Postmenopausal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Mesci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association among obesity with bone mineral density (BMD and subsequent fracture risk among postmenopausal women with a previous forearm fracture. Materials and Methods: The study enrolled obese (n=40 and normal-weight (n=40 postmenopausal women who had a previous forearm fracture. BMD measurements were obtained using a GE-LUNAR DPX dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan for all subjects. FRAX® fracture risk scores were calculated taking into account former fractures and current risk factors of the subjects. Both groups were compared with respect to their BMD values, T scores, FRAX® risk scores and frequency of previous fractures. Results: No difference was observed between groups with regard to mean age, mean age of menopause onset and mean serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels (p>0.05 for all. Statistically, obese patients showed highly significantly greater mean BMD values at lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck in comparison to subjects with normal body weight (p=0.000 for all. Obese patients had a lower 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture on average as determined by FRAX® fracture risk score compared to that in normal-weight subjects (p<0.05. Also, obese group had a lower 10-year probability of a hip fracture versus normal-weight subjects (p<0.01. Both groups were found to have a similar frequency of previous fractures. Conclusion: Although obese patients in this study had greater BMD values and lower FRAX® risk scores, the probability of subsequent fractures predicted for the obese group was not lower when compared to that predicted for normal-weight group. It should be kept in mind that obesity may not necessarily be protective against fractures and treatment algorithms based solely on BMD might be inadequate to predict future fracture risk.

  5. Measurement of forearm bone mineral density in normal women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P.J.; Blake, G.M.; Fogelman, I. (Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1992-02-01

    The authors report the results of forearm measurements, without the use of a water bath, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 100 normal women aged 29-69 years (average age, 52 years). Studies were performed using the Hologic QDR-1000, with bone mineral density (BMD) measured at three sites in the non-dominant forearm: ultradistal, distal one-third and a region between these two. The precision of the technique was 0.74%, 0.55% and 0.58%, respectively. The normal range for forearm BMD and variation with age was established. BMD was also measured in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck. Linear regression analysis gave a range of correlation coefficients between forearm and axial sites of r 0.49-0.67. Standard errors of the estimate (SEE) in predicting axial from peripheral measurements gave average values from the three forearm sites of 0.085 g/cm{sup 2} for the femoral neck and 0.118 g/cm{sup 2} for the spine. (author).

  6. Polymorphisms of the human IL-1 receptor antagonist gene and forearm bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivka T Ivanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on the human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA gene polymorphism have provided conflicting data regarding the bone mass and quality. Aim and Design: The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the association between the forearm bone mineral density (BMD and the IL1RA gene polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 postmenopausal Bulgarian women participated in this study. BMD was measured at the forearm by X-ray absorptiometry on a DTX-100 device (Osteometer Meditech, USA. A PCR product was isolated. The alleles were scored according to their length: A1 - 410 bp - 4 repeats; A2 - 240 bp - 2 repeats; A3 - 500 bp - 5 repeats; A4 - 325 bp - 3 repeats; A5 - 595 bp - 6 repeats. All analyses were evaluated for statistical significance (χ2 -test and T-test. Results: Four alleles were observed - A1, A2, A3, and A4. The A1A1 genotype was more common in cases with low BMD than in controls with normal BMD (95% vs. 90%, χ2 P < 0.01. The A2A2 genotype was equally distributed among cases and controls (both 5%. The other two genotypes (A3A3 and A4A4 as well as A1A3 were present only in controls with normal BMD. The A2A2 genotype was associated with higher BMD and the A1A1 - with lower BMD at both forearm sites. The odds ratio for low BMD in the presence of the A1A1 genotype was 2.11. The etiological factor reflecting the association between the polymorphism and the disease was 0.50. In our study sample the IL1RA genetic polymorphisms were associated with the forearm BMD. Conclusion: This genetic polymorphism may become a useful genetic marker for the study of osteoporosis.

  7. Forearm bone mineral density changes during postpartum and the effects of breastfeeding, amenorrhea, body mass index and contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M L; Krupa, F G; Rehder, P M; Sousa, M H; Costa-Paiva, L; Cecatti, J G

    2012-06-01

    Prospective cohort study performed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) changes up to 12 months postpartum of healthy women and its association with breastfeeding, contraceptive methods, amenorrhea, and body mass index (BMI). There is a trend in bone loss during the first 6 months with posterior recovery, with evidence of a protective effect of hormonal contraception. This study was conducted to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) changes during postpartum period among healthy women and its association with breastfeeding, use of contraceptive methods, amenorrhea and body mass index (BMI). A prospective cohort study including 100 healthy women. Distal BMD was measured 7-10 days, 3, 6, and 12 months postpartum at the nondominant forearm using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data about breastfeeding duration, amenorrhea, contraceptive use and BMI were collected. Seventy-eight women had a complete set of BMD measurements. The mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 125.9 (±66.6) days, with a median total lactation period of 263.5 days. The mean duration of amenorrhea was 164.2 (±119.2) days. BMD measurements showed a significant decrease in the distal radius, however with no significance in the ultradistal radius. When considering only the nonhormonal contraceptive users, the difference at 12 months was significant. Multivariate analysis of variance showed that both BMI and contraceptive use were significantly correlated with BMD. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlation of distal radius with baseline BMD at the same site, pregestational BMI, age, years of schooling and difference in BMI. For ultradistal radius, there was a significant direct correlation with its baseline BMD and pregestational BMI. There was a trend in bone loss during the first 6 months postpartum with posterior recovery. Also, hormonal contraceptive methods provided protection of bone loss. However, the long duration of breastfeeding and the follow-up were not

  8. Association between polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E, bone mineral density of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette Pia; Sand, J C; Madsen, B

    2003-01-01

    are contradictory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of APOE, BMD of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in a population of postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fractures admitted to a department of orthopaedic......A genetic contribution to the development of osteoporosis is well documented. Although the association between the common allelic variation of apolipoprotein E (APOE), fracture risk, bone loss and bone mineral density (BMD) has been examined in several studies, the results of these investigations...... surgery and age-matched controls from the population register. The APOE genotypes of 327 women were studied: 73 with lower forearm fractures, 43 with hip fractures and 211 age-matched controls. The participants were not receiving antiosteoporotic treatment. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment...

  9. Quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 2p, 4p, and 13q influence bone mineral density of the forearm and hip in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Candace M; Schneider, Jennifer L; Cole, Shelley A; Hixson, James E; Samollow, Paul B; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Perez, Reina; Dyer, Thomas D; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Bauer, Richard L; Mitchell, Braxton D

    2003-12-01

    We performed a genome scan using BMD data of the forearm and hip on 664 individuals in 29 Mexican-American families. We obtained evidence for QTL on chromosome 4p, affecting forearm BMD overall, and on chromosomes 2p and 13q, affecting hip BMD in men. The San Antonio Family Osteoporosis Study (SAFOS) was designed to identify genes and environmental factors that influence bone mineral density (BMD) using data from large Mexican-American families. We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis using 416 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers spaced approximately 9.5 cM apart to locate and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect BMD of the forearm and hip. Multipoint variance components linkage analyses were done using data on all 664 subjects, as well as two subgroups of 259 men and 261 premenopausal women, from 29 families for which genotypic and phenotypic data were available. We obtained significant evidence for a QTL affecting forearm (radius midpoint) BMD in men and women combined on chromosome 4p near D4S2639 (maximum LOD = 4.33, genomic p = 0.006) and suggestive evidence for a QTL on chromosome 12q near locus D12S2070 (maximum conditional LOD = 2.35). We found suggestive evidence for a QTL influencing trochanter BMD on chromosome 6 (maximum LOD = 2.27), but no evidence for QTL affecting the femoral neck in men and women combined. In men, we obtained evidence for QTL affecting neck and trochanter BMD on chromosomes 2p near D2S1780 (maximum LOD = 3.98, genomic p = 0.013) and 13q near D13S788 (maximum LOD = 3.46, genomic p = 0.039), respectively. We found no evidence for QTL affecting forearm or hip BMD in premenopausal women. These results provide strong evidence that a QTL on chromosome 4p affects radius BMD in Mexican-American men and women, as well as evidence that QTL on chromosomes 2p and 13q affect hip BMD in men. Our results are consistent with some reports in humans and mice. J Bone Miner Res 2003;18:2245-2252

  10. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults have a markedly decreased bone mineral content compared to healthy adults. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of GH treatment on bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Therefore, we evaluated...... the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4...... months in a double-blind, placebo-controlled GH trial, while 13 of the patients then received further GH for an additional 14 months. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased significantly from 100 to 279 micrograms/l and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) from 1930 to 3355 micrograms/l after 4...

  11. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S

    1994-01-01

    the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4......Recent studies have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults have a markedly decreased bone mineral content compared to healthy adults. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of GH treatment on bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Therefore, we evaluated...... months in a double-blind, placebo-controlled GH trial, while 13 of the patients then received further GH for an additional 14 months. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased significantly from 100 to 279 micrograms/l and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) from 1930 to 3355 micrograms/l after 4...

  12. Ulnar nerve paralysis after forearm bone fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Schwartsmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Paralysis or nerve injury associated with fractures of forearm bones fracture is rare and is more common in exposed fractures with large soft-tissue injuries. Ulnar nerve paralysis is a rare condition associated with closed fractures of the forearm. In most cases, the cause of paralysis is nerve contusion, which evolves with neuropraxia. However, nerve lacerations and entrapment at the fracture site always need to be borne in mind. This becomes more important when neuropraxia appears or worsens after reduction of a closed fracture of the forearm has been completed. The importance of diagnosing this injury and differentiating its features lies in the fact that, depending on the type of lesion, different types of management will be chosen.

  13. Association between polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E, bone mineral density of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette Pia; Sand, J C; Madsen, B

    2003-01-01

    are contradictory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of APOE, BMD of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in a population of postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fractures admitted to a department of orthopaedic...

  14. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Turkish Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paker N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most DXA (dual-energy x-ray absorbtiometry manufacturers are not able to provide specific reference values for their equipment yet. The mean bone mineral density can vary among different populations.The aim of this study was to identify local reference values from a group of Turkish women living in Istanbul, in order to compare with the results obtained from other countries. We measured BMD at the lumbar spine, proximal femur, forearm, and total body in 205 healthy women between ages 20–79. They are all residents in Istanbul. Bone mineral density measurement was performed by DXA equipment. All measurements were made by an experienced technician in our hospital, using the same DXA equipment. Subjects enrolled in the study also filled in a questionnaire before the test.The mean age at menopause was 46.29 (± 14.28 years. Peak bone mineral density values were obtained in the 20–39 year age group when measured at the ultradistal radius, however, peak values were in the 30–39 age group when measurements were made at other sites. The number of women who had bone loss was higher with the forearm measurements compared to measurements made from the spine and femur. Bone mineral density values measured from the spine, hip, and forearm in our study group were lower than the values from American and European women, on the other hand, total body bone mineral density values from our group were higher than the values reported from western countries. Bone mass from different populations varies due to genetic and geographical factors. We, therefore, suggest that each country should use their localized reference values for bone mineral density measurement.

  15. The management of bone defects of the forearm after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, M; Gutow, A P; Sharpe, F

    1999-05-01

    In summary, the authors believe that traumatic bone defects of the diaphyseal forearm, fewer than 6 cm in length, can be well managed with corticocancellous bone grafting, provided the patient has an adequate soft-tissue envelope. In cases of soft-tissue compromise, primary bone grafting is still the treatment of choice, combined with simultaneous soft-tissue coverage. This does not exclude the use of immediate primary shortening. Traumatic bone defects larger than 6 cm can best be managed with osteoseptocutaneous free fibular graft with excellent functional and cosmetic results. The creation of a one-bone forearm is rarely necessary, but remains a treatment option for an otherwise unsalvageable extremity. Osteo-articular defects can be more difficult to manage. Proximal osteo-articular defects of the radial head can be treated with excision or placement of a titanium radial head prosthesis. Distal osteo-articular defects may be better addressed in the case of radial bone loss by primary wrist fusion and, in the ulna, by a primary Darrach or Suave-Kapandji procedure.

  16. Immobilisation-induced changes in forearm bone quantity and quality: radiographic fourier image analysis vs bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.; Price, R.I.; Buck, A.M.; University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA; Price, R.L.; University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA; Sweetman, I.M.; Ho, S.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Determinants of bone fracture risk include indices of bone 'quantity' such as bone mineral content (BMC, mineral mass per unit scanned bone length), plus 'environmental' (eg impact force) and 'quality' factors (Melton L.J. III et al, Bone and Min 2: 321, 1987). Bone 'quality' refers largely to the micro-geometry of bone (∼ 10-200μ), but has been less well studied because of the need for bone slices from (invasive) bone biopsies. Such studies often compare the geometry of trabecular networks (eg trabecular bone volume, trabecular number) with clinical outcomes such as fracture rates. Another (invasive) approach is to examine the two-dimensional (2-D) Fourier transform (FT) of a high-resolution radiographic image of the bone slice, since structural information is in theory encoded in the 2-D spatial-frequency (ν) spectrum. Additionally, the FT method can be applied to bone images obtained in-vivo, though superposition of information from the third dimension is a major confounding factor in their interpretation. Quantitative radiography of the ultradistal (UD) forearm permits determination of BMC (Price R et al; ACPSEM 6: 128- 137, 1983 and ACPSEM 11: 36-43, 1988), and (as a bonus) reveals a pattern (suitable for FT analysis) of the radiographic shadows of the 3-D trabecular network projected onto the image plane. Hemiplegia is associated with excessive bone loss in the paralysed (hemi) forearm, and is a model for the study of immobilisation osteoporosis. Thus, by comparing hemiplegia-induced changes in BMC and trabecular structure, derived from the same in vivo radiographic image, it is possible to compare directly the effects of disease on both bone quantity and quality, using the image of the non-paralysed (non-hemi) arm as a control. Seventy-four patients with hemiplegia of duration 3.6±3.6 (Mean±SD) years were studied cross-sectionally for radiographic BMC of their normal and paralysed UD forearms in AP view, each arm in duplicate. Methods

  17. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Santoshi, John Ashutosh; Leshem, Lall

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small...

  18. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  19. Discriminative ability of total body bone-mineral measured by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotfredsen, A.; Poedenphant, J.; Nilas, L.; Christiansen, C.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the descriminative ability of total body bone-mineral expressed as the total body bone-density (TBBD) measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) in 79 healthy premenopausal women, 27 healthy postmenopausal women, and 120 female osteoporotic fracture patients presenting with either Colles' fracture, vertebral fracture or femoral neck-fracture. TBBD was compared to the bone-mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD spine ) also measured by DPA, and to the bone-mineral content of the forearms (BMC forearm ) measured by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). TBBD, BMD spine and BMC forearm showed that all the fracture patient groups had significantly reduced bone-mass. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we found that TBBD had a tendency towards better discriminative ability than BMD spine or BMC forearm with regard to the discrimination between healthy premenopausal women and the three types of osteoporotic fractures. BMC forearm had an intermediate position, whereas BMD spine had the smallest discriminative ability. TBBD also discriminated better between healthy postmenopausal women and hip-fracture patients than BMD spine or BMC forearm , whereas there was no significant difference between the three methods regarding the discrimination between the healthy postmenopausal women and the Colles' and spinal fracture patients. We conclude that the TBBD measurement by DPA has a discriminative potential which is better than the local spine or forearm measurements. (author)

  20. Heritability of bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, S; Benmalek, A; Guaydier-Souquières, G; Sabatier, J P; Marcelli, C

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the influence of genetic background as a determinant of peak bone mass. We compared lumbar spine bone mineral density in 175 girls with a bone age of 16 years or older and in their premenopausal mothers. We also investigated the influence of a family history of osteoporosis on lumbar spine bone mineral density in 275 women and their 559 daughters. In the 175 mother-daughter pairs, heritability (h2) was significantly different from 0 (P < 0.0001) for lumbar spine bone mineral density (h2 = 53%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 28.5-77.6%), bone mineral content (h2 = 62.3%; 95% CI = 37.7-86.8%), bone mineral density adjusted for body mass index (h2 = 56%; CI = 31.5-80.5%), and bone mineral content adjusted for body mass index (h2 = 68.2%; CI = 43.6-92.7%). However, the heritability estimations lacked accuracy, as shown by the wide 95% CIs. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were found in 16.4% and 1% of the mothers, respectively. In the subgroup defined by osteopenia or osteoporosis in the mother, lumbar spine bone mineral density was significantly higher in the daughters than in the mothers (0.994 +/- 0.095 g/cm2 versus 0.895 +/- 0.098 g/cm2; P < 0.0001), whereas the opposite was true in the subgroup defined by normal bone mass in the mothers (1.068 +/- 0.110 g/cm2 versus 1.109 +/- 0.098 g/cm2; P = 0.0003). Nevertheless, lumbar spine bone mineral density was significantly lower in the daughters of low-bone-mass women than in those of normal-bone-mass women (0.994 +/- 0.009 g/cm2 versus 1.069 +/- 0.012 g/cm2; P = 0.0006). These findings suggest a role of genetic factors inherited from the father and also indicate that bone mass gains during adulthood contribute to achievement of the optimal peak bone mass. In the family history study, bone mass was lower in the subjects with a family history of osteoporosis (123 of the 559 daughters, Z-scores normalized for height, weight, and pubertal status: bone mineral density Z-score, -0.054 +/- 1.104; bone mineral

  1. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  2. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Komarova, Svetlana V.; Safranek, Lee; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Ou, Miao-jung Yvonne; McKee, Marc D.; Murshed, Monzur; Rauch, Frank; Zuhr, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized usin...

  3. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ashutosh Santoshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small lacerations on the distal-third of the forearm. Copious irrigation with normal saline was done and he was administered anti-tetanus and post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy was commenced. Radiographs revealed fracture of radius and ulna in the mid-shaft region. He underwent emergency wound debridement, and the ulna was stabilised with an intra-medullary square nail. Seventy-two hours later, he underwent re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis. He had an uneventful recovery and at three-month follow-up, the fractures had healed radiographically in anatomic alignment. At two-year follow-up, he is doing well, is pain free and has a normal range of motion compared to the contralateral side. Conclusion: Horse bites behave as compound fractures however rabies prophylaxis will be needed and careful observation is needed. Early radical debridement, preliminary skeletal stabilisation, re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis to plate, and antibiotic prophylaxis were the key to the successful management of our patient. Keywords: Horse; animal bite; forearm; open fracture

  4. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  5. Design of a Model of Forearm Bone Fractures for Educational Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastaniah, Saddig; Hamdan, Abdulrahman; Alhadrami, Abdullah; Almatrafi, Talal; Arif, Ahmed; Almalki, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This work explores a new approach to demonstrate possible forearm fractures in humans as an educating means for student radiographers. The Design of abnormal bones are not normally available as phantoms; the manufacturer usually produces normal human musculoskeletal models for educational purposes. Hence fractures and abnormalities are usually…

  6. Functional outcome following treatment of segmental skeletal defects of the forearm bones by Ilizarov application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mowafi, Hani; Elalfi, Barakat; Wasfi, Khaled

    2005-04-01

    Managing a segmental skeletal defect is a challenge, even more so if the combination of local infection with bone defect exacerbates the problem and provides an even more negative prognosis. Several techniques have been tried, among which skeletal allografts, autologous cortical or cancellous bone graft and vascularised bone graft, each with its limitation and success. In this study, we report our results with the Ilizarov method of bone transport to overcome bone defects of forearm bones due to infection. This series included 16 patients with bone defects of forearm bones, following either debridement of osteomylitis or infected nonunion. The mean time from injury to the Ilizarov procedure was 11.7 months. The mean number of operative procedures before application of the Ilizarov device was 3.4. The mean length of the defects after debridement was 6.4 cm. Monofocal osteotomy was performed. The mean external fixation index, distraction index and maturation index were 41.5 days/cm, 19.8 days/ cm, and 21.7 days/cm respectively. The mean time in the frame was 8.9 months. The mean total duration of treatment was 11.4 months. There were 14 complications in 11 patients including pin-track infection, premature consolidation, delayed union at the docking site and refracture. Ilizarov's technique of bone transport is an ideal solution for a large skeletal defect in spite of the high incidence of associated complications.

  7. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bones......-ray absoptiometry (r = 0.86, p Relative to this age-related loss, the reported short...... sites and a precision that potentially allows for relatively short observation intervals. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-null...

  8. Diminished bone strength is observed in adult women and men who sustained a mild trauma distal forearm fracture during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Khosla, Sundeep; Achenbach, Sara J; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Kirmani, Salman; McCready, Louise K; Melton, L Joseph; Amin, Shreyasee

    2014-10-01

    Children and adolescents who sustain a distal forearm fracture (DFF) owing to mild, but not moderate, trauma have reduced bone strength and cortical thinning at the distal radius and tibia. Whether these skeletal deficits track into adulthood is unknown. Therefore, we studied 75 women and 75 men (age range, 20 to 40 years) with a childhood (age bicycle) had values similar to controls. Consistent findings were observed at the distal tibia. Furthermore, women and men with a mild trauma childhood DFF had significant deficits in distal radius cortical area (p < 0.05), and significantly lower dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived bone density at the radius, hip, and total body regions compared to controls (all p < 0.05). By contrast, women and men with a moderate trauma childhood DFF had bone density, structure, and strength that did not differ significantly from controls. These findings in young adults are consistent with our observations in children/adolescents with DFF, and they suggest that a mild trauma childhood DFF may presage suboptimal peak bone density, structure, and strength in young adulthood. Children and adolescents who suffer mild trauma DFFs may need to be targeted for lifestyle interventions to help achieve improved skeletal health. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. Local bone mineral mass as a function of dose in radium cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Bone mineral mass at specific sites in the forearms and fingers of females with exposure to radium and mesothorium appears to have no dependence on dose. Data analysis is continuing, so these results should be considered preliminary. Future analyses will include males

  10. Procedural Sedation With Ketamine Versus Propofol for Closed Reduction of Pediatric Both Bone Forearm Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd; Carender, Chris; Kilbane, Brendan; Liu, Raymond W

    2017-09-01

    Effective treatment of pediatric both bone forearm fractures consists of timely restoration of anatomic alignment with manipulation and immobilization, often accomplished with the aid of procedural sedation in the emergency department setting. The current lack of consensus regarding a safe and optimal regimen may result in inadequate sedation, compromised quality of reduction, or patient harm. The current study was conducted to answer the following questions for pediatric both bone forearm fractures treated with closed reduction with either ketamine or propofol procedural sedation: (1) Is there a difference in the rate of unacceptable alignment 4 weeks after reduction? (2) Is there a difference in the rates of major sedation-related complications? Medical records, data on procedural sedation, and radiographs of 74 skeletally immature patients with diaphyseal or distal metaphyseal both bone forearm fractures treated with manipulation were reviewed (ketamine sedation, 26; propofol sedation, 48). Rates of unacceptable alignment for the 2 cohorts were similar both immediately after reduction and at 4 weeks. Rates of complications of procedural sedation did not differ between cohorts. The duration of procedural sedation was longer and the padding index was greater with ketamine. Malalignment after reduction was more likely in older patients and those with a higher padding index. Although no difference was found in the rates of malalignment or sedation-related complications between fractures reduced with ketamine or propofol sedation, the sedation regimens differ in both procedural duration and padding index. Careful consideration of the risks and benefits of procedural sedation for closed reduction of pediatric forearm fractures is warranted. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(5):288-294.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. The effect of nutritional rickets on bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M

    2014-11-01

    Nutritional rickets is caused by impaired mineralization of growing bone. The effect of nutritional rickets on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) has not been established. Our objective was to determine if aBMD is lower in children with active rickets than in healthy control children. We expected that the reduction in aBMD would vary between the radial and ulnar metaphyses near the growth plates and the proximal diaphyses. Case-control study. Primary care outpatient department of a teaching hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Nigerian children with radiographically-confirmed rickets were compared with a reference group of control children without rickets from the same community. Forearm bone density measurements were performed in all children with pDXA. Age, sex, and height-adjusted bone density parameters were compared between children with rickets and control subjects. A total of 264 children with active rickets (ages 13-120 months) and 660 control children (ages 11-123 months) were included. In multivariate analyses controlling for height, age, and gender, rickets was associated with a 4% greater bone area and 7% lower aBMD of the radial and ulnar metaphyses compared with controls (P rickets on the diaphyses of the radius and ulna were more pronounced with an 11% greater bone area, 21% lower aBMD, and 24% lower bone mineral apparent density than controls (P children with rickets, aBMD values were unrelated to dairy product intake or serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Metaphyseal aBMD was positively associated with radiographic severity score, attributed to bone edge detection artifact by densitometry in active rickets. Rickets results in increased bone area and reduced aBMD, which are more pronounced in the diaphyseal than in the metaphyseal regions of the radius and ulna, consistent with secondary hyperparathyroidism, generalized osteoid expansion and impaired mineralization.

  12. Bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p35 In Brazil, there are two species of tapirs, the largest land mammals in Brazil, which belong to the order Perissodactyla, as do horses. Our aim was to describe the bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in T. terrestris and to propose adaptive functions. We used five anatomical specimens donated from a breeder to the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of the Federal University of Uberlandia after death with no trauma. The bones were analyzed, the muscles dissected, and both described. The bones of the forearm and hand of the tapir are the ulna, radius, Os. metacarpalia, Os. carpi, phalanx and Os. sesamoideum. The muscles are M. extensor carpi radialis, M. ulnaris lateralis; M. flexor carpi radialis; M. extensor radialis communis; M. extensor digitorum longus II, III, IV and V, M. extensor digitorum lateralis; M. extensor digitorum; M. abductor longus; M. flexor digiti superficialis; M. flexor digitalis; M. flexor carpi ulnaris; M. flexor carpi obliquus; and M. interossei and M. lumbricales. Characteristics of bone and muscle structure are adapted to the development of the animal’s niche.

  13. Bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two species of tapirs, the largest land mammals in Brazil, which belong to the order Perissodactyla, as do horses. Our aim was to describe the bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in T. terrestris and to propose adaptive functions. We used five anatomical specimens donated from a breeder to the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of the Federal University of Uberlandia after death with no trauma. The bones were analyzed, the muscles dissected, and both described. The bones of the forearm and hand of the tapir are the ulna, radius, Os. metacarpalia, Os. carpi, phalanx and Os. sesamoideum. The muscles are M. extensor carpi radialis, M. ulnaris lateralis; M. flexor carpi radialis; M. extensor radialis communis; M. extensor digitorum longus II, III, IV and V, M. extensor digitorum lateralis; M. extensor digitorum; M. abductor longus; M. flexor digiti superficialis; M. flexor digitalis; M. flexor carpi ulnaris; M. flexor carpi obliquus; and M. interossei and M. lumbricales. Characteristics of bone and muscle structure are adapted to the development of the animal’s niche.

  14. EVALUATION OF RESULTS IN FRACTURES OF BOTH BONES FOREARM TREATED WITH DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhuja G

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The anatomical alignment of the bones, the length, the radial bow, and axis should be restored for a good functional outcome. Conservative treatment has resulted in malunion, non-union, synostosis and ultimately poor functional outcome. Internal fixation helps in perfect reduction of fracture fragments in anatomical position by rigid fixation and early mobilisation, the normal functions of the hand can be re-achieved at the earliest. This study has been taken up to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation of the fractures of BBFA with DCP in adults and its advantages and complications. In this study, the rate and time taken for union, the complication, the functional results in terms of forearm rotation and wrist and elbow movements are evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study includes treatment of 20 cases of fracture of both bones of forearm by open reduction and internal fixation with 3.5 mm DCP from August 2013 to August 2015 at Department of Orthopaedics at Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences, Amalapuram. Follow-up was done up to September 2015. This is a prospective time bound study. Sample size - 20 patients. Inclusion Criteria- 1. Simple fractures. 2. Open fractures-Gustilo and Anderson type I and type II. 3. Age criteria = 15 to 70 years, both males and females. Exclusion Criteria- 1. Age criteria 0 to 14 years & > 70 years. 2. Radiologically proven segmental fractures and isolated forearm bone fractures. 3. Pathological fracture. 4. Gustilo and Anderson type III. 5. Patient not willing for surgery. 6. Patient unfit for surgery. RESULTS The present study consists of 20 cases of fracture both bones of the forearm. All the cases were openly reduced and internally fixed with 3.5 mm DCP. The study period was from August 2013 to September 2015. The age of these patients ranged from 15-70 years with fracture being most common in 3 rd decade and an average age of 31 years. CONCLUSION Use of separate

  15. Monotherapy vs. polytherapy in the treatment of forearm non-unions and bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calori, G M; Colombo, M; Mazza, E; Ripamonti, C; Mazzola, S; Marelli, N; Mineo, G V

    2013-01-01

    To determinate the efficacy of "polytherapy", a surgical technique that utilize all the components of the diamond concept (mesenchymal stem cells, bone morphogenetic proteins and scaffold) versus a "monotherapy", a surgical technique that utilize only one component of the diamond conceptin the treatment of severe forearm non-unions. We studied a database of 52 patients with 52 forearm non-unions; we classified the patients with the NUSS SCORE and we divided the patients in two group according to the treatment received. So we distinguished a group of patients treated according to the principles of "monotherapy" (33 patients) and a group of patients treated according to the principles of "polytherapy" (19 patients). The minimum follow up was 12 months. In the monotherapy group 21/33 non-unions (63.64%) went on to develop a radiographic and clinical healing within a period of 12 months, the calculated DASH SCORE showed a mean value of 55.15 points. In the polytherapy group 17/19 (89.47%) nonunions went on to develop clinical and radiographic healing within 12 months, and the average DASH score showed a mean value of 45.47 points. The polytherapy technique with the use of recombinant morphogenetic proteins, autologous MSCs and scaffold in the same surgical time appears to be an effective treatment for patients with severe forearm non-unions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Congenital Deficiency of Distal Ulna and Dislocation of the Radial Head Treated by Single Bone Forearm Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paragjyoti Gogoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital deficiency of part of distal ulna affecting the distal radio-ulnar joint is a rare disorder. It is even rarer to find the association of proximal radio-ulnar joint dislocation along with distal ulnar deficiency. This type of congenital forearm anomaly is difficult to treat. Conversion to a single bone forearm in the expense of pronation-supination movement is a viable option. By doing so the elbow and wrist can be stabilized; however movement is possible in only one plane. We are describing here a girl of 8 years having proximal radio-ulnar joint dislocation along with deficiency of distal ulna treated by converting into a single bone forearm.

  17. Bone mineral density and trabecular bone tissue quality in obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and osteoporosis are the two metabolic dise­ases with increased prevalence over last decades and a strong impact on the global morbidity and mortality have gained a status of major health threats worldwide. There is evidence that the higher body mass index (BMI values are associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD resulting in a site-specific protective effect for fragility fractures. On the other hand, higher BMI values increases incidence of falls and is associated with worse fractures consolidation. However, trabecular bone score (TBS indirectly explores bone quali­ty, independently of BMD. The aim of the study was to determine the connection between the BMD and TBS parameters in Ukrainian men suffering from obesity. Methods. We examined 396 men aged 40–89 years, by the BMI all the subjects were divided into 2 groups: Group A — with obesity and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (n = 129 and Group B — without obesity and BMI < 30 kg/m2 (n = 267. The BMD of total body, lumbar spine at the site L1–L4, femur and forearm were measured by DXA (Prodigy, GEHC Lunar, Madison, WI, USA. The TBS of L1–L4 was assessed by means of TBS iNsight (Med-Imaps, Pessac, France. Results. In general, obese men had a significantly higher BMD of lumbar spine, femoral neck, total body and ultradistal forearm (p < 0.001 in comparison with men without obesity. The TBS of L1–L4 was significantly lower in obese men compared to non-obese men (p < 0.001. The significant positive correlation between the fat mass and the BMD at different sites was observed. The correlation between the fat mass and TBS of L1–L4 was also significant, but negative. Conclusions. Obesity negatively affects the quality of trabecular bone, while bone mineral density was significantly higher.

  18. Bone Mineral Density in Elite DanceSport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) variables of female and male elite dancesport athletes with untrained control subjects of the same gender. Sixty-six elite dancesport athletes (M 33, F 33) and 64 untrained controls (M 34, F 31) participated in this study. Elite dancesport athletes were dancing couples competing at the international level. Whole-body bone mineral content and whole-body, forearm, lumbar-spine, and femoral-neck BMD, as well as whole-body fat mass and fat free mass, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences (p>0.05) in height and body mass between dancers and controls of the same gender, but percent body fat was lower (pdancesport athletes had significantly higher femoral-neck BMD, and male dancers also higher whole-body BMD values when compared with controls of the same gender. All other measured bone mineral values did not differ between the groups of the same gender. In addition, training experience was positively correlated with whole-body BMD (r=0.27; pdancesport athletes. Based on this study, it can be concluded that elite dancesport athletes have higher BMD values at the weight-bearing site (femoral-neck BMD), while other measured areas and whole-body bone mineral values do not differ from the corresponding values of healthy sedentary controls of the same gender. According to our results, low BMD is not an issue for elite female dancesport athletes, despite their lower percent body fat values.

  19. Physical activity and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bones play an important structural role in the organism. They provide mobility, support, and protect the body, and the place where the storage essential minerals. Healthy bones have a crucial impact on the overall health of a person, and activities that promote health and preventive influence on the formation of bone disease are crucial in maintaining a strong and healthy skeletal system. Physical inactivity affects the decrease in function of bone, and the most common disease of bone osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder that results in low bone density and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, that results in less bone density, and may lead to fracture. Physical activity is essential for bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. Based on available information, the best effect to maintain and stimulate the formation of bone mineral density is a combination of dynamic exercises with resistance training that engage multiple joints, large muscle groups, and have influence on the spine and hips. The results suggest that exercises with axial loading, such as running, jumping, and power exercise, promote the positive gains in bone mineral density. Therefore, training should focus on the adaptation of specific parts of the body that is most susceptible to injury, and should be sufficiently intense that exceeds the normal loads.

  20. Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective of this study was to establish a triage cut-off point or threshold for peripheral bone mineral density (BMD), applicable to black postmenopausal women, and that could be used as a screening method to differentiate between women with normal BMD, and those with possible central osteoporosis.

  1. Monoaxial distraction of ulna to second metacarpal followed by single bone forearm in massive post infective radial bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra N Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radial bone loss associated with gross manus valgus deformity can be managed by open reduction internal fixation using intervening strut bone graft, callus distraction using ring or monoaxial fixator, and achieving union by distraction histogenesis. These methods are particularly suitable when bone loss is small. Single or staged procedure is described for congenital as well as in acquired extensive bone loss of radius. Distraction through radial proximal to distal segments, to achieve reduction of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ, is also described in acquired cases. In the present series, functional results of distraction through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal is studied alongwith, functional status of hand, stability of wrist, level of patient′s satisfaction are also studied. Materials and Methods: 7 unilateral cases of radial loss (M = 5, F = 2 affecting 4 right hands of mean age 17 years (range 9 to 24 years were included in this study. They were treated by distracting through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal to achieve DRUJ alignment in first stage. Subsequently ulna was osteotomised and translated to distal stump of radius. It was then fixed to the distal radial remnant in 30° pronation in dominant and 30° supination non dominant hands. Results: Union was achieved in all cases associated with beneficial cross union of distal ulna. Hand functions improved near to normal, with fully corrected stable wrist joint, hypertrophied ulna and without recurrence. All of them had practically complete loss of forearm rotations, however patients were fully satisfied. Conclusion: This method is particularly suitable when associated with 6 cm or more radial bone loss. But when loss is small, sacrifice of one bone may not be justifiable.

  2. Overweight children have a greater proportion of fat mass relative to muscle mass in the upper limbs than in the lower limbs: implications for bone strength at the distal forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, Gaele; Bass, Shona L; Naughton, Geraldine A; Eser, Prisca; Telford, Richard D; Daly, Robin M

    2009-10-01

    The influence of adiposity on upper-limb bone strength has rarely been studied in children, despite the high incidence of forearm fractures in this population. The objective was to compare the influence of muscle and fat tissues on bone strength between the upper and lower limbs in prepubertal children. Bone mineral content, total bone cross-sectional area, cortical bone area (CoA), cortical thickness (CoTh) at the radius and tibia (4% and 66%, respectively), trabecular density (TrD), bone strength index (4% sites), cortical density (CoD), stress-strain index, and muscle and fat areas (66% sites) were measured by using peripheral quantitative computed tomography in 427 children (206 boys) aged 7-10 y. Overweight children (n = 93) had greater values for bone variables (0.3-1.3 SD; P strength.

  3. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU ...

  4. Bone Activity Biomarkers and Bone Mineral Density in Children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants were subjected to biochemical assessment that included osteocalcin (OC), total and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (tALP and bALP), isomerized beta form of type I collagen cross-linked telopeptide (β-Crosslaps) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Patients with CKD also had their bone mineral ...

  5. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  6. Initial years of recreational artistic gymnastics training improves lumbar spine bone mineral accrual in 4- to 8-year-old females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Emma M; Wilson, Alissa R; Modlesky, Christopher M; O'Connor, Patrick J; Hall, Daniel B; Lewis, Richard D

    2005-03-01

    Gymnasts' bone mineral characteristics are generally not known before starting their sport. Prepubertal females who enrolled in beginning artistic gymnastics (n = 65) had lower bone mineral than controls (n = 78). However, 2 years of gymnastics participation versus no participation led to a significantly greater accrual of forearm bone area and lumbar spine areal BMD. The skeletal response to exercise in children compared with adults is heightened because of the high bone turnover rate and the ability of bone to change its size and shape. Whereas child gymnasts generally have greater rates of bone mineral accrual compared with nongymnasts, it is unknown if some of these skeletal advantages are present before the onset of training or are caused entirely by training. Changes in bone area (BA; cm2), BMC (g), and areal BMD (aBMD; g/cm2) over 24 months were examined in prepubertal females, 4-8 years of age, who selected to perform recreational gymnastics (GYM; n = 65), nongymnastic activities, or no organized activity (CON; n = 78). Participants had essentially no lifetime history of organized athletic participation ( 0.05). Controlling for differences in race, baseline measures of body mass, height, and calcium intake, and change in breast development beyond stage II at 24 months, GYM had greater long-term (asymptotic) mean responses for total body aBMD and forearm BMC (p < 0.04) and greater rates of increase in the mean responses of lumbar spine aBMD and forearm BA compared with CON over 24 months. Over time, forearm BA increased to a greater extent in HLG compared with LLG (p < 0.01). Females participating in recreational gymnastics initiated during childhood have enhanced bone mineral gains at the total body, lumbar spine, and forearm over 24 months. Higher-level training promotes additional gains in forearm BA.

  7. The Correlation Between the OTA/AO Classification System and Compartment Syndrome in Both Bone Forearm Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Thomas S; Hwang, John S; Stekas, Nicholas; Gibson, Peter D; Sirkin, Michael S; Reilly, Mark C; Adams, Mark R

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of using the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA/AO) classification for both bone forearm fractures in predicting compartment syndrome. Retrospective cohort. Level 1 Academic Trauma Center. One hundred fifty-one patients 18 years of age and older, with both bone forearm fractures diagnosed from 2001 to 2016 were categorized based on the OTA/AO classification. Patients with both bone fractures caused by gunshot wounds were excluded. The endpoint for our study was whether forearm fasciotomies were performed based on the presence of compartment syndrome. Of a total of 151 both bone forearm fractures, 15% underwent fasciotomy. Six of 80 (7.5%) grouped 22-A3, 8 of 44 (18%) grouped 22-B3, and 9 of 27 (33%) grouped 22-C underwent fasciotomies for compartment syndrome (P = 0.004). The relative risks of developing compartment syndrome for group 22-B3 versus 22-A3 was 2.42 (P = 0.08), 22-C versus 22-B3 was 1.83 (P = 0.15), and 22-C versus 22-A3 was 4.44 (P = 0.002). There is a significant correlation between the OTA/AO classification and the need for fasciotomies, with group C fractures representing the highest risk. Clinicians can use this information to have a higher index of suspicion for compartment syndrome based on OTA/AO classification to help minimize the risk of a missed diagnosis. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  8. Bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, A B; Søndergaard, H B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. The aetiology of bone loss in MS is unclear. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel analytical tool that provides a measurement of the bone microarchitecture. Decreased TBS...... included. TBS was calculated using TBS iNsight software (MediMaps® ). Multivariable regression analyses were performed with information on smoking, alcohol, glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, sun exposure, physical activity, vitamin D and BMI. RESULTS: Trabecular bone score was not significantly different from...... patients, suggesting that BMD alone, and not the bone microarchitecture, is affected in MS. However, larger studies are needed to verify these findings and to establish the role of TBS in MS. As in the background population, physical activity and non-smoking habits are associated with better bone health...

  9. Peripheral bone mineral density and different intensities of physical activity in children 6-8 years old: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, H; Karlsson, K M; Hansen, S E

    2007-01-01

    -stimulating physical activity, we evaluated different definitions of vigorous physical activity. The boys had 3.2% higher distal forearm bone mineral content (BMC, P physical activity and spent 14.6-19.0% more...... time in vigorous physical activity (all P time of daily physical activity as well......This study aimed to evaluate the association between objectively measured habitual physical activity and calcaneal and forearm bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)), one mechanically more loaded and one less loaded skeletal region, in children aged 6-8 years. BMD was measured in 297 boys and 265...

  10. Rope skipping increases bone mineral density at calcanei of pubertal girls in Hong Kong: A quasi-experimental investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Ha

    Full Text Available Bone mineral accrual during puberty is important, especially in girls, because it is related to reduced risks of osteoporosis in adulthood. Previous research has shown that jumping or plyometric exercises may be effective in increasing bone mineral density in adolescents. Rope skipping is a form of activity that involves jumping, thus regular skipping may also increase bone mineral density in pubertal girls. To this end, we conducted a quasi-experimental to examine the effects of rope skipping on girls' bone mineral density and cardiovascular fitness. 176 Hong Kong girls (age = 12.23 ± 1.80 years at baseline were recruited to take part in the study. Bone density at their forearms and calcanei were measured twice over two academic years (mean time between visits was 10.3 months. Using multilevel modeling analyses and adjusting for participants' height and physical activity, we found that girls who participated in weekly rope skipping activities, compared to those who did not, had higher levels of bone density at the calcanei (B = 0.023, p < .01. However, no differences were found for bone density at forearms or participants' cardiovascular fitness. The rates of change of these variables across time were also not significantly different. Results suggest that regular rope skipping may increase girls' bone density at the lower extremities, irrespective of the amount of self-report physical activity. However, further research is required to examine the potential dose-response relation between skipping behaviors and the measured outcomes.

  11. Open segmental fracture of both bone forearm and dislocation of ipsilateral elbow with extruded middle segment radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extruded middle segment of radius with open segmental fracture both bone forearm and dislocation of ipsilateral elbow is a rare injury. A 12-year-old child presented to us within 4 hours following fall from tree. The child′s mother was carrying a 12-cm-long extruded soiled segment of radius. The extruded bone was thoroughly washed. The medullary cavity was properly syringed with antiseptic solution. The bone was autoclaved and put in the muscle plane of the distal forearm after debridement of the wound. After 5 days, a 2.5-mm K-wire was introduced by retrograde method into the proximal radius by passing through the extruded segment. Another 2.5-mm K-wire was passed in ulna. The limb was evaluated clinicoradiologically every 2 weeks. The wound was healed by primary intention. At 4 months, the reposed bone appeared less dense radiologically and K-wire seemed to be out of the bone. In the subsequent months, the roentgenograms show remodeling of the extruded fragment. After 20 weeks, the K-wires were removed (first ulnar and then radial. Complete union was achieved with full range of movement except loss of few degrees of extension of elbow and thumb. This case is reported to show a good outcome following successful incorporation of an extruded segment of radius in an open fracture.

  12. Open segmental fracture of both bone forearm and dislocation of ipsilateral elbow with extruded middle segment radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Manjhi, Lal Bahadur; Rajak, Ramesh Lal

    2013-05-01

    Extruded middle segment of radius with open segmental fracture both bone forearm and dislocation of ipsilateral elbow is a rare injury. A 12-year-old child presented to us within 4 hours following fall from tree. The child's mother was carrying a 12-cm-long extruded soiled segment of radius. The extruded bone was thoroughly washed. The medullary cavity was properly syringed with antiseptic solution. The bone was autoclaved and put in the muscle plane of the distal forearm after debridement of the wound. After 5 days, a 2.5-mm K-wire was introduced by retrograde method into the proximal radius by passing through the extruded segment. Another 2.5-mm K-wire was passed in ulna. The limb was evaluated clinicoradiologically every 2 weeks. The wound was healed by primary intention. At 4 months, the reposed bone appeared less dense radiologically and K-wire seemed to be out of the bone. In the subsequent months, the roentgenograms show remodeling of the extruded fragment. After 20 weeks, the K-wires were removed (first ulnar and then radial). Complete union was achieved with full range of movement except loss of few degrees of extension of elbow and thumb. This case is reported to show a good outcome following successful incorporation of an extruded segment of radius in an open fracture.

  13. [Bone mineral density in juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña Simón, E; Bueno Lozano, G; Armadá Maresca, M I; Ruibal Francisco, J L; Fernández Pérez, C; Lozano Tonkin, C; Casado de Frías, E

    2000-06-01

    To determine bone mineral density (BMD) at axial and appendicular sites in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and evaluate its relationship with metabolic control and disease duration. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-1000) in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and at the distal third forearm in 246 healthy non-diabetic children and adolescents (111 boys, 135 girls, aged 2.8-20.8 years) and in 45 diabetic patients (18 boys, 27 girls, aged 5.2-19.4 years). The results were expressed as the mean and standard deviation. The differences were tested by analysis of variance or Students t-test, as appropriate. The relationship between BMD and the remaining variables was studied by simple Pearsons coefficient and partial correlation coefficient. Significance was defined as p pubertal spurt. The greatest differences were found in males and in the trabecular bone. No relationship was found between metabolic control (mean glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin requirement) and duration of diabetes and the BMD in any region studied (p > 0.05). Pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus appear to constitute a population at risk of osteoporosis in adult-hood. Diagnosis of osteopenia diagnosis should be established according to densitometric criteria. In this study, metabolic control parameters and duration of diabetes did not enable predetermination of diabetic patients at risk of osteoporosis in adulthood.

  14. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  15. Continuous antiretroviral therapy decreases bone mineral density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grund, Birgit; Peng, Grace; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Hoy, Jennifer F.; Isaksson, Rachel L.; Shlay, Judith C.; Martinez, Esteban; Reiss, Peter; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Carr, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effects of anti retroviral therapy (ART) on bone mineral density (BMD) Design: Randomized comparison of continuous ART (viral suppression group; VS) with intermittent ART (drug conservation group; DC) Setting: Outpatient clinics in the United States, Australia, and Spain.

  16. Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTH(1-84), and bone mineral content in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, B; Jensen, J D; Nielsen, H K

    1991-01-01

    Bone mineral content, estimated by single-photon absorptiometry of the forearm, serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-84], osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3), and aluminium were determined during treatment with calcium carbonate (CaCO3......) or aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) in 11 dialysis patients participating in a randomised cross-over study. Each treatment period lasted 6 months. Serum phosphorus was maintained in the range 1.5-2.0 mmol/l. During Al(OH)3 treatment bone mineral content (BMC) decreased by 11% per half-year (mean), but only by 3...

  17. Bone mineral changes in primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.L.; Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Trieste Univ.; Kanter, A.S.; Genant, H.K.; Kolb, F.O.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-01-01

    We studied 34 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in order to assess their bone mineral status, to determine its relationship to biochemical parameters (serum calcium and parathyroid hormone) and surgical status, and to determine the relationship between peripheral cortical bone and spinal trabecular bone in this disease. These patients were studied with radiogrammetry of the metacarpals, Norland-Cameron photon absorptiometry of the radius, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the spine, industrial radiography of the hands, and conventional radiography of the thoracolumbar spine. We also calculated a spinal fracture index from thoracolumbar spine films. We found that the appendicular measurements correlated well together, but less well with spinal QCT. The spinal fracture index correlated best with QCT (r = 0.55), although significant dispersion was noted. We found that, in general, these hyperparathyroid patients had statistically significant decrements in bone mineral content in both the appendicular and the axial portions of the skeleton. However, the decrement in the appendicular skeleton did not correlate well with that in the axial skeleton. Therefore we conclude that it is necessary to measure both peripheral and central bone mineral content in order to reliably assess the skeletal demineralizing effects of primary hyperparathyroidism in an individual patient. (orig.)

  18. Premature hair graying and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr-Walker, B J; Evans, M C; Ames, R W; Clearwater, J M; Reid, I R

    1997-11-01

    In a recent case-control study, premature hair graying was found to be associated with osteopenia, suggesting that this might be a clinically useful risk factor for osteoporosis. We report a reexamination of this possibility in 293 healthy postmenopausal women. Subjects experiencing onset of hair graying in their 20s tended to have lower bone mineral density throughout the skeleton (adjusted for age and weight) than those with onset of graying later in life. The same was true for those in whom the majority of their hair was gray by the age of 40 yr (n = 16), in whom bone density was reduced by 7% in the femoral neck, 8% in the femoral trochanter, and 4% in the total body (P gray. Bone density at the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle showed similar trends that were not significant. However, premature hair graying explained only 0.6-1.3% of the variance in bone mineral density within the population. We conclude that premature hair graying is associated with low bone density, but that its infrequency in the normal postmenopausal population leads to its accounting for only a tiny fraction of the variance of bone density.

