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Sample records for forced expiratory flow

  1. Comparison of forced expiratory spirometric flow changes following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group B received intrathecal anaesthesia 15 mgs of bupivacaine with 0.5 ml of normal saline and Group BF received 15 mgs of bupivacaine with 0.5 ml of fentanyl (25 μg) intrathecally. The patients were instructed about the performance of the spirometry on the previous evening of the surgery. Forced vital capacity, forced ...

  2. Static end-expiratory and dynamic forced expiratory tracheal collapse in COPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, C.R.; Bankier, A.A.; O'Donnell, D.H.; Loring, S.H.; Boiselle, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the range of tracheal collapse at end-expiration among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and to compare the extent of tracheal collapse between static end-expiratory and dynamic forced-expiratory multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: After institutional review board approval and obtaining informed consent, 67 patients meeting the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)/World Health Organization (WHO) Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria for COPD were sequentially imaged using a 64-detector-row CT machine at end-inspiration, during forced expiration, and at end-expiration. Standardized respiratory coaching and spirometric monitoring were employed. Mean percentage tracheal collapse at end-expiration and forced expiration were compared using correlation analysis, and the power of end-expiratory cross-sectional area to predict excessive forced-expiratory tracheal collapse was computed following construction of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: Mean percentage expiratory collapse among COPD patients was 17 ± 18% at end-expiration compared to 62 ± 16% during forced expiration. Over the observed range of end-expiratory tracheal collapse (approximately 10–50%), the positive predictive value of end-expiratory collapse to predict excessive (≥80%) forced expiratory tracheal collapse was <0.3. Conclusion: COPD patients demonstrate a wide range of end-expiratory tracheal collapse. The magnitude of static end-expiratory tracheal collapse does not predict excessive dynamic expiratory tracheal collapse

  3. Physiological techniques for detecting expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing

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    N.G. Koulouris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD often exhale along the same flow–volume curve during quiet breathing as they do during the forced expiratory vital capacity manoeuvre, and this has been taken as an indicator of expiratory flow limitation at rest (EFLT. Therefore, EFLT, namely attainment of maximal expiratory flow during tidal expiration, occurs when an increase in transpulmonary pressure causes no increase in expiratory flow. EFLT leads to small airway injury and promotes dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation, with concurrent dyspnoea and exercise limitation. In fact, EFLT occurs commonly in COPD patients (mainly in Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease III and IV stage, in whom the latter symptoms are common, but is not exclusive to COPD, since it can also be detected in other pulmonary and nonpulmonary diseases like asthma, acute respiratory distress syndrome, heart failure and obesity, etc. The existing up to date physiological techniques of assessing EFLT are reviewed in the present work. Among the currently available techniques, the negative expiratory pressure has been validated in a wide variety of settings and disorders. Consequently, it should be regarded as a simple, noninvasive, practical and accurate new technique.

  4. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate In Cigarette Smokers | Ukoli | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare lung function between smokers and non-smokers using Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Methods: This study examines the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of three hundred and forty cigarette smokers, age and sex-matched with PEFR of equal number of non-smokers. Results: The mean PEFR of ...

  5. Superoxide dismutase levels and peak expiratory flow in asthmatic children

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    Arie Kurniasih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory process which involve variety of cells such as inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and cytokines. The inflammatory process would be exacerbated in the presence of oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD is the first important enzyme to protect the respiratory tract against oxidative stress. The decreased of SOD has a correlation with increased of airway obstruction and bronchospasm. Objective To assess for a correlation between superoxide dismutase (SOD levels and peak expiratory flow, as well as to determine the impact of SOD levels for predicting asthma attacks. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study at Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, between February and April 2011 involving asthmatic children aged 5-18 years. Subjects’ serum SOD levels and peak expiratory flow were measured at the same time point. We then performed a prospective study following up on the same subjects to find out if they had a recurrent asthma attack within one month of the tests. We also reassessed their peak expiratory flow one month after blood specimens were obtained. Results Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. There was no significant correlation between SOD level and peak expiratory flow [r=0.289; 95%CI -0.025 to 0.47; P=0.074]. However, older age was significantly associated with higher peak expiratory flow (=0.5; 95%CI 3.10 to 11.57; P=0.01. Lower levels of SOD increased the risk of asthma attacks in a month following the initial measurements (RR=5.5; 95%CI 1.6 to 18.9; P=0.009. Conclusion Superoxide dismutase (SOD level is not significantly associated with peak expiratory flow. However, we find a relationship between older age and higher peak expiratory flow and a relationship between lower SOD levels and risk of asthma attacks within one month following the tests.

  6. Lung function in North American Indian children: reference standards for spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, M A; Olson, D; Bonn, B A; Creelman, T; Buist, A S

    1982-02-01

    Reference standards of lung function was determined in 176 healthy North American Indian children (94 girls, 82 boys) 7 to 18 yr of age. Spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured using techniques and equipment recommended by the American Thoracic Society. Standing height was found to be an accurate predictor of lung function, and prediction equations for each lung function variable are presented using standing height as the independent variable. Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates in North American Indian children were similar to those previously reported for white and Mexican-American children but were greater than those in black children. In both boys and girls, lung function increased in a curvilinear fashion. Volume-adjusted maximal expiratory flow rates after expiring 50 or 75% of FVC tended to decrease in both sexes as age and height increased. Our maximal expiratory flow volume curve data suggest that as North American Indian children grow, lung volume increases at a slightly faster rate than airway size does.

  7. predicted peak expiratory flow in human and the clinical implication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    predicted PEF varied widely across formulae and choice of a particular formula may alter guideline- base care. This work has therefore accepted a recently published population-base equation proposed as the reference standard for future asthma guidelines. Keywords: Peak expiratory flow, Asthma, Practice guidelines, ...

  8. Factors influencing peak expiratory flow in teenage boys | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) is a useful measure of pulmonary health status and is frequently utilised in asthm, management. Reduction in PEF is usually indicative of onset (of asthma symptoms. However, use can be made of PEF values only if normal values are known. The definition of normal range is always ...

  9. The Concave Shape of the Forced Expiratory Flow-Volume Curve in 3 Seconds Is a Practical Surrogate of FEV1/FVC for the Diagnosis of Airway Limitation in Inadequate Spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Chunhong; Zhang, Yi; Xiao, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Spirometry is important for the differential diagnosis of dyspnea. However, some patients cannot exhale for ≥6 s to achieve the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society criteria. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the reliability of a new parameter that quantifies the degree of concavity in the first 3 s to define airway limitation as a surrogate for the FEV 1 /FVC. Four hundred spirometry test results were selected through complete random sampling. The new parameter, termed the AUC 3 /AT 3 , was calculated as the area under the descending limb of the expiratory flow-volume curve before the end of the first 3 s (AUC 3 ) divided by the area of the triangle before the end of the first 3 s (AT 3 ). The AUC 3 /AT 3 was compared with the FEV 1 /FVC using Pearson's correlation analysis. The level of agreement between the AUC 3 /AT 3 and the FEV 1 /FVC in the detection of airway obstruction was analyzed using the kappa statistic. We also compared the diagnostic accuracy of the new index with that of the FEV 1 /forced expiratory volume in the first 3 s (FEV 3 ). There was a strong correlation (r = 0.88, P < .001) between the AUC 3 /AT 3 and the FEV 1 /FVC. There was also strong agreement between the AUC 3 /AT 3 and the FEV 1 /FVC in the detection of obstruction with kappa indices of 0.72 (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] criterion) and 0.67 (lower limit of normal criterion), and these values were greater than those obtained for the FEV 1 /FEV 3 . The AUC 3 /AT 3 also exhibited acceptable sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. The diagnostic accuracies of the AUC 3 /AT 3 were 86.3% (GOLD criterion) and 83.8% (lower limit of normal criterion), which were greater than the 76.0 and 74.0% obtained for the FEV 1 /FEV 3 , respectively. The AUC 3 /AT 3 can be utilized as a surrogate parameter for the FEV 1 /FVC when patients cannot complete a 6-s expiratory effort. Additionally, the

  10. Age group classification and gender detection based on forced expiratory spirometry.

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    Cosgun, Sema; Ozbek, I Yucel

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates the utility of forced expiratory spirometry (FES) test with efficient machine learning algorithms for the purpose of gender detection and age group classification. The proposed method has three main stages: feature extraction, training of the models and detection. In the first stage, some features are extracted from volume-time curve and expiratory flow-volume loop obtained from FES test. In the second stage, the probabilistic models for each gender and age group are constructed by training Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) and Support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. In the final stage, the gender (or age group) of test subject is estimated by using the trained GMM (or SVM) model. Experiments have been evaluated on a large database from 4571 subjects. The experimental results show that average correct classification rate performance of both GMM and SVM methods based on the FES test is more than 99.3 % and 96.8 % for gender and age group classification, respectively.

  11. Physiological and morphological determinants of maximal expiratory flow in chronic obstructive lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); H.O. Coxson (Harvey); P.D. Pare

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMaximal expiratory flow in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could be reduced by three different mechanisms; loss of lung elastic recoil, decreased airway conductance upstream of flow-limiting segments; and increased collapsibility of airways.

  12. Changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second over time in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Edwards, Lisa D; Scanlon, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    A key feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an accelerated rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), but data on the variability and determinants of this change in patients who have established disease are scarce.......A key feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an accelerated rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), but data on the variability and determinants of this change in patients who have established disease are scarce....

  13. Decreased peak expiratory flow in pediatric passive smokers

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    Fitri Yanti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Indonesia ranks fifth among countries with the highest aggregate levels of tobacco consumption in the world. Infants and children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke have increased rates of asthma, respiratory and ear infections, as well as reduced lung function. The effects of tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in children have been reported to be dependent on the source of smoke and the length and dose of exposure. Lung function may also be affected by a child’s gender and asthma status. Objective To compare peak expiratory flow (PEF in pediatric passive smokers to that of children not exposed to second hand smoke, and to define factors that may affect PEF in passive smokers. Methods In August 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional study at an elementary school in the Langkat district. Subjects were aged 6 to 12 years, and divided into two groups: passive smokers and those not exposed to secondhand smoke. Subjects’ PEFs were measured with a Mini-Wright peak flow meter. Measurements were performed in triplicate with the highest value recorded as the PEF. Demographic data including age, sex, weight, height, family income, parental education levels and occupations were obtained through questionnaires. Results Of the 170 participants, 100 were passive smokers and 70 were not exposed to secondhand smoke. Age distribution, weight and height were similar in both groups. We observed a significant difference in PEFs between the group of passive smokers and the group not exposed to secondhand smoke, 211.3 L/minute (SD 61.08 and 242.7 L/minute (SD 77.09, respectively (P < 0.005. The number of years of exposure to smoke (P = 0.079 and the number of cigarettes smoked daily in the household (P = 0.098 did not significantly influence PEF. Conclusion The PEF in pediatric passive smokers was significantly lower than that of children not exposed to secondhand smoke. PEF in passive smokers was not influenced by the number of years of smoke

  14. Evaluation of Peak Expiratory Flow Rates (PEFR) of Workers in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    and knowledge of occupational health associated with the ... the respiratory system with significant. 5 ... Peak Expiratory Flow Rates (PEFR) of workers in a cement factory — Douglas K. E, Alasia D. D. ... history of cigarette smoking and chronic.

  15. Peak expiratory flow variability, bronchial responsiveness, and susceptibility to ambient air pollution in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, M; Schouten, Jan; Rijcken, B; Vonk, J; Gerritsen, J; Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B; Postma, D

    1998-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability are associated expressions of airway lability, yet probably reflect different underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. We investigated whether both measures can be used interchangeably to identify subjects who are

  16. Role of bronchodilation and pattern of breathing in increasing tidal expiratory flow with progressive induced hypercapnia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Kevin E; Singh, Bhajan

    2018-01-01

    Hypercapnia (HC) in vitro relaxes airway smooth muscle; in vivo, it increases respiratory effort, tidal expiratory flows (V̇ exp ), and, by decreasing inspiratory duration (Ti), increases elastic recoil pressure (Pel) via lung viscoelasticity; however, its effect on airway resistance is uncertain. We examined the contributions of bronchodilation, Ti, and expiratory effort to increasing V̇ exp with progressive HC in 10 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) 53% predicted. Lung volumes (Vl), V̇ exp , esophageal pressure (Pes), Ti, and end-tidal Pco 2 ([Formula: see text]) were measured during six tidal breaths followed by an inspiratory capacity (IC), breathing air, and at three levels of HC. V̇ exp and V̇ with submaximal forced vital capacities breathing air (V̇ sFVC ) were compared. Pulmonary resistance ( Rl) was measured from the Pes-V̇ relationship. V̇ exp and Pes at end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) + 0.3 tidal volume [V̇ (0.3Vt) and Pes (0.3Vt) , respectively], Ti, and Rl correlated with [Formula: see text] ( P pulmonary disease (COPD), progressive HC increases tidal expiratory flows by inducing bronchodilation and via an increased rate of inspiration and lung viscoelasticity, a probable increase in lung elastic recoil pressure, both changes increasing expiratory flows, promoting lung emptying and a stable end-expiratory volume. Bronchodilation with HC occurred despite optimal standard bronchodilator therapy, suggesting that in COPD further bronchodilation is possible.

  17. THE EFFECT OF SUBMAXIMAL INHALATION ON MEASURES DERIVED FROM FORCED EXPIRATORY SPIROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE EFFECT OF SUBMAXIMAL INHALATION ON MEASURES DERIVED FROM FORCED EXPIRATORY SPIROMETRY. William F. McDonnell Human Studies Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC 27711. Short-term exposure to ozone results in a neurally-mediated decrease in the ab...

  18. Changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second over time in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Edwards, Lisa D; Scanlon, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    A key feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an accelerated rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), but data on the variability and determinants of this change in patients who have established disease are scarce....

  19. Prediction of Spirometric Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1) Data Using Support Vector Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, A.; Sujatha, C. M.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, prediction of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in pulmonary function test is carried out using the spirometer and support vector regression analysis. Pulmonary function data are measured with flow volume spirometer from volunteers (N=175) using a standard data acquisition protocol. The acquired data are then used to predict FEV1. Support vector machines with polynomial kernel function with four different orders were employed to predict the values of FEV1. The performance is evaluated by computing the average prediction accuracy for normal and abnormal cases. Results show that support vector machines are capable of predicting FEV1 in both normal and abnormal cases and the average prediction accuracy for normal subjects was higher than that of abnormal subjects. Accuracy in prediction was found to be high for a regularization constant of C=10. Since FEV1 is the most significant parameter in the analysis of spirometric data, it appears that this method of assessment is useful in diagnosing the pulmonary abnormalities with incomplete data and data with poor recording.

  20. PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION INCREASE PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE ON CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PATIENTS

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    Tintin Sukartini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited progressive air flow in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD can caused by small airway disease (bronchiolitis obstructive and loss of elasticity of the lung (emphysema. Further it can be decreasing the quality of life in COPD patients because dyspnea and uncomfortable in activity. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR is one of the relaxation technique that can repair pulmonary ventilation by decreasing chronic constriction of the respiratory muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on raised peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. Method: A pre-experimental one group pre-post test design was used in this study. Population was all of the COPD patients at Pulmonary Specialist Polyclinic Dr Mohamad Soewandhie Surabaya. There were 8 respondents taken by using purposive sampling. PEFR was counted by using peak flow meter every six day. Data were analyzed by using Paired t-Test with significance level  p≤0.05. Result: The result showed that PMR had significance level on increasing of PEFR (p=0.012. Discussion: It can be concluded that PMR has an effect on raise PEFR. Further studies are recommended to measure the effect of PMR on respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR subjective dyspnoe symptoms, forced expiration volume on the first minute (FEV1 and mid maximum flow rate (MMFR in COPD patients.

  1. Expiratory flow limitation and operating lung volumes during exercise in older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Meskimen, Kayla; Harms, Craig A

    2017-06-01

    We determined the effect of aging on expiratory flow limitation (EFL) and operating lung volumes when matched for lung size. We hypothesized that older adults will exhibit greater EFL and increases in EELV during exercise compared to younger controls. Ten older (5M/5W; >60years old) and nineteen height-matched young adults (10M/9W) were recruited. Young adults were matched for%predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) (Y-matched%Pred FVC; n=10) and absolute FVC (Y-matched FVC; n=10). Tidal flow-volume loops were recorded during the incremental exercise test with maximal flow-volume loops measured pre- and post-exercise. Compared to younger controls, older adults exhibited more EFL at ventilations of 26, 35, 51, and 80L/min. The older group had higher end-inspiratory lung volume compared to Y-matched%Pred FVC group during submaximal ventilations. The older group increased EELV during exercise, while EELV stayed below resting in the Y-matched%Pred FVC group. These data suggest older adults exhibit more EFL and increase EELV earlier during exercise compared to younger adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Validity of peak expiratory flow measurement in assessing reversibility of airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, F W; Schrier, A C; Sterk, P J; Dijkman, J H

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessing the reversibility of airflow obstruction by peak expiratory (PEF) measurements would be practicable in general practice, but its usefulness has not been investigated. METHODS: PEF measurements were performed (miniWright peak flow meter) in 73 general practice patients (aged 40 to 84) with a history of asthma or chronic obstructive lung disease before and after 400 micrograms inhaled sulbutamol. The change in PEF was compared with the change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Reversible airflow obstruction was analysed in two ways according to previous criteria. When defined as a 9% or greater increase in FEV1 expressed as a percentage of predicted values reversibility was observed in 42% of patients. Relative operating characteristic analysis showed that an absolute improvement in PEF of 60 l/min or more gave optimal discrimination between patients with reversible and irreversible airflow obstruction (the sensitivity and specificity of an increase of 60 l/min in detecting a 9% or more increase in FEV1 as a percentage of predicted values were 68% and 93% respectively, with a positive predictive value of 87%). When defined as an increase of 190 ml or more in FEV1, reversible airflow obstruction was observed in 53% of patients. Again an absolute improvement in PEF of 60 l/min or more gave optimal discrimination between patients with reversible and irreversible airflow obstruction (sensitivity 56%, specificity 94%, and positive predictive value 92%). CONCLUSION: Absolute changes in PEF can be used as a simple technique to diagnose reversible airflow obstruction in patients from general practice. PMID:1519192

  3. Exogenous stimuli and circadian peak expiratory flow variation in allergic asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G. G.; Postma, D. S.; van der Heide, S.; de Reus, D. M.; Roorda, R. J.; Koëter, G. H.; van Aalderen, W. M.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of exogenous factors in the home on the circadian variation of airway obstruction has not been fully assessed in children with asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of exogenous stimuli to the degree of peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability during 24

  4. Seasonal variations in house dust mite influence the circadian peak expiratory flow amplitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, DS; vanderHeide, S; deReus, DM; Koeter, GH; vanAalderen, WMC; Meijer, G.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether seasonal differences in house dust mite (HDM) allergen exposure influence the circadian peak expiratory flow (PEF) amplitude in asthmatic children. Asthmatic children (n = 25) with a solitary allergy to HDM were studied in spring and in autumn. All

  5. Exogenous stimuli and circadian peak expiratory flow variation in allergic asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, DS; VanderHeide, S; DeReus, DM; Koeter, GH; VanAalderen, WMC; Meijer, G.

    The influence of exogenous factors in the home on the circadian variation of airway obstruction has not been fully assessed in children with asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of exogenous stimuli to the degree of peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability during 24

  6. factors influencing peak expiratory flow in teenage boys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smoked. Regression analysis suggested peak flow differenct.s ... Medical Research Council Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department ... J leasure of lung function and a tool for asthma management.'.2 ... by the subjects were assigned a numerical value based on how .... Our data differ marginally from data.

  7. variations of peak expiratory flow rate with anthropometric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Decreased bronchomotor tone would lead to a fall in airway resistance, and hence increased flow rate of air along it. Tests of. PEFR reflect changes in airway calibers. (Hughes and Empey, 1981). There have been reports on the variations of various ventilatory parameters with anthropometric determinants in. Nigerians.

  8. Effects of dorsal and lateral decubitus on peak expiratory flow in healthy subjects

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    Heloisa H. Gianinis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the measures of the pulmonary function is the peak expiratory flow (PEF that can be defined as the major flow obtained in an expiratory pressure after a complete inspiration to the level of the total lung capacity. This measure depends on the effort and strength of expiratory muscles, the airway diameter and the lung volume. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of the peak expiratory flow in healthy male and female obtained in a seated position and dorsal decubitus (DD, right lateral decubitus (RLD and left lateral decubitus (LLD. METHOD: Thirty young subjects with mean age 22.7 years, healthy and non-smokers were included at the study, 15 of male sex. They did spirometry and IPAQ questionnaire to check the normal pulmonary function and physical activity level. The measures of PEF were performed in four positions, being performed 3 measures in which position, in a random order. Statistical analysis was performed according to Student's t test, with significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: There was a difference between the values obtained in sitting position(481±117.1 L/min with DD(453.2±116.3 L/min and RLD (454±112.9 L/min (p<0.05, however, did not find a significant difference between the sitting position and LLD (469±83 L/min. CONCLUSIONS: Body position affects the values of PEF, with decreasing values in DD and RLD. The LLD can be an alternative to optimize the expiratory flow in situations of constraint to the sitting position.

  9. Thoracoabdominal mobility evaluation by photogrammetry in newborns after expiratory flow increase technique

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    Júlia Isabel de Araújo Guerra

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Expiratory flow increase is a maneuver of respiratory physical therapy that promotes flow direction to the upper airways however, when applied in newborns, it may result in changes of thoracoabdominal mobility. Objective: To evaluate the thoracoabdominal mobility by photogrammetry in newborns after expiratory flow increase technique. Methods: Experimental blind study performed with newborns in supine position on a support table with upper limbs flexed, abducted and externally rotated and hip flexed at 110°. Adhesive markers were allocated for geometric delimitation of the thoracoabdominal compartment and expiratory flow increase technique was performed for 5 minutes with the therapist’s hands on the thorax and abdomen. Newborns were filmed before and after the maneuver and the frames were analyzed in AutoCAD® software by a blinded investigator at the time of the procedure. The largest and the smallest thoracoabdominal area were expressed in cm2 and the mean values were compared between two moments (pre and post maneuver by paired t test. Results: Twenty newborns with a mean age of 39 weeks were included. Before the maneuver, thoracoabdominal area was 56.1 cm2 during expiration and 59.7 cm2 during inspiration, and after the maneuver the value was 56.2 cm2 during expiration and 59.8 cm2 during inspiration, with no statistical difference between before and after (p = 0.97, p = 0.92, respectively. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that expiratory flow increase technique does not seem to change thoracoabdominal mobility of healthy newborns.

  10. A Simple Measure to Assess Hyperinflation and Air Trapping: 1-Forced Expiratory Volume in Three Second / Forced Vital Capacity

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    Sermin Börekçi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several recent studies have suggested that 1 minus-forced expiratory volume expired in 3 seconds / forced vital capacity (1-FEV3/FVC may be an indicator of distal airway obstruction and a promising measure to evaluate small airways dysfunction. Aims: To investigate the associations of 1-FEV3/FVC with the spirometric measures and lung volumes that assess small airways dysfunction and reflects hyperinflation and air trapping. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Retrospective assessment of a total of 1110 cases who underwent body plethysmographic lung volume estimations between a time span from 2005 to 2012. Patients were assigned into two groups: firstly by FEV1/FVC (FEV1/FVC <70% vs. FEV1/FVC ≥70%; secondly by FEV3/FVC < lower limits of normal (LLN (FEV3/FVC < LLN vs. FEV3/FVC ≥ LLN. Spirometric indices and lung volumes measured by whole-body plethysmography were compared in groups. Also the correlation of spirometric indices with measured lung volumes were assessed in the whole-study population and in subgroups stratified according to FEV1/FVC and FEV3/FVC. Results: Six hundred seven (54.7% were male and 503 (45.3% were female, with a mean age of 52.5±15.6 years. Mean FEV3/FVC and 1-FEV3/FVC were 87.05%, 12.95%, respectively. The mean 1-FEV3/FVC was 4.9% in the FEV1/FVC ≥70% group (n=644 vs. 24.1% in the FEV1/FVC <70% group (n=466. A positive correlation was found between 1-FEV3/FVC and residual volume (r=0.70; p<0.0001, functional residual capacity-pleth (r=0.61; p<0.0001, and total lung capacity (r=0.47; p<0.0001. 1-FEV3/FVC was negatively correlated with forced expiratory flow25-75 (r=−0.84; p<0.0001. The upper limit of 95% confidence interval for 1-FEV3/FVC was 13.7%. 1-FEV3/FVC showed significant correlations with parameters of air trapping and hyperinflation measured by whole-body plethysmography. Importantly, these correlations were higher in study participants with FEV1/FVC <70% or FEV3/FVC

  11. Lung volume and expiratory flow rates from pre- to post-puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua R; Emerson, Sam R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Gandhi, Kirti; Harms, Craig A

    2015-08-01

    The purpose was to determine if the airways and lungs grow disproportionately from pre- to post-puberty in boys and girls. We hypothesized that the airways grow at a slower rate than lung volume (i.e. dysanapsis growth) during puberty and boys would exhibit more dysanaptic growth compared to girls. Twenty-one pre-pubescent children [11 boys (pre 10.1 ± 0.5 years, post 15.3 ± 0.5 years); 10 girls (pre 9.4 ± 1.0 years, post 14.1 ± 1.0 years)] performed pulmonary function tests (PFTs) ~5 years ago from an original cohort of 40 children. These 21 children performed PFTs, which included forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow at 50 % FVC (FEF50). Static pressure at 50 % of FVC [Pst(L)50 %] was estimated based on age. Dysanapsis ratio (DR) was calculated [FEF50 × FVC(-1) × Pst(L) 50 % (-1) ]. Maturation status was determined via Tanner stages. Stage of maturation was not different (p > 0.05) between boys and girls (4.2 ± 0.6 stage vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 stage, respectively). FVC and FEF50 increased (p 0.05) from pre- to post-puberty. FEF50 and FVC significantly increased and DR decreased (p puberty for both sexes. Post-puberty, boys had a significantly larger FVC, but FEF50, DR, and FEF50/FVC were not different (p > 0.05) compared to girls. These data suggest that dysanaptic growth occurs during puberty and that it is not different between boys and girls.

  12. Regional specific mean expiratory gas flow from Slmsub(Kr) equilibrium inhalation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, D.; Causer, D.A.; McIntosh, J.A.; Godfrey, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    A new method of analysing the data available from routine sup(81m) Kr equilibrium inhalation investigations has been developed. The data for analysis are acquired from a gamma camera in the form of a sequential series of images from which multiple breath activity-time curves are generated for eight regions in the lung. The method is based on a description of the behaviour of the radioactive gas in the lung using a mathematical model. Values of specific mean expiratory gas flow, that is mean expiratory gas flow per unit lung volume, are calculated from the application of the model to the expiratory phase only only of a single breath activity-time curve which is generated from the multiple breath activity-time curve using post-acquisition gating. This method overcomes the problem of non-uniform inspiratory concentration of tracer gas experienced in previously reported techniques of analysing inhalation data obtained using poorly soluble radioactive gases. The model is shown, in simulation studies, to be an adequate description of the behaviour of radioactive gas in the lung and the analysis technique is shown, in clinical studies, to be both reproducible and sensitive to disease state. (orig.)

  13. Hand grip strength and maximum peak expiratory flow: determinants of bone mineral density of adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Lee-Andruske, Cynthia; de Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Almonacid-Fierro, Alejandro; Gómez-Campos, Rossana

    2018-03-02

    Maintaining and building healthy bones during the lifetime requires a complicated interaction between a number of physiological and lifestyle factors. Our goal of this study was to analyze the association between hand grip strength and the maximum peak expiratory flow with bone mineral density and content in adolescent students. The research team studied 1427 adolescent students of both sexes (750 males and 677 females) between the ages of 11.0 and 18.9 years in the Maule Region of Talca (Chile). Weight, standing height, sitting height, hand grip strength (HGS), and maximum peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured. Furthermore, bone mineral density (BMD) and total body bone mineral content (BMC) were determined by using the Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Hand grip strength and PEF were categorized in tertiles (lowest, middle, and highest). Linear regression was performed in steps to analyze the relationship between the variables. Differences between categories were determined through ANOVA. In males, the hand grip strength explained 18-19% of the BMD and 20-23% of the BMC. For the females, the percentage of variation occurred between 12 and 13% of the BMD and 17-18% of the BMC. The variation of PEF for the males was observed as 33% of the BMD and 36% of the BMC. For the females, both the BMD and BMC showed a variation of 19%. The HGS and PEF were divided into three categories (lowest, middle, and highest). In both cases, significant differences occurred in bone density health between the three categories. In conclusion, the HGS and the PEF related positively to the bone density health of both sexes of adolescent students. The adolescents with poor values for hand grip strength and expiratory flow showed reduced values of BMD and BMC for the total body. Furthermore, the PEF had a greater influence on bone density health with respect to the HGS of the adolescents of both sexes.

  14. Peak expiratory flow rate in healthy children aged 6-17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Høst, A H; Ibsen, T

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured in a cross-sectional study in 861 healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years using a Mini Wright peak flowmeter. We found a strong correlation between PEFR and height, age and sex. The results were comparable with those from previous studies using...... a Wright peak flowmeter. The equation for prediction of PEFR in boys was calculated as (3.8 x height) + (10.6 x age) - 313.2 (p age) - 143.9 (p ... coefficient in this large sample. Among healthy children without previous asthma, earlier episodes of recurrent wheezing were reported in 8.8% and a significantly lower PEFR was found in this group....

  15. Peak expiratory flow as a predictor for the effectiveness of sport for patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, S; Frickmann, H; Klingler, J; Zimmermann, B; Bargon, Joachim

    2006-01-31

    This study intended to find simple parameters that were able to determine the increase in physical performance as a result of sport in a group of patients with COPD (lung sport). We regularly investigated pulse, oxygenation and peak expiratory flow in participants with COPD of a "lung sport group", who participated in a structured weekly training program under professional supervision. Ten volunteers (7 females, 3 males, median of age = 69) with COPD (grade II-III) took part in the study. - The relative changes after 3 and 6 months were compared with the values of the first month of exercise. Measurements were carried out before exercise, after stamina training and at the end of the program. - Pulse and oxygenation did not show any changes. However, there was a significant improvement of peak flow after 6 months. - These peak flow changes represent further evidence of positive effects of sport in COPD and provide a parameter which allows the patients themselves to measure and evaluate the success of their physical activity.

  16. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) among Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay Rao, J.; Venkaiah, K.; Mohan Rao, N.

    2010-01-01

    At Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), employees are exposed to ammonia, hydrofluoric acid, acetone, etc., which are respiratory toxicants and inhalation of these pollutants may produce irritation and obstruction in airways. Due to nature of their occupation, tradesman working in plants are having longer duration of exposure (LDE) and others, such as supervisors, scientific officers, helpers, etc., that occasionally visit plants are having shorter duration of exposure (SDE) to these pollutants. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is an index to diagnose obstruction in larger airways and this is metered with mini peak flow meter among 835 NFC employees. Using ANOVA test, PEFR value was compared according to age and smoking. The value was compared between LDE and SDE employees according to smoking and duration of employment. The multiple regression equation for prediction of PEFR was developed. Age, smokers and higher duration of LDE employees demonstrated significantly lower PEFR value. In comparison to 10 year duration, 30 and above year duration of employment, LDE employees showed a higher decline in PEFR, that is 95 L (17.6%) and in SDE employees, that is 41L (7.8%). This may be due to longer duration of employment of LD employees smoking prevention and follow up study is suggested. (author)

  17. A study of diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rates in healthy adult female subjects in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Jayapal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR reflects the strength and condition of respiratory muscles and the degree of airflow limitation in large airways. PEFR shows hour to hour variation that follows a specific pattern in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Adequate data is not available for the diurnal variation in normal individuals who are students in professional courses and had a sedentary life style. Hence, this study was undertaken to study the diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rates in healthy adult female subjects in South India. Materials and Methods: Peak expiratory flow rate was recorded in 50 adult healthy female students aged 18-23 years and studying in professional courses. Mini Wright′s peak flow meter was used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate. PEFR were recorded at 7-8 a.m., 10-11 a.m., 1-2 p.m., 4-5 p.m., and 7-8 p.m. for two consecutive days. Results: On analysis of PEFR records of individual subjects, it was seen that there was an overall dip in the morning at 7-8 h PEFR, which increased in the daytime, peaking in the afternoon at 1-2 p.m. and eventually decreased in the night. Subjects did not show the peak PEFR values at the same time point, 10% of subjects had a rise in PEFR in the early morning, afternoon (1-2 p.m. peak was observed in 48% subjects and evening (4-5 p.m. peak was observed in 16% subjects. 14% subjects showed a peak in the night time (7-8 p.m. PEFR values. Conclusion: This study provided the preliminary reference data of diurnal variation of peak expiratory flow rate in healthy adults. Since, there is a variation in the peak expiratory flow rate recorded during different time points of the day; hence, to compare the PEFR between individuals it is advisable to record the PEFR at the same time point.

  18. First characterization of the expiratory flow increase technique: method development and results analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maréchal, L; Barthod, C; Jeulin, J C

    2009-01-01

    This study provides an important contribution to the definition of the expiratory flow increase technique (EFIT). So far, no measuring means were suited to assess the manual EFIT performed on infants. The proposed method aims at objectively defining the EFIT based on the quantification of pertinent cognitive parameters used by physiotherapists when practicing. We designed and realized customized instrumented gloves endowed with pressure and displacement sensors, and the associated electronics and software. This new system is specific to the manoeuvre, to the user and innocuous for the patient. Data were collected and analysed on infants with bronchiolitis managed by an expert physiotherapist. The analysis presented is realized on a group of seven subjects (mean age: 6.1 months, SD: 1.1; mean chest circumference: 44.8 cm, SD: 1.9). The results are consistent with the physiotherapist's tactility. In spite of inevitable variability due to measurements on infants, repeatable quantitative data could be reported regarding the manoeuvre characteristics: the magnitudes of displacements do not exceed 10 mm on both hands; the movement of the thoracic hand is more vertical than the movement of the abdominal hand; the maximum applied pressure with the thoracic hand is about twice higher than with the abdominal hand; the thrust of the manual compression lasts (590 ± 62) ms. Inter-operators measurements are in progress in order to generalize these results

  19. The effects of smokeless cookstoves on peak expiratory flow rates in rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennert, W P; Porras Blanco, R M; Muniz, G B

    2015-09-01

    The use of biomass fuel for cooking in traditional cookstove designs negatively affects respiratory health of communities in developing countries. Indoor pollution affects particularly women and children, who are participating in food preparation. The effects of smokeless cookstove designs on indoor pollution are well documented, but few studies exist to assess the effects of improved stove designs on the respiratory health of community members. This study uses peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measurements in a before-and-after format to assess respiratory function of inhabitants of all 30 houses of Buenas Noches in central Honduras. PEFRs are measured before and 6 months after the installation of Justa stoves in people's homes. Health behaviors, respiratory symptoms and fire wood use are evaluated in a door-to-door survey format. A total of 137 eligible women and children between 6 and 14 years participated in the study. PEFR improved by 9.9-18.5% (P < 0.001) depending on the participants' exposure to indoor pollution. Health complaints like cough and behaviors like clinic visits did not change with the introduction of smokeless cookstove technology. Smokeless stoves improve respiratory health in an environment of high levels of indoor pollution. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The longitudinal relationship of work stress with peak expiratory flow: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerbroks, Adrian; Karrasch, Stefan; Lunau, Thorsten

    2017-10-01

    Research has suggested that psychological stress is associated with reduced lung function and with the development of respiratory disease. Among the major potential sources of stress in adulthood are working conditions. We aimed to examine the relationship of work stress with lung function. We drew on 4-year prospective data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. The analyzed sample comprised 2627 workers aged 50 years or older who were anamnestically free of respiratory disease. Work stress at baseline was operationalized by abbreviated instruments measuring the well-established effort-reward imbalance model (seven items) and the control component of the job-demand control (two items). Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was determined at baseline and at follow-up. Continuous and categorized (i.e., by the tertile) work stress variables were employed in multivariable linear regression models to predict PEF change. Work stress did not show statistically significant associations with PEF change. For instance, the unstandardized regression coefficient for PEF decline according to high versus low effort-reward imbalance was -1.41 (95% confidence interval = -3.75, 0.94). Our study is the first to examine prospective relationships between work stress and PEF. Overall, we did not observe meaningful associations. Future studies should consider a broader spectrum of spirometric parameters and should expand research to younger and possibly less-selected working populations (i.e., aged <50 years).

  1. Can Preoperative Peak Expiratory Flow Predict Postoperative Pulmonary Complications in Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Lobectomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun ZHOU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs, especially postoperative pneumonia (POP, directly affect the rapid recovery of lung cancer patients after surgery. Peak expiratory flow (PEF can reflect airway patency and cough efficiency. Moreover, cough impairment may lead to accumulation of pulmonary secretions which can increase the risk of PPCs. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of preoperative PEF on PPCs in patients with lung cancer. Methods Retrospective research was conducted on 433 lung cancer patients who underwent lobectomy at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2014 to December 2015. The associations between preoperative PEF and PPCs were analyzed based on patients’ basic characteristics and clinical data in hospital. Results Preoperative PEF value in PPCs group (280.93±88.99 L/min was significantly lower than that in non-PPCs group (358.38±93.69 L/min (P320 L/min group (9.4%(P<0.001. Conclusion Preoperative PEF and PPCs are correlated, and PEF may be used as a predictor of PPCs.

  2. Influence Of Number Of Pregnancies In Peak Expiratory Flow And Body Composition Of Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carla Brandao da Costa Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to describe and compare the mean values of the body composition and the peak expiratory flow (PEF in primigravidae and multigravidae and, to determine its correlation with obstetric, anthropometric and body composition variables. Method: it was performed a cross-sectional study of 120 healthy pregnant women at low risk, including 77 primigravidae and 43 multigravidae. The PEF was measured by spirometry and the body composition by multisegmental electrical impedance. The unpaired t test was used to compare the groups and the Pearson correlation test was used to determine the association between PEF and independent variables. A multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the dependent variable, the PEF and the independent variables. Results: the body composition variables in multigravidae women showed higher values compared to the primigravidae, being statistically significant, except for fat mass. In primigravidae, the PEF was correlated significantly with maternal age and height. In multigravidae, the PEF was correlated with maternal age, height, pre-pregnancy and current weight, total body water, extracellular water, fat mass, lean mass and fat-free mass. A Multiple linear regression analysis showed that, in primigravidae, height and maternal age were associated with PEF, being responsible for explaining 14.5% of its variability. The current weight and the maternal age explained 42.3% of peak flow variability in multigravidae. Conclusion: The PEF seemed to be influenced by the number of pregnancies. Changes were observed in relation to the body composition, as it was evidenced in correlation with the PEF in multigravidae women. Keywords: Pregnancy. Spirometry. Weight gain.

  3. Difficulty in obtaining peak expiratory flow measurements in children with acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Marc H; Stevens, Molly W; Schultz, Theresa; Scribano, Philip V

    2004-01-01

    To determine the frequency with which children >or=6 years with acute asthma can perform peak expiratory flow rate measurements (PEFR) in an emergency department (ED). Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of children with acute asthma. All children (age 2-18 years old) treated in an urban pediatric ED for an acute exacerbation during randomly selected days over a 12-month period were prospectively evaluated. According to treatment protocols, PEFR was to be measured in all children age 6 years and older before therapy and after each treatment with inhaled bronchodilators. Registered respiratory therapists obtained PEFR and evaluated whether patients were able to perform the maneuver adequately. Four hundred and fifty-six children, 6 to 18 years old (median 10 years), were enrolled; 291 (64%) had PEFR measured at least once. Of those in whom PEFR was attempted at least once, only 190 (65%) were able to perform adequately. At the start of therapy, 54% (142/262) were able to perform PEFR. Of the 120 who were unable to perform initially, 76 had another attempt at the end of the ED treatment, and 55 (72%) were still unable to perform. A total of 149 patients had attempts at PEFR both at the start and end of treatment, of these, only 71 (48%) provided valid information on both attempts. Patients unable to perform PEFR were younger (mean +/- SD = 8.7 +/- 2.8 years) than those who were able to perform successfully (11.2 +/- 3.2 years) and those with no attempts (10.0 +/- 3.4 years). Children admitted to the hospital were more likely to be unable to perform PEFR (58/126 = 46%) than those discharged from the ED (43/330 = 13%, P < 0.0001). Adequate PEFR measurements are difficult to obtain in children with acute asthma. Treatment and research protocols cannot rely exclusively on PEFR for evaluation of severity.

  4. Relationship between spontaneous expiratory flow-volume curve pattern and air-flow obstruction in elderly COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozoe, Masafumi; Mase, Kyoshi; Murakami, Shigefumi; Okada, Makoto; Ogino, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Kazuhiro; Takashima, Sachie; Yamamoto, Noriyasu; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2013-10-01

    Assessment of the degree of air-flow obstruction is important for determining the treatment strategy in COPD patients. However, in some elderly COPD patients, measuring FVC is impossible because of cognitive dysfunction or severe dyspnea. In such patients a simple test of airways obstruction requiring only a short run of tidal breathing would be useful. We studied whether the spontaneous expiratory flow-volume (SEFV) curve pattern reflects the degree of air-flow obstruction in elderly COPD patients. In 34 elderly subjects (mean ± SD age 80 ± 7 y) with stable COPD (percent-of-predicted FEV(1) 39.0 ± 18.5%), and 12 age-matched healthy subjects, we measured FVC and recorded flow-volume curves during quiet breathing. We studied the SEFV curve patterns (concavity/convexity), spirometry results, breathing patterns, and demographics. The SEFV curve concavity/convexity prediction accuracy was examined by calculating the receiver operating characteristic curves, cutoff values, area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity. Fourteen subjects with COPD had a concave SEFV curve. All the healthy subjects had convex SEFV curves. The COPD subjects who had concave SEFV curves often had very severe airway obstruction. The percent-of-predicted FEV(1)% (32.4%) was the most powerful SEFV curve concavity predictor (area under the curve 0.92, 95% CI 0.83-1.00), and had the highest sensitivity (0.93) and specificity (0.88). Concavity of the SEFV curve obtained during tidal breathing may be a useful test for determining the presence of very severe obstruction in elderly patients unable to perform a satisfactory FVC maneuver.

  5. Comparison of peak expiratory flow rate and lipid profile in asymptomatic smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, F.; Abbasi, M.A.; Jadoon, J.; Sohail, M.; Shah, J.; Afridi, U.; Noor, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), other pulmonary diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of study was to determine the mean Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and serum lipid profile in apparently healthy male smokers and non-smokers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from 15th December, 2009 to 15th June, 2010. Apparently healthy smokers and non-smokers from population coming to Hospital as attendants of the patients or as employees of the hospital were inducted in the study. PEFR and lipid profile of all the subjects was accessed. Results: There were total of 300 male subjects, 150 smokers and 150 non-smokers. The mean age of study subjects was 26.60 ± 5.5 years. The mean PEFR of smokers was 450.62l/min and that of non-smokers was 494.81 L/min, the difference being statistically significant (p-value <0.05).The mean total cholesterol of smokers is 5.30 ± 0.86 mmol/l and it was 3.84 ± 0.54 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean serum Triacyl Glycerols (TAGs) and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol of smokers was 2.04 ± 0.38 and 3.5 ± 0.83 mmol/l whereas it was 1.44 ± 0.52 and 2.02 ± 0.66 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean High Density Lipo-protein (HDL) of smokers was 0.86 ± 0.30 mmol/l and of non-smokers is 1.20 ± 0.41 mmo/l. There was statistically significant difference between serum lipid profile of smokers and non-smokers (p<0.05). the mean serum Total Cholesterol (TC), TAGs and LDL were significantly higher in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However HDL was significantly lower in smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Conclusion: There was statistically significant difference between PEFR of smokers and non-smokers. Higher and significant mean values of TC, TAG and LDL-C was observed in smokers as compared to non-smokers. (author)

  6. Numerical and experimental study of expiratory flow in the case of major upper airway obstructions with fluid structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouly, F.; van Hirtum, A.; Lagrée, P.-Y.; Pelorson, X.; Payan, Y.

    2008-02-01

    This study deals with the numerical prediction and experimental description of the flow-induced deformation in a rapidly convergent divergent geometry which stands for a simplified tongue, in interaction with an expiratory airflow. An original in vitro experimental model is proposed, which allows measurement of the deformation of the artificial tongue, in condition of major initial airway obstruction. The experimental model accounts for asymmetries in geometry and tissue properties which are two major physiological upper airway characteristics. The numerical method for prediction of the fluid structure interaction is described. The theory of linear elasticity in small deformations has been chosen to compute the mechanical behaviour of the tongue. The main features of the flow are taken into account using a boundary layer theory. The overall numerical method entails finite element solving of the solid problem and finite differences solving of the fluid problem. First, the numerical method predicts the deformation of the tongue with an overall error of the order of 20%, which can be seen as a preliminary successful validation of the theory and simulations. Moreover, expiratory flow limitation is predicted in this configuration. As a result, both the physical and numerical models could be useful to understand this phenomenon reported in heavy snorers and apneic patients during sleep.

  7. Effect of a mixture of pyridostigmine and atropine on forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and serum cholinesterase activity in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B F; Gefke, Kaj; Mosbech, H

    1985-01-01

    injection with a decrease to 27 +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM) of the original activity. Forced expiratory volume in the first 1s (FEV1) was measured at fixed time intervals for 90 min. No decrease in FEV1 was observed; on the contrary, there was a small increase. We conclude that atropine effectively antagonizes...

  8. COMBINED REDUCED FORCED EXPIRATORY VOLUME IN 1-SECOND (FEV1) AND PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE IN SEDENTARY ELDERS WITH FUNCTIONAL LIMITATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brinkley, Tina; Church, Timothy; Liu, Christine K.; Manini, Todd; Newman, Anne B.; Stafford, Randall S.; McDermott, Mary M.; Gill, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Because they are potentially modifiable and may coexist, we evaluated the combined occurrence of a reduced forced expiratory volume in 1-second (FEV1) and peripheral artery disease (PAD), including its association with exertional symptoms, physical inactivity, and impaired mobility, in sedentary elders with functional limitations. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Lifestyle Interventions and Independence in Elder (LIFE) Study. Participants 1307 sedentary community-dwelling persons, mean age 78.9, with functional limitations (Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB] the San Diego Claudication Questionnaire. Physical inactivity was evaluated by percent of accelerometry wear-time with activity the 400MWT (gait-speed The two combined conditions were associated with exertional dyspnea (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 2.59 [1.20, 5.60]) and slow gait-speed (adjOR 3.15 [1.72, 5.75]) but not with exertional leg symptoms, high sedentary-time, and moderate-to-severe mobility impairment. Conclusions In sedentary community-dwelling elders with functional limitations, a reduced FEV1 and PAD frequently coexisted and, in combination, were strongly associated with exertional dyspnea and slow gait-speed (a frailty indicator that increases the risk of deleterious outcomes). PMID:24973990

  9. ERGONOMIC CONSIDERATION OF THE EFFECT OF FLOUR DUST ON PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE OF BAKERS IN ABEOKUTA, OGUN STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ibrahim MUSA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flour dusts are one of the most harmful chemicals in the bakery industries which could lead to serious heart and lung diseases. This study investigated the effect of flour dust on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate of male bakers in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria with the relationship to the anthropometrical parameters. A total of One hundred Eighty (180 male participants were investigated, where ninety (90 participants were bakers and ninety (90 individuals as control group. The Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and anthropometrical parameters of the participant were measured using mini-Wright peak flow meter (PFM 20, OMRON and Detecto PD300MDHR (Cardinal Scale manufacturing company, USA column scale with digital height rod was used to measure body mass [kg] and height (cm respectively. The PEFR and anthropometrical parameters of the bakers and control groups were analysed using descriptive statistics and T-test with SPSS. The results showed that lower PEFR, 182.67 ± 16.34 L/min existed in bakers compared to 287.67 ± 17.02 L/min in the control study. The result also showed that a significant correlation exist between body mass, height and age (P < 0.01, PEFR, height (P < 0.05 and years of exposure (P < 0.01 of the bakers respectively. Furthermore, the results also showed that workers in the dusting and mixing of flour are at a risk of developing related pulmonary function impairment such as asthma. The study concluded that there is need to develop an effective intervention strategy, treatment seeking behaviour through awareness programs to prevent lung impairment diseases among the bakery workers.

  10. [Modification of expiratory peak flow (EPF) in 14 asthmatic subjects from Benin by short duration exercise training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawani, M M; Hounkpatin, S; Akplogan, B

    2006-01-01

    Asthma is a world wide public health problem. It is the most commom chronic disease of school age children. Its severity is in constant increase. The frequency of the hospitalizations for asthma increased in practically all countries. Physical exercises and sport are used more and more as therapeutic means, in northern deveopped countries of where it was very early understood that it is necessary to integrate the asthmatic subjects into a program of specific physical training. This study undertaken in south saharian african country considers also assiduity in a physical training program as the factor of increase in the expiratory peak flow, of reinforcement of some principal muscles necessary to the improvement, and of the respiratory function of the asthmatic subject. Physical exercise is used as a non pharmacological therapy of asthma. This transversal study was carried out on fourteen asthmatic subjects of colleges in Porto-Novo's town, aged 15 years old to 25 years, of the two sexes. The results showed that: the Expiratory Peak Flow of Point (EPF) of the subjects at the beginning of the program is lower than the minimal average value of the group whatever the sex; the subjects average EPF increased from approximately 35% compared to the average at the beginning of the program; the subjects from family with asthmatic line, are much more inclined with respiratory embarrassments post-exercises than those who did not come from it; the respiratory embarrassments post-exercises noticed in the first weeks, grew blurred before the end of the program. This study suggests physical exercise adapted to the asthmatic subjects for the improvement of their health.

  11. [Value of forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV(6)) in the evaluation of pulmonary function in Chinese elderly males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, M M; Zhang, H S; Sun, T Y

    2017-05-30

    Objective: To evaluate the value of forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV(6)) in the evaluation of pulmonary function in Chinese elderly males. Methods: Pulmonary function tests of elderly who had received regular physical examination in Beijing Hospital from July 2003 to April 2015 were analyzed on subjects with the following characteristics: aged 60 years or older, completion of bronchial dilation test and able to exhale for at least six seconds. The included subjects were divided into 2 groups: 60-function in the study population was evaluated. Results: A total of 475 elderly men aged 60 years or older were enrolled, with a mean age of (77.13±9.53) years. Totally there were 269 subjects in 60-accounted for 56.6%; 206 subjects were in ≥80 years group, which accounted for 43.4%. There were 292 subjects with irreversible airflow obstruction, accounting for 61.5%. In all the included subjects, FEV(6) was significantly correlated with FVC and post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FEV(6) was significantly correlated with post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC( r =0.971, 0.978; both P function middle group, a total of 73 cases, which included 20 cases ≥80 years old. The proportion of middle group among ≥80 years group was significantly less than that of the 60-function middle group, FEV(1)/FEV(6) or FEV(1)/FVC had no correlation with inspiratory capacity or residual volume/total lung capacity (all P >0.05). Conclusions: FEV(6) and FEV(1)/FEV(6) are strongly correlated with FVC and FEV(1)/FVC, and there is excellent agreement between FEV(1)/FEV(6) and FEV(1)/FVC. FEV(6) is simple, easy to operate and with less influencing factors, which can be used as a valid alternative for FVC in diagnosing airflow obstruction in elderly males.

  12. Distribution of peak expiratory flow variability by age, gender and smoking habits in a random population sample aged 20-70 yrs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, H M; Schouten, J. P.; Postma, D S; Rijcken, B

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability can be considered as an index of bronchial lability. Population studies on PEF variability are few. The purpose of the current paper is to describe the distribution of PEF variability in a random population sample of adults with a wide age range (20-70 yrs),

  13. Inadequate peak expiratory flow meter characteristics detected by a computerised explosive decompression device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, M.R.; Atkins, P.R.; Pedersen, O.F.

    2003-01-01

    Methods: The dynamic response of mini-Wright (MW), Vitalograph (V), TruZone (TZ), MultiSpiro (MS) and pneumotachograph (PT) flow meters was tested by delivering two differently shaped flow-time profiles from a computer controlled explosive decompression device fitted with a fast response solenoid.......1) and 257 (39.2), respectively, and at ≈200 l/min they were 51 (23.9) and 1 (0.5). All the meters met ATS accuracy requirements when tested with their waveforms. Conclusions: An improved method for testing the dynamic response of flow meters detects marked overshoot (underdamping) of TZ and MS responses...

  14. Effect of bedding control on amount of house dust mite allergens, asthma symptoms, and peak expiratory flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inn-Sook

    2003-04-30

    This quasi-experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of bedding control on the amount of house dust mite (HDM) allergens, asthma symptoms, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in asthmatics sensitive to HDMs. The subjects in the study were drawn from patients receiving treatment at the allergy clinics of three university-affiliated hospitals in Seoul. Forty-two patients without prior practice of the bedding control used in this study were selected. They commonly showed bronchial asthma caused by HDMs, and exhibited strong positive points (more than 3 points) in skin prick test (D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus), and positive response in both fluoro-allergosorbent test (FAST), and PC20 methacholine test. Of the subjects, alternatively, 22 were assigned to the experimental group and 20 to control group. Bedding control consisted of the use of outer cotton covers, boiling them for 10 minutes fortnightly, and disinfecting bedding by sunlight fortnightly. The experimental group was under bedding control for 4 weeks. The data were collected from October 2000 to January 2001. The results were as follows: 1. After bedding control, the total amount of HDM allergens decreased significantly in the experimental group. However there was no significant difference in the decrease of the amount of HDM allergens between the two groups. 2. Of the asthma symptoms, there was significant difference only in the decrease of the frequency of dyspnea, and in the increase of sleeping disturbance between the two groups after bedding control. 3. After bedding control, PEFR increased in the experimental group whereas it decreased in the control group. However, neither change was significant. The above findings indicate that bedding control improved several asthma symptoms in asthmatics sensitive to HDMs. Accordingly, we suggest that bedding control is adopted as a useful nursing intervention in the field.

  15. Effects of Hemibridge with Ball and Balloon Exercise on Forced Expiratory Volume and Pain in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorida Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Suboptimal breathing patterns and impairments of posture and trunk stability are often associated with musculoskeletal complaints such as low back pain. Respiration is also affected by poor neuromuscular control of core muscles. Immediate effects of hemibridge with ball and balloon exercise has been studied on chronic pain in athlete population. Objective: To evaluate the effects of hemibridge with ball and balloon exercise on pain, forced expiratory volume and functional abilities in patients with chronic low back pain using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV and Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted among 30 participants between the age of 21 to 55 years with chronic non-specific LBP. The participants were given a hemibridge with ball and balloon exercise. Pre-interventional and 3rd day Post-interventional outcome measurements were taken using VAS, FEV1 and FEV6 and MODQ. Results: The difference between pre-and post of VAS was statistically highly significant (p=0.0001. The p value of FEV6 and MODQ by paired t test was statistically significant with p value of 0.02 and 0.0007 respectively. Conclusion: The study concludes that there is an immediate effect of hemibridge with ball and balloon exercise on pain, FEV6 and functional ability in patients with chronic LBP.

  16. Comparative evaluation of ventilatory function through pre and postoperative peak expiratory flow in patients submitted to elective upper abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Caio Fernando Cavanus; Gonçalves, José Júlio Saraiva

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the ventilatory function by Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) in the immediate pre and postoperative periods of patients undergoing elective surgical procedures in the upper abdomen. we conducted a prospective cohort study including 47 patients admitted to the Hospital Regional de Mato Grosso do Sul from July to December 2014, who underwent elective surgeries of the upper abdomen, and submiited to spirometric evaluation and measurement of PEF immediately before and after surgery. of the 47 patients, 22 (46.8%) were male and 25 (53.20%) female. The mean preoperative PEF was 412.1±91.7, and postoperative, 331.0±87.8, indicating significant differences between the two variables. Men had higher PEF values than women, both in the pre and postoperative periods. There was a reasonable inverse correlation between age and decreased PEF. Both situations showed statistical significance (pvalores de PFE do que o feminino, tanto no pré-cirúrgico quanto no pós-cirúrgico. Observou-se razoável correlação inversamente proporcional entre as variáveis idade e diminuição do PFE. Ambas as situações mostraram significância estatística (pvalores de PFE tanto no pré como no pós-operatório. O grupo composto por portadores de co-morbidades (HAS e/ou DM) apresentou menores valores de PFE tanto no pré como no pós-operatório (p=0,005). Em ambos os grupos, o pós-operatório determinou uma diminuição significativa do PFE (p<0,001). O tipo de cirurgia realizada e o tipo de anestesia não mostraram diferenças significantes em relação ao PFE. as variáveis mais implicadas na diminuição da função ventilatória, avaliadas através da PFE, foram: idade avançada, tabagismo e presença de comorbidades.

  17. Peak expiratory flow rate in healthy rural school going children (5-16 years) of bellur region for construction of nomogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cb, Manjunath; Sc, Kotinatot; Babu, Manjunatha

    2013-12-01

    Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) recording is an essential measure in the management and evaluation of asthmatic children.It is helpful in monitoring disease progression and response to treatment. The PEFR can be measured by a simple instrument-peak expiratory flow meter. To construct nomogram of PEFR in healthy rural school going children from Mandya district of Karnataka state, India and to use these nomograms for comparison with that of children with obstructive lung diseases for this region. The study was conducted on Healthy rural school going children, both boys and girls between the age group of 5-16 years. For the determination of PEFR we used Mini Wright Peak Flow Meter. At three time measurement, the highest value of PEFR was recorded. Formula for prediction of PEFR was estimated by linear regression analysis after the correlation of PEFR with age and height for both boys and girls. PEFR was measured in 1028 children aged 5 to 16 years by using Wright's mini peak flow meter. Prediction equations were derived for PEFR with height in boys and girls. Normograms were plotted based on the observed values of PEFR in the study population. Significant linear correlation was seen of PEFR with height in boys (paffected by regional, environmental and anthropometric factors. Hence, it is necessary to have regional reference values for children. Among different factors affecting PEFR, height correlates better with PEFR than weight and sex. Hence nomograms constructed can be used for this region.

  18. An asthma patient with steroid-resistant decrease in peak expiratory flow after the Great East Japan earthquake showing spontaneous recovery after 1 month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Haida, Michiko; Suko, Matsunobu

    2012-01-01

    People living in Japan were affected in various ways after the Great East Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011. A 52-year-old female asthma patient not directly affected by the disaster experienced a decrease in peak expiratory flow (PEF) immediately after the earthquake. Despite increasing the inhaled and oral corticosteroid doses, her PEF did not recover. One month later, her PEF level abruptly returned to normal with minimal medications, which were previously ineffective, and the asthma-related symptoms vanished. The stabilization of her state of mind and actual social state seemed to be a part of the reason for the patient's recovery.

  19. Effects of non-fatiguing respiratory muscle loading induced by expiratory flow limitation during strenuous incremental cycle exercise on metabolic stress and circulating natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Debord, Camille; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Duranti, Roberto; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2017-12-01

    Exercise induces release of cytokines and increase of circulating natural killers (NK) lymphocyte during strong activation of respiratory muscles. We hypothesised that non-fatiguing respiratory muscle loading during exercise causes an increase in NK cells and in metabolic stress indices. Heart rate (HR), ventilation (VE), oesophageal pressure (Pes), oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), dyspnoea and leg effort were measured in eight healthy humans (five men and three women, average age of 31 ± 4 years and body weight of 68 ± 10 kg), performing an incremental exercise testing on a cycle ergometer under control condition and expiratory flow limitation (FL) achieved by putting a Starling resistor. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at peak of exercise and at iso-workload corresponding to that reached at the peak of FL exercise during control exercise. Diaphragmatic fatigue was evaluated by measuring the tension time index of the diaphragm. Respiratory muscle overloading caused an earlier interruption of exercise. Diaphragmatic fatigue did not occur in the two conditions. At peak of flow-limited exercise compared to iso-workload, HR, peak inspiratory and expiratory Pes, NK cells and norepinephrine were significantly higher. The number of NK cells was significantly related to ΔPes (i.e. difference between the most and the less negative Pes) and plasmatic catecholamines. Loading of respiratory muscles is able to cause an increase of NK cells provided that activation of respiratory muscles is intense enough to induce a significant metabolic stress.

  20. Normal expiratory flow rate and lung volumes in patients with combined emphysema and interstitial lung disease: a case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Karen L; Cockcroft, Donald W; Fladeland, Derek A; Fenton, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis characteristically show a restrictive pattern including small lung volumes and increased expiratory flow rates resulting from a reduction in pulmonary compliance due to diffuse fibrosis. Conversely, an obstructive pattern with hyperinflation results in emphysema by loss of elastic recoil, expiratory collapse of the peripheral airways and air trapping. When the diseases coexist, pulmonary volumes are compensated, and a smaller than expected reduction or even normal lung volumes can be found. The present report describes 10 patients with progressive breathlessness, three of whom experienced severe limitation in their quality of life. All patients showed lung interstitial involvement and emphysema on computed tomography scan of the chest. The 10 patients showed normal spirometry and lung volumes with severe compromise of gas exchange. Normal lung volumes do not exclude diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in patients with concomitant emphysema. The relatively preserved lung volumes may underestimate the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and attenuate its effects on lung function parameters.

  1. Normal Expiratory Flow Rate and Lung Volumes in Patients with Combined Emphysema and Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Series and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Heathcote

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary function tests in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis characteristically show a restrictive pattern including small lung volumes and increased expiratory flow rates resulting from a reduction in pulmonary compliance due to diffuse fibrosis. Conversely, an obstructive pattern with hyperinflation results in emphysema by loss of elastic recoil, expiratory collapse of the peripheral airways and air trapping. When the diseases coexist, pulmonary volumes are compensated, and a smaller than expected reduction or even normal lung volumes can be found. The present report describes 10 patients with progressive breathlessness, three of whom experienced severe limitation in their quality of life. All patients showed lung interstitial involvement and emphysema on computed tomography scan of the chest. The 10 patients showed normal spirometry and lung volumes with severe compromise of gas exchange. Normal lung volumes do not exclude diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in patients with concomitant emphysema. The relatively preserved lung volumes may underestimate the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and attenuate its effects on lung function parameters.

