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Sample records for force-varying static contractions

  1. Consistency of motor-unit identification during force-varying static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, M; Jensen, B R; Sjøgaard, G

    2000-01-01

    Due to inter-operator variability, two operators were used to assess the consistency of motor unit (MU) identification during ramp contractions, by the comparison of semi-automatic decompositions of the same recordings. Static shoulder abduction was performed against a force transducer in a posit......Due to inter-operator variability, two operators were used to assess the consistency of motor unit (MU) identification during ramp contractions, by the comparison of semi-automatic decompositions of the same recordings. Static shoulder abduction was performed against a force transducer...... to the electromechanical delay. The coefficient of variation for double determination of the results obtained by operators A and B was 8.5% for the number of MU firings, 4.5% for the MU mean firing rate, and 8.4% for the MU action potential (MUAP) amplitude. Therefore, the operator interactive decomposition method...... was considered to be valid for studying recruitment and de-recruitment as well as firing rate and MUAP amplitude during static, force-varying ramp contractions....

  2. Consistency of motor-unit identification during force-varying static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, M; Jensen, B R; Sjøgaard, G

    2000-01-01

    Due to inter-operator variability, two operators were used to assess the consistency of motor unit (MU) identification during ramp contractions, by the comparison of semi-automatic decompositions of the same recordings. Static shoulder abduction was performed against a force transducer in a posit......Due to inter-operator variability, two operators were used to assess the consistency of motor unit (MU) identification during ramp contractions, by the comparison of semi-automatic decompositions of the same recordings. Static shoulder abduction was performed against a force transducer...... in a position with the upper arms vertical and elbows flexed to 90 degrees. The subjects followed an 8-s force trajectory: 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC, 2 s), a reduction in force from 30% to 0% MVC (2 s), 0% MVC (1 s), an increase in force from 0 to 30% MVC (2 s), and 30% MVC (1 s). Muscle activity...

  3. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  4. Energy consumption in static muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerhuis, CL; Hof, AL; van der Heide, F.M.

    Energy consumption during static contraction of the human triceps surae muscles was studied in 11 healthy subjects. The subjects had to stand intermittently on the left and then right foot at different frequencies (for periods of 15 s, 10 s or 5 s), first on the whole foot and then on the forefoot.

  5. Physiological and psychological indices of fatigue during static contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbom, A; Gamberale, F; Persson, J; Annwall, G

    1983-01-01

    The development of fatigue and the relationship between psychological and physiological indices of fatigue were studied in a group of 18 male subjects during static contractions. Exercise was performed as a static elbow flexion at 25% MVC. Heart rate (HR), intraarterial blood pressure (BP) and surface EMG [mean amplitude (MA) and central frequency (CF)] were studied during contractions sustained until exhaustion. The amount of effort expended (relative to total exhaustion) and the rating of perceived pain were recorded following contractions interrupted after 20, 30 . . . 80, and 100% of endurance time. HR, BP and EMG amplitude responses were similar to those previously recorded. The decline in CF occurred in two phases, possibly related to a change in motor unit recruitment after the initial 70% of endurance time. The subjects overestimated the amount of effort expended and thus underestimated their endurance capacity. The best correlation between perceived effort and physiological responses was obtained using blood pressure data, whereas changes in EMG data did not parallel the psychological responses. It is concluded that the perception of effort during a static contraction is produced through a complex process, in which several influences of peripheral and central origin are integrated.

  6. Maximum Voluntary Isometric Contraction produced in three static lifting styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarrafzadeh J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is considerable professional debate over which technique is the best for lifting. The aim of this study is to compare three static lifting styles, the stoop, semi-squat and arm lift, using maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC as one indicator for recommending a lifting style. Methods: Thirty healthy women (mean age: 22.37 years participated in this quasi-experimental study. They performed the tests in static postures by standing on the platform of the Lift TrackTM and pulling the dynamometer of the instrument with maximum effort in three lifting styles: the stoop, semi-squat and arm lift. The subjects warmed-up by practicing the lifts first. The mean MIVC from the two other sets of lifts were used for statistical analysis by repeated measurements and SPSS (ver.10 software. Results: There were significant differences between the MIVC of the three lifting styles in this study. The largest MIVC was for the semi-squat lift and was the least was for the arm lift (p<0.001. The MIVC of the stoop lift was larger than that of the arm lift (p<0.001. Conclusion: The largest MIVC for the semi-squat lift suggests that this style is useful for lifting objects from the floor. The differences in biomechanical and muscle pattern activity changes could explain these results. It seems that activation of the quadriceps muscles in the semi-squat lift was a main factor for producing more MIVC, so when this style is recommended for lifting, attention to the power of the quadriceps is important.

  7. Muscle pain induced by static contraction in rats is modulated by peripheral inflammatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Diogo Francisco da Silva Dos; Melo Aquino, Bruna de; Jorge, Carolina Ocanha; Azambuja, Graciana de; Schiavuzzo, Jalile Garcia; Krimon, Suzy; Neves, Juliana Dos Santos; Parada, Carlos Amilcar; Oliveira-Fusaro, Maria Claudia Gonçalves

    2017-09-01

    Muscle pain is an important health issue and frequently related to static force exertion. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether peripheral inflammatory mechanisms are involved with static contraction-induced muscle pain in rats. To this end, we developed a model of muscle pain induced by static contraction performed by applying electrical pulses through electrodes inserted into muscle. We also evaluated the involvement of neutrophil migration, bradykinin, sympathetic amines and prostanoids. A single session of sustained static contraction of gastrocnemius muscle induced acute mechanical muscle hyperalgesia without affecting locomotor activity and with no evidence of structural damage in muscle tissue. Static contraction increased levels of creatine kinase but not lactate dehydrogenase, and induced neutrophil migration. Dexamethasone (glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent), DALBK (bradykinin B1 antagonist), Atenolol (β1 adrenoceptor antagonist), ICI 118,551 (β2 adrenoceptor antagonist), indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), and fucoidan (non-specific selectin inhibitor) all reduced static contraction-induced muscle hyperalgesia; however, the bradykinin B2 antagonist, bradyzide, did not have an effect on static contraction-induced muscle hyperalgesia. Furthermore, an increased hyperalgesic response was observed when the selective bradykinin B1 agonist des-Arg 9 -bradykinin was injected into the previously stimulated muscle. Together, these findings demonstrate that static contraction induced mechanical muscle hyperalgesia in gastrocnemius muscle of rats is modulated through peripheral inflammatory mechanisms that are dependent on neutrophil migration, bradykinin, sympathetic amines and prostanoids. Considering the clinical relevance of muscle pain, we propose the present model of static contraction-induced mechanical muscle hyperalgesia as a useful tool for the study of mechanisms underlying static contraction-induced muscle pain. Copyright © 2017 IBRO

  8. Effects of Contract-Relax, Static Stretching, and Isometric Contractions on Muscle-Tendon Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Anthony D; Husbands-Beasley, Jade; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2015-10-01

    Loading characteristics of stretching techniques likely influence the specific mechanisms responsible for acute increases in range of motion (ROM). Therefore, the effects of a version of contract-relax (CR) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching, static stretching (SS), and maximal isometric contraction (Iso) interventions were studied in 17 healthy human volunteers. Passive ankle moment was recorded on an isokinetic dynamometer, with EMG recording from the triceps surae, simultaneous real-time motion analysis, and ultrasound-imaging-recorded gastrocnemius medialis muscle and Achilles tendon elongation. Subjects then performed each intervention randomly on separate days before reassessment. Significant increases in dorsiflexion ROM (2.5°-5.3°; P muscle-tendon stiffness (10.1%-21.0%; P stretching (P stretching and Iso (17.7%-22.1%; P 0.05), whereas significant reductions in muscle stiffness occurred after CR stretching and SS (16.0%-20.5%; P 0.05). Increases in peak passive moment (stretch tolerance) occurred after Iso (6.8%; P stretching (10.6%; P = 0.08), and SS (5.2%; P = 0.08); no difference in changes between conditions was found (P > 0.05). Significant correlations (rs = 0.69-0.82; P muscle and tendon stiffness are distinct. Concomitant reductions in muscle and tendon stiffness after CR stretching suggest a broader adaptive response that likely explains its superior efficacy in acutely increasing ROM. Although mechanical changes appear tissue-specific between interventions, similar increases in stretch tolerance after all interventions are strongly correlated with changes in ROM.

  9. Muscle tissue oxygenation, pressure, electrical, and mechanical responses during dynamic and static voluntary contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Pernille; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Søgaard, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic muscle contractions have been shown to cause greater energy turnover and fatigue than static contractions performed at a corresponding force level. Therefore, we hypothesized that: (1) electro- (EMG) and mechanomyography (MMG), intramuscular pressure (IMP), and reduction in muscle oxygen...... similar in spite of major differences in the MMG and EMG responses of the muscle during contraction periods. This may relate to the surprisingly lower IMP in DYN than IST....... tension (rTO(2)) would be larger during dynamic (DYN) than intermittent static (IST) low force contractions; and that (2) oxygen tension would remain lower in the resting periods subsequent to DYN as compared to those following IST. Eight subjects performed elbow flexions with identical time...

  10. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    muscles at forces corresponding to 10% and 40% MVC. Mean value for endurance time at 10% MVC was significantly longer for flexion [111.3 (SD 56.1) min] than for extension [18.1 (SD 7.5) min;n = 7]. At 40% MVC the difference in mean endurance time disappeared [2.3 (SD 0.7) min for elbow flexion and 2.3 (SD...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained during...

  11. Muscular synergy in the shoulder during a fatiguing static contraction.

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    Nieminen, H; Takala, E-P; Niemi, J; Viikari-Juntura, E

    1995-09-01

    The synergic operation of shoulder muscles during a fatiguing submaximal arm flexion task was studied using both a biomechanical 3-dimensional shoulder model and electromyographic recordings. A new optimization scheme aiming to maximize the task endurance time by constantly regulating the force output of each muscle is utilized in the model. The method can be used to simulate the muscle rotation phenomenon, which has been proposed to occur during an endurance type contraction. The model predictions on the fatigue order of the shoulder muscles were compared to results derived using the median frequencies of the electromyographic signals from nine muscles or muscle parts. In the test performed 10 men held until exhaustion a weight (4 kg) suspended on the wrist with the arm in horizontal flexion. The deltoid, infraspinatus, and supraspinatus muscles were the first to show electromyographic signs of fatigue. The times for detecting electromyographic changes in the trapezius muscle were longer than those in the muscles first showing electromyographic signs of fatigue. The biomechanical model used predicted the upper and lower infraspinatus and the anterior part of the deltoid to be the first to show signs of fatigue during the flexion task. The predictions of the biomechanical model on the order of fatigue of the nine shoulder muscles monitored also using electromyographic recordings corresponded to the electromyographic results. However, the accuracy of this comparison is limited by the fact that the electromyographic recordings did not cover all the muscles used in the model. No clear order was found for the development of electromyographic signs of muscle fatigue. RELEVANCE--:The biomechanical model and the developed optimization methods provide new tools for studying the synergic operation of shoulder muscles during fatiguing contractions. Our results will help in analysing and optimizing shoulder load in problematic functions both of work and leisure activities.

  12. Intramuscular pressure and EMG relate during static contractions but dissociate with movement and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Jensen, Bente R.; Hargens, Allan R.