  19. Bone mineral density scans in veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bass

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Bass1,2, Etienne Pracht1,3, Philip Foulis4,51VISN 8 Patient Safety Center of Inquiry, Tampa, FL; 2School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 4James A Haley VA Hospital, Tampa, FL, USA; 5Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAGoals: Recent findings suggest the prevalence of osteoporosis among men is under-recognized. The patient population of the Veterans Health Administration (VA is predominantly male and many elderly veterans may be at risk of osteoporosis. Given the lack of data on male osteoporosis, we provide initial insight into diagnostic procedures for patients at one VA medical center. Procedures: A review and descriptive analysis of patients undergoing radiological evaluation for osteoporosis at one VA medical center.Results: We identified 4,919 patients who had bone mineral density scans from 2001–2004. VA patients receiving bone mineral density scans were commonly white, male, over age 70 and taking medications with potential bone-loss side effects.Conclusions: While further research is needed, preliminary evidence suggests that the VA screens the most vulnerable age groups in both genders. Heightened awareness among primary care providers of elderly male patients at risk of osteoporosis can lead to early intervention and improved management of this age-related condition.Keywords: bone mineral density scans, osteoporosis, veterans

  20. Bone mineral density and elemental composition of bone tissues in "red-boned" Guishan goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenchen; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Peng; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing; Ma, Huarong; Wang, Weizhong; Wang, Zhe; Ge, Changrong; Gao, Shizheng

    2012-12-01

    Red-colored bones were first found in Guishan goats in the 1980s, and they were subsequently designated red-boned Guishan goats. However, the difference remains unclear between the bone mineral density (BMD) or elemental composition in bones between red-boned Guishan goats and common Guishan goats. Analysis of femoral bone samples by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry revealed an increase in bone mineral density in the femoral diaphysis and distal femur of red-boned Guishan goats at 18 and 36 months of age. The data revealed that BMD increased in both the red-boned and common Guishan goats from 18 to 36 months of age. The data also indicated that the ratio of the BMD values of red-boned to common Guishan goats was higher at 36 months of age than they were at 18 months of age. Furthermore, the levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, barium, zinc, manganese, and aluminum were significantly higher in red-boned Guishan goats than common Guishan goats at 18 and 36 months of age. The results indicate that the red-boned Guishan goats were linked to the elevated levels of mineral salts observed in the bones and that this in turn may be linked to the elevated BMD levels encountered in red-boned Guishan goats. These reasons may be responsible for the red coloration in the bones of red-boned Guishan goats.

  1. Study on the relationship between serum testosterone level and forearm distal bone density in post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenqi; Zhou Zhengli; Li Xin; Zhou Jiwen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the androgen level and bone density in post-menopausal women. Methods: Serum testosterone (T) level and forearm distal bone density (BMD) were measured in 39 past-menopausal women who had never taken any estrogen or calcium preparation. Their serum estradiol (E 2 ) levels were about the same. According to their BMD, the 39 subjects were divided into normal (n = 22) and osteoporotic (n = 17) groups. Results: The mean serum testosterone (T) level in the normal group was significantly higher than that in the osteoporotic group (p 1 = 0.72, r 2 0.75; p 1 and r 2 was 0.14, suggesting similarity of the positive cor-relationship for both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Serum testosterone level seems to bear close relationship with bone density and osteoporosis

  2. [Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) in the treatment of both-bone forearm fractures in the child: about 87 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaloussi, Saad; Amine Oukhouya, Mohamed; Alaoui, Othmane; Atarraf, Karima; Chater, Lamiae; Afifi, My Abderrahmane

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe the complications of elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) in the treatment of both-bone forearm diaphyseal fractures in the child. Between January 2009 and December 2013, 87 children with both-bone forearm diaphyseal fractures were treated by elastic stable intramedullary nailing with Métaizeau nails. 76 boys and 11 girls, with an average age of 12 years, were enrolled in the study. Nailing was promptly performed in 50 cases and after secondary displacement during plaster-cast treatment in the other cases. Both bones were nailed in all cases. All patients underwent systematic plaster immobilization for a period of about one month. On average, nails were removed after about 6 months. Functional outcomes were studied over a mean follow-up period of 10 months. Complications were marked by 14 superficial infections (14 cases), osteitis associated with material (2 cases), refracture (3 cases), pseudarthrosis (3 cases), delayed fracture consolidation (2 cases) and proximal radioulnar synostosis (1 case). Although intramedullary nailing ideally is an osteosynthesis technique suitable for the treatment of fractures in children, it is more invasive than orthopaedic treatment.Indications for treatment should remain within well-established limits.

  3. Comparison of bone densitometry of the phalanges, distal forearm and axial skeleton in early postmenopausal women participating in the EPIC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Overgaard, K; Huang, C

    1996-01-01

    forearm. In a random subgroup of 308 women, aged 45-60 years, on average 6 years since menopause (YSM), bone densitometry was measured once at baseline by RA of the phalanges besides the mandatory measurements by DXA. Bone densitometry was furthermore measured by SXA at the Danish site (89 women). Sixty...

  4. No major effect of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms on bone mineral density or bone loss in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Jørgensen, H L; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2000-01-01

    The polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor (ER) gene defined by the restriction enodonucleases PvuII and XbaI have recently been reported to be associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. To investigate the possible relation of the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment......-length polymorphisms of the ER gene with BMD in Danish postmenopausal women, two studies were undertaken: 1) a cross-sectional study of 499 postmenopausal women, where the ER genotypes and alleles were related to BMD of the hip, spine, and lower forearm; and 2) a longitudinal study of 101 postmenopausal women followed...... up for 18 years. In the latter study, late postmenopausal bone loss in the hip and spine was determined over a period of 6 years in women (mean age of 63 to 69 years), and long-term postmenopausal bone loss in the lower forearm was determined over a period of 18 years in women (mean age of 51 to 69...

  5. BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN SJOGREN'S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Sliornikova

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study mineral density of bone tissue (BMD in female pts with Sjogren's syndrome (SS depending on menstrual statute and to evaluate the effect on it of long-term (for 5 years and more therapy by prednizolone in dosage 2.5-5 mg/day on the state of bone tissue. Material and methods. 120 female pts aged 30-63 were examined by densitometry of low back and femoral neck with «Hologic 1000». Results. Comparison of obtained results with reference base data enabled to reveal negative effect of prednizolo- nc on bone tissue mineralization, clearly demonstrated at the beginning of glucocorticosteroid therapy in peri- menopausa. It was also noted that menopausa began earlier in pts taking prednizolone (at 43.9±5.1 y/o as compared with untreated ones (at 4S.9±4.5 y/o; there were notable effect of the age of menopausa beginning on BMD and lower effect of the duration of postmenopausa. Rare (3.3% development of osteoporosis in women of reproductive age associated with long-term non-correctable hypergammaglobulinemia and damage of renal tubular apparatus.

  6. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Raizada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2 in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029. BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057. The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range. There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored.

  7. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone mineralization by ultrastructural imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoka

    2015-10-01

    Bone mineralization can be divided into two phases ; one is primary mineralization associated with osteoblastic bone formation, and the other is secondary mineralization which gradually increases mineral density of bone matrix after the primary mineralization. Primary mineralization is initiated by matrix vesicles synthesized by mature osteoblasts. Crystalline calcium phosphates are nucleated inside these matrix vesicles, and then, get out of them forming spherical mineralized nodule, which can grow more by being supplied with Ca2+ and PO4(3-) (matrix vesicle mineralization). Thereafter, the mineralized nodules make contacts with surrounding collagen fibrils, extending mineralization along with their longitudinal axis from the contact points (collagen mineralization). In this review, the ultrastructural findings on bone mineralization, specially, primary mineralization will be provided.

  8. BONE MINERAL DENSITY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD was estimated twice in 18 recipents of ortotopic liver transplantation. There was decreased BMD in axial so as in peripheral skeleton in early time and in vertebral or hip Ward triangle in late time following transplantation being lower in primary biliary cirrosis then in cirrosis following chronic virus hepatitis despite tacrolimus immunosupression without prednisolon. Tacrolimus immunosupression with prednisolon in primary biliary cirrosis patients in late postoperative time was associated with hard BMD lowering which correlated with glucocorticoid therapy duration and prednisolon cumulative dosis. 

  9. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  10. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Schneede, J.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods In

  11. Anatomic Relationships of the Distal and Proximal Radioulnar Joints Articulating Surface Areas and of the Radius and Ulna Bone Volumes - Implications for Biomechanical Studies of the Distal and Proximal Radioulnar Joints and Forearm Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Paul S C; Shaw, Oliver G; Lees, Vivien C

    2016-01-01

    Previous work from this laboratory has evidenced the biomechanical role of forearm osseoligamentous structures in load transfer of applied forces. It has shown that forces transmitted across the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) and proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ) are similar, though not identical, under axial loading conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess the articulating surface areas of the radioulnar joints and the volumes of the forearm bones addressing the hypothesis that there may be anatomic adaptations that reflect the biomechanical function of the integrated forearm unit. The articulating surface areas of PRUJ and DRUJ were assessed using a laser scanner in 24 cadaver forearms. The articulating joint surfaces were additionally delineated from standardized photographs assessed by three observers. The surface areas of matched pairs of joints were compared on the null hypothesis that these were the same within a given forearm specimen. An additional 44 pairs of matched forearm bone volumes were measured using water displacement technique and again compared through statistical analysis (paired sample t-test and Bland-Altman analysis). The findings of this study are that the articulating surface areas of the DRUJ and PRUJ as well as the bone volumes are significantly different and, yet, strongly correlated. The paired sample t-test showed a significant difference between the surface areas of the DRUJ and PRUJ (p radius to ulna bone volume ratio of 0.81. When the olecranon was disregarded, radius volume was on average of 4% greater than ulna volume. This study demonstrates and defines the anatomical relationships between the two forearm bones and their articulating joints when matched for specimen. The data obtained are consistent with the theory of integrated forearm function generated from published biomechanical studies.

  12. Bone mineral density and menstrual function in adolescent female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone mineral density and menstrual function in adolescent female long-distance runners - A prospective comparative study of bone structure and menstrual function in adolescent female endurance athletes from five secondary schools in Pretoria.

  13. Long-term hormone replacement therapy preserves bone mineral density in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Hjerrild, Britta E; Lauridsen, Anna L

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fractures are present in many women with Turner syndrome (TS). OBJECTIVE: Examine longitudinal changes in BMD in TS and relate changes to biochemical parameters. DESIGN: Prospective, pragmatic, and observational study. Examinations......-informed women with TS, being encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including HRT and intake of calcium and vitamin D.......-dominant forearm. Bone formation and resorption markers, sex hormones, IGF1, and maximal oxygen uptake. RESULTS: At follow-up, forearm BMD, radius ultradistal BMD, and hip BMD remained unchanged, radius 1/3 BMD declined (0.601+/-0.059 vs 0.592+/-0.059, P=0.03), while spine BMD increased (0.972+/-0.139 vs 1.......010+/-0.144, Pformation markers did not change over time in TS. Bone resorption markers decreased over time in TS. Testosterone, IGF1, and maximal oxygen uptake was significantly reduced in TS. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal changes in BMD in TS were slight. BMD can be maintained at most sites in well...

  14. Bone mineral density of the coracoid process decreases with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranger, Jean Sébastien; Maqdes, Ali; Pujol, Nicolas; Desmoineaux, Pierre; Beaufils, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Surgical options in the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability are numerous. The Latarjet procedure is one of the most common procedures performed. It has been previously demonstrated that bone mineral density decreases with age. This reduction thus increases the risk of osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related iatrogenic, traumatic or pathological fractures. The objective of this study was to quantify the bone mineral density of the coracoid process in different age groups. The hypothesis was that mineral bone density of the coracoid process decreases with age. Using the hospital's electronic database, 60 patients who underwent a shoulder CT scan were randomly selected retrospectively. Four groups of 15 were formed with mean ages of 20, 30, 40 and 50 years. Bone density, length, width and thickness of the coracoid process 10 mm from the tip were measured four times by two different evaluators. Bone density was expressed in Hounsfield units (HU). The mean bone mineral density of the coracoid process significantly decreased with age (p < 0.0001). A lower but insignificant difference of bone mineral density was observed in females. A good inter- and intra-observer reliability was found for bone mineral density measurement of the coracoid process (0.67 and 0.7, respectively). The bone mineral density of the coracoid process diminishes with age, thus confirming our hypothesis. There is a good inter- and intra-observer reliability of our CT scan-based coracoid process bone mineral density measurement rendering it reproducible in daily clinical practice. IV.

  15. Bone mineral density among female sports participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Elizabeth; Reilly, Thomas; Giacomoni, Magali; Redmond, Louise; Turner, Clare

    2006-02-01

    Training for and participation in impact-loading sports are associated with alterations in bone strength which are specific to anatomical site and type of strain. The effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) depends on the type of activity engaged in. Sports with high impact loading seem to have a positive effect in promoting bone mineralisation, whereas those with low impacts may have negative or no effects. The aims of the present study were to compare BMD and body composition measures among female participants in three distinctly different sports and investigate differences from sedentary control subjects. Participants were club and university level Rugby Union football players (n = 30, age: 21.4 +/- 1.9 years, height: 1.67 +/- 0.05 m, mass: 73.3 +/- 10.7 kg), netball players (n = 20, 20.7 +/- 1.3 years, 1.68 +/- 0.07 m, 64.3 +/- 7.2 kg), distance runners (n = 11, 21.5 +/- 2.6 years, 1.68 +/- 0.04 m, 57.1 +/- 6.1 kg), and sedentary controls (n = 25, 21.4 +/- 1.1 years; 1.64 +/- 0.07 m, 56.8 +/- 6.8 kg). With the exception of three distance runners, all participants were eumenorrhoeic. Bone mineral density scans were performed for whole-body, left proximal femur, and lumbar spine (L1-4) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fat mass, percent body fat, and fat-free soft tissue mass were assessed from whole-body scans. Regional and segmental analysis was also carried out on whole-body BMD data using standard procedures. The runners had a lower fat mass and percent body fat compared to the other sports participants and the controls. All sports groups had higher BMD values than had the controls. Density of bone in the upper body was most pronounced in the rugby football players and least pronounced in the runners. Positive effects were evident at all sites for the rugby players. There were significant correlations between BMD and fat-free soft tissue mass, BMD and body mass, and BMD and training volume. It is concluded that sports participation has positive

  16. Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rignell-Hydbom, A., E-mail: anna.rignell-hydbom@med.lu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.; Lindh, C.H. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Elmstahl, S. [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmue University Hospital (Sweden); Bjellerup, P. [Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Vaesteras (Sweden); Juensson, B.A.G.; Struemberg, U. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Akesson, A. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.

  17. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures....... PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a compact and portable scanner using radiographic absorptiometry (RA) to predict major osteoporotic fractures. METHODS: This prospective study included a cohort of 15,542 men and women aged 18-95 years, who underwent a BMD scan in Danish Health...... Examination Survey 2007-2008. BMD at the middle phalanges of the second, third and fourth digits of the non-dominant hand was measured using RA (Alara MetriScan®). These data were merged with information on incident fractures retrieved from the Danish National Patient Registry comprising the International...

  18. Measurement of bone mineral mass in clinical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N.R. van Berkum (Frank)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIt has now became possible to measure the bone mineral content in the axial as well as the peripheral skeleton. Moreover, with the use of computed tomography a selective assessment can be made of cancellous (trabecular) versus cortical bone mineral density. These technical

  19. Bone mineral density abnormalities in HIV infected patients and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) has been associated with prolonged survival and consequently with an increase in the prevalence of decreased bone mineral density. Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) is gaining popularity as an appropriate tool for determination of bone mineral density profiles in ...

  20. [Metabolic status and bone mineral density in patients with pseudarthrosis of long bones in hyperhomocysteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezsmertnyĭ, Iu O

    2013-06-01

    In article described research of the metabolic status and bone mineral density in 153 patients with with pseudarthrosis of long bones, in individuals with consolidated fractures and healthy people. The violations of reparative osteogenesis at hyperhomocysteinemia are accompanied by disturbances of the functional state of bone tissue, inhibition of biosynthetic and increased destruction processes, reduced bone mineral density in the formation of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The degree and direction of change of bone depends on the type of violation of reparative osteogenesis.

  1. Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette F; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-energy fractures of the hip, forearm, shoulder, and spine are known consequences of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture. DESIGN...... significantly related to physical performance. CONCLUSIONS: A 1-y intervention with calcium and vitamin D reduced bone turnover, significantly increased BMD in patients younger than 70 y, and decreased bone loss in older patients. The effect of treatment was related to physical performance.......: In a double-blinded design, patients with fracture of the hip (lower-extremity fracture, or LEF) or upper extremity (UEF) were randomly assigned to receive 3000 mg calcium carbonate + 1400 IU cholecalciferol or placebo (200 IU cholecalciferol). BMD of the hip (HBMD) and lumbar spine (LBMD) were evaluated...

  2. Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette F; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    : In a double-blinded design, patients with fracture of the hip (lower-extremity fracture, or LEF) or upper extremity (UEF) were randomly assigned to receive 3000 mg calcium carbonate + 1400 IU cholecalciferol or placebo (200 IU cholecalciferol). BMD of the hip (HBMD) and lumbar spine (LBMD) were evaluated......BACKGROUND: Low-energy fractures of the hip, forearm, shoulder, and spine are known consequences of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture. DESIGN...... significantly related to physical performance. CONCLUSIONS: A 1-y intervention with calcium and vitamin D reduced bone turnover, significantly increased BMD in patients younger than 70 y, and decreased bone loss in older patients. The effect of treatment was related to physical performance....

  3. Bone mineral content measurement in metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, B.; Fig, L.M.; Gross, M.D.

    1987-02-01

    Objective determinations of bone mineral content (BMC) are seldom required for the diagnosis of the metabolic and hormonal disorders which may result in osteoporosis. They are, however, required to document the osteoporosis itself as this is usually subclinical until late in the natural history of the disease process. Measurement of BMC in these disease processes is an important research tool in determining the effect of the disorder on the skeleton at different stages of the natural history and in investigating the effects of therapy and other interventions. Measurements of BMC may be useful in clinical practice in deciding whether to intervene in certain circumstances (e.g. asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism) or to withhold certain therapies (e.g. glucocorticoids) or to alter therapy (e.g. change from glucocorticoids to nonsteroidal immunosuppressives in autoimmune diseases). It may also play a role in monitoring the responses to therapeutic interventions.

  4. Scuba diving does not affect bone mineral density or bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowska, Katarzyna; Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena; Przedlacki, Jerzy; Przybylski, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    Scuba diving is a very specialized, physically demanding activity. The bones of divers are subjected to stress from water pressure, from the forces generated when their muscles resist water pressure, and from weightlessness. Notably, few studies have addressed the effects of diving on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and the results have been controversial. The goal of the study was to assess BMD and BMC in a group of professional scuba divers. The study group (diving group [D]) included 16 male professional scuba divers who also worked as firemen. The control group included 14 firemen who did not scuba dive (non-diving group [ND]). The groups were matched by age, weight, and height. The BMD and BMC of the whole skeleton, L1-L4, total hip, and femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences in BMD or in BMC in the two groups, and the BMD and BMC values were within one standard deviation in terms of Z- and T-scores. There was no correlation between total diving time (hours) and BMD in the D group. Scuba diving does not negatively influence bone turnover. Copyright © 2011 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ricardo, E-mail: ldv1452@gmail.com [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Huels, Matthias [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Nadeau, Marie-Josee; Grootes, Pieter M. [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Garbe-Schoenberg, C.-Dieter [Institute of Geosciences, Marine Climate Research and ICPMS Lab, Kiel University, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Hollund, Hege I. [Institute for Geo- and Bioarchaeology, The VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lotnyk, Andriy [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  6. Tendon Gradient Mineralization for Tendon to Bone Interface Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jin; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Tendon-to-bone integration is a great challenge for tendon or ligament reconstruction regardless of use of autograft or allograft tendons. We mineralized the tendon, thus transforming the tendon-to-bone into a “bone-to-bone” interface for healing. Sixty dog flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were divided randomly into 5 groups: 1) normal FDP tendon, 2) CaP (Non-extraction and mineralization without fetuin), 3) CaPEXT (Extraction by Na2HPO4 and mineralization without fetuin), 4) CaPFetuin (Non-extraction and mineralization with fetuin), and 5) CaPEXTFetuin (Extraction and mineralization with fetuin). The calcium and phosphate content significantly increased in tendons treated with combination of extraction and fetuin compared to the other treatments. Histology also revealed a dense mineral deposition throughout the tendon outer layers and penetrated into the tendon to a depth of 200 μm in a graded manner. Compressive moduli were significantly lower in the four mineralized groups compared with normal control group. No significant differences in maximum failure strength or stiffness were found in the suture pull-out test among all groups. Mineralization of tendon alters the interface from tendon to bone into mineralized tendon to bone, which may facilitate tendon-to-bone junction healing following tendon or ligament reconstruction. PMID:23939935

  7. Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTH(1-84), and bone mineral content in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, B; Jensen, J D; Nielsen, H K

    1991-01-01

    Bone mineral content, estimated by single-photon absorptiometry of the forearm, serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-84], osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3), and aluminium were determined during treatment with calcium carbonate (CaCO3...... 0.05), osteocalcin decreased (89% versus 117%, P less than 0.01), alkaline phosphatase decreased (92% versus 116%, P less than 0.05), and aluminium decreased (56% versus 189%, P less than 0.05). 1,25(OH)2D3 remained unchanged in both periods. No increase in soft-tissue calcification was demonstrated...

  8. Bone mineral density among postmenopausal Saudi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat-Ali, Mir; Al-Habdan, Ibrahim M.; Al-Mulhim, Fatma A.; El-Hassan, Abdallah Y.

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is reported to be common among postmenopausal Saudi women. The reported incidence varies between 50-60%. Different machines were used to reach these conclusions. At present it is believed that dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most accurate method to diagnose osteoporosis. This study was conducted to measure bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of lumbar spine and the upper femur of Saudi postmenopausal women attending orthopedic clinic with unrelated complaints. This study comprises of 256 patients attending orthopedic clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2002 and June 2003. The data gathered was age, duration of menopause, height and weight for body mass index (BMI) calculation. Women with secondary osteoporosis were excluded from study. Patient's orthopedic complaints were also recorded in the database. Bone mineral density measurements were carried out using Hologic total body DEXA machine. The data were analyzed using SPSS package. The data of 256 patients was available for analysis. The average age of patients screened was 57.62 years (49-76) SD+-6.71. The BMI was 21.3-42.9 Kg/m (SD+-5.34). The BMD of lumbar spine was 0.785 gm/cm2 (0.527-1.023) SD +-0.142 and that of the hip region was 0.764 gm/cm2 (0.500-1.069) SD +-0.149. As per the WHO classification 59 women (23%) were classified as normal with the T score of -0.82, 78 (30.5%) as osteopenic with T score -2.5 and 119 (46.7%) as osteoporosis with T score -3.58. When the BMD of the hip was analyzed 62 (24.2%) were normal T score -1.0, 81 (31.6%) as osteopenic, T score -2.5 and 113 (44.1%0 as osteoporotic, with a T score of -3.1. on the basis of analysis of lumbar spine 190 (74.2%) had increased risk of fracture as compared to the analysis of hip 59% were at increased risk of fracture. Our results indicate that postmenopausal Saudi women suffer from osteoporosis and osteopenia higher than those from other parts of the

  9. Selective use of hand and forearm muscles during bone screw insertion: a natural torque meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Sérgio Estelita; Janson, Guilherme; Chiqueto, Kelly; Ferreira, Eduardo Silveira; Janson, Marcos

    2012-11-01

    To compare the maximum torque produced by different muscle groups and its influence on mini-implant insertion torque and fracture prevention. Eighty-seven professionals were evaluated for the maximum torque produced on a screwdriver by a combined action between the thumb and index finger (maximum digital torque [MDT]) and by the forearm supination movement (maximum brachial torque [MBT]). Ninety mini-implants distributed among 9 different diameters were fractured to determine the fracture torque (FT). The fracture resistance index (FRI) was obtained from: FRI_MDT = FT/MDT and FRI_MBT = FT/MBT. Analysis of variance and t tests were used to compare the groups. The MDT was smaller than the MBT, and the 2 measurements were smaller in female subjects. The FT increased for each 0.1-mm increment in diameter. The FRI_MDT was greater than FRI_MBT for all diameters. An FRI_MDT greater than 1 was found when the diameter was greater than or equal to 1.5 mm. An FRI_MBT greater than 1 occurred with diameters equal to or greater than 1.7 mm for female subjects and 1.8 mm for male subjects. The digital torque was 42% smaller than the brachial torque, and it was mechanically safer and biologically more compatible, allowing the prevention of the fracture of mini-implants with a diameter 1.5 mm or thicker owing to an insertion torque limitation at 15 N-cm. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA...

  11. Bone Mineral Density in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Çakmak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS, a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. One of the most frequent and important complications in these patients is osteoporosis. There are controversial studies on the correlation of osteoporosis and disease duration, activity and functional status. Twenty-one male and five female patients diagnosed as AS according to Modified New York, ESSG( European Spondyloartropaties Study Group and Amor criteria were included in this study. Disease duration and age-sex of the patients was assessed. Patients with ankylosed lumbar spine in late stages of the disease were excluded. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by DEXA( Hologic at lumbar and femoral neck regions. BASDAI was used for evaluation of disease activity and BASFI index for functional status evaluation.Correlation of BMD with disease duration, BASDAI and BASFI indexes was assessed. BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck regions was found to be osteoporotic in 11,5 % of the patients. In the lumbar region there was no correlation between BMD and disease duration, BASFI and BASDAI indexes. BMD values of femoral neck showed a weak inverse correlation with disease duration, while no correlation was found between BMD and BASFI and BASDAI. As a conclusion in AS patients osteoporosis besides the disease itself many secondarily influence disease prognosis and complications. Therefore osteoporosis should be evaluated in the management and follow-up of AS patients.

  12. Maintained Hand Function and Forearm Bone Health 14 Months After an In-Home Virtual-Reality Videogame Hand Telerehabilitation Intervention in an Adolescent With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Meredith R.; Warden, Stuart J.; Fess, Elaine; Rabin, Bryan; Yonkman, Janell; Shirley, Bridget; Burdea, Grigore C.

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality videogames can be used to motivate rehabilitation, and telerehabilitation can be used to improve access to rehabilitation. These uses of technology to improve health outcomes are a burgeoning area of rehabilitation research. So far, there is a lack of reports of long-term outcomes of these types of interventions. The authors report a 15-year-old boy with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and epilepsy because of presumed perinatal stroke who improved his plegic hand function and increased his plegic forearm bone health during a 14-month virtual reality videogame hand telerehabilitation intervention. A total of 14 months after the intervention ended, repeat evaluation demonstrated maintenance of both increased hand function and forearm bone health. The implications of this work for the future of rehabilitation in children with neurological disabilities are discussed in this article. PMID:21383228

  13. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density in female swimmers during the time of peak bone mass attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Długołęcka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess bone mineral content and bone mineral density in girls practising swimming in the period of peak bone mass attainment in comparison to girls at the same age who are not actively involved in sports. This study involved girls from sports school specialising in swimming (n=41 aged 11-15 years, practising swimming (non-weight bearing activities, and girls at the same age not actively involved in sports (n=45. The current condition of bones was assessed based on the method of densitometry DEXA (lumbar spine L2-L4. Data on sports careers, including the length of training and training load, and hormonal status were collected using a diagnostic survey with an especially developed questionnaire. The quantitative composition of diet was determined based on 3 individual interviews on dietary intake in the last 24 hours preceding the test. Analysis of the results showed that the average values of the measured bone parameters were not different between the groups. However, we observed a trend of higher values in the control group. In the assessment of diet, we observed in both groups a deficiency in average calcium intake. Based on the results it can be concluded that the tested female swimmers were not at increased risk of developing osteopenia, when compared to girls not actively involved in sports.

  14. Anatomic relationships of the distal and proximal radioulnar joints articulating surface areas, and of the radius and ulna bone volumes – implications for biomechanical studies of the distal and proximal radioulnar joints and forearm bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S C Malone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious work from this laboratory has evidenced the biomechanical role of forearm osseoligamentous structures in load transfer of applied forces. It has shown that transmitted forces across the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ and proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ are similar though not identical under axial loading conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess the articulating surface areas of the radioulnar joints and the volumes of the forearm bones addressing the hypothesis that there may be anatomic adaptations that reflect the biomechanical function of the integrated forearm unit.MethodsThe articulating surface areas of PRUJ and DRUJ were assessed using a laser scanner in 24 cadaver forearms. The articulating joint surfaces were additionally delineated from standardized photographs assessed by three observers. The surface areas of matched pairs of joints were compared on the null hypothesis that these were the same within a given forearm specimen. An additional 44 pairs of matched forearm bone volumes were measured using water displacement technique and again compared through statistical analysis (paired sample t-test, and Bland Altman analysis.ResultsThe findings of this study are that the articulating surface areas of the DRUJ and PRUJ as well as the bone volumes are significantly different and yet strongly correlated. The paired sample t-test showed a significant difference between the surface areas of the DRUJ and PRUJ (p<0.05. The PRUJ articulating surface area was marginally larger than the DRUJ with a PRUJ : DRUJ ratio of 1.02. Paired sample t-test showed a significant difference between the two bone volumes (p<0.01 with a radius to ulna bone volume ratio of 0.81. When the olecranon was disregarded, radius volume was on average 4% greater than ulna volume.ConclusionsThis study demonstrated defines the anatomical relationships between the two forearm bones and their articulating joints when matched for specimen. The data

  15. Bone Mineral Density of Adolescent Female Tennis Players and Nontennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Ermin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD among adolescent female tennis players (TPs and nontennis players (NTPs and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (=0.37 and 0.12, resp.. TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (=0.02. This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.

  16. Treadmill walking exercise modulates bone mineral status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treadmill walking exercise modulates bone mineral status and inflammatory cytokines in obese asthmatic patients with long term intake of corticosteroids. Shehab M. Abd El-Kader, Osama H. Al-Jiffri, Eman M. Ashmawy, Riziq Allah M. Gaowgzeh ...

  17. Biochemical markers of mineral bone disorder in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Secondary hyperparathyroidism and 25–OH vitamin D deficiency were common in our haemodialysis patients. Hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia were strong predictors for developing secondary hyperparathyroidism. Keywords: Biochemical markers, guidelines, mineral bone disorder, haemodialysis ...

  18. The evolving world of chronic kidney disease mineral bone disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bellasi, A.; Galassi, A.; Cozzolino, M.; Di Iorio, B.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease – mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. In vitro and animal models suggest that phosphorous, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D abnormalities, mediate the cardiovascular and bone diseases that characterise CKD-MBD and increase the risk of death. Currently, mineral abnormalities are corrected through phosphorous restriction, phosphate binders, calcimimetics and vitamin D administration. Nonetheless, data in...

  19. Bone mineral metabolism, bone mineral density, and body composition in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Anne Birgitte; Rosenfalck, A M; Hansen, B

    2000-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D homeostasis seem to be abnormal in patients with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction resulting from cystic fibrosis. Only a few studies have evaluated and described bone mineral metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic insufficiency....

  20. Relationship between sex hormone levels, bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Gonadal steroid hormones play a crucial role during skeletal growth and maturation in both men and women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship of sex hormone levels, bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in healthy Moroccan men. Methods: 142 Moroccan men who ...

  1. Management of Minerals and Bone Disorders after Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mucsi, Istvan; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Mineral and bone disorders (MBD), inherent complications of moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients. However, much confusion exists about clinical application of diagnostic tools and preventive or treatment strategies to correct bone loss or mineral disarrays in transplanted patients. We have reviewed the recent evidence about prevalence and consequences of MBD in kidney transplant recipients and examined diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic options to this end. Recent findings Low turnover bone disease occurs more frequently after kidney transplantation according to bone biopsy studies. The risk of fracture is high, especially in the first several months after kidney transplantation. Alterations in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and biomarkers of bone metabolism (PTH, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and FGF-23) are observed with varying impact on post-transplant outcomes. Calcineurin inhibitors are linked to osteoporosis, whereas steroid therapy may lead to both osteoporosis and varying degrees of osteonecrosis. Sirolimus and everolimus might have a bearing on osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation or decreasing osteoclast mediated bone resorption. Selected pharmacologic interventions for treatment of MBD in transplant patients include steroid withdrawal, the use of bisphosphonates, vitamin D derivatives, calcimimetics, teriparatide, calcitonin and denosumab. Summary MBD following kidney transplantation is common and characterized by loss of bone volume and mineralization abnormalities often leading to low turnover bone disease. Although there are no well-established therapeutic approaches for management of MBD in renal transplant recipients, clinicians should continue individualizing therapy as needed. PMID:22614626

  2. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk. This medical bone density is not the true physical “density” of the bone, which would be computed as mass per volume. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, previously DEXA), a means of measuring BMD, is the most widely used and most thoroughly studied bone ...

  3. Coffee Consumption and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Premenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Methods Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measu...

  4. Bone mineral and other bone components in vertebrae evaluated by QCT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masako; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Uetani, Masataka; Kawahara, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Masafumi; Yamada, Miho; Kitamori, Hideki; Noguchi, Masaru; Ito, Masahiro

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of assessing bone components using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the contributions of bone components, including mineral, fat and collagen, to bone mineral density (BMD) and T1 relaxation time (T1) were studied using phantoms. Excised human vertebrae were also evaluated by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and MRI. T1 was shortened with increasing quantities of fat and collagen. In water, T1 was significantly affected by bone density, while in oil, T1 became slightly longer as bone density increased . The presence of fat and collagen caused under-and overestimations of BMD, respectively. There was good correlation between T1 and BMD in osteoporotic vertebrae and the vertebrae with long T1 showed an increased content of hematopoietic marrow and/or abnormally increased bone mineral. It was concluded that the experimental data showed that MRI can contribute to the assessment of bone quality. (orig.)

  5. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making ...

  6. Usefulness of bone mineral content measurement. Value of ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fery-Lemonnier, E.; Viens-Bitker, C.; Roux, C.; Hazebroucq, V.; Legmann, P.

    1993-01-01

    The current interest in bone mineral density measurements is related to the frequency, the morbidity and the cost of osteoporosis, which is considered to be a public health problem in developed countries. The main risk factor of osteoporotic fractures is the reduction of bone mineral density. This risk factor can be prevented by hormonal therapy in post-menopausal women. So it is of interest to develop the bone mineral density measurement methods, in osteoporotic bone areas or the entire skeleton (absorptiometry). But the interpretation of the result in term of individual fracture risk, the choice of the bone site to be examined, and the indication of the measurement are still being discussed. A new method of bone status evaluation is currently available: the broad band ultrasonic attenuation, which measures the attenuation of ultrasounds through the calcaneus bone. The device is portable, inexpensive and radiation free, and may give quantitative and qualitative assessment of bone. However, the normal values, the relation with the absorptiometry results and the contribution of this method in fracture risk evaluation are currently studied. Osteoporosis risk evaluation is an important point of health management in post-menopausal women and elderly people. Large prospective studies with the different methods are in progress

  7. Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, T; Andon, M B; Rollings, N; Martel, J K; Landis, J R; Demers, L M; Eggli, D F; Kieselhorst, K; Kulin, H E

    1993-08-18

    To evaluate the effect of calcium supplementation on bone acquisition in adolescent white girls. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of 18 months of calcium supplementation on bone density and bone mass. Ninety-four girls with a mean age of 11.9 + 0.5 years at study entry. University hospital in a small town. Calcium supplementation, 500 mg/d calcium as calcium citrate malate; controls received placebo pills. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine and total body were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and calcium excretion from 24-hour urine specimens. Calcium intake from dietary sources averaged 960 mg/d for the entire study group. The supplemented group received, on average, an additional 354 mg/d of calcium. The supplemented group compared with the placebo group had greater increases of lumbar spine bone density (18.7% vs 15.8%; P = .03), lumbar spine bone mineral content (39.4% vs 34.7%; P = .06), total body bone mineral density (9.6% vs 8.3%; P = .05), and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (90.4 vs 72.9 mg/d; P = .02), respectively. Increasing daily calcium intake from 80% of the recommended daily allowance to 110% via supplementation with calcium citrate malate resulted in significant increases in total body and spinal bone density in adolescent girls. The increase of 24 g of bone gain per year among the supplemented group translates to an additional 1.3% skeletal mass per year during adolescent growth, which may provide protection against future osteoporotic fracture.

  8. Recreational football improves bone mineral density and bone turnover marker profile in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recreational football and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in elderly men. Twenty-six healthy sedentary men (age 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized into three groups: football (F; n = 9) and resistance training (R; n...... training had no effect. The anabolic response may be due to increased bone turnover, especially improved bone formation....

  9. Effects of sports training & nutrition on bone mineral density in young Indian healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Raman K; Puri, Seema; Tandon, Nikhil; Dhir, Sakshi; Agarwal, Neha; Bhadra, Kuntal; Saini, Namita

    2011-09-01

    Peak bone mass, a major determinant of osteoporosis is influenced by genetic, nutritional, lifestyle and hormonal factors. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of sports training on dietary intake and bone mineral and metabolic parameters in young healthy Indian females. Healthy female college going students (N=186, sportswomen, 90; controls 96) in the age group of 18-21 yr, residing in New Delhi (India) were evaluated for anthropometry, biochemistry (serum total and ionic calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D & parathyroid hormone), diet, physical activity and lifestyle. Bone mineral density (BMD) at hip, forearm and lumbar spine were studied using central DXA. Sports related physical activity (3 vs. 0 h/day, P direct sunlight exposure (120 vs. 30 min/day, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in sportswomen than in controls with sedentary lifestyle. Significantly higher intake of all macronutrients (energy, protein, carbohydrates and fat) and dietary calcium was noted in the diets of sportswomen. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher (53.0 ± 18.9 vs. 12.9 ± 7.7 nmol/l; P < 0.001) while PTH (35.3 ± 17.6 vs. 51.7 ± 44.9 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and ALP levels (194.0 ± 51.0 vs. 222.1 ± 51.4 IU/l; P<0.001) were significantly lower in sportswomen when compared to controls. No significant difference was found in ionized calcium and inorganic phosphorus in the two groups. Significantly higher (P < 0.001) total BMD and BMD at all sites except femur neck were found in sportswomen than controls (P < 0.001). Physical activity, optimal nutrition and adequate sun exposure are vital for attaining peak bone mass.

  10. Bone mineral density and computer tomographic measurements in correlation with failure strength of equine metacarpal bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Tóth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding bone mineral density and fracture characteristics of the equine metacarpus are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between mechanical properties of the equine metacarpal bone and its biomechanical and morphometric properties. Third metacarpal bones were extracted from horses euthanized unrelated to musculoskeletal conditions. In total, bone specimens from 26 front limbs of 13 horses (7.8 ± 5.8 years old including Lipizzaner (n = 5, Hungarian Warmblood (n = 2, Holsteiner (n = 2, Thoroughbred (n = 1, Hungarian Sporthorse (n = 1, Friesian (n = 1, and Shagya Arabian (n = 1 were collected. The horses included 7 mares, 4 stallions and 2 geldings. Assessment of the bone mineral density of the whole bone across four specific regions of interest was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The bones were scanned using a computer tomographic scanner to measure cross-sectional morphometric properties such as bone mineral density and cross-sectional dimensions including cortical area and cortical width. Mechanical properties (breaking force, bending strength, elastic modulus were determined by a 3-point bending test. Significant positive linear correlations were found between the breaking force and bone mineral density of the entire third metacarpal bones (P P P in vivo investigations.

  11. Bone composition and bone mineral density of long bones of free-living raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schuhmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone composition and bone mineral density (BMD of long bones of two raptor and one owl species were assessed. Right humerus and tibiotarsus of 40 common buzzards, 13 white-tailed sea eagles and 9 barn owls were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for influence of species, age, gender and nutritional status. The BMD ranged from 1.8 g/cm3 (common buzzards to 2.0 g/cm3 (white-tailed sea eagles. Dry matter was 87.0% (buzzards to 89.5% (sea eagles. Percentage of bone ash was lower in sea eagles than in buzzards and owls. Content of crude fat was lower than 2% of the dry matter in all bones. In humeri lower calcium values (220 g/kg fat free dry matter were detected in sea eagles than in barn owls (246 g/kg, in tibiotarsi no species differences were observed. Phosphorus levels were lowest in sea eagles (humeri 104 g/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 102 g/kg and highest in barn owls. Calcium-phosphorus ratio was about 2:1 in all species. Magnesium content was lower in sea eagles (humeri 2590 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 2510 mg/kg than in buzzards and owls. Bones of barn owls contained more copper (humeri 8.7 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 12.7 mg/kg than in the Accipitridae. Zinc content was highest in sea eagles (humeri 278 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 273 mg/kg and lowest in barn owls (humeri 185 mg/kg, tibiotarsi 199 mg/kg. The present study shows that bone characteristics can be considered as species specific in raptors.

  12. Bone and mineral metabolism in adult celiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraceni, M.P.; Molteni, N.; Bardella, M.T.; Ortolani, S.; Nogara, A.; Bianchi, P.A.

    1988-03-01

    Bone mineral density (/sup 125/I photon absorptiometry) was lower in 20 untreated adult celiac patients than in sex- and age-matched controls (p less than 0.001), and plasma alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were higher than normal (p less than 0.05, less than 0.001, less than 0.05, respectively). Gluten-free diet was started, and the patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups, one which received oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 50 micrograms/day and one which did not. After 12 months' treatment, bone turnover markers showed a decrease, which did not reach statistical significance, and bone mineral density did not show significant modifications compared with base line in either group. It was found that a gluten-free diet followed for 1 yr can prevent further bone loss, but no significant differences were detected between the two groups.

  13. Bone and mineral metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, J.Th.A.M.

    1976-01-01

    A 47 Ca calcitonin study is described which is used in combination with a conventional balance study in 5 patients with hyperthyroidism both before and after therapy and in 1 control subject. The experimentally obtained data were analyzed according to Wendeberg and Dymling. The magnitude of the 47 Ca loss through perspiration could not be determined. This fact can affect the rate of accretion but not the other parameters of calcium kinetics. A markedly flow of tracer into bone (inflow, internal disappearance, accretion, rate of accretion) and of calcium out of bone (resorption, outflow) was observed

  14. Bone mineral measurements of subchondral and trabecular bone in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, S [Universidad Autonoma, Rheumatology Department, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Largo, R.; Marcos, M.E.; Herrero-Beaumont, G. [Universidad Autonoma, Inflammation Research Unit, Rheumatology Department, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [Universidad Autonoma, Inflammation Research Unit, Rheumatology Department, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Salvanes, F. [Universidad Autonoma, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Diaz-Curiel, M. [Universidad Autonoma, Department of Internal Medicine, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-01

    Experimental models of osteoporosis in rabbits are useful to investigate anabolic agents because this animal has a fast bone turnover with predominant remodelling over the modelling processes. For that purpose, it is necessary to characterize the densitometric values of each type of bony tissue. To determine areal bone mass measurement in the spine and in trabecular, cortical and subchondral bone of the knee in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density were measured in lumbar spine, global knee, and subchondral and cortical bone of the knee with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Hologic QDR-1000/W densitometer in 29 skeletally mature female healthy New Zealand rabbits. Ten rabbits underwent triplicate scans for evaluation of the effect of repositioning. Osteoporosis was experimentally induced in 15 rabbits by bilateral ovariectomy and postoperative corticosteroid treatment for 4 weeks. Identical dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) studies were performed thereafter. Mean values of bone mineral content at the lumbar spine, global knee, subchondral bone and cortical tibial metaphysis were: 1934{+-}217 mg, 878{+-}83 mg, 149{+-}14 mg and 29{+-}7.0 mg, respectively. The mean values of bone mineral density at the same regions were: 298{+-}24 mg/cm{sup 2}, 455{+-}32 mg/cm{sup 2}, 617{+-}60 mg/cm{sup 2} and 678{+-}163 mg/cm{sup 2}, respectively. (orig.)

  15. International Longitudinal Paediatric Reference Standards for Bone Mineral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, Adam DG; McKay, Heather; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don

    2014-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women’s Health Study (n=112) and Stanford’s Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement in predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in paediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. PMID:19854308

  16. Bone geometry, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture in patients with myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Sarah; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hansen, Stinus

    2015-01-01

    and micro-structure assessed with non-invasive methods are lacking. We measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone geometry, volumetric BMD, and micro-architecture were measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We...... mineral density, and micro-structure between MF patients and matched controls. Estimated bone stiffness and bone strength were similar between MF patients and controls. The level of pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP) was significantly increased in MF, which may indicate extensive collagen...... synthesis, one of the major diagnostic criteria in MF. We conclude that bone mineral density, geometry, and micro-architecture in this cohort of MF patients are comparable with those in healthy individuals....

  17. Impact of marked weight loss induced by bariatric surgery on bone mineral density and remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Data about the impact of bariatric surgery (BS and subsequent weight loss on bone are limited. The objective of the present study was to determine bone mineral density (BMD, bone remodeling metabolites and hormones that influence bone trophism in premenopausal women submitted to BS 9.8 months, on average, before the study (OGg, N = 16. The data were compared to those obtained for women of normal weight (CG, N = 11 and for obese women (OG, N = 12. Eight patients in each group were monitored for one year, with the determination of BMD, of serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and osteocalcin, and of urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline. The biochemical determinations were repeated every three months in the longitudinal study and BMD was measured at the end of the study. Parathyroid hormone levels were similar in the three groups. IGF-I levels (CG = 332 ± 62 vs OG = 230 ± 37 vs OGg = 128 ± 19 ng/mL were significantly lower in the operated patients compared to the non-operated obese women. Only OGg patients presented a significant fall in BMD of 6.2% at L1-L4, of 10.2% in the femoral neck, and of 5.1% in the forearm. These results suggest that the weight loss induced by BS is associated with a significant loss of bone mass even at sites that are not influenced by weight overload, with hormonal factors such as IGF-I being associated with this process.

  18. Bone Mineral Density in Thalassemia Major Patients from Antalya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We assessed the bone mineral density and related parameters in nine adults, thirty-eight pubertal, prepubertal totally forty-seven patients with thalassemia major living in Antalya, Turkey. Materials and Methods. We measured height and pubertal staging in last five years by six-month intervals. Average ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations were calculated for last three years. The levels of hydroxyproline, calcium, phosphorus, and creatinine were measured in 24 h urine, and those of parathormone, IGF 1, osteocalcine, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, creatine, blood glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase were determined in serum, and also the bone mineral density was measured. Results. The average L1–L4 bone mass density was 27.1±10.1 g cm−2; the average bone mineral content was 0.65 ± 0.11 g. of the patients with a Z-score under 2.5. A moderate relationship was found between the bone mass density age and height. Subjects in low pubertal staging and short stature (<3% percentile have significantly lower bone mass densities P<0.001. Conclusion. he prevalence of osteoporosis is high in patients with thalassemia major, possibly related to delayed puberty.

  19. A postmenopausal osteoporotic woman losing bone mineral density despite bisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai PSM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogues, with a strong affinity for bones. They inhibit bone resorption and are currently the first choice of treatment for osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates should be taken in a specific manner and for at least one year to be effective in the maintenance and improvement of bone mineral density (BMD, as well as for protection against fractures. We report a case of a postmenospausal osteoporotic woman who lost BMD despite being on bisphosphonate therapy for eight years, highlighting issues that a primary care doctor needs to address before deciding on the next best option.

  20. Sequential bone mineral content in small preterm infants with and without fractures and rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, W.W.; Sherman, R.; Succop, P.; Oestreich, A.E.; Tsang, R.C.; Krug-Wispe, S.K.; Steichen, J.J.

    1988-04-01

    Seventy-four infants with birth weights 1009 +/- 28 grams and gestational age 28.6 +/- 0.3 weeks (M +/- SEM) were studied prospectively to test the hypotheses that bone mineral content (BMC) measured by photon absorptiometry, would be: (1) lower in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with radiographic evidence of fractures and/or rickets (F/R), and (2) will continue to be lower over the first year when compared to VLBW infants without F/R. BMC and bone width (BW) of the distal one-third of left radius and ulna were measured at 5 weeks (n = 8), 14 weeks (n = 61), 26 weeks (n = 58), 40 weeks (n = 59), and 1 year (n = 52). Standardized radiographs of both forearms, and weight, length, and head circumference were also determined at each study age. Investigators and technicians involved in the photon absorptiometry measurements were unaware of the radiographic findings and vice versa. Twenty-three of 74 infants were found to have F/R. BMC of studied infants remained markedly below our previously determined range of intrauterine bone mineralization, even at 26 weeks after birth. There was no significant difference in BMC or BW between infants with and without F/R, either at the time of confirmation of F/R or during early follow-up; however, BMC was lower at greater than or equal to 6 months and BW was lower at greater than or equal to 9 months in infants with F/R. We suggest that the extremely low BMC measurements in early infancy predispose all VLBW infants to fractures and rickets.

  1. The Oslo Health Study: A Dietary Index Estimating Frequent Intake of Soft Drinks and Rare Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Negatively Associated with Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Alvær, Kari; Meyer, Haakon E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD), we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density. PMID:21772969

  2. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    presents a complex behaviour involving heterogeneous and anisotropic mechanical properties. Moreover, bone is a living tissue; therefore, its microstructure and mechanical .... It is familiar in the consumer market as a simple instrument for estimating body fat. Due to its benefits and features, it is used for calculating muscle ...

  3. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucendo, Alfredo J; García-Manzanares, Alvaro

    2013-03-01

    coeliac disease (CD) affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD), osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D) determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  4. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bit of each one. Trace minerals includes iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium. Let's take a closer look at some of the minerals you get from food. Calcium Calcium is the top macromineral when it comes to your bones. This mineral helps build strong bones, so you ...

  5. Dietary patterns associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal Japanese farmwomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Horiguchi, Hyogo; Oguma, Etsuko; Miyamoto, Kayoko; Hosoi, Yoko; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kayama, Fujio

    2006-05-01

    Because several nutrients are known to affect bone mineral density (BMD), the analysis of dietary patterns or combinations of foods may provide insights into the influence of diet on bone health. We evaluated associations between dietary patterns and BMD in Japanese farmwomen. The study included 291 premenopausal farmwomen (aged 40-55 y) who participated in the Japanese Multi-centered Environmental Toxicant Study (JMETS; n = 1407). Forearm BMD was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Diet was assessed by using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire comprising 147 food items, from which 30 food groups were created and entered into a factor analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified. The "Healthy" pattern, characterized by high intakes of green and dark yellow vegetables, mushrooms, fish and shellfish, fruit, and processed fish, was positively correlated with BMD after adjustment for several confounding factors (P = 0.048). In contrast, the "Western" pattern, characterized by high intakes of fats and oils, meat, and processed meat, tended to be inversely associated with BMD; however, the association was not significant (P = 0.08). A dietary pattern with high intakes of fish, fruit, and vegetables and low intakes of meat and processed meat may have a beneficial effect on BMD in premenopausal women.

  6. Effects of Raloxifene Hydrochloride on Bone Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and triglycerides after treatment were statistically insignificant. Conclusions: Raloxifene appears to be an effective, well tolerated option for treating osteoporosis in Kuwaiti postmenopausal women, suitable for long term use with favorable effect on serum lipid profiles. Keywords: Bone mineral density, lipid metabolism, ...