  2. Forced flow cooling of ISABELLE dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Aggus, J.; Brown, D.P.; Kassner, D.A.; Sondericker, J.H.; Strobridge, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    The superconducting magnets for ISABELLE will use a forced flow supercritical helium cooling system. In order to evaluate this cooling scheme, two individual dipole magnets were first tested in conventional dewars using pool boiling helium. These magnets were then modified for forced flow cooling and retested with the identical magnet coils. The first evaluation test used a l m-long ISA model dipole magnet whose pool boiling performance had been established. The same magnet was then retested with forced flow cooling, energizing it at various operating temperatures until quench occurred. The magnet performance with forced flow cooling was consistent with data from the previous pool boiling tests. The next step in the program was a full-scale ISABELLE dipole ring magnet, 4.25 m long, whose performance was first evaluated with pool boiling. For the forced flow test the magnet was shrunk-fit into an unsplit laminated core encased in a stainless steel cylinder. The high pressure gas is cooled below 4 K by a helium bath which is pumped below atmospheric pressure with an ejector nozzle. The performance of the full-scale dipole magnet in the new configuration with forced flow cooling, showed a 10 percent increase in the attainable maximum current as compared to the pool boiling data

  3. Predictive Value of Different Expressions of Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second (FEV1) for Adverse Outcomes in a Cohort of Adults Aged 80 and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegendörfer, Eralda; Vaes, Bert; Andreeva, Elena; Matheï, Catharina; Van Pottelbergh, Gijs; Degryse, Jean-Marie

    2017-02-01

    Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) is proposed as a marker of healthy ageing and FEV 1 expressions that are independent of reference values have been reported to be better at predicting mortality in older adults. We assess and compare the predictive value of different FEV 1 expressions for mortality, hospitalization, and physical and mental decline in adults aged 80 and older. Population-based, prospective, cohort study. The BELFRAIL study, Belgium. A total of 501 community-dwelling adults aged 80 and older (mean age 84.7 years). Baseline FEV 1 expressed as percent predicted (FEV 1 PP) and z-score (FEV 1 Z) using the Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 reference values; over lowest sex-specific percentile (FEV 1 Q), and height squared (FEV 1 /Ht 2 ) and cubed (FEV 1 /Ht 3 ). Mortality data until 5.1 ± 0.2 years from baseline; hospitalization data until 3.0 ± 0.25 years. Activities of daily living, battery of physical performance tests, Mini-Mental State Examination, and 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale at baseline and after 1.7 ± 0.2 years. Individuals in the lowest quartile of FEV 1 expressions had higher adjusted risk than the rest of study population for all-cause mortality (highest hazard ratio 2.05 [95% Confidence Interval 1.50-2.80] for FEV 1 Q and 2.01 [1.47-2.76] for FEV 1 /Ht 3 ), first hospitalization (highest hazard ratio 1.63 [1.21-2.16] for FEV 1 /Ht 2 and 1.61[1.20-2.16] for FEV 1 /Ht 3 ), mental decline (highest odds ratio 2.80 [1.61-4.89] for FEV 1 Q) and physical decline (only FEV 1 /Ht 3 with odds ratio 1.93 [1.13-3.30]). Based on risk classification improvement measures, FEV 1 /Ht 3 and FEV 1 Q performed better than FEV 1 PP. In a cohort of adults aged 80 and older, FEV 1 expressions that are independent of reference values (FEV 1 /Ht 3 and FEV 1 Q) were better at predicting adverse health outcomes than traditional expressions that depend on reference values, and should be used in further research on FEV 1 and aging

  4. Peak expiratory flow mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and timed up and go performance in elderly women, but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; de Mello Franco, Fábio Gazelato; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Nasri, Fábio; Monteiro-Costa, Maria Luiza; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; de Matos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify if there is sex difference in the associations among handgrip strength, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and timed up and go (TUG) test results. The sample included 288 consecutive elderly men (n=93) and women (n=195). Functional capacity was measured using the TUG test, and muscle strength was measured based on handgrip. Moreover, as a measure of current health status, PEF was evaluated. Linear regression procedures were performed to analyze the relationships between handgrip and both PEF and TUG test results, with adjustment for confounders, and to identify the possible mediating role of PEF in the association between handgrip strength and TUG test results. In men, handgrip strength was associated with both PEF and TUG performance (prelationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance remained significant. In women, handgrip strength was also associated with both PEF and TUG performance (prelationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance was no longer significant. Mobility in the elderly is sex dependent. In particular, PEF mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance in women, but not in men.

  5. Inverse Magnus force in free molecular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczynski, A.; Weidman, P.

    2003-11-01

    The sidewise force on a spinning sphere translating in a rarified gas is calculated assuming that the flow can be treated as a stream of free molecules. This approach was first introduced by Newton in his investigation of the drag force. While it is not fruitful at subsonic flows in normal conditions, it gives remarkably accurate results at hypersonic speeds. Here it is applied to the high Knudsen number flow over spinning spheres, cylinders, cubes and more generally any spinning parallelepiped. In all cases, the force is in the opposite direction to that of the classical Magnus effect in continuum flow. The simple calculation for a sphere reproduces the isothermal result obtained recently by Borg, et al. (Phys. Fluids, 15, 2003) using Maxwellian distribution functions. For any parallelepiped, including the cube, just like for the sphere and the cylinder, the force is shown to be steady. In each of these, the magnitude of the inverse Magnus force is proprtional to the product of the angular speed, translational speed, and the mas of the gas displaced by the object.

  6. Study of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate as the Assessment of Lung Function in Occupationally Exposed Petrol Pump Workers of Western Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Smita V

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fast urbanization trends, rapid industrial growth, globalization, and poor environmental conditions at work places have created a lot of healthrelated issues. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR as the assessment of lung function in occupationally exposed petrol pump workers and also check whether PEFR increases or decreases with duration of exposure. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 male petrol pump workers between age group of 20-40 years who were working as petrol filling attendants for more than one year from western Maharashtra. 50 normal healthy males with same socioeconomic status were chosen as controls to find out the effect of occupational exposure to petroleum product on PEFR as the assessment of lung function tests. Petrol pump workers were divided into three groups based on their duration of exposure i.e. 1- 5 yrs, 6- 10 yrs and more than 11 years. PEFR of petrol pump workers and control was measured by using a Mini Wright peak flow meter which is a portable device for measuring ventilator functions. Comparisons was done using unpaired t-test for 2 groups comparisons and one way ANOVAfor multiple groups of exposures. Results: The PEFR was significantly lower decrease (p=0.001 around petrol pump workers (389.17 as compared to control (534.2. As year of exposure increased mean value of PEFR was significantly decreased from 452.17, 378.00 and 283.64 respectively in petrol pump workers. Conclusion: The results suggested that respiratory functions i.e. PEFR of occupationally exposed petrol pump workers are significantly reduced as compared to controls, also PEFR is significantly reduced with increase in the duration of exposure.

  7. Forces on particles in microstreaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Thameem, Raqeeb

    2015-11-01

    In various microfluidic applications, vortical steady streaming from ultrasonically driven microbubbles is used in concert with a pressure-driven channel flow to manipulate objects. While a quantitative theory of this boundary-induced streaming is available, little work has been devoted to a fundamental understanding of the forces exerted on microparticles in boundary streaming flows, even though the differential action of such forces is central to applications like size-sensitive sorting. Contrary to other microfluidic sorting devices, the forces in bubble microstreaming act over millisecond times and micron length scales, without the need for accumulated deflections over long distances. Accordingly, we develop a theory of hydrodynamic forces on the fast time scale of bubble oscillation using the lubrication approximation, showing for the first time how particle displacements are rectified near moving boundaries over multiple oscillations in parallel with the generation of the steady streaming flow. The dependence of particle migration on particle size and the flow parameters is compared with experimental data. The theory is applicable to boundary streaming phenomena in general and demonstrates how particles can be sorted very quickly and without compromising device throughput. We acknowledge support by the National Science Foundation under grant number CBET-1236141.

  8. Computer quantification of “angle of collapse” on maximum expiratory flow volume curve for diagnosing asthma-COPD overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang, Mengshuang Xie, Shuang Dou, Liwei Cui, Wei Xiao Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Background: In a previous study, we demonstrated that asthma patients with signs of emphysema on quantitative computed tomography (CT fulfill the diagnosis of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS. However, quantitative CT measurements of emphysema are not routinely available for patients with chronic airway disease, which limits their application. Spirometry was a widely used examination tool in clinical settings and shows emphysema as a sharp angle in the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV curve, called the “angle of collapse (AC”. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of the AC in the diagnosis of emphysema and ACOS. Methods: This study included 716 participants: 151 asthma patients, 173 COPD patients, and 392 normal control subjects. All the participants underwent pulmonary function tests. COPD and asthma patients also underwent quantitative CT measurements of emphysema. The AC was measured using computer models based on Matlab software. The value of the AC in the diagnosis of emphysema and ACOS was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results: The AC of COPD patients was significantly lower than that of asthma patients and control subjects. The AC was significantly negatively correlated with emphysema index (EI; r=-0.666, P<0.001, and patients with high EI had a lower AC than those with low EI. The ROC curve analysis showed that the AC had higher diagnostic efficiency for high EI (area under the curve =0.876 than did other spirometry parameters. In asthma patients, using the AC ≤137° as a surrogate criterion for the diagnosis of ACOS, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 89.1%, respectively. Conclusion: The AC on the MEFV curve quantified by computer models correlates with the extent of emphysema. The AC may become a

  9. Acute effects of particulate matter and black carbon from seasonal fires on peak expiratory flow of schoolchildren in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla da Silva Viana Jacobson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Panel studies have shown adverse effects of air pollution from biomass burning on children's health. This study estimated the effect of current levels of outdoor air pollution in the Amazonian dry season on peak expiratory flow (PEF. METHODS: A panel study with 234 schoolchildren from 6 to 15 years old living in the municipality of Tangará da Serra, Brazil was conducted. PEF was measured daily in the dry season in 2008. Mixed-effects models and unified modelling repeated for every child were applied. Time trends, temperature, humidity, and subject characteristics were regarded. Inhalable particulate matter (PM10, fine particulate matter (PM2.5, and black carbon (BC effects were evaluated based on 24-hour exposure lagged by 1 to 5 days and the averages of 2 or 3 days. Polynomial distributed lag models (PDLM were also applied. RESULTS: The analyses revealed reductions in PEF for PM10 and PM2.5 increases of 10 µg/m(3 and 1 µg/m(3 for BC. For PM10, the reductions varied from 0.15 (confidence interval (CI95%: -0.29; -0.01 to 0.25 l/min (CI95%: -0.40; -0.10. For PM2.5, they ranged from 0.46 (CI95%: -0.86 to -0.06 to 0.54 l/min (CI95%:-0.95; -0.14. As for BC, the reduction was approximately 1.40 l/min. In relation to PDLM, adverse effects were noticed in models based on the exposure on the current day through the previous 3 days (PDLM 0-3 and on the current day through the previous 5 days (PDLM 0-5, specially for PM10. For all children, for PDLM 0-5 the global effect was important for PM10, with PEF reduction of 0.31 l/min (CI95%: -0.56; -0.05. Also, reductions in lags 3 and 4 were observed. These associations were stronger for children between 6 and 8 years old. CONCLUSION: Reductions in PEF were associated with air pollution, mainly for lagged exposures of 3 to 5 days and for younger children.

  10. [The influence of positive end-expiratory pressure on cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunli; Chen, Zhi; Lu, Yuanhua; He, Huiwei; Zeng, Weihua

    2014-05-01

    To explore the influence of different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS). A prospective study was conducted. Moderate or severe ARDS patients admitted to Department of Critical Care Medicine of Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital from January 1st, 2013 to October 1st, 2013 were enrolled. The changes in hemodynamics, respiratory mechanics and gas exchange under different levels of PEEP were observed. CBF velocity of middle cerebral artery (MCA) was measured using transcranial Doppler (TCD), and breath-holding index (BHI) was also calculated. 35 patients with ARDS were included. The oxygenation index (OI), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), plat pressure (Pplat) and central venous pressure (CVP) were markedly elevated (OI: 324.7±117.2 mmHg vs. 173.4±95.8 mmHg, t=5.913, P=0.000; PIP: 34.7±9.1 cmH2O vs. 26.1±7.9 cmH2O,t=4.222, P=0.000; Pplat: 30.5±8.4 cmH2O vs. 22.2±7.1 cmH2O, t=4.465, P=0.000; CVP: 12.1±3.5 mmHg vs. 8.8±2.2 mmHg, t=4.723, P=0.000) when PEEP was increased from (6.4±1.0) cmH2O to (14.5±2.0) cmH2O (1 cmH2O=0.098 kPa). But no significant difference in the heart rate (85.5±19.1 beats/min vs. 82.7±17.3 beats/min, t=0.643, P=0.523), mean arterial pressure (73.5±12.4 mmHg vs. 76.4±15.1 mmHg, t=0.878, P=0.383) and CBF velocity of MCA [peak systolic flow velocity (Vmax): 91.26±17.57 cm/s vs. 96.64±18.71 cm/s, t=1.240, P=0.219; diastolic flow velocity (Vmin): 31.54±7.71 cm/s vs. 33.87±8.53 cm/s, t=1.199, P=0.235; mean velocity (Vmean): 51.19±12.05 cm/s vs. 54.27±13.36 cm/s, t=1.013, P=0.315] was found. 18 patients with BHI<0.1 at baseline demonstrated that cerebral vasomotor reactivity was poor. BHI was slightly decreased with increase in PEEP (0.78±0.16 vs. 0.86±0.19, t=1.905, P=0.061). Some of moderate or severe ARDS patients without central nervous system disease have independent of preexisting cerebral

  11. Irreversible energy flow in forced Vlasov dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Plunk, Gabriel G.

    2014-10-01

    © EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag. The recent paper of Plunk [G.G. Plunk, Phys. Plasmas 20, 032304 (2013)] considered the forced linear Vlasov equation as a model for the quasi-steady state of a single stable plasma wavenumber interacting with a bath of turbulent fluctuations. This approach gives some insight into possible energy flows without solving for nonlinear dynamics. The central result of the present work is that the forced linear Vlasov equation exhibits asymptotically zero (irreversible) dissipation to all orders under a detuning of the forcing frequency and the characteristic frequency associated with particle streaming. We first prove this by direct calculation, tracking energy flow in terms of certain exact conservation laws of the linear (collisionless) Vlasov equation. Then we analyze the steady-state solutions in detail using a weakly collisional Hermite-moment formulation, and compare with numerical solution. This leads to a detailed description of the Hermite energy spectrum, and a proof of no dissipation at all orders, complementing the collisionless Vlasov result.

  12. Irreversible energy flow in forced Vlasov dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Plunk, Gabriel G.; Parker, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    © EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag. The recent paper of Plunk [G.G. Plunk, Phys. Plasmas 20, 032304 (2013)] considered the forced linear Vlasov equation as a model for the quasi-steady state of a single stable plasma wavenumber interacting with a bath of turbulent fluctuations. This approach gives some insight into possible energy flows without solving for nonlinear dynamics. The central result of the present work is that the forced linear Vlasov equation exhibits asymptotically zero (irreversible) dissipation to all orders under a detuning of the forcing frequency and the characteristic frequency associated with particle streaming. We first prove this by direct calculation, tracking energy flow in terms of certain exact conservation laws of the linear (collisionless) Vlasov equation. Then we analyze the steady-state solutions in detail using a weakly collisional Hermite-moment formulation, and compare with numerical solution. This leads to a detailed description of the Hermite energy spectrum, and a proof of no dissipation at all orders, complementing the collisionless Vlasov result.

  13. Sultan - forced flow, high field test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, I.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1981-01-01

    Three European laboratories: CNEN (Frascati, I) ECN (Petten, NL) and SIN (Villigen, CH) decided to coordinate their development efforts and to install a common high field forced flow test facility at Villigen Switzerland. The test facility SULTAN (Supraleiter Testanlage) is presently under construction. As a first step, an 8T/1m bore solenoid with cryogenic periphery will be ready in 1981. The cryogenic system, data acquisition system and power supplies which are contributed by SIN are described. Experimental feasibilities, including cooling, and instrumentation are reviewed. Progress of components and facility construction is described. Planned extension of the background field up to 12T by insert coils is outlined. 5 refs

  14. Abdominal wall reconstruction for large incisional hernia restores expiratory lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian K; Backer, Vibeke; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory complications secondary to intermittent intra-abdominal hypertension and/or atelectasis are common after abdominal wall reconstruction for large incisional hernias. It is unknown if the respiratory function of this patient group is affected long term or impairs activities...... of daily living. We hypothesized that abdominal wall reconstruction for large incisional hernia would not lead to improved, long-term pulmonary function or respiratory quality of life. METHODS: Eighteen patients undergoing open abdominal wall reconstruction with mesh for a large incisional hernia...... (horizontal fascial defect width >10 cm) were compared with 18 patients with an intact abdominal wall who underwent colorectal resection. Patients were examined pre- and 1-year postoperatively. Examined measures included forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in first second, peak expiratory flow...

  15. Expiratory timing in obstructive sleep apnoeas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibella, F; Marrone, O; Sanci, S; Bellia, V; Bonsignore, G

    1990-03-01

    Diaphragmatic electromyogram was recorded during NREM sleep in 4 patients affected by obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome in order to evaluate the behaviour of expiratory time (TE) in the course of the obstructive apnoea-ventilation cycle. The two components of TE, i.e. time of post-inspiratory inspiratory activity (TPIIA) and time of expiratory phase 2 (TE2) were separately analysed. TPIIA showed a short duration, with only minor variations, within the apnoea, while its duration was more variable and longer in the interapnoeic periods: the longest TPIIA values were associated with the highest inspiratory volumes in the same breaths. This behaviour seemed regulated according to the need of a more or less effective expiratory flow braking, probably as a result of pulmonary stretch receptors discharge. Conversely TE2 showed a continuous gradual modulation, progressively increasing in the pre-apnoeic period, decreasing during the apnoea and increasing in the post-apnoeic period: these TE2 variations seemed related to oscillations in chemical drive. These data show that TE in the obstructive apnoea-ventilation cycle results from a different modulation in its two components and suggest that both mechanical and chemical influences play a role in its overall duration.

  16. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  17. Forced underwater laminar flows with active magnetohydrodynamic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Dean; Urzhumov, Yaroslav

    2017-12-01

    Theory and practical implementations for wake-free propulsion systems are proposed and proven with computational fluid dynamic modeling. Introduced earlier, the concept of active hydrodynamic metamaterials is advanced by introducing magnetohydrodynamic metamaterials, structures with custom-designed volumetric distribution of Lorentz forces acting on a conducting fluid. Distributions of volume forces leading to wake-free, laminar flows are designed using multivariate optimization. Theoretical indications are presented that such flows can be sustained at arbitrarily high Reynolds numbers. Moreover, it is shown that in the limit Re ≫102 , a fixed volume force distribution may lead to a forced laminar flow across a wide range of Re numbers, without the need to reconfigure the force-generating metamaterial. Power requirements for such a device are studied as a function of the fluid conductivity. Implications to the design of distributed propulsion systems underwater and in space are discussed.

  18. Relationship of serum levels of interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and C-reactive protein with forced expiratory volume in first second in patients with mustard lung and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriary, Alireza; Panahi, Yunes; Shirali, Saeed; Rahmani, Hossein

    2017-06-01

    The chronic systemic inflammation is a result of releasing inflammatory cytokines from the cells relating to the body immunity system and chronic activation of the innate immunity system. To evaluate the relationship among serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), C-reactive protein (CRP) with forced expiratory volume in 1 st s (FEV 1 ) in patients with mustard lung (ML) and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). A published literature search was performed through SID, web of science, ISI, Science Direct, Scopus, Medline, and PubMed databases for articles published in English. The correlation coefficient ( r ) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using random or fixed effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed using χ 2 and I 2 statistics. In total, 4 published studies were included in the final analysis. Using the random-effect model, meta-analysis showed that the r was -0.052 (95% CI: -0.14-0.049, p = 0.28) at serum level of IL-8, serum levels of CRP and FEV 1 in these results were r = -0.13, p = 0.012, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and FEV 1 levels were r = -0.39, p = 0.03 in the conducted studies on mustard lung patients. The IL-6 serum level was explored in COPD patients. The results of the given studies in these patients are r = -0.006, 95% CI: -0.37-0.15, and p = 0.44. In this meta-analysis, there was evidence that serum levels of CRP and TNF have been significantly increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases compared to the healthy control group, which signifies the presence of systemic inflammation in ML and COPD patients.

  19. Compressible fluid flows driven by stochastic forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Maslowski, B.; Novotný, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 3 (2013), s. 1342-1358 ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : stochastic Navier-Stokes equations * compressible fluid * random driving force Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.570, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022039612004135

  20. Sodium evaporation into a forced argon flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Toshiaki; Kasahara, Fumio; Ishiguro, Ryoji

    1975-01-01

    Evaporation from a rectangular sodium free surface into an argon flow was measured. Tests were carried out with varying sodium temperature, argon velocity and argon temperature respectively under conditions of fog formation being possible. In order to clarify the enhancement of evaporation by fog formation, convection heat transfer from a plate of the same geometry into an air flow was also measured. The evaporation rate and Sherwood number were compared with those predicted by both the heat transfer experiment and the theory proposed by Hill and Szekely, and also a comparison was run with the previously reported experimental results of sodium evaporation. As a result it was shown that the sodium evaporation rate in this experiment is at least four times as large as that predicted by the heat transfer experiment and varies almost linearly with the heat transfer rate and the sodium vapour pressure. (auth.)

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practice of nurses toward peak expiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Peak expiratory flow meter (PEFM) is an easy to use, relatively cheap device that can be used for guiding management of bronchial asthma by the patients at home according to a preset plan by health care workers. Objective: The aim of the study is to reveal the extent of knowledge and perception of nurses ...

  2. Control of flow geometry using electromagnetic body forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, L.; Bocquet, S.; Ferrari, S.; Garcia de la Cruz, J.M.; Lardeau, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents conceptual experiments and simulations aiming at controlling flow geometries. Such flow design is performed by driving electromagnetically a shallow layer of brine, the forcing being generated by a transverse electrical current and different combinations of permanent magnets placed underneath the brine supporting wall. It is shown how different basic flow characteristics can be obtained with a single pair of magnets, by varying the angle with the electrical current. These basic flows are proposed as potential building blocks for advanced and complex flows studies. Three typical flow structures are presented to illustrate these building blocks. The discussion is then extended to multi-scale geometry by using blocks of various sizes. The flow is analysed using complementary experiments and numerical simulations. A good agreement is found between the 3D simulations and the experiments for both velocity and acceleration fields, which allows a higher degree of confidence in designing and modelling such flows. As the control of the flow geometry is important for mixing, in particular at low Reynolds number, we also illustrate the different stirring properties of the electromagnetically forced flows by comparing visualisations of passive scalars. They reveal complementary mixing properties for each of the building blocks.

  3. Forces on zonal flows in tokamak core turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallatschek, K.; Itoh, K.

    2005-01-01

    The saturation of stationary zonal flows (ZF) in the core of a tokamak has been analyzed in numerical fluid turbulence computer studies. The model was chosen to properly represent the kinetic global plasma flows, i.e., undamped stationary toroidal or poloidal flows and Landau damped geodesic acoustic modes. Reasonable agreement with kinetic simulations in terms of magnitude of transport and occurrence of the Dimits shift was verified. Contrary to common perception, in the final saturated state of turbulence and ZFs, the customary perpendicular Reynolds stress continues to drive the ZFs. The force balance is established by the essentially quasilinear parallel Reynolds stress acting on the parallel return flows required by incompressibility. (author)

  4. Stationary flow in magnetic tubes of force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvold, O.; Jensen, E.

    1976-01-01

    For one particular set of boundary conditions Pikel'ner obtained a stationary solution displaying a condensation, which he applied to quiescent prominences. Calculations in the stationary case for a range of parameters have been carried out, after some modifications of the basic equations. These modifications involved a complete non-LTE formulation of the ionization equilibrium, an improved radiative loss-function and more accurate values of the thermodynamic parameters. The calculations were carried out for a hydrogen helium mixture with B = 10 and for a pure hydrogen gas. The solutions were terminated where the optical thickness in lyα along the tube exceeded unity, corresponding to T approx.equal to 20 000K. The solutions are strongly dependent upon the geometry of the tube of force. Condensations may be made to appear on the ascending as well as on the descending branch of the magnetic arch by varying the parameters. Solutions also depend strongly upon the energy input into the tube at the footpoint, mainly determined by the injection velocity and the starting value of the temperature gradient. The radiative loss is of less importance for the values of the gas pressure close to the Pikel'ner case. Recent observational data indicate gas pressure in the chromosphere corona transition region as much as 4 times the boundary pressure assumed by Pikel'ner. Such a high initial pressure, however, produce no condensation. In the temperature range 1.2x10 5 K > T > 5x10 4 K the temperature gradients in the condensations are in fair agreement with observations of the CIII lines in the EUV-region. For higher temperatures 5x10 5 K > T > 2x10 5 K our temperature gradients are much smaller than those indicated by observations. (Auth.)

  5. Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson Hans-Uno

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law.

  6. Cryogenic recovery analysis of forced flow supercritical helium cooled superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.Y.

    1977-08-01

    A coupled heat conduction and fluid flow method of solution was presented for cryogenic stability analysis of cabled composite superconductors of large scale magnetic coils. The coils are cooled by forced flow supercritical helium in parallel flow channels. The coolant flow reduction in one of the channels during the spontaneous recovery transient, after the conductor undergoes a transition from superconducting to resistive, necessitates a parallel channel analysis. A way to simulate the parallel channel analysis is described to calculate the initial channel inlet flow rate required for recovery after a given amount of heat is deposited. The recovery capability of a NbTi plus copper composite superconductor design is analyzed and the results presented. If the hydraulics of the coolant flow is neglected in the recovery analysis, the recovery capability of the superconductor will be over-predicted

  7. Studies of heat transport to forced-flow He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Kashani, A.; Van Sciver, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of heat transport to forced-flow He II are reported. The work is pertinent to the transfer of He II in space. An analytical model has been developed that establishes a condition for two-phase flow to occur in the transfer line. This condition sets an allowable limit to the heat leak into the transfer line. Experimental measurements of pressure drop and flow meter performances indicate that turbulent He II can be analyzed in terms of classical pressure drop correlations

  8. Study on the flow reduction of forced flow superconducting magnet and its stable operation condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The forced flow superconducting coil especially made from a Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) is applied for large-scale devices such as fusion magnets and superconducting magnet energy storage (SMES) because it has high mechanical and electrical performance potential. The flow reduction phenomena caused by AC loss generation due to the pulsed operation was found based on the experimental results of three forced flow superconducting coils. And relation between the AC loss generation and flow reduction was defined from viewpoint of the engineering design and operation of the coils. Also the mechanism of flow reduction was investigated and stable operation condition under the flow reduction was clarified for forced flow superconducting coils. First, experiments of three different large-scale superconducting coils were carried out and experimental database of the flow reduction by AC loss generation was established. It was found experimentally that the flow reduction depends on the AC loss generation (W/m{sup 3}) in all of coils. It means the stable operation condition is defined not only the electro magnetism of superconducting coil but also flow condition. Mechanism of the flow reduction was investigated based on the experimental database. Hydraulics was applied to supercritical helium as a coolant. Also performances of the cryogenic pump by which coolant are supplied to the coil and friction of the superconductor as cooling path is considered for hydraulic estimation. The flow reduction of the coil is clarified and predictable by the equations of continuity, momentum and energy balance. Also total mass flow rate of coolant was discussed. The estimation method in the design phase was developed for total mass flow rate which are required under the flow reduction by AC losses. The friction of the superconductor and performance of cryogenic pump should be required for precise prediction of flow reduction. These values were obtained by the experiment data of coil and

  9. Forces on stationary particles in near-bed turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeeckle, Mark W.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Shreve, Ronald L.

    2007-06-01

    In natural flows, bed sediment particles are entrained and moved by the fluctuating forces, such as lift and drag, exerted by the overlying flow on the particles. To develop a better understanding of these forces and the relation of the forces to the local flow, the downstream and vertical components of force on near-bed fixed particles and of fluid velocity above or in front of them were measured synchronously at turbulence-resolving frequencies (200 or 500 Hz) in a laboratory flume. Measurements were made for a spherical test particle fixed at various heights above a smooth bed, above a smooth bed downstream of a downstream-facing step, and in a gravel bed of similarly sized particles as well as for a cubical test particle and 7 natural particles above a smooth bed. Horizontal force was well correlated with downstream velocity and not correlated with vertical velocity or vertical momentum flux. The standard drag formula worked well to predict the horizontal force, but the required value of the drag coefficient was significantly higher than generally used to model bed load motion. For the spheres, cubes, and natural particles, average drag coefficients were found to be 0.76, 1.36, and 0.91, respectively. For comparison, the drag coefficient for a sphere settling in still water at similar particle Reynolds numbers is only about 0.4. The variability of the horizontal force relative to its mean was strongly increased by the presence of the step and the gravel bed. Peak deviations were about 30% of the mean force for the sphere over the smooth bed, about twice the mean with the step, and 4 times it for the sphere protruding roughly half its diameter above the gravel bed. Vertical force correlated poorly with downstream velocity, vertical velocity, and vertical momentum flux whether measured over or ahead of the test particle. Typical formulas for shear-induced lift based on Bernoulli's principle poorly predict the vertical forces on near-bed particles. The

  10. Positive expiratory pressure - Common clinical applications and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Lannefors, Louise; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    Breathing out against resistance, in order to achieve positive expiratory pressure (PEP), is applied by many patient groups. Pursed lips breathing and a variety of devices can be used to create the resistance giving the increased expiratory pressure. Effects on pulmonary outcomes have been discussed in several publications, but the expected underlying physiology of the effect is seldom discussed. The aim of this article is to describe the purpose, performance, clinical application and underlying physiology of PEP when it is used to increase lung volumes, decrease hyperinflation or improve airway clearance. In clinical practice, the instruction how to use an expiratory resistance is of major importance since it varies. Different breathing patterns during PEP increase or reduce expiratory flow, result in movement of EPP centrally or peripherally and can increase or decrease lung volume. It is therefore necessary to give the right instructions to obtain the desired effects. As the different PEP techniques are being used by diverse patient groups it is not possible to give standard instructions. Based on the information given in this article the instructions have to be adjusted to give the optimal effect. There is no consensus regarding optimal treatment frequency and number of cycles included in each treatment session and must also be individualized. In future research, more precise descriptions are needed about physiological aims and specific instructions of how the treatments have been performed to assure as good treatment quality as possible and to be able to evaluate and compare treatment effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of tidal breathing curves for evaluating expiratory airway obstruction in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevroni, Avigdor; Goldman, Aliza; Blank-Brachfeld, Miriam; Abu Ahmad, Wiessam; Ben-Dov, Lior; Springer, Chaim

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate tidal breathing (TB) flow-volume and flow-time curves for identification of expiratory airway obstruction in infants. Pulmonary function tests were analyzed retrospectively in 156 infants aged 3-24 months with persistent or recurrent respiratory complaints. Parameters derived from TB curves were compared to maximal expiratory flow at functional residual capacity ([Formula: see text]maxFRC) measured by rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique. Analyzed parameters were: inspiratory time (t I ), expiratory time (t E ), tidal volume, peak tidal expiratory flow (PTEF), time to peak tidal expiratory flow (t PTEF ), expiratory flow when 50% and 25% of tidal volume remains in the lungs (FEF 50 , FEF 25 , respectively), and the ratios t PTEF /t E , t I /t E , FEF 50 /PTEF, and FEF 25 /PTEF. Statistical comparisons between flow indices and TB parameters were performed using mean squared error and Pearson's sample correlation coefficient. The study population was also divided into two groups based on severity of expiratory obstruction (above or below z-score for [Formula: see text]maxFRC of -2) to generate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and calculate discriminatory values between the groups. TB parameters that were best correlated to [Formula: see text]maxFRC were: t PTEF /t E , FEF 50 /PTEF, and FEF 25 /PTEF, with r = 0.61, 0.67, 0.65, respectively (p < 0.0001 for all). ROC curves for FEF 50 /PTEF, FEF 25 /PTEF and t PTEF /t E showed areas under the curve of 0.813, 0.797, and 0.796, respectively. Cutoff value z-scores of -0.35, -0.34, and -0.43 for these three parameters, respectively, showed an 86% negative predictive value for severe airway obstructions. TB curves can assist in ruling out severe expiratory airway obstruction in infants.

  12. Transient heat transfer for forced convection flow of helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiusheng; Fukuda, Katsuya; Sasaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Manabu

    1999-01-01

    Transient heat transfer coefficients for forced convection flow of helium gas over a horizontal cylinder were measured using a forced convection test loop. The platinum heater with a diameter of 1.0 mm was heated by electric current with an exponential increase of Q 0 exp(t/τ). It was clarified that the heat transfer coefficient approaches the steady-state one for the period τ over 1 s, and it becomes higher for the period of τ shorter than 1 s. The transient heat transfer shows less dependent on the gas flowing velocity when the period becomes very shorter. Semi-empirical correlations for steady-state and transient heat transfer were developed based on the experimental data. (author)

  13. Visualization of bubble behaviors in forced convective subcooled flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Noriaki; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo; Kikura, Hiroshige; Aritomi, Masanori; Komeno, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Condensation characteristics of vapor bubble after the departure from a heated section in forced convective subcooled flow boiling were studied visually by using a high speed camera. The purpose of the present study was to measure two-phase flow parameters in subcooled flow boiling. These two-phase flow parameters are void fraction, interfacial area concentration and Sauter mean diameter, which express bubble interface behaviors. The experimental set-up was designed to measure the two-phase flow parameters necessary for developing composite equations for the two fluid models in subcooled flow boiling. In the present experiments, the mass flux, liquid subcooling and the heater were varied within 100-1000kg/m 2 s, 2-10K and 100-300kW/m 2 respectively. Under these experimental conditions, the bubble images were obtained by a high-speed camera, and analyzed paying attention to the condensation of vapor bubbles. These two-phase parameters were obtained by the experimental data, such as the bubble parameter, the bubble volume and the bubble surface. In the calculation process of the two phase flow parameters, it was confirmed that these parameters are related to the void fraction. (author)

  14. O volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo não é suficiente para avaliar resposta broncodilatadora em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Measuring forced expiratory volume in one second alone is not an accurate method of assessing response to bronchodilators in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felícia de Moraes Branco Tavares

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência de variação no volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo após o uso de broncodilatador, em uma amostra de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. Correlacioná-la com dados clínicos e demográficos e avaliar a freqüência de resposta na capacidade vital forçada, capacidade vital lenta, capacidade inspiratória, volume residual, resistência das vias áreas e condutância das vias aéreas. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e quatro pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica foram submetidos a pletismografia de corpo inteiro e foi medida a reversibilidade da broncoconstrição após o uso de 400 µg de fenoterol. RESULTADOS: Tiveram resposta no volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo 31% dos pacientes. Excluindo-se os pacientes com resposta no volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo, 5% tiveram resposta em 5 dos demais parâmetros, 10% responderam em 4 parâmetros, 17,5% em 3, 27,5% em 2 e 25% em apenas 1 parâmetro. CONCLUSÃO: Os volumes pulmonares estáticos, a resistência e a condutância das vias aéreas, quando incluídos na avaliação da resposta ao broncodilatador juntamente com o volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo, permitem avaliar com maior amplitude o número de pacientes com resposta funcional à prova farmacodinâmica. Os resultados estão de acordo com a observação de que muitos pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, mesmo sem melhora no volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo após o uso de broncodilatador, apresentam melhora clínica e alívio da dispnéia.OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of variation in forced expiratory volume in one second after bronchodilator use in a sample of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, correlating such variation with clinical and demographic variables and evaluating the frequency of response presented in forced vital capacity, slow vital capacity, inspiratory capacity

  15. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järnberg, P O; de Villota, E D; Eklund, J; Granberg, P O

    1978-01-01

    The effects were studied positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on renal function in eight patients with acute respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation. On application of PEEP + 10 cm H2O, central venous pressure increased, systolic blood pressure decreased, urine flow and PAH-clearance were reduced, while inulin clearance remained stable. There was a marked increase in fractional sodium reabsorption and a concurrent decrease in fractional osmolal excretion. Fractional free-water clearance and the ratio UOsm/POsm did change.

  16. Investigations on cooling with forced flow of He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Hofmann, A.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations on heat transfer to flowing subcooled He II at a pressure of 7 bar have been carried out. The value of the conductivity function, f(T), at a temperature greater than Tsub(max), drops rapidly with increasing pressure. Below Tsub(max) the change in f(T) with pressure is less drastic. The Gorter-Mellink constant Asub(GM), increases linearly with pressure in the range 1.5-2 K and its pressure coefficient at 1 bar is 0.038+-0.01 per bar, independent of temperature. The temperature distribution in the test section with and without flow is adequately described by the one-dimensional model discussed in Part 1. It is concluded that for heat transfer to He II in forced flow there is no advantage in working at pressures > 1 bar. (author)

  17. Attractive and Repulsive Forces on Particles in Oscillatory Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Siddhansh; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Raju, David; Thameem, Raqeeb; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2016-11-01

    A large class of oscillating flows gives rise to rectified streaming motion of the fluid. It has recently been shown that particle transport in such flows, excited by bubbles oscillating at ultrasound frequencies, leads to differential displacement and efficient sorting of microparticles by size. We derive a general expression for the instantaneous radial force experienced by a small spherical particle in the vicinity of an oscillating interface, and generalize the radial projection of the Maxey-Riley equation to include this effect. Varying relevant system parameters, we show that the net effect on the particle can be either an attraction to or a repulsion from the bubble surface, depending in particular on the particle size and the particle/fluid density contrast. We demonstrate that these predictions are in agreement with a variety of experiments.

  18. Impact of expiratory strength training in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Emily K; Watts, Stephanie A; Tabor, Lauren; Robison, Raele; Gaziano, Joy; Domer, Amanda S; Richter, Joel; Vu, Tuan; Gooch, Clifton

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and impact of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) on respiratory and bulbar function in persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Twenty-five ALS patients participated in this delayed intervention open-label clinical trial. Following a lead-in period, patients completed a 5-week EMST protocol. Outcome measures included: maximum expiratory pressure (MEP); physiologic measures of swallow and cough; and penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) scores. Of participants who entered the active phase of the study (n = 15), EMST was well tolerated and led to significant increases in MEPs and maximum hyoid displacement during swallowing post-EMST (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for PAS scores or cough spirometry measures. EMST was feasible and well tolerated in this small cohort of ALS patients and led to improvements in expiratory force-generating pressures and swallow kinematics. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings. Muscle Nerve 54: 48-53, 2016. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Study of turbulent natural-circulation flow and low-Prandtl-number forced-convection flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.S.; Thompson, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Calculational methods and results are discussed for the coupled energy and momentum equations of turbulent natural circulation flow and low Prandtl number forced convection flow. The objective of this paper is to develop a calculational method for the study of the thermal-hydraulic behavior of coolant flowing in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor channel under natural circulation conditions. The two-equation turbulence model is used to evaluate the turbulent momentum transport property. Because the analogy between momentum transfer and heat transfer does not generally hold for low Prandtl number fluid and natural circulation flow conditions, the turbulent thermal conductivity is calculated independently using equations similar to the two-equation turbulence model. The numerical technique used in the calculation is the finite element method

  20. Perspectives on continuum flow models for force-driven nano-channel liquid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskok, Ali; Ghorbanian, Jafar; Celebi, Alper

    2017-11-01

    A phenomenological continuum model is developed using systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of force-driven liquid argon flows confined in gold nano-channels at a fixed thermodynamic state. Well known density layering near the walls leads to the definition of an effective channel height and a density deficit parameter. While the former defines the slip-plane, the latter parameter relates channel averaged density with the desired thermodynamic state value. Definitions of these new parameters require a single MD simulation performed for a specific liquid-solid pair at the desired thermodynamic state and used for calibration of model parameters. Combined with our observations of constant slip-length and kinematic viscosity, the model accurately predicts the velocity distribution and volumetric and mass flow rates for force-driven liquid flows in different height nano-channels. Model is verified for liquid argon flow at distinct thermodynamic states and using various argon-gold interaction strengths. Further verification is performed for water flow in silica and gold nano-channels, exhibiting slip lengths of 1.2 nm and 15.5 nm, respectively. Excellent agreements between the model and the MD simulations are reported for channel heights as small as 3 nm for various liquid-solid pairs.

  1. A novel drag force coefficient model for gas–water two-phase flows under different flow patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Zhi, E-mail: shangzhi@tsinghua.org.cn

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel drag force coefficient model was established. • This model realized to cover different flow patterns for CFD. • Numerical simulations were performed under wide range flow regimes. • Validations were carried out through comparisons to experiments. - Abstract: A novel drag force coefficient model has been developed to study gas–water two-phase flows. In this drag force coefficient model, the terminal velocities were calculated through the revised drift flux model. The revised drift flux is different from the traditional drift flux model because the natural curve movement of the bubble was revised through considering the centrifugal force. Owing to the revisions, the revised drift flux model was to extend to 3D. Therefore it is suitable for CFD applications. In the revised drift flux model, the different flow patterns of the gas–water two-phase flows were able to be considered. This model innovatively realizes the drag force being able to cover different flow patterns of gas–water two-phase flows on bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, annular flow and mist flow. Through the comparisons of the numerical simulations to the experiments in vertical upward and downward pipe flows, this model was validated.

  2. Augmentation of forced flow boiling heat transfer by introducing air flow into subcooled water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Y.; Ohtake, H.; Yuasa, T.; Matsushita, N.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of air injection into a subcooled water flow on boiling heat transfer and a critical heat flux (CHF) was examined experimentally. Experiments were conducted in the range of subcooling of 50 K, a superficial velocity of water and air Ul = 0.17 ∼ 3.4 and Ug = 0 ∼ 15 m/s, respectively. A test heat transfer surface was a 5 mm wide, 40 mm long and 0.5 mm thick stainless steel sheet embedded on the bottom wall of a 10 mm high and 20 mm wide rectangular flow channel. Nine times enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient in the non-boiling region was attained at the most by introducing an air flow into a water single-phase flow. The heat transfer improvement was prominent when the water flow rate was low and the air introduction was large. The present results of the non-boiling heat transfer were well correlated with the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter X tt ; h TP /h L0 = 5.0(1/ X tt ) 0.5 . The air introduction has some effect on the augmentation of heat transfer in the boiling region, however, the two-phase flow effect was little and the boiling was dominant in the fully developed boiling region. The CHF was improved a little by the air introduction in the high water flow region. However, that was rather greatly reduced in the low flow region. Even so, the general trend by the air introduction was that qCHF increased as the air introduction was increased. The heat transfer augmentation in the non-boiling region was attained by less power increase than that in the case that only the water flow rate was increased. From the aspect of the power consumption and the heat transfer enhancement, the small air introduction in the low water flow rate region seemed more profitable, although the air introduction in the high water flow rate region and also the large air introduction were still effective in the augmentation of the heat transfer in the non-boiling region. (author)

  3. Forced convection flow boiling and two-phase flow phenomena in a microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yun Whan

    2008-07-01

    The present study was performed to numerically analyze the evaporation phenomena through the liquid-vapor interface and to investigate bubble dynamics and heat transfer behavior during forced convective flow boiling in a microchannel. Flow instabilities of two-phase flow boiling in a microchannel were studied as well. The main objective of this research is to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of two-phase flow boiling in a microchannel and provide predictive tools to design thermal management systems, for example, microchannel heat sinks. The numerical results obtained from this study were qualitatively and quantitatively compared with experimental results in the open literature. Physical and mathematical models, accounting for evaporating phenomena through the liquid-vapor interface in a microchannel at constant heat flux and constant wall temperature, have been developed, respectively. The heat transfer mechanism is affected by the dominant heat conduction through the thin liquid film and vaporization at the liquid-vapor interface. The thickness of the liquid film and the pressure of the liquid and vapor phases were simultaneously solved by the governing differential equations. The developed semi-analytical evaporation model that takes into account of the interfacial phenomena and surface tension effects was used to obtain solutions numerically using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The effects of heat flux 19 and wall temperature on the liquid film were evaluated. The obtained pressure drops in a microchannel were qualitatively consistent with the experimental results of Qu and Mudawar (2004). Forced convective flow boiling in a single microchannel with different channel heights was studied through a numerical simulation to investigate bubble dynamics, flow patterns, and heat transfer. The momentum and energy equations were solved using the finite volume method while the liquid-vapor interface of a bubble is captured using the VOF (Volume of Fluid

  4. A study of forced convective subcooled flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, Akimi; Kenning, D.B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Based on a simple nucleation model, parameter survey technique is used to derive a predictive correlation for boiling initiation under forced convection. Results are expressed by a semi-empirical equation which considers effects of the flow turbulence on interfacial heat transfer coefficient for evaporation and condensation of vapour bubbles during their growth. This correlation agrees within +-25% with a variety of experimental water data presently available. The bubble departure diameter and the subcooling-dependence of active nucleation sites were examined, using experimental data available. Results are expressed by empirical equations. Finally, an analytical model is presented to predict conditions for the point of net vapour generation. The model is based on the formation and growth of a bubble boundary layer adjacent to the heated wall. It is shown that the point of net vapour generation is determined by the liquid subcooling at the boiling initiation and the subcooling-dependences of bubble departure diameter and bubble flux. The result implies that the bubble ejection from bubble layer is a possible mechanism for the significant void increase even at high velocities. (author)

  5. Flow Visualization of Forced and Natural Convection in Internal Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crepeau, John; Mcllroy, Hugh M. Jr.; McEligot, Donald M.; Condie, Keith G.; McCreery, Glenn; Clarsean, Randy; Brodkey, Robert S.; Guezennec, Yann G.

    2002-01-01

    The report describes innovative flow visualization techniques, fluid mechanics measurements and computational models of flows in a spent nuclear fuel canister. The flow visualization methods used a fluid that reacted with a metal plate to show how a local reaction affects the surrounding flow. A matched index of refraction facility was used to take mean flow and turbulence measurements within a generic spent nuclear fuel canister. Computational models were also made of the flow in the canister. It was determined that the flow field in the canister was very complex, and modifications may need to be made to ensure that the spent fuel elements are completely passivated

  6. Flow Visualization of Forced and Natural Convection in Internal Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Crepeau; Hugh M. Mcllroy,Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Keith G. Condie; Glenn McCreery; Randy Clarsean; Robert S. Brodkey; Yann G. Guezennec

    2002-01-31

    The report descries innovative flow visualization techniques, fluid mechanics measurements and computational models of flows in a spent nuclear fuel canister. The flow visualization methods used a fluid that reacted with a metal plate to show how a local reaction affects the surrounding flow. A matched index of refraction facility was used to take mean flow and turbulence measurements within a generic spent nuclear fuel canister. Computational models were also made of the flow in the canister. It was determined that the flow field in the canister was very complex, and modifications may need to be made to ensure that the spent fuel elements are completely passivated.

  7. Effect of Retarding Force on Mass Flow Rates of Fluid at Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mathematical model and software visualization to view the effect of retarding forces on the mass flow rate in term of visualization. C-sharp (C#) is the chosen program and this enable compares and us to determine the mass flow rates patterns in relation to retarding force in form of graphical tables at different temperature.

  8. Random excitation forces in tube bundles subjected to two-phase cross-flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.E.; Pettigrew, M.J.; Currie, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    Data from two experimental programs have been analyzed to determine the characteristics of the random excitation forces associated with two-phase cross-flow in tube bundles. Large-scale air-water flow loops in France and Canada were used to generate the data. Tests were carried out on cantilevered, clamped-pinned, and clamped-clamped tubes in normal-square, parallel-triangular, and normal-triangular configurations. Either strain gages or force transducers were used to measure the vibration response of a centrally located tube as the tue array was subjected to a wide range of void fractions and flow rates. Power spectra were analyzed to determine the effect of parameters such as tube diameter, frequency, flow rate, void fraction, and flow regime on the random excitation forces. Normalized expressions for the excitation force power spectra were found to be flow-regime dependent. In the churn flow regime, flow rate and void fraction had very little effect on the magnitude of the excitation forces. In the bubble-plug flow regime, the excitation forces increased rapidly with flow rate and void fraction

  9. Nonisentropic Nonsteady Liquid Flow with Centrifugal, Gravitational, and Dissipative Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sidransky, Fred

    1966-01-01

    The method of characteristics is used to present general compatibility relations for nonsteady liquid flow or water-hammer theory which permit the investigation of the dynamics of the flow under diverse conditions...

  10. Estimation of friction loss under forced flow pulsations in a channel with discrete roughness elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davletshin, I. A.; Dushina, O. A.; Mikheev, N. I.; Kolchin, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    The pulsating flow in a circular channel with semicircular annular ribs as discrete roughness elements has been studied experimentally. Air flow under atmospheric conditions at the channel inlet has been considered. Steady and pulsating air flow has been studied under different frequencies and amplitudes of forced pulsations generated by periodic blockage of the channel cross section by a rotating flap. Flow resistance in pulsating regimes has been estimated from the average static pressure drop. The resistance values attained twice the steady flow ones.

  11. Dynamics of an inline tube array in steam-water flow. Part 2: Unsteady fluid forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mureithi, N.W.; Nakamura, T.; Hirota, K.; Murata, M.; Utsumi, S.

    1996-01-01

    The existence of fluidelastic instability in two-phase flow has been confirmed by a number of investigators to date. In essentially homogeneous two-phase flow, e.g., bubbly flow, it appears that the mechanisms underlying fluidelastic instability and the instability phenomenon are the same as those observed in single phase flow. The more general case of non-homogeneous two-phase flow, e.g., slug flow, is less amenable to straight forward interpretation by direct comparison with single phase flow mechanisms. In this paper, experimental results of unsteady fluid force measurement are reported. Important deviations of the measured fluid force from their single phase flow counterparts were uncovered. Most importantly, the resulting force coefficients are not simple functions of the reduced velocity U/fD, as is the case for single phase flow. Test results at 0.5 MPa challenge the basic assumption of the existence of a time invariant linear transfer function between tube displacement and the resulting fluid forces. Time-frequency analysis using Wignerville transforms shows that the phase difference between tube displacement and the fluid force (an indicator of stabilizing or destabilizing fluid effects) undergoes significant variation under what may be considered steady flow conditions. This variation may explain the previously reported phenomenon of intermittent fluidelastic instability in two-phase flows

  12. Functional Magnetic Stimulation of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscles in Subjects With Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Plow, Ela; Ranganthan, Vinoth; Huang, Honglian; Schmitt, Melissa; Nemunaitis, Gregory; Kelly, Clay; Frost, Frederick; Lin, Vernon

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality in persons with a spinal cord injury, partly because of respiratory muscle paralysis. Earlier investigation has demonstrated that functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) can be used as a noninvasive technology for activating expiratory muscles, thus producing useful expiratory functions (simulated cough) in subjects with spinal cord injury. To evaluate the effectiveness of FMS for conditioning inspiratory and expiratory muscles in persons with tetraplegia. A prospective before and after trial. FMS Laboratory, Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, OH. Six persons with tetraplegia. Each subject participated in a 6-week FMS protocol for conditioning the inspiratory and expiratory muscles. A magnetic stimulator was used with the center of a magnetic coil placed at the C7-T1 and T9-T10 spinous processes, respectively. Pulmonary function tests were performed before, during, and after the protocol. Respiratory variables included maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), peak inspiratory flow (PIF), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). After 6 weeks of conditioning, the main outcome measurements (mean ± standard error) were as follows: MIP, 89.6 ± 7.3 cm H2O; IRV, 1.90 ± 0.34 L; PIF, 302.4 ± 36.3 L/min; MEP, 67.4 ± 11.1 cm H2O; ERV, 0.40 ± 0.06 L; and PEF, 372.4 ± 31.9 L/min. These values corresponded to 117%, 107%, 136%, 109%, 130%, and 124% of pre-FMS conditioning values, respectively. Significant improvements were observed in MIP (P = .022), PIF (P = .0001), and PEF (P = .0006), respectively. When FMS was discontinued for 4 weeks, these values showed decreases from their values at the end of the conditioning protocol, which suggests that continual FMS may be necessary to maintain improved respiratory functions. FMS conditioning of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles improved

  13. Network flow model of force transmission in unbonded and bonded granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Tobin, Steven T; Cil, Mehmet; Alshibli, Khalid; Behringer, Robert P

    2015-06-01

    An established aspect of force transmission in quasistatic deformation of granular media is the existence of a dual network of strongly versus weakly loaded particles. Despite significant interest, the regulation of strong and weak forces through the contact network remains poorly understood. We examine this aspect of force transmission using data on microstructural fabric from: (I) three-dimensional discrete element models of grain agglomerates of bonded subspheres constructed from in situ synchrotron microtomography images of silica sand grains under unconfined compression and (II) two-dimensional assemblies of unbonded photoelastic circular disks submitted to biaxial compression under constant volume. We model force transmission as a network flow and solve the maximum flow-minimum cost (MFMC) problem, the solution to which yields a percolating subnetwork of contacts that transmits the "maximum flow" (i.e., the highest units of force) at "least cost" (i.e., the dissipated energy from such transmission). We find the MFMC describes a two-tier hierarchical architecture. At the local level, it encapsulates intraconnections between particles in individual force chains and in their conjoined 3-cycles, with the most common configuration having at least one force chain contact experiencing frustrated rotation. At the global level, the MFMC encapsulates interconnections between force chains. The MFMC can be used to predict most of the force chain particles without need for any information on contact forces, thereby suggesting the network flow framework may have potential broad utility in the modeling of force transmission in unbonded and bonded granular media.

  14. Forcing scheme in pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Luo, K H; Li, X J

    2012-07-01

    The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is a widely used multiphase model in the LB community. In this model, an interaction force, which is usually implemented via a forcing scheme, is employed to mimic the molecular interactions that cause phase segregation. The forcing scheme is therefore expected to play an important role in the pseudoepotential LB model. In this paper, we aim to address some key issues about forcing schemes in the pseudopotential LB model. First, theoretical and numerical analyses will be made for Shan-Chen's forcing scheme [Shan and Chen, Phys. Rev. E 47, 1815 (1993)] and the exact-difference-method forcing scheme [Kupershtokh et al., Comput. Math. Appl. 58, 965 (2009)]. The nature of these two schemes and their recovered macroscopic equations will be shown. Second, through a theoretical analysis, we will reveal the physics behind the phenomenon that different forcing schemes exhibit different performances in the pseudopotential LB model. Moreover, based on the analysis, we will present an improved forcing scheme and numerically demonstrate that the improved scheme can be treated as an alternative approach to achieving thermodynamic consistency in the pseudopotential LB model.

  15. The drift force on an object in an inviscid weakly-varying rotational flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallis, G.B. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The force on any stationary object in an inviscid incompressible extensive steady flow is derived in terms of the added mass tensor and gradient of velocity of the undisturbed fluid. Taylor`s theorem is extended to flows with weak vorticity. There are possible applications to constitutive equations for two-phase flow.

  16. Chirality-specific lift forces of helix under shear flows: Helix perpendicular to shear plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Yi

    2017-02-01

    Chiral objects in shear flow experience a chirality-specific lift force. Shear flows past helices in a low Reynolds number regime were studied using slender-body theory. The chirality-specific lift forces in the vorticity direction experienced by helices are dominated by a set of helix geometry parameters: helix radius, pitch length, number of turns, and helix phase angle. Its analytical formula is given. The chirality-specific forces are the physical reasons for the chiral separation of helices in shear flow. Our results are well supported by the latest experimental observations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Combined free and forced convection flow of a second order liquid through porous parallel walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of the flow of a second order fluid through porous parallel walls with heat transfer under the influence of buoyancy forces is carried out. Solutions for the velocity and temperature fields have been obtained by an iterative procedure. The flow phenomena have been characterized by parameters like: R (cross flow Reynolds number), Λ (elastic parameter), G (Grashof number), σ (Prandtl number) and the effects of these numbers on the flow characteristics have been presented in several graphs and tables. (author)

  18. Pulmonary emphysema quantitation with Computed Tomography. Comparison between the visual score with high resolution CT, expiratory density mask with spiral CT and lung function studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zompatori, Maurizio; Battaglia, Milva; Rimondi, Maria Rita; Vivacqua, Donatella; Biscarini, Manuela; Fasano, Luca; Pacilli, Angela Maria Grazia; Guerrieri, Aldo; Fabbri, Mario; Cavina, Mauro

    1997-01-01

    CT is the most accurate method to detect pulmonary emphysema in vivo. They compared prospectively two different methods for emphysema quantitation in 5 normal volunteers and 20 consecutive patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). All subjects were submitted to function tests and HRCT; three scans were acquired at preselected levels during inspiration. The type and extent of pulmonary emphysema were defined by two independent observers under blind conditions. Disagreements were subsequently settled by consent. All subjects were also examined with expiratory spiral CT using a density mask program, at two different cut-off levels (-850,-900 HU). Visual score and expiratory spiral density mask values (-850 HU) were significantly correlated (r = 0.86), but the visual extent of emphysema was always higher than shown by expiratory spiral CT. The emphysema extent assessed with both CT methods correlated with the function result of expiratory airflow obstruction and gas diffusion impairment (visual score versus forced expiratory volume in one second: r = -0.81, versus single breath carbon monoxide diffusion: r = -0.78. Spiral expiratory density mask -850 HU versus forced expiratory volume in one second: r = -0.85 versus single breath carbon monoxide diffusion: r = -0.77). When -900 HU was used as the cut-off value for the expiratory density mask, the correlation with single breath carbon monoxide diffusion worsened (r = -0.56). Visual score and expiratory density mask -850 HU gave similar results and permitted COPD patients to be clearly distinguished from normal controls (p < 0.01). They believe the true residual volume should lie somewhere in between the CT value and the function results with the helium dilution technique and conclude that the extent of pulmonary emphysema can be confidently assessed with CT methods. Finally, the simple visual score may be as reliable as such highly sophisticated new methods as the spiral expiratory density mask

  19. Hyperinflation and intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure: less room to breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Bruce P

    2009-01-01

    Clinically, the symptoms and limited exercise capabilities of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) correlate better with changes in lung volumes than with airflow measurements. The realization of the clinical importance of hyperinflation has been overshadowed for decades by the use of forced expiratory volume during 1 s (FEV(1)) and the ratio of the FEV(1) to the forced expiratory vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) to categorize the severity and progression of COPD. Hyperinflation is defined as an elevation in the end-expiratory lung volume or functional residual capacity. When severe hyperinflation encroaches upon inspiratory capacity and limits vital capacity, it results in elevated intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi) that places the diaphragm at a mechanical disadvantage and increases the work of breathing. Severe hyperinflation is the major physiologic cause of the resulting hypercarbic respiratory failure and patients' inability to transition (i.e. wean) from mechanical ventilatory support to spontaneous breathing. This paper reviews the basic physiologic principles of hyperinflation and its clinical manifestations as demonstrated by PEEPi. Also reviewed are the adverse effects of hyperinflation and PEEPi in critically ill patients with COPD, and methods for minimizing or counterbalancing these effects. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a robotic hand and its flow field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hideki; Nakashima, Motomu; Ozaki, Takashi; Matsuuchi, Kazuo

    2013-07-26

    This study aims to clarify the mechanism of generating unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand during swimming in order to directly measure the forces, pressure distribution, and flow field around the hand by using a robotic arm and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The robotic arm consisted of the trunk, shoulder, upper arm, forearm, and hand, and it was independently computer controllable in five degrees of freedom. The elbow-joint angle of the robotic arm was fixed at 90°, and the arm was moved in semicircles around the shoulder joint in a plane perpendicular to the water surface. Two-component PIV was used for flow visualization around the hand. The data of the forces and pressure acting on the hand were sampled at 200Hz and stored on a PC. When the maximum resultant force acting on the hand was observed, a pair of counter-rotating vortices appeared on the dorsal surface of the hand. A vortex attached to the hand increased the flow velocity, which led to decreased surface pressure, increasing the hydrodynamic forces. This phenomenon is known as the unsteady mechanism of force generation. We found that the drag force was 72% greater and the lift force was 4.8 times greater than the values estimated under steady flow conditions. Therefore, it is presumable that swimmers receive the benefits of this unsteady hydrodynamic force. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Two-phase cross-flow-induced forces acting on a circular cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper clarifies the characteristics of unsteady flow-induced lift and drag forces acting on a circular cylinder immersed perpendicular to a two-phase bubbly air-water flow, in conjunction with Karman vortex shedding and pressure fluctuations. Experimental results presented show that Karman vortex shedding disappears over a certain value of air concentration in the two-phase flow. Related to this disappearance, flow-induced forces are rather small and periodical in low air concentration but become very large and random in higher air concentration. 7 refs

  2. Prandtl number variation on transient forced convection flow in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Manufacturing Engineering Department, The Public Authority for Applied Education and ... A transient numerical study is conducted to investigate the transport .... The model describes a valve where it is possible to direct the flow into one.

  3. Suppression of saturated nucleate boiling by forced convective flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.; Davis, M.W.; Hertzler, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    Tube-side forced convective boiling nitrogen and oxygen and thin film shell-side forced convective boiling R-11 data demonstrate a reduction in the heat transfer coefficient associated with nucleate boiling as the two-phase friction pressure drop increases. Techniques proposed in the literature to account for nucleate boiling during forced convective boiling are discussed. The observed suppression of nucleate boiling for the tube-side data is compared against the Chen correlation. Although general agreement is exhibited, supporting the interactive heat transfer mechanism theory, better agreement is obtained by defining a bubble growth region within the thermal boundary layer. The data suggests that the size of the bubble growth region is independent of the friction drop, but is only a function of the physical properties of the boiling liquid. 15 refs

  4. Effect of weak geometrical forcing on the stability of Taylor-vortex flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaolong; Khayat, Roger E

    2008-01-01

    Linear stability analysis of fully developed axisymmetric steady and spatially modulated Taylor-Couette flow is carried out in the narrow-gap limit. The inner cylinder is sinusoidally modulated and rotating, while the outer cylinder is straight and at rest. The modulation amplitude is assumed to be small, and the base steady flow is determined using a regular perturbation expansion of the flow field coupled to a variable-step finite-difference scheme. The disturbance flow equations are derived within the framework of Floquet theory and solved using a nonlinear two-point boundary-value approach. In contrast to unforced Taylor-Couette flow, only vortical base flow is possible in the forced case. It is found that the forcing tends to generally destabilize the base flow, especially around the critical point. Both the critical Taylor number and wavenumber are found to decrease essentially linearly with modulation amplitude.

  5. Electric force on plasma ions and the momentum of the ion-neutrals flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A.; Zoler, D.; Boxman, R. L.

    2018-05-01

    The electric force on ions in plasma and the momentum flux carried by the mixed ion-neutral flow were measured and found to be equal. The experiment was performed in a direct-current gas discharge of cylindrical geometry with applied radial electric field and axial magnetic field. The unmagnetized plasma ions, neutralized by magnetized electrons, were accelerated radially outward transferring part of the gained momentum to neutrals. Measurements were taken for various argon gas flow rates between 13 and 100 Standard Cubic Centimeter per Minute, for a discharge current of 1.9 A and a magnetic field intensity of 136 G. The plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential were measured at various locations along the flow. These measurements were used to determine the local electric force on the ions. The total electric force on the plasma ions was then determined by integrating radially the local electric force. In parallel, the momentum flux of the mixed ion-neutral flow was determined by measuring the force exerted by the flow on a balance force meter (BFM). The maximal plasma density was between 6 × 1010 cm-3 and 5 × 1011 cm-3, the maximal electron temperature was between 8 eV and 25 eV, and the deduced maximal electric field was between 2200 V/m and 5800 V/m. The force exerted by the mixed ion-neutral flow on the BFM agreed with the total electric force on the plasma ions. This agreement showed that it is the electric force on the plasma ions that is the source of the momentum acquired by the mixed ion-neutral flow.