    2004-01-01

    Intramuscular pressure (IMP) and electromyography (EMG) mirror muscle force in the nonfatigued muscle during static contractions. The present study explores whether the constant IMP-EMG relationship with increased force may be extended to dynamic contractions and to fatigued muscle. IMP and EMG...... with speed of abduction. In the nonfatigued supraspinatus muscle, a linear relationship was found between IMP and EMG; in contrast, during fatigue and recovery, significant timewise changes of the IMP-to-EMG ratio occurred. The results indicate that IMP should be included along with EMG when mechanical load...... sharing between muscles is evaluated during dynamic and fatiguing contractions....

  13. Repeated static contractions increase mitochondrial vulnerability toward oxidative stress in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Kent; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Mogensen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Repeated static contractions (RSC) induce large fluctuations in tissue oxygen tension and increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated the effect of RSC on muscle contractility, mitochondrial respiratory function, and in vitro sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2......+) kinetics in human muscle. Ten male subjects performed five bouts of static knee extension with 10-min rest in between. Each bout of RSC (target torque 66% of maximal voluntary contraction torque) was maintained to fatigue. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise and 0.3 and 24 h postexercise from vastus...... lateralis. Mitochondria were isolated and respiratory function measured after incubation with H(2)O(2) (HPX) or control medium (Con). Mitochondrial function was not affected by RSC during Con. However, RSC exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction during HPX, resulting in decreased respiratory control index...

  14. Physiological Response to Static Muscle Contractions in Standing and Supine Positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Meldgaard; Andersen, T. Bull

    2013-01-01

    ), electromyography (EMG), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were determined during the static contractions. The results of main interest were a significantly larger initial decline of muscle oxygen concentration and a steeper negative slope of the frequency content in the EMG signals in the supine position....... These results indicate that the fatigue development is more pronounced in a supine position, which is most likely due to changes in muscle blood flow....

  15. Fatigue sensation, electromyographical and hemodynamic changes of low back muscles during repeated static contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Mehrnoosh; Ohashi, Jun-ya; Kurustien, Nopporn; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2011-03-01

    The effects of work strategy and a rest condition on the physiological changes of the erector spinae muscle were studied. Eleven volunteers repeated fatiguing static contractions of holding an industrial box in 30° trunk flexion for a repetition of 12 times interrupted by rests for which the duration was equal to the duration of each preceding contraction. Each contraction was stopped at two fatigue sensation levels; moderate or strong, which corresponded to Borg's CR-10 3 and 5, as the work strategy conditions. The repeated contractions were performed for a total of eight conditions combined with the two rest conditions, with and without stretch exercise, and two contraction levels of 10 and 40% maximum pulling force in flexed posture (MVC) on separate days. Near-infrared spectroscopy and surface electromyography (EMG) were recorded. Amplitude and median frequency (MF) of EMG, oxy-hemoglobin, and deoxy-hemoglobin were calculated. MF related to fatigue sensation most closely. Oxy-hemoglobin decreased during each contraction. It, however, increased with repetition especially at 10% MVC and the increase was interpreted as adaptation to the work. The effect of the work strategy and the rest conditions was weak. MF decreased more in a strong work strategy condition than in a moderate one.

  16. EMG-force relationship during static contraction: Effects on sensor placement locations on biceps brachii muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Nizam Uddin; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Alqahtani, Mahdi; Altwijri, Omar; Ali, Md Asraf; Islam, Md Anamul

    2014-10-15

    The relationship between surface electromyography (EMG) and force have been the subject of ongoing investigations and remain a subject of controversy. Even under static conditions, the relationships at different sensor placement locations in the biceps brachii (BB) muscle are complex. The aim of this study was to compare the activity and relationship between surface EMG and static force from the BB muscle in terms of three sensor placement locations. Twenty-one right hand dominant male subjects (age 25.3 ± 1.2 years) participated in the study. Surface EMG signals were detected from the subject's right BB muscle. The muscle activation during force was determined as the root mean square (RMS) electromyographic signal normalized to the peak RMS EMG signal of isometric contraction for 10 s. The statistical analysis included linear regression to examine the relationship between EMG amplitude and force of contraction [40-100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)], repeated measures ANOVA to assess differences among the sensor placement locations, and coefficient of variation (CoV) for muscle activity variation. The results demonstrated that when the sensor was placed on the muscle belly, the linear slope coefficient was significantly greater for EMG versus force testing (r^{2} = 0.61, P > 0.05) than when placed on the lower part (r^{2}=0.31, Pr^{2}=0.29, P > 0.05). In addition, the EMG signal activity on the muscle belly had less variability than the upper and lower parts (8.55% vs. 15.12% and 12.86%, respectively). These findings indicate the importance of applying the surface EMG sensor at the appropriate locations that follow muscle fiber orientation of the BB muscle during static contraction. As a result, EMG signals of three different placements may help to understand the difference in the amplitude of the signals due to placement.

  17. Muscle Fatigue Analysis of the Deltoid during Three Head-Related Static Isometric Contraction Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiang Cui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the fatiguing characteristics of muscle-tendon units (MTUs within skeletal muscles during static isometric contraction tasks. The deltoid was selected as the target muscle and three head-related static isometric contraction tasks were designed to activate three heads of the deltoid in different modes. Nine male subjects participated in this study. Surface electromyography (SEMG signals were collected synchronously from the three heads of the deltoid. The performances of five SEMG parameters, including root mean square (RMS, mean power frequency (MPF, the first coefficient of autoregressive model (ARC1, sample entropy (SE and Higuchi’s fractal dimension (HFD, in quantification of fatigue, were evaluated in terms of sensitivity to variability ratio (SVR and consistency firstly. Then, the HFD parameter was selected as the fatigue index for further muscle fatigue analysis. The experimental results demonstrated that the three deltoid heads presented different activation modes during three head-related fatiguing contractions. The fatiguing characteristics of the three heads were found to be task-dependent, and the heads kept in a relatively high activation level were more prone to fatigue. In addition, the differences in fatiguing rate between heads increased with the increase in load. The findings of this study can be helpful in better understanding the underlying neuromuscular control strategies of the central nervous system (CNS. Based on the results of this study, the CNS was thought to control the contraction of the deltoid by taking the three heads as functional units, but a certain synergy among heads might also exist to accomplish a contraction task.

  18. Increased fall risk is associated with elevated co-contraction about the ankle during static balance challenges in older adults.

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    Nelson-Wong, Erika; Appell, Ryan; McKay, Mike; Nawaz, Hannah; Roth, Joanna; Sigler, Robert; Third, Jacqueline; Walker, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Falls are a leading contributor to disability in older adults. Increased muscle co-contraction in the lower extremities during static and dynamic balance challenges has been associated with aging, and also with a history of falling. Co-contraction during static balance challenges has not been previously linked with performance on clinical tests designed to ascertain fall risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between co-contraction about the ankle during static balance challenges with fall risk on a commonly used dynamic balance assessment, the Four Square Step Test (FSST). Twenty-three volunteers (mean age 73 years) performed a series of five static balance challenges (Romberg eyes open/closed, Sharpened Romberg eyes open/closed, and Single Leg Standing) with continuous electromyography (EMG) of bilateral tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles. Participants then completed the FSST and were categorized as 'at-risk' or 'not-at-risk' to fall based on a cutoff time of 12 s. Co-contraction was quantified with co-contraction index (CCI). CCI during narrow base conditions was positively correlated with time to complete FSST. High CCIs during all static balance challenges with the exception of Romberg stance with eyes closed were predictive of being at-risk to fall based on FSST time, odds ratio 19.3. The authors conclude that co-contraction about the ankle during static balance challenges can be predictive of performance on a dynamic balance test.

  19. Acute effects of 15min static or contract-relax stretching modalities on plantar flexors neuromuscular properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babault, Nicolas; Kouassi, Blah Y L; Desbrosses, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of 15 min static or sub-maximal contract-relax stretching modalities on the neuromuscular properties of plantar flexor muscles. Ten male volunteers were tested before and immediately after 15 min static or contract-relax stretching programs of plantar flexor muscles (20 stretches). Static stretching consisted in 30s stretches to the point of discomfort. For the contract-relax stretching modality, subjects performed 6s sub-maximal isometric plantar flexion before 24s static stretches. Measurements included maximal voluntary isometric torque (MVT) and the corresponding electromyographic activity of soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles (RMS values), as well as maximal peak torque (Pt) elicited at rest by single supramaximal electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve. After 15 min stretching, significant MVT and SOL RMS decreases were obtained (-6.9+/-11.6% and -6.5+/-15.4%, respectively). No difference was obtained between stretching modalities. Pt remained unchanged after stretching. MG RMS changes were significantly different between stretching modalities (-9.4+/-18.3% and +3.5+/-11.6% after static and contract-relax stretching modalities, respectively). These findings indicated that performing 15 min static or contract-relax stretching had detrimental effects on the torque production capacity of plantar flexor muscles and should be precluded before competition. Mechanisms explaining this alteration seemed to be stretch modality dependent. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative estimation of muscle fatigue using surface electromyography during static muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Yewguan; Sugi, Masao; Nishino, Masataka; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Arai, Tamio; Kato, Ryu; Nakamura, Tatsuhiro; Ota, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is commonly associated with the musculoskeletal disorder problem. Previously, various techniques were proposed to index the muscle fatigue from electromyography signal. However, quantitative measurement is still difficult to achieve. This study aimed at proposing a method to estimate the degree of muscle fatigue quantitatively. A fatigue model was first constructed using handgrip dynamometer by conducting a series of static contraction tasks. Then the degree muscle fatigue can be estimated from electromyography signal with reasonable accuracy. The error of the estimated muscle fatigue was less than 10% MVC and no significant difference was found between the estimated value and the one measured using force sensor. Although the results were promising, there were still some limitations that need to be overcome in future study.

  1. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Yutetsu; Naito, Hisashi; Ogura, Yuji; Katamoto, Shizuo; Aoki, Junichiro

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate and compare the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Thirteen male university students (age, 20 ± 1 years; height, 172.2 ± 4.6 cm; weight, 68.4 ± 6.7 kg; mean ± SD) completed 3 different conditions on 3 nonconsecutive days in randomized order: static stretching (SS), PNF stretching (PNF), and no stretching (control, CON). Each condition consisted of a 5-minute rest accompanied by one of the following activities: (a) control, (b) SS, or (c) PNF stretching. The hip flexion range of motion (ROM) was evaluated immediately before and after the activity. The MVC of knee flexion was then measured. Surface electromyography was recorded from the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles during MVC tests and stretching. Although increases in ROM were significantly greater after PNF than after SS (p < 0.01), the decreases in MVC were similar between the 2 treatments. These results suggest that, although PNF stretching increases ROM more than SS, PNF stretching and SS is detrimental to isometric maximal strength.

  2. Effects of carbohydrate supplementation on force output and time to exhaustion during static leg contractions superimposed with electromyostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Benjamin; Brown, Stanley P; Webb, Heather E; Kavazis, Andreas N

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of carbohydrate ingestion on force output and time to exhaustion using single leg static contractions superimposed with brief periods of electromyostimulation. Six trained male subjects participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind study. The subjects were randomly assigned to placebo (PL) or carbohydrate (CHO). The subjects in CHO consumed 1 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body mass loading dose and 0.17 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body mass every 6 minutes during the exercise protocol. The PL received an equal volume of a solution made of saccharin and aspartame. The exercise protocol consisted of repeated 20-second static contractions of quadriceps muscle at 50% maximal voluntary contraction followed by 40-second rest until failure occurred. Importantly, the force output during quadriceps maximal voluntary contraction strength with superimposed electromyostimulation was measured in the beginning and every 5 minutes during the last 3 seconds of static contractions throughout the exercise protocol. Venous blood samples were taken preexercise, immediately postexercise, and at 5 minutes postexercise and analyzed for blood lactate. Our results indicate that time to exhaustion (PL = 16.0 ± 8.1 minutes; CHO = 29.0 ± 13.1 minutes) and force output (PL = 3,638.7 ± 524.5 N; CHO = 5,540.1 ± 726.1 N) were significantly higher (p static muscle contractions can increase force output and increase time to exhaustion. Therefore, our data suggest that carbohydrate supplementation before and during resistance exercise might help increase the training volume of athletes.