  7. Glycosylation status of bone sialoprotein and its role in mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lan; Zhang, Zhenqing; Sun, Xue; Wang, Jingjing; Xu, Wei; Shi, Lv; Lu, Jiaojiao; Tang, Juan; Liu, Jingjing; Su, Xiong

    2017-11-15

    The highly glycosylated bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an abundant non-collagenous phosphoprotein in bone which enhances osteoblast differentiation and new bone deposition in vitro and in vivo. However, the structural details of its different glycosylation linkages have not been well studied and their functions in bone homeostasis are not clear. Previous studies suggested that the O-glycans, but not the N-glycans on BSP, are highly sialylated. Herein, we employed tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to demonstrate that the N-glycanson the recombinant human integrin binding sialoprotein (rhiBSP) are also enriched in sialic acids (SAs) at their termini. We also identified multiple novel sites of N-glycan modification. Treatment of rhiBSP enhances osteoblast differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells and this effect could be partially reversed by efficient enzymatic removal of its N-glycans. Removal of all terminal SAs has a greater effect in reversing the effect of rhiBSP on osteogenesis, especially on mineralization, suggesting that sialylation at the termini of both N-glycans and O-glycans plays an important role in this regulation. Moreover, BSP-conjugated SAs may affect mineralization via ERK activation of VDR expression. Collectively, our results identified novel N-glycans enriched in SAs on the rhiBSP and demonstrated that SAs at both N- and O-glycans are important for BSP regulation of osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Based on obtained data, it can be concluded that, resistance and aerobic exercise training program is effective in increasing BMD, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia. Keywords: Hemophilia; Resistance; Aerobic exercise; Bone mineral density; Strength; Functional ability ...

  9. Treadmill walking exercise modulates bone mineral status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) & significant reduction in parathyroid hormone, leptin, tumor necrosis fac- ... Conclusion: Treadmill walking exercise training is an effective treatment policy to improve bone mineral status and modulates inflammatory ..... the decreased body fat mass, but potentially through an.

  10. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed A. Eid

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... Abstract Background and purpose: Children with hemophilia are at risk for reduced bone mineral density (BMD), muscle strength and functional ability as a result of reduced leisure-time activity and less involvement in intense activities. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance ...

  11. Chronic pain in hemodialysis patients: Role of bone mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lower calcium, lower 25(OH) D3 levels, higher parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and experienced chronic pain (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Chronic pain is highly experienced in long-term hemodialysis patients. Malnutrition, high CRP and disturbed bone mineral metabolism are highly correlated with the incident of this pain.

  12. Treadmill walking exercise modulates bone mineral status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity and asthma are an important public health problem in Saudi Arabia. An increasing body of data supports the hypothesis that obesity is a risk factor for asthma. Asthma appears to be associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) due to long-term use of corticosteroids. Studies recently showed that ...

  13. Bone mineral density among elderly patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is one of the major extra-pulmonary manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which limits the physical activity. The present study was undertaken to study the bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in the elderly COPD patients. Materials and Methods: This was a ...

  14. Effects of Raloxifene Hydrochloride on Bone Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is currently a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and medical expense worldwide. Aim: This study was designed to detect the effect of raloxifene hydrochloride on bone mineral density (BMD) and serum lipids in Kuwaiti postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Subjects and Methods: Eighty ...

  15. Vitamin E improved bone strength and bone minerals in male rats given alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuhada Zakaria

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Alcohol consumption induces oxidative stress on bone, which in turn increases the risk of osteoporosis. This study determined the effects of vitamin E on bone strength and bone mineral content in alcohol-induced osteoporotic rats. Materials and Methods: Three months old Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: (I control group; (II alcohol (3 g/kg + normal saline; (III alcohol (3 g/kg + olive oil; (IV alcohol (3 g/kg + alpha-tocopherol (60 mg/kg and (V alcohol (3 g/kg + palm vitamin E (60 mg/kg. The treatment lasted for three months. Following sacrifice, the right tibia was subjected to bone biomechanical test while the lumbar (fourth and fifth lumbar and left tibia bones were harvested for bone mineral measurement. Results: Alcohol caused reduction in bone biomechanical parameters (maximum force, ultimate stress, yield stress and Young’s modulus and bone minerals (bone calcium and magnesium compared to control group (P

  16. Effects of dietary protein deficiency on mineral metabolism and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwoll, E; Ware, M; Stribrska, L; Bikle, D; Sanchez, T; Andon, M; Li, H

    1992-08-01

    The effects of dietary protein restriction on mineral and bone metabolism are uncharacterized. We studied growing rats fed a diet low in protein (5%) for 4, 6, and 8 wks (n = 10 animals/group) and compared them with animals pair-fed with a protein-replete (18%) diet. The low-protein diet rapidly induced a profound hypocalciuria that persisted for greater than or equal to 8 wk. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were not affected but serum total and free 25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations as well as gastrointestinal calcium absorption were lower in the low-protein animals. Skeletal dimensions were reduced in the protein-deprived rats but there were no significant differences in bone mineral content between control and low-protein animals at 4, 6, and 8 wks. Hence, dietary protein deprivation resulted in slower growth but bone mineral density was maintained when there was a marked reduction in urinary calcium excretion.

  17. Chronic kidney disease: mineral and bone disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Salusky, Isidro B

    2013-03-01

    Childhood and adolescence are crucial times for the development of a healthy skeletal and cardiovascular system. Disordered mineral and bone metabolism accompany chronic kidney disease (CKD) and present significant obstacles to optimal bone strength, final adult height, and cardiovascular health. Early increases in bone and plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are associated with early defects in skeletal mineralization. Later in the course of CKD, secondary hyperparathyroidism--caused by a combination of declining calcitriol values and phosphate retention--results in high-turnover renal osteodystrophy whereas increased levels of both phosphate and FGF23 contribute to cardiovascular disease. Treatment of hyperphosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism improves high-turnover bone disease but fails to correct defects in skeletal mineralization. Because overtreatment may result in adynamic bone disease, growth failure, hypercalcemia, and progression of cardiovascular calcifications, therapy therefore must be titrated carefully to maintain optimal serum biochemical parameters according to stage of CKD. Newer therapeutic agents and new treatment paradigms may suppress serum PTH levels effectively while limiting intestinal calcium absorption and skeletal FGF23 stimulation and may provide future therapeutic alternatives for children with CKD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  19. The Evolving World of Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral Bone Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bellasi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease – mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. In vitro and animal models suggest that phosphorous, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D abnormalities, mediate the cardiovascular and bone diseases that characterise CKD-MBD and increase the risk of death. Currently, mineral abnormalities are corrected through phosphorous restriction, phosphate binders, calcimimetics and vitamin D administration. Nonetheless, data in humans that support the use of these compounds are still scarce, mainly based on observational studies. Thus, a considerable number of doubts and questions still challenge clinicians dealing with CKD patients and mineral metabolism imbalances. We herein critically review clinical evidence that support the use of different drugs in CKD-MBD.

  20. Bone Mineral Status in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Stagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Klinefelter syndrome (KS has long-term consequences on bone health. However, studies regarding bone status and metabolism during childhood and adolescence are very rare. Patients. This cross-sectional study involved 40 (mean age: 13.7±3.8 years KS children and adolescents and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. For both patient and control groups, we evaluated serum levels of ionised and total calcium, phosphate, total testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also calculated the z-scores of the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS and the bone transmission time (BTT. Results. KS children and adolescents showed significantly reduced AD-SoS (p<0.005 and BTT (p<0.0005 z-scores compared to the controls. However, KS patients presented significantly higher PTH (p<0.0001 and significantly lower 25(OHD (p<0.0001, osteocalcin (p<0.05, and bone alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.005. Interestingly, these metabolic bone disorders were already present in the prepubertal subjects. Conclusions. KS children and adolescents exhibited impaired bone mineral status and metabolism with higher PTH levels and a significant reduction of 25-OH-D and bone formation markers. Interestingly, this impairment was already evident in prepubertal KS patients. Follow-ups should be scheduled with KS patients to investigate and ameliorate bone mineral status and metabolism until the prepubertal ages.

  1. Management of bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negredo, Eugenia; Bonjoch, Anna; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral density is an emerging problem in persons living with HIV infection. Earlier and more rapid bone demineralization has been attributed not only to the high prevalence of traditional risk factors, but also to specific HIV-related factors. The aim of this guidance is to stimulate an appropriate management of osteoporosis in this population, to identify patients at risk and to better manage them. Appropriate screening of HIV-infected subjects to identify those at risk for bone fractures is described, as well as the recommended interventions. American and European recommendations in HIV-infected and non-infected populations were considered. As the etiology of bone loss is multifactorial, many factors have to be addressed. Overall, recommendations on traditional risk factors are the same for HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected subjects. However, we should consider some specific factors in the HIV-infected population, including an appropriate antiretroviral therapy in patients with low bone mineral density, and probably novel strategies that could provide an additional benefit, such as anti-inflammatory drugs, although data supporting this approach are scant. Some personal opinions are highlighted on the management of bone health in HIV-infected subjects, mainly on the use of FRAX(®) score and DXA scans. In addition, the need to implement new strategies to delay demineralization is remarked upon.

  2. Bone mineral measurements and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteopenia) is a major factor in the development of osteoporotic fractures in women after the menopause. The pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis has been pursued by dual lines of investigation: (1) development of a model to describe involutional bone loss, (2) identification of those factors which result in some healthy women having a greater risk for osteoporosis than others. Bone mineral measurements have been made using in vivo neutron activation analysis and whole body counting for the measurement of total body calcium (TBCa), single photon absorptiometry for the measurement of bone mineral content of the distal radius and dual photon absorptiometry for measurement of the bone density of the spine. TBCa is higher in men than women and is lost at a slow linear rate in men. Blacks have a skeletal mass about 8-9% higher than Caucasians. Women have a similar loss of TBCa to men prior to menopause, but then have an accelerated rate of loss after menopause. The change in bone density of the radius and spine with increasing age is also best described by a 2 phase regression in women, with appreciable loss after age 50

  3. Effects of aluminum exposure on bone mineral density, mineral, and trace elements in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinwei; Hu, Chongwei; Zhu, Yanzhu; Sun, Hao; Li, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of aluminum (Al) exposure on bone mineral elements, trace elements, and bone mineral density (BMD) in rats. One hundred Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups. Experimental rats were given drinking water containing aluminum chloride (AlCl(3), 430 mg Al(3+)/L), whereas control rats were given distilled water for up to 150 days. Ten rats were sacrificed in each group every 30 days. The levels of Al, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), boron (B), and strontium (Sr) in bone and the BMD of femur were measured. Al-treated rats showed lower deposition of Ca, P, and Mg compared with control rats. Levels of trace elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Se, B, and Sr) were significantly lower in the Al-treated group than in the control group from day 60, and the BMD of the femur metaphysis in the Al-treated group was significantly lower than in the control group on days 120 and 150. These findings indicate that long-term Al exposure reduces the levels of mineral and trace elements in bone. As a result, bone loss was induced (particularly in cancellous bone).

  4. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  5. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji (Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)) (and others)

    1991-12-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.).

  6. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji

    1991-01-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.)

  7. The correlation between metacarpal bone mineral content and bone mineral density of the jawbone in implant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Toshinobu; Takamori, Hitoshi; Yosue, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    This study estimated the relationship between metacarpal bone mineral content and jawbone density. The subjects were 141 patients who desired implant treatment and had undergone a thorough pre-operative CT examination. In the maxilla, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the cancellous bone between the nasal cavity and the maxillary sinus. In the mandible, BMD was measured at the cancellous bone beneath the mental foramen. The CT numbers were corrected by the quantitative computer tomography (QCT) method. Furthermore, the cortical indices of the mandible, i.e. C-PMI (Central-Panoramic Mandibular Index), and MCW (Mandibular Cortical Width) were measured and calculated from panoramic radiographs. The bone mineral content of the total body was obtained by ΣGS/D and MCI through Microdensitometry. The following results were obtained. Between the maxillary BMD and ΣGS/D and between the mandibular BMD and ΣGS/D, there was a correlation in females but no correlation in males. Between the maxillary BMD and MCI, there was a correlation in females but no correlation in males. However, in the mandibular BMD and MCI there was no correlation in females and males. Between C-PMI and ΣGS/D there was a correlation in both females and males. Between C-PMI and MCI there was a correlation in both females and males. Between MCW and ΣGS/D there was a correlation in both females and males. Between MCW and MCI there was a correlation in females, but no correlation in males. From the above results, it was concluded that the maxillary BMD and the cortical index of the mandible reflected changes in the metacarpal bone mineral content, while mandibular BMD did not. (author)

  8. The use of bone turnover markers in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cherie

    2017-03-01

    Bone turnover markers assist in fracture risk prediction, management and monitoring of osteoporosis in patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD). The use in CKD-mineral bone disorder (MBD) has been limited as many of these markers and breakdown products are renally excreted, including the most commonly used and well standardized procollagen type I N propeptide and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen. Of the markers unaffected by renal function, bone specific alkaline phosphatase is associated with mortality and fracture rate in CKD subjects and is now available on several automated analysers. When used in combination with PTH, bone specific alkaline phosphatase as a bone formation marker correlated well with bone biopsy histomorphometry in predicting adynamic bone disease. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b is a resorption marker that is under development for automation. Both high and low bone turnover in CKD-MBD patients are associated with increased fracture and mortality risk. Bone biopsy as the gold standard to differentiate between adynamic bone disease and osteitis fibrosa is limited by availability and cost. Appropriate use of bone turnover markers is vital in the decision to commence anti-resorptive agents, and to monitor efficacy in order to avoid over suppression of bone turnover, which may lead to stress fractures. Further efforts are required to develop markers unaffected by renal function with standardized cut-off values and fracture as well as vascular calcification end-points. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  9. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1 increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2 producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3 reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4 hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  10. Preoperative assessment of the cancellous bone mineral density of the proximal humerus using CT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krappinger, Dietmar; Roth, Tobias; Gschwentner, Martin; Suckert, Armin; Blauth, Michael; Hengg, Clemens; Kralinger, Franz [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Trauma Surgery and Sports Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    Osteoporotic fractures of the proximal humerus show an increasing incidence. Osteoporosis not only influences the fracture risk after low-energy trauma, but also affects the mechanical stability of internal fixation. Preoperative assessment of the local bone quality may be useful in the surgical treatment of patients sustaining these injuries. The aim of the present study was to present a method for the preoperative assessment of the local cancellous bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal humerus using CT data. In the first part of the study, CT scans of 30 patients with unilateral fractures of the proximal humerus after low-energy trauma were used. The local BMD was assessed on the contralateral uninjured side. All 30 patients additionally underwent dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm of the side of the uninjured proximal humerus within 6 weeks after trauma. Three independent trauma surgeons performed measurements on the uninjured proximal humerus twice with a time interval of 4 weeks in order to assess the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the method. In the second part of the study, the local BMD of 507 patients with either proximal humerus fractures or chronic shoulder instability was assessed by a single trauma surgeon. In both parts, the average HU values in standardized ROIs of the humeral head were automatically calculated after correcting for HU values below the water equivalent. A linear calibration equation was computed for the calculation from HU to BMD using a calibration device (EFP). The intra- and interobserver reliability was high (ICC > 0.95). Correlation coefficients between the local BMD of the proximal humerus and other anatomical sites were between 0.35 (lumbar spine) and 0.64 (forearm). We found a high correlation between the local BMD and age. The BMD in the fracture group was significantly lower than in the instability group. These patients were significantly older and more

  11. Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTH(1-84), and bone mineral content in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, B; Jensen, J D; Nielsen, H K

    1991-01-01

    Bone mineral content, estimated by single-photon absorptiometry of the forearm, serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-84], osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3), and aluminium were determined during treatment with calcium carbonate (CaCO3......% per half-year during CaCO3 treatment (P less than 0.05). Comparing the CaCO3 and Al(OH)3 periods the following differences were found: serum calcium increased during CaCO3 treatment, PTH(1-84) decreased (79% of initial values during CaCO3 versus 196% during Al(OH)3, mean area under curve, P less than...

  12. Cola beverage consumption induces bone mineralization reduction in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Contreras, F; Paniagua, R; Avila-Díaz, M; Cabrera-Muñoz, L; Martínez-Muñiz, I; Foyo-Niembro, E; Amato, D

    2000-01-01

    A significant association of cola beverage consumption and increased risk of bone fractures has been recently reported. The present study was carried out to examine the relationship of cola soft drink intake and bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats. Study 1. Four groups of 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Animals from groups II, III, and IV were bilaterally ovariectomized. Animals from groups I and II received tap water for drinking, while animals from groups III and IV each drank a different commercial brand of cola soft drink. After 2 months on these diets, the following were measured: solid diet and liquid consumption; bone mineral density; calcium in bone ashes; femoral cortex width; calcium; phosphate; albumin; creatinine; alkaline phosphatase; 25-OH hydroxyvitamin D, and PTH. Study 2. Two groups of seven ovariectomized rats were compared. Group A animals received the same management as the group III animals from study 1 (cola soft drink and rat chow ad libitum), while rats from group B received tap water for drinking and pair-feeding. After 2 months plasmatic ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, albumin, calcium in femoral ashes, and femoral cortex width were measured. Study 1. Rats consuming cola beverages (groups III and IV) had a threefold higher liquid intake than rats consuming water (groups I and II). Daily solid food intake of rats consuming cola soft drinks was one-half that of rats consuming water. Rats consuming soft drinks developed hypocalcemia and their femoral mineral density measured by DEXA was significantly lower than control animals as follows: group I, 0.20 +/- 0.02; group II, 0.18 +/- 0.01; group III, 0.16 +/- 0.01, and group IV, 0.16 +/- 0.01 g/cm(2). Study 2. To rule out the possibility that these calcium and bone mineral disorders were caused by decreased solid food intake, a pair-fed group was studied. Despite a lower body weight, pair-fed animals consuming tap water did not develop bone mineral reduction or

  13. Measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content using dual photon absorptiometry. Usefulness in metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, P.D.; Duboeuf, F.; Braillon, P.; Meunier, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of bone density using an accurate, non-invasive method is a crucial step in the clinical investigation of metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Among the recently available techniques, measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) using dual photon absorptiometry appears as the primary method because it is simple, inexpensive, and involves low levels of radiation exposure. In this study, we measured the BMC in 168 normal adults and 95 patients. Results confirmed the good reproducibility and sensitivity of this technique for quantifying bone loss in males and females with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss was found in most females with primary hyperparathyroidism. Dual photon absorptiometry can also be used for quantifying increases in bone mass in Paget disease of bone and diffuse osteosclerosis. Osteomalacia is responsible for a dramatic fall in BMC reflecting lack of mineralization of a significant portion of the bone matrix, a characteristic feature in this disease. Furthermore, in addition to being useful for diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of the vertebral fracture risk, lumbar spine absorptiometry can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of bone-specific treatments [fr

  14. Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase: Potential Co-regulators of Bone Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling Linder, Cecilia; Ek-Rylander, Barbro; Krumpel, Michael; Norgård, Maria; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Andersson, Göran; Magnusson, Per

    2017-07-01

    Phosphorylated osteopontin (OPN) inhibits hydroxyapatite crystal formation and growth, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) promotes extracellular mineralization via the release of inorganic phosphate from the mineralization inhibitor inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), produced by osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, exhibits potent phosphatase activity towards OPN; however, its potential capacity as a regulator of mineralization has not previously been addressed. We compared the efficiency of BALP and TRAP towards the endogenous substrates for BALP, i.e., PPi and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), and their impact on mineralization in vitro via dephosphorylation of bovine milk OPN. TRAP showed higher phosphatase activity towards phosphorylated OPN and PPi compared to BALP, whereas the activity of TRAP and BALP towards PLP was comparable. Bovine milk OPN could be completely dephosphorylated by TRAP, liberating all its 28 phosphates, whereas BALP dephosphorylated at most 10 phosphates. OPN, dephosphorylated by either BALP or TRAP, showed a partially or completely attenuated phosphorylation-dependent inhibitory capacity, respectively, compared to native OPN on the formation of mineralized nodules. Thus, there are phosphorylations in OPN important for inhibition of mineralization that are removed by TRAP but not by BALP. In conclusion, our data indicate that both BALP and TRAP can alleviate the inhibitory effect of OPN on mineralization, suggesting a potential role for TRAP in skeletal mineralization. Further studies are warranted to explore the possible physiological relevance of TRAP in bone mineralization.

  15. Bone tissue aging affects mineralization of cement lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Petar; Vom Scheidt, Annika; Mletzko, Kathrin; Sarau, George; Püschel, Klaus; Djuric, Marija; Amling, Michael; Christiansen, Silke; Busse, Björn

    2018-02-07

    Cement lines are known as thin peripheral boundaries of the osteons. With a thickness below 5 μm their composition of inorganic and organic compounds has been a matter of debate. Here, we hypothesized that cement lines become hypermineralized and their degree of mineralization is not constant but related to the tissue age of the osteon. Therefore, we analyzed the calcium content of osteons and their corresponding cement lines in a range of different tissue ages reflected by osteonal mineralization levels in femoral cortical bone of both postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and bisphosphonate-treated cases. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) showed that cement lines are hypermineralized entities with consistently higher calcium content than their corresponding osteons (mean calcium content: 29.46 ± 0.80 vs. 26.62 ± 1.11 wt%; p lines compared to the osteonal bone (8.78 ± 0.66 vs. 6.33 ± 0.58, p lines. A clear positive correlation of cement line mineralization and the mineralization of the osteon was observed (r = 0.839, p = 0.003). However, the magnitude of the difference between cement line and osteonal calcium content decreased with increased osteonal calcium content (r = -0.709, p line calcium content (p lines may represent another tissue-age related phenomenon, given that it strongly relates to the osteonal mineralization level. Understanding of the cement lines' mineralization and their changes in aging and disease states is important for predicting crack propagation pathways and fracture resistance mechanisms in human cortical bone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bone Mineral Density in Patients Receiving Anticonvulsant Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Yıldırım

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine possible effects of anticonvulsant drugs on bone mineral density. Twenty two patients with epilepsy who have been receiving anticonvulsant drugs and also 22 healthy controls were included in the study. The average age was 28.9 ± 8.9 years in the patients group and 30.5 ± 6.9 years in the control group. The average drug receiving time was 6.45 ± 4.2 years. At baseline ESR, hemogram, urine deoxypiridinoline (DPD, routine biochemical and hormonal values were determined in both groups. Lumbar spine and left femur bone mineral density (BMD values were determined with hologic 2000 DEXA. In the statistical analysis, urine DPD levels in the patient group were significantly higher than control group (p0.05. Lumbar spine and left femur BMD values were significantly decreased in patients group (respectively p<0.01, p<0.001. We determined that in the patients using anticonvulsant drugs there was an increase in bone resorption and this effect was more evident in cortical bone than trabecular bone.

  17. Hyponatremia, bone mineral density and falls in the elderly; Results from AHAP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini Seyed Reza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hyponatremia (HN can be associated with osteoporosis, falls and bone fractures in the elderly. Recent researches demonstrated different results about the correlation of HN with bone mineral density and bone fractures.

  18. Ridge preservation with the use of deproteinized bovine bone mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe, Jan; Cecchinato, Denis; Donati, Mauro; Tomasi, Cristiano; Liljenberg, Birgitta

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to examine the tissue composition of extraction sockets that had been grafted with deproteinized bovine bone mineral and allowed to heal for 6 months. Twenty-five subjects with one tooth each scheduled for extraction and replacement with dental implants were recruited. The assigned teeth were carefully removed. The site/patient was thereafter allocated to a test or a control group. In the test group patients, Bio-Oss(®) Collagen was placed to fill the fresh extraction socket while in the controls no grafting was performed. After about 6 months of healing, a biopsy was sampled from the center of the extraction site. The specimens were decalcified, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained in HTX. The proportions occupied by mineralized bone, osteoid, bone marrow, fibrous tissue, and Bio-Oss(®) particles were determined by morphometric point counting. Mineralized bone made up 57.4 ± 12.4% of the control sites (C) and 48.9 ± 8.5% of the T1 sites (graft material not included). The amount of bone marrow (C: 7.1 ± 6.1%, T1: 2.1 ± 3.1%) and osteoid (C: 7.3 ± 4.9%, T1: 1.9 ± 2.1%) was about five times greater in the control than in the test sites. Fibrous tissue comprised 23.1 ± 16.3% (C) and 40.0 ± 11.9% (T1). I n the T2 sites (graft material included), the percentage mineralized bone was 39.9 ± 8.6 while the proportions of bone marrow and osteoid were 1.8 ± 2.5% and 1.6 ± 1.8%. Fibrous tissue occupied 32.4 ± 9.2% and Bio-Oss(®) particles 19.0 ± 6.5% of the T2 sites. Placement of the biomaterial in the fresh extraction socket retarded healing. The Bio-Oss(®) particles were not resorbed but became surrounded by new bone. This may explain why grafted extraction sites may fail to undergo dimensional change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. The significance of HIV to bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Weis, Nina; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2017-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry scan should be considered in HIV-infected men ≥ 50 years and postmenopausal women. In case of osteoporosis, bisphosphonate treatment should follow guidelines for the general population. Future research should focus on pathogenesis and prevention of bone density loss in HIV.......The life expectancy in well-treated HIV-infected persons approaches that of the general population, but HIV-infected persons have a greater incidence of fractures and osteoporosis. A decrease in bone mineral density is observed primarily during the first 1-2 years of antiretroviral therapy. Dual X...

  20. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: coeliac disease (CD affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. Methods: a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. Conclusions: up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  1. The pleiotropic effects of paricalcitol: Beyond bone-mineral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egido, Jesús; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Bover, Jordi; Praga, Manuel; Torregrosa, José Vicente; Fernández-Giráldez, Elvira; Solozábal, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) that is characterised by elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and a series of bone-mineral metabolism anomalies. In patients with SHPT, treatment with paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, has been shown to reduce PTH levels with minimal serum calcium and phosphorus variations. The classic effect of paricalcitol is that of a mediator in mineral and bone homeostasis. However, recent studies have suggested that the benefits of treatment with paricalcitol go beyond PTH reduction and, for instance, it has a positive effect on cardiovascular disease and survival. The objective of this study is to review the most significant studies on the so-called pleiotropic effects of paricalcitol treatment in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Odds ratios for hip- and lower forearm fracture using peripheral bone densitometry; a case-control study of postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, M M A; Jørgensen, H L; Lauritzen, J B

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured at the lumbar spine and particularly at the hip remain the gold-standard for diagnosing osteoporosis. However, devices for assessing the peripheral skeleton present several advantages in terms of lower price and portability. A major......: Peripheral densitometry can discriminate between hip- and lower forearm fracture patients and age-matched controls. Significantly elevated odds ratios for incurring these fractures can be calculated using device- and site specific t-score cutoff values. The results from this case-control study need...

  3. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  4. Normative Bone Mineral Density values in Isfahani women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sayed Bonakdar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMDmeasurement by dual energy x ray absorptiometry(DEXA requires a population specific reference range. We collected data on age 20-35 years to obtain reference values of BMD for Isfahani women in order to make a population specific diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods: In 660 healthy Isfahani women Volunteers (20-35 years without illness, use of drugs or predisposing conditions to osteoporosis, the BMD (gr/cm² of lumbar spine and non-dominant femur was measured by lunar DPX –IQ machine. Results: The mean BMD and its standard deviations at each site were calculated and compared with normative data from Caucasian US/North European women. No significant differences were detected between them. Conclusions: Bone mineral density measurements of these 660 healthy Isfahani women can serve as a reference guide for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Isfahani women. Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Normative data, DEXA

  5. Evaluation of bone mineral density in children receiving antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, R; Okutan, V; Sarici, U; Altunbas, A; Gökçay, E

    1998-08-01

    The effects of the valproic acid and carbamazepine monotherapies on bone mineral density were evaluated. Bone mineral density was measured in 53 children with primary epilepsy taking either valproic acid (n = 25) or carbamazepine (n = 28) for longer than 1 year and in a healthy control group (n = 26) by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry method at L2-L4 levels of lumbar vertebrae. The mean serum levels of valproic acid and carbamazepine were 66 +/- 2.2 microg/mL and 7.0 +/- 9.3 microg/mL, respectively, and the mean duration of treatment for each drug was 2.4 +/- 0.2 years and 2.6 +/- 0.5 years, respectively. Calcium intakes in diet were similar in both the control and study groups. The serum levels of calcium and phosphorus in all groups were normal. Bone mineral density values of both valproic acid and carbamazepine groups were not statistically different from that of the control group (P > 0.05).

  6. Coffee consumption and bone mineral density in korean premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measured for lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and who completed a standardized questionnaire about coffee intake frequency. We excluded the participants who took hormone replacement therapy or medication for osteoporosis. The cross-sectional relationship between coffee consumption and impaired bone health (osteopenia or osteoporosis) was investigated by bone densitometry. Coffee consumption showed no significant association with BMD of either femoral neck or lumbar spine, independent of other factors. The adjusted odds ratios for BMD for those who consumed once in a day, twice a day and three times a day were 0.94 (0.70-1.26), 0.93 (0.67-1.28), and 1.02 (0.69-1.50), respectively (P for trend = 0.927). This study does not support the idea that coffee is a risk factor for impaired bone health in Korean premenopausal women.

  7. Peak Bone Mineral Density Of Bangladeshi Men And Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilruba Akhter Banu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become weak and brittle. It affects 55 of Americans aged 50 or above of which about 80 are women. Millions of fractures occur annually. An effective way of preventing osteoporosis is to maximize the attainment of peak bone mineral density pBMD. Thus the knowledge of average pBMD that prevails in a nation is very important. Not much study appears to have been done on the subject in Bangladesh. 170 Bangladeshi patients and volunteers were studied at nuclear medicine centers of Comilla and Rajshahi. Bone mineral densities BMD at different sites of the skeleton were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer DXA. Graphs of Age versus BMD were plotted. Data was fitted with the help of polynomials. The best fit was obtained with polynomials of degree 4 in each case. By using bootstrapping method a large number of samples were generated and pBMD was obtained from each of the samples. Mean value of the pBMD was then calculated. pBMD values of the male patients were found to be slightly greater than those of the females. During puberty gender differences become more expressed. After the age of 50 females lose bones more rapidly and quantitatively than males. Bangladeshis seem to belong to the group of nations having low pBMDs.

  8. Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound-bone mineral density value for evaluating bone metabolism and bone turnover in patients with osteoporotic fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the calcaneal quantitative ultrasound-bone mineral density (QUS-BMD value for evaluating bone metabolism and bone turnover in patients with osteoporotic fracture. Methods: A total of 150 patients who were diagnosed with osteoporotic fracture in Nuclear Industry 417 Hospital between January 2010 and March 2017 were selected as the fracture group of the research, and 70 subjects with normal bone mineral density confirmed by physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group of the research. QUSBMD apparatus was used to measure bone mineral density of calcaneus, and the serum was collected to determine the biochemical indexes of bone metabolism and bone turnover. Results: QUS-BMD value as well as serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of fracture group was significantly lower than those of control group while serum TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of control group; serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia were significantly lower than those of subjects with normal bone mass while TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of subjects with normal bone mass; serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of patients with osteoporosis was significantly lower than those of patients with osteoporosis while TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of patients with osteoporosis. Conclusion: Calcaneal QUS-BMD is valuable for evaluating the bone metabolism activity and bone turnover process in patients with osteoporotic fracture.

  9. Changes in bone mineral density 10 years after marked reduction of cadmium exposure in a Chinese population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiao [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Zhu, Guoying, E-mail: zhugy@shmu.edu.cn [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Jin, Taiyi [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Akesson, Agneta [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergdahl, Ingvar A. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Lei, Lijian [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Weng, Shifang [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Liang, Yihuai [Department of Occupation Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, Umea (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    The main focus of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of Cd on forearm bone mineral density after the cessation of the ingestion of Cd-polluted rice. A total of 458 persons (294 women, 164 men) from three Cd exposure areas (low, moderately, and heavy) participated in this study. Those living in the moderate and heavy exposure areas ceased ingesting Cd-polluted rice (0.51 and 3.7 mg/kg, respectively) in 1996 (10 years prior to present analysis). The participants completed a questionnaire and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. The changes and change percentage in forearm bone density and the prevalence of osteoporosis between 1998 and 2006 were used as markers of bone recovery. The Cd concentrations in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd) in 1998 were used as Cd exposure markers. The values of the BMD change and change percentage of groups in which UCd was above 5 {mu}g/g creatinine ({mu}g/g crea) and BCd was above 10 {mu}g/L were significantly higher than those of the low-exposure groups (in women, p<0.001; in men, p>0.05). The BMD change and change percentage correlated positively with the UCd and BCd (in women, p<0.01; in men, p>0.05). Analysis of the Z-score revealed that the prevalence of osteoporosis in 2006 was higher than that in 1998 and increased along with the level of UCd and BCd in both women and men, especially for those subjects with the higher BCd [BCd>5 {mu}g/L, OR=3.45 (0.95-13.6); BCd>10 {mu}g/L, OR=4.51(1.57-13.54)] and UCd [UCd>10 {mu}g/g crea, OR=4.74 (1.82-12.81)] in women. It is concluded that decreasing dietary cadmium exposure at the population level is not associated with bone recovery at the individual level, and the adverse bone effects of Cd exposure persisted after the main source of Cd exposure had been blocked, especially in women.

  10. Treatment with eldecalcitol positively affects mineralization, microdamage, and collagen crosslinks in primate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Grynpas, Marc D; Burr, David B; Allen, Matthew R; Smith, Susan Y; Doyle, Nancy; Amizuka, Norio; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Kida, Yoshikuni; Marumo, Keishi; Saito, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Eldecalcitol (ELD), an active form of vitamin D analog approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan, increases lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), suppresses bone turnover markers, and reduces fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. We have previously reported that treatment with ELD for 6 months improved the mechanical properties of the lumbar spine in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. ELD treatment increased lumbar BMD, suppressed bone turnover markers, and reduced histomorphometric parameters of both bone formation and resorption in vertebral trabecular bone. In this study, we elucidated the effects of ELD on bone quality (namely, mineralization, microarchitecture, microdamage, and bone collagen crosslinks) in OVX cynomolgus monkeys in comparison with OVX-vehicle control monkeys. Density fractionation of bone powder prepared from lumbar vertebrae revealed that ELD treatment shifted the distribution profile of bone mineralization to a higher density, and backscattered electron microscopic imaging showed improved trabecular bone connectivity in the ELD-treated groups. Higher doses of ELD more significantly reduced the amount of microdamage compared to OVX-vehicle controls. The fractionated bone powder samples were divided according to their density, and analyzed for collagen crosslinks. Enzymatic crosslinks were higher in both the high-density (≥2.0 mg/mL) and low-density (mineralization, but prevented non-enzymatic reaction of collagen crosslinks and accumulation of bone microdamage. Bone anti-resorptive agents such as bisphosphonates slow down bone remodeling so that bone mineralization, bone microdamage, and non-enzymatic collagen crosslinks all increase. Bone anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone decrease bone mineralization and bone microdamage by stimulating bone remodeling. ELD did not fit into either category. Histological analysis indicated that the ELD treatment strongly suppressed bone resorption by reducing the number of

  11. Astronaut Bones: Stable Calcium Isotopes in Urine as a Biomarker of Bone Mineral Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.; Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S.

    2016-12-01

    Bone loss is a common health concern, in conditions ranging from osteoporosis to cancer. Bone loss due to unloading is also an important health issue for astronauts. We demonstrate stable calcium isotopes, a tool developed in geochemistry, are capable of detecting real-time quantitative changes in net bone mineral balance (BMB) using serum and urine [1]. We validated this technique by comparing with DEXA and biomarker data in subjects during bed rest, a ground-based analog of space flight effects [2-4]. We now apply this tool to assess changes in astronauts' BMB before, during and after 4-6 month space missions. There is stable isotope fractionation asymmetry between bone formation and resorption. During bone formation there is a mass-dependent preference for "lighter" calcium isotopes to be removed from serum and incorporated into bone mineral. During bone resorption, there is no measurable isotopic discrimination between serum and bone. Hence, when bone formation rates exceed that of resorption, serum and urine become isotopically "heavy" due to the sequestration of "light" calcium in bone. Conversely, when bone resorption exceeds bone formation, serum and urine become isotopically "light" due to the release of the sequestered light calcium from bone. We measured Ca isotopes in urine of thirty International Space Station astronauts. Average Ca isotope values in astronauts' urine shift isotopically lighter during microgravity, consistent with negative net BMB. Within a month of return to Earth, astronauts returned to within error of their δ44Ca value prior to departure. Urine samples from astronauts testing bone loss countermeasures showed bisphosphonates provide a viable pharmacological countermeasure. Some, but not all, individuals appear able to resist bone loss through diet and intensive resistive exercise alone. This is a promising new technique for monitoring BMB in astronauts, and hopefully someday on the way to/from Mars, this also has important clinical

  12. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  13. Electrical field stimulation improves bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.R. Lirani-Galvão

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its consequent fractures are a great social and medical problem mainly occurring in post-menopausal women. Effective forms of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis associated with lower costs and the least side effects are needed. Electrical fields are able to stimulate osteogenesis in fractures, but little is known about their action on osteoporotic tissue. The aim of the present study was to determine by bone densitometry the effects of electrical stimulation on ovariectomized female Wistar rats. Thirty rats (220 ± 10 g were divided into three groups: sham surgery (SHAM, bilateral ovariectomy (OVX and bilateral ovariectomy + electrical stimulation (OVX + ES. The OVX + ES group was submitted to a 20-min session of a low-intensity pulsed electrical field (1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm² starting on the 7th day after surgery, five times a week (total = 55 sessions. Global, spine and limb bone mineral density were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA Hologic 4500A before surgery and at the end of protocol (84 days after surgery. Electrical stimulation improved (P < 0.05 global (0.1522 ± 0.002, spine (0.1502 ± 0.003, and limb (0.1294 ± 0.003 g/cm² bone mineral density compared to OVX group (0.1447 ± 0.001, 0.1393 ± 0.002, and 0.1212 ± 0.001, respectively. The OVX + ES group also showed significantly higher global bone mineral content (9.547 ± 0.114 g when compared to both SHAM (8.693 ± 0.165 g and OVX (8.522 ± 0.207 g groups (P < 0.05. We have demonstrated that electrical fields stimulate osteogenesis in ovariectomized female rats. Their efficacy in osteoporosis remains to be demonstrated.

  14. Acceleration of biomimetic mineralization to apply in bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, A Champa; Shah, Chiragkumar; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H

    2008-01-01

    The delivery of growth factors and therapeutic drugs into bone defects is a major clinical challenge. Biomimetically prepared bone-like mineral (BLM) containing a carbonated apatite layer can be used to deliver growth factors and drugs in a controlled manner. In the conventional biomimetic process, BLM can be deposited on the biodegradable polymer surfaces by soaking them in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 16 days or more. The aim of this study was to accelerate the biomimetic process of depositing BML in the polymer surfaces. We accelerated the deposition of mineral on 3D poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) porous scaffolds to 36-48 h by modifying the biomimetic process parameters and applying surface treatments to PLGA scaffolds. The BLM was coated on scaffolds after surface treatments followed by incubation at 37 0 C in 15 ml of 5x SBF. We characterized the BLM created using the accelerated biomineralization process with wide angle x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The FTIR and XRD analyses of mineralized scaffolds show similarities between biomimetically prepared BLM, and bone bioapatite and carbonated apatite. We also found that the BLM layer on the surface of scaffolds was stable even after 21 days immersed in Tris buffered saline and cell culture media. This study suggests that BLM was stable for at least 3 weeks in both media, and therefore, BLM has a potential for use as a carrier for biological molecules for localized release applications as well as bone tissue engineering applications

  15. Bone mineral density in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated spine bone mineral density (BMD in Brazilian children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE in order to detect potential predictors of reduction in bone mass. A cross-sectional study of BMD at the lumbar spine level (L2-L4 was conducted on 16 female JSLE patients aged 6-17 years. Thirty-two age-matched healthy girls were used as control. BMD at the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight, height and pubertal Tanner stage were determined in patients and controls. Disease duration, mean daily steroid doses, mean cumulative steroid doses and JSLE activity measured by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI were determined for all JSLE patients based on their medical charts. All parameters were used as potential determinant factors for bone loss. Lumbar BMD tended to be lower in the JSLE patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.10. No significant correlation was observed in JSLE girls between BMD and age, height, Tanner stage, disease duration, corticosteroid use or disease activity. We found a weak correlation between BMD and weight (r = 0.672. In the JSLE group we found no significant parameters to correlate with reduced bone mass. Disease activity and mean cumulative steroid doses were not related to BMD values. We did not observe reduced bone mass in female JSLE.

  16. Vitamin B12 status is associated to bone mineral content and bone mineral density in frail elderly women, but not in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Lips, M.; Jong, N.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in the elderly. Encouraged by early indications, we investigated the plasma vitamin B-12 status in association with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in frail elderly people. Data of 194 free-living Dutch frail elderly (143 women

  17. Clinical observation of biomimetic mineralized collagen artificial bone putty for bone reconstruction of calcaneus fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yong-Xiong; Yang, Guang-Gang; Li, Zhong-Wan; Shi, Zhong-Min; Sun, Zhan-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated clinical outcomes of biomimetic mineralized collagen artificial bone putty for bone reconstruction in the treatment of calcaneus fracture. Sixty cases of calcaneal fractures surgically treated with open reduction and internal fixation in our hospital from June 2014–2015 were chosen and randomly divided into two groups, including 30 cases treated with biomimetic mineralized collagen artificial bone putty as treatment group, and 30 cases treated with autogenous ilia as control group. The average follow-up time was 17.2 ± 3.0 months. The results showed that the surgery duration and postoperative drainage volume of treatment group were significantly lower than control group; there were no statistically significant differences in the fracture healing time, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scores at 3 and 12 months after surgery, Böhler’s angle, Gissane’s angle and height of calcaneus between the two groups. There were no significant differences in wound complication and reject reaction between the two groups, while significant difference in donor site complication. As a conclusion, the implantation of biomimetic mineralized collagen artificial bone putty in the open reduction of calcaneal fracture resulted in reliable effect and less complications, which is suitable for clinical applications in the treatment of bone defect in calcaneal fractures.

  18. Changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods: A total of 216 cases of hyperthyroidism in our hospital from December 2015 to January 2015 were selected as the case group, 216 cases of healthy people selected the same period in our hospital physical examination center as the control group, detected thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes of all the studied subjects and compared with each other. Results: In this study, it was found that diastolic blood pressure, BMI, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, VLDL-C, TSH were all significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05, systolic blood pressure, LDL-C, GLU, T3, T4, FT3, FT4, HTG, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. Right calcaneal speed of sound (SOS in case group was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05, BGP, PTH in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism can cause thyroid hormone levels abnormal, abnormal increase autoantibodies, decrease bone density, bone metabolism actively, easy to form osteoporosis, clinical treatment of hyperthyroidism in the same time, should actively prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis

  19. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. derived minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Graf, Kristin H; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2013-12-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5, 12, and 18 months. At each time point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5 months). Cortical bone increased through month 5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5-10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals, but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis-prevention strategy.

  20. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. – derived minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Graf, Kristin H.; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5-, 12- and 18-months. At each time-point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5-months). Cortical bone increased through month-5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density (BMD) was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5–10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis - prevention strategy. PMID:24096551

  1. The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Franek, Edward; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets can be healthy when they are well balanced and if a variety of foods is consumed. However, elimination of animal products from the diet (vegan diets) decreases the intake of some essential nutrients and may influence the bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vegan diet on bone density (BMD) density and serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers. We examined a family on vegan diet which consisted of parents and two children. Dietary constituents were analysed using a nutritional program. Total and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate in serum obtained from fasting patients were determined by colorimetric methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method and bone turnover markers by specific enzyme immunoassays. In studied vegans, the dietary intake of phosphate was adequate while calcium and vitamin D were below the recommended range. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate and bone turnover markers in the serum of all subjects were within the physiological range, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was low. Age-matched Z-score total BMD was between -0.6 and 0.3 in adults, however in children it was lower (-0.9 and -1.0). Z-score BMD lumbar spine (L2-L4) was between -0.9 to -1.9 in parents and -1.5 to -1.7 in children. Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a decrease in bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially children, in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  2. The Assessment of Bone Regulatory Pathways, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mineral Density in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC, and bone mineral density (BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers—bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I, osteoprotegerin (OPG, nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL, sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1—were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP (p = 0.002 and CTX-I (p = 0.027, and slightly lower spine BMC (p = 0.067 and BMD (p = 0.060 than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities.

  3. The Assessment of Bone Regulatory Pathways, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mineral Density in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Gajewska, Joanna

    2018-02-07

    Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers-bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), osteoprotegerin (OPG), nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1)-were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP ( p = 0.002) and CTX-I ( p = 0.027), and slightly lower spine BMC ( p = 0.067) and BMD ( p = 0.060) than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities.

  4. The relationship between panoramic radiomorphometric indices of the mandible and calcaneus bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagelaviciene, Egle; Kubilius, Ricardas; Krasauskiene, Aurelija

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between bone mineral density in the calcaneus measured using the dual x-ray and laser osteodensitometry technique and bone mineral density in the mandible calculated using the panoramic radiomorphometric indices obtained by applying linear measurements in panoramic radiograms of postmenopausal women. The participants of this study were postmenopausal women (n=129) aged 50 and more. The subjects underwent panoramic radiography of the mandibles, followed by the calculation of the panoramic radiomorphometric indices indicating bone mineral density of the mandible. The dual x-ray and laser osteodensitometer DXL Calscan were used for the measurements of bone mineral density in the calcaneus. Statistical analysis was preformed to find the relationship between bone mineral density measurements in the two anatomically different bones. Following the diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis recommended by the World Health Organization (1994), the subjects were distributed according to the calcaneus bone mineral density T-score into the normal bone mineral density (group 1), osteopenia (group 2), and osteoporosis (group 3) groups. Mean bone mineral density in the calcaneus in the general studied population was 0.38+/-0.07; the mean value of bone mineral density of the calcaneus in the group 1 (n=34) was 0.47+/-0.04 (g/cm(2)), in the group 2 (n=65) was 0.37+/-0.03 (g/cm(2)), and in the group 2 (n=30) was 0.29+/-0.03 (g/cm(2)). Differences in bone mineral density between the groups were determined using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) F=285.31; df=2; Ppanoramic mandibular index and bone mineral density in the calcaneus (r=0.397, Ppanoramic radiography reflect general changes in the mineralization of these bones, characteristic of the postmenopausal period.

  5. Osteopontin regulates dentin and alveolar bone development and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B L; Ao, M; Salmon, C R; Chavez, M B; Kolli, T N; Tran, A B; Chu, E Y; Kantovitz, K R; Yadav, M; Narisawa, S; Millán, J L; Nociti, F H; Somerman, M J

    2018-02-01

    The periodontal complex is essential for tooth attachment and function and includes the mineralized tissues, cementum and alveolar bone, separated by the unmineralized periodontal ligament (PDL). To gain insights into factors regulating cementum-PDL and bone-PDL borders and protecting against ectopic calcification within the PDL, we employed a proteomic approach to analyze PDL tissue from progressive ankylosis knock-out (Ank -/- ) mice, featuring reduced PP i , rapid cementogenesis, and excessive acellular cementum. Using this approach, we identified the matrix protein osteopontin (Spp1/OPN) as an elevated factor of interest in Ank -/- mouse molar PDL. We studied the role of OPN in dental and periodontal development and function. During tooth development in wild-type (WT) mice, Spp1 mRNA was transiently expressed by cementoblasts and strongly by alveolar bone osteoblasts. Developmental analysis from 14 to 240days postnatal (dpn) indicated normal histological structures in Spp1 -/- comparable to WT control mice. Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis at 30 and 90dpn revealed significantly increased volumes and tissue mineral densities of Spp1 -/- mouse dentin and alveolar bone, while pulp and PDL volumes were decreased and tissue densities were increased. However, acellular cementum growth was unaltered in Spp1 -/- mice. Quantitative PCR of periodontal-derived mRNA failed to identify potential local compensators influencing cementum in Spp1 -/- vs. WT mice at 26dpn. We genetically deleted Spp1 on the Ank -/- mouse background to determine whether increased Spp1/OPN was regulating periodontal tissues when the PDL space is challenged by hypercementosis in Ank -/- mice. Ank -/- ; Spp1 -/- double deficient mice did not exhibit greater hypercementosis than that in Ank -/- mice. Based on these data, we conclude that OPN has a non-redundant role regulating formation and mineralization of dentin and bone, influences tissue properties of PDL and pulp, but does not

  6. Low Bone Mineral Mass Is Associated with Decreased Bone Formation and Diet in Females with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Kathleen J.; Barrish, Judy O.; Neul, Jeffrey L.; Glaze, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize biomarkers of bone turnover and their relation with bone mineral mass in a cross-sectional cohort of females with Rett syndrome (RTT) and to examine the role of dietary, biochemical, hormonal, and inflammatory factors on bone mineral mass and bone biomarkers in this disorder. Methods Total body bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary nutrient intakes were determined from 3-day food records. Biomarkers of bone turnover, bone metabolites, vitamin D metabolites, hormones, and inflammatory markers were measured by standard clinical laboratory methods. Results Serum osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and C-telopeptide showed significant inverse relations with age in the RTT cohort. Mean osteocalcin concentrations were significantly lower and mean bone alkaline phosphatase concentrations were significantly higher for individual age groups in the RTT cohort than mean values for their respective age ranges in the reference population. Significant inverse associations were identified between urinary calcium losses, expressed as calcium:creatinine ratios, and total body BMC and BMD z-scores. Dietary protein, calcium, and phosphorus intakes, expressed as a proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes for age and gender, showed significant positive associations with total body BMD z-scores. Conclusion This study suggests decreased bone formation rather than increased bone resorption may explain in part the deficits in bone mineral mass in RTT and that attention to the adequacy of dietary protein, calcium and phosphorus intakes may offer an opportunity to improve bone health in RTT. PMID:25144778

  7. Loss of PiT-2 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mineral density and length in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Wallingford, Mary C; Borgeia, Suhaib; Cox, Timothy C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2018-01-01

    Normal bone mineralization requires phosphate oversaturation in bone matrix vesicles, as well as normal regulation of phosphate metabolism via the interplay among bone, intestine, and kidney. In turn, derangement of phosphate metabolism greatly affects bone function and structure. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, PiT-1 and PiT-2, are believed to be important in tissue phosphate metabolism and physiological bone formation, but their requirement and molecular roles in bone remain poorly investigated. In order to decipher the role of PiT-2 in bone, we examined normal bone development, growth, and mineralization in global PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice. PiT-2 deficiency resulted in reduced vertebral column, femur, and tibia length as well as mandibular dimensions. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that bone mineral density in the mandible, femur, and tibia were decreased, indicating that maintenance of bone function and structure is impaired in both craniofacial and long bones of PiT-2 deficient mice. Both cortical and trabecular thickness and mineral density were reduced in PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that PiT-2 is involved in normal bone development and growth and plays roles in cortical and trabecular bone metabolism feasibly by regulating local phosphate transport and mineralization processes in the bone. Further studies that evaluate bone cell-specific loss of PiT-2 are now warranted and may yield insight into complex mechanisms of bone development and growth, leading to identification of new therapeutic options for patients with bone diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. EFFECTS OF RUN TRAINING ON BONE DEVELOPMENT AND BONE MINERALIZATION IN GROWING MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gönül

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We planned to study the body weights, bone sizes and bone mineral (Ca, Mg, Zn contents of growing mice subjected to treadmill training. Twelve 4-week-old male Swiss Albino mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. The mice were trained by running exercise on a flat bed treadmill with 15 m/min, 30 min/day motion, throughout 5 days per week, for 12 weeks. The body weight of animals, and length, fat-free dry weight and Ca, Mg, and Zn contents of bones were measured in both groups. Body weights of animals, and lengths and wet and dry weights of the femur and the tibia were significantly higher in the exercised group. Also, the Zn, Mg and Ca mineral contents of bones in the group that underwent exercise were higher than in the other group. Running exercise with a flat bed treadmill performed by the growing mice is an effective exercise mode, especially for bone morphology.