  6. Effects of forcing in three-dimensional turbulent flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biferale, L.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a numerical investigation of three-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, stirred by a random forcing with a power-law spectrum, Ef(k)~k3-y. Numerical simulations are performed at different resolutions up to 5123. We show that at varying the spectrum slope y,

  7. Combined Lorentz force and ultrasound Doppler velocimetry in a vertical convection liquid metal flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürner, Till; Vogt, Tobias; Resagk, Christian; Eckert, Sven; Schumacher, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    We report experimental studies on turbulent vertical convection flow in the liquid metal alloy gallium-indium-tin. Flow measurements were conducted by a combined use of local Lorentz force velocimetry (LLFV) and ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV). It is known that the forced convection flow in a duct generates a force on the LLFV magnet system, that grows proportional to the flow velocity. We show that for the slower flow of natural convection LLFV retains this linear dependence in the range of micronewtons. Furthermore experimental results on the scaling of heat and momentum transport with the thermal driving are presented. The results cover a range of Rayleigh numbers 3 ×105 Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. GRK 1567.

  8. Measurement of unsteady flow forces in inline and staggered tube bundles with fixed and vibrating tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.; Heinecke, E.; Decken, C.B. von der.

    1986-01-01

    Unsteady flow forces arising in heat exchangers with cross-flow may lead to serious vibrations of the tubes. These vibrations can destroy the tubes in the end supports or in the baffles, which would require expensive repairs. The flow forces reach unexpectedly by high values if the vibration of the tube intensifies these forces. To clear up this coupling mechanism the flow forces and the vibration amplitude were measured simultaneously in a staggered and in an inline tube bundle. Considering the tube as a one-mass oscillator excited by the flow force, the main parameters can be derived, i.e. dynamic pressure, reduced mass, eigenfrequency and damping. These parameters form a dimensionless model number describing the coherence of the vibration amplitude and the force coefficient. The validity of this number has been confirmed by varying the test conditions. With the aid of this model number, the expected force coefficient can be calculated and then using a finite-element program information can be obtained about mechanical tensions and the lifetime of the heat exchanger tubes. With this model number the results of other authors, who measured the vibration amplitude only, could be confirmed in good agreement. The experiments were carried out in air with Reynolds numbers 10 4 5 . (orig.) [de

  9. Forced and free convection hydromagnetic flow past a vertical flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkhalek, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of magnetic field and temperature heat source on the free and forced convection flow past an infinite vertical plate is studied analytically. Solutions of the reduced equation appropriate in the forced convection and free convection regime are obtained using perturbation technique. The expression for the velocity field, skin friction and Nusselt number have been obtained

  10. Nuclear dynamics with the (finite range) Gogny force: flow effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebille, F.; Royer, G.; Schuck, P.; Gregoire, C.

    1988-01-01

    We introduce for the first time the effective finite range interaction of Gogny in the semi-classical description of heavy ion reactions based on the Landau-Vlasov equation. The characteristics of the flow for heavy ion collisions are studied as functions of the incident energy, the impact parameter and the mass number. The momentum dependence in the mean field together with the non linearities in the collision kernel decrease the flow in contradiction with other calculations; the origins of this discrepancy are studied in details

  11. Evidence for forcing-dependent steady states in a turbulent swirling flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Michel, B; Dubrulle, B; Marié, L; Ravelet, F; Daviaud, F

    2013-12-06

    We study the influence on steady turbulent states of the forcing in a von Karman flow, at constant impeller speed, or at constant torque. We find that the different forcing conditions change the nature of the stability of the steady states and reveal dynamical regimes that bear similarities to low-dimensional systems. We suggest that this forcing dependence may be applicable to other turbulent systems.

  12. Volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2004-01-01

    We developed a volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) protocol that provides combined inspiratory and expiratory volumetric imaging of the lung without increasing radiation exposure, and conducted a preliminary feasibility assessment of this protocol to evaluate diffuse lung disease with small airway abnormalities. The volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT increased the detectability of the conducting airway to the areas of air trapping (P<0.0001), and added significant information about extent and distribution of air trapping (P<0.0001)

  13. Experimental Validation of Flow Force Models for Fast Switching Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Niels Christian; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Nørgård, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This paper comprises a detailed study of the forces acting on a Fast Switching Valve (FSV) plunger. The objective is to investigate to what extend different models are valid to be used for design purposes. These models depend on the geometry of the moving plunger and the properties of the surroun......This paper comprises a detailed study of the forces acting on a Fast Switching Valve (FSV) plunger. The objective is to investigate to what extend different models are valid to be used for design purposes. These models depend on the geometry of the moving plunger and the properties...... to compare and validate different models, where an effort is directed towards capturing the fluid squeeze effect just before material on material contact. The test data is compared with simulation data relying solely on analytic formulations. The general dynamics of the plunger is validated...

  14. Sodium evaporation into a forced argon flow, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Toshiaki; Ishiguro, Ryoji; Kasahara, Fumio.

    1978-01-01

    The critical supersaturation model (CSM) was examined by comparing its predictions with the experimental data of the forced evaporation of sodium reported in Part (I) of this series of papers. The results revealed that the CSM predicted a fairly lower Sherwood number than that predicted in the experiment. This discrepancy may be due mainly to the oversimplified assumptions in the CSM. A calculation of the fog movement in a boundary layer was also attempted by taking into account the force on fog particles by thermophoresis. The calculation showed that the particles were submerged deeply in the boundary layer and that they absorbed sodium vapor in accordance with their size. It was concluded that the fog movement in the boundary layer was essentially important for the exact estimation of the evaporation rate. (author)

  15. Drag force actuated bistable microswitches for flow sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, W.J.; van Baar, J.J.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; de Boer, J.H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents bistable microswitches with Au contacts with the aim to combine them with artificial hairs for flow sensing. The Au contacts are applied on both ends of a silicon nitride beam, suspended by a torsional bar at its center. The beam is provided with electrodes for electrostatic

  16. Interaction between local parameters of two-phase flow and random forces on a cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylviane Pascal-Ribot; Yves Blanchet; Franck Baj; Phillippe Piteau

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the frame of assessments of steam generator tube bundle vibrations, a study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of an air/water flow on turbulent buffeting forces induced on a cylinder. The main purpose is to relate the physical parameters characterizing an air/water two-phase crossflow with the structural loading of a fixed cylindrical tube. In this first approach, the experiments are carried out in a rectangular acrylic test section supplied with a vertical upward bubbly flow. This flow is transversally impeded by a fixed rigid 12,15 mm diameter cylinder. Different turbulence grids are used in order to modify two-phase characteristics such as bubble diameter, void fraction profile, fluctuation parameters. Preliminarily, a dimensional analysis of fluid-structure interaction under two-phase turbulent solicitations has enabled to identify a list of physically relevant variables which must be measured to evaluate the random forces. The meaning of these relevant parameters as well as the effect of flow patterns are discussed. Direct measurements of two-phase flow parameters are performed simultaneously with measurements of forces exerted on the cylinder. The main descriptive parameters of a two-phase flow are measured using a bi-optical probe, in particular void fraction profiles, interfacial velocities, bubble diameters, void fraction fluctuations. In the same time, the magnitude of random forces caused by two-phase flow is measured with a force transducer. A thorough analysis of the experimental data is then undertaken in order to correlate physical two-phase mechanisms with the random forces exerted on the cylinder. The hypotheses made while applying the dimensional analysis are verified and their pertinence is discussed. Finally, physical parameters involved in random buffeting forces applied on a transverse tube are proposed to scale the spectral magnitude of these forces and comparisons with other authors

  17. Core-annular flow through a horizontal pipe : Hydrodynamic counterbalancing of buoyancy force on core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, G.; Vuik, C.; Poesio, P.

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made of core-annular flow: the flow of a high-viscosity liquid core surrounded by a low-viscosity liquid annular layer through a horizontal pipe. Special attention is paid to the question of how the buoyancy force on the core, caused by a density difference

  18. Combined free and forced convection flow in a rotating channel with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    free and forced convection flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid in a .... The boundary conditions (10) and (11), in dimensionless form, become ...... On hydromagnetic Flow and heat transfer in a rotating fluid past an infinite porous ... Electrically Conducting Fluid in Non-Rotating and Rotating Media”.

  19. Liquid Hydrogen Recirculation System for Forced Flow Cooling Test of Superconducting Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Y.; Kainuma, T.; Shigeta, H.; Shiotsu, M.; Tatsumoto, H.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Nonaka, S.; Inatani, Y.; Yoshinaga, S.

    2017-12-01

    The knowledge of forced flow heat transfer characteristics of liquid hydrogen (LH2) is important and necessary for design and cooling analysis of high critical temperature superconducting devices. However, there are few test facilities available for LH2 forced flow cooling for superconductors. A test system to provide a LH2 forced flow (∼10 m/s) of a short period (less than 100 s) has been developed. The test system was composed of two LH2 tanks connected by a transfer line with a controllable valve, in which the forced flow rate and its period were limited by the storage capacity of tanks. In this paper, a liquid hydrogen recirculation system, which was designed and fabricated in order to study characteristics of superconducting cables in a stable forced flow of liquid hydrogen for longer period, was described. This LH2 loop system consists of a centrifugal pump with dynamic gas bearings, a heat exchanger which is immersed in a liquid hydrogen tank, and a buffer tank where a test section (superconducting wires or cables) is set. The buffer tank has LHe cooled superconducting magnet which can produce an external magnetic field (up to 7T) at the test section. A performance test was conducted. The maximum flow rate was 43.7 g/s. The lowest temperature was 22.5 K. It was confirmed that the liquid hydrogen can stably circulate for 7 hours.

  20. Thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of forced and mixed convection flow through vertical rectangular channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafi Abdalla S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental and numerical studies for the case of turbulent forced and mixed convection flow of water through narrow vertical rectangular channel. The channel is composed of two parallel plates which are heated at a uniform heat flux, whereas, the other two sides of the channel are thermally insulated. The plates are of 64 mm in width, 800 mm in height, and separated from each other at a narrow gap of 2.7 mm. The Nusselt number distribution along the flow direction normalized by the Nusselt number for the case of turbulent forced convection flow is obtained experimentally with a comparison with the numerical results obtained from a commercial computer code. The quantitative determination of the nor- malized Nusselt number with respect to the dimension-less number Z = (Gr/Re21/8Pr0.5 is presented with a comparison with previous experimental results. Qualitative results are presented for the normalized temperature and velocity profiles in the transverse direction with a comparison between the forced and mixed convection flow for both the cases of upward and downward flow directions. The effect of the axial locations and the parameter Gr/Re on the variation of the normalized temperature profiles in the transverse direction for both the regions of forced and mixed convection and for both of the upward and downward flow directions are obtained. The normalized velocity profiles in the transverse directions are also determined at different inlet velocity and heat fluxes for the previous cases. It is found that the normalized Nusselt number is greater than one in the mixed convection region for both the cases of upward and downward flow and correlated well with the dimension-less parameter Z for both of the forced and mixed convection regions. The temperature profiles increase with increasing the axial location along the flow direction or the parameter Gr/Re for both of the forced and mixed convection regions, but this increase is

  1. Intermittent flow under constant forcing: Acoustic emission from creep avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Liu, Hanlong; Jin, Linsen; Jiang, Deyi; Xiao, Yang; Jiang, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    While avalanches in field driven ferroic systems (e.g., Barkhausen noise), domain switching of martensitic nanostructures, and the collapse of porous materials are well documented, creep avalanches (avalanches under constant forcing) were never observed. Collapse avalanches generate particularly large acoustic emission (AE) signals and were hence chosen to investigate crackling noise under creep conditions. Piezoelectric SiO2 has a strong piezoelectric response even at the nanoscale so that we chose weakly bound SiO2 spheres in natural sandstone as a representative for the study of avalanches under time-independent, constant force. We found highly non-stationary crackling noise with four activity periods, each with power law distributed AE emission. Only the period before the final collapse shows the mean field behavior (ɛ near 1.39), in agreement with previous dynamic measurements at a constant stress rate. All earlier event periods show collapse with larger exponents (ɛ = 1.65). The waiting time exponents are classic with τ near 2.2 and 1.32. Creep data generate power law mixing with "effective" exponents for the full dataset with combinations of mean field and non-mean field regimes. We find close agreement with the predicted time-dependent fiber bound simulations, including events and waiting time distributions. Båth's law holds under creep conditions.

  2. Expiratory muscle control during vomiting - Role of brain stem expiratory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. D.; Tan, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling the muscles involved during vomiting were examined using decerebrated cats. In one experiment, the activity of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons was recorded during induced 'fictive vomiting' (i.e., a series of bursts of coactivation of abdominal and phrenic nerves that would be expected to produce expulsion in unparalyzed animals) and vomiting. In a second, abdominal muscle electromyographic and nerve activity were compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons as they cross the midline between C1 and the obex (the procedure that is known to abolish expiratory modulation of internal intercostal muscle activity). The results of the study indicate that the abdominal muscles are controlled differently during respiration and vomiting.

  3. Cystic Fibrosis: Are Volumetric Ultra-Low-Dose Expiratory CT Scans Sufficient for Monitoring Related Lung Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Lequin, Maarten H; Bruijne, Marleen de

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether chest computed tomography (CT) scores from ultra-low-dose end-expiratory scans alone could suffice for assessment of all cystic fibrosis (CF)-related structural lung abnormalities. Materials and Methods: In this institutional review board–approved study, 20 patients...... with CF aged 6–20 years (eight males, 12 females) underwent low-dose end-inspiratory CT and ultra-low-dose end-expiratory CT. Informed consent was obtained. Scans were randomized and scored by using the Brody-II CT scoring system to assess bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening, mucus plugging......-Altman plots. Results: Median age was 12.6 years (range, 6.3–20.3 years), median forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 100% (range, 46%–127%) of the predicted value, and median forced vital capacity was 99% (range, 61%–123%) of the predicted value. Very good agreement was observed between end...

  4. Investigation of slightly forced buoyant flow in a training reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legradi, G.; Aszodi, A.; Por, G.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement based on the temperature noise analysis method was carried out in the Training Reactor of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. The main goals were the estimation of the flow velocity immediately above the reactor core and investigation of the thermal-hydraulical conditions of the reactor, mainly in the core. Subsequently 2D and 3D computations were carried out with the aid of the code CFX- 4.3. The main objective of the 2D calculation was to clarify the thermal-hydraulical conditions of the whole reactor tank with a reasonable computing demand. It was also necessary to accomplish 3D numerical investigations of the reactor core and the space above since three dimensional effects of the flow could only be studied in this way. In addition, obtaining certain boundary conditions of the 3D computations was another significant aim of the 2D investigations. It is important that the results of the noise analysis and the operational measuring system of the reactor gave us a basis for verifying our computations.(author)

  5. Sodium evaporation into a forced argon flow, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Toshiaki; Kasahara, Fumio; Ishiguro, Ryoji

    1976-01-01

    Measurements were made on the rate of evaporation from a rectangular-shaped free surface of liquid sodium into argon flow. Tests were carried out at various levels of sodium temperature, of argon velocity and of argon temperature, under conditions where fog formation could be expected. To gain information on the enhancement of evaporation occasioned by fog formation, a supplementary experiment was performed on convection heat transfer into flowing air from a heated plate of the same geometry as the free surface of the sodium in the preceding measurements. The values obtained for the rate of evaporation and Sherwood number were compared with those predicted by the heat transfer experiment and by the theory by Hill and Szekely. The overall results revealed that the rate of sodium evaporation can amount to as much as three times that predicted by the heat transfer experiment, and that it varies roughly linearly with the heat transfer rate and with the sodium vapor pressure prevailing at the free surface. (auth.)

  6. Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Flow Structure Characteristics under Periodic Cross Forces Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Perevezentsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study of two-phase gas-liquid flow under the action of periodic cross forces. The work objective is to obtain experimental data for further analysis and have structure characteristics of the two-phase flow movement. For research, to obtain data without disturbing effect on the flow were used optic PIV (Particle Image Visualization methods because of their noninvasiveness. The cross forces influence was provided by an experimental stand design to change the angular amplitudes and the periods of channel movement cycle with two-phase flow. In the range of volume gas rates was shown a water flow rate versus the inclination angle of immovable riser section and the characteristic angular amplitudes and periods of riser section inclination cycle under periodic cross forces. Data on distribution of average water velocity in twophase flow in abovementioned cases were also obtained. These data allowed us to draw a conclusion that a velocity distribution depends on the angular amplitude and on the period of the riser section roll cycle. This article belongs to publications, which study two-phase flows with no disturbing effect on them. Obtained data give an insight into understanding a pattern of twophase gas-liquid flow under the action of periodic cross forces and can be used to verify the mathematical models of the CFD thermo-hydraulic codes. In the future, the work development expects taking measurements with more frequent interval in the ranges of angular amplitudes and periods of the channel movement cycle and create a mathematical model to show the action of periodic cross forces on two-phase gas-liquid flow.

  7. Investigation of flow mechanism of a robotic fish swimming by using flow visualization synchronized with hydrodynamic force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guang-Kun; Shen, Gong-Xin; Huang, Shuo-Qiao; Su, Wen-Han; Ke, Yu

    When swimming in water by flapping its tail, a fish can overcome the drag from uniform flow and propel its body. The involved flow mechanism concerns 3-D and unsteady effects. This paper presents the investigation of the flow mechanism on the basis of a 3-D robotic fish model which has the typical geometry of body and tail with periodic flapping 2-freedom kinematical motion testing in the case of St = 0.78, Re = 6,600 and phase delay mode (φ = - 75°), in which may have a greater or maximum propulsion (without consideration of the optimal efficiency). Using a special technique of dye visualization which can clearly show vortex sheet and vortices in detail and using the inner 3-component force balance and cable supporting system with the phase-lock technique, the 3-D flow structure visualized in the wake of fish and the hydrodynamic force measurement were synchronized and obtained. Under the mentioned flapping parameters, we found the key flow structure and its evolution, a pair of complex 3-D chain-shape vortex (S-H vortex-rings, S1 - H1 and S2 - H2, and their legs L1 and L2) flow structures, which attach the leading edge and the trailing edge, then shed, move downstream and outwards and distribute two antisymmetric staggering arrays along with the wake of the fish model in different phase stages during the flapping period. It is different with in the case of St = 0.25-0.35. Its typical flow structure and evolution are described and the results prove that they are different from the viewpoints based on the investigation of 2-D cases. For precision of the dynamic force measurement, in this paper it was provided with the method and techniques by subtracting the inertial forces and the forces induced by buoyancy and gravity effect in water, etc. from original data measured. The evolution of the synchronized measuring forces directly matching with the flow structure was also described in this paper.

  8. Effect of Training Frequency on Maximum Expiratory Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Supraja; El-Bashiti, Nour; Sapienza, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) frequency on maximum expiratory pressure (MEP). Method: We assigned 12 healthy participants to 2 groups of training frequency (3 days per week and 5 days per week). They completed a 4-week training program on an EMST trainer (Aspire Products, LLC). MEP was the primary…

  9. Simplified model for a ventilated glass window under forced air flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, K.A.R.; Henriquez, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study on a ventilated window composed of two glass sheets separated by a spacing through which air is forced to flow. The proposed model is one dimensional and unsteady based upon global energy balance over the glass sheets and the flowing fluid. The external glass sheet of the cavity is subjected to variable heat flow due to the solar radiation as well as variable external ambient temperature. The exchange of radiation energy (infrared radiation) between the glass sheets is also included in the formulation. Effects of the spacing between the glass sheets, variation of the forced mass flow rate on the total heat gain and the shading coefficients are investigated. The results show that the effect of the increase of the mass flow rate is found to reduce the mean solar heat gain and the shading coefficients while the increase of the fluid entry temperature is found to deteriorate the window thermal performance

  10. Analysis of forced convective transient boiling by homogeneous model of two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Isao

    1985-01-01

    Transient forced convective boiling is of practical importance in relation to the accident analysis of nuclear reactor etc. For large length-to-diameter ratio, the transient boiling characteristics are predicted by transient two-phase flow calculations. Based on homogeneous model of two-phase flow, the transient forced convective boiling for power and flow transients are analysed. Analytical expressions of various parameters of transient two-phase flow have been obtained for several simple cases of power and flow transients. Based on these results, heat flux, velocity and time at transient CHF condition are predicted analytically for step and exponential power increases, and step, exponential and linear velocity decreases. The effects of various parameters on heat flux, velocity and time at transient CHF condition have been clarified. Numerical approach combined with analytical method is proposed for more complicated cases. Solution method for pressure transient are also described. (author)

  11. Simplified model for a ventilated glass window under forced air flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, K.A.R. [Depto. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos-FEM-UNICAMP CP: 6122 CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Henriquez, J.R. [Depto. de Eng. Mecanica-DEMEC, UFPE Av. Academico Helio Ramos, S/N CEP 50740-530, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a study on a ventilated window composed of two glass sheets separated by a spacing through which air is forced to flow. The proposed model is one dimensional and unsteady based upon global energy balance over the glass sheets and the flowing fluid. The external glass sheet of the cavity is subjected to variable heat flow due to the solar radiation as well as variable external ambient temperature. The exchange of radiation energy (infrared radiation) between the glass sheets is also included in the formulation. Effects of the spacing between the glass sheets, variation of the forced mass flow rate on the total heat gain and the shading coefficients are investigated. The results show that the effect of the increase of the mass flow rate is found to reduce the mean solar heat gain and the shading coefficients while the increase of the fluid entry temperature is found to deteriorate the window thermal performance. (author)

  12. Self-oscillations of a two-dimensional shear flow with forcing and dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zazueta, A.; Zavala Sansón, L.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional shear flows continuously forced in the presence of dissipative effects are studied by means of numerical simulations. In contrast with most previous studies, the forcing is confined in a finite region, so the behavior of the system is characterized by the long-term evolution of the global kinetic energy. We consider regimes with 1 limited to develop only one vortical instability by choosing an appropriate width of the forcing band. The most relevant regime is found for Reλ > 36, in which the energy maintains a regular oscillation around a reference value. The flow configuration is an elliptical vortex tilted with respect to the forcing axis, which oscillates steadily also. Second, the flow is allowed to develop two Kelvin-Helmholtz billows and eventually more complicated structures. The regimes of the one-vortex case are observed again, except for Reλ > 135. At these values, the energy oscillates chaotically as the two vortices merge, form dipolar structures, and split again, with irregular periodicity. The self-oscillations are explained as a result of the alternate competition between forcing and dissipation, which is verified by calculating the budget terms in the energy equation. The relevance of the forcing-vs.-dissipation competition is discussed for more general flow systems.

  13. Impediment in upper airway stabilizing forces assessed by phrenic nerve stimulation in sleep apnea patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vérin E

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The forces developed during inspiration play a key role in determining upper airway stability and the occurrence of nocturnal breathing disorders. Phrenic nerve stimulation applied during wakefulness is a unique tool to assess Upper airway dynamic properties and to measure the overall mechanical effects of the inspiratory process on UA stability. Objectives To compare the flow/pressure responses to inspiratory and expiratory twitches between sleep apnea subjects and normal subjects. Methods Inspiratory and expiratory twitches using magnetic nerve stimulation completed in eleven untreated sleep apnea subjects and ten normal subjects. Results In both groups, higher flow and pressure were reached during inspiratory twitches. The two groups showed no differences in expiratory twitch parameters. During inspiration, the pressure at which flow-limitation occurred was more negative in normals than in apneic subjects, but not reaching significance (p = 0.07. The relationship between pharyngeal pressure and flow adequately fitted with a polynomial regression model providing a measurement of upper airway critical pressure during twitch. This pressure significantly decreased in normals from expiratory to inspiratory twitches (-11.1 ± 1.6 and -15.7 ± 1.0 cm H2O respectively, 95% CI 1.6–7.6, p Conclusion Inspiratory-related upper airway dilating forces are impeded in sleep apnea patients.

  14. On the Evolution of Pulsatile Flow Subject to a Transverse Impulse Body Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Labbio, Giuseppe; Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Kadem, Lyes

    2014-11-01

    In the event of an unexpected abrupt traffic stop or car accident, automotive passengers will experience an abrupt body deceleration. This may lead to tearing or dissection of the aortic wall known as Blunt Traumatic Aortic Rupture (BTAR). BTAR is the second leading cause of death in automotive accidents and, although quite frequent, the mechanisms leading to BTAR are still not clearly identified, particularly the contribution of the flow field. As such, this work is intended to provide a fundamental framework for the investigation of the flow contribution to BTAR. In this fundamental study, pulsatile flow in a three-dimensional, straight pipe of circular cross-section is subjected to a unidirectional, transverse, impulse body force applied on a strictly bounded volume of fluid. These models were simulated using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT. The evolution of fluid field characteristics was investigated during and after the application of the force. The application of the force significantly modified the flow field. The force induces a transverse pressure gradient causing the development of secondary flow structures that dissipate the energy added by the acceleration. Once the force ceases to act, these structures are carried downstream and gradually dissipate their excess energy.

  15. Measurement of two-phase flow momentum with force transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.E.; Smith, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Two strain-gage-based drag transducers were developed to measure two-phase flow in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) test facilities. One transducer, a drag body (DB), was designed to measure the bidirectional average momentum flux passing through an end box. The second drag sensor, a break through detector (BTD), was designed to sense liquid downflow from the upper plenum to the core region. After prototype sensors passed numerous acceptance tests, transducers were fabricated and installed in two experimental test facilities, one in Japan and one in West Germany. High-quality data were extracted from both the DBs and BTDs for a variety of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. The information collected from these sensors has added to the understanding of the thermohydraulic phenomena that occur during the refill/reflood stage of a LOCA in a PWR. 9 refs., 15 figs

  16. Heat, mass and force flows in supersonic shockwave interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John Michael

    There is no cost effective way to deliver a payload to space and, with rising fuel prices, currently the price to travel commercially is also becoming more prohibitive to the public. During supersonic flight, compressive shock waves form around the craft which could be harnessed to deliver an additional lift on the craft. Using a series of hanging plates below a lifting wing design, the total lift generated can be increased above conventional values, while still maintaining a similar lift-to-drag ratio. Here, we study some of the flows involved in supersonic shockwave interaction. This analysis uses ANSYS Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics package as the modeler. Our findings conclude an increase of up to 30% lift on the modeled craft while maintaining the lift-to-drag profile of the unmodified lifting wing. The increase in lift when utilizing the shockwave interaction could increase transport weight and reduce fuel cost for space and commercial flight, as well as mitigating negative effects associated with supersonic travel.

  17. Experimental measurement of fluid force coefficients for helical tube arrays in air cross flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Shifang; Liu Reilan

    1993-01-01

    A helical coil steam generator is extensively used in the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGCR) and Sodium Cooled Reactor (SCR) nuclear power stations because of its compact structure, good heat-exchange, and small volume. The experimental model is established by the structure parameter of 200MW HTGCR. The fluid elastic instability of helical tube arrays in air cross flow is studied in this experiment, and the fluid force coefficients of helical tube arrays having the same notational direction of two adjacent layers in air cross flow are obtained. As compared to the fluid force coefficients of cylinder tube arrays, the fluid force coefficients of helical tube arrays are smaller in the low velocity area, and greater in the high velocity area. The experimental results help the study of the dynamic characteristics of helical tube arrays in air cross flow

  18. Comparative study of wall-force models for the simulation of bubbly flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzehak, Roland, E-mail: r.rzehak@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, POB 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Krepper, Eckhard, E-mail: E.Krepper@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, POB 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Lifante, Conxita, E-mail: Conxita.Lifante@ansys.com [ANSYS Germany GmbH, Staudenfeldweg 12, 83624 Otterfing (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of common models for the wall force with an experimental database. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of suitable closure for bubbly flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enables prediction of location and height of wall peak in void fraction profiles. - Abstract: Accurate numerical prediction of void-fraction profiles in bubbly multiphase-flow relies on suitable closure models for the momentum exchange between liquid and gas phases. We here consider forces acting on the bubbles in the vicinity of a wall. A number of different models for this so-called wall-force have been proposed in the literature and are implemented in widely used CFD-codes. Simulations using a selection of these models are compared with a set of experimental data on bubbly air-water flow in round pipes of different diameter. Based on the results, recommendations on suitable closures are given.

  19. Forced and free convection flow with viscous dissipation effects: The method of parametric differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.A.; Arbad, O.

    1988-07-01

    Effect of buoyancy force in a laminar uniform forced convection flow past a semi-infinite vertical plate has been analyzed near the leading edge, taking into account the viscous dissipation. The coupled non-linear locally similar equations, which govern the flow, are solved by the method of parametric differentiation. Effects of the buoyancy force and the heat due to viscous dissipation on the flow and the temperature fields as well as on the wall shear-stress and the heat transfer at the surface of the plate are shown graphically for the values of the Prandtl number σ ranging from 10 -1 to 1.0. (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Experiments and Large-Eddy Simulations of acoustically forced bluff-body flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayache, S.; Dawson, J.R.; Triantafyllidis, A. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Balachandran, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London (United Kingdom); Mastorakos, E., E-mail: em257@eng.cam.ac.u [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    The isothermal air flow behind an enclosed axisymmetric bluff body, with the incoming flow being forced by a loudspeaker at a single frequency and with large amplitude, has been explored with high data-rate Laser-Doppler Anemometry measurements and Large-Eddy Simulations. The comparison between experiment and simulations allows a quantification of the accuracy of LES for turbulent flows with periodicity and the results provide insights into the structure of flows relevant to combustors undergoing self-excited oscillations. At low forcing frequencies, the whole flow pulsates with the incoming flow, although at a phase lag that depends on spatial location. At high forcing frequencies, vortices are shed from the bluff body and the recirculation zone, as a whole, pulsates less. Despite the fact that the incoming flow has an oscillation that is virtually monochromatic, the velocity spectra show peaks at various harmonics, whose relative magnitudes vary with location. A sub-harmonic peak is also observed inside the recirculation zone possibly caused by merging of the shed vortices. The phase-averaged turbulent fluctuations show large temporal and spatial variations. The LES reproduces reasonably accurately the experimental findings in terms of phase-averaged mean and r.m.s. velocities, vortex formation, and spectral peaks.

  1. Experiments and Large-Eddy Simulations of acoustically forced bluff-body flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayache, S.; Dawson, J.R.; Triantafyllidis, A.; Balachandran, R.; Mastorakos, E.

    2010-01-01

    The isothermal air flow behind an enclosed axisymmetric bluff body, with the incoming flow being forced by a loudspeaker at a single frequency and with large amplitude, has been explored with high data-rate Laser-Doppler Anemometry measurements and Large-Eddy Simulations. The comparison between experiment and simulations allows a quantification of the accuracy of LES for turbulent flows with periodicity and the results provide insights into the structure of flows relevant to combustors undergoing self-excited oscillations. At low forcing frequencies, the whole flow pulsates with the incoming flow, although at a phase lag that depends on spatial location. At high forcing frequencies, vortices are shed from the bluff body and the recirculation zone, as a whole, pulsates less. Despite the fact that the incoming flow has an oscillation that is virtually monochromatic, the velocity spectra show peaks at various harmonics, whose relative magnitudes vary with location. A sub-harmonic peak is also observed inside the recirculation zone possibly caused by merging of the shed vortices. The phase-averaged turbulent fluctuations show large temporal and spatial variations. The LES reproduces reasonably accurately the experimental findings in terms of phase-averaged mean and r.m.s. velocities, vortex formation, and spectral peaks.

  2. Generalized derivation of the added-mass and circulatory forces for viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limacher, Eric; Morton, Chris; Wood, David

    2018-01-01

    The concept of added mass arises from potential flow analysis and is associated with the acceleration of a body in an inviscid irrotational fluid. When shed vorticity is modeled as vortex singularities embedded in this irrotational flow, the associated force can be superimposed onto the added-mass force due to the linearity of the governing Laplace equation. This decomposition of force into added-mass and circulatory components remains common in modern aerodynamic models, but its applicability to viscous separated flows remains unclear. The present work addresses this knowledge gap by presenting a generalized derivation of the added-mass and circulatory force decomposition which is valid for a body of arbitrary shape in an unbounded, incompressible fluid domain, in both two and three dimensions, undergoing arbitrary motions amid continuous distributions of vorticity. From the general expression, the classical added-mass force is rederived for well-known canonical cases and is seen to be additive to the circulatory force for any flow. The formulation is shown to be equivalent to existing theoretical work under the specific conditions and assumptions of previous studies. It is also validated using a numerical simulation of a pitching plate in a steady freestream flow, conducted by Wang and Eldredge [Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 27, 577 (2013), 10.1007/s00162-012-0279-5]. In response to persistent confusion in the literature, a discussion of the most appropriate physical interpretation of added mass is included, informed by inspection of the derived equations. The added-mass force is seen to account for the dynamic effect of near-body vorticity and is not (as is commonly claimed) associated with the acceleration of near-body fluid which "must" somehow move with the body. Various other consequences of the derivation are discussed, including a concept which has been labeled the conservation of image-vorticity impulse.

  3. Guidelines for random excitation forces due to cross flow in steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.E.; Pettigrew, M.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Random excitation forces can cause low-amplitude tube motion that will result in long-term fretting-wear or fatigue. To prevent these tube failures in steam generators and other heat exchangers, designers and trouble-shooters must have guidelines that incorporate random or turbulent fluid forces. Experiments designed to measure fluid forces have been carried out at Chalk River Laboratories and at other labs around the world. The data from these experiments have been studied and collated to determine suitable guidelines for random excitation forces. In this paper, a guideline for random excitation forces in single-phase cross flow is presented in the form of normalised spectra that are applicable to a wide range of flow conditions and tube frequencies. In particular, the experimental results used in this study were carried out over the full range of flow conditions found in a nuclear steam generator. The proposed guidelines are applicable to steam generators, condensers, reheaters and other shell-and-tube heat exchangers. They may be used for flow-induced vibration analysis of new or existing components, as input to vibration analysis computer codes and as specifications in procurement documents. (author)

  4. Guidelines for random excitation forces due to cross flow in steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.E.; Pettigrew, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Random excitation forces can cause low-amplitude tube motion that will result in long-term fretting-wear or fatigue. To prevent these tube failures in steam generators and other heat exchangers, designers and trouble-shooters must have guidelines that incorporate random or turbulent fluid forces. Experiments designed to measure fluid forces have been carried out at Chalk River Laboratories and at other labs around the world. The data from these experiments have been studied and collated to determine suitable guidelines for random excitation forces. In this paper, a guideline for random excitation forces in single-phase cross flow is presented in the form of normalised spectra that are applicable to a wide range of flow conditions and tube frequencies. In particular, the experimental results used in this study were carried out over the full range of flow conditions found in a nuclear steam generator. The proposed guidelines are applicable to steam generators, condensers, reheaters and other shell-and-tube heat exchangers. They may be used for flow-induced vibration analysis of new or existing components, as input to vibration analysis computer codes and as specifications in procurement documents. (author)

  5. Examination of forced unsteady separated flow fields on a rotating wind turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huyer, S [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (US)

    1993-04-01

    The wind turbine industry faces many problems regarding the construction of efficient and predictable wind turbine machines. Steady state, two-dimensional wind tunnel data are generally used to predict aerodynamic loads on wind turbine blades. Preliminary experimental evidence indicates that some of the underlying fluid dynamic phenomena could be attributed to dynamic stall, or more specifically to generation of forced unsteady separated flow fields. A collaborative research effort between the University of Colorado and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was conducted to systematically categorize the local and global effects of three- dimensional forced unsteady flow fields.

  6. Fluid flow in gas condensate reservoirs. The interplay of forces and their relative strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursin, Jann-Rune [Stavanger University College, Department of Petroleum Engineering, PO Box 8002, Stavanger, 4068 (Norway)

    2004-02-01

    Natural production from gas condensate reservoirs is characterized by gas condensation and liquid dropout in the reservoir, first in the near wellbore volume, then as a cylindrical shaped region, dynamically developing into the reservoir volume. The effects of liquid condensation are reduced productivity and loss of production. Successful forecast of well productivity and reservoir production depends on detailed understanding of the effect of various forces acting on fluid flow in time and space. The production form gas condensate reservoirs is thus indirectly related to the interplay of fundamental forces, such as the viscosity, the capillary, the gravitational and the inertial force and their relative strengths, demonstrated by various dimensionless numbers. Dimensionless numbers are defined and calculated for all pressure and space coordinates in a test reservoir. Various regions are identified where certain forces are more important than others. Based on reservoir pressure development, liquid condensation and the numerical representation of dimensionless numbers, a conceptual understanding of a varying reservoir permeability has been reached.The material balance, the reservoir fluid flow and the wellbore flow calculations are performed on a cylindrical reservoir model. The ratios between fundamental forces are calculated and dimensionless numbers defined. The interplay of forces, demonstrated by these numbers, are calculated as function of radial dimension and reservoir pressure.

  7. Drag reduction by streamwise traveling wave-like Lorenz Force in channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamori, Hiroya; Fukagata, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Skin-friction drag reduction effect of traveling wave-like wall-normal Lorenz force in a fully developed turbulent channel flow is investigated by means of direct numerical simulation. A sinusoidal profile of the wall-normal body force is assumed as the Lorenz force. While upstream traveling waves reduce the drag in the case of blowing/suction, standing waves reduce it in the case of present forcing. Visualization of vortical structure under the standing wave-like wall-normal Lorenz force reveals that the near-wall streamwise vortices, which increase the skin-friction drag, disappear and spanwise roller-like vortices are generated instead. Three component decomposition of the Reynolds shear stress indicates that the spanwise roller-like vortices contribute to the negative Reynolds shear stress in the region near the wall, similarly to the case of laminar flows. While the analogy between the wall-normal and streamwise forcings can be expected, the statistics are found to exhibit different behaviors due to the difference in the energy flow.

  8. Fluid-elastic force measurements acting on a tube bundle in two-phase cross flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Fumio; Kawamura, Koji; Yasuo, Akira

    1996-01-01

    Fluid-elastic force acting on a square tube bundle of P/D = 1.47 in air-water two-phase cross flow was measured to investigate the characteristics and to clarify whether the fluid elastic vibration characteristics could be expressed using two-phase mixture characteristics. Measured fluid elastic forces were separated into fluid-elastic force coefficients such as added mass, added stiffness, and added damping coefficient. The added damping coefficient was separated into a two-phase damping and a flow-dependent component as in previous research (Carlucci, 1981 and 1983; Pettigrew, 1994). These coefficients were nondimensionalized with two-phase mixture characteristics such as void fraction, mixture density and mixture velocity, which were obtained using the drift-flux model with consideration given to the model. The result was compared with the result obtained with the homogeneous model. It was found that fluid-elastic force coefficients could be expressed with two-phase flow mixture characteristics very well in the experimental result, and that better result can be derived using the slip model as compared to the homogeneous model. Added two-phase flow, which could be expressed as a function of void fraction, where two-phase damping was nondimensionalized with the relative velocity between the gas and liquid phases used as a reference velocity. Using these, the added stiffness coefficient and flow-dependent component of damping could be expressed very well as a function of nondimensional mixture velocity

  9. Magnetic field and force analysis of high Tc superconductor with flux flow and creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Miya, Kenzo

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for the magnetic force analysis of high T c superconductor based on the flux flow and creep model. The introduction of the artificial conductivity, which is used in the conventional method, is not needed. The CPU time requirement of the calculations is considerably lower than that in the case of the conventional method. Thereby the vibration of a levitated permanent magnet was numerically analyzed by taking into account the flux flow and creep

  10. Prediction of bubble detachment diameter in flow boiling based on force analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqi; Pan Liangming; Ren Song

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► All the forces acting on the growing bubbles are taken into account in the model. ► The bubble contact diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. ► Bubble growth force and surface tension are more significant in narrow channel. ► A good agreement between the predicted and the measured results is achieved. - Abstract: Bubble detachment diameter is one of the key parameters in the study of bubble dynamics and boiling heat transfer, and it is hard to be measured in a boiling system. In order to predict the bubble detachment diameter, a theoretical model is proposed based on forces analysis in this paper. All the forces acting on a bubble are taken into account to establish a model for different flow boiling configurations, including narrow and conventional channels, upward, downward and horizontal flows. A correlation of bubble contact circle diameter is adopted in this study, and it is found that the bubble contact circle diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. A new correlation taking the bubble contact circle diameter into account for the evaluation of bubble growth force is proposed in this study, and it is found that the bubble growth force and surface tension force are more significant in narrow channel when comparing with that in conventional channel. A visual experiment was carried out in order to verify present model; and the experimental data from published literature are used also. A good agreement between predicted and measured results is achieved.

  11. Buoyancy and Pressure Driven Flow of Hot Gases in Vertical Shafts with Natural and Forced Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Gunnar; Jaluria, Yogesh

    2003-11-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out on the buoyancy and pressure induced flow of hot gases in vertical shafts, in order to simulate the propagation of combustion products in elevator shafts due to fire in multilevel buildings. Various geometrical configurations are studied, with regard to natural and forced ventilation imposed at the top or bottom of the vertical shaft. The aspect ratio is taken at a fixed value of 6 and the inflow conditions for the hot gases, at a vent near the bottom, are varied in terms of the Reynolds and Grashof numbers. Temperature measurements within the shaft allow a detailed study of the steady state thermal fields, from which optimal means for smoke alleviation in high-rise building fires may be developed. Flow visualization is also used to study the flow characteristics. The results obtained indicate a wall plume as the primary transport mechanism. Flow recirculation dominates at high Grashof number flows, while increased Reynolds numbers gives rise to greater mixing in the shaft. The development and stability of the flow and its effect on the spread of smoke and hot gases are assessed for the different shaft configurations and inlet conditions. It is found that the fastest smoke removal and lowest shaft temperatures occur for a configuration with natural ventilation at the top and forced ventilation up from the shaft bottom. It is also shown that forced ventilation can be used to arrest smoke spread, as well as to dilute the effects of the fire.

  12. Characterization of fluid forces exerted on a cylinder array oscillating laterally in axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divaret, Lise

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental and a numerical study of the fluid forces exerted on a cylinder or a cylinder array oscillating laterally in an axial flow. The parameters of the system are the amplitude, the oscillation frequency, the confinement and the length to diameter ratio of the cylinder. The objective is to determine the fluid damping created by the axial flow, i.e. the dissipative force. The industrial application of this thesis is the determination of the fluid damping of the fuel assemblies in the core of a nuclear power plant during an earthquake. The study focuses on the configurations where the oscillation velocity is small compared to the axial flow velocity. In a first part, we study the case of a cylinder with no confinement oscillating in axial flow. Two methods are used: a dynamical and a quasi-static approach. In dynamics, the damping rate is measured during free oscillations of the cylinder. In the quasi-static approach, the damping coefficient is calculated from the normal force measured on a yawed cylinder. The range of the small ratios between the oscillation and the axial flow velocities corresponds to a range of low yaw angle where the cylinder is in near-axial flow in statics. The case of a yawed cylinder has been studied both experimentally with experiments in a wind tunnel and numerically with CFD calculations. The analyses of the fluid forces shows that for yaw angles smaller than 5 degrees, a linear lift with the yaw angle creates the damping. The origin of the lift force is discussed from pressure and velocity measurements. The results of the quasi-static approach are compared to the results of the dynamical experiments. In a second part, an experimental study is performed on a rigid cylinder array made up of 40 cylinders oscillating in an axial flow. The normal force and the displacement of the cylinder array are measured simultaneously. The added mass and damping coefficient are calculated and their variation with the

  13. Forces on bends and T-joints due to multiphase flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Cargnelutti, M.F.; Schiferli, W.; Osch, M.M.E. van

    2010-01-01

    To be able to assess the mechanical integrity of piping structures for loading to multiphase flow conditions, air-water experiments were carried out in a horizontal 1" pipe system. Forces and accelerations were measured on a number of bends and T-joint configurations for a wide range of operating

  14. Rotating turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection subject to harmonically forced flow reversals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, B.J.; Kunnen, R.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of turbulent flow in a cylindrical Rayleigh–B´enard convection cell which can be modified considerably in case rotation is included in the dynamics. By incorporating the additional effects of an Euler force, i.e., effects induced by nonconstant rotation rates, a remarkably strong

  15. Rotating turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection subject to harmonically forced flow reversals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Bernardus J.; Kunnen, Rudie P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of turbulent flow in a cylindrical Rayleigh–Bénard convection cell which can be modified considerably in case rotation is included in the dynamics. By incorporating the additional effects of an Euler force, i.e., effects induced by non-constant rotation rates, a remarkably strong

  16. Blade design loads on the flow exciting force in centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y; Yang, A L; Langand, D P; Dai, R

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional viscous flow field of two centrifugal pumps, which have the same volute, design head, design flow rate and rotational speed but the blade design load, are analyzed based on large eddy simulation. The comparisons are implemented including the hydraulic efficiencies, flow field characteristics, pressure pulsations and unsteady forces applied on the impellers to investigate the effect of the design blade load on hydraulic performance and flow exciting force. The numerical results show that the efficiency of the pump, the impeller blade of which has larger design load, is improved by 1.1%∼2.9% compared to the centrifugal pump with lower blade design load. The pressure fluctuation of the pump with high design load is more remarkable. Its maximum amplitude of coefficient of static pressure is higher by 43% than the latter. At the same time the amplitude of unsteady radial force is increased by 11.6% in the time domain. The results also imply that the blade design load is an important factor on the excitation force in centrifugal pumps.

  17. Effect of the forcing term in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of thermal flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Luo, K H

    2014-05-01

    The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is a popular model in the LB community for simulating multiphase flows. Recently, several thermal LB models, which are based on the pseudopotential LB model and constructed within the framework of the double-distribution-function LB method, were proposed to simulate thermal multiphase flows [G. Házi and A. Márkus, Phys. Rev. E 77, 026305 (2008); L. Biferale, P. Perlekar, M. Sbragaglia, and F. Toschi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 104502 (2012); S. Gong and P. Cheng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 4923 (2012); M. R. Kamali et al., Phys. Rev. E 88, 033302 (2013)]. The objective of the present paper is to show that the effect of the forcing term on the temperature equation must be eliminated in the pseudopotential LB modeling of thermal flows. First, the effect of the forcing term on the temperature equation is shown via the Chapman-Enskog analysis. For comparison, alternative treatments that are free from the forcing-term effect are provided. Subsequently, numerical investigations are performed for two benchmark tests. The numerical results clearly show that the existence of the forcing-term effect will lead to significant numerical errors in the pseudopotential LB modeling of thermal flows.

  18. Lateral migration of a microdroplet under optical forces in a uniform flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyunjun; Chang, Cheong Bong; Jung, Jin Ho; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of a microdroplet in a uniform flow and subjected to a vertical optical force applied by a loosely focused Gaussian laser beam was studied numerically. The lattice Boltzmann method was applied to obtain the two-phase flow field, and the dynamic ray tracing method was adopted to calculate the optical force. The optical forces acting on the spherical droplets agreed well with the analytical values. The numerically predicted droplet migration distances agreed well with the experimentally obtained values. Simulations of the various flow and optical parameters showed that the droplet migration distance nondimensionalized by the droplet radius is proportional to the S number (z d /r p = 0.377S), which is the ratio of the optical force to the viscous drag. The effect of the surface tension was also examined. These results indicated that the surface tension influenced the droplet migration distance to a lesser degree than the flow and optical parameters. The results of the present work hold for the refractive indices of the mean fluid and the droplet being 1.33 and 1.59, respectively

  19. Unsteady flow damping force prediction of MR dampers subjected to sinusoidal loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Wang, S. Q.; Fu, J.; Peng, Y. X.

    2013-02-01

    So far quasi-steady models are usually used to design magnetorheological (MR) dampers, but these models are not sufficient to describe the MR damper behavior under unsteady dynamic loading, for fluid inertia is neglected in quasi-steady models, which will bring more error between computer simulation and experimental results. Under unsteady flow model, the fluid inertia terms will bring error calculated upto 10%, so it is necessary to be considered in the governing equation. In this paper, force-stroke behavior of MR damper with flow mode due to sinusoidal loading excitation is mainly investigated, to simplify the analysis, the one-dimensional axisymmetric annular duct geometry of MR dampers is approximated as a rectangular duct. The rectangular duct can be divided into 3 regions for the velocity profile of the incompressible MR fluid flow, in each region, a partial differential equation is composed of by Navier-Stokes equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions to determine the velocity solution. In addition, in this work, not only Bingham plastic model but the Herschel—Bulkley model is adopted to analyze the MR damper performance. The damping force resulting from the pressure drop of unsteady MR dampers can be obtained and used to design or size MR dampers. Compared with the quasi-steady flow damping force, the damping force of unsteady MR dampers is more close to practice, particularly for the high-speed unsteady movement of MR dampers.

  20. Unsteady flow damping force prediction of MR dampers subjected to sinusoidal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, M; Fu, J; Wang, S Q; Peng, Y X

    2013-01-01

    So far quasi-steady models are usually used to design magnetorheological (MR) dampers, but these models are not sufficient to describe the MR damper behavior under unsteady dynamic loading, for fluid inertia is neglected in quasi-steady models, which will bring more error between computer simulation and experimental results. Under unsteady flow model, the fluid inertia terms will bring error calculated upto 10%, so it is necessary to be considered in the governing equation. In this paper, force-stroke behavior of MR damper with flow mode due to sinusoidal loading excitation is mainly investigated, to simplify the analysis, the one-dimensional axisymmetric annular duct geometry of MR dampers is approximated as a rectangular duct. The rectangular duct can be divided into 3 regions for the velocity profile of the incompressible MR fluid flow, in each region, a partial differential equation is composed of by Navier-Stokes equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions to determine the velocity solution. In addition, in this work, not only Bingham plastic model but the Herschel—Bulkley model is adopted to analyze the MR damper performance. The damping force resulting from the pressure drop of unsteady MR dampers can be obtained and used to design or size MR dampers. Compared with the quasi-steady flow damping force, the damping force of unsteady MR dampers is more close to practice, particularly for the high-speed unsteady movement of MR dampers.

  1. Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand and its flow field during sculling motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hideki; Shimada, Shohei; Miwa, Takahiro; Kudo, Shigetada; Sanders, Ross; Matsuuchi, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this research is to clarify the mechanism by which unsteady forces are generated during sculling by a skilled swimmer and thereby to contribute to improving propulsive techniques. We used particle image velocimetry (PIV) to acquire data on the kinematics of the hand during sculling, such as fluid forces and flow field. By investigating the correlations between these data, we expected to find a new propulsion mechanism. The experiment was performed in a flow-controlled water channel. The participant executed sculling motions to remain at a fixed position despite constant water flow. PIV was used to visualize the flow-field cross-section in the plane of hand motion. Moreover, the fluid forces acting on the hand were estimated from pressure distribution measurements performed on the hand and simultaneous three-dimensional motion analysis. By executing the sculling motion, a skilled swimmer produces large unsteady fluid forces when the leading-edge vortex occurs on the dorsal side of the hand and wake capture occurs on the palm side. By using a new approach, we observed interesting unsteady fluid phenomena similar to those of flying insects. The study indicates that it is essential for swimmers to fully exploit vortices. A better understanding of these phenomena might lead to an improvement in sculling techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multi-detector CT evaluation in patients suspected of tracheobronchomalacia: Comparison of end-expiratory with dynamic expiratory volumetric acquisitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, Gilbert R. [Department of Radiology (France)], E-mail: gferretti@chu-grenoble.fr; Jankowski, Adrien [Department of Radiology (France)], E-mail: ajankowski@chu-grenoble.fr; Perrin, Marie Amelie [Department of Radiology (France)], E-mail: maperrin@chu-grenoble.fr; Chouri, Nathalie [Department of Respiratory Diseases (France)], E-mail: nchouri@chu-grenoble.fr; Arnol, Nathalie [Sleep Laboratory and EFCR, University Hospital, Grenoble (France); HP2 Laboratory, INSERM ERI 0017 (Hypoxia: Pathophysiology), Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: narnold@chu-grenoble.fr; Aubaud, Laurent [Department of Radiology (France)], E-mail: laubaud@chu-grenoble.fr; Pepin, Jean-Louis [Sleep Laboratory and EFCR, University Hospital, Grenoble (France); HP2 Laboratory, INSERM ERI 0017 (Hypoxia: Pathophysiology), Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: jlpepin@chu-grenoble.fr

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare dynamic expiratory imaging and end-expiratory imaging using multi-detector CT (MDCT) of the central airways in patients suspected of tracheobronchomalacia (TBM). Methods: This study had local ethical committee approval. Seventy patients suspected of TBM were prospectively included. All patients underwent evaluation of central airways by three different low-dose MDCT acquisitions: end inspiration, end expiration, and dynamic expiration. Degree of airway collapse was measured by calculating the percentage change in the area and diameter of the airways between inspiratory and the two expiratory techniques at three levels of the trachea and in the sagittal diameter of the right and left main bronchi. Three threshold levels of percentage reduction in diameter or area (30%, 50%, and 70%) for defining TBM were evaluated. Results: In the entire population, the mean percentage of airway collapse was significantly greater with dynamic expiratory imaging than with the end-expiratory imaging at three different levels: lower thoracic trachea (26% vs. 16.6%, p < 0.009), right (25.2% vs. 14%, p < 0.01) and left main (24.7% vs. 13.3%, p < 0.01) bronchus. Whatever the threshold value for defining TBM, dynamic expiratory imaging always resulted in diagnosing TBM in more patients than end-expiratory imaging. Conclusions: Dynamic expiratory imaging shows a significantly greater degree and a significantly greater extent of airway collapse than standard end-expiratory imaging in patients suspected of TBM. Further evaluation of the clinical relevance of such findings is warranted.

  3. Assessment and monitoring of flow limitation and other parameters from flow/volume loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueck, R

    2000-01-01

    Flow/volume (F/V) spirometry is routinely used for assessing the type and severity of lung disease. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and timed vital capacity (FEV1) provide the best estimates of airflow obstruction in patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. Computerized spirometers are now available for early home recognition of asthma exacerbation in high risk patients with severe persistent disease, and for recognition of either infection or rejection in lung transplant patients. Patients with severe COPD may exhibit expiratory flow limitation (EFL) on tidal volume (VT) expiratory F/V (VTF/V) curves, either with or without applying negative expiratory pressure (NEP). EFL results in dynamic hyperinflation and persistently raised alveolar pressure or intrinsic PEEP (PEEPi). Hyperinflation and raised PEEPi greatly enhance dyspnea with exertion through the added work of the threshold load needed to overcome raised pleural pressure. Esophageal (pleural) pressure monitoring may be added to VTF/V loops for assessing the severity of PEEPi: 1) to optimize assisted ventilation by mask or via endotracheal tube with high inspiratory flow rates to lower I:E ratio, and 2) to assess the efficacy of either pressure support ventilation (PSV) or low level extrinsic PEEP in reducing the threshold load of PEEPi. Intraoperative tidal volume F/V loops can also be used to document the efficacy of emphysema lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) via disappearance of EFL. Finally, the mechanism of ventilatory constraint can be identified with the use of exercise tidal volume F/V loops referenced to maximum F/V loops and static lung volumes. Patients with severe COPD show inspiratory F/V loops approaching 95% of total lung capacity, and flow limitation over the entire expiratory F/V curve during light levels of exercise. Surprisingly, patients with a history of congestive heart failure may lower lung volume towards residual volume during exercise

  4. A compilation of minutes for the Stripa task force on fracture flow modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, D.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a compilation of minutes from the nine meetings of the Stripa task force on fracture flow modelling, held at various locations around the world from February 1988 to December 1991. The task force was set up as a peer review group with the specific objectives of 1. recommending criteria for the verification and validation of fracture flow models, 2. facilitating the dissemination of information to countries participating in the Stripa project, and 3. coordinating the work of the three modelling groups form AEA Harwell, Golder Associates and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The report provides a detailed technical commentary of the interplay between the development and application of mathematical models, and the design, execution and interpretation of experiment, within a structured project management framework. In particular, the task force has pioneered the definition and implementation of a validation process and associated criteria based on the analysis of a wide range of experimental data. (au)

  5. Influence of lubrication forces in direct numerical simulations of particle-laden flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitri, Rohit; Peters, Frank; Padding, Johan; Kuipers, Hans

    2016-11-01

    Accurate numerical representation of particle-laden flows is important for fundamental understanding and optimizing the complex processes such as proppant transport in fracking. Liquid-solid flows are fundamentally different from gas-solid flows because of lower density ratios (solid to fluid) and non-negligible lubrication forces. In this interface resolved model, fluid-solid coupling is achieved by incorporating the no-slip boundary condition implicitly at particle's surfaces by means of an efficient second order ghost-cell immersed boundary method. A fixed Eulerian grid is used for solving the Navier-Stokes equations and the particle-particle interactions are implemented using the soft sphere collision and sub-grid scale lubrication model. Due to the range of influence of lubrication force on a smaller scale than the grid size, it is important to implement the lubrication model accurately. In this work, different implementations of the lubrication model on particle dynamics are studied for various flow conditions. The effect of a particle surface roughness on lubrication force and the particle transport is also investigated. This study is aimed at developing a validated methodology to incorporate lubrication models in direct numerical simulation of particle laden flows. This research is supported from Grant 13CSER014 of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  6. What's in a name? Expiratory tracheal narrowing in adults explained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, P.; Bardin, P.G.; Lau, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Tracheomalacia, tracheobronchomalacia, and excessive dynamic airway collapse are all terms used to describe tracheal narrowing in expiration. The first two describe luminal reduction from cartilage softening and the latter refers to luminal reduction from exaggerated posterior membrane movement. Expiratory tracheal narrowing is a frequent occurrence that can cause symptoms of airway obstruction, such as dyspnoea, wheeze, and exercise intolerance. The accurate diagnosis and quantification of expiratory tracheal narrowing has important aetiological, therapeutic, and prognostic implications. The reference standard for diagnosis has traditionally been bronchoscopy; however, this method has significant limitations. Expiratory tracheal disorders are readily detected by four-dimensional dynamic volume multidetector computed tomography (4D-CT), an emerging, non-invasive method that will potentially enable detection and quantification of these conditions. This review discusses the morphological forms of expiratory tracheal narrowing and demonstrates the utility of 4D-CT in the diagnosis, quantification, and treatment of these important conditions

  7. Gravity-driven granular flow in a silo: Characterizing local forces and rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thackray Emma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While the gravity-driven flow of a granular material in a silo geometry can be modeled by the Beverloo equation, the mesoscale-level particle rearrangements and interactions that drive this flow are not wellunderstood. We have constructed a quasi-two-dimensional system of bidisperse, millimeter-scale disks with photoelastic properties that make force networks within the material visible. The system is contained in an acrylic box with an adjustable bottom opening. We can approach the clogging transition by adjusting this opening. By placing the system between cross-polarizers, we can obtain high-speed video of this system during flow, and extract intensity signals that can be used to identify and quantify localized, otherwise indeterminate forces. We can simultaneously track individual particle motions, which can be used to identify shear transformation zones in the system. In this paper, we present our results thus far.

  8. [Study of personal best value of peak expiratory flow in patients with asthma--comparison of the highest value of daily PEF under good control and the highest value of daily PEF obtained after using repeated inhaled beta2-agonist during high-dose inhaled steroid treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoto; Makino, Sohei; Kihara, Norio; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2008-12-01

    In the guideline for asthma management, it is important to find the personal best value of peak expiratory flow (best PEF). Recently, we have substituted the highest value of PEF in daily life under good control (daily highest PEF) for the best PEF. In the present study, we considered whether the daily highest PEF could be used as the best PEF or not. Subjects were 30 asthmatics who were well controlled but whose baseline PEF values were less than 80 percent of predicted values. We compared the daily highest PEF and the highest of PEF obtained after repeated inhaled beta2-agonist (salbutamol MDI every 20 minutes three times). All subjects then received 1600 microg/day of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for 4 to 8 weeks. We studied the effect of high-dose inhaled steroid treatment on each PEF value and compared the daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after using repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose inhaled steroid therapy on the examination day again. The baseline PEF, daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after salbutamol MDI were significantly less than the each values obtained after high-dose BDP. The best PEF value of them was the value obtained after repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose BDP. We suggest that the daily highest PEF under good control is not a substitute for best PEF because it changes according to the degree of improvement of airway inflammation. We recommend that a course of high dose inhaled steroid is effective in finding the best value of PEF for each individual with moderate asthma.

  9. An efficient implicit direct forcing immersed boundary method for incompressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, S-G; Ouahsine, A; Smaoui, H; Favier, J; Hoarau, Y

    2015-01-01

    A novel efficient implicit direct forcing immersed boundary method for incompressible flows with complex boundaries is presented. In the previous work [1], the calculation is performed on the Cartesian grid regardless of the immersed object, with a fictitious force evaluated on the Lagrangian points to mimic the presence of the physical boundaries. However the explicit direct forcing method [1] fails to accurately impose the non-slip boundary condition on the immersed interface. In the present work, the calculation is based on the implicit treatment of the artificial force while in an effective way of system iteration. The accuracy is also improved by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with the rotational incremental pressure- correction projection method of Guermond and Shen [2]. Numerical simulations performed with the proposed method are in good agreement with those in the literature

  10. 16 reference population equations using peak expiratory flow meters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Many formulae for predicting lung function values for Nigerians have been produced by a lot of investigators. The same principle ... equations in current use are based on linear statistical models which are subject to change and they did not express the .... that present lower limits of normal or present information from which ...

  11. 16 reference population equations using peak expiratory flow meters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    equations in current use are based on linear statistical models which are subject to change and they did not ... assess risks of surgery and to assist in evaluations performed ... identify and quantify pulmonary involvement incases of asthma.

  12. Reference population equations using peak expiratory flow meters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many formulae for predicting lung function values for Nigerians have been produced by a lot of investigators. The same principle but different statistical methods were adopted by different authors in generating these equations, hence the variability observed among these formulae. Most equations in current use are based on ...

  13. Erosion by sliding wear in granular flows: Experiments with realistic contact forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, C. P.; Hung, C. Y.; Smith, B.; Li, L.; Grinspun, E.; Capart, H.