  3. The rate of force development obtained at early contraction phase is not influenced by active static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais de Oliveira, André L; Greco, Camila Coelho; Molina, Renato; Denadai, Benedito S

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of active static stretching on the maximal isometric muscle strength (maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) and rate of force development (RFD) determined within time intervals of 30, 50, 100, and 200 milliseconds relative to the onset of muscle contraction. Fifteen men (aged 21.3 ± 2.4 years) were submitted on different days to the following tests: (a) familiarization session to the isokinetic dynamometer; (b) 2 maximal isometric contractions for knee extensors in the isokinetic dynamometer to determine MVC and RFD (control); and (c) 2 active static stretching exercises for the dominant leg extensors (10 × 30 seconds for each exercise with a 20-second rest interval between bouts). After stretching, the isokinetic test was repeated (poststretching). Conditions 2 and 3 were performed in random order. The RFD was considered as the mean slope of the moment-time curve at time intervals of 0-30, 0-50, 0-100; 0-150; and 0200 milliseconds relative to the onset of muscle contraction. The MVC was reduced after stretching (285 ± 59 vs. 271 ± 56 N · m, p 0.05). However, the RFD measured at intervals of 0-150 and 0-200 milliseconds was significantly lower after stretching (p static stretching when compared with actions using maximal muscle strength.

  4. Effects of contract-relax vs static stretching on stretch-induced strength loss and length-tension relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, S S; Magnusson, S P; McHugh, M P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of contract-relax stretching (CRS) vs static stretching (SS) on strength loss and the length-tension relationship. We hypothesized that there would be a greater muscle length-specific effect of CRS vs SS. Isometric hamstring strength...... loss compared with SS. These results support the use of SS for stretching the hamstrings....

  5. Acute static vibration-induced stretching enhanced muscle viscoelasticity but did not affect maximal voluntary contractions in footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemni, Monèm; Mkaouer, Bessem; Marina, Michel; Asllani, Arben; Sands, William A

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute vibration-enhanced static stretching and/or static stretching alone on the strength and flexibility of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles. Twenty-one male footballers participated in this study (21.9 ± 1.8 years; 75.54 ± 7.3 kg; 178.7 ± 6.5 cm). The experiment started with 5 minutes standardized warm-up followed by (a) baseline flexibility pretest (Split Test); (b) maximal voluntary flexion and extension (isokinetic strength) of the knee; (c) Treatment or Sham involving 45-second stretch with or without vibration for the hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups with 10-second rest between; and (d) posttest repeating the measures of the pretest. Each player randomly performed both trials on separate occasions. The vibration device operated at 35 Hz with 2 mm amplitude. Stretching with vibration statistically increased hamstring flexibility by 7.8% (p ≤ 0.05) when compared with stretching without vibration. No statistical differences for hamstring or quadriceps strength were noted between treatment conditions. There was no statistical correlation between flexibility and strength measurements. In conclusion, flexibility increased with vibration-enhanced static stretching; however, no change was evident in the maximal voluntary contractions of the knee flexors and extensors.

  6. Acute effect of static stretching on rate of force development and maximal voluntary contraction in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjão, André L D; Gonçalves, Raquel; de Moura, Rodrigo F; Gobbi, Sebastião

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, in older women, the acute effect of static stretching (SS) on both muscle activation and force output. Twenty-three older women (64.6 +/- 7.1 yr) participated in the study. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), rate of force development (RFD) (50, 100, 150, and 200 ms relative to onset of muscular contraction), and peak RFD (PRFD) (the steepest slope of the curve during the first 200 ms) were tested under 2 randomly separate conditions: SS and control (C). Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles also was assessed. The MVC was significantly lower (p force decreased after their performance of SS exercises. The mechanisms responsible for this effect do not appear to be related to muscle activation. Thus, if flexibility is to be trained, it is recommended that SS does not occur just before the performance of activities that require high levels of muscular force.

  7. Correlation between stiffness and electromechanical delay components during muscle contraction and relaxation before and after static stretching.

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    Longo, Stefano; Cè, Emiliano; Rampichini, Susanna; Devoto, Michela; Venturelli, Massimo; Limonta, Eloisa; Esposito, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    The study was aimed at assessing possible correlations of the electromechanical delay components during muscle contraction (Delay TOT ) and relaxation (R-Delay TOT ), with muscle-tendon unit (MTU), muscle, and tendon stiffness before and after static stretching (SS). Plantarflexor muscles' maximum voluntary torque (T max ) was measured in 18 male participants (age 24±3yrs; body mass 76.4±8.9kg; stature 1.78±0.09m; mean±SD). During T max , surface electromyogram (EMG), mechanomyogram, and force signals were detected. Delay TOT and R-Delay TOT with their electrochemical and mechanical components were calculated. Passive torque and myotendinous junction displacement were assessed at 0°, 10° and 20° of dorsiflexion to determine MTU, muscle and tendon stiffness. The same protocol was repeated after SS. Delay TOT , R-Delay TOT and their mainly mechanical components correlated with MTU, muscle and tendon stiffness, both before (R 2 from 0.562 to 0.894; p<0.001) and after SS (R 2 from 0.726 to 0.955; p<0.001). SS decreased T max (-14%; p<0.001) and lengthened almost all the Delay TOT and R-Delay TOT components (from +5.9% to +30.5%; p<0.05). Correlations were found only between stiffness and the mechanical components of Delay TOT and R-Delay TOT . Correlations persisted after SS but delays increased to a higher extent than stiffness, indicating a complexity of the relationship between stiffness and delays that will be discussed in the manuscript. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA buys many supplies and services to support the agency's mission. Here you'll find out about contracting with the EPA, including: our policies; what we're looking to buy right now; what we've bought recently, and what we're looking to buy in the future.

  9. Magnitude of force perception errors during static contractions of the knee extensors in healthy young and elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzière, Séléna; Dubois, Benjamin; Brière, Anabèle; Nadeau, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of force perception during muscular contraction has not been studied extensively, despite its importance in rehabilitation and training. The purpose of this study was to quantify the errors made by healthy young and elderly individuals in their perceptions of force produced at the knee. Four different tasks were used to evaluate the perception of force and the effect of a sensory-motor reference and simultaneous contraction on the accuracy of perception. The absolute errors were similar between groups, with values of 11.9% to 16.3%, depending on the task. The raw perception errors were greater for high levels of force (>50% of the maximal voluntary contraction, or MVC), indicating an overestimation of the forces produced for both groups. At 70% MVC, the sensory-motor reference reduced raw perception errors, and the simultaneous contraction improved the accuracy of force production. Healthy young and elderly individuals had about the same capacity to judge the muscular force of their knee extensors. Therapists involved in the training of active elderly individuals should be aware that the accuracy of force perception is not perfect and that these clients have the same ability as young individuals to perceive their knee extension strength.

  10. Comparison of the effects of remote after-effects of static contractions for different upper-extremity positions and pinch-force strengths in patients with restricted wrist flexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Mitsuo; Shiratani, Tomoko

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the after-effects of static contractions of upper extremity muscles in different shoulder joint positions and at different pinch-force strengths on the maximal active range of motion (MAROM) and wrist agonist/antagonist IEMG activities for patients with restricted wrist flexion range of motion (ROM) due to upper limb pain and dysfunction. The subjects were 10 outpatients (3 males, 7 females) with restricted wrist joints. These subjects performed four static contractions of upper extremity muscles in neutral and diagonal shoulder joint positions and with weak and strong pinch-force strengths in random order. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the change in MAROM was significantly larger (P static contractions than after neutral-weak static contractions. There were no significant correlations between changes in MAROM and IEMG activities. These results indicate that shoulder joint position and pinch-force strength should be considered for effective induction of remote after-effects of static contractions for increasing MAROM for restricted wrist flexion ROM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribution of motor unit potential velocities in short static and prolonged dynamic contractions at low forces: use of the within-subject's skewness and standard deviation variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver-Król, E G; Henriquez, N R; Oosterloo, S J; Klaver, P; Bos, J M; Zwarts, M J

    2007-11-01

    Behaviour of motor unit potential (MUP) velocities in relation to (low) force and duration was investigated in biceps brachii muscle using a surface electrode array. Short static tests of 3.8 s (41 subjects) and prolonged dynamic tests (prolonged tests) of 4 min (30 subjects) were performed as position tasks, applying forces up to 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Four variables, derived from the inter-peak latency technique, were used to describe changes in the surface electromyography signal: the mean muscle fibre conduction velocity (CV), the proportion between slow and fast MUPs expressed as the within-subject skewness of MUP velocities, the within-subject standard deviation of MUP velocities [SD-peak velocity (PV)], and the amount of MUPs per second (peak frequency=PF). In short static tests and the initial phase of prolonged tests, larger forces induced an increase of the CV and PF, accompanied with the shift of MUP velocities towards higher values, whereas the SD-PV did not change. During the first 1.5-2 min of the prolonged lower force levels tests (unloaded, and loaded 5 and 10% MVC) the CV and SD-PV slightly decreased and the MUP velocities shifted towards lower values; then the three variables stabilized. The PF values did not change in these tests. However, during the prolonged higher force (20% MVC) test, the CV decreased and MUP velocities shifted towards lower values without stabilization, while the SD-PV broadened and the PF decreased progressively. It is argued that these combined results reflect changes in both neural regulatory strategies and muscle membrane state.