  9. Relationship between the gene polymorphism of osteoprotegerin and bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L-L; Jing, N; Zhao, Z-Y; Liu, X-H; Du, J; Qin, L-L; Song, J-G; Xu, Y

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the gene polymorphism of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and bone mineral density (BMD) in hemodialysis patients. A total of 147 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who were admitted to the Weifang People's Hospital for maintenance hemodialysis between January 2014 and December 2015 were enrolled. Peripheral blood was collected from the subjects for assay of the polymorphism of A163G and G1181C loci of OPG. The measurements of the levels of RANK, RANKL, TNF-α, IL-6, PINP, CTX-I, CTX-II and TRACP5 in the isolated serum were taken. For the polymorphism of A163G locus on the OPG gene, the BMDs of left femoral neck and lumbar poster anterior L1-L4 of the AA genotype were significantly higher than those of the AG and GG genotypes. There was no significant difference in comparison of BMDs at the forearm (distal 1/3) between the AA genotype and AG and GG genotypes. No significant differences were found in the comparison of BMDs at all sites between AG and GG genotypes. The serum level of RANKL of the AA genotype was significantly higher than levels of AG and GG genotypes, but the levels of RANK, TNF-α, IL-6, PINP, CTX-I, CTX-II and TRACP5 were prominently lower than those levels of AG and GG genotypes. For the polymorphism of G1181C locus on the OPG gene, the BMDs of left femoral neck and lumbar poster anterior L1-L4 of the CC genotype were significantly higher than the BMDs of GG and GC genotypes, There was no significant difference in the comparison of BMDs at the forearm (distal 1/3) between the CC genotype and GG and GC genotypes. No significant differences were found in the comparison of BMDs at all sites between GG and GC genotypes. The serum level of RANKL of the CC genotype was significantly higher than the level of GG and GC genotypes. However, the levels of RANK, TNF-α, IL-6, PINP, CTX-I, CTX-II and TRACP5 were prominently lower than those levels of GG and GC genotypes. The polymorphisms of A163G and G1181C loci on the

  10. Antineoplastic treatment effect on bone mineral density in Mexican breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy-Cisneros, Karina; Esparza-Romero, Juli?n; Valencia, Mauro E.; Guevara-Torres, Alfonso G.; M?ndez-Estrada, Rosa O.; Anduro-Corona, Iv?n; Astiazar?n-Garc?a, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most deadly malignancy in Mexican women. Although treatment has improved, it may significantly affect bone mineral status in those who receive it. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cancer treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), in patients with breast cancer and explore the interaction of menopausal status and clinical stage with cancer treatment on such changes. Methods A quasi-experimental design was applied wit...

  11. Reduced bone mineral density in men after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anijar J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart transplantation is associated with rapid bone loss and an increased prevalence and incidence of fractures. The aim of the present study was to compare the bone mineral density (BMD of 30 heart transplant (HT recipients to that of 31 chronic heart failure (CHF patients waiting for transplantation and to determine their biochemical markers of bone resorption and hormone levels. The BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine were also obtained. The mean age of the two groups did not differ significantly. Mean time of transplantation was 25.4 ± 21.1 months (6 to 88 months. Except for the albumin levels, which were significantly higher, and magnesium levels, which were significantly lower in HT patients when compared to CHF patients, all other biochemical parameters and hormone levels were within the normal range and similar in the two groups. Both groups had lower BMD of the spine and proximal femur compared to young healthy adults. However, the mean BMD of HT patients was significantly lower than in CHF patients at all sites studied. Bone mass did not correlate with time after transplantation or cumulative dose of cyclosporine A. There was a negative correlation between BMD and the cumulative dose of prednisone. These data suggest that bone loss occurs in HT patients mainly due to the use of corticosteroids and that in 30% of the patients it can be present before transplantation. It seems that cyclosporine A may also play a role in this loss.

  12. Bioinspired, biomimetic, double-enzymatic mineralization of hydrogels for bone regeneration with calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Heredia, Marco A.; Łapa, Agata; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogels are popular materials for tissue regeneration. Incorporation of biologically active substances, e.g. enzymes, is straightforward. Hydrogel mineralization is desirable for bone regeneration. Here, hydrogels of Gellan Gum (GG), a biocompatible polysaccharide, were mineralized biomimetically...

  13. Nonenzymatic cross-linking pentosidine increase in bone collagen and are associated with disorders of bone mineralization in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitome, Jun; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Saito, Mitsuru; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Marumo, Keishi; Hosoya, Tatsuo

    2011-06-01

    Disorders of bone and mineral metabolism are common complications in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and lead to significantly increased fracture risk, morbidity, and mortality of cardiovascular disease due to ectopic calcifications, contributing to a worsening prognosis. Bone strength is determined by not only bone mineral density but also bone quality, which is dependent on bone collagen cross-links. Collagen cross-links are classified into enzymatic immature and mature types and nonenzymatic advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Pentosidine is well established as one of the AGEs that accumulates markedly in CKD patients. The chemistry, function, and clinical relevance of cross-links have been revealed, whereas bone quality and the relationship with bone mineralization in CKD patients are not clear. We performed transiliac bone biopsies on 22 dialysis patients (mean age 56 ± 9 years) with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism and measured cross-links by evaluating bone histomorphometry. Cross-links data were compared with age-matched non-CKD subjects (mean age 58 ± 8 years, n = 17). Enzymatic collagen cross-links were formed to a similar extent compared with non-CKD subjects and showed a positive correlation with plasma intact parathyroid hormone. Pentosidine was remarkably increased in dialysis patients and inversely correlated with bone-formation rate/bone volume and mineral apposition rate. This study suggests that AGE collagen cross-links strongly associate with disorders of bone metabolism in dialysis patients.

  14. Bone mineral density and bone turnover in male masters athletes aged 40-64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Alicja; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Kusy, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Jacek; Felsenberg, Dieter; Rittweger, Jörn; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Straburzyńska-Migaj, Ewa; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Lucja

    2010-06-01

    We evaluated areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and markers of bone turnover in male competitive masters athletes representing different training profile in the past and at present, aged 40-64 (14 endurance runners, and 12 speed-power athletes), and non-sport controls (n = 13). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of total body and regional aBMD, BMC and soft tissue composition were acquired. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured. Adjusted total and regional aBMD and BMC (covariates: body mass, body height and age) were significantly greater in all measured regions in speed-power athletes than in endurance athletes and control subjects, but adjusted aBMD and BMC values were not significantly different between endurance athletes and controls. No differences in bone formation (OC), bone resorption (CTX), and serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, TT, FT and IGF-1 were noted. This suggests that weight-bearing exercise in young age and the training continuation in later life may be an important contributor to the aBMD and BMC in the middle age and in the elderly. It seems also that training-related bone differences in men are not caused by present alterations in bone turn-over or somatotropic effects. However, conclusions must be drawn with caution due to a large variability of biochemical markers.

  15. Marginal zinc deficiency in pregnant rats impairs bone matrix formation and bone mineralization in their neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masashi; Kayanoma, Megumu; Takahashi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Hara, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency during pregnancy may result in a variety of defects in the offspring. We evaluated the influence of marginal Zn deficiency during pregnancy on neonatal bone status. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and fed AIN-93G-based experimental diets containing 35 mg Zn/kg (Zn adequately supplied, N) or 7 mg Zn/kg (low level of Zn, L) from 14-day preconception to 20 days of gestation, that is, 1 day before normal delivery. Neonates were delivered by cesarean section. Litter size and neonate weight were not different between the two groups. However, in the L-diet-fed dam group, bone matrix formation in isolated neonatal calvaria culture was clearly impaired and was not recovered by the addition of Zn into the culture media. Additionally, serum concentration of osteocalcin, as a bone formation parameter, was lower in neonates from the L-diet-fed dam group. Impaired bone mineralization was observed with a significantly lower content of phosphorus in neonate femurs from L-diet-fed dams compared with those from N-diet-fed dams. Moreover, Zn content in the femur and calvaria of neonates from the L-diet group was lower than that of the N-diet-fed group. In the marginally Zn-deficient dams, femoral Zn content, serum concentrations of Zn, and osteocalcin were reduced when compared with control dams. We conclude that maternal Zn deficiency causes impairment of bone matrix formation and bone mineralization in neonates, implying the importance of Zn intake during pregnancy for proper bone development of offspring.

  16. Accelerated growth plate mineralization and foreshortened proximal limb bones in fetuin-A knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Jong; Busse, Björn; Gupta, Himadri S; Schäfer, Cora; Krauss, Stefanie; Dunlop, John W C; Masic, Admir; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Zaslansky, Paul; Boesecke, Peter; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Schinke, Thorsten; Fratzl, Peter; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2012-01-01

    The plasma protein fetuin-A/alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (genetic symbol Ahsg) is a systemic inhibitor of extraskeletal mineralization, which is best underscored by the excessive mineral deposition found in various tissues of fetuin-A deficient mice on the calcification-prone genetic background DBA/2. Fetuin-A is known to accumulate in the bone matrix thus an effect of fetuin-A on skeletal mineralization is expected. We examined the bones of fetuin-A deficient mice maintained on a C57BL/6 genetic background to avoid bone disease secondary to renal calcification. Here, we show that fetuin-A deficient mice display normal trabecular bone mass in the spine, but increased cortical thickness in the femur. Bone material properties, as well as mineral and collagen characteristics of cortical bone were unaffected by the absence of fetuin-A. In contrast, the long bones especially proximal limb bones were severely stunted in fetuin-A deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates, resulting in increased biomechanical stability of fetuin-A deficient femora in three-point-bending tests. Elevated backscattered electron signal intensities reflected an increased mineral content in the growth plates of fetuin-A deficient long bones, corroborating its physiological role as an inhibitor of excessive mineralization in the growth plate cartilage matrix--a site of vigorous physiological mineralization. We show that in the case of fetuin-A deficiency, active mineralization inhibition is a necessity for proper long bone growth.

  17. Serum bicarbonate and bone mineral density in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L; Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2015-02-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Cross-sectional study. 9,724 nationally representative adults 20 years or older in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 1999-2004. Serum bicarbonate level. Lumbar and total BMD, as well as low lumbar and total bone mass, defined as 1.0 SD below the sex-specific mean value of young adults. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate was measured in all participants. Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD in the total population, as well as in sex-specific models (P=0.02 for all 3 models, P=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate level for women but not men (P=0.02 and P=0.1, respectively; P=0.8 for interaction), and a significant association was seen for postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women (P=0.02 and P=0.2, respectively; P=0.5 for interaction). Compared with women with serum bicarbonate levels <24mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate levels ≥27mEq/L had 0.018-g/cm(2) higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; P=0.01) and 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; P=0.049). Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate. Subgroup differences are not definitive. Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be incorporated into the diagnostic assessment and management of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation

  18. Bone mineral content (bmc and bone mineral density (bmd in postmenopausal women formerly practising kayaking and fencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Raczyńska

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was aimed at answering the following questions: 1 Can a prolonged career in sports associated with considerable training loads, in conjunction with other osteoporosis risk factors (both past and present, affect the bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD of the former female athletes in their postmenopausal period of life?, and 2 How does the present lifestyle of the tested women, including physical activity and diet (calcium intake, influence the preservation of the optimal bone mass in these subjects? The postmenopausal subjects recruited to the present study included 15 former athletes (ten kayakers and five fencers and 11 women who never actively engaged in sports (control group. BMC (g and BMD (g/cm2 were densitometrically determined in the lumbar segment (L2-L4 of the spine, and the bone stiffness coefficient was ultrasonically determined in calcaneus. The effects of the osteoporosis risk factors (both past and present were estimated from individual replies to the questionnaire inquiries about the past career in sports, present physical activity, gonadal dysfunctions (dysmenorrhoea during the career and the present need for hormonal supplementary treatment, and the current dietary patterns. The results indicate that mean BMC and BMD values detected in the former athletes did not differ significant from those obtained in the non-athlete, control women: the BMC values equalled to 54.5±10.5, 52.6±14.6, and 46.5±3.2 g in the kayakers, the fencers, and the control women, respectively, while the respective BMD values were 1.05±0.45, 0.96±0.66, and 1.08±0.58 g/cm2. The questionnaire-based studies showed that neither the former female athletes nor the non-athlete controls exhibited in the past longer (i.e., lasting more than three months periods of hormonal disorders (amenorrhoea. As assessed from the dietary intake, only in the former fencers the diet covered the demand for calcium in 100%. In conclusion

  19. Bone mineral density and secondary hyperparathyroidism in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silvia; Hersberger, Martin; Fischler, Manuel; Huber, Lars C; Senn, Oliver; Treder, Ursula; Speich, Rudolf; Schmid, Christoph

    2009-04-14

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in chronic lung diseases and associated with reduced quality of life. Little is known about BMD in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Steroid-naïve patients with PH (n=34; 19 idiopathic, 15 chronic thromboembolic) had BMD measured by DXA at the time of diagnostic right heart catheterization. Exercise capacity, quality of life and various parameters related to PH severity and bone metabolism were also assessed. 24 patients with left heart failure (LHF) were similarly assessed as controls. The prevalence of osteopenia was high both in PH (80%) and in controls with LHF (75%). Low BMD was associated with lean body mass, age, lower BMI, impaired exercise capacity and in PH with higher pulmonary vascular resistance. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) was elevated and considerably higher in PH than in LHF (above normal, in 55 vs 29%). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was not related to impaired renal function but possibly to low vitamin D status. Osteopenia is common in PH and in chronically ill patients with LHF. Osteopenia is associated with known risk factors but in PH also with disease severity. Preventive measures in an increasingly chronic ill PH population should be considered. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is highly prevalent in PH and might contribute to bone and possibly pulmonary vascular disease. Whether adequate vitamin D substitution could prevent low BMD in PH remains to be determined.

  20. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  1. Bone mineral density and mandibular residual ridge resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springe, Baiba; Slaidina, Anda; Soboleva, Una; Lejnieks, Aivars

    2014-01-01

    This prospective, cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the width and height parameters of the mandibular residual ridge. BMD was determined in the lumbar spine and femoral necks by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 45 edentulous, postmenopausal women (mean age, 72.08 ± 8.53 years) who had used conventional complete dentures for at least 3 years. Measurements of the mandibular residual ridge were performed using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Height and width measurements were performed in the midline and adjacent to the mental foramina. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytic statistics. The relationship between BMD and mandibular height and width measurements was assessed using analysis of variance as well as linear and multivariate regression analyses. Eight patients were excluded from the study because they did not complete both of the required imaging analyses (DXA and/or CBCT). There was no statistically significant relationship between BMD and mandibular bone height measurements in the midline and both regions of the mental foramina, and no statistically significant relationship existed between BMD and mandibular bone width measurements in the midline and both of the mental foramina regions. Postmenopausal women with reduced general BMD do not appear to have a reduction in the size of the mandibular residual ridge.

  2. Dietary Pseudopurpurin Effects on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Geometry Architecture in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to evaluate whether feeding pseudopurpurin affects bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats. Pseudopurpurin was extracted, analyzed and purified using an HLPC-ESI-MS. Rats were given 0% and 0.5% pseudopurpurin powder in their diet. Femurs of rats were examined at 0.5, 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Compared with rats in the group 0%, the bone mineral density, and the calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese concentrations in the rats femur in the group 0.5% increased significantly at 1 month and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Analytical results of micro-computed tomography showed that the group 0.5% displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness and trabecular number of the distal femur at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding, and the mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femur diaphysis were significantly increased at 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding compared with the group 0%. In parallel, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, compared with the group 0% at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. In the 0.5% and 0% groups, there was no damage to kidney and liver by histopathology analysis. The long-term feeding of pseudopurpurin is safe for rats. The feeding of 0.5% pseudopurpurin which has specific chemical affinities for calcium for bone improvement and level of bone mineral density, enhances the geometry architecture compared with the 0% group.

  3. Dietary pseudopurpurin effects on bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Chen; Li, Xiao-Bing; Han, Tie-Suo; Li, Peng; Liu, Guo-Wen; Wang, Wei-Zhong; Wang, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate whether feeding pseudopurpurin affects bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats. Pseudopurpurin was extracted, analyzed and purified using an HLPC-ESI-MS. Rats were given 0% and 0.5% pseudopurpurin powder in their diet. Femurs of rats were examined at 0.5, 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Compared with rats in the group 0%, the bone mineral density, and the calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese concentrations in the rats femur in the group 0.5% increased significantly at 1 month and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Analytical results of micro-computed tomography showed that the group 0.5% displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness and trabecular number of the distal femur at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding, and the mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femur diaphysis were significantly increased at 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding compared with the group 0%. In parallel, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, compared with the group 0% at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. In the 0.5% and 0% groups, there was no damage to kidney and liver by histopathology analysis. The long-term feeding of pseudopurpurin is safe for rats. The feeding of 0.5% pseudopurpurin which has specific chemical affinities for calcium for bone improvement and level of bone mineral density, enhances the geometry architecture compared with the 0% group.

  4. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desouki, M.; Al-Jurayyan, N.

    1997-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (''superscan'') in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm 2 (Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm 2 (Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wen-shuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027 and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005 and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  6. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-guang; Li, Kang-hua; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Shen, Hong; Luo, Wei; Xu, Wen-shuo; Tian, Jian; Lei, Guang-hua

    2011-06-11

    Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b). BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027) and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005) and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  7. Effect of taurine feeding on bone mineral density and bone markers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja; Seo, Ji-Na

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary taurine supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats (body weight 200 ± 10 g) were divided into two groups, control and taurine group (2% taurine-supplemented diet). All rats were fed on experimental diet and deionized water and libitum for 6 weeks. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin, PTH, and urinary deoxypyridinoline cross-links value were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption. BMD and BMC were measured using PIXImus (GE Lunar Co., Wisconsin) in spine and femur. The effect of diet on ALP, osteocalcine, and PTH was not significant. There were no significant differences in ALP, osteocalcine, and PTH concentration. Urinary calcium excretion was lower in taurine group than in control group. Femur BMC/weight of taurine group was significantly higher than control group. The results of this study showed the possible role of taurine in bone metabolism in male rats.

  8. Agave fructans: their effect on mineral absorption and bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vieyra, María Isabel; Del Real, Alicia; López, Mercedes G

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigate the effect that Agave fructans as new prebiotics have on mineral absorption improvement. Forty-eight 12-week-old C57BL/6J mice were used in this study. Forty mice were ovariectomized and eight were sham-operated controls. Mice were fed standard diets or diets supplemented with 10% Agave fructans or 10% inulin fructans. Calcium and magnesium were evaluated as well as their excretion in feces. Osteocalcin levels were also measured; femur structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Other parameters, such as food intake, body weight, glucose, and short-chain fatty acid content, were recorded. Calcium in plasma and bone increased in Agave fructan groups (from 53.1 to 56 and 85 mg/L and from 0.402 to 0.474 and 0.478 g/g, respectively) and osteocalcin increased in all fructan groups (>50%). Scanning electron microscopy showed that fructans were able to mitigate bone loss. In conclusion, we demonstrated that supplementation with Agave fructans prevents bone loss and improves bone formation.

  9. [Bone mineral density, biochemical bone turnover markers and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Sook Ja; Shin, Nah Mee; Shin, Hyunjeong; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Cho, Yunjung; Jeon, Songi; Cho, Inhae

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to assess the bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs), and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women. Participants were 1,298 women, ages 18-29, recruited in Korea. Measurements were BMD by calcaneus quantitative ultrasound, BTMs for Calcium, Phosphorus, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide cross-links (CTX), body composition by physical measurements, nutrients by food frequency questionnaire and psychosocial factors associated with bone health by self-report. The mean BMD (Z-score) was -0.94. 8.7% women had lower BMD (Z-score≤-2) and 14.3% women had higher BMD (Z-score≥0) than women of same age. BTMs were not significantly different between high-BMD (Z-score≥0) and low-BMD (Z-scoreexercise in health beliefs, lower bone health self-efficacy and promoting behaviors. Results of this study indicate that bone health of young Korean women is not good. Development of diverse strategies to intervene in factors such as exercise, nutrients, self-efficacy, health beliefs and behaviors, shown to be important, are needed to improve bone health.

  10. Bone Mineral Densities and Mechanical Properties of Retrieved Femoral Bone Samples in relation to Bone Mineral Densities Measured in the Respective Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Haba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bone mineral density (BMD of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (Es and ultimate compression strength (σmax of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016±166 mg/cm2 to 1376±404 mg/cm2. BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315±199 mg/cm2 and 347±113 mg/cm3, respectively. Es and σmax amounted to 232±151 N/mm2 and 6.4±3.7 N/mm2. Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r=0.85 and 0.79, resp.. Es correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r=0.79, r=0.82, and r=0.8, resp..

  11. bone mineral densities and mechanical properties of retrieved femoral bone samples in relation to bone mineral densities measured in the respective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Skripitz, Ralf; Lindner, Tobias; Köckerling, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (E(s)) and ultimate compression strength (σ(max)) of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016 ± 166 mg/cm(2) to 1376 ± 404 mg/cm(2). BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315 ± 199 mg/cm(2) and 347 ± 113 mg/cm(3), respectively. E(s) and σ(max) amounted to 232 ± 151 N/mm(2) and 6.4 ± 3.7 N/mm(2). Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r = 0.85 and 0.79, resp.). E(s) correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r = 0.79, r = 0.82, and r = 0.8, resp.).

  12. Bone turnover in elderly men: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Center Jacqueline R

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear whether bone turnover markers can be used to make inference regarding changes in bone mineral density (BMD in untreated healthy elderly men. The present study was designed to address three specific questions: (i is there a relationship between bone turnover markers and femoral neck BMD within an individual; (ii is there a relationship between baseline measurements of bone turnover markers and subsequent change in BMD; and (iii is there a relationship between changes in bone turnover markers and changes in femoral neck BMD? Methods The present study was part of the on-going Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study, which was designed as a prospective investigation. Men who had had at least 3 sequential visits with serum samples available during follow-up were selected from the study population. Serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sICTP, N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (sPINP and femoral neck BMD were measured by competitive radioimmunoassays. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD was measured by a densitometer (GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI. Various mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between the markers and changes in BMD. Results One hundred and one men aged 70 ± 4.1 years (mean ± SD met the criteria of selection for analysis. On average, sPINP decreased by 0.7% per year (p = 0.026, sICTP increased by 1.7% per year (p = 0.0002, and femoral neck BMD decreased by 0.4% per year (p Conclusion These results suggest that in elderly men of Caucasian background, changes in sPINP were inversely related to changes in BMD within an individual. However, neither sPINP nor sICTP was sufficiently sensitive to predict the rate of change in BMD for a group of individuals or for an individual.

  13. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Perimenopausal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaleh Shariati-Sarabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The menopausal transition called perimenopause, happens after the reproductive years, and isspecified with irregular menstrual cycles, perimenopause symptoms and hormonal changes. Women going throughperi menopausal period are vulnerable to bone loss.Osteoporosis is one of the most common debilitating metabolic bone diseases ,especially in the women almostaround 50 years .This study was intended to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis amongstasymptomatic individuals during the menopause transition period.Methods: A total of 714 asymptomatic peri-menopausal female volunteers were recruited through a billboard invitationfor participation in the study. The subjects were selected based on already defined inclusion and exclusion criteria.The project, which was conducted between 2010 and 2014 was affiliated to the Educational and Therapeutic Center,Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD measured by DEXA (dual-energy X-rayabsorptiometry was carried out on two distinct sites, the proximal femur and the lumbar vertebrae from L1 to L4.Pertained data were analyzed.Results: The mean age of the subjects was 49.7±2.years. The overall prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosisin these peri-menopausal individuals were 37.6 % and 10% respectively. Thirty five point two percent of 714 womenpresented with osteopenia and eight percent of them have osteoporosis in the femoral neck, respectively. Nonetheless,BMD values at the lumbar spine indicated 41.6% and 12% of individual participants being affected by osteopenia andosteoporosis.Conclusion: In general osteopenia or osteoporosis, occurred in 48% of this study population, implying that specialattention is required for the bone health status of Iranian women who undergo menopause.

  14. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  15. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes with Stress Level, Bone Turnover Markers, and Bone Mineral Density in Obese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Okbay G?ne?, Asl?; Alika?ifo?lu, M?jgan; ?en Demird??en, Ezgi; Ergin?z, Ethem; Demir, T?rkay; Kucur, Mine; Ercan, Oya

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of stress caused by disordered eating attitudes on bone health in obese adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 80 obese adolescents was performed from November 2013 to September 2014. Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol levels were measured as a biological marker of stress. Bone turnover was evaluated using bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide concentrations. Bone mineral density was measured...

  16. Association of Protein Intake with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content among Elderly Women: The OSTPRE Fracture Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanejad, M; Sirola, J; Mursu, J; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M; Erkkilä, A T

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that high protein intakes are associated with lower bone mineral content (BMC). Previous studies yield conflicting results and thus far no studies have undertaken the interaction of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity with protein intakes in relation to BMC and bone mineral density (BMD). To evaluate the associations of dietary total protein (TP), animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP) intakes with BMC and BMD and their changes. We tested also the interactions of protein intake with, obesity (BMI ≤30 vs. >30 kg/m2) and physical activity level (passive vs. active). Design/ Setting: Prospective cohort study (Osteoporosis Risk-Factor and Fracture-Prevention Study). Participants/measures: At the baseline, 554 women aged 65-72 years filled out a 3-day food record and a questionnaire covering data on lifestyle, physical activity, diseases, and medications. Intervention group received calcium 1000 mg/d and cholecalciferol 800 IU for 3 years. Control group received neither supplementation nor placebo. Bone density was measured at baseline and year 3, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between protein intake and BMD and BMC. In cross-sectional analyses energy-adjusted TP (P≤0·029) and AP (P≤0·045) but not PP (g/d) were negatively associated with femoral neck (FN) BMD and BMC. Women with TP≥1·2 g/kg/body weight (BW) (Ptrend≤0·009) had lower FN, lumbar spine (LS) and total BMD and BMC. In follow-up analysis, TP (g/kg/BW) was inversely associated with LS BMD and LS BMC. The detrimental associations were stronger in women with BMI30 kg/m2 and physical activity.

  17. Mineralization defects in cementum and craniofacial bone from loss of bone sialoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B.L.; Ao, M.; Willoughby, C.; Soenjaya, Y.; Holm, E.; Lukashova, L.; Tran, A. B.; Wimer, H.F.; Zerfas, P.M.; Nociti, F.H.; Kantovitz, K.R.; Quan, B.D.; Sone, E.D.; Goldberg, H.A.; Somerman, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein found in mineralized tissues, including bone, cartilage, tooth root cementum (both acellular and cellular types), and dentin. In order to define the role BSP plays in the process of biomineralization of these tissues, we analyzed cementogenesis, dentinogenesis, and osteogenesis (intramembranous and endochondral) in craniofacial bone in Bsp null mice and wild-type (WT) controls over a developmental period (1-60 days post natal; dpn) by histology, immunohistochemistry, undecalcified histochemistry, microcomputed tomography (microCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Regions of intramembranous ossification in the alveolus, mandible, and calvaria presented delayed mineralization and osteoid accumulation, assessed by von Kossa and Goldner's trichrome stains at 1 and 14 dpn. Moreover, Bsp−/− mice featured increased cranial suture size at the early time point, 1 dpn. Immunostaining and PCR demonstrated that osteoblast markers, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin were unchanged in Bsp null mandibles compared to WT. Bsp−/− mouse molars featured a lack of functional acellular cementum formation by histology, SEM, and TEM, and subsequent loss of Sharpey's collagen fiber insertion into the tooth root structure. Bsp−/− mouse alveolar and mandibular bone featured equivalent or fewer osteoclasts at early ages (1 and 14 dpn), however, increased RANKL immunostaining and mRNA, and significantly increased number of osteoclast-like cells (2-5 fold) were found at later ages (26 and 60 dpn), corresponding to periodontal breakdown and severe alveolar bone resorption observed following molar teeth entering occlusion. Dentin formation was unperturbed in Bsp−/− mouse molars, with no delay in mineralization, no alteration in dentin dimensions, and no differences in odontoblast markers analyzed. No defects were identified

  18. The Oslo Health Study: Is bone mineral density higher in affluent areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Kari; Søgaard, Anne J; Falch, Jan A; Meyer, Haakon E

    2007-11-23

    Based on previously reported differences in fracture incidence in the socioeconomic less affluent Oslo East compared to the more privileged West, our aim was to study bone mineral density (BMD) in the same socioeconomic areas in Oslo. We also wanted to study whether possible associations were explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors. Distal forearm BMD was measured in random samples of the participants in The Oslo Health Study by single energy x-ray absorptiometry (SXA). 578 men and 702 women born in Norway in the age-groups 40/45, 60 and 75 years were included in the analyses. Socioeconomic regions, based on a social index dividing Oslo in two regions - East and West, were used. Age-adjusted mean BMD in women living in the less affluent Eastern region was 0.405 g/cm2 and significantly lower than in West where BMD was 0.419 g/cm2. Similarly, the odds ratio of low BMD (Z-score Oslo East compared to West. The same tendency, although not statistically significant, was also present in men. Multivariate analysis adjusted for education, marital status, body mass index, physical inactivity, use of alcohol and smoking, and in women also use of post-menopausal hormone therapy and early onset of menopause, did hardly change the association. Additional adjustments for employment status, disability pension and physical activity at work for those below the age of retirement, gave similar results. We found differences in BMD in women between different socioeconomic regions in Oslo that correspond to previously found differences in fracture rates. The association in men was not statistically significant. The differences were not explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors.

  19. Effect of multiparity on bone mineral density, evaluated with bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Hasan; Terzi, Rabia; Kale, Ebru; Kale, Ahmet

    Our aim was to investigate the effect of parity on osteoporosis by evaluating bone mineral density, markers of bone turn-over and other factors that are effective in osteoporosis in multiparous (five deliveries or more) and nulliparous women in the post-menopausal period. A total of 91 multiparous (five deliveries or more) and 31 nulliparous postmenopausal women were included in this study. All patients were interviewed on sociodemographic characteristics, gynecologic history, personal habits, levels of physical activity, and life-long intake of calcium. Bone mineral density was measured at lumbar (L1-4) and femoral neck regions with Dexa. The mean age of multiparous women was 58.79±7.85 years, and the mean age of nulliparous women was 55.84±7.51. The femoral BMD was 0.94±0.16 and lumbar BMD 1.01±0.16 in multiparous women, femoral BMD was 0.99±0.16 and lumbar BMD 1.07±0.14 in nulliparous women. There were no statistical differences between the femoral and lumbar T scores and BMD values of the two groups. Lumbar T scores and lumbar BMD showed a decrease with increasing total duration of breast-feeding in multiparous women. The independent risk factors for osteoporosis in the regression analysis of multiparous women were found to be the duration of menopause and body weight of 65kg and less. There is no difference between the bone mineral densities of multiparous and nulliparous women. Females with lower body-weight and longer duration of menopause should be followed-up more carefully for development of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effect of multiparity on bone mineral density, evaluated with bone turnover markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Hasan; Terzi, Rabia; Kale, Ebru; Kale, Ahmet

    2015-09-07

    Our aim was to investigate the effect of parity on osteoporosis by evaluating bone mineral density, markers of bone turn-over and other factors that are effective in osteoporosis in multiparous (5 deliveries or more) and nulliparous women in the post-menopausal period. A total of 91 multiparous (5 deliveries or more) and 31 nulliparous postmenopausal women were included in this study. All patients were interviewed on sociodemographic characteristics, gynecologic history, personal habits, levels of physical activity, and life-long intake of calcium. Bone mineral density was measured at lumbar (L1-4) and femoral neck regions with Dexa. The mean age of multiparous women was 58.79±7.85 years, and the mean age of nulliparous women was 55,84±7,51. The femoral BMD was 0,94±0,16 and lumbar BMD 1,01±0,16 in multiparous women, femoral BMD was 0,99±0,16 and lumbar BMD 1,07±0,14 in nulliparous women. There were no statistical differences between the femoral and lumbar T scores and BMD values of the two groups. Lumbar T scores and lumbar BMD showed a decrease with increasing total duration of breast-feeding in multiparous women. The independent risk factors for osteoporosis in the regression analysis of multiparous women were found to be the duration of menopause and body weight of 65kg and less. There is no difference between the bone mineral densities of multiparous and nulliparous women. Females with lower body-weight and longer duration of menopause should be followed-up more carefully for development of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A clinical study evaluating bone mineral mass in the radius during skeletal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Using 125-I single photon absorptiometry, bone mineral measurements were performed on 206 healthy Japanese children (2 to 19 years of age). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW) and BMC/BW values were determined for the radius at distal 1/6 site (metaphysis) and distal 1/3 site (diaphysis). BMC/BW values at both sites correlated well with body height and weight. Bone mass in the diaphysis (distal 1/3 site) increased linearly during the 2-19 years of skeletal growth, but bone mass in the metaphysis (1/6 site) increased steeply during the pubertal period. In children receiving glucocorticoid therapy, bone mass was reduced in proportion to the duration of drug administration. In children under anticonvulsant therapy, the yearly increse in bone mass was significantly low especially in those patients with poor physical activity levels. Bone mineral decrease in the radius occurred in the children with hypopituitalism, hypothyroidism (cretinism), hyperthyroidism and Turner's syndrome. (author)

  3. Bone mineralization after strontium and fluoride treatment in osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokita, E. E-mail: ufrokita@cyf-kr.edu.pl; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Quaedackers, J.A.; Taton, G.; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    1999-09-02

    The proton microprobe in combination with proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) and with proton induced gamma-ray emission (micro-PIGE) are used to determine quantitatively the modulation of inorganic deposits formation by Sr and F ions in a cell culture model. The results indicate that the process may be investigated by the micro-PIXE determination of the amount of calcium deposited. It was found that F-treatment stimulate bone formation at doses much lower than Sr. At high doses an impaired mineralization is found for both elements. It was found that the mechanisms responsible for of F and Sr incorporations are different. The minimal F and Sr concentrations in the medium at which the incorporation may be investigated by micro-PIGE and micro-PIXE amount to {approx}0.02 mg/l and <0.08 mg/l, respectively.

  4. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2002-01-01

    values decreased with age (P shoulder BMD levels increased significantly with increased body mass index (BMI) (P positive relationship between the increased hip/shoulder BMD differential with BMI supports the conclusion that the shoulder is subject......The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator...... of osteoporosis compared with hip scans, the latter representing a weight-bearing part of the skeleton. We developed a scanning procedure, including a shoulder fixation device, and determined the most appropriate software in order to establish a reference material with the highest possible precision. Duplicate...

  5. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...

  6. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...... bears may have been caused by organochlorine exposure. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Dec...

  7. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs.......04) and SigmaCHL (p polar...... bears may have been caused by organochlorine exposure. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Dec...

  8. Bone mineral density, osteoporosis, and osteoporotic fractures: a genome-wide association study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Richards (Brent); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); M. Inouye (Michael); T. Pastinen; N. Soranzo (Nicole); S.G. Wilson (Scott); T. Andrew (Toby); M. Falchi (Mario); R. Gwilliam (Rhian); K.R. Ahmadi (Kourosh); A.M. Valdes; P.P. Arp (Pascal); P. Whittaker; D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); M. Jhamai (Mila); V. Kumanduri; M.J. Moorhouse (Michael); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A. Hofman (Albert); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); D.J. Hart; G. Zhai (Guangju); B.S. Kato; B.H. Mullin (Benjamin); F. Zhang (Feng); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); T.D. Spector (Timothy)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Osteoporosis is diagnosed by the measurement of bone mineral density, which is a highly heritable and multifactorial trait. We aimed to identify genetic loci that are associated with bone mineral density. Methods: In this genome-wide association study, we identified the most

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder in the Elderly Peritoneal Dialysis Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James Goya

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to review the literature concerning the treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) in the elderly peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient. ♦ RESULTS: Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder is a major problem in the elderly PD patient...

  10. Difference in bone mineral density score on dual Xray absorptiometry scan among ethnic groups of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, S.A.; Iqbal, J.; Faisal, L.; Islam, Z.U.; Ajmal, R.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the bone mineral density (BMD) scores on Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan in individuals of different ethnic groups among local population of Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted in Departments of Anatomy and Radiology, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College Karachi, from June 2016 to March 2017. The data were collected from the patients belonging to different ethnic groups, who were referred for DEXA scan and entered on structured proforma. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Results: Out of 232 patients, 206 were females and 26 were males with mean age of 59.6+-10.06 years. Majority of patients were resident of Karachi and belonging to Urdu speaking ethnic group. Mean BMI of patients was 29.3 6.69 and most of patients with osteoporosis were preobese and obese with BMI >25. The relationship of BMD with different ethnic groups showed statistically significant difference where Baloch had high incidence of osteoporosis of forearm and lumbar spine while Sindhi and Pathan had osteoporosis of hip. Conclusion: There is significant difference in BMD score on DEXA scan among different ethnic groups of Karachi. This information can help clinicians advise patients for timely DEXA scan and earlier use of bone preservation treatment. (author)

  11. Bone mineral density in Brazilian men 50 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.F. Zerbini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD in the lumbar spine (LSBMD, femoral neck (FNBMD and whole body (WBBMD and whole body tissue composition were evaluated in 288 Brazilian men 50 years and older, 80% white and 20% Mulattoes. Age was inversely correlated with WBBMD (r = -0.20 and FNBMD (r = -0.21 but not with LSBMD (r = 0.03. Body mass index and weight showed a strong positive correlation with WBBMD (r = 0.48 and 0.54, LSBMD (r = 0.37 and 0.45 and FNBMD (r = 0.42 and 0.48. Correlation with height was positive but weaker. No significant bone loss at the lumbar spine level was observed as the population aged. FNBMD and WBBMD decreased significantly only in the last decade (age 70-79 studied. BMD was higher for Brazilian men as compared to Brazilian women at all sites. No significant differences were observed between Brazilian and the US/European male population for BMD in the femoral neck. BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in South American men is reported here for the first time. A decrease in FNBMD was detected only later in life, with a pattern similar to that described for the US/European male population.

  12. Bone mineral density change during adjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyun Ahn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeOsteoporosis is currently receiving particular attention as a sequela in survivors of childhood osteosarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD changes during methotrexate-based chemotherapy in children and adolescents with osteosarcoma.MethodsNine patients with osteosarcoma were included in this retrospective study and compared with eight healthy controls. BMD of the lumbar spine and unaffected femur neck of patients was serially measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA before and just after chemotherapy and compared with controls.ResultsFour patients (44% showed decreased lumbar spine BMD and seven patients (78% showed decreased femur neck BMD, while all controls showed increased lumbar and femur BMD (P=0.024 and P=0.023. The femur neck BMD z-scores decreased from -0.49±1.14 to -1.63±1.50 (P=0.032. At the end of therapy, five patients (56% showed femur neck BMD z-scores below -2.0.ConclusionThe bone metabolism is disturbed during therapy in children with osteosarcoma, resulting in a reduced BMD with respect to healthy controls. Since a reduced BMD predisposes to osteoporosis, specific attention and therapeutic interventions should be considered.

  13. Bone mineral density in adults with Down`s syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K. [Ergophysiology Lab., Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sakadamis, A. [Medical School, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-05-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down`s syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 {+-} 4.45 and 23.65 {+-} 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 {+-} 3.46 and 23.86 {+-} 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.) With 1 tab., 21 refs.

  14. Bone mineral density in adults with Down's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K.; Sakadamis, A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 ± 4.45 and 23.65 ± 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 ± 3.46 and 23.86 ± 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.)

  15. Mineral Density and Quantity of Bone, Parameters of Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ivanyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In diagnostic of osteoporosis the golden standard is bone mineral density, though X-ray densitomenry parameters not always determine risk for osteoporotic fractures. That is why new methods are being looked for to find the parameters not only mineral density, but rather quantity of bone. One of theses methods is trabecular bone score. As general weight of body includes fat and lean mass some researchers tried to determine their role in development of structural and functional impairments in bone, however there is no clear answer to this question: while some scientists considered fat mass as a basic factor of protection from fractures, other ones decided that lean mass is more connected with mineral density of bone tissue. The aim of study was to investigate parameters of quantity and density of bone of spine, neck of femur and body composition depending on the postmenopausal period; to study connection between fat mass and mineral density and quantity of bone. Materials and methods. The observed females were divided into the groups: premenopausal women and women with postmenopause of various duration (early, middle, late. There were conducted a general clinical observation of a patient and investigation of mentioned above parameters using X-ray densitomentry General Electric. Results. Quantity of bone (TBS and bone mineral density significantly decrease depending on postmenopausal period. Fat and lean masses do not significantly change. In the middle and late postmenopausal periods bone mineral density of the spine and hip neck increase while fat mass increases.

  16. Effect of rhythmic gymnastics on volumetric bone mineral density and bone geometry in premenarcheal female athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournis, S; Michopoulou, E; Fatouros, I G; Paspati, I; Michalopoulou, M; Raptou, P; Leontsini, D; Avloniti, A; Krekoukia, M; Zouvelou, V; Galanos, A; Aggelousis, N; Kambas, A; Douroudos, I; Lyritis, G P; Taxildaris, K; Pappaioannou, N

    2010-06-01

    Weight-bearing exercise during growth exerts positive effects on the skeleton. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that long-term elite rhythmic gymnastics exerts positive effects on volumetric bone mineral density and geometry and to determine whether exercise-induced bone adaptation is associated with increased periosteal bone formation or medullary contraction using tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography and bone turnover markers. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary center. We studied 26 elite premenarcheal female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 23 female controls, aged 9-13 yr. We measured bone age, volumetric bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), cortical thickness, cortical and trabecular area, and polar stress strength index (SSIp) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the left tibia proximal to the distal metaphysis (trabecular) at 14, 38 (cortical), and 66% (muscle mass) from the distal end and bone turnover markers. The two groups were comparable according to height and chronological and bone age. After weight adjustment, cortical BMC, area, and thickness at 38% were significantly higher in RG (P < 0.005-0.001). Periosteal circumference, SSIp, and muscle area were higher in RG (P < 0.01-0.001). Muscle area was significantly associated with cortical BMC, area, and SSIp, whereas years of training showed positive association with cortical BMC, area, and thickness independent of chronological age. RG in premenarcheal girls may induce positive adaptations on the skeleton, especially in cortical bone. Increased duration of exercise is associated with a positive response of bone geometry.

  17. Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation: effect on bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lareon, G.; Baillon, L. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1997-09-01

    Full text: There are conflicting data on the long-term effects of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation on bone mineral density (BMD). Accordingly, we performed a cross-sectional study on 58 women with premenopausal hysterectomy and ovarian conservation (group 1) and 59 women with natural menopause (group 2). No subjects had disorders or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. Patients underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip using a Norland XR-36. By chi-squared and one-way ANOVA, there were no differences in age: 55.4{+-} 11.0 y (1)v 57.6{+-} 9.8 y (2); exercise, alcohol or smoking consumption, family history of osteoporosis, height: 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (1) v 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (2); weight 67.7 {+-} 11.3kg (1) v 68.3 kg {+-} 12.5 kg (2); body mass index: 30.95 (1 ) v 26.26 (2). Lumbar spine BMD was also similar for the two groups [0.95 {+-} 0.18g/cm{sup 2} (1) v 0.94{+-} 0.21 g/cm{sup 2} (2)]. However, hysterectomy patients had a significantly lower hip BMD: 0.63 {+-} 0.16 g/cm{sup 2} v 0.76 {+-} 0.18 g/cm{sup 2} (p>0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that spine BMD was influenced by age, family history, height and weight (R{sup 2} = 0.37), but not prior hysterectomy. Hip BMD was related to age, hysterectomy, smoking and weight (R{sup 2} = o 45). We conclude that prior hysterectomy with ovarian conservation has an adverse effect on hip but not spine BMD.

  18. Cannabis use and bone mineral density: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Donald; Plinke, Wesley; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Nielson, Carrie M

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis use is rising in the USA. Its relationship to cannabinoid signaling in bone cells implies its use could affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the population. In a national survey of people ages 20-59, we found no association between self-reported cannabis use and BMD of the hip or spine. Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the USA, and its recreational use has recently been approved in several US states. Cannabinoids play a role in bone homeostasis. We aimed to determine the association between cannabis use and BMD in US adults. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, 4743 participants between 20 and 59 years old, history of cannabis use was categorized into never, former (previous use, but not in last 30 days), light (1-4 days of use in last 30 days), and heavy (≥5 days of use in last 30 days). Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between cannabis use and DXA BMD of the proximal femur and lumbar spine with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity among other BMD determinants. Sixty percent of the population reported ever using cannabis; 47% were former users, 5% were light users, and 7% were heavy users. Heavy cannabis users were more likely to be male, have a lower BMI, increased daily alcohol intake, increased tobacco pack-years, and were more likely to have used other illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamines). No association between cannabis and BMD was observed for any level of use (p ≥ 0.28). A history of cannabis use, although highly prevalent and related to other risk factors for low BMD, was not independently associated with BMD in this cross-sectional study of American men and women.

  19. Prevalence of low bone mineral density in female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Tânia; Wyon, Matthew; Maia, José; Machado, José Carlos; Marques, Franklim; Metsios, George S; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2015-02-01

    While some authors report that dancers have reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporosis, others have stressed the positive effects of dance training on developing healthy BMD. Given the existing controversy, the aim of this systematic review was to examine the best evidence-based information available in relation to female dancers. Four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus) and two dance science journals (Journal of Dance Medicine and Science and Medical Problems of Performing Artists) were searched for relevant material using the keywords "dance", "ballet", "BMD", "bone density", "osteoporosis" and "female athlete triad syndrome". A total of 257 abstracts were screened using selected inclusion (studies involving bone measurements in dancers) and exclusion (editorials, opinion papers, chapters in books, narrative reviews and non-English language papers) criteria according to PRISMA guidelines. Following the above screening, a total of 108 abstracts were identified as potentially relevant. After the exclusion of conference proceedings, review papers, studies focusing only in male dancers and studies in which dancers' information were combined with other athletes, the eligible papers were subsequently assessed using the GRADE system and grouped according to: (1) prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, (2) incidence of low BMD and risk factors, (3) prevention/treatment of low BMD in dancers, and (4) other studies. Of the 257 abstracts that were initially screened, only 35 studies were finally considered. Only one of these 35 was of high quality, while the remaining 34 were of relatively low quality. Seven studies reported prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, 10 reported associated factors with no prevalence data, while one reported prevalence with no associated factors data. One study cited risk factors, while another one elaborated on the treatment of low BMD in dancers. The remaining 15 studies were classified as

  20. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, A.Z.; Mumford, S.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18–44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 μg/l (0.19–0.43), of lead was 0.86 μg/dl (0.68–1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 μg/l (0.58–2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  1. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Children with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Bakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fragile bones develop due to various factors in thalassemic patients. Even with optimum management, osteoporosis occurs, contributing to morbidity in majority of patients with thalassemia major (TM. Our aim was to evaluate bone health of thalassemic children using biochemical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD, and to emphasize the precautionary measures and early diagnosis of osteoporosis. Material and Methods: Thirteen children (5 females, 8 males, age <18 years with TM were included in the study. Age, duration, weight, height, transfusion frequency, medication use were recorded. Following laboratory analysis were obtained: Whole blood count, fasting blood glucose, ferritin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. BMD was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from femur and lumbar vertebrae. Patients with DXA Z-score <-2 was defined as osteoporotic. Results: The mean age was 7.85±3.17 years and body mass index (BMI was 14.68±1.93 kg/m2. The rest of the results were as follows: Lumbar BMD 0.464±0.108 g/cm2; total femur BMD 0.581± 0.114 g/cm2; lumbar DEXA Z-score 2.44±1.60; total femur DEXA -0.93±1.19. Osteoporosis ratio was determined as 69% in the lumbar vertebrae and 10% in the femur. A significant positive correlation was found between lumbar-femoral BMD and BMI, and a significant negative correlation was observed between femoral BMD and iPTH. Conclusion: BMD is low in thalassemic children. Despite regular transfusions and chelation therapy, osteoporosis starts early in life. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18: 72-7

  2. Accuracy of dual photon absorptiometry for assessment of bone mineral and body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Manabu; Iwamura, Akira; Goto, Eisuke; Mori, Yutaka; Kawakami, Kenji; Soshi, Shigeru

    1991-01-01

    Accuracy of bone mineral measurement by the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) was studied in comparison to ashed bone mineral (ash) on the lumbar spine of 23 cada vars. There was a high correlation (r=0.896) between the value of DPA and ash weight. Bone mineral content in the radius by the single photon absorptiometry (SPA) did not correlate to bone mineral density (BMD) by DPA in the patients with hemodialysis. SPA may be less useful to assess BMD of the whole body. Fat mass and lean mass measured by DPA were well correlated to the value obtained by the electrical impedance method. Precision in measurement of fat mass and lean mass was also confirmed by the electrical impedance method. These results suggest that DPA has a high precision for measurements of the bone mineral and the body composition. (author)

  3. Evidence-based screening for low bone mineral density in HIV-infected men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Patsi; Du, Ping; Haas, Richard E; Pugh, Linda C

    2014-01-01

    Low bone mineral density, which leads to osteoporosis and fracture risk, is an emerging clinical problem in HIV-infected patients. Our evidence-based practice project screened a convenience sample of 225 HIV-infected men for low bone mineral density using the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool, and of those men, 173 were also screened by quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus. One hundred twelve men had low bone mineral density by either or both screening methods. Seventy-one of these 112 men were tested by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and 73% had low bone mineral density. The positive protective value of the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool was 73% and for quantitative ultrasound was 88%. These results suggest that routine low bone mineral density screening should be included as standard practice for all HIV-infected patients. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. International conference on bone mineral measurement, October 12--13, 1973, Chicago, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-12-31

    From international conference on bone mineral measurement; Chicago, Illinois, USA (12 Oct 1973). Abstracts of papers presented at the international conference on bone mineral measurement are presented. The papers were grouped into two sessions: a physical session including papers on measuring techniques, errors, interpretation and correlations, dual photon techniques, and data handling and exchange; a biomedical session including papers on bone disease, osteoporosis, normative data, non-disease influences, renal, and activity and inactivity. (ERB)

  5. Elite athletes' characteristics in esthetic sports related to body composition, physiology, bone mineral density and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    PEHLİVAN, Çisem; RUDARLI NALÇAKAN, Gülbin; AKTUĞ ERGAN, Semra

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Nutritional deficiencies occur in elite athletes in aesthetic branches who suffer from intensive training programs and strict weight control. Increased disability, the weakening of the immune system, menstrual disorders and increased risk of bone fracture due to abnormal bone mineralization impair the quality of life and threaten the health of athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine body composition, nutrition and hydration status, bone mineral density levels and some physio...