    2015-12-01

    Debris flow erosion is a powerful and sometimes dominant process in steep channels. Despite its importance, this phenomenon is relatively little studied in the lab. The large drum experiments of Hsu are a notable exception, in which almost-field-scale impact forces were generated at the head of a synthetic debris flow whose properties (grain size, proportion of fines, etc) were varied widely.A key challenge in these and similar experiments is to explore how erosion rate varies as a function of the scale of the flow (thereby varying inertial stresses, impact forces, etc). The geometrical limitations of most lab experiments, and their short run time, severely limit the scope of such explorations.We achieve this scale exploration in a set of drum erosion experiments by varying effective gravity across several orders of magnitude (1g, 10g, 100g) in a geotechnical centrifuge. By half-filling our 40cm-diameter drum with dry 2.3mm grains, placing a synthetic rock plate at the back and a glass plate at the front 3cm apart, and rotating the drum at 1-50rpm, we simulate wear in a channelized dry granular flow. In contrast to Hsu's experiments, we focus on sliding wear erosion at the flow boundary rather than impact/frictional wear at the flow head. By varying effective gravity from 1g-100g we can tune the pressure exerted by the grains at the boundary without having to change the scale of our apparatus. Using a recently developed depth-averaged, kinetic-energy closure theory for granular flow, we can simultaneously tune the drum rotation rate such that the flow dynamics remain invariant. We can thereby explore how changing the scale of a granular flow, and thus the contact forces of grains on the boundary, controls the rate of rock erosion. Using a small apparatus we can simulate the erosion generated by debris flows several meters deep involving grains up to 10cm in diameter.Our results suggest that sliding wear is the main erosion process, and are consistent with Archard

  14. Study on hydrogen isotope behavior in Pb-Li forced convection flow with permeable wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ryosuke; Fukada, Satoshi, E-mail: sfukada@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Muneoka, Taiki; Kinjo, Mao; Katayama, Kazunari

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Transient- and steady-state hydrogen permeation from Li-Pb forced convection flow through permeable tube to outside Ar purge gas was investigated at 600 °C. • It was found that the overall permeation rates were limited by diffusion in the Li-Pb boundary layer developed from the flow inlet. • The effect of the boundary layer was correlated in terms of mass transfer coefficient. The values of mass transfer coefficients at 600 °C were compared with those of 400 °C and 500 °C obtained beforehand. - Abstract: Transient- and steady-state hydrogen permeation from Li-Pb forced convection flow in a permeable tube to outside Ar purge gas was investigated between 400–600 °C. The values of the steady-state permeation rate increased with the increase of the Li-Pb flow rate. It was found that the overall permeation rates were limited by diffusion in a Li-Pb boundary layer developed from flow inlet. The effect of the boundary layer was correlated in terms of the mass-transfer coefficient. The values of the mass-transfer coefficient at 600 °C were compared with those of 400 °C and 500 °C obtained beforehand. Judged from these data of mass-transfer coefficients, it can be predicted that the effect of boundary layer varies with the increase of Li-Pb flow rate at different temperature conditions.

  15. Dynamic electro-thermal modeling of all-vanadium redox flow battery with forced cooling strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Zhao, Jiyun; Xiong, Binyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic electro-thermal model is proposed for VRB with forced cooling. • The Foster network is adopted to model the battery cooling process. • Both the electrolyte temperature and terminal voltage can be accurately predicted. • The flow rate of electrolyte and coolant significantly impact battery performance. - Abstract: The present study focuses on the dynamic electro-thermal modeling for the all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) with forced cooling strategies. The Foster network is adopted to dynamically model the heat dissipation of VRB with heat exchangers. The parameters of Foster network are extracted by fitting the step response of it to the results of linearized CFD model. Then a complete electro-thermal model is proposed by coupling the heat generation model, Foster network and electrical model. Results show that the established model has nearly the same accuracy with the nonlinear CFD model in electrolyte temperature prediction but drastically improves the computational efficiency. The modeled terminal voltage is also benchmarked with the experimental data under different current densities. The electrolyte temperature is found to be significantly influenced by the flow rate of coolant. As compared, although the electrolyte flow rate has unremarkable impact on electrolyte temperature, its effect on system pressure drop and battery efficiency is significant. Increasing the electrolyte flow rate improves the coulombic efficiency, voltage efficiency and energy efficiency simultaneously but at the expense of higher pump power demanded. An optimal flow rate exists for each operating condition to maximize the system efficiency

  16. Effects of forcing time scale on the simulated turbulent flows and turbulent collision statistics of inertial particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, B.; Parishani, H.; Ayala, O.; Wang, L.-P.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study systematically the effects of forcing time scale in the large-scale stochastic forcing scheme of Eswaran and Pope [“An examination of forcing in direct numerical simulations of turbulence,” Comput. Fluids 16, 257 (1988)] on the simulated flow structures and statistics of forced turbulence. Using direct numerical simulations, we find that the forcing time scale affects the flow dissipation rate and flow Reynolds number. Other flow statistics can be predicted using the altered flow dissipation rate and flow Reynolds number, except when the forcing time scale is made unrealistically large to yield a Taylor microscale flow Reynolds number of 30 and less. We then study the effects of forcing time scale on the kinematic collision statistics of inertial particles. We show that the radial distribution function and the radial relative velocity may depend on the forcing time scale when it becomes comparable to the eddy turnover time. This dependence, however, can be largely explained in terms of altered flow Reynolds number and the changing range of flow length scales present in the turbulent flow. We argue that removing this dependence is important when studying the Reynolds number dependence of the turbulent collision statistics. The results are also compared to those based on a deterministic forcing scheme to better understand the role of large-scale forcing, relative to that of the small-scale turbulence, on turbulent collision of inertial particles. To further elucidate the correlation between the altered flow structures and dynamics of inertial particles, a conditional analysis has been performed, showing that the regions of higher collision rate of inertial particles are well correlated with the regions of lower vorticity. Regions of higher concentration of pairs at contact are found to be highly correlated with the region of high energy dissipation rate

  17. Vortex forcing model for turbulent flow over spanwise-heterogeneous topogrpahies: scaling arguments and similarity solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William; Yang, Jianzhi

    2017-11-01

    Spanwise surface heterogeneity beneath high-Reynolds number, fully-rough wall turbulence is known to induce mean secondary flows in the form of counter-rotating streamwise vortices. The secondary flows are a manifestation of Prandtl's secondary flow of the second kind - driven and sustained by spatial heterogeneity of components of the turbulent (Reynolds averaged) stress tensor. The spacing between adjacent surface heterogeneities serves as a control on the spatial extent of the counter-rotating cells, while their intensity is controlled by the spanwise gradient in imposed drag (where larger gradients associated with more dramatic transitions in roughness induce stronger cells). In this work, we have performed an order of magnitude analysis of the mean (Reynolds averaged) streamwise vorticity transport equation, revealing the scaling dependence of circulation upon spanwise spacing. The scaling arguments are supported by simulation data. Then, we demonstrate that mean streamwise velocity can be predicted a priori via a similarity solution to the mean streamwise vorticity transport equation. A vortex forcing term was used to represent the affects of spanwise topographic heterogeneity within the flow. Efficacy of the vortex forcing term was established with large-eddy simulation cases, wherein vortex forcing model parameters were altered to capture different values of spanwise spacing.

  18. Experimental investigation on flow instability of forced circulation in a vertical mini-rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhiting; Tan Sichao; Yuan Hongsheng; Zhuang Nailiang; Chen Hanying

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the flow instability in a vertical mini-rectangular channel with distilled water as the working fluid. The rotational speed of the primary pump is gradually reduced to lower the inlet flow rate until the flow becomes unstable, while maintaining all other thermal parameters unchanged. Three types of instability, characterized by large amplitude oscillation, small amplitude oscillation and flow excursion, were identified from the experimental data. A stability map for the vertical mini-rectangular channel under forced circulation was established based on the Subcooling number and Phase Change number. The oscillation periods were correlated with the fluid transit time and the boiling delay time. A flow pattern map for vertical upward flow in a mini-rectangular channel was applied to confirm the flow patterns during the oscillation. The mechanisms of the three types of instability were obtained by considering several types of flow instabilities and comparing them with the oscillations observed in this work. (author)

  19. Modeling fluid forces and response of a tube bundle in cross-flow induced vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khushnood, Shahab; Khan, Zaffar M.; Malik, M. Afzaal; Koreshi, Zafarullah; Khan, Mahmood Anwar

    2003-01-01

    Flow induced vibrations occur in process heat exchangers, condensers, boilers and nuclear steam generators. Under certain flow conditions and fluid velocities, the fluid forces result in tube vibrations and possible damage of tube, tube sheet or baffle due to fretting and fatigue. Prediction of these forces is an important consideration. The characteristics of vibration depend greatly on the fluid dynamic forces and structure of the tube bundle. It is undesirable for the tube bundles to vibrate excessively under normal operating conditions because tubes wear and eventual leakage can occur leading to costly shutdowns. In this paper modeling of fluid forces and vibration response of a tube in a heat exchanger bundle has been carried out. Experimental validation has been performed on an existing refinery heat exchanger tube bundle. The target tube has been instrumented with an accelerometer and strain gages. The bundle has been studied for pulse, sinusoidal and random excitations. Natural frequencies and damping of the tubes have also been computed. Experimental fluid forces and response shows a reasonable agreement with the predictions. (author)

  20. Turbulence and turbulent drag reduction in swirling flow: Inertial versus viscous forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnishev, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor

    2015-08-01

    We report unexpected results of a drastic difference in the transition to fully developed turbulent and turbulent drag reduction (TDR) regimes and in their properties in a von Karman swirling flow with counter-rotating disks of water-based polymer solutions for viscous (by smooth disks) as well as inertial (by bladed disks) forcing and by tracking just torque Γ(t) and pressure p(t) . For the viscous forcing, just a single TDR regime is found with the transition values of the Reynolds number (Re) Re turb c =Re TDR c ≃(4.8±0.2)×10(5) independent of ϕ , whereas for the inertial forcing two turbulent regimes are revealed. The first transition is to fully developed turbulence, and the second one is to the TDR regime with both Re turb c and Re TDR c depending on polymer concentration ϕ . Both regimes differ by the values of C f and C p , by the scaling exponents of the fundamental turbulent characteristics, by the nonmonotonic dependencies of skewness and flatness of the pressure PDFs on Re, and by the different frequency power spectra of p with the different dependencies of the main vortex peak frequency in the p power spectra on ϕ and Re. Thus our experimental results show the transition to the TDR regime in a von Karman swirling flow for the viscous and inertial forcings in a sharp contrast to the recent experiments [Phys. Fluids 10, 426 (1998); Phys. Rev. E 47, R28(R) (1993); and J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, S1195 (2005)] where the transition to TDR is observed in the same swirling flow with counter-rotating disks only for the viscous forcing. The latter result has led its authors to the wrong conclusion that TDR is a solely boundary effect contrary to the inertial forcing associated with the bulk effect, and this conception is currently rather widely accepted in literature.

  1. High resolution CT in cystic fibrosis--the contribution of expiratory scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorloechter, Ludger; Nes, Harald; Fluge, Gjermund; Rosendahl, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: The use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is well accepted as an accurate method for evaluation of lung parenchyma in cystic fibrosis (CF). Several scoring methods exist and, in common, all are based on HRCT findings during inspiration alone. Objective: To examine whether expiratory HRCT scans could add information about the degree of mosaic perfusion in patients with CF. Methods and patients: Pulmonary HRCT was performed in 17 CF patients (median age of 12 years) with 1-mm thin sections and 10-mm intervals during inspiration, followed by 1-mm thin sections with 20-mm intervals during expiration. HRCT was scored by using a modified Bhalla method. Results: The mean HRCT score was 8.2. Out of 17 patients, 11 (65%) demonstrated a pathological mosaic perfusion in expiration, while only three patients showed mosaic perfusion in inspiration. The degree of expiratory mosaic perfusion was graded as severe in nine patients and moderate in two patients. There was a significant correlation between our modified HRCT score and lung function, as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1% predicted, P<0.01). Conclusion: Mosaic perfusion in expiration was a common pathological HRCT finding in our study group. The clinical significance of this finding needs further evaluation

  2. Investigation of Body Force Effects on Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Mudawar, Issam; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2002-01-01

    The bubble coalescence and interfacial instabilities that are important to modeling critical heat flux (CHF) in reduced-gravity systems can be sensitive to even minute body forces. Understanding these complex phenomena is vital to the design and safe implementation of two-phase thermal management loops proposed for space and planetary-based thermal systems. While reduced gravity conditions cannot be accurately simulated in 1g ground-based experiments, such experiments can help isolate the effects of the various forces (body force, surface tension force and inertia) which influence flow boiling CHF. In this project, the effects of the component of body force perpendicular to a heated wall were examined by conducting 1g flow boiling experiments at different orientations. FC-72 liquid was boiled along one wall of a transparent rectangular flow channel that permitted photographic study of the vapor-liquid interface at conditions approaching CHF. High-speed video imaging was employed to capture dominant CHF mechanisms. Six different CHF regimes were identified: Wavy Vapor Layer, Pool Boiling, Stratification, Vapor Counterflow, Vapor Stagnation, and Separated Concurrent Vapor Flow. CHF showed great sensitivity to orientation for flow velocities below 0.2 m/s, where very small CHF values where measured, especially with downflow and downward-facing heated wall orientations. High flow velocities dampened the effects of orientation considerably. Figure I shows representative images for the different CHF regimes. The Wavy Vapor Layer regime was dominant for all high velocities and most orientations, while all other regimes were encountered at low velocities, in the downflow and/or downward-facing heated wall orientations. The Interfacial Lift-off model was modified to predict the effects of orientation on CHF for the dominant Wavy Vapor Layer regime. The photographic study captured a fairly continuous wavy vapor layer travelling along the heated wall while permitting liquid

  3. Calibrationless rotating Lorentz-force flowmeters for low flow rate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvasta, M. G.; Dudt, D.; Fisher, A. E.; Kolemen, E.

    2018-07-01

    A ‘weighted magnetic bearing’ has been developed to improve the performance of rotating Lorentz-force flowmeters (RLFFs). Experiments have shown that the new bearing reduces frictional losses within a double-sided, disc-style RLFF to negligible levels. Operating such an RLFF under ‘frictionless’ conditions provides two major benefits. First, the steady-state velocity of the RLFF magnets matches the average velocity of the flowing liquid at low flow rates. This enables an RLFF to make accurate volumetric flow measurements without any calibration or prior knowledge of the fluid properties. Second, due to minimized frictional losses, an RLFF is able to measure low flow rates that cannot be detected when conventional, high-friction bearings are used. This paper provides a brief background on RLFFs, gives a detailed description of weighted magnetic bearings, and compares experimental RLFF data to measurements taken with a commercially available flowmeter.

  4. Response of EBR-II to a complete loss of primary forced flow during power operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, R.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Mohr, D.; Tokar, J.V.; Sullivan, J.E.; Dean, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the thermal, hydraulic, and neutronic response of EBR-II to a complete loss of primary forced flow followed by a PPS-activated scram are presented. The experimental results clearly indicate a smooth transition to natural convective flow with a quite modest incore temperature transient. The accompanying calculations using the NATDEMO code agree quite well with the measured temperatures and flow rates throughout the primary system. The only region of the plant where a significant discrepancy between the measurements and calculations occurred was in the IHX. The reasons for this result could not be definitively determined, but it is speculated that the one-dimensional assumptions used in the modeling may not be valid in the IHX during buoyancy driver flows

  5. Portable dual field gradient force multichannel flow cytometer device with a dual wavelength low noise detection scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Conrad D; Galambos, Paul C; Derzon, Mark S; Graf, Darin C; Pohl, Kenneth R; Bourdon, Chris J

    2012-10-23

    Systems and methods for combining dielectrophoresis, magnetic forces, and hydrodynamic forces to manipulate particles in channels formed on top of an electrode substrate are discussed. A magnet placed in contact under the electrode substrate while particles are flowing within the channel above the electrode substrate allows these three forces to be balanced when the system is in operation. An optical detection scheme using near-confocal microscopy for simultaneously detecting two wavelengths of light emitted from the flowing particles is also discussed.

  6. An experimental study of forced convective flow boiling CHF in nanofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hoseon; Kim, Seontae; Jo, Hangjin; Kim, Dongeok; Kang, Soonho; Kim, Moohwan

    2008-01-01

    Recently the enhancement of CHF (critical heat flux) in nanofluids under the pool boiling condition is known as a result of nanoparticle deposition on the heating surface. The deposition phenomenon of nanoparticles on the heating surface is induced dominantly by the vigorous boiling on the heating surface. Considering the importance of flow boiling conditions in various practical heat transfer applications, an experimental study was performed to verify whether or not the enhancement of CHF in nanofluids exists in a forced convective flow boiling condition. The nanofluid used in this research was Al 2 O 3 -water dispersed by the ultra-sonic vibration method in very low concentration (0.01% Vol). A heater specimen was made of a copper block easily detachable to look into the surface condition after the experiment. The heating method was a thermal-heating made with a conductive material. The flow channel took a rectangular type (10mm x 10mm) and had a length of 1.2 m to assure a hydrodynamically fully-developed region. In result, CHF in the nanofluid under the forced convective flow boiling condition has been enhanced distinctively along with the effect of flow rates. To reason the CHF increase in the nanofluids, the boiling surface was investigated thoroughly with the SEM image. (author)

  7. Continuous surface force based lattice Boltzmann equation method for simulating thermocapillary flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Lin; Zheng, Song; Zhai, Qinglan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we extend a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with continuous surface force (CSF) to simulate thermocapillary flows. The model is designed on our previous CSF LBE for athermal two phase flow, in which the interfacial tension forces and the Marangoni stresses as the results of the interface interactions between different phases are described by a conception of CSF. In this model, the sharp interfaces between different phases are separated by a narrow transition layers, and the kinetics and morphology evolution of phase separation would be characterized by an order parameter via Cahn–Hilliard equation which is solved in the frame work of LBE. The scalar convection–diffusion equation for temperature field is resolved by thermal LBE. The models are validated by thermal two layered Poiseuille flow, and two superimposed planar fluids at negligibly small Reynolds and Marangoni numbers for the thermocapillary driven convection, which have analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature. Then thermocapillary migration of two/three dimensional deformable droplet are simulated. Numerical results show that the predictions of present LBE agreed with the analytical solution/other numerical results. - Highlights: • A CSF LBE to thermocapillary flows. • Thermal layered Poiseuille flows. • Thermocapillary migration.

  8. Continuous surface force based lattice Boltzmann equation method for simulating thermocapillary flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Lin, E-mail: lz@njust.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zheng, Song [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhai, Qinglan [School of Economics Management and Law, Chaohu University, Chaohu 238000 (China)

    2016-02-05

    In this paper, we extend a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with continuous surface force (CSF) to simulate thermocapillary flows. The model is designed on our previous CSF LBE for athermal two phase flow, in which the interfacial tension forces and the Marangoni stresses as the results of the interface interactions between different phases are described by a conception of CSF. In this model, the sharp interfaces between different phases are separated by a narrow transition layers, and the kinetics and morphology evolution of phase separation would be characterized by an order parameter via Cahn–Hilliard equation which is solved in the frame work of LBE. The scalar convection–diffusion equation for temperature field is resolved by thermal LBE. The models are validated by thermal two layered Poiseuille flow, and two superimposed planar fluids at negligibly small Reynolds and Marangoni numbers for the thermocapillary driven convection, which have analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature. Then thermocapillary migration of two/three dimensional deformable droplet are simulated. Numerical results show that the predictions of present LBE agreed with the analytical solution/other numerical results. - Highlights: • A CSF LBE to thermocapillary flows. • Thermal layered Poiseuille flows. • Thermocapillary migration.

  9. Heat transfer in tube bundles of heat exchangers with flow baffles induced forced mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbuRomia, M.M.; Chu, A.W.; Cho, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal analysis of shell-and-tube heat exchangers is being investigated through geometric modeling of the unit configuration in addition to considering the heat transfer processes taking place within the tube bundle. The governing equations that characterize the heat transfer from the shell side fluid to the tube side fluid across the heat transfer tubewalls are indicated. The equations account for the heat transfer due to molecular conduction, turbulent thermal diffusion, and forced fluid mixing among various shell side fluid channels. The analysis, though general in principle, is being applied to the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant-Intermediate Heat Exchanger, which utilizes flow baffles appropriately designed for induced forced fluid mixing in the tube bundle. The results of the analysis are presented in terms of the fluid and tube wall temperature distributions of a non-baffled and baffled tube bundle geometry. The former case yields axial flow in the main bundle region while the latter is associated with axial/cross flow in the bundle. The radial components of the axial/cross flow yield the necessary fluid mixing that results in reducing the thermal unbalance among the heat transfer to the allowable limits. The effect of flow maldistribution, present on the tube or shell sides of the heat exchangers, in altering the temperature field of tube bundles is also noted

  10. Forced-flow bioreactor for sucrose inversion using ceramic membrane activated by silanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, M; Watanabe, A; Jimbo, N; Nishizawa, K; Nakao, S

    1989-02-20

    A forced-flow enzyme membrane reactor system for sucrose inversion was investigated using three ceramic membranes having different pore sizes. Invertase was immobilized chemically to the inner surface of a ceramic membrane activated by a silane-glutaraldehyde technique. With the cross-flow filtration of sucrose solution, the reaction rate was a function of the permeate flux, easily controlled by pressure. Using 0.5 microm support pore size of membrane, the volumetric productivity obtained was 10 times higher than that in a reported immobilized enzyme column reactor, with a short residence time of 5 s and 100% conversion of the sucrose inversion.

  11. Impact of humidification and nebulization during expiratory limb protection: an experimental bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnelier, Alexandre; Lellouche, François; Bouchard, Pierre Alexandre; L'Her, Erwan

    2013-08-01

    Different filtering devices are used during mechanical ventilation to avoid dysfunction of flow and pressure transducers or for airborne microorganisms containment. Water condensates, resulting from the use of humidifiers, but also residual nebulization particles may have a major influence on expiratory limb resistance. To evaluate the influence of nebulization and active humidification on the resistance of expiratory filters. A respiratory system analog was constructed using a test lung, an ICU ventilator, heated humidifiers, and a piezoelectric nebulizer. Humidifiers were connected to different types of circuits (unheated, mono-heated, new-generation and old-generation bi-heated). Five filter types were evaluated: electrostatic, heat-and-moisture exchanger, standard, specific, and internal heated high-efficiency particulate air [HEPA] filter. Baseline characteristics were obtained from each dry filter. Differential pressure measurements were carried out after 24 hours of continuous in vitro use for each condition, and after 24 hours of use with an old-generation bi-heated circuit without nebulization. While using unheated circuits, measurements had to be interrupted before 24 hours for all the filtering devices except the internal heated HEPA filter. The heat-and-moisture exchangers occluded before 24 hours with the unheated and mono-heated circuits. The circuit type, nebulization practice, and duration of use did not influence the internal heated HEPA filter resistance. Expiratory limb filtration is likely to induce several major adverse events. Expiratory filter resistance increase is due mainly to the humidification circuit type, rather than to nebulization. If filtration is mandatory while using an unheated circuit, a dedicated filter should be used for ≤ 24 hours, or a heated HEPA for a longer duration.

  12. Analysis of a postulated accident scenario involving loss of forced flow in a LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    A model to analyse a postulated accident scenario involving loss of forced flow in the reactor vessel of a LMFBR is used. Five phases of the accident are analysed: Natural Circulation, Subcooled Boiling, Nucleate Boiling, Core Dryout and Cladding melt. The heat conduction in the fuel cladding, coolant and lower and upper plenum are calculated by a lump-parameter model. Physical data of a prototype LMFBR reactor were used for the calculation. (author)

  13. Osteopontin adsorption to Gram-positive cells reduces adhesion forces and attachment to surfaces under flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M F; Zeng, G; Neu, T R

    2017-01-01

    caries or medical device-related infections. It further investigated if OPN's effect on adhesion is caused by blocking the accessibility of glycoconjugates on bacterial surfaces. Bacterial adhesion was determined in a shear-controlled flow cell system in the presence of different concentrations of OPN......The bovine milk protein osteopontin (OPN) may be an efficient means to prevent bacterial adhesion to dental tissues and control biofilm formation. This study sought to determine to what extent OPN impacts adhesion forces and surface attachment of different bacterial strains involved in dental......, and interaction forces of single bacteria were quantified using single-cell force spectroscopy before and after OPN exposure. Moreover, the study investigated OPN's effect on the accessibility of cell surface glycoconjugates through fluorescence lectin-binding analysis. OPN strongly affected bacterial adhesion...

  14. Streamwise-body-force-model for rapid simulation combining internal and external flow fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Rong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A streamwise-body-force-model (SBFM is developed and applied in the overall flow simulation for the distributed propulsion system, combining internal and external flow fields. In view of axial stage effects, fan or compressor effects could be simplified as body forces along the streamline. These body forces which are functions of local parameters could be added as source terms in Navier-Stokes equations to replace solid boundary conditions of blades and hubs. The validation of SBFM with uniform inlet and distortion inlet of compressors shows that pressure performance characteristics agree well with experimental data. A three-dimensional simulation of the integration configuration, via a blended wing body aircraft with a distributed propulsion system using the SBFM, has been completed. Lift coefficient and drag coefficient agree well with wind tunnel test results. Results show that to reach the goal of rapid integrated simulation combining internal and external flow fields, the computational fluid dynamics method based on SBFM is reasonable.

  15. Hydrogen transfer in Pb–Li forced convection flow with permeable wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukada, Satoshi, E-mail: sfukada@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Muneoka, Taiki; Kinjyo, Mao; Yoshimura, Rhosuke; Katayama, Kazunari

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The paper presents experimental and analytical results of Pb–Li eutectic alloy forced convection flow. • Analytical results are in good agreement with ones of hydrogen permeation in Pb–Li forced convection flow. • The results are useful for the design of liquid blanket of fusion reactors. - Abstract: Transient- or steady-state hydrogen permeation from a primary fluid of Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83} (Pb–Li) through a permeable tube of Inconel-625 alloy to a secondary Ar purge is investigated experimentally under a forced convection flow in a dual cylindrical tube system. Results of the overall hydrogen permeation flux are correlated in terms of diffusivity, solubility and an average axial velocity of Pb–Li and diffusivity and solubility of the solid wall. Analytical solutions under proper assumptions are derived to simulate the transient- and steady-state rates of the overall hydrogen permeation, and close agreement is obtained between experiment and analysis. Two things are clarified from the comparison: (i) how the steady-state permeation rate is affected by the mass-transfer properties and the average velocity of Pb–Li and the properties of Inconel-625, and (ii) how its transient behavior is done by the diffusivity of the two materials. The results obtained here will give important information to estimate or to analyze the tritium transfer rate in fluidized Pb–Li blankets of DEMO or the future commercial fusion reactors.

  16. A model of hydraulic interactions in liver parenchyma as forces behind the intrahepatic bile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, S; Kurbel, B; Dmitrovic, B; Wagner, J

    2001-05-01

    The small diameters of bile canaliculi and interlobular bile ducts make it hard to attribute the bile flow solely to the process of secretion. In the model liver within its capsule is considered a limited space in which volume expansions of one part are possible only through the shrinking of other parts. The liver capsule allows only very slow volume changes. The rate of blood flow through the sinusoides is governed by the Poisseuill-Hagen law. The model is based on a concept of circulatory liver units. A unit would contain a group of acini sharing the same conditions of arterial flow. We can imagine them as an acinar group behind the last pressure reducer on one arterial branch. Acini from neighboring units compose liver lobules and drain through the same central venule. One lobule can contain acini from several neighboring circulatory units. The perfusion cycle in one unit begins with a transient tide in the arterial flow, governed by local mediators. Corresponding acini expand, grabbing the space by compressing their neighbors in the same lobules. Vascular resistance is reduced in dilated and increased in compressed acini. Portal blood flows through the dilated acini, bypassing the compressed neighbors. The cycle ends when the portal tide slowly diminishes and acinar volume is back on the interphase value until the new perfusion cycle is started in another circulatory unit. Each cycle probably takes minutes to complete. Increased pressures both in dilated and in compressed acini force the bile to move from acinar canalicules. Both up and down changes in acinar volume might force the acinar biliary flow. In cases of arterial vasoconstriction, increased activity of vasoactive substances would keep most of the circulatory units in the interphase and increased liver resistance can be expected. Liver fibrosis makes all acini to be of fixed volume and result in increased resistance. Because of that, low pressure portal flow would be more compromised, as reported. In

  17. Comparison of changes in tidal volume associated with expiratory rib cage compression and expiratory abdominal compression in patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Morino, Akira; Shida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masashi; Sato, Kimihiro; Seko, Toshiaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Shunichi; Takahashi, Naoaki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed to compare and clarify the relationship between expiratory rib cage compression and expiratory abdominal compression in patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation, with a focus on tidal volume. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 18 patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation, who had undergone tracheostomy. Each patient received expiratory rib cage compression and expiratory abdominal compression; the order of implementation was randomized. Subjects ...

  18. Some Exact Solutions of Boundary Layer Flows along a Vertical Plate with Buoyancy Forces Combined with Lorentz Forces under Uniform Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asterios Pantokratoras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exact analytical solutions of boundary layer flows along a vertical porous plate with uniform suction are derived and presented in this paper. The solutions concern the Blasius, Sakiadis, and Blasius-Sakiadis flows with buoyancy forces combined with either MHD Lorentz or EMHD Lorentz forces. In addition, some exact solutions are presented specifically for water in the temperature range of 0∘C≤≤8∘C, where water density is nearly parabolic. Except for their use as benchmarking means for testing the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, the presented exact solutions with EMHD forces have use in flow separation control in aeronautics and hydronautics, whereas the MHD results have applications in process metallurgy and fusion technology. These analytical solutions are valid for flows with strong suction.

  19. Comparison of changes in tidal volume associated with expiratory rib cage compression and expiratory abdominal compression in patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Akira; Shida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masashi; Sato, Kimihiro; Seko, Toshiaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Shunichi; Takahashi, Naoaki

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed to compare and clarify the relationship between expiratory rib cage compression and expiratory abdominal compression in patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation, with a focus on tidal volume. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 18 patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation, who had undergone tracheostomy. Each patient received expiratory rib cage compression and expiratory abdominal compression; the order of implementation was randomized. Subjects were positioned in a 30° lateral recumbent position, and a 2-kgf compression was applied. For expiratory rib cage compression, the rib cage was compressed unilaterally; for expiratory abdominal compression, the area directly above the navel was compressed. Tidal volume values were the actual measured values divided by body weight. [Results] Tidal volume values were as follows: at rest, 7.2 ± 1.7 mL/kg; during expiratory rib cage compression, 8.3 ± 2.1 mL/kg; during expiratory abdominal compression, 9.1 ± 2.2 mL/kg. There was a significant difference between the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression and that at rest. The tidal volume in expiratory rib cage compression was strongly correlated with that in expiratory abdominal compression. [Conclusion] These results indicate that expiratory abdominal compression may be an effective alternative to the manual breathing assist procedure.

  20. Numerical analysis of the immersed boundary method applied to the flow around a forced oscillating cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, L C; Silvestrini, J H; Schettini, E B C

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, Navier-Stokes and Continuity equations for incompressible flow around an oscillating cylinder were numerically solved. Sixth order compact difference schemes were used to solve the spatial derivatives, while the time advance was carried out through second order Adams Bashforth accurate scheme. In order to represent the obstacle in the flow, the Immersed Boundary Method was adopted. In this method a force term is added to the Navier-Stokes equations representing the body. The simulations present results regarding the hydrodynamic coefficients and vortex wakes in agreement to experimental and numerical previous works and the physical lock-in phenomenon was identified. Comparing different methods to impose the IBM, it can be concluded that no alterations regarding the vortex shedding mode were observed. The Immersed Boundary Method techniques used here can represent the surface of an oscillating cylinder in the flow.

  1. Inspiratory and expiratory HRCT findings in healthy smokers' lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Kwak, Byung Kook; Choi, Chi Hoon; Yang, Keun Mung; Lee, Chang Joon; Joo, Dong Il; Kim, Yang Soo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lung changes in healthy smokers, as seen on inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Twenty-seven healthy smokers (light smokers, below 20 pack-years, n=16; heavy smokers, above 20 pack-years, n=11) and 25 nonsmokers underwent inspiratory and expiratory HRCT. All healthy smokers had normal pulmonary function and chest radiography. Parenchymal and subpleural micronodules, ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema, bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis and septal line were evaluated on inspiratory scan and by air-trapping on expiratory scan. According to the findings of HRCT, heavy smokers and higher frequency of parenchymal micronodules, ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema, and air-trapping than nonsmokers and light smokers. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  2. Particle simulation algorithms with short-range forces in MHD and fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, S.; Tajima, T.; Umegaki, K.

    1992-07-01

    Attempts are made to develop numerical algorithms for handling fluid flows involving liquids and liquid-gas mixtures. In these types of systems, the short-range intermolecular interactions are important enough to significantly alter behavior predicted on the basis of standard fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics alone. We have constructed a particle-in-cell (PIC) code for the purpose of studying the effects of these interactions. Of the algorithms considered, the one which has been successfully implemented is based on a MHD particle code developed by Brunel et al. In the version presented here, short range forces are included in particle motion by, first, calculating the forces between individual particles and then, to prevent aliasing, interpolating these forces to the computational grid points, then interpolating the forces back to the particles. The code has been used to model a simple two-fluid Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Limitations to the accuracy of the code exist at short wavelengths, where the effects of the short-range forces would be expected to be most pronounced

  3. The role of the complete Coriolis force in weakly stratified oceanic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tort, M.; Winters, K. B.; Ribstein, B.; Zeitlin, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean dynamics is usually described using the primitive equations based on the so-called traditional approximation (TA), where the Coriolis force associated with the horizontal component of the planetary rotation is neglected (also called non-traditional (NT) part proportional to cosΦ, see Fig 1.). However, recent studies have shown that the NT part of the Coriolis force plays a non-negligible dynamical role in some particular oceanic flows (see Gerkema et al., 2008 for an extensive review of NT effects for geophysical and astrophysical flows). Here we explore the relevance of including the NT component of the Coriolis force in ocean models, by presenting particular results regarding two different mid-latitude flow configurations after relaxing the TA: Propagation of wind-induced near-inertial waves (NIWs). Under the TA, NIWs propagate toward the equator, the inertially poleward propagation being internally reflected at a depth-independent critical latitude. The combined effects of the NT Coriolis force and weak stratification in the deep ocean leads to the existence of waveguides for sub-inertial waves, which get trapped and propagate further poleward (Winters et al., 2011). Here we consider storm-induced NIWs and their evolution in a non-linear Boussinesq model on the β-plane in the NT approximation. Preliminary results are presented concerning the behavior of the waves in a weakly stratified mixed-layer, where NT effects are expected to be significant. Inertial instability. A detailed linear stability analysis of the Bickley jet at large Rossby numbers in the NT approximation on the f-plane is performed for long waves in a continuously stratified Boussinesq model. For a sufficiently weak stratification, both symmetric and asymmetric inertial instabilities have substantially higher growth rates than in the TA while no discernible differences between the two approximations are observed for strong enough stratifications (Tort et al., 2015).

  4. A direct force model for Galilean invariant lattice Boltzmann simulation of fluid-particle flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shi; He, Qing; Chen, Baiman; Yang, Xiaoping; Huang, Simin

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been widely used in the simulation of particulate flows involving complex moving boundaries. Due to the kinetic background of LBM, the bounce-back (BB) rule and the momentum exchange (ME) method can be easily applied to the solid boundary treatment and the evaluation of fluid-solid interaction force, respectively. However, recently it has been found that both the BB and ME schemes may violate the principle of Galilean invariance (GI). Some modified BB and ME methods have been proposed to reduce the GI error. But these remedies have been recognized subsequently to be inconsistent with Newton’s Third Law. Therefore, contrary to those corrections based on the BB and ME methods, a unified iterative approach is adopted to handle the solid boundary in the present study. Furthermore, a direct force (DF) scheme is proposed to evaluate the fluid-particle interaction force. The methods preserve the efficiency of the BB and ME schemes, and the performance on the accuracy and GI is verified and validated in the test cases of particulate flows with freely moving particles.

  5. Forced Rolling Oscillation of a 65 deg-Delta Wing in Transonic Vortex-Breakdown Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Margaret A.; Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady, transonic, vortex dominated flow over a 65 deg. sharp-edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The wing angle of attack is 20 deg. and the free stream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.85 and 3.23 x 10(exp 6), respectively. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock which induces vortex breakdown of the leading edge vortex cores. The computational investigation uses the time accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. While the maximum roll amplitude is kept constant at 4.0 deg., both Reynolds number and roll frequency are varied covering three cases of forced sinusoidal rolling. First, the Reynolds number is held at 3.23 x 10(exp 6) and the wing is forced to oscillate in roll around the axis of geometric symmetry at a reduced frequency of 2(pi). Second, the Reynolds number is reduced to 0.5 x 10(exp 6) to observe the effects of added viscosity on the vortex breakdown. Third, with the Reynolds number held at 0.5 x 10(exp 6), the roll frequency is reduced to 1(pi) to complete the study.

  6. Correlation of Normal Gravity Mixed Convection Blowoff Limits with Microgravity Forced Flow Blowoff Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Jeremy W.; Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.

    2016-01-01

    The axisymmetric rod geometry in upward axial stagnation flow provides a simple way to measure normal gravity blowoff limits to compare with microgravity Burning and Suppression of Solids - II (BASS-II) results recently obtained aboard the International Space Station. This testing utilized the same BASS-II concurrent rod geometry, but with the addition of normal gravity buoyant flow. Cast polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) rods of diameters ranging from 0.635 cm to 3.81 cm were burned at oxygen concentrations ranging from 14 to 18% by volume. The forced flow velocity where blowoff occurred was determined for each rod size and oxygen concentration. These blowoff limits compare favorably with the BASS-II results when the buoyant stretch is included and the flow is corrected by considering the blockage factor of the fuel. From these results, the normal gravity blowoff boundary for this axisymmetric rod geometry is determined to be linear, with oxygen concentration directly proportional to flow speed. We describe a new normal gravity 'upward flame spread test' method which extrapolates the linear blowoff boundary to the zero stretch limit in order to resolve microgravity flammability limits-something current methods cannot do. This new test method can improve spacecraft fire safety for future exploration missions by providing a tractable way to obtain good estimates of material flammability in low gravity.

  7. Lagrangian statistics and flow topology in forced two-dimensional turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoch, B; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D; Bos, W J T; Schneider, K

    2011-03-01

    A study of the relationship between Lagrangian statistics and flow topology in fluid turbulence is presented. The topology is characterized using the Weiss criterion, which provides a conceptually simple tool to partition the flow into topologically different regions: elliptic (vortex dominated), hyperbolic (deformation dominated), and intermediate (turbulent background). The flow corresponds to forced two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in doubly periodic and circular bounded domains, the latter with no-slip boundary conditions. In the double periodic domain, the probability density function (pdf) of the Weiss field exhibits a negative skewness consistent with the fact that in periodic domains the flow is dominated by coherent vortex structures. On the other hand, in the circular domain, the elliptic and hyperbolic regions seem to be statistically similar. We follow a Lagrangian approach and obtain the statistics by tracking large ensembles of passively advected tracers. The pdfs of residence time in the topologically different regions are computed introducing the Lagrangian Weiss field, i.e., the Weiss field computed along the particles' trajectories. In elliptic and hyperbolic regions, the pdfs of the residence time have self-similar algebraic decaying tails. In contrast, in the intermediate regions the pdf has exponential decaying tails. The conditional pdfs (with respect to the flow topology) of the Lagrangian velocity exhibit Gaussian-like behavior in the periodic and in the bounded domains. In contrast to the freely decaying turbulence case, the conditional pdfs of the Lagrangian acceleration in forced turbulence show a comparable level of intermittency in both the periodic and the bounded domains. The conditional pdfs of the Lagrangian curvature are characterized, in all cases, by self-similar power-law behavior with a decay exponent of order -2.

  8. Energy Performance and Radial Force of a Mixed-Flow Pump with Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Tip Clearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy performance and radial force of a mixed flow pump with symmetrical and unsymmetrical tip clearance are investigated in this paper. As the tip clearance increases, the pump head and efficiency both decrease. The center of the radial force on the principal axis is located at the coordinate origin when the tip clearance is symmetrical, and moves to the third quadrant when the tip clearance is unsymmetrical. Analysis results show that the total radial force on the principal axis is closely related to the fluctuation of mass flow rate in each single flow channel. Unsteady simulations show that the dominant frequencies of radial force on the hub and blade correspond to the blade number, vane number, or double blade number because of the rotor stator interaction. The radial force on the blade pressure side decreases with the tip clearance increase because of leakage flow. The unsymmetrical tip clearances in an impeller induce uneven leakage flow rate and then result in unsymmetrical work ability of each blade and flow pattern in each channel. Thus, the energy performance decreases and the total radial force increases for a mixed flow pump with unsymmetrical tip clearance.

  9. Short-term effects of positive expiratory airway pressure in patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Mello Rieder

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility and the cardiorespiratory effects of using positive expiratory airway pressure, a physiotherapeutic tool, in comparison with a T-tube, to wean patients from mechanical ventilation. METHODS/DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, cross-over study. SETTING: Two intensive care units. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: We evaluated forty patients who met weaning criteria and had been mechanically-ventilated for more than 48 hours, mean age 59 years, including 23 males. All patients were submitted to the T-tube and Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure devices, at 7 cm H2O, during a 30-minute period. Cardiorespiratory variables including work of breathing, respiratory rate (rr, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2, heart rate (hr, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures (SAP, DAP, MAP were measured in the first and thirtieth minutes. The condition was analyzed as an entire sample set (n=40 and was also divided into subconditions: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=14 and non-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (non- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=26 categories. Comparisons were made using a t-test and Analysis of Variance. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: Our data showed an increase in work of breathing in the first and thirtieth minutes in the EPAP condition (0.86+ 0.43 and 1.02+1.3 as compared with the T-tube condition (0.25+0.26 and 0.26+0.35 (p<0.05, verified by the flow-sensor monitor (values in J/L. No statistical differences were observed when comparing the Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure and T-tube conditions with regard to cardiorespiratory measurements. The same result was observed for both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and non- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subconditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that, in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation, the use of a fixed level of Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure caused an increase in work of

  10. Electromotive force and large-scale magnetic dynamo in a turbulent flow with a mean shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan

    2003-09-01

    An effect of sheared large-scale motions on a mean electromotive force in a nonrotating turbulent flow of a conducting fluid is studied. It is demonstrated that in a homogeneous divergence-free turbulent flow the alpha effect does not exist, however a mean magnetic field can be generated even in a nonrotating turbulence with an imposed mean velocity shear due to a "shear-current" effect. A mean velocity shear results in an anisotropy of turbulent magnetic diffusion. A contribution to the electromotive force related to the symmetric parts of the gradient tensor of the mean magnetic field (the kappa effect) is found in nonrotating turbulent flows with a mean shear. The kappa effect and turbulent magnetic diffusion reduce the growth rate of the mean magnetic field. It is shown that a mean magnetic field can be generated when the exponent of the energy spectrum of the background turbulence (without the mean velocity shear) is less than 2. The shear-current effect was studied using two different methods: the tau approximation (the Orszag third-order closure procedure) and the stochastic calculus (the path integral representation of the solution of the induction equation, Feynman-Kac formula, and Cameron-Martin-Girsanov theorem). Astrophysical applications of the obtained results are discussed.

  11. A simplified analog for a rotorcraft-in-ground-effect flow using a forced impinging jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Jayson; Kiger, Ken

    2010-11-01

    The phenomenon of rotorcraft brown-out is defined as the intense suspension and re-ingestion of sand during the take-off and landing of a rotor-lifted aircraft. To mitigate the problem of rotorcraft brown-out, the non-equilibrium sediment suspension process that occurs within a typical rotorcraft wake must be understood. We attempt to understand the most basic aspects of this complex flow through the use of an axisymmetric forced impinging jet. While this flow neglects the swirl component associated with a rotorcraft, it does reproduce the typical coherent vortex structures, and permits their repeatable generation within an axisymmetric mean stagnation flow. The goal of the current work is to determine the forcing conditions that produce isolated, but intense and repeatable structures that can be followed through their interaction with the wall boundary. Stereo PIV imaging is applied to detail the breakdown of a vortex ring in the wall jet zone. The secondary vortex generation and decay are observed experimentally with 3-D vector fields, and their results are interpreted with respect to their significance in the context of sediment mobilization.

  12. Microstructure-sensitive flow stress modeling for force prediction in laser assisted milling of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 is a typical hard-to-machine material that requires thermally enhanced machining technology such as laser-assisted milling. Based upon finite element analysis, this study simulates the forces in the laser-assisted milling process of Inconel 718 considering the effects of grain growth due to γ' and γ" phases. The γ" phase is unstable and becomes the δ phase, which is likely to precipitate at a temperature over 750 °C. The temperature around the center of spot in the experiments is 850 °C, so the phase transformation and grain growth happen throughout the milling process. In the analysis, this study includes the microstructure evolution while accounting for the effects of dynamic recrystallization and grain growth through the Avrami model. The grain growth reduces the yield stress and flow stress, which improves the machinability. In finite element analysis (FEA, several boundary conditions of temperature varying with time are defined to simulate the movement of laser spot, and the constitutive model is described by Johnson-Cook equation. In experiments, this study collects three sets of cutting forces and finds that the predicted values are in close agreements with measurements especially in feed direction, in which the smallest error is around 5%. In another three simulations, this study also examines the effect of laser preheating on the cutting forces by comparison with a traditional milling process without laser assist. When the laser is off, the forces increase in all cases, which prove the softening effect of laser-assisted milling. In addition, when the axial depth of milling increases, the laser has a more significant influence, especially in axial direction, in which the force with laser is more than 18% smaller than the one without laser. Overall, this study validates the influence of laser-assisted milling on Inconel 718 by predicting the cutting forces in FEA.

  13. Experimental study of the transition from forced to natural circulation in EBR-II at low power and flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, J.L.; Singer, R.M.; Tokar, J.V.; Sullivan, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests have been conducted in EBR-II which studied the dynamics of the transition from forced to natural circulation flow in a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Each test was initiated by abruptly tripping an electromagnetic pump which supplies 5 to 6% of the normal full operational primary flow rate. The ensuing flow coast-down reached a minimum value after which the flow increased as natural circulation was established. The effects of secondary system flow through the intermediate heat exchanger and reactor decay power level on the minimum in-core flow rates and maximum in-core temperatures were examined

  14. Numerical prediction analysis of propeller exciting force for hull–propeller–rudder system in oblique flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the characteristics of propeller exciting force, the hybrid grid is adopted and the numerical prediction of KCS ship model is performed for hull–propeller–rudder system by Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS method and volume of fluid (VOF model. Firstly, the numerical simulation of hydrodynamics for bare hull at oblique state is carried out. The results show that with the increasing of the drift angle, the coefficients of resistance, side force and yaw moment are constantly increasing, and the bigger the drift angle, the worse the overall uniformity of propeller disk. Then, propeller bearing force for hull–propeller–rudder system in oblique flow is calculated. It is found that the propeller thrust and torque fluctuation coefficient peak in drift angle are greater than that in straight line navigation, and the negative drift angle is greater than the positive. The fluctuation peak variation law of coefficient of side force and bending moment are different due to various causes.

  15. MASS TRANSFER CONTROL OF A BACKWARD-FACING STEP FLOW BY LOCAL FORCING- EFFECT OF REYNOLDS NUMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaier MEHREZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of fluid mechanics and mass transfer in separated and reattaching flow over a backward-facing step by a local forcing, is studied using Large Eddy Simulation (LES.To control the flow, the local forcing is realized by a sinusoidal oscillating jet at the step edge. The Reynolds number is varied in the range 10000 ≤ Re≤ 50000 and the Schmidt number is fixed at 1.The found results show that the flow structure is modified and the local mass transfer is enhanced by the applied forcing. The observed changes depend on the Reynolds number and vary with the frequency and amplitude of the local forcing. For the all Reynolds numbers, the largest recirculation zone size reduction is obtained at the optimum forcing frequency St = 0.25. At this frequency the local mass transfer enhancement attains the maximum.

  16. Numerical simulation for aspects of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions in forced convection flow of nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Shah, Faisal; Khan, Muhammad Ijaz; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Mixed convection stagnation point flow of nanofluid by a vertical permeable circular cylinder has been addressed. Water is treated as ordinary liquid while nanoparticles include aluminium oxide, copper and titanium dioxide. Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions are considered. The nonlinear higher order expressions are changed into first ordinary differential equations and then solved by built-in-Shooting method in mathematica. The results of velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction and local Nusselt number are discussed. Our results demonstrate that surface drag force and heat transfer rate are enhanced linearly for higher estimation of curvature parameter. Further surface drag force decays for aluminium oxide and it enhances for copper nanoparticle. Heat transfer rate enhances with increasing all three types of nanoparticles. In addition, the lowest heat transfer rate is obtained in case of titanium dioxide when compared with copper and aluminium oxide.

  17. A forced-flow membrane reactor for transfructosylation using ceramic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, K; Nakajima, M; Nabetani, H

    2000-04-05

    A forced-flow membrane reactor system for transfructosylation was investigated using several ceramic membranes having different pore sizes. beta-Fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611 was immobilized chemically to the inner surface of a ceramic membrane activated by a silane-coupling reagent. Sucrose solution was forced through the ceramic membrane by crossflow filtration while transfructosylation took place. The saccharide composition of the product, which was a mixture of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), was a function of the permeate flux, which was easily controlled by pressure. Using 0.2 micrometer pore size of symmetric ceramic membrane, the volumetric productivity obtained was 3.87 kg m(-3) s(-1), which was 560 times higher than that in a reported batch system, with a short residence time of 11 s. The half-life of the immobilized enzyme in the membrane was estimated to be 35 days by a long-term operation. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Safety aspects of forced flow cooldown transients in modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    During some of the design basis accidents in Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (MHTGRs) the main Heat Transport System (HTS) and the Shutdown Cooling System (SCS), are assumed to have failed. Decay heat is then removed by the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) only. If either forced flow cooling system becomes available during such a transient, its restart could significantly reduce the down-time. This paper uses the THATCH code to examine whether such restart, during a period of elevated core temperatures, can be accomplished within safe limits for fuel and metal component temperatures. If the reactor is scrammed, either system can apparently be restarted at any time, without exceeding any safe limits. However, under unscrammed conditions a restart of forced cooling can lead to recriticality, with fuel and metal temperatures significantly exceeding the safety limits

  19. MHD forced and free convection boundary layer flow near the leading edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.A.; Ahmed, M.

    1988-07-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic forced and free convection flow of an electrically conducting viscous incompressible fluid past a vertical flat plate with uniform heat flux in the presence of a magnetic field acting normal to the plate that moves with the fluid has been studied near the leading edge of the plate. The coupled non-linear equations are solved by the method of superposition for the values of the Prandtl number ranges from 0.01 to 10.0. The velocity and the temperature profiles are presented graphically and the values of the wall shear-stress as well as the heat transfer rate are presented in tabular form showing the effect of the buoyancy force and the applied magnetic field. To show the accuracy of the present method some typical values are compared with the available one. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Fuel Cooling in Absence of Forced Flow at Shutdown Condition with PHTS Partially Drained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parasca, L.; Pecheanu, D.L., E-mail: laurentiu.parasca@cne.ro, E-mail: doru.pecheanu@cne.ro [Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant, Cernavoda (Romania)

    2014-09-15

    During the plant outage for maintenance on primary side (e.g. for the main Heat Transport System pumps maintenance, the Steam Generators inspection), there are situations which require the primary heat transport system (HTS) drainage to a certain level for opening the circuit. The primary fuel heat sink for this configuration is provided by the shutdown cooling system (SDCS). In case of losing the forced cooling (e.g. due to the loss of SDCS, design basis earthquake-DBE), flow conditions in the reactor core may become stagnant. Inside the fuel channels, natural circulation phenomena known as Intermittent Buoyancy Induced Flow (IBIF) will initiate, providing an alternate heat sink mechanism for the fuel. However, this heat sink is effective only for a limited period of time (recall time). The recall time is defined as the elapsed time until the water temperature in the HTS headers exceeds a certain limit. Until then, compensatory measures need to be taken (e.g. by re-establishing the forced flow or initiate Emergency Core Cooling system injection) to preclude fuel failures. The present paper briefly presents the results of an analysis performed to demonstrate that fuel temperature remains within acceptable limits during IBIF transient. One of the objectives of this analysis was to determine the earliest moment since the reactor shut down when maintenance activities on the HTS can be started such that IBIF is effective in case of losing the forced circulation. The resulting peak fuel sheath and pressure tube temperatures due to fuel heat up shall be within the acceptable limits to preclude fuel defect or fuel channel defects.Thermalhydraulic circuit conditions were obtained using a CATHENA model for the primary side of HTS (drained to a certain level), an ECC system model and a system model for SDCS. A single channel model was developed in GOTHIC code for the fuel assessment analysis. (author)

  1. Entrainment effects in periodic forcing of the flow over a backward-facing step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, T.; Medjnoun, T.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of the Strouhal number on periodic forcing of the flow over a backward-facing step (height, H ) is investigated experimentally. Forcing is applied by a synthetic jet at the edge of the step at Strouhal numbers ranging from 0.21 flow. In the present study, variations with Strouhal number are explained based on a continuous variation of entrainment of momentum into the recirculation region rather than on specific frequencies. The reattachment length is shown to decrease linearly with entrainment of momentum. Vertical momentum flux is driven by vortices generated by the forcing, and locally vertical momentum flux is shown to be qualitatively similar to circulation for all cases considered. Total circulation (and therewith entrainment of momentum and the effect on the reattachment length) is shown to decrease with Strouhal number, whereas this is not predicted by models based on specific low and high frequencies. An empirical model for the (decay of) circulation is derived by tracking vortices in phase-locked data. This model is used to decipher relevant scaling parameters that explain the variations in circulation, entrainment of momentum, and reattachment length. Three regimes of Strouhal number are identified. A low-Strouhal-number regime is observed for which vortices are formed at a late stage relative to the recirculation region, causing a decrease in effectiveness. For high Strouhal numbers, vortices are being reingested into the actuator or are packed so close together that they cancel each other, both decreasing the effectiveness of forcing. In the intermediate regime a vortex train is formed of which the decay of circulation increases for increasing Strouhal number. The scaling of this

  2. Analysis of the resistive force in fluid flow through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirriot, C.; Cohen, A.M.S.; Massarani, G.; Cohen, B.M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The resistive term appearing in the equation of motion for a fluid flowing through a porous medium is analyzed. This term represents the interactive force between the fluid and the solid mesh. The analysis was done starting with a simple constitutive equation with the help of large number of experimental data points, both with consolidated and non-consolidated porous media. It was found that in almost all cases the resistive term can be adequately expressed in the vetorial from of Forchheimer's quadratic equation [pt

  3. Unsteady 2D potential-flow forces on a thin variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunaa, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this report analytical expressions for the unsteady 2D force distribution on a variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion are derived under the assumption of incompressible, irrotational, inviscid flow. The airfoil is represented by itscamberline as in classic thin-airfoil theory...... using an indicial function approach, making the practical calculation of the aerodynamic response numerically very efficient by use ofDuhamel superposition. Furthermore, the indicial function expressions for the time-lag terms are formulated in their equivalent state-space form, allowing for use...

  4. Low cryogen inventory, forced flow Ne cooling system with room temperature compression stage and heat recuperation

    CERN Document Server

    Shornikov, A; Wolf, A

    2014-01-01

    We present design and commissioning results of a forced flow cooling system utilizing neon at 30 K. The cryogen is pumped through the system by a room-temperature compression stage. To decouple the cold zone from the compression stage a recuperating counterflow tube-in-tube heat exchanger is used. Commissioning demonstrated successful condensation of neon and transfer of up to 30 W cooling power to the load at 30 K using only 30 g of the cryogen circulating in the system at pressures below 170 kPa.

  5. Design and fabrication of forced-flow superconducting poloidal coils for the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Mizumaki, S.; Yamakoshi, T.; Kanai, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Wachi, Y.; Ushijima, M.; Yoshida, T.; Kai, T.; Takahata, K.; Yamamoto, J.; Satow, T.; Motojima, O.

    1995-01-01

    Three pairs of superconducting poloidal coils for the LHD (Large Helical Device) have been designed and fabricated using NbTi/Cu cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors cooled with forced-flow supercritical helium (SHE). In the LHD poloidal coils, high field accuracy as well as high reliability are required. To meet these requirements, detailed field and structural analyses have been performed and key parameters including winding pattern and size and locations of conductor joints have been determined. Compact conductor joint, where NbTi filaments are directly bonded, has also been developed using the solid state bonding technique. (orig.)

  6. Experience of research, design, capacity, and operation with forced flow steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, G.; McDonald, B.N.; Pocock, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    The forced flow steam generators in operation in six American nuclear power plants show an excellent operational behaviour. The concept for this type of steam generator has been developed in the USA, and it has been successfully tested over several years regarding its suitability for PWRs of a larger size. The results concerning construction, materials and water chemistry for this steam generator, which will be used for the first time in the FRG in the nuclear power station Muelheim-Kaerlich, have confirmed the high reliability of this high-efficiency component. (orig./LN) [de

  7. Scaling laws of free dendritic growth in a forced Oseen flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnatowski, M von; Kassner, K

    2014-01-01

    We use the method presented in M von Kurnatowski et al (2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 042405) to solve the nonlinear problem of free dendritic growth in an Oseen flow. The growth process is assumed to be limited by thermal transport via diffusion and convection. A singular perturbation expansion is treated to lowest nontrivial order in the framework of asymptotic decomposition. The resulting complex integro-differential equation is solved using an elaborate numerical method. The approximate scaling laws V∝U 2/3 and ρ∝U −1/3 for the growth velocity and the tip radius of curvature of the dendrite, respectively, are found as a function of the forced flow velocity. The results are compared to those by Pelcé and Bouissou, constituting the only other attempt so far to treat the problem analytically. (paper)

  8. An accurate quantification of the flow structure along the acoustic signal cycle in a forced two-phase jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo Bernad Esteban

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an experimental study of an acoustically forced two-phase air jet generated by a convergent nozzle. The used particles are transparent glass spheres with diameters between 2 and 50 μm (which gives Stokes number of order 1 and the selected forcing frequency (f=400 Hz induces a powerful nearly periodic flow pattern. Measurements were done by a two-colour Phase-Doppler Anemometer. The experimental setup is computer-controlled to provide an accurate control with a high long-term stability. Measurements cover the whole forcing signal cycle. Raw measurements were carefully post-processed to avoid bias induced by the forcing and the instrument setup, as well as obtain right mean values of the dispersed flow. The effect of the forcing and the particle load allows authors to establish the effect of the acoustic forcing and the particle load on the jet.

  9. Proteus: a direct forcing method in the simulations of particulate flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-Gang; Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2005-01-01

    A new and efficient direct numerical method for the simulation of particulate flows is introduced. The method combines desired elements of the immersed boundary method, the direct forcing method and the lattice Boltzmann method. Adding a forcing term in the momentum equation enforces the no-slip condition on the boundary of a moving particle. By applying the direct forcing scheme, Proteus eliminates the need for the determination of free parameters, such as the stiffness coefficient in the penalty scheme or the two relaxation parameters in the adaptive-forcing scheme. The method presents a significant improvement over the previously introduced immersed-boundary-lattice-Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) where the forcing term was computed using a penalty method and a user-defined parameter. The method allows the enforcement of the rigid body motion of a particle in a more efficient way. Compared to the "bounce-back" scheme used in the conventional LBM, the direct-forcing method provides a smoother computational boundary for particles and is capable of achieving results at higher Reynolds number flows. By using a set of Lagrangian points to track the boundary of a particle, Proteus eliminates any need for the determination of the boundary nodes that are prescribed by the "bounce-back" scheme at every time step. It also makes computations for particles of irregular shapes simpler and more efficient. Proteus has been developed in two- as well as three-dimensions. This new method has been validated by comparing its results with those from experimental measurements for a single sphere settling in an enclosure under gravity. As a demonstration of the efficiency and capabilities of the present method, the settling of a large number (1232) of spherical particles is simulated in a narrow box under two different boundary conditions. It is found that when the no-slip boundary condition is imposed at the front and rear sides of the box the particles motion is significantly hindered

  10. Multiphase forces on bend structures – critical gas fraction for transition single phase gas to multiphase flow behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Nennie, E.D.; Lewis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Piping structures are generally subjected to high dynamic loading due to multiphase forces. In particular subsea structures are very vulnerable as large flexibility is required to cope for instance with thermal stresses. The forces due to multiphase flow are characterized by a broadband spectrum

  11. Vascular wall flow-induced forces in a progressively enlarged aneurysm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neofytou, Panagiotis; Tsangaris, Sokrates; Kyriakidis, Michalis

    2008-12-01

    The current study is focused on the numerical investigation of the flow field induced by the unsteady flow in the vicinity of an abdominal aortic aneurysm model. The computational fluid dynamics code used is based on the finite volume method, and it has already been used in various bioflow studies. For modelling the rheological behaviour of blood, the Quemada non-Newtonian model is employed, which is suitable for simulating the two-phase character of blood namely a suspension of blood cells in plasma. For examining its non-Newtonian effects a comparison with a corresponding Newtonian flow is carried out. Furthermore, the investigation is focused on the distribution of the flow-induced forces on the interior wall of the aneurysm and in order to study the development of the distribution with the gradual enlargement of the aneurysm, three different degrees of aneurysm-growth have been assumed. Finally and for examining the effect of the distribution on the aneurysm growth, a comparison is made between the pressure and wall shear-stress distributions at the wall for each growth-degree.

  12. Controlling the structure of forced convective flow by means of rotating magnetic-field inductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkin, M.Z.; Mozgirs, O.Kh.

    1993-01-01

    The forced convective flow generated by a rotating magnetic-field inductor is used in a melt as a means of controlling the transfer of mass and heat in the case of directed crystallization. An obvious advantage in using a rotating field is the generation of azimuthal twisting of the fluid, this providing for an evening out of the crystallization conditions in the azimuthal direction under nonsymmetrical boundary conditions in an actual technological process. From the standpoint of affecting the crystallization processes it would be preferable to use an inductor which would allow alteration of the intensity and of the direction of the meridional flow. Mixing in the form of velocity pulsations generated by the inductor within the melt would be if interest from the standpoint of affecting the crystallization processes, in particular to intensify the crystallization purification. The authors propose the use of a double magnetohydrodynmic rotator which consists of two rotating magnetic-field inductors, separated in altitude, with separate power supplies. The supply of power to the inductors with various current loads allows the generation of a controllable nonuniformity in field distribution and in the azimuthal velocity through the altitude and thus allows control of both the intensity and configuration of the meridional flows. The dual rotator makes it possible to purposefully control the structure of the meridional flows and the pulsation component of velocity and can be recommended for use in processes of directed crystallization as well as in crystallization purification. 4 refs., 3 figs

  13. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure in patients with multiple sclerosis - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Wittrin, Anna; Kånåhols, Margareta; Gunnarsson, Martin; Nilsagård, Ylva

    2016-11-01

    Breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure are often recommended to patients with advanced neurological deficits, but the potential benefit in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with mild and moderate symptoms has not yet been investigated in randomized controlled trials. To study the effects of 2 months of home-based breathing exercises for patients with mild to moderate MS on respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and subjective breathing and health status outcomes. Forty-eight patients with MS according to the revised McDonald criteria were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Patients performing breathing exercises (n = 23) were compared with a control group (n = 25) performing no breathing exercises. The breathing exercises were performed with a positive expiratory pressure device (10-15 cmH 2 O) and consisted of 30 slow deep breaths performed twice a day for 2 months. Respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure at the mouth), spirometry, oxygenation, thoracic excursion, subjective perceptions of breathing and self-reported health status were evaluated before and after the intervention period. Following the intervention, there was a significant difference between the breathing group and the control group regarding the relative change in lung function, favoring the breathing group (vital capacity: P < 0.043; forced vital capacity: P < 0.025). There were no other significant differences between the groups. Breathing exercises may be beneficial in patients with mild to moderate stages of MS. However, the clinical significance needs to be clarified, and it remains to be seen whether a sustainable effect in delaying the development of respiratory dysfunction in MS can be obtained. © 2015 The Authors. The Clinical Respiratory Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Unidirectional Expiratory Valve Method to Assess Maximal Inspiratory Pressure in Individuals without Artificial Airway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Torres Grams

    Full Text Available Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (MIP is considered an effective method to estimate strength of inspiratory muscles, but still leads to false positive diagnosis. Although MIP assessment with unidirectional expiratory valve method has been used in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, no previous studies investigated the application of this method in subjects without artificial airway.This study aimed to compare the MIP values assessed by standard method (MIPsta and by unidirectional expiratory valve method (MIPuni in subjects with spontaneous breathing without artificial airway. MIPuni reproducibility was also evaluated.This was a crossover design study, and 31 subjects performed MIPsta and MIPuni in a random order. MIPsta measured MIP maintaining negative pressure for at least one second after forceful expiration. MIPuni evaluated MIP using a unidirectional expiratory valve attached to a face mask and was conducted by two evaluators (A and B at two moments (Tests 1 and 2 to determine interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility of MIP values. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC[2,1] was used to determine intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility.The mean values for MIPuni were 14.3% higher (-117.3 ± 24.8 cmH2O than the mean values for MIPsta (-102.5 ± 23.9 cmH2O (p<0.001. Interobserver reproducibility assessment showed very high correlation for Test 1 (ICC[2,1] = 0.91, and high correlation for Test 2 (ICC[2,1] = 0.88. The assessment of the intraobserver reproducibility showed high correlation for evaluator A (ICC[2,1] = 0.86 and evaluator B (ICC[2,1] = 0.77.MIPuni presented higher values when compared with MIPsta and proved to be reproducible in subjects with spontaneous breathing without artificial airway.