  12. Distribution of motor unit potential velocities in short static and prolonged dynamic contractions at low forces: use of the within-subject’s skewness and standard deviation variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, N. R.; Oosterloo, S. J.; Klaver, P.; Bos, J. M.; Zwarts, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Behaviour of motor unit potential (MUP) velocities in relation to (low) force and duration was investigated in biceps brachii muscle using a surface electrode array. Short static tests of 3.8 s (41 subjects) and prolonged dynamic tests (prolonged tests) of 4 min (30 subjects) were performed as position tasks, applying forces up to 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Four variables, derived from the inter-peak latency technique, were used to describe changes in the surface electromyography signal: the mean muscle fibre conduction velocity (CV), the proportion between slow and fast MUPs expressed as the within-subject skewness of MUP velocities, the within-subject standard deviation of MUP velocities [SD-peak velocity (PV)], and the amount of MUPs per second (peak frequency = PF). In short static tests and the initial phase of prolonged tests, larger forces induced an increase of the CV and PF, accompanied with the shift of MUP velocities towards higher values, whereas the SD-PV did not change. During the first 1.5–2 min of the prolonged lower force levels tests (unloaded, and loaded 5 and 10% MVC) the CV and SD-PV slightly decreased and the MUP velocities shifted towards lower values; then the three variables stabilized. The PF values did not change in these tests. However, during the prolonged higher force (20% MVC) test, the CV decreased and MUP velocities shifted towards lower values without stabilization, while the SD-PV broadened and the PF decreased progressively. It is argued that these combined results reflect changes in both neural regulatory strategies and muscle membrane state. PMID:17874124

  13. Acute effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction and muscle electromyographical activity in indoor soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Erika da Fonseca Silva; Pereira, Guilherme Borges; de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Silva, Mauro Fernando; Araujo, Marcia; Gomes, Italo; Prestes, Jonato

    2013-11-01

    The aim was to investigate and compare the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and static stretching (SS) on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and muscle activation in indoor soccer players. Thirty-three young adult men were divided into two groups: (i) sedentary and (ii) trained. Each group completed three different experimental trials: SS, PNF and no stretching (NS). The MVC of knee extension was evaluated before and immediately after each condition along with electromyography from the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles of the dominant leg. PNF or SS techniques induced no decrease on MVC and muscle electromyographical activity in indoor soccer players (P>0·05). The electromyography of the RF and VL was lower after SS only in the sedentary group (P≤0·05). Short-duration PNF or SS has no effect on isometric MVC and muscle activity in indoor soccer players. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Static Analysis Numerical Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    STATIC ANALYSIS OF NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS KESTREL TECHNOLOGY, LLC APRIL 2016 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) NOV 2013 – NOV 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STATIC ANALYSIS OF NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-14-C...and Honeywell Aerospace Advanced Technology to combine model-based development of complex avionics control software with static analysis of the

  15. Distribution of motor unit potential velocities in short static and prolongd dynamic contractions at low forces: Use of the within-subject's skewness and standard deviation variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver-Krol, E.G.; Henriquez, N.R.; Oosterloo, Sebe J.; Klaver, P.; Bos, J.M.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Behaviour of motor unit potential (MUP) velocities in relation to (low) force and duration was investigated in biceps brachii muscle using a surface electrode array. Short static tests of 3.8 s (41 subjects) and prolonged dynamic tests (prolonged tests) of 4 min (30 subjects) were performed as

  16. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of four additional low-noise Thyristor-Controlled Reactor coils for a new Static VAR Compensator on the 18 kV electrical network on the Meyrin site

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of four additional low-noise Thyristor-Controlled Reactor coils for a new Static VAR Compensator on the 18 kV electrical network on the Meyrin site

  17. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Sochorová, Silvie

    2012-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  18. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  19. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  20. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  1. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  2. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  3. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  4. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  5. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    When you have stable and non-ambiguous requirements then a classic contract for IS between a supplier and a public sector institution based on a requirements specification may be well suited. However, if you have to accept many changes or have ambiguous requirements then you may end up...... with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  6. Turnkey contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langetepe, G.

    1977-01-01

    To make energy available economically and in sufficient quantity is a main point for the future of an industrial and more for a developing country. The investment costs and the availability of a power plant and in particular for a nuclear power plant are the most significant factors in the economic operation of the plant. In the phase before signing the contract the essential decisions are made with high influence in the economic operation and the availability of the plant. A turn-key contract offers good possibilities to minimize the risks referring a) the plant quality and functionality, b) the plant investment cost, c) the plant completion date, d) the handling of the licensing procedures, e) the availability of the operation. The lecture mentions the points which are of high influence for a successful erection and operation period and which must be clarified before signing the contract between the buyer and supplier of the plant. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Static and dynamic pupillometry data of healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ali; Kiziltoprak, Hasan; Doguizi, Sibel; Inanc, Merve; Yilmazbas, Pelin

    2018-01-21

    This study sought to determine normative static and dynamic pupillometry data in different age groups in a healthy population, and to investigate the effects of age on pupillometric characteristics. Pupillometry measurements were undertaken on 155 healthy participants using an automatic quantitative pupillometry system. Static pupillometry measurements were undertaken; these included scotopic pupil diameter (PD), mesopic PD, low photopic PD and high photopic PD values. Dynamic pupillometry measurements were undertaken, including resting diameter, amplitude of pupil contraction, latency of pupil contraction, duration of pupil contraction, velocity of pupil contraction, latency of pupil dilation, duration of pupil dilation and velocity of pupil dilation. Overall, 69 (44.5 per cent) participants were male and 86 (55.5 per cent) were female, with a mean age of 29.7 ± 17.8 years. Neither static nor dynamic pupillometry measurements varied significantly between males and females. Age was inversely and moderately correlated with each of the static pupillometric characteristics (p static and dynamic pupillometry values in different age groups and the effect of age on pupillary characteristics. © 2018 Optometry Australia.

  8. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  9. Certified symbolic management of financial multi-party contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Berthold, Jost; Elsman, Martin

    2015-01-01

    system, with an accompanying type inference procedure, that statically ensures that contracts follow the principle of causality. Moreover, we devise a reduction semantics that allows us to evolve contracts over time, in accordance with the denotational semantics. From the verified Coq definitions, we...... automatically extract a Haskell implementation of an embedded contract DSL along with the formally verified contract management functionality. This approach opens a road map towards more reliable contract management software, including the possibility of analysing contracts based on symbolic instead of numeric...

  10. Leg blood flow during static exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbom, A; Persson, J

    1982-01-01

    Leg blood flow was studied with the constant infusion dye technique during static exercise of the thigh muscles (quadriceps) and during hand-grips at 15 and 25-30% of MVC. Blood flow and oxygen uptake in the leg increased in quadriceps exercise and reached their highest values (around 1.21/min and 165 ml/min respectively) at 25-30% of MVC, whereas leg vascular resistance decreased. Regional circulatory adaptations and the oxygen uptake - leg blood flow relationship were in close agreement with the responses found in dynamic leg exercise. In view of the marked rise in intramuscular pressure previously observed during quadriceps contractions, a restriction of blood flow and an increased vascular resistance had been expected. Involuntary activation of leg muscles other than the quadriceps may explain the finding. Contractions of the contralateral quadriceps induced a slight increase in leg blood flow, whereas hand-grips had no influence on blood flow or vascular resistance in the leg. The distribution of the cardiac output during static contractions is discussed, and it is concluded that during hand-grips the increase in blood flow is predominantly distributed to the upper part of the body.

  11. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  12. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  13. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniel; Danvy, Olivier

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new...... compositional and context-sensitive specification that provably gives rise to no static chains of jumps, no redundant labels, and no unused labels. It is defined with one inference rule per syntactic construct and operates in linear time and space on the size of the source program (indeed it operates in one...

  14. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...

  15. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new co...

  16. Why Static Clings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naab, Laurie; Henry, David

    2009-01-01

    Using Wiggins and McTighe's (1998) concept of Big Ideas, the authors planned and designed an electricity investigation to address common student misconceptions about static electricity. With Styrofoam plates and transparent tape, elementary students investigated many properties of electrically charged and uncharged objects in a 5E learning cycle…

  17. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  18. Metrology of electromagnetic static actuation of MEMS microbridge using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczała, M; Majstrzyk, W; Sierakowski, A; Dobrowolski, R; Grabiec, P; Gotszalk, T

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for characterization and calibration of static deflection of electromagnetically and/or thermally actuated micro-electromechanical (MEMS) bridge. The investigated MEMS structure is formed by a silicon nitride bridge and a thin film metal path enabling electromagnetic and/or thermal deflection actuation. We present how static microbridge deflection can be measured using contact mode AFM technology with resolution of 0.05nm in the range of up to tens of nm. We also analyze, for very small structure deflections and under defined and controlled load force varied in the range up to ca. 32nN, properties of thermal and electromagnetical microbridge deflection actuation schemes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Static and Dynamic Handgrip Strength Endurance: Test-Retest Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Psychou, Dimitra; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Zafeiridis, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the reliability of static and dynamic handgrip strength endurance using different protocols and indicators for the assessment of strength endurance. Forty young, healthy men and women (age, 18-22 years) performed 2 handgrip strength endurance protocols: a static protocol (sustained submaximal contraction at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction) and a dynamic one (8, 10, and 12 maximal repetitions). The participants executed each protocol twice to assess the test-retest reproducibility. Total work and total time were used as indicators of strength endurance in the static protocol; the strength recorded at each maximal repetition, the percentage change, and fatigue index were used as indicators of strength endurance in the dynamic protocol. The static protocol showed high reliability irrespective of sex and hand for total time and work. The 12-repetition dynamic protocol exhibited moderate-high reliability for repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change; the 8- and 10-repetition protocols demonstrated lower reliability irrespective of sex and hand. The fatigue index was not a reliable indicator for the assessment of dynamic handgrip endurance. Static handgrip endurance can be measured reliably using the total time and total work as indicators of strength endurance. For the evaluation of dynamic handgrip endurance, the 12-repetition protocol is recommended, using the repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change as indicators of strength endurance. Practitioners should consider the static (50% maximal voluntary contraction) and dynamic (12 repeated maximal repetitions) protocols as reliable for the assessment of handgrip strength endurance. The evaluation of static endurance in conjunction with dynamic endurance would provide more complete information about hand function. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Static and dynamic stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tishin, A.M.; Spichkin, Yu.I.; Bohr, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    to the appearance of anomalies in elastic constants, as well as to additional damping of sound oscillations in the lanthanide materials. The importance of understanding the nature of magnetoelastic interactions and related effects arises from the scientific desire to gather a better knowledge of magnetism, as well......In this chapter we shall consider the properties of lanthanide metals, their alloys and compounds which can be studied using static and alternating mechanical stresses. The main attention will be paid to the effects related to magnetoelastic interactions. These interactions in magnetic materials...... can display themselves in static magnetostriction deformations (this effect is not considered here) and in the changing of the magnetic state under mechanical stress. The latter causes variation of the magnetic phase transition temperatures, magnetization and magnetic structures, and leads...

  1. Axial static mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, H.E.

    1982-05-06

    Static axial mixing apparatus includes a plurality of channels, forming flow paths of different dimensions. The axial mixer includes a flow adjusting device for adjustable selective control of flow resistance of various flow paths in order to provide substantially identical flows through the various channels, thereby reducing nonuniform coating of interior surfaces of the channels. The flow adjusting device may include diaphragm valves, and may further include a pressure regulating system therefor.

  2. Static electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.; Vaidya, A.N.; Som, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of static electromagnetic field admitting a time-like and two space-like Killing vectors is completely solved. The solutions contain plane-symmetric solution as a special case. The solutions can be transformed into solutions describing the gravitational field of a charge line-mass by suitably introducing weyl's canonical coordinates. Further, these solutions are true generalizations of Kasner solutions. (Author) [pt

  3. Microprocessor controlled static converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Szabo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper wants to demonstrate a way of implementing a microcontroller into an DC motor speed control loop. The static power converter is a fully controlled rectifier bridge, using standard SCR's. The bridge's control signals are supplied by the microcontroller and are phase-angle or burst types. The automation loop contains a software PI-style regulator. All the experimental results shows that this aproach is flexibile enough to be used on a large scale.

  4. Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2014-02-01

    In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogenous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Albert Einstein's fundamental equations also allow dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Georges Lemaître, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaître's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often advocated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.

  5. Types of contracts and contracting procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Contracting for a nuclear power plant can be carried out in many different ways, from a bilateral agreement between two countries to an international open bidding competition. Also the kind of contracts (turnkey, split-package or multi-contract type) are discussed with their pros and cons as well as the contracting procedures which can be followed to come to the conclusion of a contract. (orig.) [de

  6. PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogliati, Joshua J.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2010-01-01

    Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.