  6. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    are used to obtain a BMD estimate of the distal forearm, referred to as BMDDXR (from digital X-ray radiogrammetry, DXR). The measured dimensions for each bone are the cortical thickness and the outer width, in combination with an stimate of the cortical porosity. The short-term in vivo precision of BMDDXR...... was observed to be 0.60% in a clinical study of 24 women and the in vitro variation over 12 different radiological clinics was found to be 1% of the young normal BMDDXR level. In a cohort of 416 women BMDDXR was found to be closely correlated with BMD at the distal forearm measured by dual-energy X...

  7. Dual-photon absorptiometry: A new method of determining bone mineral content. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermann, G.; Eiber, J.; Hennig, J.; Pabst, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    Cortical (neck of femur) and trabecular (L 2-4) bone mass has been determined repeatedly with DPA using 153 Gd (NOVO Lab 22 a) in 545 females and 112 males with no evidence of bone diseases. Measured 'normal' (age- and sex-related average) values for bone mineral content (BMC) differed significantly (p [de

  8. Association of Lactase 13910 C/T polymorphism with bone mineral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... Introduction. Osteoporosis is a common bone disorder characterized by decrease in bone mineral density. (BMD) and skeletal microarchitecture deterioration, which leads to increased bone fragility and fracture risk. Although osteoporosis and fracture are influenced by many environmental factors such.

  9. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible. PMID:22652567

  10. Bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition of children with chronic renal failure, with and without growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A. M.; Nauta, J.; de Jong, M. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; Lilien, M. R.; van Wijk, J. A.; Kist-van Holthe, J. E.; Hokken-Koelega, A. C.; Pols, H. A.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Osteopenia has been reported in adult patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Only a few studies have been performed in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover, body composition in children with CRF and to study the effect of GH

  11. Bone geometry, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture in patients with myelofibrosis: a cross-sectional study using DXA, HR-pQCT, and bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Sarah; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, Vikram Vinod; Shanbhoque, Vikram Vinod; Stahlberg, Claudia Irene; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (MF) is a severe chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm, progressing towards a terminal stage with insufficient haematopoiesis and osteosclerotic manifestations. Whilst densitometry studies have showed MF patients to have elevated bone mineral density, data on bone geometry and micro-structure assessed with non-invasive methods are lacking. We measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone geometry, volumetric BMD, and micro-architecture were measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We compared the structural parameters of bones by comparing 18 patients with MF and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and height. Blood was analysed for biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with MF. There were no significant differences in measurements of bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density, and micro-structure between MF patients and matched controls. Estimated bone stiffness and bone strength were similar between MF patients and controls. The level of pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP) was significantly increased in MF, which may indicate extensive collagen synthesis, one of the major diagnostic criteria in MF. We conclude that bone mineral density, geometry, and micro-architecture in this cohort of MF patients are comparable with those in healthy individuals.

  12. Low bone mineral density in COPD patients related to worse lung function, low weight and decreased fat-free mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieze, A; de Greef, M.H.G.; Wijkstra, P.J.; Wempe, J

    Low bone mineral density is frequently seen in COPD patients. Advanced COPD, low BMI and muscle depletion are risk factors for developing low bone mineral density (BMD). Low bone mineral density is seen in 75% of the GOLD stage IV patients. Introduction We set out to investigate the prevalence of

  13. Low bone mineral density in achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Kadono, Izumi; Sugiura, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Sachi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) and hypochondroplasia (HCH) are the most common form of short-limb skeletal dysplasias caused by activated fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling. Although decreased bone mass was reported in gain-of-function mutation in Fgfr3 mice, both disorders have never been described as osteoporotic. In the present study, we evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) in ACH and HCH patients. We measured spinal BMD (L1-L4) in 18 ACH and four HCH patients with an average age of 19.8 ± 7.5 years (range, 10-33 years). BMD Z-score in each individual was calculated for normalizing age and gender. Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BMD was analyzed. Moreover, BMD and Z-score were compared between ACH patients and HCH patients. The average BMD of ACH/HCH patients was 0.805 ± 0.141 g/cm(2) (range, 0.554-1.056 g/cm(2) ), resulting in an average Z-score of -1.1 ± 0.8 (range, -2.4 to 0.6) of the standard value. A slightly positive correlation was observed between BMI and BMD (r = 0.45; P = 0.13). There was no significant difference in BMD and Z-score between ACH and HCH patients. Spinal BMD was reduced in ACH/HCH patients, and was mildly correlated with individual BMI. We should carefully monitor BMD and examine osteoporosis-related symptoms in adolescent and adult ACH/HCH patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Cow's Milk Allergy and Bone Mineral Density in Prepubertal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhot, Genevieve; Perrone, Vanessa; Alos, Nathalie; Dubois, Josée; Delvin, Edgard; Paradis, Louis; Des Roches, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Recent data suggest that cow's milk allergy (CMA) has become more persistent, prolonging treatment via strict elimination of cow's milk products into a period of skeletal growth. The objectives of this study were to compare bone mineral density (BMD), vitamin D status, and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D between prepubertal children with persistent CMA and those with non-cow's milk food allergies (NCMA) as control subjects and to assess the use of and compliance to calcium and vitamin D supplementation among children with persistent CMA. Fifty-two children with persistent CMA and 29 with NCMA were recruited. BMD was measured by using dual energy radiograph absorptiometry, and vitamin D status was assessed by using plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium and vitamin D intakes, as well as compliance to calcium and vitamin D supplementation, were recorded. Lumbar spine BMD z scores were significantly lower in children with CMA. Low bone mass was detected in 6% of the CMA group compared with none in the NCMA group. Children with CMA displayed significantly lower calcium intakes than control subjects. Vitamin D status was not reduced in children with CMA compared with control subjects. Fewer than one-half of children with CMA reported the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements. However, adherence was high among supplement users, with a mean compliance rate of 5.5 days per week. These prepubertal children with persistent CMA had lower lumbar spine BMD z scores than children with NCMA, which likely resulted from lower calcium intake. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Women with primary ovarian insufficiency have lower bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amarante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in a sample of 32 patients with spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency (POI in comparison to reference groups of 25 pre- and 55 postmenopausal women. Hip (lumbar and spinal bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the three groups. The median age of POI patients at the time of diagnosis was 35 years (interquartile range: 27-37 years. The mean ± SD age of postmenopausal reference women (52.16 ± 3.65 years was higher than that of POI (46.28 ± 10.38 years and premenopausal women (43.96 ± 7.08; P = 0.001 at the time of BMD measurement. Twenty-seven (84.4% POI women were receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT at the time of the study. In the postmenopausal reference group, 30.4% were current users of HRT. Lumbar BMD was significantly lower in the POI group (1.050 ± 0.17 g/cm² compared to the age-matched premenopausal reference group (1.136 ± 0.12 g/cm²; P = 0.040. Moreover, 22 (68.7% POI women had low bone density (osteopenia/osteoporosis by World Health Organization criteria versus 47.3% of the postmenopausal reference group (P = 0.042. In conclusion, the present data indicate that BMD is significantly lower in patients with POI than in age-matched premenopausal women. Also, the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis is higher in POI women than in women after natural menopause. Early medical interventions are necessary to ensure that women with POI will maintain their bonemass.

  16. Low bone mineral density in noncholestatic liver cirrhosis: prevalence, severity and prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Fátima Aparecida Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease has long been associated with cholestatic disorders. However, data in noncholestatic cirrhosis are relatively scant. AIMS: To determine prevalence and severity of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis and to investigate whether age, gender, etiology, severity of underlying liver disease, and/or laboratory tests are predictive of the diagnosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between March and September/1998, 89 patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent standard laboratory tests and bone densitometry at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Bone mass was significantly reduced at both sites in patients compared to controls. The prevalence of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis, defined by the World Health Organization criteria, was 78% at lumbar spine and 71% at femoral neck. Bone density significantly decreased with age at both sites, especially in patients older than 50 years. Bone density was significantly lower in post-menopausal women patients compared to pre-menopausal and men at both sites. There was no significant difference in bone mineral density among noncholestatic etiologies. Lumbar spine bone density significantly decreased with the progression of liver dysfunction. No biochemical variable was significantly associated with low bone mineral density. CONCLUSIONS: Low bone mineral density is highly prevalent in patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis. Older patients, post-menopausal women and patients with severe hepatic dysfunction experienced more advanced bone disease. The laboratory tests routinely determined in patients with liver disease did not reliably predict low bone mineral density.

  17. Bone mineral status in children with phenylketonuria--relationship to nutritional intake and phenylalanine control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, M P; Chan, G M; Leonard, C O; Ernst, S L

    1992-05-01

    The mineral status in phenylketonuria (PKU) was measured by single-photon densitometry of the distal radius and plasma concentrations in 26 subjects. Bone mineral content increased normally with age in the younger children despite strict dietary restrictions. Subjects aged greater than 8 y, however, were frequently below the normal curve for bone mineral content. Blood phenylalanine concentrations were significantly higher in the older group of subjects and this correlated with decreased compliance with dietary prescriptions. PKU children had significantly decreased plasma concentrations of alkaline phosphatase, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone. Subnormal concentrations of plasma zinc and plasma and red blood cell (RBC) copper were common, but RBC zinc was normal. We conclude that compliance with dietary therapy for PKU is associated with normal bone mineral development in young children. Older patients with PKU who follow the diet less carefully are at risk for low bone mineral content.

  18. A Comparative Study of Quantitative Assessment of Bone Mineral Density of Mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Kyl; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duk [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    This study was performed to compare the bone mineral densities measured at mandibular premolar area by copper-equivalent image and hydroxyapatite phantom with those measured at radius by dual energy absorptiometry and to evaluate the clinical usefulness of Digital system with slide scanner, copper-equivalent image, and hydroxyapatite phantom. For experiment, intraoral radiograms of 15 normal subjects ranged from 20 years old to 67 old were taken with copper-step wedge at mandibular premolar area and bone mineral densities calculated by conversion equation to bone mineral density of hydroxyapatite were compared with those measured at radius distal 1/3 area by Hologic QDR-1000. Obtained results as follows: 1) The conversion equation was Y=5.97X-0.25 and its determination coefficient was 0.9967. The coefficient of variation in the measurement of copper-equivalent value ranged from 4% to 8% and showed high reproducibility. 2) The coefficient of variation in the measurement of bone mineral density by the equation ranged from 7% to 8% and showed high reproducibility. 3) The bone mineral densities ranged from 0.35 to 0.79 g/cm{sup 2} at mandibular premolar area. 4) The correlation coefficient between bone mineral densities at mandibular premolar area and those at radius distal 1/3 area was 0.8965. As summary, digital image analyzing system using copper-equivalent image and hydroxyapatite phantom appeared to be clinically useful to measure the bone mineral density at dental area.

  19. Body composition and bone mineral status in patients with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kun; Liu, Li; He, Yao-Juan; Li, Duan; Yuan, Lian-Xiong; Lash, Gendie E; Li, Li

    2016-11-30

    Turner syndrome (TS) is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture rate. However, the developmental trajectory of bone density or body composition in patients with TS is still unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that different karyotypes and/or age contributes to abnormal body composition and decreased bone mineral status parameters in patients with TS. This study included 24 girls with TS, in which 13 girls exhibited X0 karyotype and 11 had mosaicism. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessed the bone mineral status of the calcaneus, including bone mineral density (BMD), amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and InBody 770 assessed body composition. Pearson's test was performed to correlate measured parameters with patient age. The body composition and bone mineral status parameters were not significantly influenced by patient karyotype. There was a correlation between patient age and AD-SOS (r = -0.61, P = 0.002) and BUA (r = 0.50, P = 0.013) but not BMD (r = -0.19, P = 0.379). In conclusion, there was no effect of karyotype on body composition or body mineral status. Bone mineral status, as evidenced by changes in AD-SOS and BUA, alters with age regardless of karyotype. The developmental trajectory demonstrated in the current study warrants further validation in a longitudinal study.

  20. Effects of Denosumab on Bone Metabolic Markers and Bone Mineral Density in Patients Treated with Glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Masato; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Togashi, Masaru; Wakui, Hideki; Takahashi, Naoto

    2017-01-01

    Objective We performed a prospective study to determine the efficacy and safety of denosumab on bone metabolic indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in 29 patients receiving long-term glucocorticoids (GCs) who had clinical risk factors for fracture. Methods Among these patients, 16 had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 6 RA, 4 other autoimmune diseases, and 3 renal diseases. All patients received donosumab 60 mg at baseline and 6 months. Serum N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) levels were measured as bone metabolic indices. BMD at the lumbar spine (LSBMD) and femoral neck (FNBMD) were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and expressed as a percentage of the young adult mean (%YAM). Results Denosumab therapy significantly reduced serum NTX and BAP levels from baseline after 12 months (from 19.2 to 13.9 nmol BCE/L; from 11.9 to 9.2 U/L, respectively). In 18 patients treated with bisphosphonates before the start of denosumab therapy, the improvements in the LSBMD and FNBMD values were 1.5%YAM/year and 1.1%YAM/year, respectively. The LSBMD and FNBMD values were both significantly higher 12 months after denosumab therapy (3.5%YAM/year and 3.0%YAM/year, respectively). The LSBMD gain was significantly higher after denosumab therapy than during bisphosphonate therapy. No fractures were observed in any patients during denosumab therapy. Conlusion Denosumab is effective and safe in preventing bone resorption and BMD loss in patients treated with long-term GCs for inflammatory diseases. This is the first study showing a significant increase in not only LSBMD but also FNBMD in GC-induced osteoporosis after denosumab therapy.

  1. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  2. The Effect of Combined Exercise on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Ghasemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The best way to prevent osteoporosis, at old age is to prevent bone loss and at young age is trying to keep bones healthy, therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of combined exercise on bone mineral density of premenopausal females. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study was conducted among 20 premenopausal females between 40 and 45 years old, which were randomly assigned to two groups (experimental and control groups in Hamadan city, during year 2016. The experimental group completed a 12-week combined exercise-training program (6 weeks in water and 6 weeks on land, three times a week and 70 minutes per session. Before and after the 12 weeks, femoral bone mineral density in all samples was measured by DEXA bone mineral densitometry. Data were analyzed with the SPSS 21 software using descriptive and inferential statistics, such as independent and paired t-test, and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA. Results: Bone mineral density of femoral neck and total hip of the experimental group, had significant differences with corresponding areas of the control group (P <0.05. In other words, the results revealed that 12 weeks of combined exercise increases femoral bone mineral density in the experimental group with a significant decrease in the control group. Conclusions: According to the results, to prevent a decrease in bone mineral density during the menopausal period, combined exercises are recommended for females at this age.

  3. Bone mineral density in glycogen storage disease type Ia and Ib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarich, Laurie A; Kirpich, Alexander; Fiske, Laurie M; Weinstein, David A

    2012-04-05

    Purpose:The aim of this study was to characterize the pathogenesis of low bone mineral density in glycogen storage disease type Ia and Ib.Methods:A retrospective chart review performed at the University of Florida Glycogen Storage Disease Program included patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia and Ib for whom dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis was performed. A Z-score less than -2 SD was considered low. Analysis for association of bone mineral density with age, gender, presence of complications, mean triglyceride and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, duration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy, and history of corticosteroid use was performed.Results:In glycogen storage disease Ia, 23/42 patients (55%) had low bone mineral density. Low bone mineral density was associated with other disease complications (P = 0.02) and lower mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (P = 0.03). There was a nonsignificant trend toward lower mean triglyceride concentration in the normal bone mineral density group (P = 0.1).In patients with glycogen storage disease type Ib, 8/12 (66.7%) had low bone mineral density. We did not detect an association with duration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy (P = 0.68), mean triglyceride level (P = 0.267), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.3), or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (P = 0.63) concentration, and there was no evidence that corticosteroid therapy was associated with lower bone mineral density (P = 1).Conclusion:In glycogen storage disease type Ia, bone mineral density is associated with other complications and 25-hydroxyvitamin D status. In glycogen storage disease type Ib, bone mineral density was not associated with any covariates analyzed, suggesting multifactorial etiology or reflecting a small sample.Genet Med advance online publication 5 April 2012.

  4. Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steichen, J.J.; Asch, P.A.; Tsang, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), developed in 1963 and adapted for infants by Steichen et al. in 1976, is an important tool to quantitate bone mineralization in infants. Studies of infants in which SPA was used include studies of fetal bone mineralization and postnatal bone mineralization in very low birth weight infants. The SPA technique has also been used as a research tool to investigate longitudinal bone mineralization and to study the effect of nutrition and disease processes such as rickets or osteopenia of prematurity. At present, it has little direct clinical application for diagnosing bone disease in single patients. The bones most often used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) are the radius, the ulna, and, less often, the humerus. The radius appears to be preferred as a suitable bone to measure BMC in infants. It is easily accessible; anatomic reference points are easily palpated and have a constant relationship to the radial mid-shaft site; soft tissue does not affect either palpation of anatomic reference points or BMC quantitation in vivo. The peripheral location of the radius minimizes body radiation exposure. Trabecular and cortical bone can be measured separately. Extensive background studies exist on radial BMC in small infants. Most important, the radius has a relatively long zone of constant BMC. Finally, SPA for BMC in the radius has a high degree of precision and accuracy. 61 references.

  5. Correlation between longitudinal, circumferential, and radial moduli in cortical bone: effect of mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macione, J; Depaula, C A; Guzelsu, N; Kotha, S P

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that changes in the longitudinal elastic properties of bone due to changes in mineral content are related to the longitudinal strength of bone tissue. Changes in mineral content are expected to affect bone tissue mechanical properties along all directions, albeit to different extents. However, changes in tissue mechanical properties along the different directions are expected to be correlated to one another. In this study, we investigate if radial, circumferential, and longitudinal moduli are related in bone tissue with varying mineral content. Plexiform bovine femoral bone samples were treated in fluoride ion solutions for a period of 3 and 12 days to obtain bones with 20% and 32% lower effective mineral contents. Transmission ultrasound velocities were obtained in the radial, circumferential, and longitudinal axes of bone and combined with measured densities to obtain corresponding tensorial moduli. Results indicate that moduli decreased with fluoride ion treatments and were significantly correlated to one another (r(2) radial vs. longitudinal = 0.80, r(2) circumferential vs. longitudinal = 0.90, r(2) radial vs. circumferential = 0.85). Densities calculated from using ultrasound parameters, acoustic impedance and transmission velocities, were moderately correlated to those measured by the Archimedes principle (r(2)=0.54, p<0.01). These results suggest that radial and circumferential ultrasound measurements could be used to determine the longitudinal properties of bone and that ultrasound may not be able to predict in vitro densities of bones containing unbonded mineral. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steichen, J.J.; Asch, P.A.; Tsang, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), developed in 1963 and adapted for infants by Steichen et al. in 1976, is an important tool to quantitate bone mineralization in infants. Studies of infants in which SPA was used include studies of fetal bone mineralization and postnatal bone mineralization in very low birth weight infants. The SPA technique has also been used as a research tool to investigate longitudinal bone mineralization and to study the effect of nutrition and disease processes such as rickets or osteopenia of prematurity. At present, it has little direct clinical application for diagnosing bone disease in single patients. The bones most often used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) are the radius, the ulna, and, less often, the humerus. The radius appears to be preferred as a suitable bone to measure BMC in infants. It is easily accessible; anatomic reference points are easily palpated and have a constant relationship to the radial mid-shaft site; soft tissue does not affect either palpation of anatomic reference points or BMC quantitation in vivo. The peripheral location of the radius minimizes body radiation exposure. Trabecular and cortical bone can be measured separately. Extensive background studies exist on radial BMC in small infants. Most important, the radius has a relatively long zone of constant BMC. Finally, SPA for BMC in the radius has a high degree of precision and accuracy. 61 references

  7. Association of Sp1 Collagen Type Iα1 Gene Polymorphisms with Bone Mineral Density in Bulgarian Women Referred for Bone Densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon K. Toshev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the association between bone mineral density (BMD and collagen type Iα1 (COLIA1 gene polymorphisms in a case-control study.Materials and Methods: 400 unrelated postmenopausal Bulgarian women participated - 180 with normal BMD and 220 with low BMD. BMD was measured at the forearm, lumbar spine and femoral neck by X-ray absorptiometry. A PCR product of 261 bp was digested and electrophoresed. The prevalence of S and s alleles as well as the different genotypes was determined. All analyses were tested for statistical significance (c2-test.Results: 408 s and 392 S alleles were found. Of the 220 women with low BMD, 20 had the SS genotype, 94 – the Ss genotype, and 106 – the ss genotype. Among the 180 controls with normal BMD, 93 had the SS genotype, 76 - the Ss, and 11 – the ss genotype. The SS genotype was associated with higher BMD and the ss – with lower BMD at all sites. The odds ratio for low BMD in the presence of the ss genotype was 10.69.Conclusion: In our study sample, the COLIA1 polymorphism was associated with low BMD. This particular genetic polymorphism may become a useful genetic screening tool for osteoporosis. Türk Jem 2011; 15: 66-70

  8. PTH(1-84) Administration in Hypoparathyroidism Transiently Reduces Bone Matrix Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, Barbara M; Roschger, Paul; Dempster, David W; Zhou, Hua; Bilezikian, John P; Klaushofer, Klaus; Rubin, Mishaela R

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hypoparathyroidism have low circulating parathyroid (PTH) levels and higher cancellous bone volume and trabecular thickness. Treatment with PTH(1-84) was shown to increase abnormally low bone remodeling dynamics. In this work, we studied the effect of 1-year or 2-year PTH(1-84) treatment on cancellous and cortical bone mineralization density distribution (Cn.BMDD and Ct.BMDD) based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) in paired transiliac bone biopsy samples. The study cohort comprised 30 adult hypoparathyroid patients (14 treated for 1 year; 16 treated for 2 years). At baseline, Cn.BMDD was shifted to higher mineralization densities in both treatment groups (average degree of mineralization Cn.CaMean +3.9% and +2.7%, p PTH(1-84), Cn.CaMean was significantly lower than that at baseline (-6.3%, p PTH(1-84) group Cn.CaMean did not differ from baseline. Significant changes of Ct.BMDD were observed in the 1-year treatment group only. The change in histomorphometric bone formation (mineralizing surface) was predictive for Cn.BMDD outcomes in the 1-year PTH(1-84) group, but not in the 2-year PTH(1-84) group. Our findings suggest higher baseline bone matrix mineralization consistent with the decreased bone turnover in hypoparathyroidism. PTH(1-84) treatment caused differential effects dependent on treatment duration that were consistent with the histomorphometric bone formation outcomes. The greater increase in bone formation during the first year of treatment was associated with a decrease in bone matrix mineralization, suggesting that PTH(1-84) exposure to the hypoparathyroid skeleton has the greatest effects on BMDD early in treatment. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  10. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduced bone mineral density in Chinese children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kundi; Shen, Ming; Li, Honglei; Li, Xiaowen; He, Chun

    2017-05-24

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder. Dietary control of classic PKU needs restriction of natural proteins. The diet results in unbalanced nutrition, which might affect the physical development of the patients. Our aim was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in children with PKU. To investigate the BMD of children with PKU, 41 children with PKU and 64 healthy controls were recruited (all 3-4 years of age). Body weight and height, BMD, Phe blood levels, thyroid function, calcium, phosphorus, iron metabolism markers, and vitamin D3 were measured. Body height and BMD of patients were lower than in controls. The BMD of controls was positively associated with age, body weight and height. In patients, BMD was positively associated with body weight. There was no correlation between Phe blood levels and BMD in patients. Blood levels of alkaline phosphatase were higher in patients compared to controls. Blood calcium levels were higher in 4-year-old patients, while the body weight was lower compared to controls. Thyroid function, iron metabolism markers, vitamin D3 levels and IGF-1 levels were normal. Reduced BMD was observed in children with phenylketonuria, but the exact reasons for this remain to be elucidated.

  12. Bone mineral density in elite junior Olympic weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, B P; Kraemer, W J; Maresh, C M; Fleck, S J; Stone, M H; Fry, A C; Miller, P D; Dalsky, G P

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of bone mineral density (BMD) to muscular strength in highly trained young male athletes in order to gain insights concerning the influence of heavy resistance training on BMD. Twenty-five elite junior weightlifters (age, 17.4 +/- 1.4 yr) and 11 age-matched controls (16.9 +/- 1.1 yr) volunteered for this investigation. Measurements of BMD (g.cm-2) utilizing dual energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained for the lumbar spine (L2-4) and the proximal femur (neck; trochanter, Ward's triangle). The BMD values for the junior lifters were found to be significantly greater at all sites for the junior weightlifters compared with their age-matched control group. The BMD values of the spine and femoral neck of the junior weightlifters when compared with adult reference data (i.e., 20-39 yr old men) were found to be significantly greater. Both simple and multiple regression analyses demonstrated significant relationships of BMD with strength accounting for 30-65% of the variance. These data suggest that in elite junior weightlifters, muscle strength, highly specific to the sport of weightlifting, has a major influence on BMD due to the influence of the chronic overloads experienced in training.

  13. Determinants of low bone mineral density in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Choong Yi; Kong, Ann Nie; Noordin, Mazidah; Poh, Bee Koon; Ong, Lai Choo; Ng, Ching Ching

    2018-01-01

    Children with epilepsy on long-term antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at risk of low bone mineral density (BMD). The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of low BMD among Malaysian children with epilepsy. Cross-sectional study of ambulant children with epilepsy on long-term AEDs for >1 year seen in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from 2014 to 2015. Detailed assessment of anthropometric measurements; environmental lifestyle risk factors; serum vitamin D, calcium and parathyroid hormone levels; genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes in vitamin D and calcium metabolism; and lumbar spine BMD were obtained. Low BMD was defined as BMD Z-score ≤ -2.0 SD. Eighty-seven children with mean age of 11.9 years (56 males) participated in the study. The prevalence of low lumbar BMD was 21.8% (19 patients). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified polytherapy >2 AEDs (OR: 7.86; 95% CI 1.03-59.96), small frame size with wrist breadth of 2 AEDs, underweight or with small frame size as they are at higher risk of having low BMD. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Osteoporosis Risk Factors on Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Umay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate whether osteoporosis (OP risk factors have any effect on bone mineral density in patients receiving OP treatment. Material and method: The study included 73 postmenopausal women with OP who had been using bisphosphonate treatment for one year, with at least one of either total lumbar or femoral neck T-score still <-2.5 and whose total lumbar and/or femoral neck T-scores showed no improvement compared to one year earlier. Demographic characteristics and OP risk factors were recorded. Mini-mental test (MMT, Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales were used in the evaluation of the cognitive status of patients. The assessed parameters of patients were compared with the current total lumbar and femoral neck T-scores. Results: Being underweight, illiteracy, high gravidity, inadequate calcium intake, and cognitive dysfunction were found to be effective on lumbar and femoral neck T- scores, while tea and coffee consumption, smoking status and the presence of additional comorbidity and drug use were found to be effective on femoral neck T-scores. Conclusion: Some OP risk factors may contribute to the ineffectiveness in patients receiving regular OP treatment who fail to show adequate response. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:44-50

  15. Phantom studies of triple photon absorptiometry and bone mineral measurement at a hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, T.J.; Webber, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of using triple photon absorptiometry (TPA) for the measurement of bone mineral mass about a hip prosthesis was examined. A theoretical expression describing the variance of TPA measurements was verified using a triple photon source and phantom materials which simulate the soft tissue-bone mineral-metal prosthesis system. The expression for the variance was used to determine an optimized set of photon energies. It was shown that a precision of 3% could be obtained for reasonable measurement times using this optimized set of energies and that TPA should be a feasible approach for measurement of bone mineral about a hip prosthesis. (orig.)

  16. Usefulness of bone scintigraphic classification and quantitative evaluation of bone mineralization with X-CT and SPECT in renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Terue; Fukuda, Teruo; Inoue, Yuuichi; Koizumi, Yoshiko; Ikeda, Hozumi; Ochi, Hironobu

    1987-01-01

    1. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m-MDP was performed on 52 patients with chronic renal failure. These bone scintigrams were classified into 4 groups, each of which was correlated to laboratory data and quantitative data of bone mineralization. Group I (32 patients) showed high accumulation of Tc-99m-MDP in the bone. High level of Alk-Pase and c-PTH, low BMC/BW, low EMI number and high radionuclide activity ratio (RN ratio) were observed. Group II (9 patients) demonstrated nuclear bone images with high background activity. RN ratio was slightly higher than the normal. Group III (11 patients) showed extraosseous accumulation of Tc-99m-MDP in the lung, kidney or soft tissues. One patient belonged to Group I. High level of Ca x P product and slightly high RN ratio were observed. In both Group II and III, BMC/BW and EMI number were normal. Group IV (one patient) showed normal skeletal activity on bone scintigram. The mean duration of hemodialysis was the longest in Group I. Our scintigraphic classification is convenient and might contribute an understanding of patho-physiological bone changes in such patients. 2. Subtotal parathyroidectomy (S-PTX) was employed in 18 of 52 patients on chronic renal failure with secondary hyperparathyroidism. These patients were studied before and after S-PTX using 6 different procedures; conventional radiography, microdensitometry, bone mineral analysis, measurement of EMI number with X-CT (frontal bone), bone scintigraphy, and RN ratio (frontal bone/brain) with SPECT. On the bone scan, the diffuse increased activity in the calvarium became less prominent after S-PTX in all 18 patients. We devised a new method to quantify the bone changes revealed by the bone scan; the RN ratio with SPECT. The ratio decreased markedly after surgery. This method seems to be most useful for detecting dynamic bone changes sensitively and quantitatively. (author)

  17. Baseline mineralizing surface determines the magnitude of the bisphosphonate effect on cortical bone mineralization in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, B.M.; Blouin, S.; Lueger, S.; Paschalis, E.P.; Recker, R.R.; Phipps, R.; Klaushofer, K.; Roschger, P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of short- or long-term bisphosphonate treatment on cortical bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD). Methods: BMDD was assessed by quantitative backscatter electron imaging in postmenopausal osteoporosis: in paired transiliac biopsy samples (n=36) at baseline and after 3 years risedronate treatment from a clinical study, in transiliac biopsy samples from patients who were treated with either risedronate (n=31) or alendronate (n=68) for 3 to 7 years from an observational study. Outcomes were related to premenopausal reference data (n=73) and to histomorphometric mineralizing surface per bone surface (MS/BS). Results: In the clinical study, patients with lower (below cohort median) MS/BS had normal cortical CaMean at baseline. After 3 years risedronate, their CaMean was not different versus baseline but increased versus reference (+2.9%, p=0.003). Among the groups of the observational study, CaMean did not exceed reference level, was similar for alendronate versus risedronate and similar between 3 to 5 years versus longer than 5 years treatment duration. Conclusion: Baseline bone mineralizing surface appears to be important for the effect of bisphosphonate on cortical bone mineralization. In patients with lower baseline MS/BS, level of mineralization after treatment can exceed reference level. Whether this is beneficial in the long-term is unknown. PMID:28860420

  18. High Salt Diets, Bone Strength and Mineral Content of Mature Femur After Skeletal Unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Michael T. C.

    1998-01-01

    It is known that high salt diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) loss, but it is not known whether this effect weakens bone during space flight. The Bone Hormone Lab has studied the effect of high salt diets on Ca balance and whole body Ca in a space flight model (2,8). Neither the strength nor mineral content of the femurs from these studies has been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high salt diets (HiNa) and skeletal unloading on femoral bone strength and bone mineral content (BMC) in mature rats.

  19. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ......Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome...

  20. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G.; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-01-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm 2 )], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  1. Changes of mineralization of free autogenous bone grafts used for sinus floor elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Karl Andreas; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan; Wiltfang, Jörg; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Rupprecht, Stephan; Thorwarth, Michael

    2006-12-01

    For augmentations before implant placement in areas of minor bone quantity, autogenous bone is considered the reference to all bone substitutes used alternatively. Autogenous bone transplants originate from various donor areas and can be prepared in different ways before augmentation. They may either be used as block grafts or may be milled to granules that can be used solitarily or in combination with a bone substitute. In a prospective study, 61 patients of the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of our University receiving two-stage sinus floor elevation because of insufficient bone supply were randomly selected. At first-stage surgery, the local augmentation procedure, monocortical probes were obtained on the site of bone harvesting. At second-stage surgery, the implant insertion 6 months after the elevation procedure, bone cores were harvested in the areas of implant placement. Donor regions were the following three areas: the posterior (N=28) and anterior pelvic region (N=15) and the chin region (N=18). The implanted bone in all three groups was particulated to granules of 2-3 mm(2) using a bone mill. All biopsies were analyzed by means of microradiography. The anterior pelvic bone grafts showed a mineralized tissue grade of 35.1+/-7.6% before milling and augmentation. The posterior pelvic bone grafts exhibited a mineralization of 30.7+/-9.5% and the chin bone grafts 74.6+/-8.6%. At second-stage surgery after 6 months, the mineralization was 36.1+/-7.59% in the areas where bone grafts from the anterior pelvic crest were used. Probes harvested from sites with posterior pelvic bone augmentations showed a mineralization rate of 34.5+/-6.5%, and sites were chin bone grafts were applied expressed a mineralization of 54+/-8.6% (P=0.003 compared with the pre-operative value). The comparison of the microradiographical results demonstrated significant differences in the mineralization grades depending on the origin of the graft. The origin of the grafts and their

  2. Quantification of bone mineral density at 3rd lumbar vertebra by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Ono, Shimato; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Muranaka, Akira; Furukawa, Takako; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Morita, Rikushi

    1987-01-01

    To know bone mineral content of both cortical and spongy bones with aging and pathologic changes, bone mineral density (BMD) in the 3rd lumbar vertebra (L3) and distal radius (DR) was measured using dual photon absorptiometry and single photon absorptiometry, respectively, in 151 normal subjects (N) and four patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). In the N group, BMD in both L3 and DR decreased with aging. This was more noted, and occurred earlier in L3, irrespective of sex, than DR. In three PHP patients manifested as bone type, BMD was high in L3, and low in DR. Such a tendency was not seen in the remaining one patient with stone type PHP. The findings suggest the need to measure BMD in both cortical (L3) and spongy (DR) bones for elucidating bone pathophysiology in metabolic bone disease. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......-deficient and healthy males, indicating identical bone turnover. The GH-deficient females, however, had significantly lower levels of bone markers compared to healthy females, indicating a reduced bone turnover. Oestrogen substitution of the GH-deficient females could explain this difference. CONCLUSIONS: Compared...

  4. Can Cortical Bone Sensitivity be Used as a Practical Indicator of Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Gün

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cortical bone pain in patients with osteoporosis is often overlooked in clinical practice. We investigated the relationship between decrease in femur bone mineral density and the local sensitivity in bone cortex of tibia and radius. Patients and Methods: Thirty women with postmenopausal osteoporosis in our outpatient clinic included the study. It was investigated the local sensitivity in bilateral radius and tibia with a standard method and its correlation with femur bone mineral density. Results: The mean age of the patients was 65±8.7 years (43-80 and mean menopause duration was 20±10 years (1-40. The average values of the femoral neck T score and total femur T-score were -3.4±0.7 and -2.6±0.9, respectively. The average local sensitivities of the tibial and radial bone on the right side were 4.6±2.3 and 4.3±2.3, while the average local sensitivities of the tibial and radial bone on the left side were 4.5±2.1 and 4.1±1.4, respectively. We could not find any correlation between decrease in femur bone mineral density and the local sensitivity in bone cortex of the tibia and radius (p>0.05. Conclusion: Percussion initiated the tibial and radial bone sensitivities in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis method may not be considered as an appropriate clinical evaluation for predicting to bone mineral density. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:51-3

  5. Bone mineral analysis through dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujio, Masashi; Mizorogi, Toshihiro; Kitamura, Itsuko

    2009-01-01

    To determine how to eliminate species difference in animal bone experiment, bone mineral content (BMC) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) on the femurs of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus), and common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Measures were taken on femurs in situ, detached from the body, skinned and defleshed, or dried completely. When the BMC of the bone measured in the intact limb attached to the trunk was set at 100%, the actual BMC of the dry bone was 58.7±11.5% in mice and 103.2±3.2% in rats. Similarly, the bone area (Area) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the dried femur was significantly lower in the mouse femurs than intact limb. Thus, soft limb tissue such as skin and muscle modified the BMC, Area, and BMD only in mouse but not in those from rats or marmosets. The bone mineral ratio (BMR; BMC divided by dry bone weight) was nearest to the human bone value in the rat femurs, whereas the mouse femur BMR was the most different. The BMR was proved to be a practical index in evaluating bone characteristics in laboratory animals, but the mouse femur might not be suitable as an animal model for research into the aging of human bone. (author)

  6. Novel familial mutation of LRP5 causing high bone mass: Genetic analysis, clinical presentation, and characterization of bone matrix mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetzer, K M; Uyanik, G; Brehm, A; Zwerina, J; Zandieh, S; Czech, T; Roschger, P; Misof, B M; Klaushofer, K

    2018-02-01

    The Wnt signalling pathway is a critical regulator of bone mass and quality. Several heterozygous mutations in the LRP5 gene, a Wnt co-receptor, causing high bone mass (LRP5-HBM) have been described to date. The pathogenic mechanism is thought to be a gain-of-function caused by impaired inhibition of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway, thereby leading to increased bone formation. We report the cases of two affected family members, a 53-year-old mother and her 23-year-old daughter, with high bone mass (T-scores mother: lumbar spine 11.4, femoral neck 10.5; T-scores daughter: lumbar spine 5.4, femoral neck 8.7), increased calvarial thickness, and thickened cortices of the long bones but no history of fractures. Whereas the mother did not show any indications of the mutation, the daughter suffered from congenital hearing impairment resulting in cochlear implantation, recurrent facial palsy, and migraine. In addition, she had stenosis of the foramen magnum. In both individuals, we detected a novel heterozygous duplication of six basepairs in the LRP5 gene, resulting in an insertion of two amino acids, very likely associated with a gain-of-function. When the daughter had part of the occipital bone surgically removed, the bone sample was used for the visualization of bone lamellar structure and bone cells as well as the measurement of bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD). The bone sample revealed two distinctly different regions: an intra-cortical region with osteonal remodeling, typical osteonal lamellar orientation, associated with relatively higher heterogeneity of bone matrix mineralization, and another periosteal region devoid of bone remodeling, with parallel bone lamellae and lower heterogeneity of mineralization. In conclusion, we present data on bone tissue and material level from an LRP5-HBM patient with a novel mutation in the LRP5 gene. Our findings indicate normal morphology of osteoclasts and osteoblasts as well as normal mineralization in

  7. Natural variations in calcium isotope composition as a monitor of bone mineral balance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Anbar, A.; Thomas, B.; Smith, S.

    2004-12-01

    The skeleton is the largest reservoir of calcium in the human body and is responsible for the short term control of blood levels of this element. Accurate measurement of changes in bone calcium balance is critical to understanding how calcium metabolism responds to physiological and environmental changes and, more specifically, to diagnosing and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis and other serious calcium-related disorders. It is very difficult to measure bone calcium balance using current techniques, however, because these techniques rely either on separate estimates of bone resorption and formation that are not quantitatively comparable, or on complex and expensive studies of calcium kinetics using administered isotopic tracers. This difficulty is even more apparent and more severe for measurements of short-term changes in bone calcium balance that do not produce detectable changes in bone mineral density. Calcium isotopes may provide a novel means of addressing this problem. The foundation of this isotope application is the ca. 1.3 per mil fractionation of calcium during bone formation, favoring light calcium in the bone. This fractionation results in a steady-state isotopic offset between calcium in bone and calcium in soft tissues, blood and urine. Perturbations to this steady state due to changes in the net formation or resorption of bone should be reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of soft tissues and fluids. Here we present evidence that easily detectable shifts in the natural calcium isotope composition of human urine rapidly reflect changes in bone calcium balance. Urine from subjects in a 17-week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Bed rest promotes net resorption of bone, shifting calcium from bone to soft tissues, blood and urine. The calcium isotope composition of patients in this study shifted toward lighter values during bed rest, consistent with net resorption of isotopically

  8. The effects of ronacaleret, a calcium-sensing receptor antagonist, on bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A; Dabrowski, Christine E; Cicconetti, Gregory; Gordon, David N; Papapoulos, Socrates; Bone, Henry G; Bilezikian, John P

    2011-08-01

    Ronacaleret, a calcium-sensing receptor antagonist that stimulates PTH release from the parathyroid glands, was evaluated as an oral osteoanabolic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis. Our objective was to compare the effects of ronacaleret, teriparatide, and alendronate on bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone turnover. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial, spine and hip BMD were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone turnover markers were measured. Patients included 569 postmenopausal women with low BMD. Subjects were offered open-label 20 μg teriparatide sc once daily or were randomized to 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg oral ronacaleret once daily, 70 mg alendronate once weekly, or placebo and were followed for up to 12 months. Percentage change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD was assessed at month 12. With ronacaleret, the increases in lumbar spine BMD at 12 months (0.3-1.6%) were significantly lower than those attained with teriparatide (9.1%) or alendronate (4.5%). There were small decreases in total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter BMD at month 12 with ronacaleret compared with increases in the teriparatide and alendronate arms. Bone turnover markers increased in the ronacaleret and teriparatide arms and decreased in the alendronate arm. PTH elevations with ronacaleret were prolonged relative to those previously reported with teriparatide. The densitometric findings in the context of prolonged PTH elevation and increased bone turnover suggest ronacaleret induces mild hyperparathyroidism. Ronacaleret only modestly increased lumbar spine BMD and decreased BMD at hip sites.

  9. Mineralization of Synthetic Polymer Scaffolds: A Bottom-upApproach for the Development of Artificial Bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie; Viengkham, Malathong; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2004-09-27

    The controlled integration of organic and inorganic components confers natural bone with superior mechanical properties. Bone biogenesis is thought to occur by templated mineralization of hard apatite crystals by an elastic protein scaffold, a process we sought to emulate with synthetic biomimetic hydrogel polymers. Crosslinked polymethacrylamide and polymethacrylate hydrogels were functionalized with mineral-binding ligands and used to template the formation of hydroxyapatite. Strong adhesion between the organic and inorganic materials was achieved for hydrogels functionalized with either carboxylate or hydroxy ligands. The mineral-nucleating potential of hydroxyl groups identified here broadens the design parameters for synthetic bone-like composites and suggests a potential role for hydroxylated collagen proteins in bone mineralization.

  10. Bone mineral density and fractures after surgical menopause : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, I. E.; Teixeira, N.; Abma, E. M.; Slart, R. H. J. A.; Mourits, M. J. E.; de Bock, G. H.

    Background Oophorectomy is recommended for women at increased risk for ovarian cancer. When performed at premenopausal age oophorectomy induces acute surgical menopause, with unwanted consequences. Objective To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence after surgical menopause.

  11. Stable Calcium Isotopes in Urine as a Biomarker of Bone Mineral Balance in Spaceflight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate whether the relationship between bone mineral balance (BMB) and changes in the natural isotope composition of...

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, possibilities for the correction of bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Mikhailovna Balabanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the causes of osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, including in autoimmune inflammation, during corticosteroid therapy. The role of bisphosphonates in correcting impaired bone mineral density in RA is shown.

  13. The changes of bone mineralization after parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przedlacki, J.; Nawrot, I.; Chudzinski, W.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes of bone demineralization in the patient after parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism. Bone mineralization was evaluated by Lunar DPX-L equipment in lumbar spine, femoral neck, radius and total skeleton area in 3 months intervals during 18 months period. Because of transient after surgical hypocalcemia she has received active metabolite of vitamin D - Alfacalcidolum during one year. After removal of parathyroid adenoma there was disappearance of clinical and biochemical signs of primary hyperparathyroidism. At the same time there was total normalization of bone mineral density in lumbar spine, femoral neck, ultradistal site of radius and total area. There was partial normalization of bone mineralization in radius shaft. The surgery of adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism with transient treatment with active metabolite of vitamin D is successful therapy of bone demineralization in this disease. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs

  14. Bone matrix mineralization is preserved during early perimenopausal stage in healthy women: a paired biopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, B M; Roschger, P; Blouin, S; Recker, R; Klaushofer, K

    2016-05-01

    Bone matrix mineralization based on quantitative backscatter electron imaging remained unchanged during the first year of menopause in paired transiliac biopsy samples from healthy women. This suggests that the reported early perimenopausal reductions in bone mineral density are caused by factors other than decreases in the degree of mineralization. It is unknown whether perimenopausal loss of bone mass is associated with a drop in bone matrix mineralization. For this purpose, we measured the bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) by quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI) in n = 17 paired transiliac bone biopsy samples at premenopausal baseline and 12 months after last menses (obtained at average ages of 49 ± 2 and 55 ± 2 years, respectively) in healthy women. For interpretation of BMDD outcomes, previously measured bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical and histomorphometric markers of bone turnover were revisited for the present biopsy cohort. Menopause significantly decreased BMD at the lumbar spine (-4.5 %) and femoral neck (-3.8 %), increased the fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (+60 %, all p  0.05). Mean calcium concentrations of cancellous (Cn.CaMean) and cortical bone (Ct.CaMean) were within normal range (p > 0.05 compared to established reference data). Ct.CaMean was significantly correlated with Cn.CaMean before (R = 0.81, p mineralized tissue (Ct.Po.) after menopause (R = -0.57, p = 0.02). Surprisingly, the BMDD was found not affected by the changes in bone turnover rates in this cohort. This suggests that the substantial increase in bone formation rates took place shortly before the second biopsy, and the bone mineralization changes lag behind. We conclude that during the first year after the last menses, the degree of bone matrix mineralization is preserved and does not contribute to the observed reductions in BMD.

  15. Bone mineral density and mammographic density in Mexican women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseson, Heidi; Rice, Megan S.; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Torres, Gabriela; Blanco, Margarita; Tamayo-Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Lajous, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is a putative marker for lifetime exposure to estrogen. Studies that have explored whether BMD is a determinant of mammographic density (MD) have observed inconsistent results. Therefore, we examined this potential association in a sample of women (N=1,516) from the clinical sub-cohort in the Mexican Teachers’ Cohort (N=115,315). Methods We used multivariable linear regression to assess the association between quartiles of BMD and percent MD, as well as total dense and non-dense area of the breast, stratified by menopausal status. We also examined the associations by body mass index (BMI) (<30kg/m2,, ≥30kg/m2). Results Overall, there was no association between BMD and MD among premenopausal women. However, when we stratified by BMI, there was a modest inverse association between BMD and percent MD (difference between extreme quartiles= −2.8, 95%CI: −5.9, 0.27, p-trend=0.04) among women with BMI <30 kg/m2, but a positive association among obese women (comparable difference=5.1, 95%CI: 0.02, 10.1, p-trend=0.03; p-interaction<0.01). Among postmenopausal women, BMD and percent MD were positively associated after adjustment for BMI (p-trend<0.01). Postmenopausal women in the highest two quartiles of BMD had 4–5 percentage point higher percent MD compared to women in the lowest quartile. The association did not differ by BMI in postmenopausal women (p-interaction=0.76). Conclusion Among obese premenopausal women as well as postmenopausal women, BMD was positively associated with percent MD. Among leaner premenopausal women, BMD and percent MD were modestly inversely associated. These findings support the hypothesis that cumulative exposure to estrogen (as measured by BMD) may influence MD. PMID:26463740

  16. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea and bone mineral density in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefania Mariani,1 Daniela Fiore,1 Laura Varone,2 Sabrina Basciani,1 Agnese Persichetti,1 Mikiko Watanabe,1 Maurizio Saponara,3 Giovanni Spera,1 Costanzo Moretti,4 Lucio Gnessi11Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Physiopathology and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 3Department of Otolaryngology, Audiology and Phonation, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of System Medicine, Section of Reproductive Endocrinology University of TorVergata, Fatebenefratelli Hospital "San Giovanni Calibita" Rome, ItalyContext: Obesity and its co-morbidities may adversely affect bone mineral density (BMD. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a major complication of obesity. To date, the effects of OSA on BMD in obese patients have been poorly studied.Objective: To examine whether the severity of OSA independently correlates with BMD in obese patients.Methods: One hundred and fifteen obese subjects with OSA (Apnea/Hypopnea Index [AHI] ≥5 events per hour were included in the study. BMD was measured at lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index, lean mass, and representative measures of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammation (ESR, CRP, fibrinogen were also evaluated.Results: BMD did not differ among obese individuals regardless of OSA severity. Correlation coefficient analysis for all the covariates showed a lack of association between AHI and BMD that was strongly influenced by age and weight.Conclusion: Our study does not support an independent association between AHI and BMD in obese patients. Controlled studies involving a greater number of patients are warranted.Keywords: obesity, polysomnography, metabolic syndrome

  18. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  19. Bone mineral density and inflammatory bowel disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Lima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD. In this study, the association between disease severity and BMD in patients with IBD was evaluated. Associations between BMD and the Montreal classification, disease activity and drug therapy were also tested. A cross-sectional prevalence study with a comparison group was conducted. One hundred and twenty-eight patients were evaluated: 68 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC, and 60 with Crohn's disease (CD. The control group consisted of 67 healthy subjects. All patients and controls had BMD measured and in IBD patients, current medications, hospitalization, and disease location, extent and phenotype, according to the Montreal classification, were recorded. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied to evaluate categorical variables. In the CD group, most patients were diagnosed between 17–40 years of age. Ileocolonic and non-stricturing non-penetrating disease were the most frequent disease location and behavior, respectively. In UC patients, extensive colitis was the most frequent disease location. UC and CD patients were more likely to have osteopenia than controls (OR=14.93/OR=24.38, respectively. In the CD group, male patients, perianal disease, penetrating behavior and age at diagnosis >40 years were associated with low BMD. Taking azathioprine and infliximab also seemed to be associated with osteopenia. In the UC group, we observed an association between low BMD and male patients, left colitis, corticosteroid use and hospitalization. Disease activity was not associated with osteopenia or osteoporosis in CD and UC patients. Disease severity seems to be associated with osteopenia in IBD patients.