  15. Cluster Risk of Walking Scenarios Based on Macroscopic Flow Model and Crowding Force Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, accidents always happen in confined space such as metro stations because of congestion. Various researchers investigated the patterns of dense crowd behaviors in different scenarios via simulations or experiments and proposed methods for avoiding accidents. In this study, a classic continuum macroscopic model was applied to simulate the crowded pedestrian flow in typical scenarios such as at bottlenecks or with an obstacle. The Lax–Wendroff finite difference scheme and artificial viscosity filtering method were used to discretize the model to identify high-density risk areas. Furthermore, we introduced a contact crowding force test of the interactions among pedestrians at bottlenecks. Results revealed that in the most dangerous area, the individual on the corner position bears the maximum pressure in such scenarios is 90.2 N, and there is an approximate exponential relationship between crowding force and density indicated by our data. The results and findings presented in this paper can facilitate more reasonable and precise simulation models by utilizing crowding force and crowd density and ensure the safety of pedestrians in high-density scenarios.

  16. Unsteady 2D potential-flow forces and a thin variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunaa, M.

    2006-07-15

    In this report analytical expressions for the unsteady 2D force distribution on a variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion are derived under the assumption of incompressible, irrotational, inviscid flow. The airfoil is represented by its camberline as in classic thin-airfoil theory, and the deflection of the airfoil is given by superposition of chordwise deflection mode shapes. It is shown from the expressions for the forces, that the influence from the shed vorticity in the wake is described by the same time-lag for all chordwise positions on the airfoil. This time-lag term can be approximated using an indicial function approach, making the practical calculation of the aerodynamic response numerically very efficient by use of Duhamel superposition. Furthermore, the indicial function expressions for the time-lag terms are formulated in their equivalent state-space form, allowing for use of the present theory in problems employing the eigenvalue approach, such as stability analysis. The analytical expressions for the forces simplify to all previously known steady and unsteady thin-airfoil solutions. Apart from the obvious applications within active load control/reduction, the current theory can be used for various applications which up to now have been possible only using much more computational costly methods. The propulsive performance of a soft heaving propulsor, and the influence of airfoil camberline elasticity on the flutter limit are two computational examples given in the report that highlight this feature. (au)

  17. Elongational flow of polymer melts at constant strain rate, constant stress and constant force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.

    2013-04-01

    Characterization of polymer melts in elongational flow is typically performed at constant elongational rate or rarely at constant tensile stress conditions. One of the disadvantages of these deformation modes is that they are hampered by the onset of "necking" instabilities according to the Considère criterion. Experiments at constant tensile force have been performed even more rarely, in spite of the fact that this deformation mode is free from necking instabilities and is of considerable industrial relevance as it is the correct analogue of steady fiber spinning. It is the objective of the present contribution to present for the first time a full experimental characterization of a long-chain branched polyethylene melt in elongational flow. Experiments were performed at constant elongation rate, constant tensile stress and constant tensile force by use of a Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER) in combination with an Anton Paar MCR301 rotational rheometer. The accessible experimental window and experimental limitations are discussed. The experimental data are modelled by using the Wagner I model. Predictions of the steady-start elongational viscosity in constant strain rate and creep experiments are found to be identical, albeit only by extrapolation of the experimental data to Hencky strains of the order of 6. For constant stress experiments, a minimum in the strain rate and a corresponding maximum in the elongational viscosity is found at a Hencky strain of the order of 3, which, although larger than the steady-state value, follows roughly the general trend of the steady-state elongational viscosity. The constitutive analysis also reveals that constant tensile force experiments indicate a larger strain hardening potential than seen in constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress experiments. This may be indicative of the effect of necking under constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress conditions according to the Considère criterion.

  18. Investigation of combined free and forced convection in a 2 x 6 rod bundle during controlled flow transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.M.; Khan, E.U.

    1980-10-01

    An experimental study was performed to obtain local fluid velocity and temperature measurements in the mixed (combined free and forced) convection regime for specific flow coastdown transients. A brief investigation of steady-state flows for the purely free-convection regime was also completed. The study was performed using an electrically heated 2 x 6 rod bundle contained in a flow housing. In addition a transient data base was obtained for evaluating the COBRA-WC thermal-hydraulic computer program

  19. Effects of lorentz force on flow fields of free burning arc and wall stabilized non-transferred arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yi; Huang Heji; Pan Wenxia

    2013-01-01

    The flow fields of two typical DC plasma arcs, namely the transferred free burning arc and the non-transferred arc were simulated by solving hydrodynamic equations and electromagnetic equations. The effects of the Lorentz force on the characteristics of the flow fields of these two typical DC plasma arcs were estimated. Results show that in the case of the free burning arc, the Lorentz force due to the current self-induced magnetic field has significant impact on the flow fields, as the self-induced magnetic compression is the main arc constraint mechanism. However, in the case of the non-transferred arc generated in a torch with long and narrow inter-electrode inserts and an abruptly expanded anode, the Lorentz force has limited impact on the flow fields of the plasma especially at the downstream of the inter-electrode inserts, compared with the strong wall constraints and relatively high aerodynamic force. This is because the ratio of the electromagnetic force to the aerodynamic force is only about 0.01 in this region. When the main consideration is outlet parameters of the wall stabilized non-transferred DC arc plasma generator, in order to improve the efficiency of the numerical simulation program, the Lorentz force could be neglected in the non-transferred arc in some cases. (authors)

  20. A system for the discharge of gas bubbles from the coolant flow of a nuclear reactor cooled by forced circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markfort, D.; Kaiser, A.; Dohmen, A.

    1975-01-01

    In a reactor cooled by forced circulation the gas bubbles carried along with the coolant flow are separated before entering the reactor core or forced away into the external zones. For this purpose the coolant is radially guided into a plenum below the core and deflected to a tangential direction by means of flow guide elements. The flow runs spirally downwards. On the bubbles, during their dwell time in this channel, the buoyant force and a force towards the axis of symmetry of the tank are exerted. The major part of the coolant is directed into a radial direction by means of a guiding apparatus in the lower section of the channel and guided through a chimney in the plenum to the center of the reactor core. This inner chimney is enclosed by an outer chimney for the core edge zones through which coolant with a small share of bubbles is taken away. (RW) [de

  1. Estimation of exhaust gas aerodynamic force on the variable geometry turbocharger actuator: 1D flow model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Fayez Shakil; Laghrouche, Salah; Mehmood, Adeel; El Bagdouri, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Estimation of aerodynamic force on variable turbine geometry vanes and actuator. • Method based on exhaust gas flow modeling. • Simulation tool for integration of aerodynamic force in automotive simulation software. - Abstract: This paper provides a reliable tool for simulating the effects of exhaust gas flow through the variable turbine geometry section of a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), on flow control mechanism. The main objective is to estimate the resistive aerodynamic force exerted by the flow upon the variable geometry vanes and the controlling actuator, in order to improve the control of vane angles. To achieve this, a 1D model of the exhaust flow is developed using Navier–Stokes equations. As the flow characteristics depend upon the volute geometry, impeller blade force and the existing viscous friction, the related source terms (losses) are also included in the model. In order to guarantee stability, an implicit numerical solver has been developed for the resolution of the Navier–Stokes problem. The resulting simulation tool has been validated through comparison with experimentally obtained values of turbine inlet pressure and the aerodynamic force as measured at the actuator shaft. The simulator shows good compliance with experimental results

  2. Correlation Networks from Flows. The Case of Forced and Time-Dependent Advection-Diffusion Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Tupikina

    Full Text Available Complex network theory provides an elegant and powerful framework to statistically investigate different types of systems such as society, brain or the structure of local and long-range dynamical interrelationships in the climate system. Network links in climate networks typically imply information, mass or energy exchange. However, the specific connection between oceanic or atmospheric flows and the climate network's structure is still unclear. We propose a theoretical approach for verifying relations between the correlation matrix and the climate network measures, generalizing previous studies and overcoming the restriction to stationary flows. Our methods are developed for correlations of a scalar quantity (temperature, for example which satisfies an advection-diffusion dynamics in the presence of forcing and dissipation. Our approach reveals that correlation networks are not sensitive to steady sources and sinks and the profound impact of the signal decay rate on the network topology. We illustrate our results with calculations of degree and clustering for a meandering flow resembling a geophysical ocean jet.

  3. Effect of microscale protrusions on local fluid flow and mass transport in the presence of forced convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Gehard W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Three-dimensional creeping flow around single, axisymmetric protrusions is studied numerically using the boundary-integral technique. Emphasis is placed upon cylindrical protrusions on plane walls for various height-to-radius (h-to-a) aspect ratios, but cones and sections of spheres protruding from plane walls are also briefly examined. The presented items include shear-stress distributions, shear-stress contours, extents of the fluid-flow disturbance, total forces and torques on the cylinders, streamlines, and skin-friction lines. Also included is a discussion of flow topology around axisymmetric geometries. No flow reversal is observed for cylindrical protrusions with aspect ratios greater than 2.4 to 2.6. At higher aspect ratios, the fluid tends to be swept around cylindrical protrusions with little vertical motion. At lower aspect ratios, the strength of the recirculation increases, and the recirculation region becomes wider in the transverse direction and narrower in the flow direction. Also, the recirculation pattern begins to resemble the closed streamline patterns in two-dimensional flow over square ridges. However, unlike two-dimensional flow, closed streamline patterns are not observed. For arbitrary axisymmetric geometries, the extent of the fluid-flow disturbance can be estimated with the total force that is exerted on the protrusion. When the same force is exerted on protrusions with different aspect ratios, the protrusion with the higher aspect ratio tends to have a greater disturbance in the flow direction and a smaller disturbance in the transverse direction. The total force exerted on cylindrical protrusions with rounded corners is only slightly lower than the total force exerted on cylindrical protrusions with sharp corners.

  4. Diagnostic methods to assess inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Caruso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of (inspiratory and expiratory respiratory muscles is a common clinical finding, not only in patients with neuromuscular disease but also in patients with primary disease of the lung parenchyma or airways. Although such impairment is common, its recognition is usually delayed because its signs and symptoms are nonspecific and late. This delayed recognition, or even the lack thereof, occurs because the diagnostic tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength are not widely known and available. There are various methods of assessing respiratory muscle strength during the inspiratory and expiratory phases. These methods are divided into two categories: volitional tests (which require patient understanding and cooperation; and non-volitional tests. Volitional tests, such as those that measure maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, are the most commonly used because they are readily available. Non-volitional tests depend on magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve accompanied by the measurement of inspiratory mouth pressure, inspiratory esophageal pressure, or inspiratory transdiaphragmatic pressure. Another method that has come to be widely used is ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm. We believe that pulmonologists involved in the care of patients with respiratory diseases should be familiar with the tests used in order to assess respiratory muscle function.Therefore, the aim of the present article is to describe the advantages, disadvantages, procedures, and clinical applicability of the main tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength.

  5. An experimental validation of the influence of flow profiles and stratified two-phase flow to Lorentz force velocimetry for weakly conducting fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Andreas; Ebert, Reschad; Resagk, Christian; Research Training Group: "Lorentz Force Velocimetry; Lorentz Force Eddy Current Testing" Team

    2016-11-01

    We report about the feasibility of Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) for various flow profiles. LFV is a contactless non-invasive technique to measure flow velocity and has been developed in the last years in our institute. This method is advantageous if the fluid is hot, aggressive or opaque like glass melts or liquid metal flows. The conducted experiments shall prove an increased versatility for industrial applications of this method. For the force measurement we use an electromagnetic force compensation balance. As electrolyte salty water is used with an electrical conductivity in the range of 0.035 which corresponds to tap water up to 20 Sm-1. Because the conductivity is six orders less than that of liquid metals, here the challenging bottleneck is the resolution of the measurement system. The results show only a slight influence in the force signal at symmetric and strongly asymmetric flow profiles. Furthermore we report about the application of LFV to stratified two-phase flows. We show that it is possible to detect interface instabilities, which is important for the dimensioning of liquid metal batteries. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG.

  6. Analysis of Forced Convection Heat Transfer for Axial Annular Flow of Giesekus Viscoelastic Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohseni, Mehdi Moayed; Rashidi, Fariborz; Movagar, Mohammad Reza Khorsand [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Analytical solutions for the forced convection heat transfer of viscoelastic fluids obeying the Giesekus model are obtained in a concentric annulus under laminar flow for both thermal and hydrodynamic fully developed conditions. Boundary conditions are assumed to be (a) constant fluxes at the walls and (b) constant temperature at the walls. Temperature profiles and Nusselt numbers are derived from dimensionless energy equation. Subsequently, effects of elasticity, mobility parameter and viscous dissipation are discussed. Results show that by increasing elasticity, Nusselt number increases. However, this trend is reversed for constant wall temperature when viscous dissipation is weak. By increasing viscous dissipation, the Nusselt number decreases for the constant flux and increases for the constant wall temperature. For the wall cooling case, when the viscous dissipation exceeds a critical value, the generated heat overcomes the heat which is removed at the walls, and fluid heats up longitudinally.

  7. Non-Newtonian particulate flow simulation: A direct-forcing immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Delouei, A.; Nazari, M.; Kayhani, M. H.; Kang, S. K.; Succi, S.

    2016-04-01

    In the current study, a direct-forcing immersed boundary-non-Newtonian lattice Boltzmann method (IB-NLBM) is developed to investigate the sedimentation and interaction of particles in shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. In the proposed IB-NLBM, the non-linear mechanics of non-Newtonian particulate flows is detected by combination of the most desirable features of immersed boundary and lattice Boltzmann methods. The noticeable roles of non-Newtonian behavior on particle motion, settling velocity and generalized Reynolds number are investigated by simulating benchmark problem of one-particle sedimentation under the same generalized Archimedes number. The effects of extra force due to added accelerated mass are analyzed on the particle motion which have a significant impact on shear-thinning fluids. For the first time, the phenomena of interaction among the particles, such as Drafting, Kissing, and Tumbling in non-Newtonian fluids are investigated by simulation of two-particle sedimentation and twelve-particle sedimentation. The results show that increasing the shear-thickening behavior of fluid leads to a significant increase in the kissing time. Moreover, the transverse position of particles for shear-thinning fluids during the tumbling interval is different from Newtonian and the shear-thickening fluids. The present non-Newtonian particulate study can be applied in several industrial and scientific applications, like the non-Newtonian sedimentation behavior of particles in food industrial and biological fluids.

  8. Delayed Effect of Blood-Flow-Restricted Resistance Training on Rapid Force Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Lindberg; Frandsen, Ulrik; Prokhorova, Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    of knee extensor exercise (20%1RM) to concentric failure during concurrent BFR of the thigh (100mmHg), while eight work-matched controls (21.9±3.0 years) trained without BFR (CON). Twenty-three training sessions were performed within 19 days. Maximal slow and fast knee joint velocity muscle strength......PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and time course of high-frequent low-load resistance training with blood-flow restriction (BFR) on rapid force capacity (i.e. rate of torque development (RTD)). METHODS: Ten male subjects (22.8±2.3 years) performed four sets...... and rapid force capacity (e.g. RTD) as well as evoked twitch contractile parameters was assessed before (Pre) and 5 and 12 days after training (Post5, Post12). Muscle biopsies were obtained Pre, after 8 days (Mid8) and 3 and 10 days post training (Post3, Post10) to examine changes in myofiber area...

  9. Calculation of the force acting on a drop in a nonuniform flow of a current-supporting fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    In the context of wide use of intense electric currents in various technological process, it is of practical interest to investigate the characteristics of the force action of electromagnetic fields on a variety of inclusions - solid particles, drops, gas bubbles - suspended in current-supporting fluids. In the available studies one treats the simplest case, in which the vortical component of the electromagnetic forces, generated by the interaction of the current with the internal magnetic field, is nonvanishing only in small vicinities near these inclusions, and therefore these electromagnetic forces do not generate global motion of the homogeneous current-supporting fluid. In practice, in most cases the vortical component of electromagnetic forces plays a substantial role in the whole operating region of the technological device, and the motion of the current-supporting fluid is created specifically by electromagnetic forces. In the case of a varying electromagnetic field the forces acting on particles are located in the conducting fluid, moving under the field action, were calculated by Korovim (Korovim, V. M., open-quotes The calculation of forces acting on suspended particles during the flow of a conducting fluid in a varying electromagnetic field,close quotes Magn. Gidrodin, No. 1 95-102 (1991)). In the present study the authors generalize the method suggested by Korovin for calculating forces applied to both drops and particles and gas bubbles suspended in the gradient flow of a fluid moving under the action of a constant electromagnetic field. 6 refs

  10. Numerical simulation of 2 D laminar flow subjected to the Lorentz force effect in a channel with backward facing step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahbakhsh, Iman; Paknejad, Amin; Ghassemi, Hassan [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    This paper presents the numerical solutions of a two dimensional laminar flow over a backward facing step in the presence of the Lorentz body force. The Navier Stokes equations in a vorticity stream function formulation are numerically solved using a uniform grid mesh of 2001 {Chi} 51 points. A second order central difference approximation is used for spatial derivatives. The solutions progress in time with a fourth order Runge Kutta method. The unsteady backward facing step flow solution is computed for Reynolds numbers 100 to 800. The size and genesis of the recirculating regions are dramatically affected by applying the Lorentz force. The results demonstrate that using an appropriate configuration for applying the Lorentz force can make it an essential tool for controlling the flow in channels with a backward facing step.

  11. Modelling alongshore flow in a semi-enclosed lagoon strongly forced by tides and waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Barthel, Knut; Christensen, Kai H.; Furaca, Noca; Gammelsrød, Tor; Hoguane, António M.; Nharreluga, Bilardo

    2014-08-01

    Alongshore flows strongly driven by tides and waves is studied in the context of a one-dimensional numerical model. Observations from field surveys performed in a semi-enclosed lagoon (1.7 km×0.2 km) outside Xai-Xai, Mozambique, are used to validate the model results. The model is able to capture most of the observed temporal variability of the current, but sea surface height tends to be overestimated at high tide, especially during high wave events. Inside the lagoon we observed a mainly uni-directional alongshore current, with speeds up to 1 ms-1. The current varies primarily with the tide, being close to zero near low tide, generally increasing during flood and decreasing during ebb. The observations revealed a local minimum in the alongshore flow at high tide, which the model was successful in reproducing. Residence times in the lagoon were calculated to be less than one hour with wave forcing dominating the flushing. At this beach a high number of drowning casualties have occurred, but no connection was found between them and strong current events in a simulation covering the period 2011-2012.

  12. Gothic simulation of single-channel fuel heatup following a loss of forced flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X-Q; Tahir, A. [NSS, Dept. of Thermal Hydraulics Analysis, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Parlatan, Y. [Ontario Power Generation, NSATD, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Kwee, M. [Bruce Power, NSASD, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    GOTHIC v7.2 was used to develop a computer model for the simulation of 28- and 37-element fuel heat-up at a loss of forced flow. The model has accounted for the non-uniformity of both axial and radial power distributions along the fuel channel for a typical CANDU reactor. In addition, the model has also accounted for the fuel rods, end-fittings, feeders and headers. Experimental test conditions for both 28- and 37-element bundles at either low or high powers were used for model validation. GOTHIC predictions of the rod and/or pressure-tube temperatures at a variety of test locations were compared with the corresponding experimental measurements. It is found that the numerical results agree well with the experimental measurements for most of the test locations. Results have also shown that the channel venting time is sensitive to the initial temperature distribution in the feeders and headers. An imposed temperature asymmetry at the beginning will cause the channel flow to vent earlier. (author)

  13. Manipulating nanoparticle transport within blood flow through external forces: an exemplar of mechanics in nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Huilin; Shen, Zhiqiang; Yu, Le; Wei, Mei; Li, Ying

    2018-03-01

    A large number of nanoparticles (NPs) have been raised for diverse biomedical applications and some of them have shown great potential in treatment and imaging of diseases. Design of NPs is essential for delivery efficacy due to a number of biophysical barriers, which prevents the circulation of NPs in vascular flow and their accumulation at tumour sites. The physiochemical properties of NPs, so-called `4S' parameters, such as size, shape, stiffness and surface functionalization, play crucial roles in their life journey to be delivered to tumour sites. NPs can be modified in various ways to extend their blood circulation time and avoid their clearance by phagocytosis, and efficiently diffuse into tumour cells. However, it is difficult to overcome these barriers simultaneously by a simple combination of `4S' parameters for NPs. At this moment, external triggerings are necessary to guide the movement of NPs, which include light, ultrasound, magnetic field, electrical field and chemical interaction. The delivery system can be constructed to be sensitive to these external stimuli which can reduce the non-specific toxicity and improve the efficacy of the drug-delivery system. From a mechanics point of view, we discuss how different forces play their roles in the margination of NPs in blood flow and tumour microvasculature.

  14. Flow Physics and Scaling for Discrete Jet Forcing on a Wall-Mounted Hump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Tewes, Philipp; Little, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    An experimental study is conducted to explore flow physics and scaling parameters (e.g., aspect ratio, exit area, spacing) for steady jets and fluidic oscillators in support of the development of active flow control technology. Various actuation modules are designed, built and tested on an existing model of the NASA hump geometry. Experiments are carried out at a Reynolds numbers of 1.0 .106 (Ma = 0.09). Time-averaged pressure measurements are conducted along both the chord and span of the model. Stereo PIV is performed downstream of the actuation location to investigate the underlying control mechanisms in more detail. Separation control using spatially distributed steady round jet forcing was applied successfully for a spacing of Δz / c = 1.14 % for Cμ > 0.9 % . A larger spacing (Δz / c = 2.27 %) did not allow for full reattachment and led to 3D behavior in the separated region and also slightly upstream of the actuation. Fluidic oscillators showed control authority for Cμ >= 0.6 % for both presented spacings (Δz / c = 2.27 % and Δz / c = 4.54 %). In contrast to the 3D effects observed with steady jets, the fluidic oscillators provided a more uniform reduction in separation at a significantly lower Cμ even for larger spacing.

  15. The drag forces exerted by lahar flows on a cylindrical pier: case study of post Mount Merapi eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizien Haza, Zainul

    2018-03-01

    Debris flows of lahar flows occurred in post mount eruption is a phenomenon in which large quantities of water, mud, and gravel flow down a stream at a high velocity. It is a second stage of danger after the first danger of lava flows, pyroclastic, and toxic gases. The debris flow of lahar flows has a high density and also high velocity; therefore it has potential detrimental consequences against homes, bridges, and infrastructures, as well as loss of life along its pathway. The collision event between lahar flows and pier of a bridge is observed. The condition is numerically simulated using commercial software of computational fluid dynamic (CFD). The work is also conducted in order to investigate drag force generated during collision. Rheological data of lahar is observed through laboratory test of lahar model as density and viscosity. These data were used as the input data of the CFD simulation. The numerical model is involving two types of fluid: mud and water, therefore multiphase model is adopted in the current CFD simulation. The problem formulation is referring to the constitutive equations of mass and momentum conservation for incompressible and viscous fluid, which in perspective of two dimension (2D). The simulation models describe the situation of the collision event between lahar flows and pier of a bridge. It provides sequential view images of lahar flow impaction and the propagation trend line of the drag force coefficient values. Lahar flow analysis used non-dimensional parameter of Reynolds number. According to the results of numerical simulations, the drag force coefficients are in range 1.23 to 1.48 those are generated by value of flow velocity in range 11.11 m/s to 16.67 m/s.

  16. Regimes of Axisymmetric Flow and Scaling Laws in a Rotating Annulus with Local Convective Forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Wright

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study of axisymmetric flow in a rotating annulus in which local thermal forcing, via a heated annular ring on the outside of the base and a cooled circular disk in the centre of the top surface, drives convection. This new configuration is a variant of the classical thermally-driven annulus, where uniform heating and cooling are applied through the outer and inner sidewalls respectively. The annulus provides an analogue to a planetary circulation and the new configuration, with its more relaxed vertical thermal boundary conditions, is expected to better emulate vigorous convection in the tropics and polar regions as well as baroclinic instability in the mid-latitude baroclinic zone. Using the Met Office/Oxford Rotating Annulus Laboratory (MORALS code, we have investigated a series of equilibrated, two dimensional axisymmetric flows across a large region of parameter space. These are characterized in terms of their velocity and temperature fields. When rotation is applied several distinct flow regimes may be identified for different rotation rates and strengths of differential heating. These regimes are defined as a function of the ratio of the horizontal Ekman layer thickness to the non-rotating thermal boundary layer thickness and are found to be similar to those identified in previous annulus experiments. Convection without rotation is also considered and the scaling of the heat transport with Rayleigh number is calculated. This is then compared with existing work on the classical annulus as well as horizontal and Rayleigh-Bénard convection. As with previous studies on both rotating and non-rotating convection the system’s behaviour is found to be aspect ratio dependent. This dependence is seen in the scaling of the non-rotating Nusselt number and in transitions between regimes in the rotating case although further investigation is required to fully explain these observations.

  17. The influence of Lampblack on capacity retention in Pb/PbSO/sub 4/ electrodes with forced flow of electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borger, W.; Hullmeine, U.

    1984-10-01

    High active material utilization of Pb/PbSO/sub 4/ electrodes after formation in the range of 170 - 120 Ah/kg is obtained when these electrodes are discharged at 50-200 A/kg current density with forced flow of electrolyte. Decline of capacity was observed on further cycling at high current density and forced flow of electrolyte. The extent of capacity decline in these electrodes is largely influenced by the amount of additives in the active material, e.g. lampblack and expander.

  18. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Tien Van; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff

  19. An accurate tangential force-displacement model for granular-flow simulations: Contacting spheres with plastic deformation, force-driven formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu-Quoc, L.; Lesburg, L.; Zhang, X.

    2004-01-01

    An elasto-plastic frictional tangential force-displacement (TFD) model for spheres in contact for accurate and efficient granular-flow simulations is presented in this paper; the present TFD is consistent with the elasto-plastic normal force-displacement (NFD) model presented in [ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 67 (2) (2000) 363; Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A 455 (1991) (1999) 4013]. The proposed elasto-plastic frictional TFD model is accurate, and is validated against non-linear finite-element analyses involving plastic flows under both loading and unloading conditions. The novelty of the present TFD model lies in (i) the additive decomposition of the elasto-plastic contact area radius into an elastic part and a plastic part, (ii) the correction of the particles' radii at the contact point, and (iii) the correction of the particles' elastic moduli. The correction of the contact-area radius represents an effect of plastic deformation in colliding particles; the correction of the radius of curvature represents a permanent indentation after impact; the correction of the elastic moduli represents a softening of the material due to plastic flow. The construction of both the present elasto-plastic frictional TFD model and its consistent companion, the elasto-plastic NFD model, parallels the formalism of the continuum theory of elasto-plasticity. Both NFD and TFD models form a coherent set of force-displacement (FD) models not available hitherto for granular-flow simulations, and are consistent with the Hertz, Cattaneo, Mindlin, Deresiewicz contact mechanics theory. Together, these FD models will allow for efficient simulations of granular flows (or granular gases) involving a large number of particles

  20. Effects of density and force discretizations on spurious velocities in lattice Boltzmann equation for two-phase flows

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2014-04-28

    Spurious current emerging in the vicinity of phase interfaces is a well-known disadvantage of the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) for two-phase flows. Previous analysis shows that this unphysical phenomenon comes from the force imbalance at discrete level inherited in LBE (Guo et al 2011 Phys. Rev. E 83 036707). Based on the analysis of the LBE free of checkerboard effects, in this work we further show that the force imbalance is caused by the different discretization stencils: the implicit one from the streaming process and the explicit one from the discretization of the force term. Particularly, the total contribution includes two parts, one from the difference between the intrinsically discretized density (or ideal gas pressure) gradient and the explicit ones in the force term, and the other from the explicit discretized chemical potential gradients in the intrinsically discretized force term. The former contribution is a special feature of LBE which was not realized previously.

  1. On the definition of dominant force regimes for flow boiling heat transfer by using single mini-tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Soumei; Sawada, Kenichiro; Kubota, Chisato; Kawanami, Osamu; Asano, Hitoshi; Inoue, Koichi; Ohta, Haruhiko

    Recent increase in the size of space platforms requires the management of larger amount of waste heat under high heat flux conditions and the transportation of it along a long distance to the radiator. Flow boiling applied to the thermal management system in space attracts much attention as promising means to realize high-performance heat transfer and transport because of large latent heat of vaporization. In microgravity two-phase flow phenomena are quite different from those under 1-g condition because buoyancy effects are significantly reduced and surface tension becomes dominant. By the similar reason, flow boiling characteristics in mini channels are not the same as those in channels of normal sizes. In the present stage, however, the boundary between the regimes of body force dominated and of surface tension dominated is not clear. The design of space thermal devices, operated under the conditions where no effect of gravity is expected, will improve the reliability of their ground tests, provided that the boundaries of dominant force regimes are clarified quantitatively in advance. In flow boiling in mini channels or in parallel channels, back flow could be occurred because of rapid growth of bubbles in a confined space, resulting flow rate fluctuation. Flow boiling heat transfer characteristics in mini channels can be changed considerably by the existence of inlet flow rate fluctuation. It is important to pay attention to experimental accuracy and to use a single circular mini-tube to compare heat transfer characteristics with those of normal size tubes. In the present paper, effects of tube orientations, i.e. vertical upward flow, vertical downward flow and horizontal flow, on flow boiling heat transfer characteristics is investigated for FC72 flowing in single mini-tubes with inner diameters of 0.13 and 0.51 mm to establish a reliable dominant force regime map. If the regime map is described by using dimensionless groups of Bond, Weber and Froude numbers

  2. Dryout heat flux in a debris bed with forced coolant flow from below

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Kwang-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Myung

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to experimentally investigate the enhancement of dryout heat flux in debris beds with coolant flow from below. The experimental facility consists mainly of an induction heater (40 kW, 35 kHz), a double-wall quartz-tube test section containing steel-particle bed and coolant injection and recovery condensing loop. A fairly uniform heating of particle bed was achieved by induction heating. This paper reports the experimental data for 5 mm particle bed and 300 mm bed height. The dryout heat rate data were obtained of both top-flooding case and forced coolant injection from below with the injection mass flux up to 1.5 kg/m 2 s. For the top-flooded case, the volumetric dryout heat rate was about 4 MW/m 3 and it increased as the rate of coolant injection from below was increased. At the coolant injection mass flux of 1.5 kg/m 2 s, the volumetric dryout heat rate was about 10 MW/m 3 , the enhancement factor was more than two. (author)

  3. Forced convective heat transfer in boundary layer flow of Sisko fluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Asif; Shahzad, Azeem; Khan, Masood

    2014-01-01

    The major focus of this article is to analyze the forced convective heat transfer in a steady boundary layer flow of Sisko fluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet. Two cases are studied, namely (i) the sheet with variable temperature (PST case) and (ii) the sheet with variable heat flux (PHF case). The heat transfer aspects are investigated for both integer and non-integer values of the power-law index. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate similarity variables and solved numerically. The numerical results are obtained by the shooting method using adaptive Runge Kutta method with Broyden's method in the domain[Formula: see text]. The numerical results for the temperature field are found to be strongly dependent upon the power-law index, stretching parameter, wall temperature parameter, material parameter of the Sisko fluid and Prandtl number. In addition, the local Nusselt number versus wall temperature parameter is also graphed and tabulated for different values of pertaining parameters. Further, numerical results are validated by comparison with exact solutions as well as previously published results in the literature.

  4. Turbofan forced mixer lobe flow modeling. 1: Experimental and analytical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T.; Paterson, R. W.; Skebe, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    A joint analytical and experimental investigation of three-dimensional flowfield development within the lobe region of turbofan forced mixer nozzles is described. The objective was to develop a method for predicting the lobe exit flowfield. In the analytical approach, a linearized inviscid aerodynamical theory was used for representing the axial and secondary flows within the three-dimensional convoluted mixer lobes and three-dimensional boundary layer analysis was applied thereafter to account for viscous effects. The experimental phase of the program employed three planar mixer lobe models having different waveform shapes and lobe heights for which detailed measurements were made of the three-dimensional velocity field and total pressure field at the lobe exit plane. Velocity data was obtained using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and total pressure probing and hot wire anemometry were employed to define exit plane total pressure and boundary layer development. Comparison of data and analysis was performed to assess analytical model prediction accuracy. As a result of this study a planar mixed geometry analysis was developed. A principal conclusion is that the global mixer lobe flowfield is inviscid and can be predicted from an inviscid analysis and Kutta condition.

  5. Numerical investigation of forced convection heat transfer in unsteady flow past a row of square cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Dipankar; Biswas, Gautam; Amiroudine, Sakir

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the unsteady laminar forced convection heat transfer from a row of five isothermal square cylinders placed in a side-by-side arrangement at a Reynolds number of 150. The numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume code based on the PISO algorithm in a collocated grid system. Special attention is paid to investigate the effect of the spacing between the cylinders on the overall transport processes for the separation ratios (spacing to size ratio) between 0.2 and 10. No significant interaction between the wakes is observed for spacing greater than four times the diameter at this Reynolds number. However, at smaller spacing, the wakes interact in a complicated manner resulting different thermo-hydrodynamic regimes. The vortex structures and isotherm patterns obtained are systematically presented and discussed for different separation ratios. In addition, the mean and instantaneous drag and lift coefficients, mean and local Nusselt number and Strouhal number are determined and discussed for various separation ratios. A new correlation is derived for mean Nusselt number as a function of separation ratio for such flows.

  6. CFD model of air movement in ventilated facade: comparison between natural and forced air flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Perez, Miguel; Lopez Patino, Gonzalo; Lopez Jimenez, P. Amparo [Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    This study describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of ventilated facade. Ventilated facades are normal facade but it has an extra channel between the concrete wall and the (double skin) facade. Several studies found in the literature are carried out with CFD simulations about the behavior of the thermodynamic phenomena of the double skin facades systems. These studies conclude that the presence of the air gap in the ventilated facade affects the temperature in the building skin, causing a cooling effect, at least in low-rise buildings. One of the most important factors affecting the thermal effects of ventilated facades is the wind velocity. In this contribution, a CFD analysis applied on two different velocity assumptions for air movement in the air gap of a ventilated facade is presented. A comparison is proposed considering natural wind induced velocity with forced fan induced velocity in the gap. Finally, comparing temperatures in the building skin, the differences between both solutions are described determining that, related to the considered boundary conditions, there is a maximum height in which the thermal effect of the induced flow is significantly observed.

  7. Effect of Non-Equilibrium Condensation on Force Coefficients in Transonic Airfoil Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Min; Kang, Hui Bo; Kwon, Young Doo; Kwon, Soon Bum [Kyungpook National Univeristy, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heung Kyun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The present study investigated the effects of non-equilibrium condensation with the angle of attack on the coefficients of pressure, lift, and drag in the transonic 2-D flow of NACA0012 by numerical analysis of the total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme. At T{sub 0}=298 K and α=3°, the lift coefficients for M{sub ∞}=0.78 and 0.81 decreased monotonically with increasing Φ{sub 0}. In contrast, for M{sub ∞} corresponding to the Mach number of the force break, CL increased with Φ{sub 0}. For α=3° and Φ{sub 0}=0%, CD increased markedly as M{sub ∞} increased. However, at Φ{sub 0}=60% and α=3°, which corresponded to the case of the condensation having a large influence, CD increased slightly as M{sub ∞} increased. The decrease in profile drag by non-equilibrium condensation grew as the angle of attack and stagnation relative humidity increased for the same free stream transonic Mach number. At Φ{sub 0}=0%, the coefficient of the wave drag increased with the attack angle and free stream Mach number. When Φ{sub 0}>50%, the coefficient of the wave drag decreased as α and M{sub ∞} increased. Lowering Φ{sub 0} and increasing M{sub ∞} increased the maximum Mach number.

  8. Evaluation of the flow forces on a direct (single stage) proportional valve by means of a computational fluid dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirante, R.; Moscatelli, P.G.; Catalano, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the fluid dynamic behaviour of a commercial hydraulic proportional valve in order to evaluate and justify its global performances and, in particular, to analyze the effects of some additional design features on the reduction of the force required to maintain the valve open. The proposed analysis has been performed by applying the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, Fluent, to the solution of the three dimensional turbulent flow field through a circumferential sector of the entire valve for different spool strokes. The reliability of the employed modelization is demonstrated by the comparison between the computed flow rate curve and the corresponding experimental data provided by the manufacturer. With regard to the metering edge design, it is shown that the cylindrical hole provided on the top of the hemi-spherical notch to improve metering at small valve openings has no influence on the flow force balance. The presented results also demonstrate that compensation techniques based on an adequate spool profiling are effective in balancing the flow forces mainly at medium and large valve openings, thanks to the pressure difference on the compensation profile; which also results in an increased axial momentum at the inlet of the high pressure chamber. The benefits of its presence are amplified by the adoption of two grooves machined on the valve body, which modify the flow field so as both to increase the axial momentum at the inlet of the high pressure chamber and to reduce it at the outlet

  9. Tendency to occupy a statistically dominant spatial state of the flow as a driving force for turbulent transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmarev, Sergei F

    2013-03-01

    The transition from laminar to turbulent fluid motion occurring at large Reynolds numbers is generally associated with the instability of the laminar flow. On the other hand, since the turbulent flow characteristically appears in the form of spatially localized structures (e.g., eddies) filling the flow field, a tendency to occupy such a structured state of the flow cannot be ruled out as a driving force for turbulent transition. To examine this possibility, we propose a simple analytical model that treats the flow as a collection of localized spatial structures, each of which consists of elementary cells in which the behavior of the particles (atoms or molecules) is uncorrelated. This allows us to introduce the Reynolds number, associating it with the ratio between the total phase volume for the system and that for the elementary cell. Using the principle of maximum entropy to calculate the most probable size distribution of the localized structures, we show that as the Reynolds number increases, the elementary cells group into the localized structures, which successfully explains turbulent transition and some other general properties of turbulent flows. An important feature of the present model is that a bridge between the spatial-statistical description of the flow and hydrodynamic equations is established. We show that the basic assumptions underlying the model, i.e., that the particles are indistinguishable and elementary volumes of phase space exist in which the state of the particles is uncertain, are involved in the derivation of the Navier-Stokes equation. Taking into account that the model captures essential features of turbulent flows, this suggests that the driving force for the turbulent transition is basically the same as in the present model, i.e., the tendency of the system to occupy a statistically dominant state plays a key role. The instability of the flow at high Reynolds numbers can then be a mechanism to initiate structural rearrangement of

  10. Numerical prediction of local transitional features of turbulent forced gas flows in circular tubes with strong heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezato, Koichiro; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Shehata, A.M.; McEligot, D.M.

    1997-03-01

    Previous numerical simulation for the laminarization due to heating of the turbulent flow in pipe were assessed by comparison with only macroscopic characteristics such as heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop, since no experimental data on the local distributions of the velocity and temperature in such flow situation was available. Recently, Shehata and McEligot reported the first measurements of local distributions of velocity and temperature for turbulent forced air flow in a vertical circular tube with strongly heating. They carried out the experiments in three situations from turbulent flow to laminarizing flow according to the heating rate. In the present study, we analyzed numerically the local transitional features of turbulent flow evolving laminarizing due to strong heating in their experiments by using the advanced low-Re two-equation turbulence model. As the result, we successfully predicted the local distributions of velocity and temperature as well as macroscopic characteristics in three turbulent flow conditions. By the present study, a numerical procedure has been established to predict the local characteristics such as velocity distribution of the turbulent flow with large thermal-property variation and laminarizing flow due to strong heating with enough accuracy. (author). 60 refs

  11. Critical heat flux of forced flow boiling in a narrow one-side heated rectangular flow channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limin, Zheng [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Inst., SH (China); Iguchi, Tadashi; Kureta, Masatoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    1997-08-01

    The present work deals with the critical heat flux (CHF) under subcooled flow boiling in a narrow one-side uniformly heated rectangular flow channel. The range of interest of parameters such as pressure, flow velocity and subcooling is around 0.1 MPa, 5-15 ms{sup -1} and 50degC, respectively. The rectangular flow channel used is 50 mm long, 12 mm in width and 0.2 to 3 mm in height. Test conditions were selected by combination of the following parameters: Gap=0.2-3.0 mm (D{sub hy}=0.3934-4.8 mm); flow length, 50.0 mm; water mass flux, 4.94-14.82 Mgm{sup -2}s{sup -1} (water flow velocity, 5-15 ms{sup -1}); exit pressure, 0.1 MPa; inlet temperature, 50degC, inlet coolant subcooling, 50degC. Over 40 CHF stable data points were obtained. CHF increased with the gap and flow velocity in a non-linear fashion. HTC increased with flow velocity and decreasing gap. Based on the experimental results, an empirical correlation was developed, indicating the dependence of CHF on the gap and flow velocity. All of data points predicted within {+-}18% error band for the present experimental data. On the other hand, another similitude-based correlation was also developed, indicating the dependence of Boiling number (Bo) on Reynolds number (Re) and the variable of Gap/La, where La is a characteristic length known as Laplace capillary constant. For the limited present experimental data, all of data points were predicted within {+-}16%. (author)

  12. Critical heat flux of forced flow boiling in a narrow one-side heated rectangular flow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Limin; Iguchi, Tadashi; Kureta, Masatoshi; Akimoto, Hajime.

    1997-08-01

    The present work deals with the critical heat flux (CHF) under subcooled flow boiling in a narrow one-side uniformly heated rectangular flow channel. The range of interest of parameters such as pressure, flow velocity and subcooling is around 0.1 MPa, 5-15 ms -1 and 50degC, respectively. The rectangular flow channel used is 50 mm long, 12 mm in width and 0.2 to 3 mm in height. Test conditions were selected by combination of the following parameters: Gap=0.2-3.0 mm (D hy =0.3934-4.8 mm); flow length, 50.0 mm; water mass flux, 4.94-14.82 Mgm -2 s -1 (water flow velocity, 5-15 ms -1 ); exit pressure, 0.1 MPa; inlet temperature, 50degC, inlet coolant subcooling, 50degC. Over 40 CHF stable data points were obtained. CHF increased with the gap and flow velocity in a non-linear fashion. HTC increased with flow velocity and decreasing gap. Based on the experimental results, an empirical correlation was developed, indicating the dependence of CHF on the gap and flow velocity. All of data points predicted within ±18% error band for the present experimental data. On the other hand, another similitude-based correlation was also developed, indicating the dependence of Boiling number (Bo) on Reynolds number (Re) and the variable of Gap/La, where La is a characteristic length known as Laplace capillary constant. For the limited present experimental data, all of data points were predicted within ±16%. (author)

  13. An expiratory assist during spontaneous breathing can compensate for endotracheal tube resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Akinori; Chang, Cheng; Suzuki, Shinya; Mashimo, Takashi; Fujino, Yuji

    2009-08-01

    Although inspiratory assist of spontaneous breathing in intubated patients is common, expiratory assist functions have rarely been reported. Effective expiratory support (ES) could be used to compensate for endotracheal tube (ETT) resistance during spontaneous breathing. In this study, we examined the performance of a new system designed to provide both inspiratory support (IS) and ES during spontaneous breathing with the goal of reducing the effective resistance of the ETT. The ES system consisted of a ventilator demand valve and a computer-controlled piston cylinder, which aspirated gas from the respiratory circuit during the expiratory phase. The movement of the piston was synchronized with spontaneous breathing. We compared the pressures at the tip of the ETT and in the breathing circuit during spontaneous breathing through an ETT of internal diameter (ID) 5 mm with that of an ETT with ID 8 mm in nine healthy adult male volunteers. The ventilatory mode was set to maintain a continuous airway pressure of 0 cm H(2)O. Three ventilator settings (no support, IS only, and IS plus ES) were compared using ID 5 mm ETT. We monitored pressure in the breathing circuit (P(aw)), ETT tip pressure (P(tip)), and respiratory flow. The P(tip) of the ID 5 mm ETT showed a large negative deflection during inspiration and a positive deflection during expiration without support. IS alone did not improve the respiratory pattern through the small ETT. However, IS plus ES resulted in negative P(aw) during expiration in addition to positive deflection of P(aw) during inspiration, making the pressure characteristics of P(tip) similar to those of ID 8 mm ETT. Moreover, IS plus ES produced a respiratory pattern through the ID 5 mm ETT that was similar to that through the ID 8 mm ETT. In this study of healthy volunteers, IS plus ES compensated for the airway resistance imposed by a ID 5.0 mm ETT to create pressure changes at the tip of the ETT similar to those of an ID 8.0 mm ETT.

  14. Forced convection and subcooled flow boiling heat transfer in asymmetrically heated ducts of T-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Ziyan, Hosny Z.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of heat transfer from the heated bottom side of tee cross-section ducts to an internally flowing fluid. The idea of this work is derived from the cooling of critical areas in the cylinder heads of internal combustion engines. Fully developed single phase forced convection and subcooled flow boiling heat transfer data are reported. Six T-ducts of different width and height aspect ratios are tested with distilled water at velocities of 1, 2 and 3 m/s for bulk temperatures of 60 and 80 deg. C, while the heat flux was varied from about 80 to 700 kW/m 2 . The achieved data cover Reynolds numbers in the range of 5.22 x 10 4 to 2.36 x 10 5 , Prandtl numbers in the range from 2.2 to 3.0, duct width aspect ratio between 2.19 and 3.13 and duct height aspect ratio from 0.69 to 2.0. The results revealed that the increase in either the width or height aspect ratio of the T-ducts enhances the convection heat transfer coefficients and the boiling heat fluxes considerably. The following comparisons are provided for coolant velocity of 2 m/s, bulk temperature of 60 deg. C, wall superheat of 20 K and wall to bulk temperature difference of 20 K. As the width aspect ratio increases by 43%, the convection heat transfer coefficient and the boiling heat flux increase by 27% and 39%, respectively. An increase in the height aspect ratio by 290% enhances the convection heat transfer coefficient and the boiling heat fluxes by 82% and 103%, respectively. When the coolant velocity changes from 1 to 2 m/s, the heat transfer coefficient increases by 60% and the boiling heat flux rises by 62-98% for the various tested ducts. The convection heat transfer coefficient increases by 12% and the boiling heat flux decreases by 31% as the bulk fluid temperature rises from 60 to 80 deg. C. A correlation was developed for Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds number, Prandtl number, viscosity ratio and some aspect ratios of the T-duct

  15. Forced convective and subcooled flow boiling heat transfer to pure water and n-heptane in an annular heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyghambarzadeh, S.M.; Sarafraz, M.M.; Vaeli, N.; Ameri, E.; Vatani, A.; Jamialahmadi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The cooling performance of water and n-heptane is compared during subcooled flow boiling. ► Although n-heptane leaves the heat exchanger warmer it has a lower heat transfer coefficient. ► Flow rate, heat flux and degree of subcooling have direct effect on heat transfer coefficient. ► The predictions of some correlations are evaluated against experimental data. - Abstract: In this research, subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficients of pure n-heptane and distilled water at different operating conditions have been experimentally measured and compared. The heat exchanger consisted of vertical annulus which is heated from the inner cylindrical heater with variable heat flux (less than 140 kW/m 2 ). Heat flux is varied so that two different flow regimes from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling condition are created. Meanwhile, liquid flow rate is changed in the range of 2.5 × 10 −5 –5.8 × 10 −5 m 3 /s to create laminar up to transition flow regimes. Three subcooling levels including 10, 20 and 30 °C are also considered. Experimental results demonstrated that subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficient increases when higher heat flux, higher liquid flow rate and greater subcooling level are applied. Furthermore, influence of the operating conditions on the bubbles generation on the heat transfer surface is also discussed. It is also shown that water is better cooling fluid in comparison with n-heptane

  16. Numerical simulation of flows in a circular pipe transversely subjected to a localized impulsive body force with applications to blunt traumatic aortic rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbio, G Di; Keshavarz-Motamed, Z; Kadem, L, E-mail: lcfd@encs.concordia.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2017-06-15

    Much debate surrounds the mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of blunt traumatic aortic rupture in car accidents, particularly on the role of the inertial body force experienced by the blood due to the abrupt deceleration. The isolated influence of such body forces acting on even simple fluid flows is a fundamental problem in fluid dynamics that has not been thoroughly investigated. This study numerically investigates the fundamental physical problem, where the pulsatile flow in a straight circular pipe is subjected to a transverse body force on a localized volume of fluid. The body force is applied as a brief rectangular impulse in three distinct cases, namely during the accelerating, peak, and decelerating phases of the pulsatile flow. A dimensionless number, termed the degree of influence of the body force (Ψ), is devised to quantify the relative strength of the body force over the flow inertia. The impact induces counter-rotating cross-stream vortices at the boundaries of the forced section accompanied by complex secondary flow structures. This secondary flow is found to develop slowest for an impact occurring during an accelerating flow and fastest during a decelerating flow. The peak skewness of the velocity field, however, occurred at successively later times for the three respective cases. After the impact, these secondary flows act to restore the unforced state and such dominant spatial structures are revealed by proper orthogonal decomposition of the velocity field. This work presents a new class of problems that requires further theoretical and experimental investigation. (paper)

  17. Numerical simulation of flows in a circular pipe transversely subjected to a localized impulsive body force with applications to blunt traumatic aortic rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Labbio, G.; Keshavarz-Motamed, Z.; Kadem, L.

    2017-06-01

    Much debate surrounds the mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of blunt traumatic aortic rupture in car accidents, particularly on the role of the inertial body force experienced by the blood due to the abrupt deceleration. The isolated influence of such body forces acting on even simple fluid flows is a fundamental problem in fluid dynamics that has not been thoroughly investigated. This study numerically investigates the fundamental physical problem, where the pulsatile flow in a straight circular pipe is subjected to a transverse body force on a localized volume of fluid. The body force is applied as a brief rectangular impulse in three distinct cases, namely during the accelerating, peak, and decelerating phases of the pulsatile flow. A dimensionless number, termed the degree of influence of the body force (Ψ), is devised to quantify the relative strength of the body force over the flow inertia. The impact induces counter-rotating cross-stream vortices at the boundaries of the forced section accompanied by complex secondary flow structures. This secondary flow is found to develop slowest for an impact occurring during an accelerating flow and fastest during a decelerating flow. The peak skewness of the velocity field, however, occurred at successively later times for the three respective cases. After the impact, these secondary flows act to restore the unforced state and such dominant spatial structures are revealed by proper orthogonal decomposition of the velocity field. This work presents a new class of problems that requires further theoretical and experimental investigation.

  18. Influence of flow force on the flapper of a water hydraulic servovalve; Suiatsu servo ben no flapper ni sayosuru ryutairyoku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, E. [Kanagawa University, Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamashina, C. [Ebara Research Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-06-25

    In this paper flow force due to nozzle flow and its influence on the flapper-nozzle system for water hydraulic servovalves are discussed. The flow force acting on the flapper is estimated using the momentum theory, and expressed as a function of the nozzle pressure and flapper-nozzle gap. Analysis shows that the double nozzle flapper gives a quasilinear characteristic to the relationship between the force on the flapper, the flapper gap and the spool velocity. The numerical result based on the theory is used to estimate accuracy of the classical linear approximation. The flow force reduces the magnitude of the change of the nozzle back pressures which drive the spool of the water hydraulic valve, because the input moment acting on the armature is resisted by the moment due to the flow force. Experimental verification of the theory is also given. 7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  19. THE LIQUID NITROGEN SYSTEM FOR CHAMBER A; A CHANGE FROM ORIGINAL FORCED FLOW DESIGN TO A NATURAL FLOW (THERMO SIPHON) SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, J.; Montz, M.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Creel, J.; Arenius, D.; Garcia, S.

    2010-01-01

    NASA at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston is presently working toward modifying the original forced flow liquid nitrogen cooling system for the thermal shield in the space simulation chamber-A in Building 32 to work as a natural flow (thermo siphon) system. Chamber A is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 35.66 m (117 ft) high. The LN 2 shroud environment within the chamber is approximately 17.4 m (57 ft) in diameter and 28 m (92 ft) high. The new thermo siphon system will improve the reliability, stability of the system. Also it will reduce the operating temperature and the liquid nitrogen use to operate the system. This paper will present the requirements for the various operating modes. System level thermodynamic comparisons of the existing system to the various options studied and the final option selected will be outlined. A thermal and hydraulic analysis to validate the selected option for the conversion of the current forced flow to natural flow design will be discussed. The proposed modifications to existing system to convert to natural circulation (thermo siphon) system and the design features to help improve the operations, and maintenance of the system will be presented.

  20. Taylor-Couette fluid flow with force oscillation in the inner-cylinder using the immersed boundary method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Jonatas Emmanuel; Lourenco, Marcos Antonio de Souza; Padilla, Elie Luis Martinez; Silveira Neto, Aristeu da [Federal University of Uberlandia , MG (Brazil)], e-mails: lourenco@mecanica.ufu.br, epadilla@mecanica.ufu.br, aristeus@mecanica.ufu.br; Leibsohn, Andre Martins [CENPES/Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: aleibsohn@petrobras.com

    2010-07-01

    As new challenges arise in the exploration of deep and ultra-deep water oil fields by PETROBRAS more knowledge and research are needed, so that tools could be developed to assist in the critical operations and make things practicable. In the context of the drilling process, the complexity of the fluid flow inside the riser is associated with the nature of the non-Newtonian flow, immersed solid particles, variable eccentricity and the superimposed traveling azimuthal waves on the inflow and outflow boundaries of the Taylor vortices. This work presents the numerical three-dimensional results of the following simplified fluid flows: Taylor-Couette, Taylor-Couette with varying imposed eccentricity and Taylor-Couette with forced oscillation in the inner cylinder. Using the Navier-Stokes equations, a finite volume method discretization with second order accuracy in both time and space was utilized to simulate the Newtonian, single-phase incompressible fluid flow in the three cases. The circular walls of the inner and outer cylinders are represented by the immersed boundary method, with the direct multi-forcing model. The determined results allow to evidence the flow structures in the three cases in a very qualitative way, even so in the presence of the inner cylinder oscillation. (author)

  1. Aerodynamic forces and galloping instability for a skewed elliptical cylinder in a flow at the critical Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wenyong [Wind Engineering Research Center, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050043 (China); Liu, Qingkuan; Liu, Xiaobing [The Key Laboratory for Health Monitoring and Control of Large Structures, Hebei province, 050043 (China); Du, Xiaoqing, E-mail: ma@stdu.edu.cn, E-mail: dxq@shu.edu.cn [Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China)

    2017-08-15

    The mechanism of large-amplitude aeroelastic vibrations of cylindrical bodies in the critical Reynolds number range are still unclear. This study concerns the aerodynamic forces acting on elliptical cylinders and the induced galloping instability resulting from skew flows (i.e., the direction of the flow is angled 0°–45° with respect to the central axis of the cylinder) for Reynolds numbers in the range of 37–235 k. The effects of the critical Reynolds number and the skew angle on the aerodynamic forces and the galloping instability are investigated with pressure wind tunnel tests. In all of the cases investigated in the present study, a sharp decrease in the lift coefficient with increasing angle of attack and a reduction in the drag coefficient at the critical Reynolds number could be responsible for the galloping instability. Variations in the torque coefficient leads to a torsional aerodynamic instability at the critical Reynolds number. Furthermore, the skew flow cause a critical flow state at lower Reynolds numbers. One possible reason for this behavior is that the longer effective cross section allows the flow to reattach. (paper)

  2. Transverse structure of tidal flow, residual flow and sediment concentration in estuaries: sensitivity to tidal forcing and water depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, K.M.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831867; de Swart, H.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073449725; Schramkowski, G.P.; Schuttelaars, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical and a numerical model are used to understand the response of velocity and sediment distributions over Gaussian-shaped estuarine cross-sections to changes in tidal forcing and water depth. The estuaries considered here are characterized by strong mixing and a relatively weak

  3. Incidence of tracheobronchomalacia associated with pulmonary emphysema. Detection with paired inspiratory-expiratory multidetector computed tomography using a low-dose technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masanori; Hasegawa, Ichiro; Nakano, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) associated with pulmonary emphysema with paired inspiratory-expiratory multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) using a low-dose technique. This study included 56 consecutive patients (55 men, 1 woman; mean age 68.9 years) with pulmonary emphysema who had undergone paired inspiratory-expiratory CT scanning with a low-dose technique (40 mA). All images were retrospectively examined by two thoracic radiologists in a blinded fashion. The diagnosis of TBM was based on the standard criterion of >50% reduction in the cross-sectional area of the tracheobronchial lumen at the end-expiratory phase. A mild TBM criterion of >30% reduction was also reviewed. All patients underwent pulmonary function tests. The relation between the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1.0% ) and TBM was statistically analyzed. Four (7.1%) and eight (14.3%) patients were diagnosed as TBM based on the standard and mild criteria, respectively. In four patients, the percentages of luminal narrowing were 63.4% and 51.2%, respectively for tracheomalacia and 59.2% and 62.0%, respectively, for bronchomalacia. The FEV 1.0% values between patients with and without TBM showed no statistical difference. The incidence of TBM associated with pulmonary emphysema was 7.1% with the standard criterion. It is possible that TBM has been underdiagnosed in a number of patients with pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  4. Engineering flow states with localized forcing in a thin Marangoni-driven inclined film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Rachel; Rosenthal, Stephen; Wong, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    Numerical simulations of lubrication models provide clues for experimentalists about the development of wave structures in thin liquid films. We analyze numerical simulations of a lubrication model for an inclined thin liquid film modified by Marangoni forces due to a thermal gradient and additional localized forcing heating the substrate. Numerical results can be explained through connections to theory for hyperbolic conservation laws predicting wave fronts from Marangoni-driven thin films without forcing. We demonstrate how a variety of forcing profiles, such as gaussian, rectangular, and triangular, affect the formation of downstream transient structures, including an N wave not commonly discussed in the context of thin films. Simulations employing a controlled approximation of a compressive-undercompressive wave pair demonstrate possibilities for applications of localized forcing as microfluidic valve. In the simulations, localized forcing provides a control parameter that can be used to determine mass flux and film profiles.

  5. Numerical Simulation on Forced Convective Condensation of Steam Upward Flow in a Vertical Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Dong Qiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A transient three-dimensional volume of fluid (VOF simulation on condensation of upward flow of wet steam inside a 12 mm i.d. vertical pipe is presented. The effect of gravity and surface tension are taken into account. A uniform wall temperature has been fixed as boundary conditions. The mass flux is 130~6400 kg m−2's−1 and the turbulence inside the vapor phase and liquid phase have been handled by Reynolds stress model (RSM. The vapor quality of fluid is 0~0.4. The numerical simulation results show that, in all the simulation conditions, the bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, wispy annular flow, and annular flow are observed; in addition, the results of flow pattern are in good agreement with the regime map from Hewitt and Roberts. The typical velocity field characteristic of each flow pattern and the effect of velocity field on heat transfer of condensation are analyzed, indicating that the slug flow and churn flow have obvious local eddy. However, no obvious eddy is observed in other flow patterns and the streamlines are almost parallel to the flow direction. The simulation results of heat transfer coefficients and frictional pressure drop show good agreement with the correlations from existing literatures.

  6. Selection of flow-distributed oscillation and Turing patterns by boundary forcing in a linearly growing, oscillating medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, David G; McGraw, Patrick; Muñuzuri, Alberto P; Menzinger, Michael

    2009-08-01

    We studied the response of a linearly growing domain of the oscillatory chemical chlorine dioxide-iodide-malonic acid (CDIMA) medium to periodic forcing at its growth boundary. The medium is Hopf-, as well as Turing-unstable and the system is convectively unstable. The results confirm numerical predictions that two distinct modes of pattern can be excited by controlling the driving frequency at the boundary, a flow-distributed-oscillation (FDO) mode of traveling waves at low values of the forcing frequency f , and a mode of stationary Turing patterns at high values of f . The wavelengths and phase velocities of the experimental patterns were compared quantitatively with results from dynamical simulations and with predictions from linear dispersion relations. The results for the FDO waves agreed well with these predictions, and obeyed the kinematic relations expected for phase waves with frequencies selected by the boundary driving frequency. Turing patterns were also generated within the predicted range of forcing frequencies, but these developed into two-dimensional structures which are not fully accounted for by the one-dimensional numerical and analytical models. The Turing patterns excited by boundary forcing persist when the forcing is removed, demonstrating the bistability of the unforced, constant size medium. Dynamical simulations at perturbation frequencies other than those of the experiments showed that in certain ranges of forcing frequency, FDO waves become unstable, breaking up into harmonic waves of different frequency and wavelength and phase velocity.

  7. Cross-equatorial flow through an abyssal channel under the complete Coriolis force: Two-dimensional solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A. L.; Dellar, P. J.