  7. The Static Baryon Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Tsapalis, A; Forcrand, Ph. de

    2002-01-01

    Using state of the art lattice techniques we investigate the static baryon potential. We employ the multi-hit procedure for the time links and a variational approach to determine the ground state with sufficient accuracy that, for distances up to $\\sim 1.2$ fm, we can distinguish the $Y$- and $\\Delta$- Ans\\"atze for the baryonic Wilson area law. Our analysis shows that the $\\Delta$-Ansatz is favoured. This result is also supported by the gauge-invariant nucleon wave function which we measure for the first time.

  8. Static electricity: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Rita M.

    1991-11-01

    The major concern with static electricity is its discharging in a flammable atmosphere which can explode and cause a fire. Textile materials can have their electrical resistivity decreased by the addition of antistatic finishes, imbedding conductive particles into the fibres or by adding metal fibers to the yarns. The test methods used in the studies of static electricity include measuring the static properties of materials, of clothed persons, and of the ignition energy of flammable gases. Surveys have shown that there is sparse evidence for fires definitively being caused by static electricity. However, the 'worst-case' philosophy has been adopted and a static electricity safety code is described, including correct grounding procedures and the wearing of anti-static clothing and footwear.

  9. Static Validation of XSL Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Olesen, Mads Østerby; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2007-01-01

    no static guarantees that, under the assumption that the input is valid relative to the input schema, the output of the transformation is valid relative to the output schema. We present a validation technique for XSLT based on the XML graph formalism introduced in the static analysis of JWIG Web services...... and XACT XML transformations. Being able to provide static guarantees, we can detect a large class of errors in an XSLT stylesheet at the time it is written instead of later when it has been deployed, and thereby provide benefits similar to those of static type checkers for modern programming languages...

  10. Static Analysis Using the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe our experience of using Microsoft Azure cloud computing platform for static analysis. We start by extending Static Driver Verifier to operate in the Microsoft Azure cloud with significant improvements in performance and scalability. We present our results of using SDV on single drivers and driver suites using various configurations of the cloud relative to a local machine. Finally, we describe the Static Module Verifier platform, a highly extensible and configurable platform for static analysis of generic modules, where we have integrated support for verification using a cloud services provider (Microsoft Azure in this case.

  11. Statics and Mechanics of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically...

  12. Reduced arterial diameter during static exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H L; Mitchell, J H; Friedman, D B

    1995-01-01

    for the radial and dorsalis pedis artery was 22 +/- 3 and 28 +/- 3% lower during handgrip than the relation during rest, respectively. After one-leg knee extension both arteries reached 30 +/- 4% lower values. This study demonstrated arterial constriction in the resting limbs within the first 30 s of static......In eight subjects luminal diameter of the resting limb radial and dorsalis pedis arteries was determined by high-resolution ultrasound (20 MHz). This measurement was followed during rest and during 2 min of static handgrip or of one-leg knee extension at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction...... of another limb. Static exercise increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure, which were largest during one-leg knee extension. After exercise heart rate and mean arterial pressure returned to the resting level. No changes were recorded in arterial carbon dioxide tension, and the rate of perceived...

  13. Smart Contract-Based Access Control for the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuanyu; Kasahara, Shoji; Shen, Yulong; Jiang, Xiaohong; Wan, Jianxiong

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates a critical access control issue in the Internet of Things (IoT). In particular, we propose a smart contract-based framework, which consists of multiple access control contracts (ACCs), one judge contract (JC) and one register contract (RC), to achieve distributed and trustworthy access control for IoT systems. Each ACC provides one access control method for a subject-object pair, and implements both static access right validation based on predefined policies and dynami...

  14. EFFECTS OF COMMERCIAL CONTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria Florea; Constantin Giurca

    2014-01-01

    The contract is a legal instrument used to organize economic and social life. International trade agreement has certain features in order to ensure the international exchange of goods and services between the Contracting Parties. In terms of commercial contract, there is a foreign origin element, that gives the parties the right to determine the law to govern the contract. A fundamental aspect of commercial contract, in addition to that of determining the law applicable to judicial report est...

  15. Ultrasonographic assessment of the swelling of the human masseter muscle after static and dynamic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M; Thomsen, C E; Vilmann, A

    1996-01-01

    Work-related fatigue, pain and disorders in skeletal muscles have been related to prolonged static and dynamic activity. Such contractions have been shown to impair blood flow and increase muscle thickness and fluid. In the present study the effect of static and dynamic activity was evaluated from...... changes in masseter thickness as a measure of oedema, simultaneously with assessment of perceived pain/discomfort and cardiovascular responses. As static activity, fourteen young healthy women bit at 15% maximal voluntary contraction on bite-force transducers in the molar regions until exhaustion or 20...... of 54.3% of maxEMG. Muscle thickness was measured by ultrasonography at the mid-portion of the ipsilateral masseter. Immediately after exercise, muscle thickness was significantly increased, more after static (14.0%) than dynamic (8.6%), and returned to pre-exercise values after 20-min recovery. Visual...

  16. Reviving Ulysses contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellecy, Ryan

    2003-12-01

    Ulysses contracts have faced paternalism objections since they first were proposed. Since the contracts are designed to override a present request from a legally competent patient in favor of a past request made by that patient, enforcement of these contracts was argued to be unjustifiable strong paternalism. Recent legal developments and new theories of practical reasoning suggest that the discussion of Ulysses contracts should be revived. This paper argues that with a proper understanding of the future-directed planning embodied in Ulysses contracts, the charge of strong paternalism can be answered, and the enforcement of some Ulysses contracts may be justified under the rubric of weak paternalism.

  17. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS. DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. If we start from the definition of administrative contracts as it appears in Law no. 554/2004, these include contracts by public authorities which concern the enhancement of public property execution of works of public interest, public services, public procurement and other administrative contracts provided by special laws and subject to the jurisdiction of the administrative courts.

  18. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  19. Statics and mechanics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Krenk, Steen

    2013-01-01

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically determinate structures in the form of trusses, beams and frames. Instability is discussed in the form of the column problem - both the ideal column and the imperfect column used in actual column design. The theory of statically indeterminate structures is then introduced, and the force and deformation methods are explained and illustrated. An important aspect of the book’s approach is the systematic development of the theory in a form suitable for computer implementation using finite elements. This development is supported by two small computer programs, MiniTruss and MiniFrame, which permit static analysis of trusses and frames, as well as linearized stability analysis. The book’s final section presents related ...

  20. Static and Dynamic Traversable Wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak, Jaroslaw P.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss the effects found in static and dynamic wormholes that occur as a solution of Einstein equations in general relativity. The ground is prepared by presentation of faster than light effects, then the focus is narrowed to Morris-Thorne framework for a static spherically symmetric wormhole. Two types of dynamic worm-holes, evolving and rotating, are considered.

  1. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index......An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  2. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  3. International sales contract

    OpenAIRE

    Lauermannová, Irena

    2013-01-01

    75 International Sales Contract Abstract The objective of this thesis is to describe the ways of avoidance of the contract available under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (hereinafter the "Convention") and to make an analysis of its key term "fundamental breach of contract" as it is defined in its article 25. The thesis is composed of the introduction, three main chapters and the conclusion. The first chapter introduces the Convention itself. It ...

  4. The Joy of Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Kevin

    This paper is a practical guide that explains and illustrates contracts between libraries and vendors for computerized circulation systems. It describes the elements of a typical contract to include the equipment and services that should be specified in the contract and establishes scheduling and acceptance testing needs. Included in a contract…

  5. Contracting for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper deals with uranium sales contracts, i.e. with contractual arrangements in the first steps of the fuel cycle, which cover uranium production and conversion. The various types of contract are described and, where appropriate, their underlying business philosophy and their main terms and conditions. Finally, the specific common features of such contracts are reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  6. Teaching about Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  7. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  8. Effect of axillary blockade on regional cerebral blood flow during static handgrip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, D B; Friberg, L; Mitchell, J H

    1991-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined at rest and during static handgrip before and after regional blockade with lidocaine. A fast rotating single photon emission computer tomograph system with 133Xe inhalation was used at orbitomeatal plane (OM) +2.5 and +6.5 cm in eight subjects. M...... static handgrip, there was no increase in rCBF after partial sensory and motor blockade. Thus bilateral activation occurs in the premotor and motor sensory cortex during static handgrip, and this activation requires neural feedback from the contracting muscles....

  9. Contracts for Cooperation between Web Service Programmers and HTML Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttger, Henning; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael I.

    2006-01-01

    . Current Web service frameworks provide little help in separating these constituents, which complicates cooperation between programmers and HTML designers. We propose a system based on XML templates and formalized contracts allowing a flexible separation of concerns. The contracts act as interfaces between...... the programmers and the HTML designers and permit tool support for statically checking that both parties fulfill their obligations. This ensures that (1) programmers and HTML designers work more independently focusing on their own expertises, (2) the Web service implementation is better structured and thus easier...... describe tools that aid in the construction and management of contracts and XML templates....

  10. Contracting for Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    Insightful and comprehensive and covering new subjects like globalization and IT, this text, international in its approach, provides a thorough introduction to the key phases of the contracting process and the skills required by managers in its implementation. These include: policy for contracting...... theoretical ‘contract management model' and a ‘mature contract model', and explores the mechanisms, formal rules and informal norms that influence the way governments contract for public services. This book is essential reading for all students of public management and all public service managers....

  11. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    contradicts the incomplete contracting theory. Secondly, in complete contract setting partnering can be motivated when seen as a willingness to renegotiate complete contracts i.e. partnering lowers transaction costs for renegotiation. Partnering can make it rational for one party to accept disadvantageous...... outcomes with the conception of being repaid later in accordance to reciprocity. Value - Seeing partnering as the willingness to renegotiate complete contracts can reduce the risk for the contractor and lead to lower prices for a given service. Keywords Partnering, Contracting, Pareto efficiency...

  12. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law....... An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  13. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  14. Statics and Mechanics of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically...... of trusses and frames, as well as linearized stability analysis. The book’s final section presents related strength of materials subjects in greater detail; these include stress and strain, failure criteria, and normal and shear stresses in general beam flexure and in beam torsion....

  15. Static Var Compensator Project for the SPS Electrical Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives a progress report on the Static Var Compensator project BEF2 for the SPS electrical network. Following a market survey and a call for tenders, a contract has been awarded to ABB Sweden and the project is now in the phase of detailed performance studies, system design and ordering of the main electrical components. This progress report describes the electrical design, summarises the results of the harmonic filter design studies, discusses the interfacing of the control- and communication system and explains the mechanical layout of the Static Var Compensator and as well as the project co-ordination with the feeding BE substation renovation project. Finally, the project planning is presented and critical paths are evaluated.

  16. Contracting out local services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; Houlberg, Kurt; Ring Christensen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Governments face a fundamental choice between in-house production and contracting out for the delivery of services to citizens. This article examines the importance of ideology, fiscal pressure, and size for contracting out in technical and social services. The analysis builds on a panel data set...... covering municipal spending on services in all 98 Danish municipalities. The authors find that contracting out is shaped by ideology in social services but not in technical services, which indicates that social services are the contemporary ideological battlefield of privatization. The analysis further...... reveals that economically prosperous municipalities are more likely to contract out social services, whereas contracting out of technical services is not influenced by economic affluence. Finally, larger municipalities contract out more in technical services but less in social services, demonstrating...

  17. New staff contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  18. BOT Outsourcing Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely usen in the engineering and construction industry, but has only recently been introduced in services industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets have recently started offering BOT outsourcing contracts....... In this paper we investigate under which circumstances a BOT outsourcing contract (i.e. a contract where the client firm exercises its call option) is beneficial, or the opposite, to the emerging market vendor firm. We draw on various theoretical literatures (transaction cost economics, real options, inter......-firm linkages) and develop three scenarios for the implications for vendor firms. We find that BOT contracts, under certain circumstances, may imply benefits of process and knowledge upgrading for the emerging market vendor firm. However, given different sets of circumstances, engaging in a BOT contract carries...