  20. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Hideki Ito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art. Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063], while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223] and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]. Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents.

  1. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. PMID:27017002

  2. [Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa Junior, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. PTH(1-84) Administration in Hypoparathyroidism Transiently Reduces Bone Matrix Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, Barbara M.; Roschger, Paul; Dempster, David W; Zhou, Hua; Bilezikian, John P; Klaushofer, Klaus; Rubin, Mishaela R

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hypoparathyroidism have low circulating parathyroid (PTH) levels and higher cancellous bone volume and trabecular thickness. Treatment with PTH(1-84) was shown to increase abnormally low bone remodeling dynamics. In this work, we studied the effect of 1yr or 2yr PTH(1-84) treatment on cancellous and cortical bone mineralization density distribution (Cn. and Ct.BMDD) based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) in paired transiliac bone biopsy samples. The study cohort comprised 30 adult hypoparathyroid patients (14 treated for 1yr/16 treated for 2yr). At baseline, Cn.BMDD was shifted to higher mineralization densities in both treatment groups (average degree of mineralization Cn.CaMean +3.9% and +2.7%, p<0.001) compared to reference BMDD. After 1yr PTH(1-84), Cn.CaMean was significantly lower than that at baseline (-6.3%, p<0.001), while in the 2yr PTH(1-84) group Cn.CaMean did not differ from baseline. Significant changes of Ct.BMDD were observed in the 1yr treatment group only. The change in histomorphometric bone formation (mineralizing surface) was predictive for Cn.BMDD outcomes in the 1yr PTH(1-84) group, but not in the 2yr PTH(1-84) group. Our findings suggest higher baseline bone matrix mineralization consistent with the decreased bone turnover in hypoparathyroidism. PTH(1-84) treatment caused differential effects dependent on treatment duration which were consistent with the histomorphometric bone formation outcomes. The greater increase in bone formation during the first yr of treatment was associated with a decrease in bone matrix mineralization, suggesting that PTH(1-84) exposure to the hypoparathyroid skeleton has the greatest effects on BMDD early in treatment. PMID:26111772

  4. Evaluation of bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cemlyn-Jones

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF have an increasing life span and osteoporosis has become a more recognised problem in these patients. The pathogenesis of low bone mineral density (BMD in CF seems to be multifactorial and the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of low BMD in a group of CF outpatients and to relate the findings with the variables studied.The study included 22 patients aged between 14 and 45 years (mean age 26.3. Two of the subjects were lung transplant patients. BMD was assessed by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN. This data was correlated with serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD levels, BMI and the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.BMD (Z-score and T-score ranged from 0.6 to -6 and from 0.5 to -6.7 at LS; at FN the scores ranged from 0.6 to -3.9 and from 0.6 to -4.1. The mean serum 25-OHD concentration (12,57 ng/ml was at the low end of the normal range (10-60 ng/ml. On average patients did not present with malnutrition, however BMI ranged from 15.2 to 33.7 kg/m2. Lung function status was assessed by FEV1; 64% of patients had FEV1 below 80% and within this group four patients had a FEV1 under 40%.There was a positive correlation between low BMD and 25-OHD concentrations and also between BMD and FEV1. There was no linear correlation between BMD and BMI. Resumo: A esperança de vida dos doentes com fibrose quística (FQ tem vindo a aumentar, sendo mais frequente a identificação de osteoporose. A patogénese de uma baixa densidade mineral óssea (DMO na FQ parece ser multifactorial e o objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a prevalência de baixa DMO num grupo de doentes com FQ e a sua correlação com outros parâmetros avaliados.O estudo incluiu 22 doentes com FQ com idades compreendidas entre os 14 e os 45 anos (média 26,3, dois dos quais transplantados pulmonares. A DMO foi avaliada por densitometria óssea ao nível da coluna lombar e do colo do f

  5. Optimal management of bone mineral disorders in chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Andrew L; Nigwekar, Sagar U

    2016-03-01

    The review summarizes recent studies on chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders, with a focus on new developments in disease management. The term chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder has come to describe an increasingly complex network of alterations in minerals and skeletal disorders that contribute to the significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in patients with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. Clinical studies continue to suggest associations with clinical outcomes, yet current clinical trials have failed to support causality. Variability in practice exists as current guidelines for management of mineral bone disorders are often based on weak evidence. Recent studies implicate novel pathways for therapeutic intervention in clinical trials. Mineral bone disorders in chronic kidney disease arise from alterations in a number of molecules in an increasingly complex physiological network interconnecting bone and the cardiovascular system. Despite extensive associations with improved outcomes in a number of molecules, clinical trials have yet to prove causality and there is an absence of new therapies available to improve patient outcomes. Additional clinical trials that can incorporate the complexity of mineral bone disorders, and with the ability to intervene on more than one pathway, are needed to advance patient care.

  6. Forearm Fractures in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Colaris (Joost)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The forearm consists of the radius and ulna which are connected by the proximal and distal radioulnar joints, the interosseous membrane and several muscles. Forearm rotation, consisting of pronation and supination, is a rotatory motion of the radius around the ulna

  7. Effect of Diet on Bone Mineral Density in Peri-and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Dinç

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the determinants of osteoporosis in elderly, nutritional factors play a significant role. In a cross-sectional study the effects of several nutritional factors on bone mineral density were investigated in 44 women aged over 40 years. Nineteen premenopausal and twenty five postmenopausal women were enrolled the study. Subjects were instructed to keep seven-day nutritional record. Bone mineral density measurements were performed with DXA, and laboratory investigations related to bone metabolism were undertaken. Daily protein, fat, carbohydrate, total energy, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, zinc and vitamin C intakes were analysed by a nutritional analysis program. The associations between daily dietary intakes of this nutritional components and bone mineral density were investigated. The daily protein, fat, carbohydrate, total energy, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, zinc and vitamin C intakes were not correlated significantly with lumbar and hip bone mineral density. Lumbar bone mineral density was correlated with age. There was no significant association between daily protein or sodium intake and urinary calcium excretion. The results suggest that the manifestation of osteoporosis in women is influenced to a greater extent by age and years since menopause than by the distribution of nutritional factors in normal mixed diet. However, further studies with larger series are essential to evaluate the role of dietary composition on the manifestation of osteoporosis and bone metabolism.

  8. On the pathway of mineral deposition in larval zebrafish caudal fin bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva, Anat; Malkinson, Guy; Masic, Admir; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Bennet, Mathieu; Fratzl, Peter; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve; Yaniv, Karina

    2015-06-01

    A poorly understood aspect of bone biomineralization concerns the mechanisms whereby ions are sequestered from the environment, concentrated, and deposited in the extracellular matrix. In this study, we follow mineral deposition in the caudal fin of the zebrafish larva in vivo. Using fluorescence and cryo-SEM-microscopy, in combination with Raman and XRF spectroscopy, we detect the presence of intracellular mineral particles located between bones, and in close association with blood vessels. Calcium-rich particles are also located away from the mineralized bone, and these are also in close association with blood vessels. These observations challenge the view that mineral formation is restricted to osteoblast cells juxtaposed to bone, or to the extracellular matrix. Our results, derived from observations performed in living animals, contribute a new perspective to the comprehensive mechanism of bone formation in vertebrates, from the blood to the bone. More broadly, these findings may shed light on bone mineralization processes in other vertebrates, including humans. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Unique micro- and nano-scale mineralization pattern of human osteogenesis imperfecta type VI bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Schmidt, Ingo; Roschger, Paul; Roschger, Andreas; Glorieux, Francis H; Klaushofer, Klaus; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Rauch, Frank; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inheritable connective tissue disorders characterized by mutation in genes involved in collagen synthesis and leading to increased bone fragility, low bone mass, impaired bone material properties and abnormally high bone matrix mineralization. Recessive OI type VI is caused by mutation in SERPINF1 leading to a loss-of-function of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) a collagen-binding protein with potent antiangiogenic activity. Affected patients develop a severe OI phenotype with a striking histological characteristic, rare in other OI types, of an excess of osteoid tissue and prolonged mineralization lag time. To get insights into matrix mineralization, we evaluated biopsies from 9 affected children by quantitative and by high-resolution backscattered electron imaging and assessed bone mineralization density distribution. Thickness, shape and arrangement of mineral particles were measured in a subset of 4 patients by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering. Typical calcium content in the bone matrix was found to be increased compared to controls, even exceeding values found previously in OI patients with collagen-gene mutations. A main characteristic however, is the coexistence of this highly mineralized bone matrix with seams showing abnormally low mineral content. Atypical collagen fibril organization was found in the perilacunar region of young osteocytes, suggesting a disturbance in the early steps of mineralization. These observations are consistent with the presence of a heterogeneous population of mineral particles with unusual size, shape and arrangement, especially in the region with lower mineral content. The majority of the particles in the highly mineralized bone areas were less disorganized, but smaller and more densely packed than in controls and in previously measured OI patients. These data suggest that the lack of PEDF impairs a proper osteoblast-osteocyte transition and consequently

  10. Study of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders in newly detected advanced renal failure patients: A Hospital-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Etta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to evaluate the disturbances in mineral metabolism, abnormalities in bone mineral density (BMD, and extraskeletal calcification in newly detected, untreated predialysis stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD patients at a tertiary care hospital in North India. This is cross-sectional observational study. A total of 95 (68 males, 27 females newly detected patients underwent clinical evaluation, biochemical assessment [serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin, creatinine, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD], BMD measurement (at spine, hip, and forearm by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, lateral abdominal radiograph [for abdominal aortic calcification (AAC], skeletal survey (to look for any abnormality including fractures, and echocardiography [for any cardiac valvular calcification (CVC]. Symptoms related to CKD-mineral bone disorder were seen in 33.6% of the study patients. Prevalence of hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and hypovitaminosis D was 64.2%, 81.1%, 49.5%, and 89.5%, respectively. CVC was seen in 22.1% of patients on echocardiography, mostly involving the mitral valve. Patients with CVC were more likely to be males and smokers. There was no significant difference in iPTH levels between patients with or without CVC. AAC was seen in 10.5% of patients on lateral abdominal X-ray. Patients with AAC had higher levels of iPTH, phosphorus, and ALP and lower levels of calcium compared to patients without AAC. BMD by DXA showed a low bone mass in 41.05% of our patients and was more prevalent in CKD stage 5. Most of the study patients had hyperparathyroidism and low 25(OHD levels. Our study shows that newly detected, naïve Indian CKD patients have a high prevalence of disturbances of mineral metabolism including hyperparathyroidism, Vitamin D deficiency, abnormal BMD, and valvular and vascular calcification, even before initiating dialysis.

  11. The effect of enamel matrix proteins and deproteinized bovine bone mineral on heterotopic bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Nikolaos; Kostopoulos, Lambros; Tonetti, Maurizio; Karring, Thorkild; Lang, Niklaus P

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the osteoinductive potential of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in the muscle of rats. Sixteen rats were used in this study. The animals were divided in three groups. Group A: a pouch was created in one of the pectoralis profundis muscles of the thorax of the rats and DBBM particles (Bio-Oss) were placed into the pouch. Healing: 60 days. Group B: a small pouch was created on both pectoralis profundis muscles at each side of the thorax midline. In one side, a mixture of EMD (Emdogain) mixed with DBBM was placed into one of the pouches, whereas in the contralateral side of the thorax the pouch was implanted with DBBM mixed with the propylene glycol alginate (PGA--carrier for enamel matrix proteins of EMD). Healing: 60 days. Group C: the same procedure as group B, but with a healing period of 120 days. Qualitative histological analysis of the results was performed. At 60 days, the histological appearance of the DBBM particles implanted alone was similar to that of the particles implanted together with EMD or PGA at both 60 and 120 days. The DBBM particles were encapsulated into a connective tissue stroma and an inflammatory infiltrate. At 120 days, the DBBM particles implanted together with EMD or PGA exhibited the presence of resorption lacunae in some cases. Intramuscular bone formation was not encountered in any group. The implantation of DBBM particles alone, combined with EMD or its carrier (PGA) failed to exhibit extraskeletal, bone-inductive properties.

  12. Allelic determinants of vitamin d insufficiency, bone mineral density, and bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummer, Olivia; Schwetz, Verena; Walter-Finell, Daniela; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Renner, Wilfried; Gugatschka, Markus; Dobnig, Harald; Pieber, Thomas R; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2012-07-01

    Low 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH) vitamin D] status is known to play an important role in many diseases with focus on bone health. Based on recently reported genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency, we aimed to analyze genetic variants of group-specific component (GC), 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), and cytochrome P450IIR-1 (CYP2R1) for association with vitamin D levels, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone fractures. We conducted a cross-sectional BMD and fracture study and a prospective cohort study. The cross-sectional study comprised participants of a BMD screening study, and the prospective cohort study comprised nursing home subjects. The cross-sectional study included 342 subjects (mean age, 55.3 ± 12.0 yr), and the prospective study included 1093 subjects (mean age, 84.0 ± 6.0 yr). Patients were stratified by GC, DHCR7, and CYP2R1 genotypes. For each gene, the allele associated with lower 25(OH) vitamin D levels was designated as "risk allele." The potential role of these risk alleles in fracture risk was analyzed by logistic regression analysis including age and sex as confounders. We measured BMD and fractures. GC genotypes were significantly associated with lower mean 25(OH) vitamin D levels in both cohorts (P = 0.001 and P = 0.048, respectively). There was no significant association of BMD with any of the genotypes. None of the alleles was associated with past fractures, whereas the DHCR7 G-allele was significantly associated with prospective fractures (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.92; P = 0.011). The DHCR7 gene polymorphism may be a predictor for fracture risk.

  13. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl C; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone – Validation of large animal model for tissue engineering and biomaterial research Ming Ding,1* Carl Christian Danielsen,2 Søren Overgaard1 1Orthopaedic Research Laboratory...... by glucocorticoid treatment and the changes in properties of cancellous bone were comparable with those observed in humans after long-term glucocorticoid treatment. However, the influence on cortical bone has not been thoroughly elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the influence of glucocorticoid on sheep...... cortical bone after long-term treatment. Specifically, we quantify the microarchitecture, mechanical properties, collagen and mineral quality of sheep cortical bone. We hypothesized that glucocorticoid treatment also had significant influences on cortical bone that might increase risk of fracture...

  14. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  15. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  16. The effect of a 12-week exercise programme on bone mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A longer lifespan has increased the emphasis on bone health, which is often compromised with age. Studies have shown that exercise yields a positive influence on bone mineral density (BMD), especially when done during the early years of life (second to third decades). A 12-week study was undertaken using ...

  17. Mineralization behavior and interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composite implants in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanxuan; Zheng, Yudong; Huang, Xiaoshan; Xi, Tingfei; Lin, Xiaodan; Han, Dongfei; Song, Wenhui

    2010-04-01

    Due to the non-bioactivity and poor conjunction performance of present cartilage prostheses, the main work here is to develop the bioactive glass-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel articular cartilage/bone (BG-PVA/bone) composite implants. The essential criterion for a biomaterial to bond with living bone is well-matched mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility and bioactivity. In vitro studies on the formation of a surface layer of carbonate hydroxyl apatite (HCA) and the corresponding variation of the properties of biomaterials are imperative for their clinical application. In this paper, the mineralization behavior and variation of the interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composites were studied in vitro by using simulated body fluid (SBF). The mineralization and HCA layer formed on the interface between the BG-PVA hydrogel and bone in SBF could provide the composites with bioactivity and firmer combination. The compression property, shear strength and interface morphology of BG-PVA/bone composite implants varying with the immersion time in SBF were characterized. Also, the influence laws of the immersion time, content of BG in the composites and aperture of bones to the mineralization behavior and interface properties were investigated. The good mineralization behavior and enhanced conjunction performance of BG-PVA/bone composites demonstrated that this kind of composite implant might be more appropriate cartilage replacements.

  18. Bone mineral density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone stock postoperatively. Bone mineral density (BMD) may be affected by the hip position, which might bias longitudinal studies. We investigated the dependency of BMD precision on type of ROI and hip position....

  19. Magnesium deficiency: effect on bone mineral density in the mouse appendicular skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Barbara G

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary magnesium (Mg deficiency in the mouse perturbs bone and mineral homeostasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density of the femur in control and Mg-deficient mice. Methods BALB/c mice aged 28 days at study initiation were maintained on a normal or Mg deficient (0.0002% Mg diet, and at time points 0, 2, 4 or 6 weeks bones were harvested for bone mineral density analysis. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT was used to assess the trabecular metaphyseal compartment and the cortical midshaft. Results Although mean total bone density of the femoral midshaft in Mg deficient mice did not differ significantly from controls throughout the study, the trabecular bone compartment showed significantly decreased mineral content after 4 (p Conclusions This study demonstrates the profound effect of Mg depletion on the trabecular compartment of bone, which, with its greater surface area and turnover, was more responsive to Mg depletion than cortical bone in the appendicular skeleton of the mouse.

  20. Bone mineral density and body composition in adolescents with failure to thrive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Sacchetto de Andrade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bone mineral mass in adolescents with failure to thrive in relation to body composition. Methods: A case-control study involving 126 adolescents (15 to 19 years, in final puberty maturation being 76 eutrophic and 50 with failure to thrive (genetic or constitutional delay of growth, of matching ages, gender and pubertal maturation. The weight, height and calculated Z score for height/age and body mass index; bone mineral content, bone mineral density and adjusted bone mineral density were established for total body, lower back and femur; total fat-free mass and height-adjusted fat-free mass index, total fat mass and height-adjusted. The statistical analyses were performed using the Student’s t-test (weight, height and body composition; Mann-Whitney test (bone mass and multiple linear regression (bone mass determinants. Results: weight, height and height/age Z-score were significantly higher among eutrophic subjects. Both groups did not show statistically significant differences for fat mass, percentage of fat mass, total fat mass height adjusted and fat-free mass index height sadjusted. However, total free fat maass was smaller for the failure to thrive group. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference for bone mass measurements among adolescents with failure to thrive; however, the factors that determine bone mass formation should be better studied due to the positive correlation with free fat mass detected in these individuals.

  1. Mineral metabolism and bone abnormalities in children with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Cheryl P

    2008-06-01

    Abnormalities in mineral metabolism and changes in skeletal histology may contribute to growth impairment in children with chronic renal failure. Hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis, alterations in vitamin D and IGF synthesis and parathyroid gland dysfunction play significant roles in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism and subsequently, bone disease in renal failure. The recent KDIGO conference has made recommendations to consider this as a systemic disorder (chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder) and to standardize bone histomorphometry to include bone turnover, mineralization and volume (TMV). The use of DXA to assess bone mass is controversial in children with chronic renal failure. Questions arise regarding the accuracy of bone measurements and difficulty in data interpretation especially in children with renal failure who are not only growth retarded but often have pubertal delay and osteosclerosis. The validity and feasibility of new modalities of skeletal imaging which can detect changes in both trabecular and cortical bone are currently being investigated in children. The management of mineral abnormalities and bone disease in chronic renal failure is multifactorial. To manage hyperphosphatemia, dietary phosphate restriction accompanied by intake of calcium-free and metal-free phosphate binding agents are widely utilized. Vitamin D analogs remain the primary therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism, although the use of the less hypercalcemic agents is preferred due to concerns of calciphylaxis and vascular calcification. Future clinical studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of calcimimetic agents and bisphosphonate therapy in children with chronic renal failure.

  2. Enzymatic mineralization of hydrogels for bone tissue engineering by incorporation of alkaline phosphatase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, T.E.L.; Messersmith, P.B.; Chasan, S.; Mikos, A.G.; Mulder, E.L.W. de; Dickson, G.; Schaubroeck, D.; Balcaen, L.; Vanhaecke, F.; Dubruel, P.; Jansen, J.A.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in mineralization of bone, is incorporated into three hydrogel biomaterials to induce their mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP). These are collagen type I, a mussel-protein-inspired adhesive consisting of PEG substituted with catechol groups,

  3. Normal values for bone mineral content measured by dual photon absorptiometry in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, F.; Lecouffe, P.; Rousseau, J.; Marchandise, X.; Ythier, H.

    1990-01-01

    The results of dual photon absorptiometry measurements in 43 normal children are analyzed. Results were correlated with age, body weight, and stature. Reference stature-specific values for bone mineral content in children are proposed. Furthermore, the results show that mineralization continues beyond the end of statural growth [fr

  4. The Effect Of Body Mass Index On Bone Mineral Density In Postmenopausal Women - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Yanık

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to determine the relationship between bone mineral density and body mass index in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods: 54 postmenopausal women were included in the study. Age and time of menopause were recorded. Smoking, alcohol and exercise status were also recorded. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. The patients were separated into four groups according to their body mass index, as underweight, ideal weight, over-weight and obese. Bone mineral density in all the patients was assessed via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry from antero-posterior lumbar and right proximal femoral regions. For L2-4 and the femoral neck, bone mineral density and t scores were determined. Results: The study was performed in 54 postmenopausal women, ranging in age from 51 to 79 years. 22 (%40.8 of the patients were obese, 24 (%44.4 were overweight and 8 (%14.8 had ideal weight. There were no patients in underweight group. There were no difference in age, smoking, time of menopause, bone mineral density and t-scores among the groups. There was statistically significant correlation between body mass index and bone mineral density of the femoral neck (r =0.407, p=0.002, and femoral neck t-scores (r =0.297, p=0.029. There was no significant correlation between the body mass index and lumbar bone mineral density and lumbar t-scores (p >0.05. Conclusion: Body mass index was found to be related to bone mineral density of the femoral neck. Our findings suggest that maintenance of adequate body mass is important for the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:56-9

  5. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with 45 Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total 45 Ca content and 45 Ca/dry and 45 Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region (-36 to -46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss

  6. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  7. Longitudinal bone mineral content and density in Rett syndrome and their contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Amanda; Fyfe, Sue; Downs, Jenny; Woodhead, Helen; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Bone mass and density are low in females with Rett syndrome. This study used Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to measure annual changes in z-scores for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in the lumbar spine and total body in an Australian Rett syndrome cohort at baseline and then after three to four years. Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated in the lumbar spine. Annual changes in lean tissue mass (LTM) and bone area (BA) were also assessed. The effects of age, genotype, mobility, menstrual status and epilepsy diagnosis on these parameters were also investigated. The baseline sample included 97 individuals who were representative of the total live Australian Rett syndrome population under 30years in 2005 (n=274). Of these 74 had a follow-up scan. Less than a quarter of females were able to walk on their own at follow-up. Bone area and LTM z-scores declined over the time between the baseline and follow-up scans. Mean height-standardised z-scores for the bone outcomes were obtained from multiple regression models. The lumbar spine showed a positive mean annual BMAD z-score change (0.08) and a marginal decrease in aBMD (-0.04). The mean z-score change per annum for those 'who could walk unaided' was more positive for LS BMAD (p=0.040). Total body BMD mean annual z-score change from baseline to follow-up was negative (-0.03). However this change was positive in those who had achieved menses prior to the study (0.03, p=0,040). Total body BMC showed the most negative change (-0.60), representing a decrease in bone mineral content over time. This normalised to a z-score change of 0.21 once adjusted for the reduced lean tissue mass mean z-score change (-0.21) and bone area mean z-score change (-0.14). Overall, the bone mineral content, bone mineral density, bone area and lean tissue mass z-scores for all outcome measures declined, with the TB BMC showing significant decreases. Weight, height and muscle mass appear to have

  8. Relationship between mechanical properties and bone mineral density of human femoral bone retrieved from patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Lindner, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schiebenhöfer, Ann-Kristin; Souffrant, Robert; Kluess, Daniel; Skripitz, Ralf; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse retrieved human femoral bone samples using three different test methods, to elucidate the relationship between bone mineral density and mechanical properties. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 22 donors undergoing primary total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis and stored for a maximum of 24 hours postoperatively at + 6 °C to 8 °C.Analysis revealed an average structural modulus of 232±130 N/mm(2) and ultimate compression strength of 6.1±3.3 N/mm(2) with high standard deviations. Bone mineral densities of 385±133 mg/cm(2) and 353±172 mg/cm(3) were measured using thedual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. Ashing resulted in a bone mineral density of 323±97 mg/cm(3). In particular, significant linear correlations were found between DXA and ashing with r = 0.89 (p < 0.01, n = 22) and between structural modulus and ashing with r = 0.76 (p < 0.01, n = 22).Thus, we demonstrated a significant relationship between mechanical properties and bone density. The correlations found can help to determine the mechanical load capacity of individual patients undergoing surgical treatments by means of noninvasive bone density measurements.

  9. Self-reported ballet classes undertaken at age 10-12 years and hip bone mineral density in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K M; Bennell, K L; Hopper, J L; Flicker, L; Nowson, C A; Sherwin, A J; Crichton, K J; Harcourt, P R; Wark, J D

    1998-01-01

    The major effect of weightbearing exercise on adult bone mass may be exerted during childhood. We examined the relationship between reported hours of ballet classes per week undertaken as a child and adult bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip, spine, and forearm. We performed a retrospective cohort study in 99 female retired dancers (mean age 51 years, SD 14 years) and 99 normal controls, derived from a twin study, matched hierarchically for age, height, weight and menopausal status. Starting age of ballet was recalled and weekly hours of ballet as a child was self-reported on two occasions. BMD was measured using dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry and reported as a Z-score. Self-reported hours of ballet class undertaken per week at each age between 10 and 12 years was positively associated with a difference in BMD between dancers and controls at both the femoral neck site (beta = 0.73, p = 0.001) and the total hip site (beta = 0.55, p ballet), measures of menstrual disturbance (age of menarche, history of irregular menses), dietary history (calcium intake as a child, adolescent or adult) or lifestyle factors (lifetime smoking, lifetime alcohol). Although starting age of ballet was negatively associated with weight-adjusted within-pair hip BMD difference, it was no longer associated after adjustment for weekly hours of ballet. There was no relationship between hours of ballet undertaken as a child and differences in BMD at the lumbar spine or upper limb, at any age. Our data suggest that classical ballet classes undertaken between the ages of 10 and 12 years are independently and positively associated with a difference in hip BMD between dancers and controls. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this age range identifies a stage of development when the proximal femur is particularly responsive to weightbearing exercise.

  10. Quantitative determination of bone mineral content (QCT) - intercomparison of computer tomographs of the same construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, R.; Banzer, D.; Felsenberg, D.; Wolf, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    An intercomparison of 4 CT scanners of the same manufacturer was performed. The bone mineral content of 11 lumbar vertebral columns removed directly post mortem was determined in a specially constructed lucite-water phantom. Even devices of the same construction were shown to yield a variation in the quantitative evaluation markedly exceeding the annual physiological mineral loss. As long as scanner adjustment by physical calibration phantoms has not yet been established, a course assessment and therapy control of bone mineral content should always be carried out on the same QCT scanner. (orig.) [de

  11. DOES BONE MINERAL DENSITY CHANGE IN EARLY AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of osteoporosis (OP and the mechanism  of its development in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and other spondyloarthrititides (SpA have not been sufficiently investigated. Steady-state  inflammatory disease activity is anticipated  to be the leading factor of OP in AS.Objective: to investigate lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN  bone mineral density (BMD  in patients with early axial SpA (axSpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. A total of 150 patients (59 men and 91 women aged 18 to 45 years with inflammatory back pain for ≥3 months and ≤5 years were examined. The diagnosis of axSpA was established in accordance  with the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP were used to assess activity and functional status was evaluated with BASFI. The examination  included determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI  of the sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their involvement,  and densitometry of LS (LI–IV  and FN. By taking into account the patients’ young age, the Z score was used to estimate BMD. The Z-score -2 SD or lower in at the least one of the regions examined is considered to be diminished BMD. Results and discussion. The median Z-score was -0.7 [-1.3; -0.2] SD for FN and -0.9 [-1.6; -0.6] SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at the least one of the regions examined was diagnosed in 27 (18.0% patients. There was lower BMD in LS in 21 (14.0% patients and in FN in 8 (5.3%. Two (1.3% patients were diagnosed as having osteopenia in the two examined regions. There was no association between diminished BMD and age, gender, disease activity assessed with BASDAI, ASDAS-СRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP. An association was found between inflammatory LS changes, as evidenced by MRI (MRI spondylitis, and reduced BMD in at least one of the examined regions. MRI

  12. Genetic determinant of trabecular bone score (TBS) and bone mineral density: A bivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Hans, Didier; Doan, Minh C; Mai, Linh D; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to estimate the extent of genetic influence on the variation in trabecular bone score (TBS). We found that genetic factors accounted for ~45% of variance in TBS, and that the co-variation between TBS and bone density is partially determined by genetic factors. Trabecular bone score has emerged as an important predictor of fragility fracture, but factors underlying the individual differences in TBS have not been explored. In this study, we sought to determine the genetic contribution to the variation of TBS in the general population. The study included 556 women and 189 men from 265 families. The individuals aged 53years (SD 11). We measured lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD; Hologic Horizon) and then derived the TBS from the same Hologic scan where BMD was derived. A biometric model was applied to the data to partition the variance of TBS into two components: one due to additive genetic factors, and one due to environmental factors. The index of heritability was estimated as the ratio of genetic variance to total variance of a trait. Bivariate genetic analysis was conducted to estimate the genetic correlation between TBS and BMD measurements. TBS was strongly correlated with lumbar spine BMD (r=0.73; P<0.001). On average TBS in men was higher than women, after adjusting age and height which are significantly associated with both TBS and lumbar spine BMD. The age and height adjusted index of heritability of TBS was 0.46 (95% CI, 0.39-0.54), which was not much different from that of LSBMD (0.44; 95% CI, 0.31-0.55). Moreover, the genetic correlation between TBS and LSBMD was 0.35 (95% CI, 0.21-0.46), between TBS and femoral neck BMD was 0.21 (95% CI, 0.10-0.33). Approximately 45% of the variance in TBS is under genetic influence, and this effect magnitude is similar to that of lumbar spine BMD. This finding provides a scientific justification for the search for specific genetic variants that may be associated with TBS and fracture risk

  13. Effects of Reproductive Factors on Bone Mineral Densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Yılmaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effects of reproductive factors on bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: A total of 1196 postmenopausal women with BMD (g/cm2 measurements at lumbar vertebra (LS and femur neck (FN were enrolled. Demographic, reproductive characteristics and Body Mass Index (BMI of patients were defined. In order to define BMD related factors, multiple regression analysis was employed. Results: Main results were as follows: mean age= 59.97±8.56 yrs; weight= 73.49±13.06 kg; BMI= 29.25±5.22kg/m², age of menarche= 14.00±1.64 yrs; number of deliveries 4.22±2.09; total breastfeeding duration= 60.77±38.80 months; number of breastfeeding per day= 8.23±3.91; menopausal age= 47.12±4.22 yrs; duration of menopause= 12.80±9.10 yrs; LS BMD= 0.993±0.171 gr/cm2; FN BMD 0.844±0.14 gr/cm2. There were negative correlations between LS BMD and FN BMD values and age, menopause duration, total breastfeeding duration, and number of breastfeeding per day. There were positive correlations between LS and FN BMD values, and weight and BMI scores. Additionally, there were negative correlations between LS and FN BMD values, and age of menarche and number of deliveries. In linear stage regression analysis, weight, number of breastfeeding per day, postmenopausal duration, duration of total breastfeeding and age of menarche were defined as the most significant predictors for LS BMD, whereas weight, postmenopausal duration and number of breastfeeding per day were defined as the most significant predictors for FN BMD. Conclusion: LS and FN BMD in postmenopausal women are related to reproductive factors, so reproductive factors should also be considered in the evaluation of risk factors in postmenopausal women. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18:8-12

  14. Bone mineral density in the chronic patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, J; Kannus, P; Natri, A; Sievänen, H; Järvinen, M; Vuori, I

    1998-06-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and clinical status of 40 patients with a chronic, unilateral patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) were determinated. The mean duration of the disease at the time of the follow-up was 7.6 +/- 1.8 (SD) years. The BMD was measured at the spine (L2-L4), and the femoral neck, trochanter area of the femur, distal femur, patella, proximal tibia, and calcaneus of both lower extremities using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) scanner. The mean BMD of the affected limb (compared with the unaffected side) was significantly lower in the distal femur (-3.3%; P = 0.002), patella (-2.5%; P = 0.016), and proximal tibia (-1.9%; P = 0.008). The femoral neck, trochanter area of the femur, and calcaneus showed no significant side-to-side differences, and the spinal BMDs of men and women with the PFPS were comparable with the manufacturer's age-adjusted reference values for Western European men and women. The relative BMDs of the affected knee showed strongest correlation with the muscle strength of the same knee: the better the muscle strength compared with the healthy knee, the higher the relative BMD (r = 0.56-0.58 with P < 0.001 in each anatomic site of the knee). In the stepwise regression analysis, low body weight or low body mass index, high level of physical activity, the patient's good subjective overall assessment of his/her affected knee, and short duration of the symptoms were also independent predictors of the high relative BMD in the affected knee so that along with the muscle strength these variables could account for 51% of the variation seen in the relative BMD of the femur, 61% in the patella, and 54% in the proximal tibia. In conclusion, chronic patellofemoral pain syndrome results in a significantly decreased BMD in the knee region of the affected limb. The spine, proximal femur, and calcaneus are not affected. Recovery of normal muscle strength and knee function seems to be of great importance for good BMD.

  15. Age-related changes in collagen properties and mineralization in cancellous and cortical bone in the porcine mandibular condyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, N.M.B.K.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Everts, V.; Mulder, L.; Grünheid, T.; Bank, R.A.; Zentner, A.; Eijden, T.M.G.J. van

    2010-01-01

    Collagen is an important constituent of bone, and it has been suggested that changes in collagen and mineral properties of bone are interrelated during growth. The aim of this study was to quantify age-related changes in collagen properties and the degree of mineralization of bone (DMB). The DMB in

  16. Maintenance of bone mineral density after implantation of a femoral neck hip prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decking, Ralf; Rokahr, Christoph; Zurstegge, Matthias; Simon, Ulrich; Decking, Jens

    2008-01-31

    Stress shielding of the proximal femur has been observed in a number of conventional cementless implants used in total hip arthroplasty. Short femoral-neck implants are claiming less interference with the biomechanics of the proximal femur. The goal of this study was to investigate the changes of bone-mineral density in the proximal femur and the clinical outcome after implantation of a short femoral-neck prosthesis. We prospectively assessed the clinical outcome and the changes of bone mineral density of the proximal femur up to one year after implantation of a short femoral neck prosthesis in 20 patients with a mean age of 47 years (range 17 to 65). Clinical outcome was assessed using the Harris Hip Score. The WOMAC was used as a patient-relevant outcome-measure. The bone mineral density was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, performed 10 days, three months and 12 months after surgery. The Harris Hip Score improved from an average preoperative score of 46 to a postoperative score at 12 months of 89 points, the global WOMAC index from 5,3 preoperatively to 0,8 at 12 months postoperatively. In contrast to conventional implants, the DEXA-scans overall revealed a slight increase of bone mineral density in the proximal femur in the 12 months following the implantation. The short femoral neck stem lead to a distinct bone reaction. This was significantly different when compared to the changes in bone mineral density reported after implantation of conventional implants.

  17. The effect of retained intramedullary nails on tibial bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J C; Lindsey, R W; Hipp, J A; Gugala, Z; Rianon, N; LeBlanc, A

    2008-07-01

    Intramedullary nailing has become a standard treatment for adult tibial shaft fractures. Retained intramedullary nails have been associated with stress shielding, although their long-term effect on decreasing tibial bone mineral density is currently unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if retained tibial intramedullary nails decrease tibial mineral density in patients with successfully treated fractures. Patients treated with statically locked intramedullary nails for isolated, unilateral tibia shaft fractures were studied. Inclusion required that fracture had healed radiographically and that the patient returned to the pre-injury activity level. Data on patient demographic, fracture type, surgical technique, implant, and post-operative functional status were tabulated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density in selected regions of the affected tibia and the contralateral intact tibia. Image reconstruction software was employed to ensure symmetry of the studied regions. Twenty patients (mean age 43; range 22-77 years) were studied at a mean of 29 months (range 5-60 months) following intramedullary nailing. There was statistically significant reduction of mean bone mineral density in tibiae with retained intramedullary nails (1.02 g/cm(2) versus 1.06 g/cm(2); P=0.04). A significantly greater decrease in bone mineral density was detected in the reamed versus non-reamed tibiae (-7% versus +6%, respectively; Pnails. Intramedullary reaming appears to be a factor potentiating the reduction of tibia bone mineral density in long-term nail retention.

  18. Bone mineral density and body composition before and during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in children with central precocious and early puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractMajor changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition occur during puberty. In the present longitudinal study, we evaluated BMD and calculated volumetric BMD [bone mineral apparent density (BMAD)], bone metabolism, and body composition of children

  19. Body composition and bone mineral density measurements by using a multi-energy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, L.

    2003-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a major technique to evaluate bone mineral density, thus allowing diagnosis of bone decalcification ( osteoporosis). Recently, this method has proved useful to quantify body composition (fat ratio). However, these measurements suffer from artefacts which can lead to diagnosis errors in a number of cases. This work has aimed to improve both the reproducibility and the accuracy of bone mineral density and body composition measurements. To this avail, the acquisition conditions were optimised in order to ameliorate the results reproducibility and we have proposed a new method to correct inaccuracies in the determination of bone mineral density. Experimental validations yield encouraging results on both synthetic phantoms and biological samples. (author)

  20. High bone mineral apparent density in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Brixen, K; Gram, J

    2013-01-01

    Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. Children with XLH also had significantly higher BMAD...... of the spine compared to femoral neck. INTRODUCTION: BMAD obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in children with XLH was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have the extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. METHODS: A total of 15...... children with biochemically and genetically verified XLH were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and to correct for the short stature (small bones), the BMAD of the spine and the femoral neck was evaluated. RESULTS: Z-scores of BMAD of the spine (mean (95 % CI); 2.0 (1.3-2.7); p ...

  1. Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickram Tejwani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD population is growing. Both aging and CKD can disrupt calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and cause alterations of multiple Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms, including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23/Klotho, calcium-sensing receptor and Ca2+-phosphate product. These alterations can be deleterious to bone mineral metabolism and soft tissue health, leading to metabolic bone disease and vascular calcification and aging, termed CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD. CKD-MBD is associated with morbid clinical outcomes, including fracture, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In this paper, we comprehensively review Ca2+ regulation and bone mineral metabolism, with a special emphasis on elderly CKD patients. We also present the current treatment-guidelines and management options for CKD-MBD.

  2. The Rare Bone Disease Working Group: report from the 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Annual Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew T; Collins, Michael T; Hsiao, Edward C

    2017-09-01

    A working group on rare bone diseases was held in Atlanta, Georgia as part of the 2016 annual meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. The meeting was organized by Matthew Drake. Given recent advances in our understanding of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), the initial portion of the program was devoted to basic, translational, and clinical aspects of FOP. The remainder of the program was divided into updates on an array of rare bone diseases as detailed below. In total, there were more than 120 scientists from academia and industry in attendance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bone Marrow Concentrate and Bovine Bone Mineral for Sinus Floor Augmentation : A Controlled, Randomized, Single-Blinded Clinical and Histological Trial-Per-Protocol Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauerbier, Sebastian; Rickert, Daniela; Gutwald, Ralf; Nagursky, Heiner; Oshima, Toshiyuki; Xavier, Samuel P.; Christmann, Johannes; Kurz, Patrick; Menne, Dieter; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Wagner, Wilfried; Koch, Felix P.

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of substituting autogenous bone (AB) by bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC). Both AB and BMAC were tested in combination with a bovine bone mineral (BBM) for their ability of new bone formation (NBF) in a multicentric, randomized,

  4. Assessment of bone mineral status in children with Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder with skeletal involvement. It is caused by mutations in fibrillin1 (FBN1) gene resulting in activation of TGF-ßeta, which developmentally regulates bone mass and matrix properties. There is no consensus regarding bone minerali...

  5. Peak bone mineral density, lean body mass and fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; de Ridder, Maria A. J.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; van Slobbe, Ingrid; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    Background: During childhood and adolescence, bone mass and lean body mass (LBM) increase till a plateau is reached. In this longitudinal and cross-sectional study, the age of reaching the plateau was evaluated for lumbar spine and total body bone mass measurements and lean body mass. The

  6. Multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Qiu

    Full Text Available Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats.Rats continuously drank tap water (TW, bottled natural water (bNW, bottled mineralized water (bMW, or bottled purified water (bPW for three generations.The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group.Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.

  7. Rapidly Assessing Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Skulan, J. L.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that variations in the Ca isotope ratios in urine rapidly and quantitatively reflect changes in bone mineral balance. This variation occurs because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes, while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue. In a study of 12 individuals confined to bed rest, a condition known to induce bone resorption, we show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker, while bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Ca isotopes indicate an average loss of 0.62 +/- 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. The Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  8. Effect of regular anti-osteoporosis treatment on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with primary osteoporosis and its relationship with bone fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Feng Qian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of regular anti-osteoporosis treatment on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with primary osteoporosis and its relationship with bone fractures. Methods: A total of 120 patients with primary osteoporosis were included in this study and randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=60. Control group received consistent treatment, observation group received individualized regular antiosteoporosis treatment, and then the differences in bone mineral density, bone metabolism, trace elements, oxidative stress, fracture incidence, and so on were compared between two groups of patients 1 year after treatment. Results: Absolute BMD value of observation group after treatment was higher than that of control group; serum bone formation indexes ALP, BGP, PⅠNP and PⅠCP content were higher than those of control group; serum bone resorption indexes β-CTX, sRANKL, TRACP, BAP and DPD content were lower than those of control group; serum trace elements iron and zinc content were higher than those of control group while calcium content was lower than that of control group; serum AOPP and MAOA content of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group while SOD and T-AOC content were significantly higher than those of control group;fracture incidence was significantly lower than that of control group during treatment. Conclusions: The regular antiosteoporosis treatment can increase bone mineral density, optimize the overall condition and reduce the incidence of long-term fracture in patients with primary osteoporosis.

  9. Bone morphometry and mineral contents of the distal part of the fractured third metacarpal bone in thoroughbred racehorses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Oikawa, M.; Wada, R.; Hasegawa, M.; Kaneko, M.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the bone fractures in racehorses occur in the fore limb, especially in the metacarpal joint during the racing and training. The longitudinal fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc III) often occurs in the osteosclerotic and/or necrotic lesions in the distal part of the bone. To elucidate the endogenous factors of its fracture, soft radiograms of 4 fractured and 4 non-fractured control cases have been investigated morphometrically by a image analyzer. In addition, to analyze the quality of these bones, 20 elements of mineral contents in the crashed bones have been measured using a fluorescent X-ray analyzer. As the results, the osteosclerotic change was observed in both groups in the plantar side of the distal part of Mc III, however, no significant differences were found in the bone morphometry. No significant differences in the 19 elements of bone mineral were found except Fe. From these findings, the mechanism of the occurrence of the longitudinal fracture in the Mc III remains to be elucidated. In future, further work needs to be done with regard to the mechanical intensity and collagen disposition of the distal part of the Mc III

  10. Non-invasive clinical measurements of bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Non-invasive methods are now available for measurement of both compact and trabecular bone on both the appendicular and axial skeleton. Radiogrammetry and photodensitometry both are subject to large errors in areas of heavy tissue cover but precise measurements can be made on the hand bones. Single-photon absorptiometry with 125 I provides a more accurate and precise measure of appendicular compact bone, which is particularly useful for screening of metabolic bone disease and for monitoring renal osteodystrophy. Dual-photon absorptiometry with 153 Gd provides a measurement of the femoral neck and of the lumbar spine and hence is the most diagnostically sensitive measurement method. It is also the most sensitive for monitoring bone changes

  11. Alveolar bone loss and mineralization in the pig with experimental periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandee Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To address how experimental periodontal disease affects alveolar bone mass and mineral apposition in a young pig model. Materials and methods: Seven three-month-old pigs were periodically inoculated with 4 types of periodontal bacteria, along with a ligature around the last maxillary deciduous molar for 8 weeks to induce periodontal disease (PG. Eight same-aged pigs served as the control (CG. Segmentations of 3D cone-beam CT images were performed to quantify volumes of the total alveolar bone, alveolar ridge, and all roots of the target molar. Calcein and alizarin were administered for labeling mineral apposition before euthanasia. The harvested molar blocks were sectioned and examined under epifluorescence. The inter-label distance between the two vital markers at regional bone surfaces were measured and mineral apposition rate (MAR was calculated. Results: A significant reduction of total alveolar bone volume was seen in PG with the major loss at the alveolar ridge. MAR was significantly higher at the root furcation region than those at both buccal and palatal ridges in CG. Compared with CG, PG animals showed more interrupted labeled bands with significantly lower MAR at the furcation region. MARs were positively associated with both the volumes of total alveolar bone and ridge in CG, but only with the total alveolar bone in PG. Conclusions: In young growing pigs, mineral apposition is region specific. The experimental periodontal disease not only leads to alveolar bone loss, but also perturbs mineral apposition for new bone formation, thus impairing the homeostasis of alveolar bone remodeling. Keyword: Dentistry

  12. Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis after Preterm Birth: The Role of Early Life Factors and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Wood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.

  13. A hospital based study of biochemical markers of bone turnovers & bone mineral density in north Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The osteoporotic risk for women increases soon after menopause. Bone turnover markers are known to be associated with bone loss and fracture risk. This study was aimed to assess bone turnover using bone markers and their correlation with bone mineral density (BMD in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods: A total of 255 healthy women (160 pre- and 95 post-menopausal were enrolled. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (sBAP and serum N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX were measured to evaluate the bone formation and resorption, respectively. Bone mineral density was determined at lumbar spine (L2-L4 anteroposteriorly, femoral neck and Ward′s triangle using Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA system. The comparison of years since menopause with respect to BMD and bone markers was also evaluated. Results: NTX and sBAP showed significant negative correlation with BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle in postmenopausal women. BMD of all three sides were significant variables for NTX and BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle for sBAP in postmenopausal women. BMD lumbar spine was a significant variable for sBAP in premenopausal women. The mean values of NTX increased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. The BMD of all three sides decreased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. Interpretation & conclusions: Serum NTX and sBAP were inversely correlated to BMD of femur neck and Ward′s triangle in post-menopausal women. Simultaneous measurements of NTX and BMD in the north Indian women, suggest that bone resorption in women with low BMD remains high after menopause.

  14. [Exercise and bone mineral density in old subjects: theorical and practical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    With age advancement, the decrease of bone mineral density is ineluctable. Physical exercise constitutes a physiological approach likely to attenuate or limit the effects of normal bone demineralization (i.e. not pathological) particularly in elderly subjects. Indeed, physical exercise induces mechanical constraints generating bone deformation which stimulates osteogenesis and favors bone remodelage. Physical activities achieved in condition of body discharge (e.g. swimming, cycling) or in static condition (e.g. stretching, balance) do not stimulate (or very weakly) osteogenesis. The osteogenic function of aerobic training (e.g. walking, running) is effective only if the intensity of exercise is high (i.e. the impacts on the ground and thus the bone deformation) and that of strength training is effective only if the completed muscular contractions are dynamic and carried out with heavy loads. The calcium concentration increase is greater on the concave side than on the convex side for the bones which undergo strong mechanical pressures during exercise. Hence, it is advisable to vary the directions of mechanical constraints during physical activity to strengthen the resistance of the bone in all the plans. In order to obtain significant effects in terms of bone remodelage, the optimal duration of training programs should last at least 4 to 6 months. The osteogenic effects of regular exercise begin from 2-3 weekly sessions. The activation of osteogenesis by means of physical exercise is more difficult in aging women than in aging men because of hormonal factors that are not favorable in aging women. At last, regular exercise is fundamental not only to maintain bone mineral density but also to reduce the risk of bone fracture since there is a relationship between the bone mineral density and the risk of bone fracture.

  15. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs

  16. The Effect of Obesity onBone Mineral Density in Primary Fibromyalgia Cases - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Yesevi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disease, characterized by tender points in various areas at body and widespread pain musculoskeletal system and unknown etiology, in which metabolic, immunologic and neuroendocrin abnormalities are seen. In this study, 45 female patients were enrolled according to 1990 ACR fibromyalgia criteria. They were divided to 3 groups, with 15 patients; normal, preobese and obese, depending to the body mass index. They were tested for bone mineral density of the lomber spine and femur, using dual energy x-ray absorptionmeter. The depression presence was investigated by Hamilton Depression Scale. The bone mineral density of L1-4 region of fibromyalgic normal body weight patients were normal range and there was no significant statistical difference between others groups. In contrast, femur bone mineral density vaules were found to be statistically significantly osteopenic, as compared with obese groups. There was a negative statistical correlation between depression and lomber area bone mineral density. Whereas in femur it was seen that bone mineral density was protected in preobese and obese fibromyalgia patients. The number of studies on this subject is not sufficient. Also the number of patients determined on current studies are low. Further studies, with langer patient numbers and more detailed protocols are needed. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2005; 4: 148-150

  17. The relationship between bone mineral density and adipose tissue of postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, HwaMyeong Iisin christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Im, In Chul [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dong Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporosis and obesity due to changes in hormones. The relationship between osteoporosis and body weight is known, and its relation with body fat mass is discussed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density(BMD) changes of epicardial adipose tissue(EAT) and abdominal subcutaneous fat. The subjects of this study were 160 postmenopausal women who underwent BMD and echocardiography. The thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue was measured in three sections and the BMD were meassured according to the diagnostic criteria. The results of this study that age increase the risk of osteoporosis increases, and as the weight and BMI decrease, the risk of osteoporosis increases(p<0.05). The relationship between changes in bone mineral density and adipose tissue in postmenopausal women, increased epicardial adipose tissue was negatively correlated with the bone mineral density(p<0.05). conversely, increased abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness was positively correlated with bone mineral density(p<0.05). In other words, the effect of bone mineral density on the location of adipose tissue was different. If Echocardiography is used to periodically examine changes in the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue, it may be prevented before proceeding to osteoporosis.