    The component of the Coriolis force due to the locally horizontal component of the Earth's rotation vector is commonly neglected, under the so-called traditional approximation. We investigate the role of this "non-traditional" component of the Coriolis force in cross-equatorial flow of abyssal ocean currents. We focus on the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), which crosses from the southern to the northern hemisphere through the Ceara abyssal plain in the western Atlantic ocean. The bathymetry in this region resembles a northwestward channel, connecting the Brazil Basin in the south to the Guyana Basin in the north. South of the equator, the AABW leans against the western continental rise, consistent with a northward flow in approximate geostrophic balance. The AABW then crosses to the other side of the abyssal channel as it crosses the equator, and flows into the northern hemisphere leaning towards the east against the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The non-traditional component of the Coriolis force is strongest close to the equator. The traditional component vanishes at the equator, being proportional to the locally vertical component of the Earth's rotation vector. The weak stratification of the abyssal ocean, and subsequent small internal deformation radius, defines a relatively short characteristic horizontal lengthscale that tends to make non-traditional effects more prominent. Additionally, the steep gradients of the channel bathymetry induce large vertical velocities, which are linked to zonal accelerations by the non-traditional components of the Coriolis force. We therefore expect non-traditional effects to play a substantial role in cross-equatorial transport of the AABW. We present asymptotic steady solutions for non-traditional shallow water flow through an idealised abyssal channel, oriented at an oblique angle to the equator. The current enters from the south, leaning up against the western side of the channel in approximate geostrophic balance, and crosses the

  8. Optimal design of high damping force engine mount featuring MR valve structure with both annular and radial flow paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B; Lee, Y S; Han, M S

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the optimal design of a compact and high damping force engine mount featuring magnetorheological fluid (MRF). In the mount, a MR valve structure with both annular and radial flows is employed to generate a high damping force. First, the configuration and working principle of the proposed MR mount is introduced. The MRF flows in the mount are then analyzed and the governing equations of the MR mount are derived based on the Bingham plastic behavior of the MRF. An optimal design of the MR mount is then performed to find the optimal structure of the MR valve to generate a maximum damping force with certain design constraints. In addition, the gap size of MRF ducts is empirically chosen considering the ‘lockup’ problem of the mount at high frequency. Performance of the optimized MR mount is then evaluated based on finite element analysis and discussions on performance results of the optimized MR mount are given. The effectiveness of the proposed MR engine mount is demonstrated via computer simulation by presenting damping force and power consumption. (paper)

  9. Optimal design of high damping force engine mount featuring MR valve structure with both annular and radial flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.; Lee, Y. S.; Han, M. S.

    2013-11-01

    This paper focuses on the optimal design of a compact and high damping force engine mount featuring magnetorheological fluid (MRF). In the mount, a MR valve structure with both annular and radial flows is employed to generate a high damping force. First, the configuration and working principle of the proposed MR mount is introduced. The MRF flows in the mount are then analyzed and the governing equations of the MR mount are derived based on the Bingham plastic behavior of the MRF. An optimal design of the MR mount is then performed to find the optimal structure of the MR valve to generate a maximum damping force with certain design constraints. In addition, the gap size of MRF ducts is empirically chosen considering the ‘lockup’ problem of the mount at high frequency. Performance of the optimized MR mount is then evaluated based on finite element analysis and discussions on performance results of the optimized MR mount are given. The effectiveness of the proposed MR engine mount is demonstrated via computer simulation by presenting damping force and power consumption.

  10. The effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on pulse pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on pulse pressure variation. FJ Smith, M Geyser, I Schreuder, PJ Becker. Abstract. Objectives: To determine the effect of different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on pulse pressure variation (PPV). Design: An observational study. Setting: Operating theatres of a ...

  11. Parameters affecting the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Akira; Shida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masashi; Sato, Kimihiro; Seko, Toshiaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Shunichi; Takahashi, Naoaki

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify physical parameters affecting the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation. [Methods] Eighteen patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation were included in this study. Expiratory abdominal compression was performed on patients lying in a supine position. The abdomen above the navel was vertically compressed in synchronization with expiration and released with inspiration. We measured the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression. [Results] The mean tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was higher than that at rest (430.6 ± 127.1 mL vs. 344.0 ± 94.3 mL). The tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was correlated with weight, days of ventilator support, dynamic compliance and abdominal expansion. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that weight (β = 0.499), dynamic compliance (β = 0.387), and abdominal expansion (β = 0.365) were factors contributing to the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression. [Conclusion] Expiratory abdominal compression increased the tidal volume in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation. The tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was influenced by each of the pulmonary conditions and the physical characteristics.

  12. A numerical investigation of flow around octopus-like arms: near-wake vortex patterns and force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakidi, A; Vavourakis, V; Tsakiris, D P; Ekaterinaris, J A

    2015-01-01

    The fluid dynamics of cephalopods has so far received little attention in the literature, due to their complexity in structure and locomotion. The flow around octopuses, in particular, can be complicated due to their agile and dexterous arms, which frequently display some of the most diverse mechanisms of motion. The study of this flow amounts to a specific instance of the hydrodynamics problem for rough tapered cylinder geometries. The outstanding manipulative and locomotor skills of octopuses could inspire the development of advanced robotic arms, able to operate in fluid environments. Our primary aim was to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of such bio-inspired robotic models and to derive the hydrodynamic force coefficients as a concise description of the vortical flow effects. Utilizing computational fluid dynamic methods, the coefficients were computed on realistic morphologies of octopus-like arm models undergoing prescribed solid-body movements; such motions occur in nature for short durations in time, e.g. during reaching movements and exploratory behaviors. Numerical simulations were performed on translating, impulsively rotating, and maneuvering arms, around which the flow field structures were investigated. The results reveal in detail the generation of complex vortical flow structures around the moving arms. Hydrodynamic forces acting on a translating arm depend on the angle of incidence; forces generated during impulsive rotations of the arms are independent of their exact morphology and the angle of rotation; periodic motions based on a slow recovery and a fast power stroke are able to produce considerable propulsive thrust while harmonic motions are not. Parts of these results have been employed in bio-inspired models of underwater robotic mechanisms. This investigation may further assist elucidating the hydrodynamics underlying aspects of octopus locomotion and exploratory behaviors.

  13. Climatology and trends in the forcing of the stratospheric zonal-mean flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Monier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The momentum budget of the Transformed Eulerian-Mean (TEM equation is calculated using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-40 and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP Reanalysis 2 (R-2. This study outlines the considerable contribution of unresolved waves, deduced to be gravity waves, to the forcing of the zonal-mean flow. A trend analysis, from 1980 to 2001, shows that the onset and break down of the Northern Hemisphere (NH stratospheric polar night jet has a tendency to occur later in the season in the more recent years. This temporal shift follows long-term changes in planetary wave activity that are mainly due to synoptic waves, with a lag of one month. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH, the polar vortex shows a tendency to persist further into the SH summertime. This also follows a statistically significant decrease in the intensity of the stationary EP flux divergence over the 1980–2001 period. Ozone depletion is well known for strengthening the polar vortex through the thermal wind balance. However, the results of this work show that the SH polar vortex does not experience any significant long-term changes until the month of December, even though the intensification of the ozone hole occurs mainly between September and November. This study suggests that the decrease in planetary wave activity in November provides an important feedback to the zonal wind as it delays the breakdown of the polar vortex. In addition, the absence of strong eddy feedback before November explains the lack of significant trends in the polar vortex in the SH early spring. A long-term weakening in the Brewer-Dobson (B-D circulation in the polar region is identified in the NH winter and early spring and during the SH late spring and is likely driven by the decrease in planetary wave activity previously mentioned. During the rest of the year, there are large discrepancies in the representation of the B

  14. New sample carrier systems for thermogravimetric analysis under forced flow conditions and their influence on microkinetic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, C; Fieback, T M

    2015-09-01

    For thermogravimetric analysis, it has been shown that, depending on the type of sample container, different kinetic results could be obtained despite regarding the same reaction under constant conditions. This is due to limiting macrokinetic effects which are strongly dependant on the type of sample carrying system. This prompted the need for sample containers which deliver results minimally limited by diffusive mass transport. In this way, two container systems were developed, both characterized by a forced flow stream through a solid, porous bed: one from bottom to top (counter-current flow) and one from top to bottom (co-current flow). Optical test measurements were performed, the results indicating that reaction proceedings are almost fully independent of the geometrical shape of the sample containers. The Boudouard reaction was investigated with a standard crucible and the new developed systems; the reaction rates determined differed significantly, up to a factor of 6.2 at 1373 K.

  15. The effect of the virtual mass force term on the stability of transient two-phase flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadashi; Hirano, Masashi; Tanabe, Fumiya

    1989-08-01

    The effect of the virtual mass force term on the stability of transient two-phase flow analysis is studied. The objective form of the virtual mass acceleration is used. The virtual mass coefficient is determined from the stability condition of basic equations against infinitesimal high wave-number perturbations. The parameter is chosen so that a reasonable agreement between the analytical and experimental sound speed in two-phase flows can be obtained. A one-dimensional sedimentation problem is simulated by the MINCS code which is a tool for transient two-phase flow analysis. The stability analysis is performed for the numerical procedure. It is shown that calculated results are stabilized so long as the virtual mass coefficient satisfies the stability condition of differential equations. (author)

  16. The Effect of Acoustic Forcing on Instabilities and Breakdown in Swept-Wing Flow over a Backward-Facing Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppink, Jenna L.; Shishkov, Olga; Wlezien, Richard W.; King, Rudolph A.; Choudhari, Meelan

    2016-01-01

    Instability interaction and breakdown were experimentally investigated in the flow over a swept backward-facing step. Acoustic forcing was used to excite the Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) instability and to acquire phase-locked results. The phase-averaged results illustrate the complex nature of the interaction between the TS and stationary cross flow instabilities. The weak stationary cross flow disturbance causes a distortion of the TS wavefront. The breakdown process is characterized by large positive and negative spikes in velocity. The positive spikes occur near the same time and location as the positive part of the TS wave. Higher-order spectral analysis was used to further investigate the nonlinear interactions between the TS instability and the traveling cross flow disturbances. The results reveal that a likely cause for the generation of the spikes corresponds to nonlinear interactions between the TS, traveling cross flow, and stationary cross flow disturbances. The spikes begin at low amplitudes of the unsteady and steady disturbances (2-4% U (sub e) (i.e. boundary layer edge velocity)) but can achieve very large amplitudes (20-30 percent U (sub e) (i.e. boundary layer edge velocity)) that initiate an early, though highly intermittent, breakdown to turbulence.

  17. Augmentation of forced-convection heat transfer by applying electric fields to disturb flow near a wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, H.; Ishiguro, H.; Nagata, S.; Yabe, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the augmentation effect of electrohydrodynamically (EHD) induced flow disturbance on forced-convection heat transfer in a channel that was experimentally investigated in order to determine the applicability of the enhanced heat transfer into a low- pressure drop heat exchanger, such as a high-performance oil cooler. The investigation is mainly based on the study carried out on the unique point where the flow is disturbed actively and controllably by applying electric fields between the wall and array of wire electrodes installed near the wall along the main stream. The liquid mixture of refrigerant R113 (96 wt %) and ethanol (4 wt %), called Fronsorubu AE, was selected as a working fluid. Heat transfer was found to be promoted intensely in the turbulent flow as well as in the laminar flow, up to a factor of about twenty-three in the case of laminar flow. It is noteworthy that the rate of increase in heat transfer coefficient is larger compared to that in the pressure drop. From a measurement of velocities by a laser Doppler velocimeter, it was made clear that the electrohydrodynamically induced flow disturbance brings about large heat transfer coefficients

  18. Effectiveness of Side Force Models for Flow Simulations Downstream of Vortex Generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentie, L.; van Zuijlen, A.H.; Hulshoff, S.J.; Bijl, H.

    2017-01-01

    Vortex generators (VGs) are a widely used means of flow control, and predictions of their influence are vital for efficient designs. However, accurate CFD simulations of their effect on the flow field by means of a body fitted mesh are computationally expensive. Therefore the BAY and jBAY models,

  19. Flow visualization of forced and natural convection in internal cavities. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodkey, R.S.; Clarksean, R.; Crepeau, J.C.; Guezennec, Y.G.; McEligot, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this research program is to understand the fluid physics when corroded spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements are passivated by injecting treatment gases into a storage canister. By developing a reliable predictive technique for the energy, mass, and momentum transfer in the presence of surface reactions, transfer and storage systems can be efficiently and safely designed. The objective will be reached by using innovative flow visualization techniques and experimental measurements of the flow field to support computational models. This report summarizes work completed after eight months of a three-year, collaborative project. A generic idealization of a combined drying and passivation approach has been defined, which represents a section of a vertical canister with baskets of SNF elements. This simulation includes flow phenomena that occur in canisters for high- and/or low-enrichment fuels. A steady flow of the passivation fluid is introduced at the bottom of the canister via a central tube from the top. Fluid flows through an array of holes in the perforated basket support plate then around the simulated elements and out the top. Dimensions and flow rates for the idealized situation correspond to those for typical drying canisters. Approximate calculations have identified the ranges of values of flow parameters needed to determine the flow regimes occurring in practice.'

  20. Experimental study of oscillating plates in viscous fluids: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the flow physics and hydrodynamic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bishwash; Ahsan, Syed N.; Aureli, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive experimental study on harmonic oscillations of a submerged rigid plate in a quiescent, incompressible, Newtonian, viscous fluid. The fluid-structure interaction problem is analyzed from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives via a detailed particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental campaign conducted over a broad range of oscillation frequency and amplitude parameters. Our primary goal is to identify the effect of the oscillation characteristics on the mechanisms of fluid-structure interaction and on the dynamics of vortex shedding and convection and to elucidate the behavior of hydrodynamic forces on the oscillating structure. Towards this goal, we study the flow in terms of qualitative aspects of its pathlines, vortex shedding, and symmetry breaking phenomena and identify distinct hydrodynamic regimes in the vicinity of the oscillating structure. Based on these experimental observations, we produce a novel phase diagram detailing the occurrence of distinct hydrodynamic regimes as a function of relevant governing nondimensional parameters. We further study the hydrodynamic forces associated with each regime using both PIV and direct force measurement via a load cell. Our quantitative results on experimental estimation of hydrodynamic forces show good agreement against predictions from the literature, where numerical and semi-analytical models are available. The findings and observations in this work shed light on the relationship between flow physics, vortex shedding, and convection mechanisms and the hydrodynamic forces acting on a rigid oscillating plate and, as such, have relevance to various engineering applications, including energy harvesting devices, biomimetic robotic system, and micro-mechanical sensors and actuators.

  1. The rôle of the complete Coriolis force in cross-equatorial flow of abyssal ocean currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A. L.; Dellar, P. J.

    Ocean currents flowing close to or across the equator are strongly constrained by the change in sign of f, the locally vertical component of the Earth's rotation vector, across the equator. We investigate these currents using a shallow water model that includes both the locally vertical and locally horizontal components of the Earth's rotation vector, thus accounting for the complete Coriolis force. We therefore avoid making the so-called "traditional approximation" that retains only the part of the Coriolis force associated with the locally vertical component of the rotation vector. Including the complete Coriolis force contributes an additional term to the fluid's potential vorticity, which may partially balance the change in sign of f as fluid crosses the equator over suitably shaped bathymetry. We focus on the Antarctic Bottom Water, which crosses the equator northwards in the western Atlantic ocean where the local bathymetry forms an almost-zonal channel. We show that this bathymetry facilitates the current's equatorial crossing via the action of the "non-traditional" component of the Coriolis force. We illustrate this process using both analytical and numerical solutions for flow of an abyssal current over idealised equatorial topography. We also consider the one-dimensional geostrophic adjustment of a body of fluid across the equator, and show that the "non-traditional" contribution to the fluid's angular momentum permits a larger cross-equatorial transport. These results underline the importance of including the complete Coriolis force in studies of the equatorial ocean, particularly in the weakly-stratified abyssal ocean where the non-traditional component is most pronounced.

  2. Evaluation of Pressure Generated by Resistors From Different Positive Expiratory Pressure Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Carlsson, Maria; Olsén, Erik; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    Breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure (PEP) are used to improve pulmonary function and airway clearance. Different PEP devices are available, but there have been no studies that describe the pressure generated by different resistors. The purpose of this study was to compare pressures generated from the proprietary resistor components of 4 commercial flow-dependent PEP valves with all other parameters kept constant. Resistors from 4 flow-regulated PEP devices (Pep/Rmt system, Wellspect HealthCare; Pipe P breathing exerciser, Koo Medical Equipment; Mini-PEP, Philips Respironics [including resistors by Rüsch]; and 15-mm endo-adapter, VBM Medizintechnik) were tested randomly by a blinded tester at constant flows of 10 and 18 L/min from an external gas system. All resistors were tested 3 times. Resistors with a similar diameter produced statistically significant different pressures at the same flow. The differences were smaller when the flow was 10 L/min compared with 18 L/min. The differences were also smaller when the diameter of the resistor was increased. The pressures produced by the 4 resistors of the same size were all significantly different when measuring 1.5- and 2.0-mm resistors at a flow of 10 L/min and 2.0-mm resistors at a flow of 18 L/min (P < .001). There were no significant differences between any of the resistors when testing sizes of 4.5 and 5.0 mm at either flow. The Mini-PEP and adapter resistors gave the highest pressures. Pressures generated by the different proprietary resistor components of 4 commercial PEP devices were not comparable, even though the diameter of the resistors is reported to be the same. The pressures generated were significantly different, particularly when using small-diameter resistors at a high flow. Therefore, the resistors may not be interchangeable. This is important information for clinicians, particularly when considering PEP for patients who do not tolerate higher pressures. Copyright © 2015 by

  3. Bedform development in mixed sand-mud: The contrasting role of cohesive forces in flow and bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Jaco H.; Davies, Alan G.; Malarkey, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The majority of subaqueous sediment on Earth consists of mixtures of cohesive clay and cohesionless sand and silt, but the role of cohesion on the development and stability of sedimentary bedforms is poorly understood. The results of new laboratory flume experiments on bedform development in cohesive, mixed sand-mud beds are compared with the results of previous experiments in which cohesive forces in high concentration clay flows dominated bedform development. Even though both series of mixed sand-mud experiments were conducted at similar flow velocities, the textural and structural properties of the bedforms were sufficiently different to permit the designation of key criteria for identifying bedform generation under cohesive flows against bedform generation on cohesive substrates. These criteria are essential for improving bedform size predictions in sediment transport modelling in modern sedimentary environments and for the reconstruction of depositional processes in the geological record. The current ripples developing on the cohesive, mixed sand-mud beds, with bed mud fractions of up to 18%, were significantly smaller than equivalent bedforms in noncohesive sand. Moreover, the bedform height showed a stronger inversely proportional relationship with initial bed mud fraction than the bedform wavelength. This is in contrast with the bedforms developing under the cohesive clay flows, which tend to increase in size with increasing suspended clay concentration until the flow turbulence is fully suppressed. Selective removal of clay from the mixed beds, i.e., clay winnowing, was found to be an important process, with 82-100% clay entrained into suspension after 2 h of bedform development. This winnowing process led to the development of a sand-rich armouring layer. This armouring layer is inferred to have protected the underlying mixed sand-mud from prolonged erosion, and in conjunction with strong cohesive forces in the bed may have caused the smaller size of the

  4. Turbulence-induced bubble collision force modeling and validation in adiabatic two-phase flow using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Subash L., E-mail: sharma55@purdue.edu [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1290 (United States); Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1290 (United States); Brooks, Caleb S. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Schlegel, Joshua P. [Nuclear Engineering Program, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Liu, Yang [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Buchanan, John R. [Bechtel Marine Propulsion Corporation, Bettis Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Void distribution in narrow rectangular channel with various non-uniform inlet conditions. • Modeling of void diffusion due to bubble collision force. • Validation of new modeling in adiabatic air–water two-phase flow in a narrow channel. - Abstract: The prediction capability of the two-fluid model for gas–liquid dispersed two-phase flow depends on the accuracy of the closure relations for the interfacial forces. In previous studies of two-phase flow Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), interfacial force models for a single isolated bubble has been extended to disperse two-phase flow assuming the effect in a swarm of bubbles is similar. Limited studies have been performed investigating the effect of the bubble concentration on the lateral phase distribution. Bubbles, while moving through the liquid phase, may undergo turbulence-driven random collision with neighboring bubbles without significant coalescence. The rate of these collisions depends upon the bubble approach velocity and bubble spacing. The bubble collision frequency is expected to be higher in locations with higher bubble concentrations, i.e., volume fraction. This turbulence-driven random collision causes the diffusion of the bubbles from high concentration to low concentration. Based on experimental observations, a phenomenological model has been developed for a “turbulence-induced bubble collision force” for use in the two-fluid model. For testing the validity of the model, two-phase flow data measured at Purdue University are utilized. The geometry is a 10 mm × 200 mm cross section channel. Experimentally, non-uniform inlet boundary conditions are applied with different sparger combinations to vary the volume fraction distribution across the wider dimension. Examining uniform and non-uniform inlet data allows for the influence of the volume fraction to be studied as a separate effect. The turbulence-induced bubble collision force has been implemented in ANSYS CFX. The

  5. Aespoe modelling task force - experiences of the site specific flow and transport modelling (in detailed and site scale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Stroem, A.; Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. , Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    The Aespoe Task Force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes was initiated in 1992. The Task Force shall be a forum for the organisations supporting the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Project to interact in the area of conceptual and numerical modelling of groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured rock. Much emphasis is put on building of confidence in the approaches and methods in use for modelling of groundwater flow and nuclide migration in order to demonstrate their use for performance and safety assessment. The modelling work within the Task Force is linked to the experiments performed at the Aespoe Laboratory. As the first Modelling Task, a large scale pumping and tracer experiment called LPT2 was chosen. This was the final part of the characterisation work for the Aespoe site before the construction of the laboratory in 1990. The construction of the Aespoe HRL access tunnel caused an even larger hydraulic disturbance on a much larger scale than that caused by the LPT2 pumping test. This was regarded as an interesting test case for the conceptual and numerical models of the Aespoe site developed during Task No 1, and was chosen as the third Modelling Task. The aim of Task 3 can be seen from two different perspectives. The Aespoe HRL project saw it as a test of their ability to define a conceptual and structural model of the site that can be utilised by independent modelling groups and be transformed to a predictive groundwater flow model. The modelling groups saw it as a means of understanding groundwater flow in a large fractured rock volume and of testing their computational tools. A general conclusion is that Task 3 has served these purposes well. Non-sorbing tracers tests, made as a part of the TRUE-experiments were chosen as the next predictive modelling task. A preliminary comparison between model predictions made by the Aespoe Task Force and the experimental results, shows that most modelling teams predicted breakthrough from

  6. Concurrent Flame Growth, Spread and Extinction over Composite Fabric Samples in Low Speed Purely Forced Flow in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyang; T'ien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the NASA BASS and BASS-II experimental projects aboard the International Space Station, flame growth, spread and extinction over a composite cotton-fiberglass fabric blend (referred to as the SIBAL fabric) were studied in low-speed concurrent forced flows. The tests were conducted in a small flow duct within the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The fuel samples measured 1.2 and 2.2 cm wide and 10 cm long. Ambient oxygen was varied from 21% down to 16% and flow speed from 40 cm/s down to 1 cm/s. A small flame resulted at low flow, enabling us to observe the entire history of flame development including ignition, flame growth, steady spread (in some cases) and decay at the end of the sample. In addition, by decreasing flow velocity during some of the tests, low-speed flame quenching extinction limits were found as a function of oxygen percentage. The quenching speeds were found to be between 1 and 5 cm/s with higher speed in lower oxygen atmosphere. The shape of the quenching boundary supports the prediction by earlier theoretical models. These long duration microgravity experiments provide a rare opportunity for solid fuel combustion since microgravity time in ground-based facilities is generally not sufficient. This is the first time that a low-speed quenching boundary in concurrent spread is determined in a clean and unambiguous manner.

  7. Heat transfer and forces on concave surfaces in free molecule flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, C.

    1971-01-01

    A Monte Carlo modeling technique is described for mathematically simulating free molecular flows over a concave spherical surface and a concave cylindrical surface of finite length. The half-angle of the surfaces may vary from 0 to 90 degrees, and the incident flow may have an arbitrary speed ratio and an arbitrary angle of attack. Partial diffuse reflection and imperfect energy accommodation for molecules colliding with the surfaces are also considered. Results of heat transfer, drag and lift coefficients are presented for a variety of flow conditions. The present Monte Carlo results are shown to be in very good agreement with certain available theoretical solutions.

  8. Effect of perforation on flow past a conic cylinder at Re = 100: vortex-shedding pattern and force history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L. M.; Zhong, X. F.; Wu, Y. X.

    2017-09-01

    The flow past a circular-section cylinder with a conic shroud perforated with four holes at the peak was simulated numerically at Re=100 , considering two factors, viz. the angle of attack and the diameter of the holes. The effects of the perforated conic shroud on the vortex shedding pattern in the near wake was mainly investigated, as well as the time history of the drag and lift forces. In the investigated parameter space, three flow regimes were generally identified, corresponding to weak, moderate, and strong disturbance effects. In regime I, the wake can mainly be described by alternately shedding Kármán or Kármán-like vortices. In regime II, the spanwise vortices are obviously disturbed along the span due to the appearance of additional vorticity components and their interactions with the spanwise vortices, but still shed in synchronization along the spanwise direction. In regime III, the typical Kármán vortices partially or totally disappear, and some new vortex shedding patterns appear, such as Ω -type, obliquely shedding, and crossed spanwise vortices with opposite sign. Corresponding to these complex vortex shedding patterns in the near wake, the fluid forces no longer oscillate regularly at a single vortex shedding frequency, but rather with a lower modulation frequency and multiple amplitudes. An overview of these flow regimes is presented.

  9. Evaluation and compensation of steady gas flow force on the high-pressure electro-pneumatic servo valve direct-driven by voice coil motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Baoren; Gao, Longlong; Yang, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel energy saving high-pressure electro-pneumatic servo valve is presented. ► An evaluated method for steady gas flow forces on pneumatic valves is proposed. ► Gas jet angles at the orifices for the valve are larger than 69° commonly used. ► The steady gas flow force is strongly nonlinear with valve opening. ► The steady gas flow force is compensated and the aim at energy saving is realized. - Abstract: A novel voice coil motor (VCM) direct drive single stage high-pressure pneumatic servo valve is designed, and then the steady gas flow force acting on the spool of the servo valve is investigated by numerical simulation and experimental methods in this paper. At present, many studies about flow force are concentrated mainly on hydraulic valves, but rarely on pneumatic valves. However, the velocity of gas is up to sonic when high-pressure gas flows through the servo valve orifice. And therefore, the steady gas flow force, generated by high pressure and high speed gas flow, cannot be neglected and is an important disturbance for the VCM direct-drive single stage high-pressure pneumatic servo valve. Consequently, the numerical simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is adopted to analyze the flow filed, jet angles, and steady gas flow forces for the servo valve with different valve openings and inlet pressures. The experimental study is performed to evaluate and confirm the numerical analysis. Then the compensated approach is proposed to reduce the steady gas flow force for the servo valve, changing the angle of non-metering port designed in the valve sleeve to the spool axis. The results demonstrate that the presented numerical analysis method is validated, the gas jet angle for the servo valve orifice is more than 69° and varies with different spool openings, and the steady gas flow force is nonlinear with valve opening and linear with inlet pressure when the outlet boundary is atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the steady gas

  10. A further note on the force discrepancy for wing theory in Euler flow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Euler equations use the assumption that the fluid does not impart any resistance ... viscosity, the kinetic energy associated with these flow fields is now bounded, ..... Combining all the results together from Appendices B, C and D we get.

  11. Stabilizing the long-time behavior of the forced Navier-Stokes and damped Euler systems by large mean flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyranka, Jacek; Mucha, Piotr B.; Titi, Edriss S.; Zgliczyński, Piotr

    2018-04-01

    The paper studies the issue of stability of solutions to the forced Navier-Stokes and damped Euler systems in periodic boxes. It is shown that for large, but fixed, Grashoff (Reynolds) number the turbulent behavior of all Leray-Hopf weak solutions of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, in periodic box, is suppressed, when viewed in the right frame of reference, by large enough average flow of the initial data; a phenomenon that is similar in spirit to the Landau damping. Specifically, we consider an initial data which have large enough spatial average, then by means of the Galilean transformation, and thanks to the periodic boundary conditions, the large time independent forcing term changes into a highly oscillatory force; which then allows us to employ some averaging principles to establish our result. Moreover, we also show that under the action of fast oscillatory-in-time external forces all two-dimensional regular solutions of the Navier-Stokes and the damped Euler equations converge to a unique time-periodic solution.

  12. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling Three-Dimensional Unsteady Turbulent Flow and Excitation Force in Partial Admission Air Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Air turbines are widely used to convert kinetic energy into power output in power engineering. The unsteady performance of air turbines with partial admission not only influences the aerodynamic performance and thermodynamic efficiency of turbine but also generates strong excitation force on blades to impair the turbine safely operating. Based on three-dimensional viscous compressible Navier-stokes equations, the present study employs RNG (Renormalization group k-ε turbulence model with finite volume discretization on air turbine with partial admission. Numerical models of four different admission rates with full annulus are built and analyzed via CFD (computational fluid dynamics modeling unsteady flows. Results indicate that the unsteady time-averaged isentropic efficiency is lower than the steady isentropic efficiency, and this difference rises as unsteady isentropic efficiency fluctuates stronger when the admission rate is reduced. The rotor axial and tangential forces with time are provided for all four admission rates. The low frequency excitation forces generated by partial admission are extraordinarily higher than the high frequency excitation forces by stator wakes.

  13. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  14. Drag force of intermediate Reynolds number flow past mono- and bidisperse arrays of spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetstra, R.; van der Hoef, Martin Anton; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive lattice-Boltzmann simulations were performed to obtain the drag force for random arrays of monodisperse and bidisperse spheres. For the monodisperse systems, 35 different combinations of the Reynolds number Re (up to Re = 1,000) and packing fraction were studied, whereas for the bidisperse

  15. Drag force of intermediate Reynolds number flow past mono- and bidisperse arrays of spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetstra, R.; Hoef, van der M.A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive lattice-Boltzmann simulations were performed to obtain the drag force for random arrays of monodisperse and bidisperse spheres. For the monodisperse systems, 35 different combinations of the Reynolds number Re (up to Re = 1,000) and packing fraction ¿ were studied, whereas for the

  16. The flow field acting on the fluttering profile, kinematics, forces and total moment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozánek, Jan; Vlček, Václav; Zolotarev, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2013), s. 1-7 ISSN 0219-4554 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1522 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluttering profile * interferometry visualization * acting forces and moment Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts Impact factor: 1.059, year: 2013

  17. A novel feedback control system – Controlling the material flow in deep drawing using distributed blank-holder force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endelt, Benny Ørtoft; Tommerup, Søren; Danckert, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a feedback control system is often limited by the quality of the model on which it is based, and often the controller design is based on trial and error due to insufficient modeling capabilities. A framework is proposed where the controller design is based on classical state...... on a deep drawing operation where the objective was to control material flow throughout the part using only spatial information regarding flange draw-in. The control system controls both the magnitude and distribution of the blank-holder force. The methodology proved stable and flexible with respect...

  18. The GeoFlow experiment-spherical Rayleigh-Benard convection under the influence of an artificial central force field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellert, M; Beltrame, P; Egbers, C

    2005-01-01

    Spherical Rayleigh-Benard convection under the influence of an artificial central force field produced by the so-called dielectrophoretic effect is studied as a simplified model of the flow in the outer earth core. The fluid motion there is most probably driving the earth's dynamo and the energy source for the earth's magnetic field. Studying convective flows in earth-like geometry could lead to a deeper understanding of the basics of these processes. This research is a preparatory study for the experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). A bifurcation-theoretical approach shows the existence of heteroclinic cycles between spherical modes (l, l + 1) for the non-rotating system. This behavior depends strong on the radius ratio of the spheres and will be hard to detect in the experiment. For slow rotations interactions of the azimuthal modes (m, m + 1) found in numerical simulations for supercritical states are supposed to be experimentally observable

  19. The effects of shoulder load and pinch force on electromyographic activity and blood flow in the forearm during a pinch task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Bart; Kofoed Nielsen, Pernille; de Kraker, Heleen

    2006-01-01

    loaded with 4.95 kg each) were combined with intermittent pinch forces at 0, 10 and 25% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Blood flow to the forearm was measured with Doppler ultrasound. Myoelectric activity of the forearm and neck-shoulder muscles was recorded to check for the workload levels....... Across all levels of shoulder load, blood flow increased significantly with increasing pinch force (21% at 10% MVC and by 44% at 25% MVC). Blood flow was significantly affected by shoulder load, with the lowest blood flow at the highest shoulder load. Interactions of pinch force and shoulder load were....... The results of this study indicate that shoulder load might influence blood flow to the forearm....

  20. Transport of expiratory droplets in an aircraft cabin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jitendra K; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Chen, Qingyan

    2011-02-01

    The droplets exhaled by an index patient with infectious disease such as influenza or tuberculosis may be the carriers of contagious agents. Indoor environments such as the airliner cabins may be susceptible to infection from such airborne contagious agents. The present investigation computed the transport of the droplets exhaled by the index patient seated in the middle of a seven-row, twin-aisle, fully occupied cabin using the CFD simulations. The droplets exhaled were from a single cough, a single breath, and a 15-s talk of the index patient. The expiratory droplets were tracked by using Lagrangian method, and their evaporation was modeled. It was found that the bulk airflow pattern in the cabin played the most important role on the droplet transport. The droplets were contained in the row before, at, and after the index patient within 30 s and dispersed uniformly to all the seven rows in 4 minutes. The total airborne droplet fraction reduced to 48, 32, 20, and 12% after they entered the cabin for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min, respectively, because of the ventilation from the environmental control system. It is critical to predict the risk of airborne infection to take appropriate measures to control and mitigate the risk. Most of the studies in past either assume a homogenous distribution of contaminants or use steady-state conditions. The present study instead provides information on the transient movement of the droplets exhaled by an index passenger in an aircraft cabin. These droplets may contain active contagious agents and can be potent enough to cause infection. The findings can be used by medical professionals to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of risk of infection to various passengers in the cabin. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. POD analysis of flow over a backward-facing step forced by right-angle-shaped plasma actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Huaxing

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to present flow control over the backward-facing step with specially designed right-angle-shaped plasma actuator and analyzed the influence of various scales of flow structures on the Reynolds stress through snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). 2D particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted on region (x/h = 0-2.25) and reattachment zone in the x-y plane over the backward-facing step at a Reynolds number of Re h  = 27,766 (based on step height [Formula: see text] and free stream velocity [Formula: see text]. The separated shear layer was excited by specially designed right-angle-shaped plasma actuator under the normalized excitation frequency St h  ≈ 0.345 along the 45° direction. The spatial distribution of each Reynolds stress component was reconstructed using an increasing number of POD modes. The POD analysis indicated that the flow dynamic downstream of the step was dominated by large-scale flow structures, which contributed to streamwise Reynolds stress and Reynolds shear stress. The intense Reynolds stress localized to a narrow strip within the shear layer was mainly affected by small-scale flow structures, which were responsible for the recovery of the Reynolds stress peak. With plasma excitation, a significant increase was obtained in the vertical Reynolds stress peak. Under the dimensionless frequencies St h  ≈ 0.345 and [Formula: see text] which are based on the step height and momentum thickness, the effectiveness of the flow control forced by the plasma actuator along the 45° direction was ordinary. Only the vertical Reynolds stress was significantly affected.

  2. Experimental investigation on TBAB clathrate hydrate slurry flows in a horizontal tube: Forced convective heat transfer behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenji, Song [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Rui, Xiao; Chong, Huang; Shihui, He; Kaijun, Dong; Ziping, Feng [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Tetra-n-butyl-ammonium bromide (TBAB) clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS) is one kind of secondary refrigerants, which is promising to be applied into air-conditioning or latent-heat transportation systems as a thermal storage or cold carrying medium for energy saving. It is a solid-liquid two phase mixture which is easy to produce and has high latent heat and good fluidity. In this paper, the heat transfer characteristics of TBAB slurry were investigated in a horizontal stainless steel tube under different solid mass fractions and flow velocities with constant heat flux. One velocity region of weakened heat transfer was found. Moreover, TBAB CHS was treated as a kind of Bingham fluids, and the influences of the solid particles, flow velocity and types of flow on the forced convective heat transfer coefficients of TBAB CHS were investigated. At last, criterial correlations of Nusselt number for laminar and turbulent flows in the form of power function were summarized, and the error with experimental results was within {+-}20%. (author)

  3. DNB heat flux on inner side of a vertical pipe in forced flow of liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Yasuyuki; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Hata, Koichi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    2018-06-01

    Heat transfer from inner side of a heated vertical pipe to liquid hydrogen flowing upward was measured at the pressures of 0.4, 0.7 and 1.1 MPa for wide ranges of flow rate and liquid temperature. Nine test heaters with different inner diameters of 3, 4, 6 and 9 mm and the lengths of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mm were used. The DNB (departure from nucleate boiling) heat fluxes in forced flow of liquid hydrogen were measured for various subcoolings and flow velocities at pressures of 0.4, 0.7 and 1.1 MPa. Effect of L/d (ratio of heater length to diameter) was clarified for the range of L / d ⩽ 50 . A new correlation of DNB heat flux was presented based on a simple model and the experimental data. Similar experiments were performed for liquid nitrogen at pressures of 0.5 MPa and 1.0 MPa by using the same experimental system and some of the test heaters. It was confirmed that the new correlation can describe not only the hydrogen data, but also the data of liquid nitrogen.

  4. Effects of equipment and technique on peak flow measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Driscoll B Ronan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different lung function equipment and different respiratory manoeuvres may produce different Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF results. Although the PEF is the most common lung function test, there have been few studies of these effects and no previous study has evaluated both factors in a single group of patients. Methods We studied 36 subjects (PEF range 80–570 l/min. All patients recorded PEF measurements using a short rapid expiration following maximal inspiration (PEF technique or a forced maximal expiration to residual volume (FVC technique. Measurements were made using a Wright's peak flow meter, a turbine spirometer and a Fleisch pneumotachograph spirometer. Results The mean PEF was 8.7% higher when the PEF technique was used (compared with FVC technique, p Conclusion Peak flow measurements are affected by the instruction given and by the device and Peak Flow scale used. Patient management decisions should not be based on PEF measurement made on different instruments.

  5. Boxfish swimming paradox resolved : forces by the flow of water around the body promote manoeuvrability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wassenbergh, S.; van Manen, K.; Marcroft, T. A.; Alfaro, M. E.; Stamhuis, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    The shape of the carapace protecting the body of boxfishes has been attributed an important hydrodynamic role in drag reduction and in providing automatic, flow-direction realignment and is therefore used in bioinspired design of cars. However, tight swimming-course stabilization is paradoxical

  6. A second order penalized direct forcing for hybrid Cartesian/immersed boundary flow simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introini, C.; Belliard, M.; Fournier, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a second order penalized direct forcing method to deal with fluid-structure interaction problems involving complex static or time-varying geometries. As this work constitutes a first step toward more complicated problems, our developments are restricted to Dirichlet boundary condition in purely hydraulic context. The proposed method belongs to the class of immersed boundary techniques and consists in immersing the physical domain in a Cartesian fictitious one of simpler geometry on fixed grids. A penalized forcing term is added to the momentum equation to take the boundary conditions around/inside the obstacles into account. This approach avoids the tedious task of re-meshing and allows us to use fast and accurate numerical schemes. In contrary, as the immersed boundary is described by a set of Lagrangian points that does not generally coincide with those of the Eulerian grid, numerical procedures are required to reconstruct the velocity field near the immersed boundary. Here, we develop a second order linear interpolation scheme and we compare it to a simpler model of order one. As far as the governing equations are concerned, we use a particular fractional-step method in which the penalized forcing term is distributed both in prediction and correction equations. The accuracy of the proposed method is assessed through 2-D numerical experiments involving static and rotating solids. We show in particular that the numerical rate of convergence of our method is quasi-quadratic. (authors)

  7. Force and flow at the onset of drag in plowed granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Umbanhowar, Paul B; Goldman, Daniel I

    2014-04-01

    We study the transient drag force FD on a localized intruder in a granular medium composed of spherical glass particles. A flat plate is translated horizontally from rest through the granular medium to observe how FD varies as a function of the medium's initial volume fraction, ϕ. The force response of the granular material differs above and below the granular critical state, ϕc, the volume fraction which corresponds to the onset of grain dilatancy. For ϕϕc, FD rapidly rises to a maximum and then decreases over further displacement. The maximum force for ϕ>ϕc increases with increasing drag velocity. In quasi-two-dimensional drag experiments, we use granular particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measure time resolved strain fields associated with the horizontal motion of a plate started from rest. PIV experiments show that the maxima in FD for ϕ>ϕc are associated with maxima in the spatially averaged shear strain field. For ϕ>ϕc the shear strain occurs in a narrow region in front of the plate, a shear band. For ϕϕc, surface particles move only during the formation of the shear band, coincident with the maxima in FD, after which the particles remain immobile until the sheared region reaches the measurement region.

  8. Current flow and pair creation at low altitude in rotation-powered pulsars' force-free magnetospheres: space charge limited flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timokhin, A. N.; Arons, J.

    2013-02-01

    We report the results of an investigation of particle acceleration and electron-positron plasma generation at low altitude in the polar magnetic flux tubes of rotation-powered pulsars, when the stellar surface is free to emit whatever charges and currents are demanded by the force-free magnetosphere. We apply a new 1D hybrid plasma simulation code to the dynamical problem, using Particle-in-Cell methods for the dynamics of the charged particles, including a determination of the collective electrostatic fluctuations in the plasma, combined with a Monte Carlo treatment of the high-energy gamma-rays that mediate the formation of the electron-positron pairs. We assume the electric current flowing through the pair creation zone is fixed by the much higher inductance magnetosphere, and adopt the results of force-free magnetosphere models to provide the currents which must be carried by the accelerator. The models are spatially one dimensional, and designed to explore the physics, although of practical relevance to young, high-voltage pulsars. We observe novel behaviour (a) When the current density j is less than the Goldreich-Julian value (0 electrically trapped particles with the same sign of charge as the beam. The voltage drops are of the order of mc2/e, and pair creation is absent. (b) When the current density exceeds the Goldreich-Julian value (j/jGJ > 1), the system develops high voltage drops (TV or greater), causing emission of curvature gamma-rays and intense bursts of pair creation. The bursts exhibit limit cycle behaviour, with characteristic time-scales somewhat longer than the relativistic fly-by time over distances comparable to the polar cap diameter (microseconds). (c) In return current regions, where j/jGJ generated pairs allow the system to simultaneously carry the magnetospherically prescribed currents and adjust the charge density and average electric field to force-free conditions. We also elucidate the conditions for pair creating beam flow to be

  9. Theoretical and experimental studies on transient heat transfer for forced convection flow of helium gas over a horizontal cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiusheng; Katsuya Fukuda; Zhang Zheng

    2005-01-01

    Forced convection transient heat transfer for helium gas at various periods of exponential increase of heat input to a horizontal cylinder (heater) was theoretically and experimentally studied. In the theoretical study, transient heat transfer was numerically solved based on a turbulent flow model. It was clarified that the surface superheat and heat flux increase exponentially as the heat generation rate increases with the exponential function. The temperature distribution near the cylinder becomes larger as the surface temperature increases. The values of numerical solution for surface temperature and heat flux agree well with the experimental data for the cylinder diameter of 1 mm. However, the heat flux shows difference from the experimental values for the cylinder diameters of 0.7 mm and 2.0 mm. In the experimental studies, the authors measured heat flux, surface temperature, and transient heat transfer coefficients for forced convection flow of helium gas over horizontal cylinders under wide experimental conditions. The platinum cylinders with diameters of 1.0 mm, 0.7 mm, and 2.0 mm were used as test heaters and heated by electric current with an exponential increase of Q 0exp (t/τ) . The gas flow velocities ranged from 2 to 10 m/s, the gas temperatures ranged from 303 to 353 K, and the periods ranged from 50 ms to 20 s. It was clarified that the heat transfer coefficient approaches the quasi-steady-state one for the period τ longer than about 1 s, and it becomes higher for the period shorter than around 1 s. The transient heat transfer shows less dependence on the gas flowing velocity when the period becomes very shorter. The heat transfer shifts to the quasi-steady-state heat transfer for longer periods and shifts to the transient heat transfer for shorter periods at the same flow velocity. It also approaches the quasi-steady-state one for higher flow velocity at the same period. The transient heat transfer coefficients show significant dependence on

  10. Evaluation of the flow forces on an open centre directional control valve by means of a computational fluid dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirante, R.; Del Vescovo, G.; Lippolis, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is the evaluation of the driving forces acting on a 4/3 hydraulic open center directional control valve spool by means of a complete numerical analysis. In a previous paper by the same authors, the valve was inserted in a closed hydraulic circuit and was tested with different pump flow rate values to obtain experimental results about the driving forces. The experimental results are used in this paper to evaluate and validate the numerical analysis of the valve. The obtained numerical results show important differences between an open center valve and a closed center one, the latter being extensively analyzed in the literature. The numerical analysis is performed by using the commercial code 'Fluent', and the numerical results show the complete flow field inside the valve. The aim of this analysis is to evaluate the valve fluid dynamic performance, exploiting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques, in order to give the reliable indications needed to define the valve design criteria and avoid expensive experimental tests

  11. Thermally forced mesoscale atmospheric flow over complex terrain in Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, M.; Colacino, M.; Dalu, G. A.; Piervitali, E.; Ye, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the Authors discuss some results concerning the analysis of the local atmospheric flow over the southern part of Italy, the peninsula of Calabria, using a mesoscale numerical model. Our study is focused on two different but related topics: a detailed analysis of the meteorology and climate of the region based on a data collection, reported in Colacino et al., 'Elementi di Climatologia della Calabria', edited by A. Guerrini, in the series P. S., 'Clima, Ambiente e Territorio nel Mezzogiorno' (CNR, Rome) 1997, pp. 218, and an analysis of the results based on the simulated flow produced using a mesoscale numerical model. The Colorado State University mesoscale numerical model has been applied to study several different climatic situations of particular interest for the region, as discussed in this paper

  12. Lorentz force effect on mixed convection micropolar flow in a vertical conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-wahed, Mohamed S.

    2017-05-01

    The present work provides a simulation of control and filtration process of hydromagnetic blood flow with Hall current under the effect of heat source or sink through a vertical conduit (pipe). This work meets other engineering applications, such as nuclear reactors cooled during emergency shutdown, geophysical transport in electrically conducting and heat exchangers at low velocity conditions. The problem is modeled by a system of partial differential equations taking the effect of viscous dissipation, and these equations are simplified and solved analytically as a series solution using the Differential Transformation Method (DTM). The velocities and temperature profiles of the flow are plotted and discussed. Moreover, the conduit wall shear stress and heat flux are deduced and explained.

  13. Peculiarities of void fraction measurement applied to physical installation channels cooled by forced helium flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, V.V.; Filippov, Yu.P.; Mamedov, I.S.

    1989-01-01

    The methods of optimizing the transducers designed for measurements of the void fraction of two-phase flows in the channels of round and annular cross section are presented. On the basis of the analysis performed concrete solution of relatively high technical characteristics are proposed. Rated and actual characteristics of signal ranges and measurement errors are given for both sensors. Influence of the mass velocity on the void fraction of adiabatic two-phase flows is theoretically analyzed. Effects of friction and of liquid-into-vapour entrainment are shown. Calculation results are compared with the obtained experimental data for helium. Special attention is given to the specific features of the processes in channels with different cross section. 17 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Numerical prediction of forces for turbulent flow around a ship rudder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, H.; Raza, A.; Bilal, S.; Zahir, S.; Khan, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The three dimensional Navier Stokes equations with the standard k-epsilon turbulence model are solved for incompressible turbulent flows around the ship rudder placed in a uniform flow. The solution was obtained using second order high-resolution advection scheme on an unstructured grid. A wall function is used for realizing the no slip condition at walls. Computations were performed on a rudder at two different Reynolds numbers with angle of attack ranging from 0 to 26 degrees. The present results are compared as CFD-Experimental and CFD-CFD in the form of lift and drag coefficients for different degrees of deflection and are in good agreement with the experimental measurements and with the other author's computational results. The calculated stall angles and maximum lift at stall angles are slightly smaller as compared to experimental results. (author)

  15. Thermally forced mesoscale atmospheric flow over complex terrain in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, M.; Colacino, M.; Dalu, G. A.; Piervitali, E.; Ye, Z. [CNR, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Fisica dell`Atmosfera

    1998-07-01

    In this paper the Authors discuss some results concerning the analysis of the local atmospheric flow over the southern part of Italy, the peninsula of Calabria, using a mesoscale numerical model. Our study is focused on two different but related topics: a detailed analysis of the meteorology and climate of the region based on a data collection, reported in Colacino et al., `Elementi di Climatologia della Calabria`, edited by A. Guerrini, in the series P. S., `Clima, Ambiente e Territorio nel Mezzogiorno` (CNR, Rome) 1997, pp. 218, and an analysis of the results based on the simulated flow produced using a mesoscale numerical model. The Colorado State University mesoscale numerical model has been applied to study several different climatic situations of particular interest for the region, as discussed in this paper.

  16. Plasma parameters and electromagnetic forces induced by the magneto hydro dynamic interaction in a hypersonic argon flow experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristofolini, Andrea; Neretti, Gabriele; Borghi, Carlo A.

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes an experimental analysis on the magneto hydro dynamic (MHD) interaction induced by a magnetic test body immersed into a hypersonic argon flow. The characteristic plasma parameters are measured. They are related to the voltages arising in the Hall direction and to the variation of the fluid dynamic properties induced by the interaction. The tests have been performed in a hypersonic wind tunnel at Mach 6 and Mach 15. The plasma parameters are measured in the stagnation region in front of the nozzle of the wind tunnel and in the free stream region at the nozzle exit. The test body has a conical shape with the cone axis in the gas flow direction and the cone vertex against the flow. It is placed at the nozzle exit and is equipped with three permanent magnets. In the configuration adopted, the Faraday current flows in a closed loop completely immersed into the plasma of the shock layer. The electric field and the pressure variation due to MHD interaction have been measured on the test body walls. Microwave adsorption measurements have been used for the determination of the electron number density and the electron collision frequency. Continuum recombination radiation and line radiation emissions have been detected. The electron temperature has been determined by means of the spectroscopic data by using different methods. The electron number density has been also determined by means of the Stark broadening of H α and the H β lines. Optical imaging has been utilized to visualize the pattern of the electric current distribution in the shock layer around the test body. The experiments show a considerable effect of the electromagnetic forces produced by the MHD interaction acting on the plasma flow around the test body. A comparison of the experimental data with simulation results shows a good agreement.

  17. On the optimum performance of forced draft counter flow cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeylemez, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    A thermo-hydraulic performance optimization analysis is presented, yielding simple algebraic formula for estimating the optimum performance point of counter current mechanical draft wet cooling towers. The effectiveness-Ntu method is used in the present study, together with the derivation of psychometric properties of moist air based on a numerical approximation method, for thermal performance analysis of wet cooling towers of the counter flow type

  18. Acceleration statistics of finite-sized particles in turbulent flow: the role of Faxen forces

    OpenAIRE

    Calzavarini, Enrico; Volk, Romain; Bourgoin, Mickael; Leveque, Emmanuel; Pinton, Jean-Francois; Toschi, Federico

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The dynamics of particles in turbulence when the particle size is larger than the dissipative scale of the carrier flow are studied. Recent experiments have highlighted signatures of particles' finiteness on their statistical properties, namely a decrease of their acceleration variance, an increase of correlation times (at increasing the particles size) and an independence of the probability density function of the acceleration once normalized to their variance. These ...

  19. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force at Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB), in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee, is investigating ground-water contamination in selected areas of the base. This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the regional hydrogeology of the AAFB area. Three aquifers within the Highland Rim aquifer system, the shallow aquifer, the Manchester aquifer, and the Fort Payne aquifer, have been identified in the study area. Of these, the Manchester aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic use. Drilling and water- quality data indicate that the Chattanooga Shale is an effective confining unit, isolating the Highland Rim aquifer system from the deeper, upper Central Basin aquifer system. A regional ground-water divide, approximately coinciding with the Duck River-Elk River drainage divide, underlies AAFB and runs from southwest to northeast. The general direction of most ground-water flow is to the north- west or to the northwest or to the southeast from the divide towards tributary streams that drain the area. Recharge estimates range from 4 to 11 inches per year. Digital computer modeling was used to simulate and provide a better understanding of the ground-water flow system. The model indicates that most of the ground-water flow occurs in the shallow and Manchester aquifers. The model was most sensitive to increases in hydraulic conductivity and changes in recharge rates. Particle-tracking analysis from selected sites of ground-water contamination indicates a potential for contami- nants to be transported beyond the boundary of AAFB.

  20. Rockfall-induced impact force causing a debris flow on a volcanoclastic soil slope: a case study in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budetta, P.

    2010-09-01

    On 10 January 2003, a rockfall of approximately 10 m3 affected a cliff some 25 m high located along the northern slopes of Mt. St. Angelo (Nocera Inferiore, province of Salerno) in the southern Italian region of Campania. The impact of boulders on the lower sector of the slope, along which detrital-pyroclastic soils outcrop, triggered a small channelled debris flow of about 500 m3. Fortunately, no damage nor victims resulted from the landslide. Several marks of the impacts were observed at the cliff toe and outside the collapsed area, and the volumes of some fallen boulders were subsequently measured. By means of in-situ surveys, it was possible to reconstruct the cliff's geo-structural layout in detail. A rockfall back-analysis was subsequently performed along seven critical profiles of the entire slope (surface area of about 4000 m2). The results of this numerical modelling using the lumped-mass method were then used to map the kinetic iso-energy curves. In the triggering area of the debris flow, for a falling boulder of 1 m3, the mean kinetic energy was estimated at 120 kJ, this value being equivalent to an impact force, on an inclined surface, of some 800 kN. After landing, due to the locally high slope gradient (about 45°), and low angle of trajectory at impact (about 23°), some boulders slid down the slope as far as the endpoints. The maximum depth of penetration into the ground by a sliding block was estimated at about 16 cm. Very likely, owing to the high impact force of boulders on the saturated soil slope outcropping at the cliff base, the debris flow was triggered under undrained loading conditions. Initial failure was characterized by a translational slide involving a limited, almost elliptical area where the pyroclastic cover shows greater thickness in comparison with the surrounding areas.

  1. Effects of nasal positive expiratory pressure on dynamic hyperinflation and 6-minute walk test in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibmer, Thomas; Rüdiger, Stefan; Heitner, Claudia; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Blanta, Ioanna; Stoiber, Kathrin M; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Schumann, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation is an important target in the treatment of COPD. There is increasing evidence that positive expiratory pressure (PEP) could reduce dynamic hyperinflation during exercise. PEP application through a nasal mask and a flow resistance device might have the potential to be used during daily physical activities as an auxiliary strategy of ventilatory assistance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nasal PEP on lung volumes during physical exercise in patients with COPD. Twenty subjects (mean ± SD age 69.4 ± 6.4 years) with stable mild-to-severe COPD were randomized to undergo physical exercise with nasal PEP breathing, followed by physical exercise with habitual breathing, or vice versa. Physical exercise was induced by a standard 6-min walk test (6 MWT) protocol. PEP was applied by means of a silicone nasal mask loaded with a fixed-orifice flow resistor. Body plethysmography was performed immediately pre-exercise and post-exercise. Differences in mean pre- to post-exercise changes in total lung capacity (-0.63 ± 0.80 L, P = .002), functional residual capacity (-0.48 ± 0.86 L, P = .021), residual volume (-0.56 ± 0.75 L, P = .004), S(pO2) (-1.7 ± 3.4%, P = .041), and 6 MWT distance (-30.8 ± 30.0 m, P = .001) were statistically significant between the experimental and the control interventions. The use of flow-dependent expiratory pressure, applied with a nasal mask and a PEP device, might promote significant reduction of dynamic hyperinflation during walking exercise. Further studies are warranted addressing improvements in endurance performance under regular application of nasal PEP during physical activities.

  2. Forced Expiratory Volume in 6 s (FEV 6 ) and FEV 1 /FEV 6 Values ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Values were recorded as mean (standard deviation), and also median and interquartile ranges. The one‑way analysis of variance, Mann–Whitey U and the Kruskal–Wallis were used to test for significance where applicable. P <0.05 were considered to be significant. Results: All the values were within normal range, but the ...

  3. Determination of forces induced by steam flow in turbines; Determinacion de fuerzas inducidas por flujo de vapor en turbinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Castrejon, Juan Carlos

    2008-09-15

    The steam flow induced vibrations in turbines is a common problem during the operation of 300 MW turbines and it is one of the problems that requires solution to develop 1 GW steam turbines. The flow induced vibration is caused because there is an interaction between blades and the flow field. Blades are subjected to the forces caused by the flow field, but also the flow field is affected by the blades and its movement. The nozzle wakes cause uneven pressure field downstream and produces alternating forces on blades which lead to blade vibrations. Some of the vibrations originated in this way may damage the blades and affect the turbine performance. The forces acting on blades (and causing forced vibrations) as a result of the variations in the flow field in the axial rotor-stator clearance are studied in this project. These forces were determined applying computer fluid dynamics (CFD) in two turbine stages. The CFD analysis was carried out in the Curtis stage and in the last stage, using 2D and 3D models. An important part of the analysis is focused on discussing the pressure field variation, because this variation caused the forces acting on blades. The flow field was resolved using CFD and the computed pressure field was integrated around the blades to get the forces acting on blades. These computed dynamical forces were analyzed using a FFT analysis and the results were used in the blade useful life estimation and in the investigation of the failure causes of these blades. In every turbine stage the RNG - turbulence model and the sliding mesh method was used to deal with the blade motion. The 3D models were resolved using parallel computation in a cluster of 6 AMD 64 Opteron processors of 2412.36 MHz and 8 Gb of RAM. The results of the simulation in both stages get the pressure field behavior in the axial rotor-stator clearance and determine the force acting on the blades. These results showed that both, the pressure field and the force magnitude acting on

  4. A reciprocating liquid helium pump used for forced flow of supercritical helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafft, G.; Zahn, G.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a small double acting piston pump for circulating helium in a closed heat transfer loop is described. The pump was manufactured by LINDE AG, Munich, West Germany. The measured flow rate of supercritical helium was about 17 gs -1 (500 lhr -1 ) with a differential pressure of Δp = 0.5 x 10 5 Nm -2 at a working pressure of p = 6 x 10 5 Nm -2 . At differential pressures beyond 0.5 x 10 5 Nm -2 the volumetric efficiency decreases. (author)

  5. Dynamics of three-tori in a periodically forced navier-stokes flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez; Marques

    2000-07-31

    Three-tori solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and their dynamics are elucidated by use of a global Poincare map. The flow is contained in a finite annular gap between two concentric cylinders, driven by the steady rotation and axial harmonic oscillations of the inner cylinder. The three-tori solutions undergo global bifurcations, including a new gluing bifurcation, associated with homoclinic and heteroclinic connections to unstable solutions (two-tori). These unstable two-tori act as organizing centers for the three-tori dynamics. A discrete space-time symmetry influences the dynamics.

  6. Aerodynamic forces and flows of the full and partial clap-fling motions in insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the previous studies on Weis-Fogh clap-fling mechanism have focused on the vortex structures and velocity fields. Detailed pressure distribution results are provided for the first time in this study to reveal the differences between the full and the partial clap-fling motions. The two motions are studied by numerically solving the Navier–Stokes equations in moving overset grids. The Reynolds number is set to 20, relevant to the tiny flying insects. The following has been shown: (1 During the clap phase, the wings clap together and create a high pressure region in the closing gap between wings, greatly increasing the positive pressure on the lower surface of wing, while pressure on the upper surface is almost unchanged by the interaction; during the fling phase, the wings fling apart and create a low pressure region in the opening gap between wings, greatly increasing the suction pressure on the upper surface of wing, while pressure on the lower surface is almost unchanged by the interaction; (2 The interference effect between wings is most severe at the end of clap phase and the start of the fling phase: two sharp force peaks (8–9 times larger than that of the one-winged case are generated. But the total force peaks are manifested mostly as drag and barely as lift of the wing, owing to the vertical orientation of the wing section; (3 The wing–wing interaction effect in the partial clap-fling case is much weaker than that in the full clap-fling case, avoiding the generation of huge drag. Compared with a single wing flapping with the same motion, mean lift in the partial case is enhanced by 12% without suffering any efficiency degradation, indicating that partial clap-fling is a more practical choice for tiny insects to employ.

  7. Simulation of MHD CuO–water nanofluid flow and convective heat transfer considering Lorentz forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikholeslami, Mohsen; Bandpy, Mofid Gorji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ellahi, R., E-mail: rellahi@engr.ucr.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Riverside (United States); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, FBAS, IIUI, H-10 Sector, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zeeshan, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, FBAS, IIUI, H-10 Sector, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-15

    Magnetic field effect on CuO–water nanofluid flow and heat transfer in an enclosure which is heated from below is investigated. Lattice Boltzmann method is applied to solve the governing equations. The effective thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluid are calculated by KKL (Koo–Kleinstreuer–Li) correlation. In this model effect of Brownian motion on the effective thermal conductivity is considered. Effect of active parameter such as: Hartmann number, heat source length, nanoparticle volume fraction and Rayleigh numbers on the flow and heat transfer characteristics have been examined. The results reveal that the enhancement in heat transfer increases as Hartmann number and heat source length increase but it decreases with increase of Rayleigh number. Also it can be found that effect of Hartmann number and heat source length is more pronounced at high Rayleigh number. - Highlights: • This paper analyses the magnetic effect on CuO–water nanofluid. • Koo–Kleinstreuer–Li correlation and Lattice Boltzmann method are used. • Effects of pertinent parameters are presented through tables and graphs.

  8. Numerical modeling of condensation from vapor-gas mixtures for forced down flow inside a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuann, R.Y.; Schrock, V.E.; Chen, Xiang, M.

    1995-01-01

    Laminar film condensation is the dominant heat transfer mode inside tubes. In the present paper direct numerical simulation of the detailed transport process within the steam-gas core flow and in the condensate film is carried out. The problem was posed as an axisymmetric two dimensional (r, z) gas phase inside an annular condensate film flow with an assumed smooth interface. The fundamental conservation equations were written for mass, momentum, species concentration and energy in the gaseous phase with effective diffusion parameters characterizing the turbulent region. The low Reynolds number two equation κ-ε model was employed to determine the eddy diffusion coefficients. The liquid film was described by similar formulation without the gas species equation. An empirical correlation was employed to correct for the effect of film waviness on the interfacial shear. A computer code named COAPIT (Condensation Analysis Program Inside Tube) was developed to implement numerical solution of the fundamental equations. The equations were solved by a marching technique working downstream from the entrance of the condensing section. COAPIT was benchmarked against experimental data and overall reasonable agreement was found for the key parameters such as heat transfer coefficient and tube inner wall temperature. The predicted axial development of radial profiles of velocity, composition and temperature and occurrence of metastable vapor add insight to the physical phenomena

  9. Numerical modeling of condensation from vapor-gas mixtures for forced down flow inside a tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuann, R Y [Taiwan Power Company, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Schrock, V E [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Xiang

    1995-09-01

    Laminar film condensation is the dominant heat transfer mode inside tubes. In the present paper direct numerical simulation of the detailed transport process within the steam-gas core flow and in the condensate film is carried out. The problem was posed as an axisymmetric two dimensional (r, z) gas phase inside an annular condensate film flow with an assumed smooth interface. The fundamental conservation equations were written for mass, momentum, species concentration and energy in the gaseous phase with effective diffusion parameters characterizing the turbulent region. The low Reynolds number two equation {kappa}-{epsilon} model was employed to determine the eddy diffusion coefficients. The liquid film was described by similar formulation without the gas species equation. An empirical correlation was employed to correct for the effect of film waviness on the interfacial shear. A computer code named COAPIT (Condensation Analysis Program Inside Tube) was developed to implement numerical solution of the fundamental equations. The equations were solved by a marching technique working downstream from the entrance of the condensing section. COAPIT was benchmarked against experimental data and overall reasonable agreement was found for the key parameters such as heat transfer coefficient and tube inner wall temperature. The predicted axial development of radial profiles of velocity, composition and temperature and occurrence of metastable vapor add insight to the physical phenomena.