  19. BOT Outsourcing Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely usen in the engineering and construction industry, but has only recently been introduced in services industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets have recently started offering BOT outsourcing contracts. In this p......Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely usen in the engineering and construction industry, but has only recently been introduced in services industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets have recently started offering BOT outsourcing contracts....... In this paper we investigate under which circumstances a BOT outsourcing contract (i.e. a contract where the client firm exercises its call option) is beneficial, or the opposite, to the emerging market vendor firm. We draw on various theoretical literatures (transaction cost economics, real options, inter...

  20. Static Analysis for Dynamic XML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    We describe the summary graph lattice for dataflow analysis of programs that dynamically construct XML documents. Summary graphs have successfully been used to provide static guarantees in the JWIG language for programming interactive Web services. In particular, the JWIG compiler is able to check...

  1. Some Static Properties of Slinky

    OpenAIRE

    Eskandari-asl, Amir

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we use a simple discrete model for Slinky to explore some of its static properties. We derive some relations for vertically and U-shaped suspended Slinkies, based on which, some demonstrations are proposed that can be simply done in freshmen physics classes.

  2. Static Analysis of Dynamic Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Magnus

    with static type systems, such as Java and C# , but the same features are rarely available for dynamic languages such as JavaScript. The aim of this thesis is to investigate techniques for improving the tool- support for dynamic programming languages without imposing any artificial restrictions...

  3. Static Analysis for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Rosa, D. Schuch da

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows how static analysis techniques can help understanding biological systems. Based on a simple example we illustrate the outcome of performing three different analyses extracting information of increasing precision. We conclude by reporting on the potential impact and exploitation o...... of these techniques in systems biology....

  4. Static Correctness of Hierarchical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1990-01-01

    A system of hierarchical, fully recursive types in a truly imperative language allows program fragments written for small types to be reused for all larger types. To exploit this property to enable type-safe hierarchical procedures, it is necessary to impose a static requirement on procedure calls...

  5. Contract archaeology and news archaeological contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Londoño

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two topics related to the current situation of archaeology in Latin America and Colombia. The first section of the paper deals with the impact of contract archaeology in Colombia. The fact that programs of contract or preventive archaeology have rocketed in recent years is well known. Less known, however, are the broad tendencies and dimensions of this phenomenon. The second issue discussed here is the relationship between global tourism politics and processes of local recovery and enhancement of heritage assets, which will be explored through the analysis of two archaeological sites. The recovery and touristification of an archaeological site is used as starting point to reflect about the differences between a new tendency in archaeological contract opposed to the dominant tendency in the field.

  6. Copyright Preemption of Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannan, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This Article argues that both courts and scholars are wrong in their categorical approaches to preemption of contracts under the Copyright Act, and proposes an intermediate approach that recognizes the importance of both contract rights and federal policy in preemption analysis. First, it argues that both courts and scholars have misapplied preemption law to breach of contract claims. Although the two sides tend to favor opposite results, they take equally categorical approaches. Categori...

  7. Contracting for Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    strategic purchasing understanding markets communicating the contracting decision designing and drafting the contract the role of the consumer the regulation of service provision Illustrated throughout with practitioner case-studies from a range of OECD countries, this book presents an important new......Insightful and comprehensive and covering new subjects like globalization and IT, this text, international in its approach, provides a thorough introduction to the key phases of the contracting process and the skills required by managers in its implementation. These include: policy for contracting...

  8. Cortical and brain stem changes in neural activity during static handgrip and postexercise ischemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Mikael; Macefield, Vaughan G; Henderson, Luke A

    2010-01-01

    , and to differentiate between central command and reflex inputs, we used blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) of the whole brain (3 T). Subjects performed submaximal static handgrip exercise for 2 min followed by 6 min of PEI; MSNA was recorded on a separate day. During the contraction phase...

  9. Duration of static stretching influences muscle force production in hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yuji; Miyahara, Yutetsu; Naito, Hisashi; Katamoto, Shizuo; Aoki, Junichiro

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether duration of static stretching could affect the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Volunteer male subjects (n = 10) underwent 2 different durations of static stretching of their hamstring muscles in the dominant leg: 30 and 60 seconds. No static stretching condition was used as a control condition. Before and after each stretching trial, hamstring flexibility was measured by a sit and reach test. MVC was then measured using the maximal effort of knee flexion. The hamstring flexibility was significantly increased by 30 and 60 seconds of static stretching (control: 0.5 +/- 1.1 cm; 30 seconds: 2.1 +/- 1.8 cm; 60 seconds: 3.0 +/- 1.6 cm); however, there was no significant difference between 30 and 60 seconds of static stretching conditions. The MVC was significantly lowered with 60 seconds of static stretching compared to the control and 30 seconds of the stretching conditions (control: 287.6 +/- 24.0 N; 30 seconds: 281.8 +/- 24.2 N; 60 seconds: 262.4 +/- 36.2 N). However, there was no significant difference between control and 30 seconds of static stretching conditions. Therefore, it was concluded that the short duration (30 seconds) of static stretching did not have a negative effect on the muscle force production.

  10. Static forces variation and pressure distribution in laryngoscopy performed by straight and curved blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, S; Silvestri, S; Carassiti, M; Agro, F E

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the forces acting on the laryngoscope during the lifting of the epiglottis is carried out by applying the basic principles of statics. The static model of a laryngoscope equipped with a straight and a curved blade and the forces variation, as a function of the introduction angle and of tissue reaction application point, are described. The pharyngeal tissues and epiglottis pressure distribution on the blade is obtained, with a 1mm(2) resolution, by measurements performed in-vitro on a simulation mannequin, using straight and curved blades. The straight blade requires more effort than the curved one to obtain the same visualization of vocal cords, however forces exerted by using a laryngoscope with a curved blade do not vary linearly with the application point of tissue reaction. Average intensity of the tissue reaction has been found in the order of 32+/-11 N. Pressure distribution is maximally concentrated on the tip of curved blades (0.5 MPa on 5mm axial length), whereas it is more dispersed on straight blades (0.2 MPa on 10mm axial length). The inclination of the handle also influences the effort of the operator: for both blades, from 0 rad to 1.57 rad, the lifting force shows a total variation of about 13% of the top value, the transversal forces vary less than 6% of the top value.

  11. Gas contracts in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.J. [Delhi Gas Pipeline Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The transition of gas marketing by producers from a regulated and structured market to an open competitive and commodity market has created new challenges for attorneys drafting gas sales contracts. This article examines the following related topics: Interruptible contracts; pricing provisions; transport imbalances.

  12. Contract JAVYS - CEZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Company (JAVYS) and Czech energy firm CEZ signed a contract on setting up of a joint venture to build a new nuclear facility at Jaslovske Bohunice (Trnava region). The value of the investment is estimated at 4-6 billion Eur. The contract was approved by the Slovak Government; the state will own a majority stake in the company via JAVYS.

  13. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law. An opportu......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law....... An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  14. Contract Teachers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  15. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  16. Do contracts help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...

  17. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  18. Comparing contracting performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    One key question for the last three decades of public management reforms is whether country differences between radical and modest reform approaches make a difference for performance in a reformed public sector. This paper compares differences in the implementation and performance of contracting....... Hypotheses are suggested for the role of culture, competition, contracts, capabilities and collaboration for contracting performance between and across the countries. Arguments are tested against data from on four comparable national surveys of private delivery of park and road maintenance services in local...... governments. Contracting performance is found to be higher in the United Kingdom due to a stronger overall combination of institutional features while performance differences across the countries in ranked order are found to be collaboration, contracts, capabilities and competition. Overall, the study support...

  19. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  20. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  1. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  2. Water cooled static pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  3. Size scaling of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, O M; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-22

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as f(m)+Δf/A(γ) for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of f(m), controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  4. Static Analysis of Mobile Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    and not allowed, to do. The second issue was that a fully static analysis was never a realistic possibility, because Java , the programming langauge...not justified by the test data). This idea came to define the project: use dynamic analyiss to guess the correct properties a program points of interest...scale to large programs it had to handle essentially all of the features of Java and could also be used as a general-purpose analysis engine. The

  5. Static and Dynamic Membrane Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Ivanov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While originally P systems were defined to contain multiset rewriting rules, it turned out that considering different types of rules may produce important results, such as increasing the computational power of the rules. This paper focuses on factoring out the concept of a membrane structure out of various P system models with the goal of providing useful formalisations. Both static and dynamic membrane structures are considered.

  6. Homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Ziad, M.; Sharif, M.

    1998-08-01

    In this note we consider the homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes. We find that we can provide a complete list of all metrics that admit non-trivial homothetic motions and are cylindrically symmetric static. (author)

  7. Three Inexpensive Static-Electricity Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Gordon R.; Gregg, William R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes demonstrations to (1) construct an inexpensive static electricity detector; (2) obtain an abundant supply of either negative or positive charge using household items; and (3) create static electricity using a Tesla coil or Van de Graaff generator. (MDH)

  8. On Deep e-Contracting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Angelov, S.A.

    The use of electronic contracts is emerging as a way to improve the effi-ciency of contracting processes. Electronic contracts are, however, often used as a direct replacement for traditional paper contracts - which we call shallow e-contracting. Consequently, business processes in general and

  9. Contract Award Decisions Resulting in Contract Termination for Default

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... Specifically, the audit focused on contracts terminated either for default or convenience and determined whether the contract terminations could have been averted based on information available before contract award...

  10. 30 CFR 18.26 - Static electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static electricity. 18.26 Section 18.26 Mineral... § 18.26 Static electricity. Nonmetallic rotating parts, such as belts and fans, shall be provided with a means to prevent an accumulation of static electricity. ...

  11. A Pedagogical Model of Static Friction

    OpenAIRE

    Pickett, Galen T.

    2015-01-01

    While dry Coulombic friction is an elementary topic in any standard introductory course in mechanics, the critical distinction between the kinetic and static friction forces is something that is both hard to teach and to learn. In this paper, I describe a geometric model of static friction that may help introductory students to both understand and apply the Coulomb static friction approximation.

  12. Incentive drilling contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moomjian, C.A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Incentive drilling contracts historically have been based on the footage and turnkey concepts. Because these concepts have not been used widely in the international and offshore arenas, this paper discusses other innovative approaches to incentive contracts. Case studies of recently completed or current international and offshore contracts are presented to describe incentive projects based on a performance bonus (Case 1), lump sum per well (Case 2), target time and cap for a specified hole section (Case 3), and per-well target time (Case 4). This paper concludes with a review and comparison of the case studies and a general discussion of factors that produce successful innovative incentive programs that enhance drilling efficiency

  13. Industrial Services Contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of Industrial Services contracts at CERN, including the probable expenditure in 2006 and the estimated expenditure for 2007. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note of the revised amount in 2006 for Industrial Services contracts referred to in this document of 138.02 MCHF at 2006 prices compared to the previously anticipated amount of 122.67 MCHF at 2005 prices; - to take note that the estimated amount in 2007 for the contracts referred to in this document will be 112.54 MCHF at 2006 prices; - for the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is also invited to approve the requests for the contracts presented and highlighted in the Annexes.

  14. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  15. Superfund Contract Laboratory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) is a national network of EPA personnel, commercial laboratories, and support contractors whose primary mission is to provide data of known and documented quality to the Superfund program.