  18. The Kidney-Vascular-Bone Axis in the Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Michael E; Hruska, Keith A

    2016-03-01

    The last 25 years have been characterized by dramatic improvements in short-term patient and allograft survival after kidney transplantation. Long-term patient and allograft survival remains limited by cardiovascular disease and chronic allograft injury, among other factors. Cardiovascular disease remains a significant contributor to mortality in native chronic kidney disease as well as cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease more than doubles that of the general population. The chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral bone disorder (MBD) is a syndrome recently coined to embody the biochemical, skeletal, and cardiovascular pathophysiology that results from disrupting the complex systems biology between the kidney, skeleton, and cardiovascular system in native and transplant kidney disease. The CKD-MBD is a unique kidney disease-specific syndrome containing novel cardiovascular risk factors, with an impact reaching far beyond traditional notions of renal osteodystrophy and hyperparathyroidism. This overview reviews current knowledge of the pathophysiology of the CKD-MBD, including emerging concepts surrounding the importance of circulating pathogenic factors released from the injured kidney that directly cause cardiovascular disease in native and transplant chronic kidney disease, with potential application to mechanisms of chronic allograft injury and vasculopathy.

  19. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strause, L; Saltman, P; Smith, K T; Bracker, M; Andon, M B

    1994-07-01

    The effects of calcium supplementation (as calcium citrate malate, 1000 mg elemental Ca/d) with and without the addition of zinc (15.0 mg/d), manganese (5.0 mg/d) and copper (2.5 mg/d) on spinal bone loss (L2-L4 vertebrae) was evaluated in healthy older postmenopausal women (n = 59, mean age 66 y) in a 2-y, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Changes (mean +/- SEM) in bone density were -3.53 +/- 1.24% (placebo), -1.89 +/- 1.40% (trace minerals only), -1.25 +/- 1.46% (calcium only) and 1.48 +/- 1.40% (calcium plus trace minerals). Bone loss relative to base-line value was significant (P = 0.0061) in the placebo group but not in the groups receiving trace minerals alone, calcium alone, or calcium plus trace minerals. The only significant group difference occurred between the placebo group and the group receiving calcium plus trace minerals (P = 0.0099). These data suggest that bone loss in calcium-supplemented, older postmenopausal women can be further arrested by concomitant increases in trace mineral intake.

  20. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of mineral elements in mammalian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udoh, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    The phosphorus content of the major bones of male and female selected mammals was determined using the yellow vanadomolybdate colorimetric method. For each animal, the bone with the highest phosphorus content was used as pilot sample. Varying concentrations of strontium were added to solutions of the ashed pilot samples to minimize phosphorus interference in the determination of calcium and magnesium using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry operated on the air-acetylene mode. At least 6,000 ppm (0.6%) of strontium was required to give optimum results for calcium. The amount of magnesium obtained from the analysis was not affected by the addition of strontium. With the incorporation of strontium in the sample solution, all elements of interest can be determined in the same sample solution. Based on this, a procedure is proposed for the determination of calcium and other elements in bones. Average recoveries of spiked calcium and magnesium were 97.85% and 98.16%, respectively at the 95% confidence level. The coefficients of variation obtained for replicate determinations using one of the samples were 0.00% for calcium, lead and sodium, 2.93% for magnesium, 3.27% for iron and 3.92% for zinc at the concentration levels found in that sample. Results from the proposed procedure compared well with those from classical chemical methods at the 95% confidence level. It is evident that calcium phosphorus, magnesium and sodium which are the most abundant elements in the bones are distributed in varying amounts both in the different types of bones and different animal species, although the general trend is Ca > P > Na > Mg for each bone considered. The calcium - phosphorus ratio is generally 3:1. The work set out to propose an atomic absorption spectrometric method for the multi-element analysis of mammalian bones with a single sample preparation and to study the distribution pattern of these elements in the bones. (Author)

  1. Relationship between chronological and bone ages and pubertal stage of breasts with bone biomarkers and bone mineral density in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Cristina Maria Teixeira; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Silva, Carla Cristiani; Moretto, Maria Regina; Biason, Talita Poli; Teixeira, Altamir Santos; Nunes, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    To study bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescent females according to five groups of chronological age (CA), bone age (BA), and breast development stage (B), and to correlate these parameters with plasma bone biomarkers (BB). This was a cross-sectional study performed in 101 healthy adolescent females between 10 and 20 years old. The study variables were: weight, height, body mass index (BMI), CA, B, BA, calcium intake, BMD, and BB. Osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and C-terminal telopeptide (S-CTx) were evaluated for BB. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD in lumbar spine, proximal femur, and total body increased with age, and the respective observed averages were: in CA1 (10 years old), 0.631, 0.692, 0.798 g/cm(2); in CA2 (11 to 12 years old), 0.698, 0.763, 0.840 g/cm(2); in CA3 (13 to 14 years old), 0.865, 0.889, 0.972 g/cm(2); in CA4 (15 to 16 years old), 0.902, 0.922, 1.013 g/cm(2); and in CA5 (17 to 19 years old), 0.944, 0.929, 1.35 g/cm(2). These results showed significant differences between 13 and 14 years of age (CA3) or when girls reached the B3 stage (0.709, 0.832, 0.867 g/cm(2)). The highest median concentrations of BB were between 10 and 12 years of age when adolescents were in the B2-B3 (p<0.001). Median BB concentrations decreased in advanced BA and B. BB concentrations were positively correlated with the peak height velocity and negatively correlated with BMD in the study sites. Increased BMD and BB concentrations were observed in B3. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THYROID FUNCTION STATUS AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY (BMD AMONG POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH OSTEOPOROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Neethu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disorder. It is a disorder characterized by low bone and micro architectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. Thyroid hormones are necessary to normal development and function of human skeleton. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between thyroid function status and mineral density (BMD among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was completed in central diagnostic biochemistry laboratory, medical college, Thiruvananthapuram. Consecutive blood samples (5 ml were collected from the postmenopausal women after confirming menopause, attending camp under the guidance of orthopaedic department, MCH hospital, to detect Bone mineral density by quantitative ultra sonometry. Thiruvananthapuram and the parameters evaluating are Serum T3, T4, TSH, Serum Calcium, Phosphorous and ALP, in the Central Diagnostic Biochemistry Laboratory, Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram. RESULTS Average TSH of osteoporosis 1.61 ± 1.24, that of control 3.38 ± 1.65, p value is 0.05. T3 and T4 shows No correlation with bone mineral density. CONCLUSION In osteoporosis population 83.3% of individuals having TSH value in the lower range of normal value. The study concluded that there is a positive correlation with Bone mineral density and TSH, even at TSH level with in the normal limit. The p value obtained is< 0.001 and the coefficient of correlation r = 0.565 Similarly, the study also concluded that there is no correlation of bone mineral density with T3 and T4. The mean serum levels of T3 and T4 were similar among women with or without osteoporosis. The low-normal TSH levels were associated with lowered BMD value. Average TSH of osteoporosis is 1.61 ± 1.24, that of control 3.38 ± 1.65, p value is <0.001

  3. Dependences of Ultrasonic Parameters for Osteoporosis Diagnosis on Bone Mineral Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kyo Seung; Kim, Yoon Mi; Park, Jong Chan; Choi, Min Joo; Lee, Kang Il

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound technologies for osteoporosis diagnosis measure ultrasonic parameters such as speed of sound(SOS) and normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation(nBUA) in the calcaneus (heel bone). In the present study, the dependences of SOS and nBUA on bone mineral density in the proximal femur with high risk of fracture were investigated by using 20 trabecular bone samples extracted from bovine femurs. SOS and nBUA in the femoral trabecular bone samples were measured by using a transverse transmission method with one matched pair of ultrasonic transducers with a center frequency of 1.0 MHz. SOS and nBUA measured in the 20 trabecular bone samples exhibited high Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of r = 0.83 and 0.72 with apparent bone density, respectively. The multiple regression analysis with SOS and nBUA as independent variables and apparent bone density as a dependent variable showed that the correlation coefficient r = 0.85 of the multiple linear regression model was higher than those of the simple linear regression model with either parameter SOS or nBUA as an independent variable. These high linear correlations between the ultrasonic parameters and the bone density suggest that the ultrasonic parameters measured in the femur can be useful for predicting the femoral bone mineral density.

  4. Dependences of Ultrasonic Parameters for Osteoporosis Diagnosis on Bone Mineral Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyo Seung; Kim, Yoon Mi; Park, Jong Chan; Choi, Min Joo; Lee, Kang Il [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Quantitative ultrasound technologies for osteoporosis diagnosis measure ultrasonic parameters such as speed of sound(SOS) and normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation(nBUA) in the calcaneus (heel bone). In the present study, the dependences of SOS and nBUA on bone mineral density in the proximal femur with high risk of fracture were investigated by using 20 trabecular bone samples extracted from bovine femurs. SOS and nBUA in the femoral trabecular bone samples were measured by using a transverse transmission method with one matched pair of ultrasonic transducers with a center frequency of 1.0 MHz. SOS and nBUA measured in the 20 trabecular bone samples exhibited high Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of r = 0.83 and 0.72 with apparent bone density, respectively. The multiple regression analysis with SOS and nBUA as independent variables and apparent bone density as a dependent variable showed that the correlation coefficient r = 0.85 of the multiple linear regression model was higher than those of the simple linear regression model with either parameter SOS or nBUA as an independent variable. These high linear correlations between the ultrasonic parameters and the bone density suggest that the ultrasonic parameters measured in the femur can be useful for predicting the femoral bone mineral density.

  5. Techniques to assess bone ultrastructure organization: orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Marios; Müller, Ralph; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Bone's remarkable mechanical properties are a result of its hierarchical structure. The mineralized collagen fibrils, made up of collagen fibrils and crystal platelets, are bone's building blocks at an ultrastructural level. The organization of bone's ultrastructure with respect to the orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils has been the matter of numerous studies based on a variety of imaging techniques in the past decades. These techniques either exploit physical principles, such as polarization, diffraction or scattering to examine bone ultrastructure orientation and arrangement, or directly image the fibrils at the sub-micrometre scale. They make use of diverse probes such as visible light, X-rays and electrons at different scales, from centimetres down to nanometres. They allow imaging of bone sections or surfaces in two dimensions or investigating bone tissue truly in three dimensions, in vivo or ex vivo, and sometimes in combination with in situ mechanical experiments. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss this broad range of imaging techniques and the different modalities of their use, in order to discuss their advantages and limitations for the assessment of bone ultrastructure organization with respect to the orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils. PMID:27335222

  6. EFFECTS OF TAEKWONDO TRAINING ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY OF HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Young Ho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bone fractures has increased in the current decade due to osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD, or the amount of mineralized bone, is an important determinant of risk for bone fractures. Bone mineralization is strongly stimulated by weight-bearing exercise during growth and development. Taekwondo, a Korean martial art, is a well-known form of strenuous and weight-bearing physical activity. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of taekwondo training on the bone health of female high school students in Korea. The secondary goal of this study was to clarify the relationships between body weight and BMD in this sample. Thirty taekwondo players (TKD and 30 sedentary high school girls (CON voluntarily participated in the present study and were split into three groups by weight: light weight (L under 51 kg; middle weight (M between 51 and under 57 kg; and heavy weight (H over 57 kg. BMD was determined from dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, and percent body fat was measured by the skin-fold method. Lumbar spine and femoral BMD were not significantly different between light, middle and heavy body weight groups. However, the average BMD in the TKD group was significantly greater than in the CON group for all lumbar spine regions (P<0.05. The results of this study suggest that taekwondo training during growth significantly improved bone health in all weight groups.

  7. Running exercise for short duration increases bone mineral density of loaded long bones in young growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Yoshinobu; Nakajima, Arata; Fukuda, Satoshi; Goto, Sumio; Iida, Haruzo; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2009-10-01

    Running exercise is an effective therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis; however, appropriate duration of exercise has not been determined. We therefore investigated the effect of exercise duration on bone mineral density (BMD) and systemic bone metabolism using young growing rats. Fifteen 8-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into three groups according to running load: control group (no running), short duration (30 min/day) and long duration (180 min/day), and animals ran on a treadmill 5 days per week over an 8-week period. BMD of the tibia was measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and serum levels of tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a bone resorption marker and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a bone formation marker were measured to know whether the treadmill exercise would affect systemic bone metabolism. Short-duration running exercise (30 min/day) caused a significant increase in BMD of the metaphyseal trabecula (p exercise (180 min/day) significantly reduced BMD of the diaphyseal and metaphyseal cortex and that of the diaphyseal trabecula with a significant reduction of serum ALP levels and a significant increase in serum phosphorus. These findings suggest that short-duration exercise may increase BMD through suppression of bone resorption, whereas long-duration exercise may reduce BMD through suppression of bone formation. Exercising for short duration but not prolonged exercise is recommended to increase BMD of loaded long bones.

  8. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ja; Ko, Yo Han; Kim, Chung Kyung; Kim, Hee Sol; Park, Da Jeong; Yoon, Hyeo Min; Jeong, Yu Jin [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health college, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it

  9. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja; Ko, Yo Han; Kim, Chung Kyung; Kim, Hee Sol; Park, Da Jeong; Yoon, Hyeo Min; Jeong, Yu Jin

    2013-01-01

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it

  10. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  11. Bone mineral density comparison of total body, lumbar and thoracic: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffat, Sheikh Kashif; Shaikh, Abdul Basit; Sarim, Muhammad; Syed, Akhter Raza

    2015-04-01

    To analyse the behaviour of bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, lumbar and thoracic spine, and compare it between different age-groups, ethnicity and gender as a secondary analysis of already published data of NHANES. The study was done and compared data of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey which was done from 1999 to 2006. It comprised bone mineral density data of 26,215 subjects of age 8 years and over. The sample was divided into 10 age groups, 3 ethnicities and gender groups. All subjects had bodyweights not exceeding 300lb, and height not greater than 6'5''. Female subjects were non-pregnant. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the total subjects, 7712 (29.41%) were Mexican Americans, 11236 (42.86%) were non-Hispanic whites and 7267 (27.73%) were non-Hispanic blacks. There were 13291 (50.69%) males, and each ethnic group also had approximately 50% males. The bone mineral density of non-Hispanic blacks was higher than the other two groups, whereas males of all ethnic groups and races had higher density then females of the same group. Bone mineral density of total body, lumbar and thoracic was significantly different. After 50 years of age, total body, lumbar and thoracic bone mineral density decreased in females but lumbar slightly increased in males, whereas thoracic remained stable and total body decreased. The bone mineral density of male and blacks was higher than female and non-black races in total body, lumbar and thoracic spine. The thoracic BMD was lower and might predict early fracture risk.

  12. Effect of Wearing Style on Vitamin D and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim Gökçe Kutsal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most important public health problems as a result of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, muscle pain disease, muscle weakness and increased risk of falls and fracture. Outfitting style effects the synthesis and blood levels of vitamin D. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of outfitting style on blood vitamin D and bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five female patients who were diagnosed with osteoporosis were included in our study. These women were divided into two groups according to their clothing habits as veiled and unveiled. Data of all patients about menopause, exposure to sun light, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry results, blood calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and osteoporosis treatment were recorded. Results: We found 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was significantly low in women with veiled dressing style (17,0±7,9 ng/ml in veiled and 33.9±22.0 ng/ml in unveiled patients, p<0.001. There was statistically significant correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and femur neck Z-scores, femur total bone mineral density, femur total T-score L1-L4 bone mineral density, femur neck bone mineral density for different seasons (p<0.05. Conclusion: Postmenopausal osteoporotic veiled women are more prone to vitamin D deficiency than unveiled women. Low concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is accompanying further decrease in bone mineral density. Despite low concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in veiled postmenopausal osteoporotic women, there is not direct correlation between wearing style and bone mineral density. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:85-8

  13. Low bone mineral density among patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, S.R.; Riaz, A.; Nazir, L.; Umer, T.P.; Rasool, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is an early and common feature in rheumatoid arthritis. Apart from other manifestations, Osteoporosis is an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis which may result in increased risk of fractures, morbidity, mortality, and associated healthcare costs. This study evaluates bone mineral density changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of recent-onset. Methods: This descriptive case series was conducted in the Rheumatology Department of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Data was prospectively collected from 76 patients presenting with seropositive or seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. Bone mineral density of these patients measured at lumbar spine and hip by using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan. Variables like age, gender, BMI, menstrual status, disease duration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, vitamin D level, clinical disease activity index and seropositivity for rheumatoid arthritis were measured along with outcome variables. Results: A total of 104 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were registered with 28 excluded from study. Among the remaining 76 patients, 68 (89.50 percentage) were female, with mean age of patients (with low bone mineral density) as 50.95±7.87 years. Nineteen (25 percentage) patients had low bone mineral density, 68.52 percentage had low BMD at spine while 10.52 percentage at hip and 21.05 percentage at spine and hip both. Low bone mineral density was found higher in patients with seronegative 7 (50 percentage) as compared to seropositive patients 12 (19.4 percentage) (p-value 0.017), whereas low bone mineral density was found higher 12 (70.6 percentage) among post-menopausal women. Conclusion: Low BMD was found in 25 percentage of patients at earlier stage of the rheumatoid arthritis with seropositivity, age and menopausal status as significant risk factors. (author)

  14. A Piece of the Puzzle: The Bone Health Index of the BoneXpert Software Reflects Cortical Bone Mineral Density in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Schündeln

    Full Text Available Suspected osteopathology in chronically ill children often necessitates the assessment of bone mineral density. The most frequently used methods are dual-energy X-ray-absorption (DXA and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. The BoneXpert software provides an automated radiogrammatic method to assess skeletal age from digitalized X-rays of the left hand. Furthermore, the program calculates the Bone Health Index (BHI, a measure of cortical thickness and mineralization, which is obtained from indices of three metacarpal bones. In our study, we analyzed the manner in which BHI information provided by BoneXpert compares with DXA or pQCT measurements in youths.The BHI was retrospectively obtained using digitalized X-rays of the left hand and compared with the results of 203 corresponding DXA readings (Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare of the lumbar vertebrae and femur as well as 117 pQCT readings (XCT 900, Stratec of the distal radius.The BHI values showed a strong positive correlation with the DXA readings at each and all lumbar vertebrae (L1 -L4: r = 0.73; P < 0.0001. The age-adjusted Z-score of L1 -L4 and the height-adjusted score showed a positive correlation with the BHI-SDS (standard deviation score, r = 0.23; P < 0.002 and r = 0.27; P < 0.001, respectively. Total bone mineral density, as assessed via pQCT, also positively correlated with the BHI (r = 0.39; P < 0.0001, but the trabecular values displayed only a weak correlation.The BHI obtained using BoneXpert can be a useful parameter in the assessment of bone health in children in most cases. This technique provides observer-independent information on cortical thickness and mineralization based on X-ray imaging of the hands.

  15. Low bone mineral density among adults with disabilities in Taiwan: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Han; Chen, Chu-Yeh; Lin, Yu-Chen; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2015-10-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a silent disease that can lead to osteoporosis and is a serious health problem worldwide. People with disabilities are especially at risk for fall-related death. To examine the prevalence of low bone mineral density and associated risk factors among adults with disabilities in Taiwan. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study in 2013; the participants were 572 community adults with disabilities over the age of 20 years. Statistical analyses used to evaluate the association included chi-squared tests, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Over one-third of the participants had an intellectual disability, 26% physical disability, and the remainder had a combination of disabilities. Of the participants, 62.5% had abnormal bone mineral density, and 21.8% met the criteria for osteoporosis. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, the determinant risk factors for low bone mineral density were age (β = -.14, p = 0.002), gender (β = -.12, p = 0.004), and level of physical activity (β = .1, p = 0.024). The majority of participants with low BMD were not aware of abnormal bone density, and only 2.4% had received treatment. This study identified a high prevalence of low bone mineral density among adults with disabilities; few of the participants possessed awareness of bone health, and very few received early treatment or information on prevention of osteoporosis. The enhancement of osteoporosis interventions and health promotion programs to prevent osteoporosis and related problems are necessary for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...... to healthy control subjects GH-deficient males had, in contrast to GH-deficient females, significantly reduced BMD and BMC. This obvious gender difference seems to be caused by the oestrogen substitution given to the females, compensating for the lack of GH, an effect testosterone does not seem to possess...

  17. Comparison of radiograph-based texture analysis and bone mineral density with three-dimensional microarchitecture of trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjanomennahary, P; Ghalila, S Sevestre; Malouche, D; Marchadier, A; Rachidi, M; Benhamou, Cl; Chappard, C

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture is a serious health problem and textural methods are being developed to assess bone quality. The authors aimed to perform textural analysis at femur on high-resolution digital radiographs compared to three-dimensional (3D) microarchitecture comparatively to bone mineral density. Sixteen cadaveric femurs were imaged with an x-ray device using a C-MOS sensor. One 17 mm square region of interest (ROI) was selected in the femoral head (FH) and one in the great trochanter (GT). Two-dimensional (2D) textural features from the co-occurrence matrices were extracted. Site-matched measurements of bone mineral density were performed. Inside each ROI, a 16 mm diameter core was extracted. Apparent density (Dapp) and bone volume proportion (BV/TV(Arch)) were measured from a defatted bone core using Archimedes' principle. Microcomputed tomography images of the entire length of the core were obtained (Skyscan 1072) at 19.8 microm of resolution and usual 3D morphometric parameters were computed on the binary volume after calibration from BV/TV(Arch). Then, bone surface/bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and trabecular number were obtained by direct methods without model assumption and the structure model index was calculated. In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients between 2D textural features and 3D morphological parameters reached 0.83 at the FH and 0.79 at the GT. In multivariate canonical correlation analysis, coefficients of the first component reached 0.95 at the FH and 0.88 at the GT. Digital radiographs, widely available and economically viable, are an alternative method for evaluating bone microarchitectural structure.

  18. The study on changes of bone mineral content of mandible by quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Manabu; Ishii, Yasuo [Fukui Medical School, Matsuoka (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    A method to measure bone mineral of mandible has not been established. The bone mineral content (BMC) of the mandible with single energy quantitative computed tomography (SEQCT), which was compared with that of the spine, was discussed. The subjects were 104 healthy persons (54 males and 50 females, age range: 21-69) and 33 patients of mandibular atrophy (10 males and 23 females, age range: 46-87). The BMC changes of the mandible differed according to sex. In males BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone decreased slightly after 40 and 30 years of age respectively. In females, BMC decreased consistently during menopause. BMC of the spine tended to decrease with aging, especially in females. In males having mandibular atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone of the mandible decreased, and that of cortical bone of the mandible increased with aging. In females having atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone of the mandible decreased with aging. The BMC of the mandible was correlated with the length of the denture-wearing time in males. In females, it appears that the BMC of the mandible participates in estrogen deficiency like the BMC of the spine. From the above, measurement of the BMC of the mandible by SEQCT was considered to be very useful for grasping the severity and progressive rate, and other conditions of alveolar ridge atrophy and determining the remedial course. (author).

  19. The study on changes of bone mineral content of mandible by quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Manabu; Ishii, Yasuo

    1996-01-01

    A method to measure bone mineral of mandible has not been established. The bone mineral content (BMC) of the mandible with single energy quantitative computed tomography (SEQCT), which was compared with that of the spine, was discussed. The subjects were 104 healthy persons (54 males and 50 females, age range: 21-69) and 33 patients of mandibular atrophy (10 males and 23 females, age range: 46-87). The BMC changes of the mandible differed according to sex. In males BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone decreased slightly after 40 and 30 years of age respectively. In females, BMC decreased consistently during menopause. BMC of the spine tended to decrease with aging, especially in females. In males having mandibular atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone of the mandible decreased, and that of cortical bone of the mandible increased with aging. In females having atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone of the mandible decreased with aging. The BMC of the mandible was correlated with the length of the denture-wearing time in males. In females, it appears that the BMC of the mandible participates in estrogen deficiency like the BMC of the spine. From the above, measurement of the BMC of the mandible by SEQCT was considered to be very useful for grasping the severity and progressive rate, and other conditions of alveolar ridge atrophy and determining the remedial course. (author)

  20. FRAX fracture risk in women with a recent fracture of the distal forearm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsmose, Emilie Lund; Birkvig, Mette; Buhl, Thora

    2015-01-01

    The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) has been developed by the World Health Organization to evaluate the 10-year risk of a hip fracture and a major osteoporotic fracture. We examined the agreement between fracture risk calculated with and without femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD......) in individual patients and the impact of BMD measurement side. Bilateral femoral neck BMD results obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and clinical risk factor data from 140 women (age 66 ± 8 years) with a recent distal forearm fracture were used for FRAX analyses. Discrepancies between pairs of risk...

  1. Periodontitis and bone mineral density among pre and post menopausal women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Snophia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density and periodontitis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Twenty women between the age group of 45-55 years were selected for this study. Ten premenopausal women with healthy periodontium constituted the control group and 10 postmenopausal women with ≥2mm of clinical attachment loss in> 30% of sites constituted the study group. All patients were assessed for plaque index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss. Radiographs (six IOPA and two posterior bitewing were taken and assessed for interproximal alveolar bone loss. The patients were scanned to assess the bone mineral density of lumbar spine (L2 and femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Results: The bone mineral densities of lumbar spine (L2 and femur were significantly lower in the study group than the control group. Osteopenia of the lumbar spine and femur was observed in 60% whereas osteoporosis of lumbar spine was observed in 30% of cases in study group. Conclusion: Increased proportion of osteopenia and osteoporosis cases of lumbar spine and femur in postmenopausal women with periodontitis suggests that there is association between bone mineral density and periodontitis.

  2. Reduced quantitative ultrasound bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cournil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone status in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART is poorly documented in resource-limited settings. We compared bone mineral density between HIV-infected patients and control subjects from Dakar, Senegal. METHODS: A total of 207 (134 women and 73 men HIV-infected patients from an observational cohort in Dakar (ANRS 1215 and 207 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population were enrolled. Bone mineral density was assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS at the calcaneus, an alternative to the reference method (i.e. dual X-absorptiometry, often not available in resource-limited countries. RESULTS: Mean age was 47.0 (±8.5 years. Patients had received ART for a median duration of 8.8 years; 45% received a protease inhibitor and 27% tenofovir; 84% had undetectable viral load. Patients had lower body mass index (BMI than controls (23 versus 26 kg/m(2, P<0.001. In unadjusted analysis, QUS bone mineral density was lower in HIV-infected patients than in controls (difference: -0.36 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (CI: -0.59;-0.12, P = 0.003. Adjusting for BMI, physical activity, smoking and calcium intake attenuated the difference (-0.27, CI: -0.53;-0.002, P = 0.05. Differences in BMI between patients and controls explained a third of the difference in QUS bone mineral density. Among patients, BMI was independently associated with QUS bone mineral density (P<0.001. An association between undetectable viral load and QUS bone density was also suggested (β = 0.48, CI: 0.02;0.93; P = 0.04. No association between protease inhibitor or tenofovir use and QUS bone mineral density was found. CONCLUSION: Senegalese HIV-infected patients had reduced QUS bone mineral density in comparison with control subjects, in part related to their lower BMI. Further investigation is needed to clarify the clinical significance of these observations.

  3. Bio-inspired mineralization of hydroxyapatite in 3D silk fibroin hydrogel for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yashi; Kundu, Banani; Cai, Yurong; Kundu, Subhas C; Yao, Juming

    2015-10-01

    To fabricate hard tissue implants with bone-like structure using a biomimetic mineralization method is drawing much more attentions in bone tissue engineering. The present work focuses in designing 3D silk fibroin hydrogel to modulate the nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals via a simple ion diffusion method. The study indicates that Ca(2+) incorporation within the hydrogel provides the nucleation sites for hydroxyapatite crystals and subsequently regulates their oriented growth. The mineralization process is regulated in a Ca(2+) concentration- and minerlization time-dependent way. Further, the compressive strength of the mineralized hydrogels is directly proportional with the mineral content in hydrogel. The orchestrated organic/inorganic composite supports well the viability and proliferation of human osteoblast cells; improved cyto-compatibility with increased mineral content. Together, the present investigation reports a simple and biomimetic process to fabricate 3D bone-like biomaterial with desired efficacy to repair bone defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alendronate has a residual effect on bone mass in postmenopausal Danish women up to 7 years after treatment withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Yu Z; Tankó, László B; Alexandersen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    for 7, 5, or 3 yr, respectively. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, hip, and forearm was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers of bone turnover were induced serum C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX) and osteocalcin. Women who received alendronate (2...

  5. Prevention of vascular calcification with bisphosphonates without affecting bone mineralization: a new challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Ellen G; De Broe, Marc E; D'Haese, Patrick C

    2009-03-01

    Arterial calcification has been found to coexist with bone loss. Bisphosphonates, used as standard therapy for osteoporosis, inhibit experimentally induced vascular calcification, offering perspectives for the treatment of vascular calcification in renal failure patients. However, Lomashvili et al. report that the doses of etidronate and pamidronate that are effective in attenuating aortic calcification also decrease bone formation and mineralization in uremic rats, limiting their therapeutic use as anticalcifying agents.

  6. Effect of deproteination on bone mineral morphology: implications for biomaterials and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D H; Scully, A J; Heaton, D A; Young, M P J; Aaron, J E

    2002-09-01

    Bone mineral morphology is altered by processing and this is rarely considered when preparing bone as a bioimplant material. To examine the degree of transformation, a commercial, coarsely particulate bone mineral biomaterial produced by prolonged deproteination, defatting, dehydration, and heating (donor material) was compared with similar particles of human bone (recipient material) prepared optimally by low-temperature milling. The two powders were freeze-substituted and embedded without thawing in Lowicryl K4M before sectioning for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (other aliquots were processed by traditional TEM methods). To maximize resolution, electron micrographs were image-enhanced by digitization and printed as negatives using a Polaroid Sprint Scan 45. In addition to their morphology, the particles were examined for antigenicity (specific by reference to fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]-conjugated fibronectin, and nonspecific by reference to general FITC-conjugated immunoglobulins). Results showed that the optimally prepared human bone fragments stained discretely for fibronectin with negligible background autofluorescence. In contrast, the bioimplant fragments stained extensively with this and any other FITC-conjugated antibody and, unlike fresh bone, it also autofluoresced a uniform yellow. This difference was also expressed structurally and, although the bioimplant mineral consisted of rhomboidal plates up to 200 nm across and 10 nm thick, the optimally prepared bone mineral was composed of numerous clusters of 5-nm-wide sinuous calcified filaments of variable density and indeterminate length (which became straight needles 50 nm long and 5 nm thick following traditional chemical TEM fixation/staining). It was concluded that the inorganic phase of bone is both morphologically and immunologically transmutable and that, in biomaterials, the transformation is apparently so great that a broad indigenous antigenicity is unmasked, increasing the

  7. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HIGUCHI, Tohru; NISHIHARA, Kaori; KAYANO, Mitsunori; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those...

  8. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Kazutaka; Sato, Fumio; Higuchi, Tohru; Nishihara, Kaori; Kayano, Mitsunori; Sasaki, Naoki; Nambo, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those measured...

  9. Lack of influence of simple premenopausal hysterectomy on bone mass and bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lind, C; Nilas, L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the influence of premenopausal hysterectomy on bone mass. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed on 69 women who had premenopausal hysterectomy and 427 women with natural menopause 50 to 59 years old. Bone mineral density was measured...... in the distal forearm by single-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition and bone mineral density in the anteroposterior spine, proximal femur, and total body was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover was determined by plasma osteocalcin, serum alkaline phosphatase, and fasting...... urinary calcium corrected for creatinine excretion. RESULTS: Women who had undergone premenopausal hysterectomy had similar bone mineral densities compared with women with an intact uterus in all compartments, apart from a 6% to 11% higher bone mineral density (p

  10. Factores de riesgo modificables o no, relacionados con la densidad mineral ósea en mujeres de edad mediana Modifiable or not factors related to mineral bone density in middle aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cossette Díaz Socorro

    2012-04-01

    ,025, antecedente familiar de fractura (Odds Ratio= 2,836, p= 0,044, y la posmenopausia (Odds Ratio= 10,185, p= 0,008. Conclusiones: las mujeres de edad mediana que presentaron mayor probabilidad de tener una masa ósea disminuida fueron aquellas de color de la piel blanca, con antecedentes familiares de fractura, y en las que la posmenopausia comparece.Introduction: in Cuba there are not national data on the osteoporosis's prevalence. The world demographic changes make necessary the research and the diffusion of information relative to osteoporosis. Objective: to identify the possible differences in the bon mineral density, according to the presence of modifiable or not risk factors in middle aged women. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in 259 patients came to ClimOs consultation in the National Institute of Endocrinology ruled out the women presenting with secondary osteoporosis. The bone mineral density is determined by means of dual beam absorptiometry in distal forearm and lumbar spine. Patients were divided into two categories: those with a normal mineral bone density located in I group and those with a low bone mineral density (osteopenia and/or osteoporosis corresponded to II group. To establish differences among groups the t student and chi2 tests with a 5 % significance level. The multiple logistic regression was used for analysis of bone mineral density integrating both study regions. Results: combining the results of the densitometry carried out in th forearm and lumbar spine of the 259 middle aged women, the 72.2 % had a low bone mass including 99 patients (38.2 % with osteopenia and 88 (34.0 % diagnosed with osteoporosis, only 72 (27.8 % women had a normal bone mass. Applying the multiple logistic regression to statistically significant variables: age, skin color, family pathological background of fracture, ovarian function, body mass rate, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol, those associated with a great

  11. Does walking exercise improve bone mineral density of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before and after the training program both groups had anthropometric measurements and blood analysis. Bone mass density also was evaluated by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) .Each walking session was 30 min walking between 50-75% of maximal age adjusted heart rate, 3 days per week for 2 months.

  12. The relationship between osteoarthritis of the hands, bone mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Z-scores at the wrist. Conclusions: Although there was no significant association between HOA and BMD, HOA is associated with increased bone turnover as demonstrated by the significant elevation in urinary DPD. These patients should be followed up to assess the need for medical treatment to prevent future fractures.

  13. The relationship between osteoarthritis of the hands, bone mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abir Naguib

    2011-08-09

    4. Osteoporosis (OP) is also a prevalent condition that is esti- mated to affect 1 out of 5 women by the age of 80. Thus OP and OA are both common conditions ..... fluid markers of cartilage and bone turnover and scintigraphic.

  14. A facile in vitro model to study rapid mineralization in bone tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Anthony J; Aydin, Halil M; Hu, Bin; Konduru, Sandeep; Kuiper, Jan Herman; Yang, Ying

    2014-09-16

    Mineralization in bone tissue involves stepwise cell-cell and cell-ECM interaction. Regulation of osteoblast culture microenvironments can tailor osteoblast proliferation and mineralization rate, and the quality and/or quantity of the final calcified tissue. An in vitro model to investigate the influencing factors is highly required. We developed a facile in vitro model in which an osteoblast cell line and aggregate culture (through the modification of culture well surfaces) were used to mimic intramembranous bone mineralization. The effect of culture environments including culture duration (up to 72 hours for rapid mineralization study) and aggregates size (monolayer culture as control) on mineralization rate and mineral quantity/quality were examined by osteogenic gene expression (PCR) and mineral markers (histological staining, SEM-EDX and micro-CT). Two size aggregates (on average, large aggregates were 745 μm and small 79 μm) were obtained by the facile technique with high yield. Cells in aggregate culture generated visible and quantifiable mineralized matrix within 24 hours, whereas cells in monolayer failed to do so by 72 hours. The gene expression of important ECM molecules for bone formation including collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin, varied temporally, differed between monolayer and aggregate cultures, and depended on aggregate size. Monolayer specimens stayed in a proliferation phase for the first 24 hours, and remained in matrix synthesis up to 72 hours; whereas the small aggregates were in the maturation phase for the first 24 and 48 hour cultures and then jumped to a mineralization phase at 72 hours. Large aggregates were in a mineralization phase at all these three time points and produced 36% larger bone nodules with a higher calcium content than those in the small aggregates after just 72 hours in culture. This study confirms that aggregate culture is sufficient to induce rapid mineralization and that aggregate

  15. Investigation of the relationship between low environmental exposure to metals and bone mineral density, bone resorption and renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, A C; Devine, A; Qi, L; Ng, J C; Hinwood, A L

    2015-07-01

    Environmental exposure to metals has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Exposure to cadmium has been associated with decreased bone density, an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture and possible renal dysfunction. Older women are a group at risk of renal and bone density impacts and exposure to metals may be an important risk factor for these health outcomes. This study was a cross sectional study of 77 women aged 50 years and above examining the relationship between metals exposure and renal and bone health. Urinary and blood metals concentrations, plasma creatinine, iron, ferritin and transferrin were measured in these subjects. Bone biomarkers assessed included the pyridinium crosslinks, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline measured by ELISA. Renal function was assessed using eGFR and KIM-1. Whole body, hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density was assessed using DEXA. Blood and urinary metals concentrations were generally low in the subjects, with a median urinary cadmium concentration of 0.26 μg/g creatinine (range aluminium concentrations were positively correlated with bone resorption whilst blood zinc and mercury concentrations were negatively correlated. Urinary aluminium was positively correlated with KIM-1 concentrations, a marker of early kidney damage, however blood zinc concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with this biomarker. This study provides additional support for low cadmium exposure being of concern for the health of older women. Further investigation into the role of exposure to other metals on bone and renal health is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of strontium ranelate on bone mineral: Analysis of nanoscale compositional changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, André L; Moldovan, Simona; Querido, William; Rossi, Alexandre; Werckmann, Jacques; Ersen, Ovidiu; Farina, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Strontium ranelate has been used to prevent bone loss and stimulate bone regeneration. Although strontium may integrate into the bone crystal lattice, the chemical and structural modifications of the bone when strontium interacts with the mineral phase are not completely understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate apatite from the mandibles of rats treated with strontium ranelate in the drinking water and compare its characteristics with those from untreated rats and synthetic apatites with and without strontium. Electron energy loss near edge structures from phosphorus, carbon, calcium and strontium were obtained by electron energy loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope. The strontium signal was detected in the biological and synthetic samples containing strontium. The relative quantification of carbon by analyzing the CK edge at an energy loss of ΔE = 284 eV showed an increase in the number of carbonate groups in the bone mineral of treated rats. A synthetic strontium-containing sample used as control did not exhibit a carbon signal. This study showed physicochemical modifications in the bone mineral at the nanoscale caused by the systemic administration of strontium ranelate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Paracrystalline Disorder from Phosphate Ion Orientation and Substitution in Synthetic Bone Mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marisa, Mary E.; Zhou, Shiliang; Melot, Brent C.; Peaslee, Graham F.; Neilson, James R.

    2016-12-05

    Hydroxyapatite is an inorganic mineral closely resembling the mineral phase in bone. However, as a biological mineral, it is highly disordered, and its composition and atomistic structure remain poorly understood. Here, synchrotron X-ray total scattering and pair distribution function analysis methods provide insight into the nature of atomistic disorder in a synthetic bone mineral analogue, chemically substituted hydroxyapatite. By varying the effective hydrolysis rate and/or carbonate concentration during growth of the mineral, compounds with varied degrees of paracrystallinity are prepared. From advanced simulations constrained by the experimental pair distribution function and density functional theory, the paracrystalline disorder prevalent in these materials appears to result from accommodation of carbonate in the lattice through random displacement of the phosphate groups. Though many substitution modalities are likely to occur in concert, the most predominant substitution places carbonate into the mirror plane of an ideal phosphate site. Understanding the mineralogical imperfections of a biologically analogous hydroxyapatite is important not only to potential bone grafting applications but also to biological mineralization processes themselves.

  18. Functional characterization of calcium sensing receptor polymorphisms and absence of association with indices of calcium homeostasis and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Brian; Curley, Alan J; Hannan, Fadil M; Christie, Paul T; Bowl, Michael R; Turner, Jeremy J O; Barber, Mathew; Gillham-Nasenya, Irina; Hampson, Geeta; Spector, Tim D; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2006-11-01

    Associations between calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) polymorphisms and serum calcium, PTH and bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported by six studies. However, three other studies have failed to detect such associations. We therefore further investigated three CaSR coding region polymorphisms (Ala986Ser, Arg990Gly and Gln1011Glu) for associations with indices of calcium homeostasis and BMD and for alterations in receptor function. One hundred and ten adult, Caucasian, female, dizygotic twin pairs were investigated for associations between the three CaSR polymorphisms and serum calcium, albumin, PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25OHD(3)), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)[1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], urinary calcium excretion and BMD. Each polymorphic CaSR was also transfected into HEK293 cells and functionally evaluated. There was a lack of association between each of these three CaSR polymorphisms and serum calcium corrected for albumin, PTH, 25OHD(3), 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), urinary calcium excretion or BMD at the hip, forearm and lumbar spine. These findings were supported by a lack of functional differences in the dose-response curves of the CaSR variants, with the EC(50) values (mean +/- SEM) of the wild-type (Ala986/Arg990/Gln1011), Ser986, Gly990 and Glu1011 CaSR variants being 2.74 +/- 0.29 mm, 3.09 +/- 0.34 mm (P > 0.4), 2.99 +/- 0.23 mm (P > 0.4) and 2.96 +/- 0.30 mm (P > 0.5), respectively. Our study, which was sufficiently powered to detect effects that would explain up to 5%, but not less than 1%, of the variance has revealed that the three CaSR polymorphisms of the coding region have no major influence on indices of calcium homeostasis in this female population, and that they do not alter receptor function.

  19. Calcium metabolism, vitamin D and bone mineral density after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, T L; Paganotto, M; Radominski, R B; Kulak, C M; Borba, V C

    2015-02-01

    Lower bone mineral density, vitamin D deficiency, lower lean body mass, greater loss of excess weight, and increased bone turnover are complications found after bariatric surgery correlated in the literature with increased risk of fractures. The prevention and treatment of such complications should begin immediately after surgery. The aims of the study were to evaluate bone mass in patients undergoing bariatric surgery by the Wittgrove technique after 1 year of the procedure and correlate it with body composition, weight loss, 25OH vitamin D levels, and markers of bone metabolism. The operated group (OG) participated in a clinical consultation; a blood sample taken and a body composition; and bone mineral density assessment by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The results were compared with a control group (CG). Fifty-six subjects in the OG and 27 in the CG were included. The bone mineral density (BMD), after the surgery, at the lumbar spine (LS) was lower in the OG than in the CG. There was a positive correlation between total body (TB) BMD with 25OHD, body mass index (BMI), and lean mass and an inverse correlation with percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL). Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 60.41% (OG) and in 16.6% (CG). PTH was higher in the OG, with secondary hyperparathyroidism in 41.7%. In 26.5% and 14.2% of the OG, ALP and OC levels were above the reference values. In deficiency with high prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turnover was detected. The prevention of bone loss should be initiated in the first months after surgery, which is a period associated with severe muscle loss and increased bone turnover.

  20. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  1. The Soy Isoflavones to Reduce Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three Year Effects on pQCT Bone Mineral Density and Strength Measures in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density preserving effects, but the bone strength preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength ...

  2. Physical activity and bone mineral density in Italian middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidoli, Ettore; Schinella, Domenico; Franceschi, Silvia

    1998-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health issue in postmenopausal women on account of the association between low bone mineral density and fractures. A role of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of low bone mineral density is possible but still unclear. The relationship between low spine bone mineral density measured by means of dual photon absorptiometry at lumbar spines, and levels of past and recent physical activity has been assessed by means of a population-based screening study carried out on 1373 women (age 40-64 years) in the North-East of Italy. Physical activity at work and in leisure time was investigated for three specific periods of life: at age 12, between 15 and 19 years (during bone formative years), and in the recent years prior to the interview (30-39 or 50-59 years). Data were analysed comparing low versus high bone mineral density tertile (i.e., 458 and 461 women, respectively), after controlling for other known contributory factors in the development of osteoporosis. A positive association emerged with leisure time physical activity, with significant trends at age 15-19 (odds ratio (OR) for low versus high tertile of leisure time activity: 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-2.4) and at most recent age (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Risk trends with occupational physical activity were less clear and non-statistically significant. The present Southern European cross-sectional study lends further support to the possibility that past and recent physical activity helps increasing bone mineral density in middle-aged women. Although the most beneficial type and intensity level of exercise has yet to be determined, the present results provide further evidence that participation in even moderate exercise programs should be encouraged

  3. An investigation of fossil bone mineral structure with neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batdehmbehrehl, G.; Chultehm, D.; Sangaa, D.

    1999-01-01

    Using the neutron diffraction method a domination of low crystal syngonic (sp. gr. P63/m) phase Ca 5 [PO 4 ] 3 (OH, F, Cl) in the fossil dinosaur bone has been established. It is shown that the neutron diffraction method has large advantages in apatite phase of any vertebrates studies and in the case of carbonate phase x-ray method it becomes to be preferable. (author)

  4. Bone mineral density and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kanthack Paccini

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n1p92 The objective of this review article is to gather the relevant information on bone tissue and the validation and limitations of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. To this end, national and international studies indexed on the Pubmed, Lilacs and Nuteses databases were analyzed. The features discussed were: bone tissue maturation, bone tissue in different populations, the impact of intervention programs on bone tissue, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and its validation and limitations. According to data found in the literature, certain observations can be made. Bone mineral density changes during the different stages of life, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age; it can also be influenced by race, sex, genetic factors and life style in addition to by age. The importance of monitoring bone mineral density, both to good health and to social and economic aspects of society, is evident. Studies have confirmed the efficacy of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for measuring body composition (bone, fat and muscle. However, in recent studies, although few in number, some limitations of using this equipment have been noted, which may affect its accuracy. It is therefore understood that there is a need for further studies into this subject, with the intention of defining the accuracy of this equipment.

  5. Effect of dietary taurine and arginine supplementation on bone mineral density in growing female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of arginine or -taurine alone and taurine plus arginine on bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone formation and bone resorption in growing female rats. Forty female SD rats (75 ± 5 g) were randomly divided into four groups (control, taurine, arginine, taurine + arginine group) and treatment lasted for 9 weeks. All rats were fed on a diet and deionized water. BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured using PIXImus (GE Lunar Co, Wisconsin, USA) in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, and the bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline cross-links. Femur BMD was significantly increased in the group with taurine supplementation and femur BMC/weight was significantly increased in the group with arginine + taurine supplementation. Rats fed an arginine or taurine supplemental diet increased femur BMD or femur BMC, but a taurine + arginine-supplemented diet does not have a better effect than arginine or taurine alone in the spine BMD. The femur BMC, expressed per body weight, was higher in arginine + taurine group than in the taurine or arginine group. The results of this study suggest that taurine + arginine supplementation may be beneficial on femur BMC in growing female rats. Additional work is needed to clarify the interactive effects between the taurine and arginine to determine whether dietary intakes of arginine and taurine affect bone quality in growing rats.

  6. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  7. Post-traumatic bone mineral loss in tibial shaft fractures treated with a weight-bearing brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, S M; Nilsson, B E

    1979-12-01

    The bone mineral content in the upper ends of the tibia and the fibula was measured in 27 patients with tibial shaft fracture. The loss of bone mineral associated with the fracture did not differ between patients who were allowed weight-bearing in a functional below-knee brace and patients treated with a long leg plaster cast without weight-bearing.

  8. Population-based reference values for bone mineral density in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M; Nielsen, Torben Leo; Wraae, K

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY: Population-based reference values for peak bone mass density in Danish men. BMD of total hip (1.078 +/- 0,14 g/cm2) differed significantly from values from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and of total lumbar spine ((1.073 +/- 0.125 g/cm2) differed significantly from...... Hologic values. INTRODUCTION: Geographic, ethnic, and socio-economic factors are known to affect bone mineral density (BMD) and peak bone mass significantly. Reference values for male peak bone mass are scarce, and the diagnosis of male osteoporosis often relies on values provided by producers of dual......-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) equipment. METHODS: The aim of the present study was 1) to establish population-based reference values for BMD in young men and 2) to study subgroups based on variables with suspected impact on bone metabolism. We included 783 young Caucasian men aged 20 to 30 years...

  9. Densidade mineral óssea de adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade Bone mineral density in overweight and obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cobayashi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a densidade óssea como fator concomitante da obesidade em adolescentes pós-púberes, controlando outras variáveis que possam interferir nessa relação. MÉTODOS: Estudo com 83 sobrepesos e obesos (IMC > P85 e 89 não obesos (P5 OBJECTIVE: to study bone density as a concomitant factor for obesity in post-pubertal adolescents, controlling for other variables that may interfere in such a relation. METHODS: Study comprising 83 overweight and obese adolescents (BMI > P85 and 89 non obese ones (P5 < BMI < P85. Cases and controls were selected out of 1,420 students (aged 14-19 from a public school in the city of São Paulo. The bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2-L4 in g/cm² was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (LUNAR™ DPX-L. The variable bone density was dichotomized using 1.194 g/cm² as cutoff point. Bivariate analyses were conducted considering the prevalence of overweight and obesity followed by multivariate analysis (logistic regression according to a hierarchical conceptual model. RESULTS: The prevalence of bone density above the median was twice more frequent among cases (69.3% than among controls (32.1%. In the bivariate analysis such prevalence resulted in an odds ratio (OR of 4.78. The logistic regression model showed that the association between obesity and mineral density is yet more intense with an OR of 6.65 after the control of variables related to sedentary lifestyle and intake of milk and dairy products. CONCLUSION: Obese and overweight adolescents in the final stages of sexual maturity presented higher bone mineral density in relation to their normal-weight counterparts; however, cohort studies will be necessary to evaluate the influence of such characteristic on bone resistance in adulthood and, consequently, on the incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis at older ages.