  10. Effect of capillary forces on immiscible two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Duijn, C.J.; Molenaar, J.; de Neef, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    We consider the one-dimensional two-phase flow including capillary effects through a heterogeneous porous medium. The heterogeneity is due to the spatial variation of the absolute permeability and the porosity. Both these quantities are assumed to be piecewise constant. At interfaces where the rock properties are discontinuous, we derive, by a regularization technique, conditions to match the values of the saturation on both sides. There are two conditions: a flux condition and an extended pressure condition. Applying these conditions we show that trapping of the wetting phase may occur near hetergeneities. To illustrate the behavior of the saturation we consider a time-dependent diffusion problem without convection, a stationary convection-diffusion problem, and the full time-dependent convection-diffusion problem (numerically). In particular the last two problems explicitly show the trapping behavior.

  11. Analysis of forced convective modified Burgers liquid flow considering Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, M.; Hayat, T.; Shehzad, S. A.; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-03-01

    A mathematical model is formulated to characterize the non-Fourier and Fick's double diffusive models of heat and mass in moving flow of modified Burger's liquid. Temperature-dependent conductivity of liquid is taken into account. The concept of stratification is utilized to govern the equations of energy and mass species. The idea of boundary layer theory is employed to obtain the mathematical model of considered physical problem. The obtained partial differential system is converted into ordinary ones with the help of relevant variables. The homotopic concept lead to the convergent solutions of governing expressions. Convergence is attained and acceptable values are certified by expressing the so called ℏ -curves and numerical benchmark. Several graphs are made for different values of physical constraints to explore the mechanism of heat and mass transportation. We explored that the liquid temperature and concentration are retard for the larger thermal/concentration relaxation time constraint.

  12. Near limit flame spread over thick fuels in a concurrent forced flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Blasi, C.; Crescitelli, S.; Russo, G.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the ambient level of oxygen concentration on the flow assisted flame spread over thick solid fuels and the extinction of the fame is studied by means of numerical modeling. The pyrolysis spread rate decreases with the oxygen concentration, showing qualitative agreement with experimental data. In fact, as the oxygen level decreases, the flame temperature decreases, causing lower heat fluxes at the fuel surfaces and lower pyrolysis mass rates so that the spread process is slowed. The effects due to finite kinetics are of increasing importance as extinction is approached. These effects appear mainly at the upstream flame leading edge, where the extinction length (distance of the flame leading edge from the edge of the fuel slab) increases. However, the spread process continues, that is, the flame and pyrolysis lengths increase with time, until the pyrolysis spread rate is greater than the upstream extinction rate. Complete extinction occurs when the extinction distance extends to the position of the pyrolysis front

  13. Experimental and numerical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and pollution interactions under tidal forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Schaefer, Florian; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Nanou-Giannarou, Aikaterini; Stamou, Anastasios; Falconer, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Surface water and groundwater are integral components of the hydrologic continuum and the interaction between them affects both their quantity and quality. However, surface water and groundwater are often considered as two separate systems and are analysed independently. This separation is partly due to the different time scales, which apply in surface water and groundwater flows and partly due to the difficulties in measuring and modelling their interactions (Winter et al., 1998). Coastal areas in particular are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes. Accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands, for example, requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades a large number of mathematical models and field methods have been developed in order to quantify the interaction between groundwater and hydraulically connected surface water bodies. Field studies may provide the best data (Hughes, 1995) but are usually expensive and involve too many parameters. In addition, the interpretation of field measurements and linking with modelling tools often proves to be difficult. In contrast, experimental studies are less expensive and provide controlled data. However, experimental studies of surface water-groundwater interaction are less frequently encountered in the literature than filed studies (e.g. Ebrahimi et al., 2007; Kuan et al., 2012; Sparks et al., 2013). To this end, an experimental model has been constructed at the Hyder Hydraulics Laboratory at Cardiff University to enable measurements to be made of groundwater transport through a sand embankment between a tidal water body such as an estuary and a non-tidal water body such as a wetland. The transport behaviour of a conservative tracer was studied for a constant water level on the wetland side of the embankment, while running a

  14. Heat and mass transfer of Williamson nanofluid flow yield by an inclined Lorentz force over a nonlinear stretching sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mair Khan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present analysis is devoted to explore the computational solution of the problem addressing the variable viscosity and inclined Lorentz force effects on Williamson nanofluid over a stretching sheet. Variable viscosity is assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The basic mathematical modelled problem i.e. system of PDE’s is converted nonlinear into ODE’s via applying suitable transformations. Computational solutions of the problem is also achieved via efficient numerical technique shooting. Characteristics of controlling parameters i.e. stretching index, inclined angle, Hartmann number, Weissenberg number, variable viscosity parameter, mixed convention parameter, Brownian motion parameter, Prandtl number, Lewis number, thermophoresis parameter and chemical reactive species on concentration, temperature and velocity gradient. Additionally, friction factor coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are describe with the help of graphics as well as tables verses flow controlling parameters. Keywords: Williamson nanofluid, Temperature depended viscosity, Inclined magnetic field, Mixed convection, Chemical reactive species, Variable viscosity, Shooting method

  15. Heat and mass transfer of Williamson nanofluid flow yield by an inclined Lorentz force over a nonlinear stretching sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mair; Malik, M. Y.; Salahuddin, T.; Hussian, Arif.

    2018-03-01

    The present analysis is devoted to explore the computational solution of the problem addressing the variable viscosity and inclined Lorentz force effects on Williamson nanofluid over a stretching sheet. Variable viscosity is assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The basic mathematical modelled problem i.e. system of PDE's is converted nonlinear into ODE's via applying suitable transformations. Computational solutions of the problem is also achieved via efficient numerical technique shooting. Characteristics of controlling parameters i.e. stretching index, inclined angle, Hartmann number, Weissenberg number, variable viscosity parameter, mixed convention parameter, Brownian motion parameter, Prandtl number, Lewis number, thermophoresis parameter and chemical reactive species on concentration, temperature and velocity gradient. Additionally, friction factor coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are describe with the help of graphics as well as tables verses flow controlling parameters.

  16. Conceptual design of a superconducting coil system cooled by forced flow HE II for the central column of net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J.L.; Turck, B.

    1987-01-01

    In order to increase the maximum flux sweep, a present trend is to design ohmic coils producing fields as high as II teslas. In Niobium-Titanium, critical current densities of 10 9 A/m 2 at 1.8 K under a field of 11 teslas are now claimed by several manufacturers. This in addition enables to make use of the outstanding cooling properties of He II. The forced flow technics can again be envisaged for He II to remove the heat load. Two solutions are investigated. The first one uses a 40 kA cable wound in double pancakes. The second one makes use of several conductors layer wound and current supplied in parallel

  17. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the kidneys: is shear wave velocity affected by tissue fibrosis or renal blood flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kenichiro; Ogata, Ai; Tanaka, Keiko; Ide, Yoko; Sankoda, Akiko; Kawakita, Chieko; Nishikawa, Mana; Ohmori, Kazuyoshi; Kinomura, Masaru; Shimada, Noriaki; Fukushima, Masaki

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main influencing factor of the shear wave velocity (SWV) of the kidneys measured by acoustic radiation force impulse elastography. The SWV was measured in the kidneys of 14 healthy volunteers and 319 patients with chronic kidney disease. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated by the serum creatinine concentration and age. As an indicator of arteriosclerosis of large vessels, the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured in 183 patients. Compared to the degree of interobserver and intraobserver deviation, a large variance of SWV values was observed in the kidneys of the patients with chronic kidney disease. Shear wave velocity values in the right and left kidneys of each patient correlated well, with high correlation coefficients (r = 0.580-0.732). The SWV decreased concurrently with a decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate. A low SWV was obtained in patients with a high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Despite progression of renal fibrosis in the advanced stages of chronic kidney disease, these results were in contrast to findings for chronic liver disease, in which progression of hepatic fibrosis results in an increase in the SWV. Considering that a high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity represents the progression of arteriosclerosis in the large vessels, the reduction of elasticity succeeding diminution of blood flow was suspected to be the main influencing factor of the SWV in the kidneys. This study indicates that diminution of blood flow may affect SWV values in the kidneys more than the progression of tissue fibrosis. Future studies for reducing data variance are needed for effective use of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  18. The driving forces for nitrogen and phosphorus flows in the food chain of china, 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y; Ma, L; Gao, Z L; Wang, F H; Sims, J T; Ma, W Q; Zhang, F S

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) use and losses in China's food chain have accelerated in the past three decades, driven by population growth, rapid urbanization, dietary transition, and changing nutrient management practice. There has been little detailed quantitative analysis of the relative magnitude of these driving forces throughout this period. Therefore, we analyzed changes in N and P flows and key drivers behind changes in the food (production and consumption) chain at the national scale from 1980 to 2010. Food (N and P) consumption increased by about fivefold in urban settings over this period but has decreased in rural settings since the 1990s. For urban settings, the integrated driving forces for increased food consumption were population growth, which accounted for ∼60%, and changing urban diets toward a greater emphasis on the consumption of animal products. Nutrient inputs and losses in crop and animal productions have continuously increased from 1980 to 2010, but the rates of decadal increase were greatly different. Increased total inputs and losses in crop production were primarily driven by increased crop production for food demand (68-96%) in the 1980s but were likely offset in the 2000s by improved nutrient management practices, as evidenced by decreased total inputs to and losses from cropland for harvesting per nutrient in crop. The contributions of animal production to total N and P losses to waters from the food chain increased by 34 and 60% from 1980 to 2010. These increases were caused mainly by decreased ratios of manure returned to cropland. Our study highlights a larger impact of changing nutrient management practice than population growth on elevated nutrient flows in China's food chain. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a nearly uniform heat flux boundary condition in microchannels

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Man; Lee, Yi-Kuen; Zohar, Yitshak

    2012-01-01

    A microchannel heat sink, integrated with pressure and temperature microsensors, is utilized to study single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a uniform heat flux boundary condition. Utilizing a waferbond-and-etch- back technology, the heat source, temperature and pressure sensors are encapsulated in a thin composite membrane capping the microchannels, thus allowing experimentally good control of the thermal boundary conditions. A three-dimensional physical model has been constructed to facilitate numerical simulations of the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that upstream the cold working fluid absorbs heat, while, within the current operating conditions, downstream the warmer working fluid releases heat. The Nusselt number is computed numerically and compared with experimental and analytical results. The wall Nusselt number in a microchannel can be estimated using classical analytical solutions only over a limited range of the Reynolds number, Re: both the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 4 for Re < 1, while the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 0 and 5.3, respectively, for Re > 100. The experimentally estimated Nusselt number for forced convection is highly sensitive to the location of the temperature measurements used in calculating the Nusselt number. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a nearly uniform heat flux boundary condition in microchannels

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Man

    2012-02-22

    A microchannel heat sink, integrated with pressure and temperature microsensors, is utilized to study single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a uniform heat flux boundary condition. Utilizing a waferbond-and-etch- back technology, the heat source, temperature and pressure sensors are encapsulated in a thin composite membrane capping the microchannels, thus allowing experimentally good control of the thermal boundary conditions. A three-dimensional physical model has been constructed to facilitate numerical simulations of the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that upstream the cold working fluid absorbs heat, while, within the current operating conditions, downstream the warmer working fluid releases heat. The Nusselt number is computed numerically and compared with experimental and analytical results. The wall Nusselt number in a microchannel can be estimated using classical analytical solutions only over a limited range of the Reynolds number, Re: both the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 4 for Re < 1, while the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 0 and 5.3, respectively, for Re > 100. The experimentally estimated Nusselt number for forced convection is highly sensitive to the location of the temperature measurements used in calculating the Nusselt number. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Task force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes. Task 5 Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhen, Ingvar [SWECO VIAK AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2003-02-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located in the Simpevarp area, southeast Sweden, some 35 km north of Oskarshamn. Construction of the underground laboratory commenced in 1990 and was completed in 1995, consisting of a 3.6 km. long tunnel excavated in crystalline rock to a depth of approximately 460 m. Prior to, during and subsequent to completion, research concerning the deep geological disposal of nuclear waste in fractured crystalline rock has been carried out. Central to this research has been the characterisation of the groundwater flow system and the chemistry of the groundwaters at Aespoe prior to excavation (Pre-investigation Phase) and subsequently to monitor changes in these parameters during the evolution of laboratory construction (Construction Phase). The principle aim of the Aespoe Task 5 modelling exercise has been to compare and ultimately integrate hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology using the input data from the pre-investigation and construction phases. The main objectives were: to assess the consistency of groundwater-flow models and hydrogeochemical mixing-reaction models through integration and comparison of hydraulic and hydrogeochemical data obtained before and during tunnel construction, and to develop a procedure for integration of hydrological and hydrogeochemical information which could be used for disposal site assessments. Task 5 commenced in 1998 and was finalised in 2002. Participating modelling teams in the project represented ANDRA (France; three modelling teams - ANTEA, ITASCA, CEA), BMWi/BGR (Germany), ENRESA (Spain), JNC (Japan), CRIEPI (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden; two modelling teams - CFE and Intera (now GeoPoint)). Experience from Task 5 has highlighted several important aspects for site investigations facilitating the possibilities for mathematically integrated modelling and consistency checks that should be taken into account for future repository performance assessments. Equally important is that Task 5 has

  2. Task force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes. Task 5 Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhen, Ingvar; Smellie, John

    2003-02-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located in the Simpevarp area, southeast Sweden, some 35 km north of Oskarshamn. Construction of the underground laboratory commenced in 1990 and was completed in 1995, consisting of a 3.6 km. long tunnel excavated in crystalline rock to a depth of approximately 460 m. Prior to, during and subsequent to completion, research concerning the deep geological disposal of nuclear waste in fractured crystalline rock has been carried out. Central to this research has been the characterisation of the groundwater flow system and the chemistry of the groundwaters at Aespoe prior to excavation (Pre-investigation Phase) and subsequently to monitor changes in these parameters during the evolution of laboratory construction (Construction Phase). The principle aim of the Aespoe Task 5 modelling exercise has been to compare and ultimately integrate hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology using the input data from the pre-investigation and construction phases. The main objectives were: to assess the consistency of groundwater-flow models and hydrogeochemical mixing-reaction models through integration and comparison of hydraulic and hydrogeochemical data obtained before and during tunnel construction, and to develop a procedure for integration of hydrological and hydrogeochemical information which could be used for disposal site assessments. Task 5 commenced in 1998 and was finalised in 2002. Participating modelling teams in the project represented ANDRA (France; three modelling teams - ANTEA, ITASCA, CEA), BMWi/BGR (Germany), ENRESA (Spain), JNC (Japan), CRIEPI (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden; two modelling teams - CFE and Intera (now GeoPoint)). Experience from Task 5 has highlighted several important aspects for site investigations facilitating the possibilities for mathematically integrated modelling and consistency checks that should be taken into account for future repository performance assessments. Equally important is that Task 5 has

  3. Cystic lung disease: a comparison of cystic size, as seen on expiratory and inspiratory HRCT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Nam; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyung Jin; Choi, Seok Jin; Goo, Jin Mo

    2000-01-01

    To determine the effects of respiration on the size of lung cysts by comparing inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans. The authors evaluated the size of cystic lesions, as seen on paired inspiratory and expiratory HRCT scans, in 54 patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (n = 3), pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis (n = 4), confluent centrilobular emphysema (n = 9), paraseptal emphysema and bullae (n = 16), cystic bronchiectasis (n = 13), and honeycombing (n = 9). Using paired inspiratory and expiratory HRCT scans obtained at the corresponding anatomic level, a total of 270 cystic lesions were selected simultaneously on the basis of five lesions per lung disease. Changes in lung cyst size observed during respiration were assessed by two radiologists. In a limited number of cases (n = 11), pathologic specimens were obtained by open lung biopsy or lobectomy. All cystic lesions in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangiomyomatosis, cystic bronchiectasis, honeycombing, and confluent centrilobular emphysema became smaller on expiration, but in two cases of paraseptal emphysema and bullae there was no change. In cases in which expiratory CT scans indicate that cysts have become smaller, cystic lesions may communicate with the airways. To determine whether, for cysts and cystic lesions, this connection does in fact exist, paired inspiratory and expiratory HRCT scans are necessary

  4. Cystic lung disease: a comparison of cystic size, as seen on expiratory and inspiratory HRCT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Nam; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyung Jin [Donga University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seok Jin [Inje University College of Medicine, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    To determine the effects of respiration on the size of lung cysts by comparing inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans. The authors evaluated the size of cystic lesions, as seen on paired inspiratory and expiratory HRCT scans, in 54 patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (n = 3), pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis (n = 4), confluent centrilobular emphysema (n = 9), paraseptal emphysema and bullae (n = 16), cystic bronchiectasis (n = 13), and honeycombing (n = 9). Using paired inspiratory and expiratory HRCT scans obtained at the corresponding anatomic level, a total of 270 cystic lesions were selected simultaneously on the basis of five lesions per lung disease. Changes in lung cyst size observed during respiration were assessed by two radiologists. In a limited number of cases (n = 11), pathologic specimens were obtained by open lung biopsy or lobectomy. All cystic lesions in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangiomyomatosis, cystic bronchiectasis, honeycombing, and confluent centrilobular emphysema became smaller on expiration, but in two cases of paraseptal emphysema and bullae there was no change. In cases in which expiratory CT scans indicate that cysts have become smaller, cystic lesions may communicate with the airways. To determine whether, for cysts and cystic lesions, this connection does in fact exist, paired inspiratory and expiratory HRCT scans are necessary.

  5. Flow-induced vibration test of an advanced water reactor model. Pt. 1. Turbulence-induced forcing function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au-Yang, M.K.; Brenneman, B.; Raj, D.

    1995-01-01

    A 1:9 scale model of a proposed advanced water reactor was tested for flow-induced vibration. The main objectives of this test were: (1) to derive an empirical equation for the turbulence forcing function which can be applied to the full-sized prototype; (2) to study the effect of viscosity on the turbulence; (3) to verify the ''superposition'' assumption widely used in dynamic analysis of weakly coupled fluid-shell systems; and (4) to measure the shell responses to verify methods and computer programs used in the flow-induced vibration analysis of the prototype. This paper describes objectives (1), (2), and (3); objective (4) will be discussed in a companion paper.The turbulence-induced fluctuating pressure was measured at 49 locations over the surface of a thick-walled, non-responsive scale model of the reactor vessel/core support cylinders. An empirical equation relating the fluctuating pressure, the frequency, and the distance from the inlet nozzle center line was derived to fit the test data. This equation involves only non-dimensional, fluid mechanical parameters that are postulated to represent the full-sized, geometrically similar prototype. While this postulate cannot be verified until similar measurements are taken on the full-sized unit, a similar approach using a 1:6 scale model of a commercial pressurized water reactor was verified in the mid-1970s by field measurements on the full-sized reactor. (orig.)

  6. Rockfall-induced impact force causing a debris flow on a volcanoclastic soil slope: a case study in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Budetta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available On 10 January 2003, a rockfall of approximately 10 m3 affected a cliff some 25 m high located along the northern slopes of Mt. St. Angelo (Nocera Inferiore, province of Salerno in the southern Italian region of Campania. The impact of boulders on the lower sector of the slope, along which detrital-pyroclastic soils outcrop, triggered a small channelled debris flow of about 500 m3. Fortunately, no damage nor victims resulted from the landslide. Several marks of the impacts were observed at the cliff toe and outside the collapsed area, and the volumes of some fallen boulders were subsequently measured. By means of in-situ surveys, it was possible to reconstruct the cliff's geo-structural layout in detail. A rockfall back-analysis was subsequently performed along seven critical profiles of the entire slope (surface area of about 4000 m2. The results of this numerical modelling using the lumped-mass method were then used to map the kinetic iso-energy curves. In the triggering area of the debris flow, for a falling boulder of 1 m3, the mean kinetic energy was estimated at 120 kJ, this value being equivalent to an impact force, on an inclined surface, of some 800 kN. After landing, due to the locally high slope gradient (about 45°, and low angle of trajectory at impact (about 23°, some boulders slid down the slope as far as the endpoints. The maximum depth of penetration into the ground by a sliding block was estimated at about 16 cm. Very likely, owing to the high impact force of boulders on the saturated soil slope outcropping at the cliff base, the debris flow was triggered under undrained loading conditions. Initial failure was characterized by a translational slide involving a limited, almost elliptical area where the pyroclastic cover shows greater thickness in comparison with the surrounding areas.

  7. Conceptual design of a 20-kA current lead using forced-flow cooling and Ag-alloy-sheathed Bi-2223 high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, R.; Hull, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    High-temperature superconductors (HTSs), consisting of Bi-2223 HTS tapes sheathed with Ag alloys are proposed for a 20-kA current lead for the planned stellarator WENDELSTEIN 7-X. Forced-flow He cooling is used, and 4-K He cooling of the whole lead as well as 60-K He cooling of the copper part of the lead, is discussed. Power consumption and behavior in case of loss of He flow are given

  8. Detachment of polystyrene particles from collector surfaces by surface tension forces induced by air-bubble passage through a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, PJ; vanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1997-01-01

    By allowing an air-bubble to pass through a parallel plate flow chamber with negatively charged, colloidal polystyrene particles adhering to the bottom collector plate of the chamber, the detachment of adhering particles stimulated by surface tension forces induced by the passage of a liquid-air

  9. Fluid dynamic forces acting on a circular tube bundle in cross flow. Proposals of generation condition of vortex-induced vibration and correlation equation of turbulence-induced exciting force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Fumio; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Yasuo, Akira; Nishihara, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    In the circular tube bundle immersed in the crossflow, the exciting force induced by the turbulence and periodically discharged vortices becomes large, and it is necessary to confirm a long-term integrity to the flow induced vibration. In this report, the local fluid exciting force and the correlation length in the direction of tube axis were measured. The exciting force acting on the first row was smaller than that inside the tube bundle, and the exciting force was almost saturated at the third row. As for vortex induced vibration, there could be an influence when a dimensionless frequency was 0.4 or less. When vortex induced vibration did not affect the vibration, a correlation composed of a correlation length and power spectrum density of the local fluid exciting force were proposed, with which we could estimate the amplitude of the vibration. A computer program to estimate the vibration amplitude and maximum stress was made using the flow velocity distribution and the mode of vibration. (author)

  10. Forced deflation pulmonary function test: a novel method to evaluate lung function in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rakesh K; Ibrahimova, Azada; Escolar, Maria L; Szabolcs, Paul; Vander Lugt, Mark T.; Windreich, Randy M; Weiner, Daniel J

    2017-04-01

    We describe the safety and feasibility of a forced deflation pulmonary function test (dPFT) in infants and young children. Fifty-two dPFT studies were performed in 26 patients (median age, 1.4 years). Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow (FEF 75 ) were normal in all except one case, but respiratory system compliance (Crs) was reduced in 24% patients. There were no significant differences in pre-blood and marrow transplantation FVC, FEF 75 , and Crs between those patients who did and those who did not have posttransplant pulmonary complications. A larger study is needed to determine the prevalence and significance of PFT abnormalities in this age group. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. R404A condensing under forced flow conditions inside smooth, microfin and cross-hatched horizontal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infante Ferreira, C A; Nan, X [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Laboratory for Refrigeration and Indoor Climate Control; Newell, T A; Chato, J C [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2003-06-01

    Two-phase heat transfer coefficient characteristics of R404A condensing under forced flow conditions inside smooth, microfin and cross-hatched horizontal tubes are experimentally investigated. Experimental parameters include a lubricating polyol ester oil concentration varied from 0 to 4%. The test runs were done at average inlet saturated condensing temperatures of 40{sup o}C. The inlet vapor was kept at saturation (quality = 1.0). The mass fluxes were between 200 and 600 kg/m{sup 2}s, and the heat fluxes were selected to obtain a quality of 0.0 at the outlet of the test section, varying from 5 to 45 kW/m{sup 2}. The heat transfer enhancement factor varied between 1.8 and 2.4 for both microfin and cross-hatched tubes. The larger values applied for larger mass fluxes for the cross-hatched tube and smaller mass fluxes for the microfin tube. Enhancement factors increased as oil concentration increased up to oil concentrations of 2%. For higher oil concentrations the enhancement decreased especially at high mass fluxes, the cross-hatched tube being less sensitive to oil contamination. Pressure drop in the test section increased by approximately 25% as the oil concentration increased from 0 to 4%. The results from the experiments are compared with those calculated from correlations reported in the literature. Moreover, modified correlations for the condensation heat transfer coefficient are proposed for practical applications. (author)

  12. Enhancement of gravimetric forced flow through system to determine sorption, swelling, and mass transfer characteristics of liquid sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresp, G.; Petermann, M.; Fieback, T. M.

    2018-04-01

    An existing apparatus for forced flow through of liquid sorbents has been enhanced with an optically accessible system including a transparent crucible, high pressure viewing cell, and camera. With this optical system, the active surface area between gas and liquid can be determined in situ for the first time under industrial process conditions while maintaining the accuracy of a magnetic suspension balance. Additionally, occurring swelling and the resulting buoyancy changes can now be corrected, further improving the quality of the data. Validation measurements focusing on the sorption isotherms, swelling, and bubble geometry of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with nitrogen at 303 K and up to 17 MPa, as well as with carbon dioxide at 303 K, 323 K, and 373 K at up to 3.5 MPa were completed. Absorption of nitrogen resulted in no observable volume change, whereas absorption of carbon dioxide resulted in temperature independent swelling of up to 9.8%. The gas bubble's structure and behavior during its ascend through the liquid was optically tracked in situ. Combining these two data sets with the absorption kinetics forms the basis to determine the measuring system independent mass transfer coefficients, which are applicable in other laboratory scale and industrial processes.

  13. Selected mode of dendritic growth with n-fold symmetry in the presence of a forced flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Galenko, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of n-fold crystal symmetry is investigated for a two-dimensional stable dendritic growth in the presence of a forced convective flow. We consider dendritic growth in a one-component undercooled liquid. The theory is developed for the parabolic solid-liquid surface of dendrite growing at arbitrary growth Péclet numbers keeping in mind small anisotropies of surface energy and growth kinetics. The selection criterion determining the stable growth velocity of the dendritic tip and its stable tip diameter is found on the basis of solvability analysis. The obtained criterion includes previously developed theories of thermally and kinetically controlled dendritic growth with convection for the case of four-fold crystal symmetry. The obtained nonlinear system of equations (representing the selection criterion and undercooling balance) for the determination of dendrite tip velocity and dendrite tip diameter is analytically solved in a parametric form. These exact solutions clearly demonstrate a transition between thermally and kinetically controlled growth regimes. In addition, we show that the dendrites with larger crystal symmetry grow faster than those with smaller symmetry.

  14. Helium exhaust and forced flow effects with both-leg pumping in W-shaped divertor of JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasai, A.; Takenaga, H.; Higashijima, S.; Kubo, H.; Nakano, T.; Tamai, H.; Sakurai, S.; Akino, N.; Fujita, T.; Asakura, N.; Itami, K.; Shimizu, K.

    2001-01-01

    The W-shaped divertor of JT-60U was modified from inner-leg pumping to both-leg pumping. After the modification, the pumping rate was improved from 3% with inner-leg pumping to 5% with both-leg pumping in a divertor-closure configuration, which means both separatrixes close to the divertor slots. Efficient helium exhaust was realized in the divertor-closure configuration with both-leg pumping. A global particle confinement time of τ* He =0.4s and τ* He /τ E =3 was achieved in attached ELMy H-mode plasmas. The helium exhaust efficiency with both-leg pumping was extended by 45% as compared with inner-leg pumping. By using central helium fueling with He-beam injection, the helium removal from the core plasma inside the internal transport barrier (ITB) in reversed shear plasmas in the divertor-closure configuration was investigated for the first time. The helium density profiles inside the ITB were peaked as compared with those in ELMy H-mode plasmas. In the case of low recycling divertor, it was difficult to achieve good helium exhaust capability in reversed shear plasmas with ITB. However, the helium exhaust efficiency was improved with high recycling divertor. Carbon impurity reduction was observed by the forced flow with gas puff and effective divertor pumping. (author)

  15. Pharmacologic Interventions to Improve Splanchnic Oxygenation During Ventilation with Positive End-Expiratory Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournell, A.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Picker, O.; Schwarte, L. A.; Wolf, M; Bucher, HU; Rudin, M; VanHuffel, S; Wolf, U; Bruley, DF; Harrison, DK

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is an indispensable tool in the management of respiratory failure to preserve or improve lung function and systemic oxygenation. However, PEEP per se may also, as has been shown in experimental animals, impair regional

  16. Dead space and slope indices from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension-volume curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Kars (Alice); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); Th. Stijnen (Theo); J. de Vries; A.F.M. Verbraak (Anton); C. Hilvering

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe slope of phase 3 and three noninvasively determined dead space estimates derived from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) versus volume curve, including the Bohr dead space (VD,Bohr), the Fowler dead space (VD,Fowler) and pre-interface expirate

  17. Evaluation of Peak Expiratory Flow rates (PEFR) of Workers in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Occupational lung diseases (OLD) remain one of the most common workplace health challenges since the industrial revolution. One of the risks for OLD is the exposure to cement dust which is associated with varying degrees of respiratory symptoms and reduction in lung function. This study aimed to measure ...

  18. Peak Expiratory Flow as a Surrogate for Health Related Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirometry was done using American Thoracic Society's standards and reference equations from African American norms of the US population. Quality of life was measured with the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) Results: Out of 50 patients recruited for the study, 48 provided complete data with acceptable ...

  19. Daily changes of peak expiratory flow and respiratory symptom occurrence around a soy processing factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heederik, Dick; Doekes, Gert; van Strien, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate sensitization and acute respiratory health effects in inhabitants living in the vicinity of a factory producing soy oil. Methods. Two panels of potential responders were created on the basis of a response to a short screening questionnaire sent to random samples of 1,000

  20. Numerical investigation on lateral migration and lift force of single bubble in simple shear flow in low viscosity fluid using volume of fluid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhongchun, Li; Xiaoming, Song; Shengyao, Jiang; Jiyang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A VOF simulation of bubble in low viscosity fluid was conducted. • Lift force in different viscosity fluid had different lateral migration characteristics. • Bubble with different size migrated to different direction. • Shear stress triggered the bubble deformation process and the bubble deformation came along with the oscillation behaviors. - Abstract: Two phase flow systems have been widely used in industrial engineering. Phase distribution characteristics are vital to the safety operation and optimization design of two phase flow systems. Lift force has been known as perpendicular to the bubbles’ moving direction, which is one of the mechanisms of interfacial momentum transfer. While most widely used lift force correlations, such as the correlation of Tomiyama et al. (2002), were obtained by experimentally tracking single bubble trajectories in high viscosity glycerol–water mixture, the applicability of these models into low viscosity fluid, such as water in nuclear engineering system, needs to be further evaluated. In the present paper, bubble in low viscosity fluid in shear flow was investigated in a full 3D numerical simulation and the volume of fluid (VOF) method was applied to capture the interface. The fluid parameter: fluid viscosity, bubble parameter: diameter and external flow parameters: shear stress magnitude and liquid velocity were examined. Comparing with bubble in high viscosity shear flow and bubble in low viscosity still flow, relative large bubble in low viscosity shear flow keep an oscillation way towards the moving wall and experienced a shape deformation process. The oscillation amplitude increased as the viscosity of fluid decreased. Small bubble migrated to the static wall in a line with larger migration velocity than that in high viscosity fluid and no deformation occurred. The shear stress triggered the oscillation behaviors while it had no direct influence with the behavior. The liquid velocity had no effect on

  1. A self-similar solution of a curved shock wave and its time-dependent force variation for a starting flat plate airfoil in supersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijun CHEN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of aeroelasticity and maneuvering of command surface and gust wing interaction involves a starting flow period which can be seen as the flow of an airfoil attaining suddenly an angle of attack. In the linear or nonlinear case, compressive Mach or shock waves are generated on the windward side and expansive Mach or rarefaction waves are generated on the leeward side. On each side, these waves are composed of an oblique steady state wave, a vertically-moving one-dimensional unsteady wave, and a secondary wave resulting from the interaction between the steady and unsteady ones. An analytical solution in the secondary wave has been obtained by Heaslet and Lomax in the linear case, and this linear solution has been borrowed to give an approximate solution by Bai and Wu for the nonlinear case. The structure of the secondary shock wave and the appearance of various force stages are two issues not yet considered in previous studies and has been studied in the present paper. A self-similar solution is obtained for the secondary shock wave, and the reason to have an initial force plateau as observed numerically is identified. Moreover, six theoretical characteristic time scales for pressure load variation are determined which explain the slope changes of the time-dependent force curve. Keywords: Force, Self-similar solution, Shock-shock interaction, Shock waves, Unsteady flow

  2. The Influence of Swirl Brakes and a Tip Discharge Orifice on the Rotordynamic Forces Generated by Discharge-to-Suction Leakage Flows in Shrouded Centrifugal Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, Joseph M.; Acosta, A. J.; Brennen, C. E.; Caughey, T. K.

    1993-01-01

    Recent experiments conducted in the Rotor Force Test Facility at the California Institute of Technology have examined the effects of a tip leakage restriction and swirl brakes on the rotordynamic forces due to leakage flows on an impeller undergoing a prescribed circular whirl. The experiments simulate the leakage flow conditions and geometry of the Alternate Turbopump Design (ATD) of the Space Shuttle High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump and are critical to evaluating the pump's rotordynamic instability problems. Previous experimental and analytical results have shown that discharge-to-suction leakage flows in the annulus of a shrouded centrifugal pump contribute substantially to the fluid induced rotordynamic forces. Also, previous experiments have shown that leakage inlet (pump discharge) swirl can increase the cross-coupled stiffness coefficient and hence increase the range of positive whirl for which the tangential force is destabilizing. In recent experimental work, the present authors demonstrated that when the swirl velocity within the leakage path is reduced by the introduction of ribs or swirl brakes, then a substantial decrease in both the destabilizing normal and tangential forces could be achieved. Motivation for the present research is that previous experiments have shown that restrictions such as wear rings or orifices at pump inlets affect the leakage forces. Recent pump designs such as the Space Shuttle Alternate Turbopump Design (ATD) utilize tip orifices at discharge for the purpose of establishing axial thrust balance. The ATD has experienced rotordynamic instability problems and one may surmise that these tip discharge orifices may also have an important effect on the normal and tangential forces in the plane of impeller rotation. The present study determines if such tip leakage restrictions contribute to undesirable rotordynamic forces. Additional motivation for the present study is that the widening of the leakage path annular clearance and the

  3. [Clinical research of using optimal compliance to determine positive end-expiratory pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Feng, Quan-sheng; Lian, Fu; Shao, Xin-hua; Li, Zhi-bo; Wang, Zhi-yong; Li, Jun

    2012-07-01

    To observe the availability and security of optimal compliance strategy to titrate the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), compared with quasi-static pressure-volume curve (P-V curve) traced by low-flow method. Fourteen patients received mechanical ventilation with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) of Tianjin Third Central Hospital from November 2009 to December 2010 were divided into two groups(n = 7). The quasi-static P-V curve method and the optimal compliance titration were used to set the optimal PEEP respectively, repeated 3 times in a row. The optimal PEEP and the consistency of repeated experiments were compared between groups. The hemodynamic parameters, oxygenation index (OI), lung compliance (C), cytokines and pulmonary surfactant-associated protein D (SP-D) concentration in plasma before and 2, 4, and 6 hours after the experiment were observed in each group. (1) There were no significant differences in gender, age and severity of disease between two groups. (2)The optimal PEEP [cm H(2)O, 1 cm H(2)O=0.098 kPa] had no significant difference between quasi-static P-V curve method group and the optimal compliance titration group (11.53 ± 2.07 vs. 10.57 ± 0.87, P>0.05). The consistency of repeated experiments in quasi-static P-V curve method group was poor, the slope of the quasi-static P-V curve in repeated experiments showed downward tendency. The optimal PEEP was increasing in each measure. There was significant difference between the first and the third time (10.00 ± 1.58 vs. 12.80 ± 1.92, P vs. 93.71 ± 5.38, temperature: 38.05 ± 0.73 vs. 36.99 ± 1.02, IL-6: 144.84 ± 23.89 vs. 94.73 ± 5.91, TNF-α: 151.46 ± 46.00 vs. 89.86 ± 13.13, SP-D: 33.65 ± 8.66 vs. 16.63 ± 5.61, MAP: 85.47 ± 9.24 vs. 102.43 ± 8.38, CCI: 3.00 ± 0.48 vs. 3.81 ± 0.81, OI: 62.00 ± 21.45 vs. 103.40 ± 37.27, C: 32.10 ± 2.92 vs. 49.57 ± 7.18, all P safety and usability.

  4. Optimal selection of annulus radius ratio to enhance heat transfer with minimum entropy generation in developing laminar forced convection of water-Al2O3 nanofluid flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siavashi Majid; Jamali Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Heat transfer and entropy generation of developing laminar forced convection flow of water-Al2O3 nanofluid in a concentric annulus with constant heat flux on the walls is investigated numerically. In order to determine entropy generation of fully developed flow, two approaches are employed and it is shown that only one of these methods can provide appropriate results for flow inside annuli. The effects of concentration of nanoparticles, Reynolds number and thermal boundaries on heat transfer enhancement and entropy generation of developing laminar flow inside annuli with different radius ratios and same cross sectional areas are studied. The results show that radius ratio is a very important decision parameter of an annular heat exchanger such that in each Re, there is an optimum radius ratio to maximize Nu and minimize entropy generation. Moreover, the effect of nanoparticles concentration on heat transfer enhancement and minimizing entropy generation is stronger at higher Reynolds.

  5. Interaction between intra-abdominal pressure and positive-end expiratory pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamili Anbar Torquato

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the interaction between increased intra-abdominal pressure and Positive-End Expiratory Pressure. METHODS: In 30 mechanically ventilated ICU patients with a fixed tidal volume, respiratory system plateau and abdominal pressure were measured at a Positive-End Expiratory Pressure level of zero and 10 cm H2O. The measurements were repeated after placing a 5 kg weight on the patients' belly. RESULTS: After the addition of 5 kg to the patients' belly at zero Positive-End Expiratory Pressure, both intra-abdominal pressure (p<0.001 and plateau pressures (p=0.005 increased significantly. Increasing the Positive-End Expiratory Pressure levels from zero to 10 cm H2O without weight on the belly did not result in any increase in intra-abdominal pressure (p=0.165. However, plateau pressures increased significantly (p< 0.001. Increasing Positive-End Expiratory Pressure from zero to 10 cm H2O and adding 5 kg to the belly increased intra-abdominal pressure from 8.7 to 16.8 (p<0.001 and plateau pressure from 18.26 to 27.2 (p<0.001. Maintaining Positive-End Expiratory Pressure at 10 cm H2O and placing 5 kg on the belly increased intra-abdominal pressure from 12.3 +/- 1.7 to 16.8 +/- 1.7 (p<0.001 but did not increase plateau pressure (26.6+/-1.2 to 27.2 +/-1.1 -p=0.83. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of a 5kg weight onto the abdomen significantly increased both IAP and the airway plateau pressure, confirming that intra-abdominal hypertension elevates the plateau pressure. However, plateau pressure alone cannot be considered a good indicator for the detection of elevated intra-abdominal pressure in patients under mechanical ventilation using PEEP. In these patients, the intra-abdominal pressure must also be measured.

  6. Flow and Displacement of Non-Newtonian Fluid(Power-Law Model) by Surface Tension and Gravity Force in Inclined Circular Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moh, Jeong Hah; Cho, Y. I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical analysis of a flow driven by surface tension and gravity in an inclined circular tube. A governing equation is developed for describing the displacement of a non-Newtonian fluid(Power-law model) that continuously flows into a circular tube owing to surface tension, which represents a second-order, nonlinear, non-homogeneous, and ordinary differential form. It was found that quantitatively, the theoretical predictions of the governing equation were in excellent agreement with the solutions of the equation for horizontal tubes and the past experimental data. In addition, the predictions compared very well with the results of the force balance equation for steady

  7. Thermal response of core and central-cavity components of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in the absence of forced convection coolant flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, R.L.; Sanders, J.P.

    1976-09-01

    A means of determining the thermal responses of the core and the components of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor after loss of forced coolant flow is discussed. A computer program, using a finite-difference technique, is presented together with a solution of the confined natural convection. The results obtained are reasonable and demonstrate that the computer program adequately represents the confined natural convection

  8. Segmentation of expiratory and inspiratory sounds in baby cry audio recordings using hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Nonaka, Yulri; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-11-01

    The paper describes an application of machine learning techniques to identify expiratory and inspiration phases from the audio recording of human baby cries. Crying episodes were recorded from 14 infants, spanning four vocalization contexts in their first 12 months of age; recordings from three individuals were annotated manually to identify expiratory and inspiratory sounds and used as training examples to segment automatically the recordings of the other 11 individuals. The proposed algorithm uses a hidden Markov model architecture, in which state likelihoods are estimated either with Gaussian mixture models or by converting the classification decisions of a support vector machine. The algorithm yields up to 95% classification precision (86% average), and its ability generalizes over different babies, different ages, and vocalization contexts. The technique offers an opportunity to quantify expiration duration, count the crying rate, and other time-related characteristics of baby crying for screening, diagnosis, and research purposes over large populations of infants.

  9. Focal airtrapping at expiratory high-resolution CT: comparison with pulmonary function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauczor, H.U.; Hast, J.; Heussel, C.P.; Mildenberger, P.; Thelen, M.; Schlegel, J.

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine prevalence, extent, and severity of focal airtrapping at expiratory high-resolution CT, and to compare focal airtrapping with age, gender, pulmonary function tests, and blood gas analysis. Two-hundred seventeen patients with and without pulmonary disease underwent paired inspiratory/expiratory high-resolution CT. Six scan pairs with corresponding scan levels were visually assessed for focal - not diffuse - airtrapping using a four-point scale. Pulmonary function tests and blood gas analysis were available for correlation in all patients (mean interval 5 days). Focal airtrapping with lower lung predominance was observed in 80 % of patients. Twenty-six of 26 patients with restrictive lung function impairment exhibited focal airtrapping (mean score 2.4), whereas only 72 of 98 (74 %) patients with obstruction did (mean score 1.5; p < 0.05). Fifty-eight of 70 (83 %) patients with normal lung function (mean score 1.8) and 19 of 23 (83 %) patients with mixed impairment (mean score 1.8) had focal airtrapping. Focal airtrapping showed negative correlations with static lung volumes (-0.27 to -0.37; p < 0.001) in all patients and moderate positive correlations with dynamic parameters (0.3-0.4; p < 0.001) in patients with obstruction. No significant correlations were found with age, gender, and blood gas analysis. Visual assessment of focal - not diffuse - airtrapping at expiratory high-resolution CT does not correlate with physiological evidence of obstruction as derived from pulmonary function tests since the perception of focal airtrapping requires an adequate expiratory increase in lung density. (orig.)

  10. Dead space and slope indices from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension-volume curve

    OpenAIRE

    Kars, Alice; Bogaard, Jan; Stijnen, Theo; Vries, J.; Verbraak, Anton; Hilvering, C.

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe slope of phase 3 and three noninvasively determined dead space estimates derived from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) versus volume curve, including the Bohr dead space (VD,Bohr), the Fowler dead space (VD,Fowler) and pre-interface expirate (PIE), were investigated in 28 healthy control subjects, 12 asthma and 29 emphysema patients (20 severely obstructed and nine moderately obstructed) with the aim to establish diagnostic value. Because breath volume and frequenc...

  11. The Influence of Chordwise Flexibility on the Flow Structure and Streamwise Force of a Sinusoidally Pitching Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David Arthur

    Many natural flyers and swimmers need to exploit unsteady mechanisms in order to generate sufficient aerodynamic forces for sustained flight and propulsion. This is, in part, due to the low speed and length scales at which they typically operate. In this low Reynolds number regime, there are many unanswered questions on how existing aerodynamic theory for both steady and unsteady flows can be applied. Additionally, most of these natural flyers and swimmers have deformable wing/fin structures, three dimensional wing planforms, and exhibit complex kinematics during motion. While some biologically-inspired studies seek to replicate these complex structures and kinematics in the laboratory or in numerical simulations, it becomes difficult to draw explicit connections to the existing knowledge base of classical unsteady aerodynamic theory due to the complexity of the problems. In this experimental study, wing kinematics, structure, and planform are greatly simplified to investigate the effect of chordwise flexibility on the streamwise force (thrust) and wake behavior of a sinusoidally pitching airfoil. The study of flexibility in the literature has typically utilized flat plates with varying thicknesses or lengths to change their chordwise flexibility. This choice introduces additional complexities when comparing to the wealth of knowledge originally developed on streamlined aerodynamic shapes. The current study capitalizes on the recent developments in 3D printer technology to create accurate shapes out of materials with varying degrees of flexibility by creating two standard NACA 0009 airfoils: one rigid and one flexible. Each of the two airfoils are sinusoidally pitched about the quarter chord over a range of oscillation amplitudes and frequencies while monitoring the deformation of the airfoil. The oscillation amplitude is selected to be small enough such that leading edge vortices do not form, and the vortical structures in the wake are formed from the trailing

  12. Aespoe Task Force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes. Review of Task 6C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, John; Hodgkinson, David

    2005-03-01

    This report forms part of an independent review of the specifications, execution and results of Task 6 of the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes, which is seeking to provide a bridge between site characterization (SC) and performance assessment (PA) approaches to solute transport in fractured rock. The present report is concerned solely with Task 6C, which relates to the construction and parametrisation of a block-scale hydrostructural model of the TRUE Block Scale region of the Aespoe Hard Rock laboratory. The task objectives, specifications and outcome are summarised and reviewed. Also, consideration is given to how the hydrostructural model might affect the outcomes of Task 6D and 6E. The main conclusions of this review are summarised below: The Task 6C hydrostructural model is a more comprehensive approach to quantitatively describing a volume of fractured rock than has been achieved hitherto. The idea of including solute retention characteristics as indices attached to individual fractures is an efficient device resulting in a whole volume of fractured rock described by a few spreadsheets. The hydrostructural model is clearly defined and provides a useful test bed for Tasks 6D and 6E. It would have been beneficial if the specifications for Task 6C had been more clearly defined as a hierarchy of requirements, and performance measures had been defined and evaluated to allow comparison of alternative approaches. The device used to reduce connectivity, namely reducing the average size of background fractures, has the effect of producing a final model with an 'unnatural' gap in the overall distribution of fracture sizes. It appears that the exploratory boreholes could be important conductive structures within the region of the 200 m block even though they are segmented into shorter sections by packers. If correct, this implies that the boreholes should be included explicitly in the model if close replication of TRUE Block

  13. Inspiratory and expiratory computed tomographic volumetry for lung volume reduction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Yuki; Chen, Fengshi; Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) volumetry has been introduced into the field of thoracic surgery, and a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry provides useful data on regional pulmonary function as well as the volume of individual lung lobes. We report herein a case of a 62-year-old man with severe emphysema who had undergone lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) to assess this technique as a tool for the evaluation of regional lung function and volume before and after LVRS. His postoperative pulmonary function was maintained in good condition despite a gradual slight decrease 2 years after LVRS. This trend was also confirmed by a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry. We confirm that a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry might be effective for the preoperative assessment of LVRS in order to determine the amount of lung tissue to be resected as well as for postoperative evaluation. This novel technique could, therefore, be used more widely to assess local lung function.

  14. Evidence of the no-slip boundary condition of water flow between hydrophilic surfaces using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maali, Abdelhamid; Wang, Yuliang; Bhushan, Bharat

    2009-10-20

    In this study we present measurements of the hydrodynamic force exerted on a glass sphere glued to an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever approaching a mica surface in water. A large sphere was used to reduce the impact of the cantilever beam on the measurement. An AFM cantilever with large stiffness was used to accurately determine the actual contact position between the sphere and the sample surface. The measured hydrodynamic force with different approach velocities is in good agreement with the Taylor force calculated in the lubrication theory with the no-slip boundary conditions, which verifies that there is no boundary slip on the glass and mica surfaces. Moreover, a detailed procedure of how to subtract the electrostatic double-layer force is presented.

  15. The correlation between the paired inspiratory and expiratory three-dimensional quantitative CT and pulmonary function test in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui Xi; Song Wei; Xue Huadan; Song Lan; Yang Liang; Jin Zhengyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between the paired inspiratory and expiratory quantitative CT and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: A total of 84 patients with COPD were enrolled. For each patient, CT scan was performed in deep inspiration and expiration. Using automatic post-processing software, a three-dimension quantitative measurement was employed to assess the CT parameters of emphysema and air trapping. The correlation between CT and PFT was evaluated by the Spearman rank correlation test and multivariate linear regression analysis. Results: The percent 1 [Perc_1, (-984.28 ± 17.93) HU] and percent 15 [Perc_1_5, (-948.35 ± 22.26) HU] from the CT parameters of emphysema were positively correlated with the forced expiratory volume in 1 second predicted (FEV_1%, 48.69 ± 23, 47), the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second over forced vital capacity [FEV_1/FVC, (45.89 ± 15.36)%, r = 0.45-0.67, P < 0.01], was negatively correlated with the ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity [RV/TLC, (61.32 ± 14.48)%]. The other CT parameters of emphysema index (EI) and the parameters of air trapping, the change in relative lung volume with attenuation values from -860 to -950 HU [RVC_-_8_6_0_-_-_9_5_0, (17.66 ± 22.36)%], the expiration to inspiration ratio of mean lung density (MLD_e_x_/_i_n, 0.93 ± 0.06), the expiration to inspiration ratio of lung volume (LV_e_x_/_i_n, 0.71 ± 0.14) had negative correlations with logFEV_1%, FEV_1/FVC (r = -0.48--0.69, P < 0.01) and positive correlations with RV/TLC (r = 0.41-0.66, P < 0.01). The further univariate linear regressions showed that EI, Perc_1, Pere_1_5, RVC_-_8_6_0_-_-_9_5_0, MLD_e_x_/_i_n, LV_e_x_/_i_n were correlated with the parameters of PFTs (R square values of the regression equation, ranged from 0.27 to 0.66, P < 0.01). After the pairwise combinations of the parameters of emphysema and air trapping, multivariate stepwise

  16. A 3D CFD Simulation and Analysis of Flow-Induced Forces on Polymer Piezoelectric Sensors in a Chinese Liquors Identification E-Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Gu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese liquors can be classified according to their flavor types. Accurate identification of Chinese liquor flavors is not always possible through professional sommeliers’ subjective assessment. A novel polymer piezoelectric sensor electric nose (e-nose can be applied to distinguish Chinese liquors because of its excellent ability in imitating human senses by using sensor arrays and pattern recognition systems. The sensor, based on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM principle is comprised of a quartz piezoelectric crystal plate sandwiched between two specific gas-sensitive polymer coatings. Chinese liquors are identified by obtaining the resonance frequency value changes of each sensor using the e-nose. However, the QCM principle failed to completely account for a particular phenomenon: we found that the resonance frequency values fluctuated in the stable state. For better understanding the phenomenon, a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation using the finite volume method is employed to study the influence of the flow-induced forces to the resonance frequency fluctuation of each sensor in the sensor box. A dedicated procedure was developed for modeling the flow of volatile gas from Chinese liquors in a realistic scenario to give reasonably good results with fair accuracy. The flow-induced forces on the sensors are displayed from the perspective of their spatial-temporal and probability density distributions. To evaluate the influence of the fluctuation of the flow-induced forces on each sensor and ensure the serviceability of the e-nose, the standard deviation of resonance frequency value (SDF and the standard deviation of resultant forces (SDFy in y-direction (Fy are compared. Results show that the fluctuations of Fy are bound up with the resonance frequency values fluctuations. To ensure that the sensor's resonance frequency values are steady and only fluctuate slightly, in order to improve the identification accuracy of Chinese

  17. An analytical model for the prediction of fluid-elastic forces in a rod bundle subjected to axial flow: theory, experimental validation and application to PWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaud, F.

    1997-01-01

    A model predicting the fluid-elastic forces in a bundle of circular cylinders subjected to axial flow is presented in this paper. Whereas previously published models were limited to circular flow channel, the present one allows to take a rectangular flow external boundary into account. For that purpose, an original approach is derived from the standard method of images. This model will eventually be used to predict the fluid-structure coupling between the flow of primary coolant and a fuel assemblies in PWR nuclear reactors. It is indeed of major importance since the flow is shown to induce quite high damping and could therefore mitigate the incidence of an external load like a seismic excitation on the dynamics of the assemblies. The proposed model is validated on two cases from the literature but still needs further comparisons with the experiments being currently carried out on the EDF set-up. The flow has been shown to induce an approximate 12% damping on a PWR fuel assembly, at nominal reactor conditions. The possible grid effect on the fluid-structure coupling has been neglected so far but will soon be investigated at EDF. (author)

  18. Experimental study of core thermohydraulics in fast reactors during transition from forced to natural circulation. Influence of inter-wrapper flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, H.; Hayashi, K.; Momoi, K.

    1997-01-01

    The evaluation of core thermohydraulics under natural circulation conditions is important to utilize inherent safety features of Fast Reactors. When heat exchangers of a decay heat removal system are operated in an upper plenum of reactor vessel, cold sodium is provided by the heat exchangers. Core-plenum interactions will occur during a natural circulation condition due to this cold sodium in the upper plenum, e.g., it can penetrate into gap regions between fuel subassemblies (inter-wrapper flow, IWF) and the flow may reverse in low power core channels. These interactions will significantly modify the flow and temperature distributions in the core. Sodium experiments were carried out to study these phenomena. In a test section, seven subassemblies are housed and connected to an upper plenum. The influences of core-plenum interactions on the core thermohydraulics were investigated under steady state conditions and also in transitions from forced to natural circulation. Cooling effects of IWF on the fuel subassemblies were found in spite of natural circulation flow reduction in the primary loop due to temperature decreases in the upper non-heated section in the core. The inter-wrapper flow can effectively cool the core under extreme conditions of low flow rates through the core. (author)

  19. Quantitative Infrared Image Analysis Of Simultaneous Upstream and Downstream Microgravity Flame Spread over Thermally-Thin Cellulose in Low Speed Forced Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. L.; Lee, J. R.; Fujita, O.; Kikuchi, M.; Kashiwagi, T.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of low velocity forced flow on microgravity flame spread is examined using quantitative analysis of infrared video imaging. The objective of the quantitative analysis is to provide insight into the mechanisms of flame spread in microgravity where the flame is able to spread from a central location on the fuel surface, rather than from an edge. Surface view calibrated infrared images of ignition and flame spread over a thin cellulose fuel were obtained along with a color video of the surface view and color images of the edge view using 35 mm color film at 2 Hz. The cellulose fuel samples were mounted in the center of a 12 cm wide by 16 cm tall flow duct and were ignited in microgravity using a straight hot wire across the center of the 7.5 cm wide by 14 cm long samples. Four cases, at 1 atm. 35%O2 in N2, at forced flows from 2 cm/s to 20 cm/s are presented here. This flow range captures flame spread from strictly upstream spread at low flows, to predominantly downstream spread at high flow. Surface temperature profiles are evaluated as a function of time, and temperature gradients for upstream and downstream flame spread are measured. Flame spread rates from IR image data are compared to visible image spread rate data. IR blackbody temperatures are compared to surface thermocouple readings to evaluate the effective emissivity of the pyrolyzing surface. Preheat lengths and pyrolysis lengths are evaluated both upstream and downstream of the central ignition point. A surface energy balance estimates the net heat flux from the flame to the fuel surface along the length of the fuel. Surface radiative loss and gas-phase radiation from soot are measured relative to the net heat feedback from the flame. At high surface heat loss relative to heat feedback, the downstream flame spread does not occur.

  20. The Neopuff's PEEP valve is flow sensitive.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2011-03-01

    The current recommendation in setting up the Neopuff is to use a gas flow of 5-15 L\\/min. We investigated if the sensitivity of the positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) valve varies at different flow rates within this range.

  1. Experimental Study of Dispersion and Deposition of Expiratory Aerosols in Aircraft Cabins and Impact on Infectious Disease Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    To, G.N.S.; Wan, M.P.; Chao, C.Y.H.

    2009-01-01

    The dispersion and deposition characteristics of polydispersed expiratory aerosols were investigated in an aircraft cabin mockup to study the transmission of infectious diseases. The airflow was characterized by particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Aerosol dispersionwas measured...

  2. Disturbed flow mediated modulation of shear forces on endothelial plane: A proposed model for studying endothelium around atherosclerotic plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Sundaresan, Lakshmikirupa; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Majunathan, Reji; Mani, Krishnapriya; Swaminathan, Akila; Venkatesan, Saravanakumar; Kasiviswanathan, Dharanibalan; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-06-01

    Disturbed fluid flow or modulated shear stress is associated with vascular conditions such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and aneurysm. In vitro simulation of the fluid flow around the plaque micro-environment remains a challenging approach. Currently available models have limitations such as complications in protocols, high cost, incompetence of co-culture and not being suitable for massive expression studies. Hence, the present study aimed to develop a simple, versatile model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Current observations of CFD have shown the regions of modulated shear stress by the disturbed fluid flow. To execute and validate the model in real sense, cell morphology, cytoskeletal arrangement, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) profile, nitric oxide production and disturbed flow markers under the above condition were assessed. Endothelium at disturbed flow region which had been exposed to low shear stress and swirling flow pattern showed morphological and expression similarities with the pathological disturbed flow environment reported previously. Altogether, the proposed model can serve as a platform to simulate the real time micro-environment of disturbed flow associated with eccentric plaque shapes and the possibilities of studying its downstream events.

  3. Crossflow force transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1982-05-01

    A force transducer for measuring lift and drag coefficients for a circular cylinder in turbulent water flow is presented. In addition to describing the actual design and construction of the strain-gauged force- ring based transducer, requirements for obtained valid fluid force test data are discussed, and pertinent flow test experience is related

  4. An experimental investigation of the efficacy of perforated holes on unsteady aerodynamic force reduction for a 2D cylinder in uniform incoming flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudalaimuthu, Vignesh; Liu, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-01

    A series of wind tunnel aerodynamic force measurements have been conducted on a 2D hollow cylinder with perforated holes uniformly-distributed on its surface to evaluate the efficacy of perforation as a means of passive flow control in reducing unsteady aerodynamic forces. Both smooth and perforated cylinders were tested for comparison at Reynolds numbers ranging from 50,000 to 200,000 corresponding to free stream velocities varying from 5 to 20 m/s (at an increment of 5 m/s) and a cylinder diameter of 0.152 m. The aerodynamic forces acting on the testing model were measured using a 6-component load cell. For each tunnel speed, the test has been repeated for 10 runs at a sampling rate of 10 kHz for 60 seconds each, with a total of 6,000,000 samples acquired for each test. Both mean and r.m.s. values of the lift and drag coefficients were calculated. Power spectral density distributions of the unsteady aerodynamic force loading was analyzed to investigate the effect of the perforation on the frequency composition. Comparisons indicate that the perforated cylinder with a 8% porosity and a hole diameter of about 2% of that of the cylinder gives both substantially less unsteady drag and lift than those of the smooth cylinder for the entire Reynolds number range tested, with the r.m.s. force reduction from 8% to 82% for the drag and 64% to 85% for the lift, confirming a corresponding beneficial reduction in flow-induced cylinder vibration as observed during the experiments. Sponsor: San Diego State University.

  5. Overall evaluation of the modelling of the TRUE-1 tracer tests - Task 4. The Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschall, Paul; Elert, Mark

    2003-09-01

    The Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes is a forum for the international organisations supporting the Aespoe HRL Project. The purpose of the Task Force is to interact in the area of conceptual and numerical modelling of groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured rock. Task 4 of the Aespoe Modelling Task Force consists of modelling exercises in support of the TRUE-1 tracer tests. The task was carried out in 1995-2000 and consisted of several modelling exercises in support of the TRUE-1 tracer tests, including predictive modelling where experimental results were not available beforehand. This report presents an overall evaluation of the achievements of Task 4. The specific objectives of the overall evaluation were to highlight innovative and successful modelling approaches developed, to assess the stages of the task which proved most beneficial for conceptual understanding of transport processes at the TRUE-1 site and to assess the success of various steering tools. A concise summary of scientific achievements is given and conclusions drawn with respect to unresolved technical issues. Recommendations are presented that can optimise the management of future modelling tasks

  6. Gap Flows through Idealized Topography. Part I: Forcing by Large-Scale Winds in the Nonrotating Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabersek, Sasa.; Durran, Dale R.

    2004-12-01

    Gap winds produced by a uniform airstream flowing over an isolated flat-top ridge cut by a straight narrow gap are investigated by numerical simulation. On the scale of the entire barrier, the proportion of the oncoming flow that passes through the gap is relatively independent of the nondimensional mountain height , even over that range of for which there is the previously documented transition from a “flow over the ridge” regime to a “flow around” regime.The kinematics and dynamics of the gap flow itself were investigated by examining mass and momentum budgets for control volumes at the entrance, central, and exit regions of the gap. These analyses suggest three basic behaviors: the linear regime (small ) in which there is essentially no enhancement of the gap flow; the mountain wave regime ( 1.5) in which vertical mass and momentum fluxes play a crucial role in creating very strong winds near the exit of the gap; and the upstream-blocking regime ( 5) in which lateral convergence generates the strongest winds near the entrance of the gap.Trajectory analysis of the flow in the strongest events, the mountain wave events, confirms the importance of net subsidence in creating high wind speeds. Neglect of vertical motion in applications of Bernoulli's equation to gap flows is shown to lead to unreasonable wind speed predictions whenever the temperature at the gap exit exceeds that at the gap entrance. The distribution of the Bernoulli function on an isentropic surface shows a correspondence between regions of high Bernoulli function and high wind speeds in the gap-exit jet similar to that previously documented for shallow-water flow.