  16. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  17. Contracting the Facebook API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rubinger

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an explosive growth in the popularity of online social networks such as Facebook. In a new twist, third party developers are now able to create their own web applications which plug into Facebook and work with Facebook's "social" data, enabling the entire Facebook user base of more than 400 million active users to use such applications. These client applications can contain subtle errors that can be hard to debug if they misuse the Facebook API. In this paper we present an experience report on applying Microsoft's new code contract system for the .NET framework to the Facebook API.We wrote contracts for several classes in the Facebook API wrapper which allows Microsoft .NET developers to implement Facebook applications. We evaluated the usefulness of these contracts during implementation of a new Facebook application. Our experience indicates that having code contracts provides a better and quicker software development experience.

  18. Distributed System Contract Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Francalanza Ph.D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of behavioural contracts, to specify, regulate and verify systems, is particularly relevant to runtime monitoring of distributed systems. System distribution poses major challenges to contract monitoring, from monitoring-induced information leaks to computation load balancing, communication overheads and fault-tolerance. We present mDPi, a location-aware process calculus, for reasoning about monitoring of distributed systems. We define a family of Labelled Transition Systems for this calculus, which allow formal reasoning about different monitoring strategies at different levels of abstractions. We also illustrate the expressivity of the calculus by showing how contracts in a simple contract language can be synthesised into different mDPi monitors.

  19. Statutes and contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trosborg, Anna

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the language used in legal speech acts in legislative texts and contracts in the field of English Contract Law. The central objects of study are regulative functions with a particular view to establishing realization patterns of the rhetorical functions of directive...... institutions, as well as in terms of the face redress required by the socio-pragmatic situation. Udgivelsesdato: JAN...

  20. Corrupt Relational Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz

    2002-01-01

    Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...

  1. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD; G HARINATH GOWD

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the ...

  2. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  3. An unsatisfactory contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    For the last 15 years contract policy has been one of the top priorities of CERN staff, as expressed in successive surveys initiated by the Staff Association. In one’s professional life, having some forward vision of one’s career prospects is the key to loyalty and motivation. On the contrary, instability about the future is always at the root of anxiety, conflicts, or even health problems. A good employer must therefore balance the needs of the Company and those of its employees. CERN’s current contract policy, as described in the Administrative Circular No 2, states that staff members should first obtain a limited duration (LD) contract of up to five years. Then, if they want to stay in the Organization, staff members must apply, usually once a year, and before the end of their LD contract, for an indefinite contract (IC) post. All candidates for an IC post are considered by the Review Board for the award of indefinite contracts (Review Board) which will choose the most suita...

  4. THE EFFECT OF THE STATIC RELATIVE STRENGTH ON THE MAXIMUM RELATIVE RECEIVING OF OXYGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on research on the sample of 263 students of age- 18 years, and used batteries of 9 tests for evaluation of the static relative strength and the criterion variable- maximum relative receiving of oxygen (VO2 ml / kg / min based on the Astrand test ,and on regression analysis to determine the influence of the static relative strength on the criterion variable maximum relative oxygen receiving, can be generally concluded that from 9 predictor variables statistically significant partial effect have 2variables. In hierarchical order, they are: the variable of static relative leg strength - endurance of the fingers (the angle of the lower leg and thigh 900 (SRL2 which arithmetic mean is 25.04 seconds and variable ctatic relative strength of arms and shoulders – push-up endurance in the balance beam (angle of the forearm and upper arm 900 ( SRA2 with arithmetic mean of 17.75 seconds. From the statistically influential significant predictor variables on the criterion variable one is from the static relative leg strength (SRL2 and the other is from the static relative strength of arm and shoulder area (SRA2. With the analysis of these relations we can conclude that the isometric contractions of the four headed thigh muscle and the isometric contractions of the three headed upper arm muscle are predominantly responsible for the successful execution of doing actions on a bicycle ergometer and not on the maximum relative receiving of oxygen.

  5. Orchestrating with Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Martinez, Josu

    2012-01-01

    Our domain of interest is self-healing systems. We wish to reason about the behavior of statically and dynamically composed systems. The orchestration language Orc permits one to write programs that compose such systems. Unfortunately, Orc's semantics make no assumptions about the behavior...

  6. Hubble expansion in static spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossler, Otto E.; Froehlich, Dieter; Movassagh, Ramis; Moore, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A recently proposed mechanism for light-path expansion in a static spacetime is based on the moving-lenses paradigm. Since the latter is valid independently of whether space expands or not, a static universe can be used to better see the implications. The moving-lenses paradigm is related to the paradigm of dynamical friction. If this is correct, a Hubble-like law is implicit. It is described quantitatively. A bent in the Hubble-like line is predictably implied. The main underlying assumption is Price's Principle (PI 3 ). If the theory is sound, the greatest remaining problem in cosmology becomes the origin of hydrogen. Since Blandford's jet production mechanism for quasars is too weak, a generalized Hawking radiation hidden in the walls of cosmic voids is invoked. A second prediction is empirical: slow pattern changes in the cosmic microwave background. A third is ultra-high redshifts for Giacconi quasars. Bruno's eternal universe in the spirit of Augustine becomes a bit less outlandish

  7. Voluntary low-force contraction elicits prolonged low-frequency fatigue and changes in surface electromyography and mechanomyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Madeleine, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    Controversies exist regarding objective documentation of fatigue development with low-force contractions. We hypothesized that non-exhaustive, low-force muscle contraction may induce prolonged low-frequency fatigue (LFF) that in the subsequent recovery period is detectable by electromyography (EMG......) and in particular mechanomyography (MMG) during low-force rather than high-force test contractions. Seven subjects performed static wrist extension at 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 10 min (10%MVC10 min). Wrist force response to electrical stimulation of extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) quantified...... LFF. EMG and MMG were recorded from ECR during static test contractions at 5% and 80% MVC. Electrical stimulation, MVC, and test contractions were performed before 10%MVC10 min and at 10, 30, 90 and 150 min recovery. In spite of no changes in MVC, LFF persisted up to 150 min recovery but did...

  8. Muscle contraction analysis with MRI image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horio, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Imura, Masataka; Oshiro, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    The MRI measurement has been widely used from the advantage such as no radiation exposure and high resolution. In various measurement objects, the muscle is used for a research and clinical practice. But it was difficult to judge static state of a muscle contraction. In this study, we focused on a proton density change by the blood vessel pressure at the time of the muscle contraction, and aimed the judgments of muscle contraction from variance of the signal intensity. First, the background was removed from the measured images. Second, each signal divided into the low signal side and the high signal side, and variance values (σ H , σ L ) and the ratio (μ) were calculated. Finally, Relax and strain state ware judged from the ratio (μ). As a Result, in relax state, ratio (μ r ) was 0.9823±0.06133. And in strain state, ratio (μ s ) was 0.7547±0.10824. Therefore, a significant difference was obtained in relax state and strain state. Therefore, the strain state judgment of the muscle was possible by this study's method. (author)

  9. Media contracts formalization using a standardized contract expression language

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Luna, Eva; Delgado Mercè, Jaime; Boch, Laurent; Rodríguez-Doncel, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Contract Expression Languages allow representing business contracts in a digital and structured form. Some examples are the Content Reference Forum format, the OASIS eContracts standard or a proposed extension for MPEG-21 Part 5. These formats have influenced the design of the MPEG-21 Contract Expression Language (CEL), which has been recently specified by modelling the most relevant clauses in audiovisual contracts. The MPEG-21 CEL, described in this paper, defines a language for representin...

  10. Energetics of contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, C J

    2015-04-01

    Muscles convert energy from ATP into useful work, which can be used to move limbs and to transport ions across membranes. The energy not converted into work appears as heat. At the start of contraction heat is also produced when Ca(2+) binds to troponin-C and to parvalbumin. Muscles use ATP throughout an isometric contraction at a rate that depends on duration of stimulation, muscle type, temperature and muscle length. Between 30% and 40% of the ATP used during isometric contraction fuels the pumping Ca(2+) and Na(+) out of the myoplasm. When shortening, muscles produce less force than in an isometric contraction but use ATP at a higher rate and when lengthening force output is higher than the isometric force but rate of ATP splitting is lower. Efficiency quantifies the fraction of the energy provided by ATP that is converted into external work. Each ATP molecule provides 100 zJ of energy that can potentially be converted into work. The mechanics of the myosin cross-bridge are such that at most 50 zJ of work can be done in one ATP consuming cycle; that is, the maximum efficiency of a cross-bridge is ∼50%. Cross-bridges in tortoise muscle approach this limit, producing over 90% of the possible work per cycle. Other muscles are less efficient but contract more rapidly and produce more power. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  11. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen:1.\tCandidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2.\tThe criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following:staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract;in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consid...

  12. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen: 1. Candidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2. The criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following: staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract; in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consideration fo...

  13. Cerebral blood flow during static exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, H B; Schroeder, T; Secher, N H

    1990-01-01

    voluntary contraction (MVC) and utilized alternate legs. CBF (measured by the 133Xe clearance technique) was expressed by a noncompartmental flow index (ISI). Heart rate and mean arterial pressure increased from resting values of 73 (55-80) beats/min and 88 (74-104) mmHg to 106 (86-138) beats/min and 124...... (102-146) mmHg, respectively (P less than 0.0005), during the contraction at 32% MVC. Arterial PCO2 and central venous pressure did not change. Corrected to the average resting PCO2, CBF during control was 55 (35-73) ml.100 g-1.min-1 and remained constant during contractions. Cerebral vascular...... resistance increased from 1.5 (1.0-2.2) to 2.4 (1.4-3.0) mmHg. 100 g.min.ml-1 (P less than 0.025) at 32% of MVC. There was no difference in CBF between the two hemispheres at rest or during exercise. In contrast to dynamic leg exercise, static leg exercise is not associated with an increase in global CBF...

  14. The Predictive Validity of the Static-99, Static-99R, and Static-2002/R: Which One to Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Sophie G; Ogloff, James R P; Simmons, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    The use of Static tools (Static-99, Static-99R, Static-2002, and Static-2002R) in risk decision making involving sexual offenders is widespread internationally. This study compared the predictive accuracy and incremental validity of four Static risk measures in a sample of 621 Australian sexual offenders. Results indicated that approximately 45% of the sample recidivated (with 18.8% committing sexual offenses). All of the Static measures investigated yielded moderate predictive validity for sexual recidivism, which was comparable with other Australian and overseas studies. Area under the curve (AUC) values for the four measures across the 5-, 10-, and 15-year intervals ranged from .67 to .69. All of the Static measures discriminated quite well between low-risk and high-risk sexual offenders but less well for the moderate risk categories. When pitted together, none of the tools accounted for additional variance in sexual recidivism, above and beyond what the other measures accounted for. The overall results provide support for the use of Static measures as a component of risk assessment and decision making with Australian sexual offending populations. The limitations of this study and recommendations for further research are also discussed.

  15. Networks and informal contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Brownsword, Roger; van Gestel, Rob A.J.; Micklitz, Hans-W.

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that formal contract law cannot treat networks correctly. An analysis of networks in an informal contract law system shows that informal contract law is no panacea. Remaining problems require a different approach to legal regulation and contract practice.