  10. Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS): use of a geological tool in assessing bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrássy, László; Gomez, Izabella; Horváth, Ágnes; Gulyás, Katalin; Pethö, Zsófia; Juhász, Balázs; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Szekanecz, Zoltan

    2018-02-17

    Bone may be similar to geological formulations in many ways. Therefore, it may be logical to apply laser-based geological techniques in bone research. The mineral and element oxide composition of bioapatite can be estimated by mathematical models. Laser-induced plasma spectrometry (LIPS) has long been used in geology. This method may provide a possibility to determine the composition and concentration of element oxides forming the inorganic part of bones. In this study, we wished to standardize the LIPS technique and use mathematical calculations and models in order to determine CaO distribution and bone homogeneity using bovine shin bone samples. We used polished slices of five bovine shin bones. A portable LIPS instrument using high-power Nd++YAG laser pulses has been developed (OpLab, Budapest). Analysis of CaO distribution was carried out in a 10 × 10 sampling matrix applying 300-μm sampling intervals. We assessed both cortical and trabecular bone areas. Regions of interest (ROI) were determined under microscope. CaO peaks were identified in the 200-500 nm wavelength range. A mathematical formula was used to calculate the element oxide composition (wt%) of inorganic bone. We also applied two accepted mathematical approaches, the Bartlett's test and frequency distribution curve-based analysis, to determine the homogeneity of CaO distribution in bones. We were able to standardize the LIPS technique for bone research. CaO concentrations in the cortical and trabecular regions of B1-5 bones were 33.11 ± 3.99% (range 24.02-40.43%) and 27.60 ± 7.44% (range 3.58-39.51%), respectively. CaO concentrations highly corresponded to those routinely determined by ICP-OES. We were able to graphically demonstrate CaO distribution in both 2D and 3D. We also determined possible interrelations between laser-induced craters and bone structure units, which may reflect the bone structure and may influence the heterogeneity of CaO distributions. By using two different

  11. Impact of severity, duration, and etiology of hyperthyroidism on bone turnover markers and bone mineral density in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Gawad Soma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperthyroidism is accompanied by osteoporosis with higher incidence of fracture rates. The present work aimed to study bone status in hyperthyroidism and to elucidate the impact of severity, duration, and etiology of hyperthyroidism on biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD. Methods Fifty-two male patients with hyperthyroidism, 31 with Graves' disease (GD and 21 with toxic multinodular goiter (TNG, with an age ranging from 23 to 65 years were included, together with 25 healthy euthyroid men with matched age as a control group. In addition to full clinical examination, patients and controls were subjected to measurement of BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometery scanning of the lower half of the left radius. Also, some biochemical markers of bone turnover were done for all patients and controls. Results Biochemical markers of bone turnover: included serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, carboxy terminal telopeptide of type l collagen also, urinary deoxypyridinoline cross-links (DXP, urinary DXP/urinary creatinine ratio and urinary calcium/urinary creatinine ratio were significantly higher in patients with GD and TNG compared to controls (P 0.05. BMD was significantly lower in GD and TNG compared to controls, but the Z-score of BMD at the lower half of the left radius in patients with GD (-1.7 ± 0.5 SD was not significantly different from those with TNG (-1.6 ± 0.6 SD (>0.05. There was significant positive correlation between free T3 and free T4 with biochemical markers of bone turnover, but negative correlation between TSH and those biochemical markers of bone turnover. The duration of the thyrotoxic state positively correlated with the assessed bone turnover markers, but it is negatively correlated with the Z-score of BMD in the studied hyperthyroid patients (r = -0.68, P Conclusion Men with hyperthyroidism have significant bone loss with higher biochemical markers of bone

  12. Change in the mineralization of the healing bone callus after whole-body irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, J.; Pleinard, J.F.; Nguyen, T.L.; Goyffon, M.

    The delayed consolidation of diaphysial long-bone fractures in mice subjected to whole-body X-irradiation is expressed biochemically by a faulty mineralization of the repair callus. This deficiency is proportional to the irradiation intensity and is not corrected by previous administration of cycteamine [fr

  13. Muscle strength and soccer practice as major determinants of bone mineral density in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabra, André; Marques, Elisa; Brito, João

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relationship between isokinetic strength of the lower limb muscles and bone mineral density and content (BMD, BMC) of adolescent male soccer players and age-matched controls not involved in sport (12-15years). METHODS: A random sample of 151 young males was divided into...

  14. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents: relation to puberty, calcium intake, and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe association of height, weight, pubertal stage, calcium intake, and physical activity with bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in 500 children and adolescents (205 boys and 295 girls), aged 4-20 yr. The BMD (grams per cm2) of lumbar spine and total

  15. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  16. Tooth counts do not predict bone mineral density in early postmenopausal Caucasian women. EPIC study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earnshaw, S A; Keating, N; Hosking, D J

    1998-01-01

    -centre trial. METHODS: Subjects were recruited at four study centres, using population-based techniques. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and proximal femur was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR 2000). A full physical examination was performed including a tooth count...

  17. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Jong, Pim A.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and

  18. Micro-architecture and mineralization of the human alveolar bone obtained with microCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Y.; Gravestijn, F.A.; van Ruijven, L.J.; Koolstra, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The primary dental implant stability depends on the location of the implant in the jaw. This study analysed the architecture and mineralization of the trabecular bone at different jaw locations and thereby identified potential prognostic factors for implant failure. It has checked the

  19. Association of lactase 13910 C/T polymorphism with bone mineral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yougen Wu

    2017-12-20

    13910) gene polymorphism with bone mineral ... 2015), vitamin D receptor (VDR) (Shen et al. 2014), calcitonin receptor. (CTR) (Xiong et al. 2015), collagen type1α1 (COL1A1). (Zintzaras et al. 2011), osteoprotegerin (OPG) (Guo et ...

  20. Low Bone Mineral Density, Regardless of HIV Status, in Men Who Have Sex With Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijsen, M.L.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Wit, F.W.N.M.; Stolte, I.G.; Prins, M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Reiss, P.; Prins, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported among men with primary or chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To gain further insight into the contribution of HIV infection, we compared the BMD of 41 men who have sex with men (MSM) with primary HIV infection,

  1. Instrument for bone mineral measurement using a microprocessor as the control and arithmetic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.; Hardy, W.H. II.

    1975-11-01

    A self-contained instrument for the determination of bone mineral content by photon absorptometry is described. A high-resolution detection system allows measurements to be made at up to 16 photon energies. Control and arithmetic functions are performed by a microprocessor. Analysis capability and limitations are discussed

  2. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  3. Impact of Phosphorus-Based Food Additives on Bone and Mineral Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Luzuriaga-McPherson, Alexandra; Lin, Yiming; Gilbert, Linda C; Ha, Shin-Woo; Beck, George R

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus-based food additives can substantially increase total phosphorus intake per day, but the effect of these additives on endocrine factors regulating bone and mineral metabolism is unclear. This study aimed to examine the effect of phosphorus additives on markers of bone and mineral metabolism. Design and Setting, and Participants: This was a feeding study of 10 healthy individuals fed a diet providing ∼1000 mg of phosphorus/d using foods known to be free of phosphorus additives for 1 week (low-additive diet), immediately followed by a diet containing identical food items; however, the foods contained phosphorus additives (additive-enhanced diet). Parallel studies were conducted in animals fed low- (0.2%) and high- (1.8%) phosphorus diets for 5 or 15 weeks. The changes in markers of mineral metabolism after each diet period were measured. Participants were 32 ± 8 years old, 30% male, and 70% black. The measured phosphorus content of the additive-enhanced diet was 606 ± 125 mg higher than the low-additive diet (P additive diet, consuming the additive-enhanced diet for 1 week significantly increased circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), osteopontin, and osteocalcin concentrations by 23, 10, and 11%, respectively, and decreased mean sclerostin concentrations (P foods can disturb bone and mineral metabolism in humans. The results of the animal studies suggest that this may compromise bone health.

  4. Epigenome-wide association of DNA methylation in whole blood with bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, John A; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Joehanes, Roby

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and environmental determinants of skeletal phenotypes such as bone mineral density (BMD) may converge through the epigenome, providing a tool to better understand osteoporosis pathophysiology. As the epigenetics of BMD have been largely unexplored in humans, we performed an epigenome wide...

  5. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P

    2003-01-01

    The impact of bicalutamide (Casodex) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. BMD was assessed after treatment with bicalutamide 150 mg daily ( n=21) or by medical castration (goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 days) ( n=8...

  6. Mechanical and mineral properties of osteogenesis imperfecta human bones at the tissue level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Laurianne; Aurégan, Jean-Charles; Pernelle, Kélig; Hoc, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by an increase in bone fragility on the macroscopic scale, but few data are available to describe the mechanisms involved on the tissue scale and the possible correlations between these scales. To better understand the effects of OI on the properties of human bone, we studied the mechanical and chemical properties of eight bone samples from children suffering from OI and compared them to the properties of three controls. High-resolution computed tomography, nanoindentation and Raman microspectroscopy were used to assess those properties. A higher tissue mineral density was found for OI bone (1.131 gHA/cm3 vs. 1.032 gHA/cm3, p=0.032), along with a lower Young's modulus (17.6 GPa vs. 20.5 GPa, p=0.024). Obviously, the mutation-induced collagen defects alter the collagen matrix, thereby affecting the mineralization. Raman spectroscopy showed that the mineral-to-matrix ratio was higher in the OI samples, while the crystallinity was lower, suggesting that the mineral crystals were smaller but more abundant in the case of OI. This change in crystal size, distribution and composition contributes to the observed decrease in mechanical strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A measurement instrument for bone mineral content of adult and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaofang

    1996-01-01

    The γ radiation source was used in bone mineral content measurement analysis of adult and children and a new instrument is developed successfully. It's precision is +2%. The advantage of this instrument is light, cheap and reliable. It can be used widely in medical science and clinic for diagnosis on certain diseases and research work

  8. Effects of mometasone, fluticasone, and montelukast on bone mineral density in adults with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maspero, Jorge; Backer, Vibeke; Yao, Ruji

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with bone mineral density (BMD) loss have not been characterized consistently. OBJECTIVE: This randomized, double-blind study assessed effects of mometasone furoate (MF) administered via dry powder inhaler on BMD of patients with persisten...

  9. Mineralization, biodegradation, and drug release behavior of gelatin/apatite composite microspheres for bone regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Jo, J.; Wang, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Jansen, J.A.; Tabata, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin microspheres are well-known for their capacity to release growth factors in a controlled manner, but gelatin microspheres do not calcify in the absence of so-called bioactive substances that induce deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) bone mineral. This study has investigated if CaP

  10. Bone mineral density in adult patients treated with various antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Simona Alexandra; Viken, Janina; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting, that older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and some of the newer ones decrease bone mineral density (BMD). However, there is only limited and conflicting data concerning the effect of levetiracetam on BMD. In this cross-sectional study we analysed data from 1...

  11. Evaluation of periprosthetic bone mineral density and postoperative migration of humeral head resurfacing implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Klebe, Thomas Martin; Døssing, Kaj Verner

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implant migration, bone mineral density (BMD), length of glenohumeral offset (LGHO), and clinical results were compared for the Copeland (Biomet Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) and the Global C.A.P. (DePuy Int, Warsaw, IN, USA) humeral head resurfacing implants (HHRIs). METHODS: The study...

  12. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (YongMei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown.

  13. Bone mineral density and body composition in Noonan's syndrome: effects of growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, C.; Span, J.; van Rijn, R. R.; Gomes-Jardin, E.; van Kuijk, C.; Otten, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in children with Noonan's syndrome (NS) before and during growth hormone (GH) treatment. Sixteen children (12 boys, 4 girls) with NS aged 5.8-14.2 (mean 10.0) years were studied for 2 years. Anthropometry, BMD measurements by radiographic

  14. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition in Adolescents with Childhood-Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition of patients with childhood-onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) treated with GH during the transition period. Methods: BMD and body composition, measured by dual-energy X-ray

  15. The use of bone age for bone mineral density interpretation in a cohort of pediatric brain tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E.B.; Shelso, John; Smeltzer, Matthew P.; Li, Chin-Shang; Thomas, Nicole A.; Karimova, E.J.; Merchant, Thomas; Gajjar, Amar; Kaste, Sue C.

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal bone accretion occurs throughout childhood. The integrity of this process can influence future adult bone health and the risk of osteoporosis. Although surveillance of children who are at risk of poor bone accretion is important, the most appropriate method to monitor childhood bone health has not been established. Previous investigators have proposed using bone age (BA) rather than chronological age (CA) when interpreting bone mineral density (BMD) values in children. To investigate the value of BA assessment for BMD measurement in a cohort of children at risk of poor accretion. A cohort of 163 children with brain tumors who completed both a BMD assessment (quantitative computed tomography, QCT) and who had a BA within a 6-month interval were identified. The difference in BMD Z-scores determined by CA and BA was determined. The impact of salient clinical features was assessed. No significant difference between CA and BA Z-scores was detected in the overall cohort (P 0.056). However, the scores in 18 children (all boys between the ages of 11 years and 15 years) were statistically determined to be outliers from the values in the rest of the cohort. Interpretation of BMD with BA measurement might be appropriate and affect treatment decisions in peripubertal males. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of alveolar bone mineral density as a predictor of lumbar fracture probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Yoshitomo; Arita, Seizaburo; Honda, Mitsugi; Sugishita, Takeshi; Kamada, Aiko; Ikeo, Takashi; Miki, Takami; Fujita, Takuo

    2013-05-01

    Osteoporosis and tooth loss have been linked with advancing age, but no clear relationship between these conditions has been proven. Several studies of bone mineral density measurements of the jaw and spine have shown similarities in their rate of age-related deterioration. Thus, measurements of jawbone density may predict lumbar vertebral bone density. Using jawbone density as a proxy marker would circumvent the need for lumbar bone measurements and facilitate prediction of osteoporotic spinal fracture susceptibility at dental clinics. We aimed to characterize the correlation between bone density in the jaw and spine and the incidence of osteoporotic spinal fractures. We used computerized radiogrammetry to measure alveolar bone mineral density (al-BMD) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure lumbar bone mineral density (L-BMD). L-BMD and al-BMD in 30 female patients (average age: 59 ± 5 years) were correlated with various patient attributes. Statistical analysis included area under the curve (AUC) and probability of asymptomatic significance (PAS) in a receiver operating characteristic curve. The predictive strength of L-BMD T-scores (L-BMD[T]) and al-BMD measurements for fracture occurrence was then compared using multivariate analysis with category weight scoring. L-BMD and al-BMD were significantly correlated with age, years since menopause, and alveolar bone thickness. Both were also negatively correlated with fracture incidence. Category weight scores were -0.275 for a L-BMD(T) fracture occurrence than L-BMD. Our results suggest the possible association between al-BMD and vertebral fracture risk. Assessment of alveolar bone density may be useful in patients receiving routine dental exams to monitor the clinical picture and the potential course of osteoporosis in patients who may be at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis.

  17. Does vitamin D supplementation of healthy Danish Caucasian girls affect bone turnover and bone mineralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard, C.; Larnkjaer, A.; Cashman, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    and after 12 months whereas physical activity and dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D were assessed at baseline. Serum (S) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), S-osteocalcin, S-parathyroid hormone, S-calcium, S-inorganic phosphate, urinary (U) pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxpyridinoline (Dpyr) were measured......Introduction: A high peak bone mass may be essential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis later in life and a sufficient vitamin D level during puberty may be necessary for optimal bone accretion and obtaining a high peak bone mass. Dietary intake and synthesis during winter of vitamin D might...... be limited but the effect of vitamin D supplementation in adolescence on bone mass is not well established. Objective: To investigate the effect of supplementation with 5 and 10 mu g/day vitamin D-3 for 12 months in 11- to 12-year-old girls on bone mass and bone turnover as well as the possible influence...

  18. Age dependent mineral density in the bones of inhabitants of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Pashkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the age changes of mineral density in the lumbar vertebrae was carried out in 929 people (740 women and 189 men at the age of 20 to 87 years, living in Karelia. Bone mineral density was evaluated by dual xray absorptiometry. In the women and in the men the spine bone mineralization peak was seen at the age of 22. The peak mineral density values were 5 % lower in the men and 1.6 % in the women in comparison with the data of the densitometer base. Considerable decrease of the bone mineral density in the vertebrae in the women began at the age of 41–45 years, and in the men – at the age of 51–55 years. Demineralization of the vertebrae in 75 year old women was 20 %, in the men it was 11.1 %, and in 81–87 year old women – 25.2 %.

  19. The effect of menopause on bone mineral density and bone-related biochemical variables in Indonesian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oemardi, Maryantoro; Horowitz, Michael; Wishart, Judith M; Morris, Howard A; Need, Allan G; O'loughlin, Peter D; Nordin, B E Christopher

    2007-07-01

    To determine the effects of menopause on bone-related variables in Indonesian women and to compare them with corresponding data in Caucasian Australian women. A study of bone-related variables in women aged 45-55 years in Jakarta compared with corresponding historical data from Caucasian Australian women. Dietary intakes, bone mineral density (BMD) and calcium-related variables in blood and urine. Dietary calcium, phosphorus and protein intakes were significantly lower in the women from Jakarta than in those from Adelaide (all P creatinine excretion was 25% lower in Jakarta than in Adelaide (P creatinine in the Indonesians. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels were significantly lower (P urine creatinine were lower in Indonesian than in Australian women. Serum 25OHD was lower and PTH higher in the Indonesian women, probably because of their darker skin, their practice of avoiding direct sunlight and the heavy atmospheric pollution in Jakarta.

  20. VARIANTS OF SPINE OSTEOSYNTESIS AT LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Usikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the results of transpedicular screw fixation in the treatment of patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures was done. In the first group (N=27 the polysegmental transpedicular screw fixation was applied. In the second group (N=20 we used short-level stabilization with additional augmentation of transpedicular screws by bone cement. The spinal stability, restoration of function, correction of spine's deformation and pain relief was same in both groups. But in the second group the results was achieved with less traumatization and time of rehabilitation of the patients.

  1. Bone mineral response to ammonium sulphate offered as a lick supplement in beef calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Motsei

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen Bonsmara calves (4 males, 12 females between 10 and 18 months of age were blocked according to age and sex and randomly assigned to 2 groups. They were offered licks containing bone meal and salt (50:50 ratio (control and bone meal and ammonium sulphate (NH4SO4 at 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 18 % (treatment to evaluate the effects of dietary anions on bone phosphate (P concentration. Bone P concentration was significantly (P<0.05 higher in the NH4SO4 group compared with the control group, indicating that NH4SO4 was able to increase the P content of bone at each of the 6 concentrations used in the lick relative to the control animals, thereby improving the P status of the animals. Ammonium sulphate at 15% and 18% in the lick also significantly (P <0.05 increased bone P compared with the lower concentrations of NH4SO4. Bone calcium (Ca fluctuated as a result of the acidogenic lick. There was absorption of Ca when P was being resorbed and resorption of Ca when P was being absorbed into and out of bone. Bone Ca:P ratio ranged from 3.2 to 6.4 among the control group and 1.6 to 4.3 among the treatment group. Animals receiving the acidogenic lick had a higher percentage ash compared to the control group for most of the experimental period. Bone magnesium (Mg fluctuated in response to the acidogenic lick, and it was difficult to show a relationship between bone Mg and Ca or P. The overall mean cortical bone thickness was significantly (P < 0.05 greater in treatment (1.60 mm compared with control (1.43 mm calves and this was also true at sampling periods 2, 4, 5 and 6. Bone thickness followed bone P and not bone Ca. Results from this research indicate that the addition of ammonium sulphate to a lick had a beneficial effect in improving the P status by increasing bone P and improving the mineral status of bone by increasing the thickness of cortical bone and percentage ash.

  2. Higher mineralized bone volume is associated with a lower plain X-Ray vascular calcification score in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Adragao

    Full Text Available In dialysis patients, there is an increasing evidence that altered bone metabolism is associated with cardiovascular calcifications. The main objective of this study was to analyse, in hemodialysis patients, the relationships between bone turnover, mineralization and volume, evaluated in bone biopsies, with a plain X-ray vascular calcification score.In a cross-sectional study, bone biopsies and evaluation of vascular calcifications were performed in fifty hemodialysis patients. Cancellous bone volume, mineralized bone volume, osteoid volume, activation frequency, bone formation rate/bone surface, osteoid thickness and mineralization lag time were determined by histomorphometry. Vascular calcifications were assessed by the simple vascular calcification score (SVCS in plain X-Ray of pelvis and hands and, for comparison, by the Agatston score in Multi-Slice Computed Tomography (MSCT.SVCS≥3 was present in 20 patients (40%. Low and high bone turnover were present in 54% and 38% of patients, respectively. Low bone volume was present in 20% of patients. In multivariable analysis, higher age (p = 0.015 and longer hemodialysis duration (p = 0.017 were associated with SVCS≥3. Contrary to cancellous bone volume, the addition to this model of mineralized bone volume (OR = 0.863; 95%CI: 0.766, 0.971; p = 0.015, improved the performance of the model. For each increase of 1% in mineralized bone volume there was a 13.7% decrease in the odds of having SVCS≥3 (p = 0.015. An Agatston score>400 was observed in 80% of the patients with a SVCS≥3 versus 4% of patients with a SVCS<3, (p<0.001.Higher mineralized bone volume was associated with a lower plain X-ray vascular calcification. This study corroborates the hypothesis of the existence of a link between bone and vessel and reinforces the clinical utility of this simple and inexpensive vascular calcification score in dialysis patients.

  3. Micro-computerised tomography optimisation for the measurement of bone mineral density around titanium dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.; Swain, M.; Duncan, W.

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dental implants (screws) are commonly used to replace missing teeth by forming a biological union with bone ('osseointegration'). Micro-computerised tomography (μCT) may be useful for measuring bone mineral density around dental implants. Major issues arise because of various artefacts that occur with polychromatic X-rays associated bench type instruments that may compromise interpretation of the observations. In this study various approaches to minimise artefacts such as; beam hardening, filtering and edge effects are explored with a homogeneous polymeric material, Teflon, with and without an implant present. The implications of the limitations of using such polychromatic μCT systems to quantify bone mineral density adjacent to the implant are discussed. (author)

  4. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.; Yilmaz, G.; Alkanl, S.; Korkusuz, F.; Ungan, M.; Kuscu, L.; Laleli, Y.; Eksioglu, F.; Sepici, B.; Gunel, U.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish a relation, if any, between bone mineral density, BMD, of the healthy Turkish population of the ages between 15 and 50 with social and demographic information, family history of fractures, personal and inherited characteristic, smoking and alcohol habit, history of fertility, level of physical activity, food consumption especially trace elements and other variables. Most of these relations were discussed in the last RCM in San Diego, CA, October 7-10,1996. Since then we have concentrated our work on more BMD and trace element measurements in bone. To this end, bone mineral density measurements, trace element studies, neutron activation analysis, fluoride analysis and atomic absorption analysis were undertaken and resulting data were analysed

  5. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs......), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, chlordanes (CHLs), dieldrin, hexacyclohexanes, hexachlorobenzene] and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds. To ensure that the BMD value in skull represented the mineral status of the skeletal system in general, we compared BMD values in femur...... and three lumbar vertebrae with skull in a subsample. We detected highly significant correlations between BMD in skull and femur (r = 0.99; p sampled in the supposed pre-organochlorine/PBDE period (1892...

  6. Vertical Bone Augmentation Using Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral, Absorbable Collagen Sponge, and Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2: An In Vivo Study in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Jung; de Molon, Rafael Rafael; Horiguti, Fausto Rioiti; Contador, Guilherme Piragine; Coelho, Marco Antonio; Mascarenhas, Vinicius Ibiapina; de Souza Faloni, Ana Paula; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Sendyk, Wilson Roberto

    2018-03-15

    The objective of this investigation was to assess vertical bone augmentation using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) infused or not with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) in rabbit tibiae. A total of 18 female rabbits (New Zealand) received two blocks of DBBM in each tibia. The DBBM blocks were randomly assigned into four experimental groups: DBBM (only the bone graft); DBBM associated with absorbable collagen sponge (ACS); DBBM plus rhBMP-2 (1.5 mg/mL); and DBBM infused with rhBMP-2 (1.5 mg/mL) in an ACS carrier. Animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks, and the tibiae containing the DBBM blocks were dissected and analyzed radiographically (microcomputed tomography [micro-CT]), histologically, and immunohistochemically. Micro-CT analysis showed a considerable increase in bone volume (BV) and BV/tissue volume in the rhBMP-2/ACS group compared with all the others. Trabeculae thickness also increased in the rhBMP-2/ACS group compared with the DBBM/ACS group. Trabecular number, separation, and bone mineral density were not different among groups. Histomorphometric evaluation showed increased newly formed bone in the rhBMP-2/ACS group compared with the DBBM and DBBM/ACS groups. The amount of residual bone graft was statistically higher in the rhBMP-2 groups compared with the DBBM/ACS group. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was more intense in the rhBMP-2/ACS group compared with the DBBM/ACS group. The immunopositivity for type 1 collagen tended to be higher in the two groups with rhBMP-2. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that the addition of rhBMP-2 in an ACS carrier placed on top of the DBBM graft enhanced bone formation in this animal model.

  7. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Peng; Wang, Yan; Yang, Jie; Li, Yukun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochr...

  8. Physical activity and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The estrogen defi ciency after menopause leads to accelerated loss of bone mass. The aim of this study was to examine influence of physical activity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: This prospective study included 100 postmenopausal women, ages between 50 and 65, living in Sarajevo area without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history. The women in the examination group had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. To assess level of physical activity an International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form was used.Results: In the examination group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen deficit, level of physical activity was low in 52.00% female, and in 48.00% women level of physical activity was moderate. In the control group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen defi cit in 10.00% female level of physical activity was low, and in 90.00% female level of physical activity was moderate. The difference in levels of physical activity between the two groups was statistically significant, X2 test = 20.6, p <0.005.Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that moderate physical activity has positive impact on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen defi ciency in menstrual history and has the potential to reduce rapid bone loss after menopause.

  9. Effects of laser photherapy on bone defects grafted with mineral trioxide aggregate, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration: a Raman spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio L B; Aciole, Gilberth T S; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T; Pacheco, Marcos T T; Silveira, Landulfo

    2010-12-15

    We have used Raman analysis to assess bone healing on different models. Benefits on the isolated or combined use of mineral trioxide aggregate, bone morphogenetic proteins, guided bone regeneration and laser on bone repair have been reported, but not their combination. We studied peaks of hydroxyapatite and CH groups on defects grafted with MTA, treated or not with laser, BMPs, and GBR. Ninety rats were divided in 10 groups each, subdivided into three subgroups. Laser (λ850 nm) was applied at every other day for 2 weeks. Raman readings were taken at the surface of the defect. Statistical analysis (CHA) showed significant differences between all groups (p = 0.001) and between Group II and all other (p bone is because of increased secretion of calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA) that is indicative of greater calcification and resistance of the bone. We conclude that the association of the MTA with laser phototherapy (LPT) and/or not with GBR resulted in a better bone repair. The use of the MTA associated to IR LPT resulted in a more advanced and quality bone repair. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); M.A. Engels (Melanie); G.J.M. Boerma (Geert); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAdults with childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced bone mass, increased fat mass, and disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition, and lipid metabolism in

  11. The effect of bisphosphonates on bone mineral density in patients with ankylosing spondylitis in daily clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, S.; Veneberg, J.G.; Wink, F.R.; Bos, R.; Brouwer, E.; Van Der Veer, E.; Bootsma, H.; Van Roon, E.N.; Maas, F.; Spoorenberg, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is not only characterized by excessive bone formation, but also by excessive bone loss which may lead to low bone mineral density (BMD). So far, little is known about the effect of treatment with bisphosphonates on BMD in patients with AS. Objectives: To

  12. Milk basic protein increases ghrelin secretion and bone mineral density in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuko; Chacrabati, Rakhi; Ono-Ohmachi, Aiko; Gong, Zhi; Ikenoya, Chika; Aizawa, Sayaka; Nara, Takayuki Y; Morita, Yoshikazu; Kato, Ken; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    Milk basic protein (MBP), a mixture of proteins isolated from bovine milk, is known to increase bone formation. Ghrelin, a stomach-derived peptide hormone, also has been reported to stimulate osteoblast formation. The aim of this study was to determine whether MBP-induced bone formation is mediated via ghrelin. MBP was chronically administered to mice in their drinking water for 3 wk, and body weight, water intake, and bone mineral density were measured. Additionally, plasma bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b, and ghrelin concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To examine the direct effect of MBP on ghrelin secretion, gastric tissue culture and primary mucosal cells were stimulated by MBP. The in vivo study of young, growing mice showed that chronic MBP intake for 3 wk increased the plasma ghrelin concentration and bone mineral density of the hind limb tibia. In vitro studies using minced rat gastric mucosa tissues and primary murine isolated gastric mucosal cells revealed that MBP stimulated ghrelin release in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, MBP-induced ghrelin secretion was partly inhibited by adrenergic blockers. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which MBP directly acts on ghrelin secretion. Additionally, the elevated ghrelin level induced by MBP may act as a mediator for bone formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Minerals and vitamins in bone health: the potential value of dietary enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Guéguen, Léon; Palacios, Cristina; Shearer, Martin J; Weaver, Connie M

    2009-06-01

    Nutrition is important to bone health, and a number of minerals and vitamins have been identified as playing a potential role in the prevention of bone diseases, particularly osteoporosis. Despite this, there is currently no consensus on maximum levels to allow in food or as dietary supplements. The benefits of supplementation of populations at risk of osteoporosis with Ca and vitamin D are well established. Prolonged supplementation of Ca and vitamin D in elderly has been shown to prevent bone loss, and in some intervention studies to prevent fragility fractures. Although P is essential to bone health, the average intake is considered to be more than sufficient and supplementation could raise intake to adverse levels. The role of vitamin K in bone health is less well defined, though it may enhance the actions of Ca and vitamin D. Sr administered in pharmacological doses as the ranelate salt was shown to prevent fragility fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, there is no hard evidence that supplementation with Sr salts would be beneficial in the general population. Mg is a nutrient implicated in bone quality, but the benefit of supplementation via foodstuffs remains to be established. A consensus on dietary supplementation for bone health should balance the risks, for example, exposure of vulnerable populations to values close to maximal tolerated doses, against evidence for benefits from randomised clinical trials, such as those for Ca and vitamin D. Feedback from community studies should direct further investigations and help formulate a consensus on dietary supplementation for bone health.

  14. Status of bone mineral content and body composition in boys engaged in intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madić Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. To examine the influence of training on body composition and bone mineral density we have studied a group of prepubertal soccer players as well as a group of inactive prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. Methods. A total of 62 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. The first one consisted of 32 soccer players (aged 10.7 ± 0.5 years, who had been playing football for at least 1 year (10-15 h per week. The second group a control group 30 boys (aged 11.2 ± 0.7 years doing 1.5 h per week physical activity at school. Body composition was assessed by a Body Fat Analyzer 'BES 200 Z'. Bone mineral density measurements of the left and the right calcaneus were done by using ultrasound densitometer 'Sahara' (Hologic, Inc., MA, USA. Results. There were significant differences between soccer players and the control group in fat mass (p = 0.01. Besides, a significant difference was determined between the group of athletes and the control group in bone mineral density of both calcaneal bones (p = 0.01. Conclusion. The results of this study confirm the significant effects of physical activity on reducing body mass and increasing bone density. Considering that football training can be very easily implemented in the broader population of children and young people, which does not apply to many other sports, it should be used more in the prevention of obesity and osteoporosis.

  15. Increased osteopontin contributes to inhibition of bone mineralization in FGF23-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Xuefeng; Sato, Tadatoshi; Densmore, Michael; Schüler, Christiane; Erben, Reinhold G.; McKee, Marc D.; Lanske, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Excessive FGF23 has been identified as a pivotal phosphaturic factor leading to renal phosphate-wasting, and the subsequent development of rickets and osteomalacia. In contrast, loss of FGF23 in mice (Fgf23−/−) leads to high serum phosphate, calcium and 1,25-vitamin-D levels resulting in early lethality attributable to severe ectopic soft-tissue calcifications and organ-failure. Paradoxically, Fgf23−/− mice exhibit a severe defect in skeletal mineralization despite high levels of systemic mineral ions and abundant ectopic mineralization, an abnormality that remains largely unexplained. Through use of in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and immunogold labeling coupled with electron microscopy of bone samples we discovered that expression and accumulation of osteopontin (Opn/OPN) was markedly increased in Fgf23−/− mice. These results were confirmed by qPCR-analyses of Fgf23−/− bones and ELISA measurements of serum OPN. To investigate whether elevated OPN levels were contributing to the bone mineralization defect in Fgf23−/− mice, we generated Fgf23−/−/Opn−/− double-knockout mice (DKO). Biochemical analyses showed that the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia observed in Fgf23−/− mice remained unchanged in DKO mice, however µCT and histomorphometric analyses showed a significant improvement in total mineralized bone-volume. The severe osteoidosis was markedly reduced and a normal mineral apposition rate was present in DKO mice, indicating that increased OPN levels in Fgf23−/− mice are at least in part responsible for the osteomalacia. Moreover, the increased OPN levels were significantly decreased upon lowering serum phosphate by feeding low phosphate diet or deletion NaPi2a, indicating phosphate attributes in part to the high OPN levels in Fgf23−/− mice. In summary, our results suggest that increased OPN is an important pathogenic factor mediating the mineralization defect and the alterations in bone metabolism observed

  16. Positive effects of a chicken eggshell powder-enriched vitamin-mineral supplement on femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy late post-menopausal Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Hofstede, GJH; Pakan, [No Value; van der Veer, E

    Although bone metabolism is largely under genetic control, the role of nutrition is considerable. The present study evaluates the effects of chicken eggshell powder, a new source of dietary Ca, and purified CaCO3 on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and hip. Besides BMD we also looked

  17. Melatonin improves bone mineral density at the femoral neck in postmenopausal women with osteopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup, Anne Kristine; Sikjaer, Tanja; Heickendorff, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is known for its regulation of circadian rhythm. Recently, studies have shown that melatonin may have a positive effect on the skeleton. By increasing age, the melatonin levels decrease, which may lead to a further imbalanced bone remodeling. We aimed to investigate whether treatment...... with melatonin could improve bone mass and integrity in humans. In a double-blind RCT, we randomized 81 postmenopausal osteopenic women to 1-yr nightly treatment with melatonin 1 mg (N = 20), 3 mg (N = 20), or placebo (N = 41). At baseline and after 1-yr treatment, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual...... X-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and determined calciotropic hormones and bone markers. Mean age of the study subjects was 63 (range 56-73) yr. Compared to placebo, femoral neck BMD increased by 1.4% in response to melatonin...

  18. Effects of odanacatib on bone matrix mineralization in rhesus monkeys are similar to those of alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M. Misof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Odanacatib (ODN is a selective and reversible inhibitor of cathepsin K which is an important enzyme for the degradation of collagen I. Aim of the present work was the head-to-head comparison between the effects of ODN and alendronate (ALN on bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD, based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging in relation to changes in histomorphometric mineralizing surface per bone surface (MS/BS in 12–22 years old ovariectomized rhesus monkeys. Trabecular and cortical BMDD derived parameters from vertebrae and proximal tibiae were compared among vehicle (VEH, n = 8, odanacatib low dose (ODN-L, n = 8, odanacatib high dose (ODN-H, n = 8, and alendronate (ALN, n = 6 treated animals. Additionally, data from an intact, non-treated group of animals are shown (INT, n = 8. In trabecular bone from the vertebra and metaphyseal tibia, the BMDD of the ODN and ALN treatment groups was shifted toward higher mineralization densities (p < 0.001 consistent with the significant reduction of MS/BS (p < 0.05 in ODN-H and ALN compared to VEH. Vertebral trabecular CaMean (average degree of mineralization was significantly higher in ODN-L (+6.5%, ODN-H (+6.1%, and ALN (+6.7%, all p < 0.001. Tibial osteonal cortical bone revealed also significantly increased CaMean for ODN-L (+1.4%, p < 0.05, ODN-H (+2.2%, p < 0.05, and ALN (+3.4%, p < 0.001 versus VEH, while primary cortical bone (devoid of secondary osteons did not show any significant differences between the study groups. The percentage of primary bone area in the tibial cross-sections (on average 45 ± 12% was also not significantly different between the study groups (p = 0.232. No significant differences in any BMDD parameters of all studied skeletal sites between ODN and ALN treatment were found. Correlation analysis revealed that MS/BS was highly predictive for trabecular BMDD in vertebral bone. The higher MS/BS, the lower was CaMean. Our findings are

  19. Forearm diaphyseal fractures in the adolescent population: treatment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truntzer, Jeremy; Vopat, Matthew L; Kane, Patrick M; Christino, Melissa A; Katarincic, Julia; Vopat, Bryan G

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures are commonly treated in a variety of clinical settings. Most often, closed reduction followed by immobilization leads to satisfactory results. However, in the adolescent population (10-16 years of age), forearm fractures are more challenging due to less remodeling potential. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the anatomy, biomechanics, and treatment options relevant to adolescent patients. A systematic review of peer-reviewed publications and abstracts related to the treatment for pediatric both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures in adolescents was carried out. Forearm fractures in the pediatric population are most common following indirect blows to the forearm. When treating these fractures using closed reduction, it is important to recognize the muscular attachments of the forearm. In roughly 70-90% of cases, closed reduction leads to adequate alignment. In all cases, return to function is the primary goal; however, exact alignment parameters remain controversial. In the adolescent population, surgical treatment has risen substantially in the last few decades. Intramedullary nailing and open reduction using plate fixation are the two most common operative techniques. Unfortunately, recent results have shown that nonunion, malunion, and overall complication rates are higher in older pediatric patients. Moreover, no consensus exists regarding one technique over another. Both-bone diaphyseal fractures in the adolescent population present unique challenges regarding optimal treatment, especially when considering surgical intervention. Further research is necessary to better understand indications for specific surgical treatment.

  20. Deproteinized bovine bone mineral particles and osseointegration of implants without primary bone contact: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivolella, Stefano; Bressan, Eriberto; Salata, Luiz A; Quiñones, Maria E; Lang, Niklaus P; Botticelli, Daniele

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the influence on osseointegration of Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) particles used to fill defects of at least 1 mm around implants having no primary contact with bone. Premolars and first molars were extracted bilaterally from the mandible of six Labrador dogs. After 3 months of healing, mucoperiosteal full-thickness flaps were elevated, and one recipient site was prepared in the molar region of each hemi-mandible to place implants. These were installed with a deliberate circumferential and periapical space to the bone walls of 1.2 mm. All implants were stabilized with passive fixation plates to maintain the implants in situ and without any contact with the implant bed. The control sites were left to be filled with coagulum, while at the test sites, the residual gap was filled with DBBM. After 3 months of submerged healing, the animals were sacrificed. Ground sections were prepared and analyzed histomorphometrically. Mineralized bone-to-implant contact was 4.0% and 3.9% for control and test sites, respectively. The width of the residual defects was 0.48 mm and 0.88 mm at the control and test sites, respectively. The percentage of implant surface covered by a layer of dense connective tissue of 0.12 mm of width on average was 84.9% and 88.5% at the control and test sites, respectively. A minor and not predictable degree of contact or distance osteogenesis was obtained on the implant surface when primary contact of the implant surface with the implant bed had deliberately been avoided. DBBM grafting of the artificial gap did not favor osseointegration. Neither did it enhance the ability to bridge the gap with newly formed bone in an artificial defect wider than 1 mm. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density between Urban and Rural Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Matsuzaki

    Full Text Available Studies from high income countries (HIC have generally shown higher osteoporotic fracture rates in urban areas than rural areas. Low bone mineral density (BMD increases susceptibility to fractures. This review aimed to assess whether urbanicity is consistently associated with lower BMD globally.Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health (-April 2013 were searched for articles investigating differences in bone mineral content (BMC or BMD between urban and rural areas. Ratio of means (RoM of BMD were used to estimate effect sizes in meta-analysis, with an exception for one study that only presented BMC data.Fifteen articles from eleven distinct populations were included in the review; seven populations from four high income countries and four from three low and middle income countries (LMIC. Meta-analysis showed conflicting evidence for urban-rural difference in BMD; studies from high income countries generally showed higher BMD in rural areas while the results were more mixed in studies from low and middle income countries (HIC RoM = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.06; LMIC RoM = -0.04: 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.01.Urban-rural differences of bone mineral density may be context-specific. BMD may be higher in urban areas in some lower income countries. More studies with robust designs and analytical techniques are needed to understand mechanisms underlying the effects of urbanization on bone mass accrual and loss.

  2. Digestibility, Determination of Metabolizable Energy and Bone Mineralization of Broilers Fed with Nutritionally Valued Phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH Litz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using exoenzyme phytase in broiler's diets on digestibility of nutrients, feed energy and tibia bone mineralization. A completely randomized design was used, with the following treatments: sorghum with dicalcium phosphate (SDP, corn with dicalcium phosphate (CDP, sorghum with meat and bone meal (SMBM, sorghum with valued phytase (SVP and sorghum with phytase without valued (SPWV. For digestibility analysis, eighty 15 day old broilers were used, a total of 1400 male Hubbard Flex chickens, which were submitted to total excreta collection to obtain the percentages of food digestibility, crude protein, ether extract, apparent metabolizable energy, calcium and phosphorus while for tibias mineralization. Six birds per treatment were used, where determination of mineral matter, calcium and phosphorus were performed. Metabolizable energy (ME and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn of the feed were also calculated. Data were subjected to variation analysis and the average compared by 5% Tukey test. There was no difference between treatments for the digestibility at 15-20 day old as well as for the feed energy values, but the diets with phytase had higher phosphorous percentage values for tibia bone mineralization, demonstrating that exogenous phytase enzyme is able to hydrolyze phytate origininated from plant and release the phosphorus for assimilation by animals, acting as a substitute for phosphorus plant sources.

  3. Bone mineral density changes among HIV-uninfected young adults in a randomised trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir-emtricitabine or placebo in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kasonde

    Full Text Available Tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP has been found to be effective for prevention of HIV infection in several clinical trials. Two studies of TDF PrEP among men who have sex with men showed slight bone mineral density (BMD loss. We investigated the effect of TDF and the interaction of TDF and hormonal contraception on BMD among HIV-uninfected African men and women.We evaluated the effects on BMD of using daily oral TDF-FTC compared to placebo among heterosexual men and women aged 18-29 years enrolled in the Botswana TDF2 PrEP study. Participants had BMD measurements at baseline and thereafter at 6-month intervals with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scans at the hip, spine, and forearm.A total of 220 participants (108 TDF-FTC, 112 placebo had baseline DXA BMD measurements at three anatomic sites. Fifteen (6.8% participants had low baseline BMD (z-score of 3.0% at any anatomic site at any time after baseline were significantly greater for the TDF-FTC treatment group [34/68 (50.0% TDF-FTC vs. 26/79 (32.9% placebo; p = 0.04]. There was a small but significant difference in the mean percent change in BMD from baseline for TDF-FTC versus placebo at all three sites at month 30 [forearm -0.84% (p = 0.01, spine -1.62% (p = 0.0002, hip -1.51% (p = 0.003].Use of TDF-FTC was associated with a small but statistically significant decrease in BMD at the forearm, hip and lumbar spine. A high percentage (6.8% of healthy Batswana young adults had abnormal baseline BMD Further evaluation is needed of the longer-term use of TDF in HIV-uninfected persons.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00448669.

  4. BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE WOMEN ASSESSED BY ULTRASOUND DESINTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marijanac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and density. Physical activity has a positive effect on bone tissue, and it is recommended to prevent bone loss which comes with age. Methods: In purpose of determining bone mineral density in women who are physically active we examined 35 women divided into two groups – subjects who are premenopausal (n=20, 43.52 ± 7.56 years, and subjects who are postmenopausal (n=15, 55.89 ± 5.48. The subjects exercised Pilates method twice a week for one hour. Bone mineral density measurements were done by ultrasound densitometer „Sahara“ through the calcaneus. We get the data of the estimated bone density and T-score for right and left foot separate. Results: According to results premenopausal women have normal bone density, and postmenopausal values represent osteopenia, according to the WHO. There is no subjects who established osteoporosis. Discussion: Previous investigations have confirmed that physical activity is important for the preservation of the bone quality. Increasing steps, using simple everyday tasks, can prevent decrease in BMD in postmenopausal women (Muir et al., 2013, Ashe et al, 2008. There’s difference in the density of the calcaneus between physically active and those who are not, measured by ultrasound densitometry (Vainionpää et al, 2005. We use quantitative ultrasound densitometry to describe BMI of women who exercise Pilates and support the finding that physical activity is one of the ways that may prevent the BMD loss. These research was done as a part of long-term project entitled „Impact of physical activity of the working population“ which is co-financed by Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development.

  5. Cervical vertebral bone mineral density changes in adolescents during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Bethany; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Moon, Eun-Sang; Johnson, Elizabeth; Fields, Henry W; Palomo, J Martin; Johnston, William M

    2014-08-01

    The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages have been used to estimate facial growth status. In this study, we examined whether cone-beam computed tomography images can be used to detect changes of CVM-related parameters and bone mineral density distribution in adolescents during orthodontic treatment. Eighty-two cone-beam computed tomography images were obtained from 41 patients before (14.47 ± 1.42 years) and after (16.15 ± 1.38 years) orthodontic treatment. Two cervical vertebral bodies (C2 and C3) were digitally isolated from each image, and their volumes, means, and standard deviations of gray-level histograms were measured. The CVM stages and mandibular lengths were also estimated after converting the cone-beam computed tomography images. Significant changes for the examined variables were detected during the observation period (P ≤0.018) except for C3 vertebral body volume (P = 0.210). The changes of CVM stage had significant positive correlations with those of vertebral body volume (P ≤0.021). The change of the standard deviation of bone mineral density (variability) showed significant correlations with those of vertebral body volume and mandibular length for C2 (P ≤0.029). The means and variability of the gray levels account for bone mineral density and active remodeling, respectively. Our results indicate that bone mineral density distribution and the volume of the cervical vertebral body changed because of active bone remodeling during maturation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bone mineral density in partially recovered early onset anorexic patients - a follow-up investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims There still is a lack of prospective studies on bone mineral development in patients with a history of early onset Anorexia nervosa (AN. Therefore we assessed associations between bone mass accrual and clinical outcomes in a former clinical sample. In addition to an expected influence of regular physical activity and hormone replacement therapy, we explored correlations with nutritionally dependent hormones. Methods 3-9 years (mean 5.2 ± 1.7 after hospital discharge, we re-investigated 52 female subjects with a history of early onset AN. By means of a standardized approach, we evaluated the general outcome of AN. Moreover, bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD as well as lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. In a substudy, we measured the serum concentrations of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Results The general outcome of anorexia nervosa was good in 50% of the subjects (BMI ≥ 17.5 kg/m2, resumption of menses. Clinical improvement was correlated with BMC and BMD accrual (χ2 = 5.62/χ2 = 6.65, p = 0.06 / p = 0.036. The duration of amenorrhea had a negative correlation with BMD (r = -.362; p th percentile. IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the general outcome of AN. By contrast, leptin serum concentrations showed great variability. They correlated with BMC and current body composition parameters. Conclusions Our results from the main study indicate a certain adaptability of bone mineral accrual which is dependent on a speedy and ongoing recovery. While leptin levels in the substudy tended to respond immediately to current nutritional status, IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the individual's age and general outcome of AN.

  7. Bone Collagen: New Clues to its Mineralization Mechanism From Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, David R.; Ann Weis, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Until 2006 the only mutations known to cause osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) were in the two genes coding for type I collagen chains. These dominant mutations affecting the expression or primary sequence of collagen α1(I) and α2(I) chains account for over 90% of OI cases. Since then a growing list of mutant genes causing the 5–10% of recessive cases has rapidly emerged. They include CRTAP, LEPRE1 and PPIB, which encode three proteins forming the prolyl 3-hydroxylase complex; PLOD2 and FKBP10, which encode respectively lysyl hydroxylase 2 and a foldase required for its activity in forming mature cross-links in bone collagen; SERPIN H1, which encodes the collagen chaperone HSP47; SERPIN F1, which encodes pigment epithelium-derived factor required for osteoid mineralization; and BMP1, which encodes the type I procollagen C-propeptidase. All cause fragile bone in infancy, which can include over-mineralization or under-mineralization defects as well as abnormal collagen post-translational modifications. Consistently both dominant and recessive variants lead to abnormal cross-linking chemistry in bone collagen. These recent discoveries strengthen the potential for a common pathogenic mechanism of misassembled collagen fibrils. Of the new genes identified, eight encode proteins required for collagen post-translational modification, chaperoning of newly synthesized collagen chains into native molecules or transport through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi for polymerization, cross-linking and mineralization. In reviewing these findings, we conclude that a common theme is emerging in the pathogenesis of brittle bone disease of mishandled collagen assembly with important insights on post-translational features of bone collagen that have evolved to optimize it as a biomineral template. PMID:23508630

  8. Orientation of mineral crystals by collagen fibers during in vivo bone engineering: An X-ray diffraction imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cedola, A.; Mastrogiacomo, M.; Lagomarsino, S.; Cancedda, R.; Giannini, C.; Guagliardi, A.; Ladisa, M.; Burghammer, M.; Rustichelli, F.; Komlev, V.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of mineralized bone matrix deposition was investigated taking advantage of a tissue engineering approach in which bone tissue is formed when porous ceramic scaffold is loaded with bone marrow stromal cells and implanted in vivo. The aim of our study is to point out the interaction between the newly formed mineral crystals and the scaffold imposing the three-dimensional desired architecture to the growing bone. High spatial resolution Small Angle X-ray Scattering measurements obtained using synchrotron radiation and X-ray waveguide as optical element allowed a local structural study at the bone-scaffold interface. Using an original methodology for data analysis, we obtained a two-dimensional microscopic map of the mineralization degree, the collagen presence and the mineral orientation degree around the scaffold pore

  9. Effect of HIP/ribosomal protein L29 deficiency on mineral properties of murine bones and teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloofman, Laura G; Verdelis, Kostas; Spevak, Lyudmila; Zayzafoon, Majd; Yamauchi, Mistuo; Opdenaker, Lynn M; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Boskey, Adele L; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B

    2010-07-01

    Mice lacking HIP/RPL29, a component of the ribosomal machinery, display increased bone fragility. To understand the effect of sub-efficient protein synthetic rates on mineralized tissue quality, we performed dynamic and static histomorphometry and examined the mineral properties of both bones and teeth in HIP/RPL29 knock-out mice using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). While loss of HIP/RPL29 consistently reduced total bone size, decreased mineral apposition rates were not significant, indicating that short stature is not primarily due to impaired osteoblast function. Interestingly, our microspectroscopic studies showed that a significant decrease in collagen crosslinking during maturation of HIP/RPL29-null bone precedes an overall enhancement in the relative extent of mineralization of both trabecular and cortical adult bones. This report provides strong genetic evidence that ribosomal insufficiency induces subtle organic matrix deficiencies which elevates calcification. Consistent with the HIP/RPL29-null bone phenotype, HIP/RPL29-deficient teeth also showed reduced geometric properties accompanied with relative increased mineral densities of both dentin and enamel. Increased mineralization associated with enhanced tissue fragility related to imperfection in organic phase microstructure evokes defects seen in matrix protein-related bone and tooth diseases. Thus, HIP/RPL29 mice constitute a new genetic model for studying the contribution of global protein synthesis in the establishment of organic and inorganic phases in mineral tissues. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The combined use of rhBMP-2/ACS, autogenous bone graft, a bovine bone mineral biomaterial, platelet-rich plasma, and guided bone regeneration at nonsubmerged implant placement for supracrestal bone augmentation. A case report.

    Science.