  7. Influence of Lorentz force, Cattaneo-Christov heat flux and viscous dissipation on the flow of micropolar fluid past a nonlinear convective stretching vertical surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnaneswara Reddy, Machireddy

    2017-12-01

    The problem of micropolar fluid flow over a nonlinear stretching convective vertical surface in the presence of Lorentz force and viscous dissipation is investigated. Due to the nature of heat transfer in the flow past vertical surface, Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model effect is properly accommodated in the energy equation. The governing partial differential equations for the flow and heat transfer are converted into a set of ordinary differential equations by employing the acceptable similarity transformations. Runge-Kutta and Newton's methods are utilized to resolve the altered governing nonlinear equations. Obtained numerical results are compared with the available literature and found to be an excellent agreement. The impacts of dimensionless governing flow pertinent parameters on velocity, micropolar velocity and temperature profiles are presented graphically for two cases (linear and nonlinear) and analyzed in detail. Further, the variations of skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are reported with the aid of plots for the sundry flow parameters. The temperature and the related boundary enhances enhances with the boosting values of M. It is found that fluid temperature declines for larger thermal relaxation parameter. Also, it is revealed that the Nusselt number declines for the hike values of Bi.

  8. Evapotranspiration versus oxygen intrusion: which is the main force in alleviating bioclogging of vertical-flow constructed wetlands during a resting operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Guofen; Chen, Qiuwen; Kong, Jun; Li, Man

    2017-08-01

    Clogging is the most significant challenge limiting the application of constructed wetlands. Application of a forced resting period is a practical way to relieve clogging, particularly bioclogging. To reveal the alleviation mechanisms behind such a resting operation, evapotranspiration and oxygen flux were studied during a resting period in a laboratory vertical-flow constructed wetland model through physical simulation and numerical model analysis. In addition, the optimum theoretical resting duration was determined based on the time required for oxygen to completely fill the pores, i.e., formation of a sufficiently thick and completely dry layer. The results indicated that (1) evapotranspiration was not the key factor, but was a driving force in the alleviation of bioclogging; (2) the rate of oxygen diffusion into the pores was sufficient to oxidize and disperse the flocculant biofilm, which was essential to alleviate bioclogging. This study provides important insights into understanding how clogging/bioclogging can be alleviated in vertical-flow constructed wetlands. Graphical abstract Evapotranspiration versus oxygen intrusion in alleviating bioclogging in vertical flow constructed wetlands.

  9. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of flow generated by two rotating concentric cylinders: II. Lateral dissipative and random forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovic, N; Haber, S; Kojic, M; Tsuda, A

    2008-01-01

    Traditional DPD methods address dissipative and random forces exerted along the line connecting neighbouring particles. Espanol (1998 Phys. Rev. E 57 2930-48) suggested adding dissipative and random force components in a direction perpendicular to this line. This paper focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of such an addition as compared with the traditional DPD method. Our benchmark system comprises fluid initially at rest occupying the space between two concentric cylinders rotating with various angular velocities. The effect of the lateral force components on the time evolution of the simulated velocity profile was also compared with that of the known analytical solution. The results show that (i) the solution accuracy at steady state has improved and the error has been reduced by at least 30% (in one case by 75%), (ii) the DPD time to reach steady state has been halved, (iii) the CPU time has increased by only 30%, and (iv) no significant differences exist in density and temperature distributions

  10. Effect of pilates method on inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Mendes Tozim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With aging, the respiratory muscle strength decreases and the pilates method is a technique that uses respiration as one of its principles. The present study has the aim of analyzing the influence of the pilates method on respiratory muscle strength in older women. For the evaluation of respiratory muscle strength (inspiratory and expiratory, manovacuometer was used. Thirty-one older women were divided into two groups: 14 participated in the pilates group and 17 in the control group. Participants of the pilates group performed 16 sessions of pilates method with an hour of training, twice week for eight weeks. The control group participated in four educational lectures for eight weeks. For statistical analysis, Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA for repeated measures (p <0.05 and Cohen’s D index were performed. The results showed significant difference and the mean effect for the Cohen’s D index expiratory muscle strength of the pilates group when comparing before (69.71 ± 25.48 and after (85.23 ± 22.21 training (p<0.05 with an increase of 23%. The results of inspiratory muscle strength were not significant but presented an average effect for the Cohen’s D index for the pilates group before (69.71 ± 35.46 and after (88.00 ± 34.87 training, with an increase of 27%. The control group did not present significant differences for the variables evaluated. It could be concluded that the pilates method is effective in improving expiratory muscle strength and provides positive effects on the increase in inspiratory muscle strength.

  11. Modeling the Fate of Expiratory Aerosols and the Associated Infection Risk in an Aircraft Cabin Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, M.P.; To, G.N.S.; Chao, C.Y.H.

    2009-01-01

    to estimate the risk of infection by contact. The environmental control system (ECS) in a cabin creates air circulation mainly in the lateral direction, making lateral dispersions of aerosols much faster than longitudinal dispersions. Aerosols with initial sizes under 28 m in diameter can stay airborne......The transport and deposition of polydispersed expiratory aerosols in an aircraft cabin were simulated using a Lagrangian-based model validated by experiments conducted in an aircraft cabin mockup. Infection risk by inhalation was estimated using the aerosol dispersion data and a model was developed...

  12. A consistent method for finite volume discretization of body forces on collocated grids applied to flow through an actuator disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a consistent algorithm for eliminating the numerical wiggles appearing when solving the finite volume discretized Navier-Stokes equations with discrete body forces in a collocated grid arrangement. The proposed method is a modification of the Rhie-Chow algorithm where the for...

  13. Effects of density and force discretizations on spurious velocities in lattice Boltzmann equation for two-phase flows

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan; Guo, Zhaoli

    2014-01-01

    at discrete level inherited in LBE (Guo et al 2011 Phys. Rev. E 83 036707). Based on the analysis of the LBE free of checkerboard effects, in this work we further show that the force imbalance is caused by the different discretization stencils: the implicit

  14. “To be without a home, like a rolling stone”: Anticipating the global management of forced migration flows and the social integration of asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    The study investigates the practices of different forms of anticipatory knowledge of actors involved in the global management of forced migration flows in ‘migration hotspots’ (European Parliament, 2016). The study draws on an ongoing multi-sited study of professionals working in IGOs, NGOs......—all for estimating the movements and framing the choices, freedoms and rights of asylum seekers. The study shows how anticipatory practices constitute asylum seekers as ‘global problems’ which reinforce dominance relations of ‘vulnerability’ and remove individuals’ agency while providing them with life...

  15. An advanced expiratory circuit for the recovery of perfluorocarbon liquid from non-saturated perfluorocarbon vapour during partial liquid ventilation: an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Mark W

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The loss of perfluorocarbon (PFC vapour in the expired gases during partial liquid ventilation should be minimized both to prevent perfluorocarbon vapour entering the atmosphere and to re-use the recovered PFC liquid. Using a substantially modified design of our previously described condenser, we aimed to determine how much perfluorocarbon liquid could be recovered from gases containing PFC and water vapour, at concentrations found during partial liquid ventilation, and to determine if the amount recovered differed with background flow rate (at flow rates suitable for use in neonates. Methods The expiratory line of a standard ventilator circuit set-up was mimicked, with the addition of two condensers. Perfluorocarbon (30 mL of FC-77 and water vapour, at concentrations found during partial liquid ventilation, were passed through the circuit at a number of flow rates and the percentage recovery of the liquids measured. Results From 14.2 mL (47% to 27.3 mL (91% of the infused 30 mL of FC-77 was recovered at the flow rates studied. Significantly higher FC-77 recovery was obtained at lower flow rates (ANOVA with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test, p -1 (ANOVA with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test, p -1, respectively. Conclusion Using two condensers in series 47% to 91% of perfluorocarbon liquid can be recovered, from gases containing perfluorocarbon and water vapour, at concentrations found during partial liquid ventilation.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics modeling patterns and force characteristics of flow over in-line four square cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yidan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow over four square cylinders in an in-line, square arrangement was numerically investigated by using the finite volume method with CFD techniques. The working fluid is an incompressible ideal gas. The length of the sides of the array, L, is equal. The analysis is carried out for a Reynolds number of 300, with center-to-center distance ratios, L/D, ranging from 1.5 to 8.0. To fully understand the flow mechanism, details in terms of lift and drag coefficients and Strouhal numbers of the unsteady wake frequencies are analyzed, and the vortex shedding patterns around the four square cylinders are described. It is concluded that L/D has important effects on the drag and lift coefficients, vortex shedding frequencies, and flow field characteristics.

  17. Developing the laminar MHD forced convection flow of water/FMWNT carbon nanotubes in a microchannel imposed the uniform heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimipour, Arash; Taghipour, Abdolmajid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Malvandi, Amir, E-mail: amirmalvandi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to investigate magnetic field and slip effects on developing laminar forced convection of nanofluids in the microchannels. A novel mixture of water and FMWNT carbon nanotubes is used as the working fluid. To do this, fluid flow and heat transfer through a microchannel is simulated by a computer code in FORTRAN language. The mixture of FMWNT carbon nanotubes suspended in water is considered as the nanofluid. Slip velocity is supposed as the hydrodynamic boundary condition while the microchannel's lower wall is insulated and the top wall is under the effect of a constant heat flux. Moreover, the flow field is subjected to a magnetic field with a constant strength. The results are presented as the velocity, temperature and Nusselt number profiles. It is observed that nanofluid composed of water and carbon nanotubes (FMWNT) can work well to increase the heat transfer rate along the microchannel walls. Furthermore, it is indicated that imposing the magnetic field is very effective at the thermally developing region. In contrast, the magnetic field effect at fully developed region is insignificant, especially at low values of Reynolds number. - Highlights: • Simulation of water/FMWNT carbon nanotubes flow in a microchannel. • The effects of magnetic field strength on nanofluid's slip velocity. • The effects of Ha, Re, ϕ and slip coefficient on averaged Nusselt number. • Magnetic field effect at developing flow region is significant.

  18. Calculation of the capnographic index based on expiratory molar mass-volume-curves--a suitable tool to screen for cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Susanne I; Junge, Sibylle; Ellemunter, Helmut; Ballmann, Manfred; Gappa, Monika

    2013-05-01

    Volumetric capnography reflecting the course of CO2-exhalation is used to assess ventilation inhomogeneity. Calculation of the slope of expiratory phase 3 and the capnographic index (KPIv) from expirograms allows quantification of extent and severity of small airway impairment. However, technical limitations have hampered more widespread use of this technique. Using expiratory molar mass-volume-curves sampled with a handheld ultrasonic flow sensor during tidal breathing is a novel approach to extract similar information from expirograms in a simpler manner possibly qualifying as a screening tool for clinical routine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate calculation of the KPIv based on molar mass-volume-curves sampled with an ultrasonic flow sensor in patients with CF and controls by assessing feasibility, reproducibility and comparability with the Lung Clearance Index (LCI) derived from multiple breath washout (MBW) used as the reference method. Measurements were performed in patients with CF and healthy controls during a single test occasion using the EasyOne Pro, MBW Module (ndd Medical Technologies, Switzerland). Capnography and MBW were performed in 87/96 patients with CF and 38/42 controls, with a success rate of 90.6% for capnography. Mean age (range) was 12.1 (4-25) years. Mean (SD) KPIv was 6.94 (3.08) in CF and 5.10 (2.06) in controls (p=0.001). Mean LCI (SD) was 8.0 (1.4) in CF and 6.2 (0.4) in controls (p=molar mass-volume-curves is feasible. KPIv is significantly different between patients with CF and controls and correlates with the LCI. However, individual data revealed a relevant overlap between patients and controls requiring further evaluation, before this method can be recommended for clinical use. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of a protocol to evaluate maximal expiratory pressure using a pressure transducer and a signal conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Soares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory muscles can present fatigue and even chronic inability to generate force. So, reliable devices are necessary to their evaluation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the MEP (Maximal Expiratory Pressure values of individuals between 20 and 25 years old and to validate a protocol using a pressure transducer and a signal conditioner comparing it with the digital manometer. We evaluated the MEP of 10 participants. They remained seated and made six respiratory maneuvers from Total Lung Capacity (TLC to Residual Volume (RV. The results in the study showed no statistically significant differences when compared to values reported in the literature, and that the pressure transducer provides reliable values for MEP.Os músculos respiratórios podem apresentar fadiga e até mesmo a incapacidade crônica na geração de força, sendo necessários dispositivos confiáveis para sua avaliação. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a pressão expiratória máxima (PeMáx de indivíduos entre 20 e 25 anos e validar um protocolo que utiliza um transdutor de pressão e um condicionador de sinais comparando-o com a manovacuometria. Foram avaliadas a PeMáx de 10 participantes. Estes permaneceram sentados e realizaram seis manobras respiratórias a partir da capacidade pulmonar total (CPT até o volume residual (VR. Os resultados do estudo não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas quando comparados com os valores de normalidade descritos na literatura e mostraram que o transdutor de pressão fornece valores confiáveis para Pe máx.

  20. Is there an optimal level of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) to improve walking tolerance in patients with severe COPD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Davide; Simonelli, Carla; Paneroni, Mara; Saleri, Manuela; Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Cardinale, Francesco; Vitacca, Michele; Nicolini, Antonello

    2016-07-01

    The application of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) devices during exercise had been proposed in order to counteract the pulmonary hyperinflation, reduce the dyspnea and thus increase the exercise tolerance in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This randomized controlled crossover trial investigated the effect of two different levels of PEP (1 cmH2O and 10 cmH2O) on distance covered at 6minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with severe COPD. Secondary outcomes were the evaluation of PEP effects on physiological and pulmonary function variables. Seventy-two severe COPD patients, referred to our hospitals as in and out patients, were recruited. A basal 6MWT without devices was performed on the first day, and then repeated with PEP 1 cmH2O (PEP1) and 10 cmH2O (PEP10), with a randomized crossover design. Slow and forced spirometries, including the inspiratory capacity measure, were repeated before and after each 6MWT. 50 patients (average age 69,92 year, mean FEV1 41,42% of predicted) concluded the trial. The 6MWT improved significantly among both PEP levels and baseline (323,8 mt at baseline vs. 337,8 PEP1 and 341,8 PEP10; p<.002 and p<.018, respectively). The difference between PEP10 and PEP1 did not reach the significance. No improvements were found in pulmonary function, symptoms and physiological variables after the 6MWT. In patients with severe COPD, the application of 1 cmH2O of PEP seems to improve the exercise tolerance as 10 cmH2O, with similar dyspnea. Further studies should investigate the effects of low levels of PEP on aerobic training programs. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. A Study of Acoustic Forcing on Gas Centered Swirl Coaxial Reacting Flows (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    chemiluminescence images were taken to capture the liquid fuel film, droplets, and flame response under acoustic excitation . For the acoustic forcing...chemiluminescence was also imaged using a HiCATT intensifier with a Semrock filter (FF01-320/40). The shadowgraph camera was set to a gate of 7 µs...an operating chamber pressure of 3.2 MPa and varying momentum flux ratios were investigated. High-speed shadowgraph images along with OH* and CH

  2. Relationship of end-expiratory pressure, lung volume, and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.A.; van der Zee, H.; Line, B.R.; Malik, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the dose-response effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and increased lung volume on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA). Clearance of lung radioactivity was expressed as percent decrease per minute. Base-line clearance was measured while anesthetized sheep (n = 20) were ventilated with 0 cmH 2 O end-expiratory pressure. Clearance was remeasured during ventilation at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, or 20 cmH 2 O PEEP. Further studies showed stepwise increases in functional residual capacity (FRC) (P less than 0.05) measured at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cmH 2 O PEEP. At 2.5 cmH 2 O PEEP, the clearance rate was not different from that at base line (P less than 0.05), although FRC was increased from base line. Clearance rate increased progressively with increasing PEEP at 5, 10, and 15 cmH 2 O (P less than 0.05). Between 15 and 20 cmH 2 O PEEP, clearance rate was again unchanged, despite an increase in FRC. The pulmonary clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA shows a sigmoidal response to increasing FRC and PEEP, having both threshold and maximal effects. This relationship is most consistent with the hypothesis that alveolar epithelial permeability is increased by lung inflation

  3. Positive expiratory pressure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Breathing exercises against a resistance during expiration are often used as treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Controversy still exists regarding the clinical application and efficacy. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effects of chest physiotherapy techniques with positive expiratory pressure (PEP) for the prevention and treatment of pulmonary impairment in adults with COPD. The review was conducted on randomised, controlled clinical trials in which breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure were compared with other chest physical therapy techniques or with no treatment, in adult patients with COPD. A computer-assisted literature search of available databases from 1970 to January 2008 was performed. Two reviewers extracted data independently and assessed the trials systematically with an instrument for measuring methodological quality. In total, 11 trials met the inclusion criteria, of which 5 reached an adequate level of internal validity. Several kinds of PEP techniques with a diversity of intensities and durations of treatment have been evaluated with different outcome measures and follow-up periods. Benefits of PEP were found in isolated outcome measures in separate studies with a follow-up period <1 month. Concerning long-term effects, the results are contradictory. Prior to widespread prescription of long-term PEP treatment, more research is required to establish the benefit of the technique in patients with COPD. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Effect of the radiofrequency volumetric tissue reduction of inferior turbinate on expiratory nasal sound frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seren, Erdal

    2009-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the short-term efficacy of radiofrequency volumetric tissue reduction (RFVTR) in treatment of inferior turbinate hypertrophy (TH) as measured by expiratory nasal sound spectra. In our study, we aimed to investigate the Odiosoft-rhino (OR) as a new diagnostic method to evaluate the nasal airflow of patients before and after RFVTR. In this study, we have analyzed and recorded the expiratory nasal sound in patients with inferior TH before and after RFVTR. This analysis includes the time expanded waveform, the spectral analysis with time averaged fast Fourier transform (FFT), and the waveform analysis of nasal sound. We found an increase in sound intensity at high frequency (Hf) in the sound analyses of the patients before RFVTR and a decrease in sound intensity at Hf was found in patients after RFVTR. This study indicates that RFVTR is an effective procedure to improve nasal airflow in the patients with nasal obstruction with inferior TH. We found significant decreases in the sound intensity level at Hf in the sound spectra after RFVTR. The OR results from the 2000- to 4000-Hz frequency (Hf) interval may be more useful in assessing patients with nasal obstruction than other frequency intervals. OR may be used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool to evaluate the nasal airflow.

  5. Control of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP for small animal ventilators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão Nunes Marcelo V

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP for the mechanical ventilation of small animals is frequently obtained with water seals or by using ventilators developed for human use. An alternative mechanism is the use of an on-off expiratory valve closing at the moment when the alveolar pressure is equal to the target PEEP. In this paper, a novel PEEP controller (PEEP-new and the PEEP system of a commercial small-animal ventilator, both based on switching an on-off valve, are evaluated. Methods The proposed PEEP controller is a discrete integrator monitoring the error between the target PEEP and the airways opening pressure prior to the onset of an inspiratory cycle. In vitro as well as in vivo experiments with rats were carried out and the PEEP accuracy, settling time and under/overshoot were considered as a measure of performance. Results The commercial PEEP controller did not pass the tests since it ignores the airways resistive pressure drop, resulting in a PEEP 5 cmH2O greater than the target in most conditions. The PEEP-new presented steady-state errors smaller than 0.5 cmH2O, with settling times below 10 s and under/overshoot smaller than 2 cmH2O. Conclusion The PEEP-new presented acceptable performance, considering accuracy and temporal response. This novel PEEP generator may prove useful in many applications for small animal ventilators.

  6. Airborne spread of expiratory droplet nuclei between the occupants of indoor environments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Z T; Melikov, A K

    2018-07-01

    This article reviews past studies of airborne transmission between occupants in indoor environments, focusing on the spread of expiratory droplet nuclei from mouth/nose to mouth/nose for non-specific diseases. Special attention is paid to summarizing what is known about the influential factors, the inappropriate simplifications of the thermofluid boundary conditions of thermal manikins, the challenges facing the available experimental techniques, and the limitations of available evaluation methods. Secondary issues are highlighted, and some new ways to improve our understanding of airborne transmission indoors are provided. The characteristics of airborne spread of expiratory droplet nuclei between occupants, which are influenced correlatively by both environmental and personal factors, were widely revealed under steady-state conditions. Owing to the different boundary conditions used, some inconsistent findings on specific influential factors have been published. The available instrumentation was too slow to provide accurate concentration profiles for time-dependent evaluations of events with obvious time characteristics, while computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies were mainly performed in the framework of inherently steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes modeling. Future research needs in 3 areas are identified: the importance of the direction of indoor airflow patterns, the dynamics of airborne transmission, and the application of CFD simulations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ayşın; Çakırgöz, Mensure; Ervatan, Zekeriya; Kıran, Özlem; Türkmen, Aygen; Esenyel, Cem Zeki

    2016-01-01

    Our study is a prospective, randomized study on patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery in the beach-chair position to evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on hemodynamic stability, providing a bloodless surgical field and surgical satisfaction. Fifty patients were divided into two groups. Group I (n=25) had zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) administered under general anesthesia, and group II (n=25) had +5 PEEP administered. During surgery, intraarticular hemorrhage and surgical satisfaction were evaluated on a scale of 0-10. During surgery, at the 5th, 30th, 60th, and 90th minutes and at the end of surgery, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and positive inspiratory pressure were recorded. At the end of the surgery, the amount of bleeding and duration of the operation were recorded. In group I, the duration of operation and amount of bleeding were found to be significantly greater than those in group II (pshoulder surgery in the beach-chair position reduces the amount of hemorrhage in the surgical field and thus increases surgical satisfaction without requiring the creation of controlled hypotension.

  8. Recent researches in airship construction I : forces of flow on a moving airship and the effect of the control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naatz, H

    1924-01-01

    The problems as to how an airship can best be stabilized and steered and to what stresses it is subjected in the air, are so important as to determine in large measure the future development of airships much more than formerly when velocities of 30-35 meters (98-115 feet) per second were not known and the effects of the air flow were not so great.

  9. Experimental development of a Nusselt correlation for forced reciprocating oscillated vertical annular glycerol flow through a porous domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ersin

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the heat transfer to oscillating annular flow of a viscous fluid. The flow media includes stationary stainless steel wool porous domain and glycerol as the working fluid. The effects of actuation frequency and wall heat flux on the temperature field and resultant heat convection coefficient are studied. The temperature values at radial direction are close each other as porous media mixes the glycerol successfully. A correlation with a functional dependence to kinetic Reynolds number is recommended that can be used to acquire the averaged heat transfer for oscillating flows. Present experimental results with glycerol in a porous media are compared to the published experimental works with water. For the limited case of the two working fluids, Nusselt number is normalized well using the Prandtl number (Pr0.67). Results are also compared to non-porous media study and heat transfer is found to increase up to a factor of five in porous media. The recommended correlation is claimed to have a significant role for anticipating heat transfer of oscillating viscous fluid not only at low frequencies but also at low heat fluxes in a porous and permeable solid media.

  10. A visual study of forced convection boiling. Part 2: Flow patterns and burnout for a round test section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, G.J.; Staniforth, R.; Kinneir, J.H.

    1967-03-01

    The studies of boiling water at 25 p.s.i.a. reported here show the same flow patterns as in earlier tests in that the bubbles formed on the heater regained close to the heated surface to coalesce into large bubbles which eventually spanned the flow channel. Burnout tests were made and it was found there was a change of slope of the heat flux-subcooling curve. Further tests showed that this effect was due to a change in flow regime between burnout with much vapour present and burnout with just nucleate bubbles present. In the latter regime it was found that burnout is dependent only on the conditions local to the burnout point. Photography of the burnout region was practicable only when few bubbles were present but although pictures of the bubble over the burnout point were taken, no clear evidence on the mechanism of formation of the bubble could be gleaned. Some speculation on the cause of burnout in this regime is made in the light of these experiments. (author)

  11. Computational analysis of locally forced flow over a wall-mounted hump at high-Re number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saric, S.; Jakirlic, S.; Djugum, A.; Tropea, C.

    2006-01-01

    An incompressible, high-Reynolds number flow (slightly less then 1 Mio. per chord) over a smoothly contoured, asymmetric, wall-mounted hump was computationally studied using the LES (large eddy simulation) and DES (detached eddy simulation) methods. In addition, several second-moment and eddy-viscosity closures within the RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) framework were tested. The focus of the investigation was on the effects of local perturbation of the hump boundary layer introduced by spatially uniform (in the spanwise direction) steady suction and oscillatory suction/blowing through a narrow opening (1.7 mm) situated at the hump crest immediately upstream of the natural separation point. Reference experiments have shown that both flow control mechanisms cause a shortening of the recirculation bubble relative to the baseline configuration with no flow control. All statistical turbulence models used in the RANS framework resulted in a substantially larger recirculation zone independent of the modelling level, being a consequence of a too low turbulence level in the separated shear layer. Accordingly, the effect of the steady suction, namely the reduction of the reattachment length, was underpredicted. The LES method, despite a relatively coarse mesh (with a total of 4 Mio. cells) for such a high-Reynolds number, wall-bounded flow, was capable of capturing important effects of the flow control qualitatively and quantitatively. DES failed to do so in the suction case, despite good results in the baseline and oscillatory blowing/suction cases, indicating that a shallow separation from curved surfaces poses a challenge to this hybrid RANS/LES strategy. A sensitivity study of the RANS/LES interface position within the DES approach shows that a RANS region chosen too thin (with the interface situated at the very beginning of the logarithmic layer) can lead to a strong reduction of the turbulent viscosity causing a low turbulence level within the shear layer

  12. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Tenling, Arne; Breidenskog, Marie; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery. A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day. Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9 ± 1.7 kPa in the treatment group and 8.1 ± 1.4 kPa in the control group (p = 0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7 ± 3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1 ± 3.8% in the control group (p = 0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions. A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High altitude pulmonary edema and exercise at 4,400 meters on Mount McKinley. Effect of expiratory positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, R B; Roach, R C; Hackett, P H; Harrison, G; Mills, W J

    1985-03-01

    Breathing against positive expiratory pressure has been used to improve gas exchange in many forms of pulmonary edema, and forced expiration against resistance during exercise has been advocated for climbing at high altitude as a method to optimize performance. To evaluate the effect of expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) on climbers with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and on exercise at high altitude, we studied four climbers with HAPE at rest and 13 healthy climbers during exercise on a bicycle ergometer at 4400 m. We measured minute ventilation (VI, L/min), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 percent), end-tidal carbon dioxide (PACO2, mm Hg), respiratory rate (RR), and heart rate (HR) during the last minute of a five minute interval at rest in the climbers with HAPE, and at rest, 300, and 600 kpm/minute workloads on a bicycle ergometer in the healthy subjects. The HAPE subjects demonstrated an increased SaO2 percent, no change in HR or VI, and a decrease in RR on EPAP as compared to control. In normal subjects, SaO2 percent, VI, and heart rate were significantly higher on EPAP 10 cm H2O than 0 cm H2O control (p less than 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively). The RR and PaCO2 were not significantly different. In summary, EPAP improves gas exchange in HAPE subjects at rest. The EPAP in normal subjects at high altitude resulted in a higher SaO2 percent at the expense of a higher VI and higher HR. These results suggest that the work of breathing is higher and the stroke volume lower on EPAP. The positive pressure mask may be an effective temporizing measure for victims of HAPE who cannot immediately go to a lower altitude.

  14. Effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 18 patients who received simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training and 15 patients who received expiratory muscle strength training only. Postural techniques were conducted in the order of chin tucking, head rotation, head tilting, bending head back, and lying down, while expiratory muscle strength training was conducted at a resistance level of about 70% of the maximal expiratory pressure. Swallowing recovery was assessed by using the Functional Dysphagia Scale based on videofluoroscopic studies. [Results] The mean value obtained in the videofluoroscopic studies for both groups decreased after the treatment. In the postural techniques plus expiratory muscle strength training group, the decrease was significantly greater than that in the expiratory muscle strength training-only group. [Conclusion] The results imply that simultaneous performance of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training is more effective than expiratory muscle strength training alone when applied in the swallowing rehabilitation for patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease.

  15. Formation of intermetallic phases in AlSi7Fe1 alloy processed under microgravity and forced fluid flow conditions and their influence on the permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, S.; Ratke, L.; Zimmermann, G.; Budenkova, O.

    2016-03-01

    Ternary Al-6.5wt.%Si-0.93wt.%Fe alloy samples were directionally solidified on-board of the International Space Station ISS in the ESA payload Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) equipped with Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) under both purely diffusive and stimulated convective conditions induced by a rotating magnetic field. Using different analysis techniques the shape and distribution of the intermetallic phase β-Al5SiFe in the dendritic microstructure was investigated, to study the influence of solidification velocity and fluid flow on the size and spatial arrangement of intermetallics. Deep etching as well as 3-dimensional computer tomography measurements characterized the size and the shape of β-Al5SiFe platelets: Diffusive growth results in a rather homogeneous distribution of intermetallic phases, whereas forced flow promotes an increase in the amount and the size of β-Al5SiFe platelets in the centre region of the samples. The β-Al5SiFe intermetallics can form not only simple platelets, but also be curved, branched, crossed, interacting with dendrites and porosity located. This leads to formation of large and complex groups of Fe-rich intermetallics, which reduce the melt flow between dendrites leading to lower permeability of the mushy zone and might significantly decrease feeding ability in castings.

  16. Rat Liver Enzyme Release Depends on Blood Flow-Bearing Physical Forces Acting in Endothelium Glycocalyx rather than on Liver Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta A. Díaz-Juárez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have found selective elevation of serum enzyme activities in rats subjected to partial hepatectomy (PH, apparently controlled by hemodynamic flow-bearing physical forces. Here, we assess the involvement of stretch-sensitive calcium channels and calcium mobilization in isolated livers, after chemical modifications of the endothelial glycocalyx and changing perfusion directionality. Inhibiting in vivo protein synthesis, we found that liver enzyme release is influenced by de novo synthesis of endothelial glycocalyx components, and released enzymes are confined into a liver “pool.” Moreover, liver enzyme release depended on extracellular calcium entry possibly mediated by stretch-sensitive calcium channels, and this endothelial-mediated mechanotransduction in liver enzyme release was also evidenced by modifying the glycocalyx carbohydrate components, directionality of perfusing flow rate, and the participation of nitric oxide (NO and malondialdehyde (MDA, leading to modifications in the intracellular distribution of these enzymes mainly as nuclear enrichment of “mitochondrial” enzymes. In conclusion, the flow-induced shear stress may provide fine-tuned control of released hepatic enzymes through mediation by the endothelium glycocalyx, which provides evidence of a biological role of the enzyme release rather to be merely a biomarker for evaluating hepatotoxicity and liver damage, actually positively influencing progression of liver regeneration in mammals.

  17. Effects of Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity and Lorentz Force on the Flow and Heat Transfer of a Ferro-Nanofluid in a Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubai Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the effects of the Lorentz force and the induced anisotropic thermal conductivity due to a magnetic field on the flow and the heat transfer of a ferro-nanofluid. The ferro-nanofluid is modeled as a single-phase fluid, where the viscosity depends on the concentration of nanoparticles; the thermal conductivity shows anisotropy due to the presence of the nanoparticles and the external magnetic field. The anisotropic thermal conductivity tensor, which depends on the angle of the applied magnetic field, is suggested considering the principle of material frame indifference according to Continuum Mechanics. We study two benchmark problems: the heat conduction between two concentric cylinders as well as the unsteady flow and heat transfer in a rectangular channel with three heated inner cylinders. The governing equations are made dimensionless, and the flow and the heat transfer characteristics of the ferro-nanofluid with different angles of the magnetic field, Hartmann number, Reynolds number and nanoparticles concentration are investigated systematically. The results indicate that the temperature field is strongly influenced by the anisotropic behavior of the nanofluids. In addition, the magnetic field may enhance or deteriorate the heat transfer performance (i.e., the time-spatially averaged Nusselt number in the rectangular channel depending on the situations.

  18. TU-CD-BRA-11: Application of Bone Suppression Technique to Inspiratory/expiratory Chest Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, R; Sanada, S [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Sakuta, K; Kawashima, H [Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Kishitani, Y [TOYO Corporation, Chuoh-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The bone suppression technique based on advanced image processing can suppress the conspicuity of bones on chest radiographs, creating soft tissue images normally obtained by the dual-energy subtraction technique. This study was performed to investigate the usefulness of bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of pulmonary function in inspiratory/expiratory chest radiography. Methods: Commercial bone suppression image processing software (ClearRead; Riverain Technologies) was applied to paired inspiratory/expiratory chest radiographs of 107 patients (normal, 33; abnormal, 74) to create corresponding bone suppression images. The abnormal subjects had been diagnosed with pulmonary diseases, such as pneumothorax, pneumonia, emphysema, asthma, and lung cancer. After recognition of the lung area, the vectors of respiratory displacement were measured in all local lung areas using a cross-correlation technique. The measured displacement in each area was visualized as displacement color maps. The distribution pattern of respiratory displacement was assessed by comparison with the findings of lung scintigraphy. Results: Respiratory displacement of pulmonary markings (soft tissues) was able to be quantified separately from the rib movements on bone suppression images. The resulting displacement map showed a left-right symmetric distribution increasing from the lung apex to the bottom region of the lung in many cases. However, patients with ventilatory impairments showed a nonuniform distribution caused by decreased displacement of pulmonary markings, which were confirmed to correspond to area with ventilatory impairments found on the lung scintigrams. Conclusion: The bone suppression technique was useful for quantitative analysis of respiratory displacement of pulmonary markings without any interruption of the rib shadows. Abnormal areas could be detected as decreased displacement of pulmonary markings. Inspiratory/expiratory chest radiography combined

  19. Using an expiratory resistor, arterial pulse pressure variations predict fluid responsiveness during spontaneous breathing: an experimental porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Michael K; Vistisen, Simon T; Koefoed-Nielsen, Jacob; Larsson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Fluid responsiveness prediction is difficult in spontaneously breathing patients. Because the swings in intrathoracic pressure are minor during spontaneous breathing, dynamic parameters like pulse pressure variation (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) are usually small. We hypothesized that during spontaneous breathing, inspiratory and/or expiratory resistors could induce high arterial pressure variations at hypovolemia and low variations at normovolemia and hypervolemia. Furthermore, we hypothesized that SPV and PPV could predict fluid responsiveness under these conditions. Eight prone, anesthetized and spontaneously breathing pigs (20 to 25 kg) were subjected to a sequence of 30% hypovolemia, normovolemia, and 20% and 40% hypervolemia. At each volemic level, the pigs breathed in a randomized order either through an inspiratory and/or an expiratory threshold resistor (7.5 cmH2O) or only through the tracheal tube without any resistor. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables were measured during the breathing modes. Fluid responsiveness was defined as a 15% increase in stroke volume (DeltaSV) following fluid loading. Stroke volume was significantly lower at hypovolemia compared with normovolemia, but no differences were found between normovolemia and 20% or 40% hypervolemia. Compared with breathing through no resistor, SPV was magnified by all resistors at hypovolemia whereas there were no changes at normovolemia and hypervolemia. PPV was magnified by the inspiratory resistor and the combined inspiratory and expiratory resistor. Regression analysis of SPV or PPV versus DeltaSV showed the highest R2 (0.83 for SPV and 0.52 for PPV) when the expiratory resistor was applied. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity for prediction of fluid responsiveness were 100% and 100%, respectively, for SPV and 100% and 81%, respectively, for PPV. Inspiratory and/or expiratory threshold resistors magnified SPV and PPV in spontaneously breathing pigs during hypovolemia

  20. Airway wall thickness associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second decline and development of airflow limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoesein, Firdaus A. A. Mohamed; de Jong, Pim A.; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.; Mali, Willem P. T. M.; Schmidt, Michael; de Koning, Harry J.; van der Aalst, Carlijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Groen, Harry J. M.; van Ginneken, Bram; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Zanen, Pieter

    Airway wall thickness and emphysema contribute to airflow limitation. We examined their association with lung function decline and development of airflow limitation in 2021 male smokers with and without airflow limitation. Airway wall thickness and emphysema were quantified on chest computed

  1. Gender and perception of dyspnea: The role of the variation in the forced expiratory volume in one second

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Nigro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During bronchoconstriction women perceive more breathlessness than men. The aims of study were 1 to evaluate if quality of dyspnea in bronchoconstriction was different in women and men 2 to assess if gender difference in the perception of dyspnea could be related to the level of bronchoconstriction. 457 subjects (257 women inhaled methacholine to a 20% decrease in FEV1, or 32 mg/ml. Dyspnea was evaluated using the modified Borg scale and a list of expressions of dyspnea. Borg scores were recorded immediately before the challenge test baseline and at the maximum FEV1 decrease. The prevalence of descriptors of dyspnea reported by women and men was similar. Dyspnea was related to the level of FEV1 (ΔFEV1: OR 1.05, 95%CI 1.01-1.09, p 0.0095, females (OR 2.90, 95%CI 1.33-6.33, p 0.0072, younger subjects (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.89- 0.97, p 0.0013 and body mass index (BMI (OR 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.23, p 0.023. As the FEV1 fell less than 20% from baseline, only the ΔFEV1 was significantly associated with dyspnea (ΔFEV1:OR 1.15, 95%CI 1.07- 1.24, p 0.0002. Instead, if the FEV1 fell higher ≥ 20%, the presence of dyspnea was related to the degree of bronchoconstriction (ΔFEV1: OR 1.04, 95%CI 1.01-1.09, p 0.0187, females (OR 3.02, 95%CI 1.36-6.72, p 0.0067, younger subjects (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.88-0.96, p 0.0007 and BMI (OR 1.12, 95%CI 1.01-1.23, p 0.023. The quality of dyspnea during the bronchoconstriction was similar in women and men; women showed a higher perception of dyspnea than men only when the FEV1 fell more than 20% from baseline.

  2. A 3D-CFD code for accurate prediction of fluid flows and fluid forces in seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athavale, M. M.; Przekwas, A. J.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    Current and future turbomachinery requires advanced seal configurations to control leakage, inhibit mixing of incompatible fluids and to control the rotodynamic response. In recognition of a deficiency in the existing predictive methodology for seals, a seven year effort was established in 1990 by NASA's Office of Aeronautics Exploration and Technology, under the Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion program, to develop validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) concepts, codes and analyses for seals. The effort will provide NASA and the U.S. Aerospace Industry with advanced CFD scientific codes and industrial codes for analyzing and designing turbomachinery seals. An advanced 3D CFD cylindrical seal code has been developed, incorporating state-of-the-art computational methodology for flow analysis in straight, tapered and stepped seals. Relevant computational features of the code include: stationary/rotating coordinates, cylindrical and general Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC) systems, high order differencing schemes, colocated variable arrangement, advanced turbulence models, incompressible/compressible flows, and moving grids. This paper presents the current status of code development, code demonstration for predicting rotordynamic coefficients, numerical parametric study of entrance loss coefficients for generic annular seals, and plans for code extensions to labyrinth, damping, and other seal configurations.

  3. Intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure during one-lung ventilation of patients with pulmonary hyperinflation. Influence of low respiratory rate with unchanged minute volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szegedi, L L; Barvais, L; Sokolow, Y; Yernault, J C; d'Hollander, A A

    2002-01-01

    We measured lung mechanics and gas exchange during one-lung ventilation (OLV) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, using three respiratory rates (RR) and unchanged minute volume. We studied 15 patients about to undergo lung surgery, during anaesthesia, and placed in the lateral position. Ventilation was with constant minute volume, inspiratory flow and FIO2. For periods of 15 min, RR of 5, 10, and 15 bpm were applied in a random sequence and recordings were made of lung mechanics and an arterial blood gas sample was taken. Data were analysed with the repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-test with Bonferroni correction. PaO2 changes were not significant. At the lowest RR, PaCO2 decreased (from 42 (SD 4) mm Hg at RR 15-41 (4) mm Hg at RR 10 and 39 (4) mm Hg at RR 5, P<0.01), and end-tidal carbon dioxide increased (from 33 (5) mm Hg at RR 15 to 35 (5) mm Hg at RR 10 and 36 (6) mm Hg at RR 5, P<0.01). Intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi) was reduced even with larger tidal volumes (from 6 (4) cm H2O at RR 15-5 (4) cm H2O at RR 10, and 3 (3) cm H2O at RR 5, P<0.01), most probably caused by increased expiratory time at the lowest RR. A reduction in RR reduces PEEPi and hypercapnia during OLV in anaesthetized patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

  4. Characteristics of buoyancy force on stagnation point flow with magneto-nanoparticles and zero mass flux condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Uddin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This attempt dedicated to the solution of buoyancy effect over a stretching sheet in existence of MHD stagnation point flow with convective boundary conditions. Thermophoresis and Brownian motion aspects are included. Incompressible fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of varying magnetic field. Boundary layer analysis is used to develop the mathematical formulation. Zero mass flux condition is considered at the boundary. Non-linear ordinary differential system of equations is constructed by means of proper transformations. Interval of convergence via numerical data and plots are developed. Characteristics of involved variables on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are sketched and discussed. Features of correlated parameters on Cf and Nu are examined by means of tables. It is found that buoyancy ratio and magnetic parameters increase and reduce the velocity field. Further opposite feature is noticed for higher values of thermophoresis and Brownian motion parameters on concentration distribution. Keywords: Stagnation point, MHD, Nanoparticles, Zero mass flux condition

  5. Navier-Stokes simulation with constraint forces: finite-difference method for particle-laden flows and complex geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfler, K; Schwarzer, S

    2000-06-01

    Building on an idea of Fogelson and Peskin [J. Comput. Phys. 79, 50 (1988)] we describe the implementation and verification of a simulation technique for systems of non-Brownian particles in fluids at Reynolds numbers up to about 20 on the particle scale. This direct simulation technique fills a gap between simulations in the viscous regime and high-Reynolds-number modeling. It also combines sufficient computational accuracy with numerical efficiency and allows studies of several thousand, in principle arbitrarily shaped, extended and hydrodynamically interacting particles on regular work stations. We verify the algorithm in two and three dimensions for (i) single falling particles and (ii) a fluid flowing through a bed of fixed spheres. In the context of sedimentation we compute the volume fraction dependence of the mean sedimentation velocity. The results are compared with experimental and other numerical results both in the viscous and inertial regime and we find very satisfactory agreement.

  6. Mechanobiology of Platelets: Techniques to Study the Role of Fluid Flow and Platelet Retraction Forces at the Micro- and Nano-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Sniadecki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation involves a complex set of events that are important in maintaining hemostasis. Biochemical interactions are classically known to regulate the hemostatic process, but recent evidence has revealed that mechanical interactions between platelets and their surroundings can also play a substantial role. Investigations into platelet mechanobiology have been challenging however, due to the small dimensions of platelets and their glycoprotein receptors. Platelet researchers have recently turned to microfabricated devices to control these physical, nanometer-scale interactions with a higher degree of precision. These approaches have enabled exciting, new insights into the molecular and biomechanical factors that affect platelets in clot formation. In this review, we highlight the new tools used to understand platelet mechanobiology and the roles of adhesion, shear flow, and retraction forces in clot formation.

  7. Effects of electric field and Coriolis force on electrohydrodynamic stability of poorly conducting couple stress parallel fluid flow in a channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, B.M.; Rudraiah, N.

    2013-01-01

    The linear stability of electrohydrodynamic poorly conducting couple stress viscous parallel fluid flow in a channel is studied in the presence of a non-uniform transverse electric field and Coriolis force using energy method and supplemented with Galerkin Technique. The sufficient condition for stability is obtained for sufficiently small values of the Reynolds number, R e . From this condition we show that strengthening or weakening of the stability criterion is dictated by the values of the strength of electric field, the coefficient of couple stress fluid and independent of Taylor number. In particular, it is shown that the interaction of electric field with couple stress is more effective in stabilizing the poorly conducting couple stress fluid compared to that in an ordinary Newtonian viscous fluid. (author)

  8. Aespoe Task Force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes. Review of Tasks 6A, 6B and 6B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, David; Black, John

    2005-03-01

    This report forms part of an independent review of the specifications, execution and results of Task 6 of the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes, which is seeking to provide a bridge between site characterization and performance assessment approaches to solute transport in fractured rock. The present report is concerned solely with Tasks 6b, 6b and 6b which relate to the transport of tracers on a 5-metre scale in Feature A at the TRUE-1 site. The task objectives, specifications and individual modelling team results are summarised and reviewed, and an evaluation of the overall exercise is presented. The report concludes with assessments of what has been learnt, the implications for the Task 6 objectives, and some possible future directions

  9. Study on subcooled-forced flow boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux of solid particle-water two-phase mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Mochizuki, Manabu; Ohtake, Hiroyasu

    1999-01-01

    The effect of solid particle introduction on forced flow boiling and the critical heat flux was examined for the mixture of subcooled-water and 0.6 mm glass beads. When the particles were introduced, the growth on of a superheated layer near a wall seemed to be suppressed and the onset of nucleate boiling was delayed. The particles tempted for bubbles to condense at nucleation sites, and then the initiation of net vapor generation was also delayed and sifted to a high wall-superheat region. The nucleate boiling heat transfer was augmented by the particles, which considered to be caused by the combination of the suppression of the superheated layer growth and the promotion of the condensation and dissipation of the bubbles. The wall superheat at the critical heat flux condition was sifted to a high wall superheat region and the critical heat flux itself was also elevated a little. (author)

  10. An experimental comparison between forced convection burn-out in freon 12 flowing vertically upwards through uniformly and non-uniformly heated round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.F.; Elliott, D.F.; Wood, R.W.

    1965-05-01

    Some correlations of forced convection burn-out data are based on the approximate linearity of the relationship between burn-out heat flux and the channel-averaged quality at the burn-out point. These correlations perform satisfactorily on data obtained from uniformly heated configurations. Therefore the further inference is sometimes made that the burn-out heat flux is uniquely related to the quality, and that the burn-out in non-uniformly heated configurations can be calculated from measurements made with uniform heating. This report presents burn-out data for Freon 12 flowing vertically upwards through both uniformly and non-uniformly heated round tubes. This data shows that the quality at burn-out does depend on the heat flux profile, and that the inference mentioned above is not justified. (author)

  11. Aespoe Task Force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes. Review of Tasks 6b, 6b and 6b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgkinson, David [Quintessa, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom); Black, John [In Situ Solutions, East Bridgford (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    This report forms part of an independent review of the specifications, execution and results of Task 6 of the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes, which is seeking to provide a bridge between site characterization and performance assessment approaches to solute transport in fractured rock. The present report is concerned solely with Tasks 6b, 6b and 6b which relate to the transport of tracers on a 5-metre scale in Feature A at the TRUE-1 site. The task objectives, specifications and individual modelling team results are summarised and reviewed, and an evaluation of the overall exercise is presented. The report concludes with assessments of what has been learnt, the implications for the Task 6 objectives, and some possible future directions.

  12. High flow nasal cannula for respiratory support in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilkinson, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    High flow nasal cannulae (HFNC) are small, thin, tapered cannulae used to deliver oxygen or blended oxygen and air at flow rates of > 1 L\\/min. HFNC can be used to provide high concentrations of oxygen and may deliver positive end-expiratory pressure.

  13. Assessment of a magnet system combining the advantages of cable-in-conduit forced-flow and pool-boiling magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.; Hassenzahl, W.; Felker, B.; Chaplin, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an idea for a magnet system that could be used to advantage in tokamaks and other fusion engineering devices. Higher performance designs, specifically newer tokamaks such as those for the international Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) use Cable in Conduit Conductor (CICC) forced flow coils to advantage to meet field and current density requirements. Pool boiling magnets lack structural integrity to resist high magnetic forces since helium cooling areas must surround each conductor. A second problem is that any leak can threaten the voltage standoff integrity of the magnet system. This is because a leak can result in low-pressure helium gas becoming trapped by limited conductance in the magnet bundle and low-pressure helium has poor dielectric strength. The system proposed here is basically a CICC system, with it's inherent advantages, but bathed in higher pressure supercritical helium to eliminate the leak and voltage break-down problems. Schemes to simplify helium coolant plumbing with the proposed system are discussed. A brief historical review of related magnet systems is included. The advantages and disadvantages of using higher pressure, supercritical helium in combination with solid electrical insulation in a CICC system are discussed. Related electrical data from some previous works are compiled and discussed

  14. Experimental determination of unsteady flow forces on turbine blades by hydraulic analogy; Determination experimentale, par analogie hydraulique, des efforts instationnaires sur les aubages d`une turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, G. [GEC Alsthom Rateau, 93 - La Courneuve (France); Naudin, M. [Framatome Thermodyn, 71 - Le Creusot (France); Pluviose, M. [CNAM, 75 - Paris (France); Sankale, H. [CETIM, 44 - Nantes (France)

    1998-06-01

    The blades of turbomachinery undergo unsteady flow forces, created principally by the presence of a series of stator or diffuser blades prior to a series of rotor blades. The stage geometry is the main factor which defines the magnitude of these forces. The influence of both geometric and thermodynamic parameters is currently being analysed using a model representing the turbine blades and by applying the hydraulic analogy technique. The study is being conducted at CETIM in Nantes amongst a working group including manufacturers, research organisms, and technical center. Work is in progress and initial results have proved sufficiently encouraging for presentation at the forthcoming Symposium on multidisciplinary turbomachinery issues organised by the Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens. The study should eventually facilitate the optimisation of rotor blade dimensioning for total and partial injection turbine applications and furthermore to reduce the risk of blade failure. Following quantitative study, results obtained for a given geometry of total injection turbine are presented in this paper. (authors) 16 refs.

  15. Positive end-expiratory pressure improves survival in a rodent model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation using high-dose epinephrine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCaul, Conán

    2009-10-01

    Multiple interventions have been tested in models of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to optimize drug use, chest compressions, and ventilation. None has studied the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on outcome. We hypothesized that because PEEP can reverse pulmonary atelectasis, lower pulmonary vascular resistance, and potentially improve cardiac output, its use during CPR would increase survival.

  16. Nebulized hypertonic saline via positive expiratory pressure versus via jet nebulizer in patients with severe cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2011-06-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline is a highly effective therapy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet 10% of patients are intolerant of hypertonic saline administered via jet nebulizer. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) nebulizers splint open the airways and offers a more controlled rate of nebulization.

  17. Respiratory System Mechanics During Low Versus High Positive End-Expiratory Pressure in Open Abdominal Surgery: A Substudy of PROVHILO Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Antini, Davide; Huhle, Robert; Herrmann, Jacob; Sulemanji, Demet S.; Oto, Jun; Raimondo, Pasquale; Mirabella, Lucia; Hemmes, Sabrine N. T.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Pelosi, Paolo; Kaczka, David W.; Vidal Melo, Marcos Francisco; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Cinnella, Gilda

    2018-01-01

    In the 2014 PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure (PROVHILO) trial, intraoperative low tidal volume ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP = 12 cm H2O) and lung recruitment maneuvers did not decrease postoperative pulmonary complications

  18. Effects of electric field and Coriolis force on electrohydrodynamic stability of poorly conducting couple stress parallel fluid flow in a channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, B.M.; Rudraiah, N.

    2013-01-01

    The effective functioning of microfluidic devices in chemical, electrical and mechanical engineering involving fluidics particularly those having vibrations and petroleum products containing organic, inorganic and other microfluidics require understanding and control of stability of poorly conducting parallel fluid flows. The electrical conductivity, σ, of a poorly conducting fluidics, increases with the temperature and the concentration of freely suspended particles like RBC, WBC and so on in the blood, the hylauronic acid (HA) and nutrients of synovial fluid in synovial joints will spin producing microrotation, forming micropolar fluid of Eringen. The presence of Deuterium - Tritium (DT) in inertial fusion target (IFT) may also be modeled using micropolar fluid theory of Eringen. A particular case of micropolar fluid theory when microrotation balances with the natural vorticity of a poorly conducting fluidics in the presence of an electric field is called ‘electrohydrodynamic couple stress fluid’ (EHDCF). These EHDCFs exhibit a variation of electrical conductivity, ∇ σ, increasing with temperature and concentration of freely suspended particles, releases the charges from the nuclei forming distribution of charge density, ρ e . These charges induce an electric field, 1 E i . If need be, we can apply an electric field, 1 E a , by embedding electrodes of different potentials at the boundaries. The total electric field, 1 E = 1 E i + 1 E a , produces a current density, 1 J = ρ σ 1 E, according to Ohm’s law and also produces an electric force, 1 F σ = σ 1 E. This current 1 J acts as sensing and the force, 1 F σ acts as actuation. These two properties make the poorly conducting couple stress fluid to act as a smart material. The objective of this paper is to show that EHDCV in presence of coriolis force plays a significant role in controlling the stability of parallel flows which is essential for an effective functioning of machineries that occur in

  19. Dangerous Pressurization and Inappropriate Alarms during Water Occlusion of the Expiratory Circuit of Commonly Used Infant Ventilators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Hinder

    Full Text Available Non-invasive continuous positive airways pressure is commonly a primary respiratory therapy delivered via multi-purpose ventilators in premature newborns. Expiratory limb occlusion due to water accumulation or 'rainout' from gas humidification is a frequent issue. A case of expiratory limb occlusion due to rainout causing unexpected and excessive repetitive airway pressurisation in a Draeger VN500 prompted a systematic bench test examination of currently available ventilators.To assess neonatal ventilator response to partial or complete expiratory limb occlusion when set to non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure mode.Seven commercially available neonatal ventilators connected to a test lung using a standard infant humidifier circuit with partial and/or complete expiratory limb occlusion were examined in a bench test study. Each ventilator was set to deliver 6 cmH2O in non-invasive mode and respiratory mechanics data for 75%, 80% and 100% occlusion were collected.Several ventilators responded inappropriately with complete occlusion by cyclical pressurisation/depressurisation to peak pressures of between 19·4 and 64·6 cm H2O at rates varying between 2 to 77 inflations per minute. Tidal volumes varied between 10·1 and 24·3mL. Alarm responses varied from 'specific' (tube occluded to 'ambiguous' (Safety valve open. Carefusion Avea responded by continuing to provide the set distending pressure and displaying an appropriate alarm message. Draeger Babylog 8000 did not alarm with partial occlusions and incorrectly displayed airways pressure at 6·1cmH2O compared to the measured values of 13cmH2O.This study found a potential for significant adverse ventilator response due to complete or near complete expiratory limb occlusion in CPAP mode.

  20. Computational study of heat transfer from the inner surface of a circular tube to force high temperature liquid metal flow in laminar and transition regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, K.; Fukuda, K.; Masuzaki, S.

    2018-03-01

    Heat transfer through forced convection from the inner surface of a circular tube to force the flow of liquid sodium in the laminar and transition regions were numerically analysed for two types of tube geometries (concentric annular and circular tubes) and two types of equivalent diameters (hydraulic and thermal equivalent diameters). The unsteady laminar three-dimensional basic equations for forced convection heat transfer caused by a step heat flux were numerically solved until a steady state is attained. The code of the parabolic hyperbolic or elliptic numerical integration code series (PHOENICS) was used for calculations by considering relevant temperature dependent thermo-physical properties. The concentric annular tube has a test tube with inner and outer diameters of 7.6 and 14.3 mm, respectively, has a heated length of 52 mm, and an L/d of 6.84. The two circular tubes have inner diameters of 6.7 and 19.3 mm with L/d of 7.76 and 2.69, respectively, and a heated length of 52 mm. The inlet liquid temperature, inlet liquid velocity, and surface heat flux were equally set for each test tube as T in ≅573 to 585 K, u in = 0.0852 to 1 m/s, and q = 2×105 to 2.5×106 W/m2, respectively. The increase in temperature from the leading edge of the heated section to the outlet of the circular tubes (with a hydraulic diameter of d H = 6.7 mm and a thermal equivalent diameter d te = 19.3 mm) was approximately 2.70 and 1.21 times as large as the corresponding values of the concentric annular tube with an inner diameter of 7.6 mm and an outer diameter of 14.3 mm, respectively. A quantity in the laminar and transition regions was suggested as the dominant variable involved in the forced convection heat transfer in the circular tube. The values of the local and average Nusselt numbers, Nu z and Nu av , respectively, for a concentric annular tube with d H = 6.7 mm and for a circular tube with d H = 6.7 mm were calculated to examine the effects of q, T in , and Pe on heat

  1. Clinical assessment of auto-positive end-expiratory pressure by diaphragmatic electrical activity during pressure support and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Giacomo; Coppadoro, Andrea; Patroniti, Nicolò; Turella, Marta; Arrigoni Marocco, Stefano; Grasselli, Giacomo; Mauri, Tommaso; Pesenti, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Auto-positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP) may substantially increase the inspiratory effort during assisted mechanical ventilation. Purpose of this study was to assess whether the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) signal can be reliably used to estimate auto-PEEP in patients undergoing pressure support ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) and whether NAVA was beneficial in comparison with pressure support ventilation in patients affected by auto-PEEP. In 10 patients with a clinical suspicion of auto-PEEP, the authors simultaneously recorded EAdi, airway, esophageal pressure, and flow during pressure support and NAVA, whereas external PEEP was increased from 2 to 14 cm H2O. Tracings were analyzed to measure apparent "dynamic" auto-PEEP (decrease in esophageal pressure to generate inspiratory flow), auto-EAdi (EAdi value at the onset of inspiratory flow), and IDEAdi (inspiratory delay between the onset of EAdi and the inspiratory flow). The pressure necessary to overcome auto-PEEP, auto-EAdi, and IDEAdi was significantly lower in NAVA as compared with pressure support ventilation, decreased with increase in external PEEP, although the effect of external PEEP was less pronounced in NAVA. Both auto-EAdi and IDEAdi were tightly correlated with auto-PEEP (r = 0.94 and r = 0.75, respectively). In the presence of auto-PEEP at lower external PEEP levels, NAVA was characterized by a characteristic shape of the airway pressure. In patients with auto-PEEP, NAVA, compared with pressure support ventilation, led to a decrease in the pressure necessary to overcome auto-PEEP, which could be reliably monitored by the electrical activity of the diaphragm before inspiratory flow onset (auto-EAdi).

  2. VARIABILITY OF FORCED OSCILLATION (SIEMENS SIREGNOST FD-5) MEASUREMENTS OF TOTAL RESPIRATORY RESISTANCE IN PATIENTS AND HEALTHY-SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GIMENO, F; VANDERWEELE, LT; KOETER, GH; DEMONCHY, JGR; VANALTENA, R

    The reproducibility of total respiratory resistance (R(rs)) measured with a simplified forced oscillatory method (Siemens Siregnost FD 5) was measured and compared with that of slow inspiratory vital capacity (IVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The former technique has the

  3. Chest physiotherapy with positive expiratory pressure breathing after abdominal and thoracic surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, J; Westerdahl, E

    2010-03-01

    A variety of chest physiotherapy techniques are used following abdominal and thoracic surgery to prevent or reduce post-operative complications. Breathing techniques with a positive expiratory pressure (PEP) are used to increase airway pressure and improve pulmonary function. No systematic review of the effects of PEP in surgery patients has been performed previously. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effect of PEP breathing after an open upper abdominal or thoracic surgery. A literature search of randomised-controlled trials (RCT) was performed in five databases. The trials included were systematically reviewed by two independent observers and critically assessed for methodological quality. We selected six RCT evaluating the PEP technique performed with a mechanical device in spontaneously breathing adult patients after abdominal or thoracic surgery via thoracotomy. The methodological quality score varied between 4 and 6 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database score. The studies were published between 1979 and 1993. Only one of the included trials showed any positive effects of PEP compared to other breathing techniques. Today, there is scarce scientific evidence that PEP treatment is better than other physiotherapy breathing techniques in patients undergoing abdominal or thoracic surgery. There is a lack of studies investigating the effect of PEP over placebo or no physiotherapy treatment.

  4. Breath-by-breath analysis of expiratory gas concentration in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabisashi, T

    1981-01-01

    Expiratory oxygen and carbon-dioxide concentration were analysed breath by breath in order to examine their wave forms in adult awake hens restrained in various postural positions, including supine, prone and sitting positions. Expired gas was collected at the nostril in almost all the hens. In the sitting position free from vocalization, feeding, drinking, panting, and restlessness, hens showed various forms of stable pattern of oxygen-gas curves. These forms were classified into three types, or the ascending, flat and descending types, with respect to the plateau inclination. The waves of carbon-dioxide were not always a mirror image of those of oxygen. The rate of occurrence of each type varied with the hen's postural position. The wave form was altered with the experimental body-rotation of the hen. When placed between the deflections of stable pattern, the episodes of wave deformation resembling that seen at the time of uneven pulmonary ventilation in mammals could frequently be observed in any hen's posture examined. Cardiogenic oscillation appeared on the plateau of expired-gas curves.

  5. Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Corradini, Michael

    2012-01-30

    on Cr-carbide on the graphite surface. Ni-electroplating dramatically reduced corrosion of alloys, although some diffusion of Fe and Cr were observed occur through the Ni plating. A pyrolytic carbon and SiC (PyC/SiC) CVD coating was also investigated and found to be effective in mitigating corrosion. The KCl-MgCl2 molten salt was less corrosive than FLiNaK fluoride salts for corrosion tests performed at 850oC. Cr dissolution in the molten chloride salt was still observed and consequently Ni-201 and Hastelloy N exhibited the least depth of attack. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (as measured by weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. Because Cr dissolution is an important mechanism of corrosion, molten salt electrochemistry experiments were initiated. These experiments were performed using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Using this technique, the reduction potential of Cr was determined against a Pt quasi-reference electrode as well as against a Ni(II)-Ni reference electrode in molten FLiNaK at 650 oC. The integrated current increased linearly with Cr-content in the salt, providing for a direct assessment of the Cr concentration in a given salt of unknown Cr concentration. To study heat transfer mechanisms in these molten salts over the forced and mixed convection regimes, a forced convective loop was constructed to measure heat transfer coefficients, friction factors and corrosion rates in different diameter tubes in a vertical up flow configuration in the laminar flow regime. Equipment and instrumentation for the forced convective loop was designed, constructed, and tested. These include a high temperature centrifugal pump, mass flow meter, and differential pressure sensing capabilities to an uncertainty of < 2 Pa. The heat transfer coefficient for the KCl-MgCl2 salt was measured in two different diameter channels (0.083 and 0.370Ã). In the 0

  6. Volume-monitored chest CT: a simplified method for obtaining motion-free images near full inspiratory and end expiratory lung volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Kathryn S. [The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH (United States); Long, Frederick R. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, The Children' s Radiological Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Flucke, Robert L. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Columbus, OH (United States); Castile, Robert G. [The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Center for Perinatal Research, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Lung inflation and respiratory motion during chest CT affect diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. To describe a simple volume-monitored (VM) method for performing reproducible, motion-free full inspiratory and end expiratory chest CT examinations in children. Fifty-two children with cystic fibrosis (mean age 8.8 {+-} 2.2 years) underwent pulmonary function tests and inspiratory and expiratory VM-CT scans (1.25-mm slices, 80-120 kVp, 16-40 mAs) according to an IRB-approved protocol. The VM-CT technique utilizes instruction from a respiratory therapist, a portable spirometer and real-time documentation of lung volume on a computer. CT image quality was evaluated for achievement of targeted lung-volume levels and for respiratory motion. Children achieved 95% of vital capacity during full inspiratory imaging. For end expiratory scans, 92% were at or below the child's end expiratory level. Two expiratory exams were judged to be at suboptimal volumes. Two inspiratory (4%) and three expiratory (6%) exams showed respiratory motion. Overall, 94% of scans were performed at optimal volumes without respiratory motion. The VM-CT technique is a simple, feasible method in children as young as 4 years to achieve reproducible high-quality full inspiratory and end expiratory lung CT images. (orig.)