  16. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  17. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  18. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  19. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... constraints such as capacity limits, reserve requirements and sulphur content. Contracts are often used for bunker purchasing, ensuring supply and often giving a discounted price. A contract can supply any vessel in a period and port, and is thus a shared resource between vessels, which must be distributed...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  20. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  1. Static and dynamic thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1986-01-01

    Static images as isolated investigation in thyroid diagnosis mainly provides morphologic information, and therefore sonography is largely applied for this purpose. 99m Tc-pertechnetate scans or 123 I-scans are indicated in cases of malpositions and serve to clarify lesions of unknown dignity. Additionally 201 Tl-chloride is suited for examinations with regard to metabolically active thyroid tissue, whereby differential diagnostic laboratory tests must be carried out to exclude parathyroid adenoma. Dynamic thyroid scans before and after regulation tests (suppression, stimulation) reflect the physiological correlation between the iodine avidity of the thyroid, the peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and the hypophyseal regulation in the TRH-test. The main application of this procedure is the clarification of thyroid autonomy, i.e. indication, detection, quantification or exclusion of thyroid autonomy. For the treatment of immunogenic thyrotoxicosis, dynamic thyroid scintigraphy provides important information about the onset of remission, thus permitting to end thyreostatic therapy. (orig.) [de

  2. Statics learning from engineering examples

    CERN Document Server

    Emri, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This textbook introduces and explains the basic concepts on which statics is based utilizing real engineering examples. The authors emphasize the learning process by showing a real problem, analyzing it, simplifying it, and developing a way to solve it. This feature teaches students intuitive thinking in solving real engineering problems using the fundamentals of Newton’s laws. This book also: · Stresses representation of physical reality in ways that allow students to solve problems and obtain meaningful results · Emphasizes identification of important features of the structure that should be included in a model and which features may be omitted · Facilitates students' understanding and mastery of the "flow of thinking" practiced by professional engineers.

  3. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    theory is proposed. The proposed expression applies to plane strain as well as axis-symmetric stress conditions for foundations with smooth or rough bases. A thorough experimental investigation of the static behaviour of bucket foundations subjected to combined loading is carried out. Laboratory tests...... as well as large-scale tests on bucket foundations subjected to low vertical load are performed during this work. Numerical simulations of the tests performed are carried out using the Mohr Coulomb material model and the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. Based on the present work, the finite element...... method is concluded to be a superior method in estimating the post peak behaviour as well as the combined capacity of bucket foundations in relation to the offshore wind turbine problem....

  4. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  5. Pulsed Current Static Electrical Contact Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Harry N; Neri, Jesse M; Boyer, Craig N; Cooper, Khershed P; Meger, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Railguns involve both static and sliding electrical contacts, which must transmit the large transient electrical currents necessary to impart high forces onto a projectile for acceleration to hypervelocity...

  6. DELIMITATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS FOR OTHER TYPES OF CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. to qualify a contract as an administrative contract, besides the determination of the law, we must pay attention to the case-law, the administrative contract concluded by a public or on behalf of a public person and that either contains within it derogation clause from the common law or is as object the execution of a public service.

  7. Paradental Training Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This report describes institutional, faculty, and student activities and problems resulting from Lane Community College's acceptance of a federal contract to develop a paradental training program designed specifically to provide training/retraining required to quality military-trained dental corpsmen for examination by the Oregon State Board of…

  8. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  9. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...

  10. The Danish Contracting System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Levring, Peter

    The paper is mainly concerned with the institutional framework of the Danish construction industry, describing structures, rules and actors' roles within a perspective of nationally defined procedural guidelines on construction projects. These aspects are treated under the concept of a "contracting...

  11. Psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors: a latent growth modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C; Lam, Simon S K

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the relationships among psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors (generating, spreading, implementing innovative ideas at work) over a 6-month period. Results indicate that the effects of psychological contract breaches on employees are not static. Specifically, perceptions of psychological contract breaches strengthened over time and were associated with decreased levels of affective commitment over time. Further, increased perceptions of psychological contract breaches were associated with decreases in innovation-related behaviors. We also found evidence that organizational commitment mediates the relationship between psychological contract breaches and innovation-related behaviors. These results highlight the importance of examining the nomological network of psychological contract breaches from a change perspective.

  12. STATIC VERSUS PNF STRETCHING IN HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY-A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Naga Prahalada Karnati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stretching used as a technique for injury prevention in the clinical settings, the study aimed to determine the early findings of hamstring tightness with both groups in the population, now a days the sedentary activities like prolonged sitting might cause hamstring tightness and change in path kinematics of gait intern lead to postural defects and back pain, understanding of the stretching helps clinician to make decisions for rehabilitation. Methods: Across-sectional study, counterbalanced with repeated-measures , one group with static stretch – (double hamstring stretch and hurdlers stretch for 3 times,30seconds subsequently in another group PNF contract relax(agonist contraction technique for 10 seconds position and 10 seconds stretch repeated for 3 times. Results: The results from data and statistical analysis by using t-test, SPSS obtained by using goniometer are tabulated in terms of mean, standard deviation and p-value in both groups. In experimental group flexion with PNF showed improvement 9.27±1.91(right side, 9.53±2.42(left side and static stretching showed 7.8±2.91(right side, 7.47±1.96(left side this proves that PNF has consistent improvement than static stretching. Conclusions: Static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching both have produced greater improvement but compared with PNF contract relax(agonist stretching showed significant change in hamstring flexibility compared with control group . The effect sizes, however corresponding to these stretching-induced changes were small, which suggests the need for practitioners to consider a risk-to-benefit ratio when incorporating static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching.

  13. Empirical Tests and Preliminary Results with the Krakatoa Tool for Full Static Program Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-de León Edgar Darío; Chávez-Bosquez Oscar; Francisco-León Julián Javier

    2014-01-01

    XJML (Ramírez et al., 2012) is a modular external platform for Verification and Validation of Java classes using the Java Modeling Language (JML) through contracts written in XML. One problem faced in the XJML development was how to integrate Full Static Program Verification (FSPV). This paper presents the experiments and results that allowed us to define what tool to embed in XJML to execute FSPV.

  14. Empirical Tests and Preliminary Results with the Krakatoa Tool for Full Static Program Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-de León Edgar Darío

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available XJML (Ramírez et al., 2012 is a modular external platform for Verification and Validation of Java classes using the Java Modeling Language (JML through contracts written in XML. One problem faced in the XJML development was how to integrate Full Static Program Verification (FSPV. This paper presents the experiments and results that allowed us to define what tool to embed in XJML to execute FSPV.

  15. Static Material Strength Determined Using a DAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynn, H; Evans, W; Klepeis, J P; Lipp, M; Liermann, P; Yang, W

    2009-06-04

    By measuring sample thickness and pressure gradient using x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction, respectively, the accurate static yield strengths of Ta and Fe were determined at high pressure. This improved method has several advantages over other similar methods to quantitatively determine static material strength.

  16. Static domain wall in braneworld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, M.C.B.; Carlesso, P.F. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teiorica, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hoff da Silva, J.M. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper we consider a static domain wall inside a 3-brane. Different from the standard achievement obtained in General Relativity, the analysis performed here gives a consistency condition for the existence of static domain walls in a braneworld gravitational scenario. Also the behavior of the domain wall's gravitational field in the newtonian limit is shown. (orig.)

  17. Static multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Klavs; Andersen, Torben Ravn; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    different static behavior. The method of Petlyuk and Avet'yan (1971), Bekiaris et al. (1993), which assumes infinite reflux and infinite number of stages, is extended to and applied on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences. The predictions are substantiated through simulations. The static sequence...

  18. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... incrementalizing a broad range of static analyses....

  19. Static balance and developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, RH

    2003-01-01

    The development of static balance is a basic characteristic of normal motor development. Most of the developmental motor tests include a measure of static balance. Children with a developmental coordination disorder (DCD) often fail this item. Twenty-four children at risk for DCD with balance

  20. Optimal Static Range Reporting in One Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rauhe, Theis

    2001-01-01

    We consider static one dimensional range searching problems. These problems are to build static data structures for an integer set S \\subseteq U, where U = \\{0,1,\\dots,2^w-1\\}, which support various queries for integer intervals of U. For the query of reporting all integers in S contained within...

  1. Static Complexity Analysis of Higher Order Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil; Kristiansen, Lars; Moyen, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal of the research presented in this paper is to find^Mautomatic methods for static complexity analysis of higher order^Mprograms.......The overall goal of the research presented in this paper is to find^Mautomatic methods for static complexity analysis of higher order^Mprograms....

  2. Muscle forces during running predicted by gradient-based and random search static optimisation algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ross H; Gillette, Jason C; Derrick, Timothy R; Caldwell, Graham E

    2009-04-01

    Muscle forces during locomotion are often predicted using static optimisation and SQP. SQP has been criticised for over-estimating force magnitudes and under-estimating co-contraction. These problems may be related to SQP's difficulty in locating the global minimum to complex optimisation problems. Algorithms designed to locate the global minimum may be useful in addressing these problems. Muscle forces for 18 flexors and extensors of the lower extremity were predicted for 10 subjects during the stance phase of running. Static optimisation using SQP and two random search (RS) algorithms (a genetic algorithm and simulated annealing) estimated muscle forces by minimising the sum of cubed muscle stresses. The RS algorithms predicted smaller peak forces (42% smaller on average) and smaller muscle impulses (46% smaller on average) than SQP, and located solutions with smaller cost function scores. Results suggest that RS may be a more effective tool than SQP for minimising the sum of cubed muscle stresses in static optimisation.

  3. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  4. Practical concepts in Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan, zarrokh

    2008-01-01

    A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. Contract law is based on the Latin phrase pacta sunt servanda (literally, promises must be kept) [1]. Breach of a contract is recognised by the law and remedies can be provided. Almost everyone makes contracts everyday. Sometimes written contracts are required, e.g., when buying a house [2]. However the vast majority of contracts can be and are made orally, like buying a law text book,...

  5. Differential representation of dynamic and static power grip force in the sensorimotor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisker, Birgit; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Blickenstorfer, Armin; Kollias, Spyros S

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies investigating the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the human sensorimotor cortex during static force (maintained for a few seconds) and dynamic force (repetitive force pulses) resulted in contradictory findings. Therefore, we conducted a whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging study during a visuomotor task requiring the production of either dynamic or static power grip force. Thereby we aimed at clarifying whether the BOLD signal behaves differently with dynamic and static force in the primary motor cortex, and whether it behaves in the same way in all areas and regions involved in force production. In the static condition, participants applied visually guided, isometric grip force on a dynamometer of 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and held this force for 21 s. In the dynamic condition, self-paced force pulses of 20% MVC were produced at a rate of 0.5 Hz. Static and dynamic force production activated an overlapping network of sensorimotor cortical and subcortical regions. However, the production of a significantly higher mean static force compared with the dynamic force resulted in a significantly smaller BOLD signal in the contralateral motor cortex, confirming observations of an earlier investigation. In addition, we found that the ipsilateral anterior cerebellum behaved similar to the motor cortex, whereas in all other activated regions the activation during static and dynamic force did not significantly differ. These findings demonstrate that various regions of the sensorimotor network participate differentially in the production and control of low static and dynamic grip force, and raise important questions concerning the interpretation of the BOLD signal with respect to mechanisms of neurovascular coupling.

  6. Reconciling Contracts and Relational Governance through Strategic Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Østergaard, Kim

    2018-01-01

    on contract types, such as strategic versus conventional, may reconcile the enduring research controversy between the substitution and complements perspectives. Practical implications: Today, formal contracts with foreign distributors tend to resemble “prenuptial agreements”. The opportunity for relational...

  7. Static response of deformable microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  8. A COMPARISON OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION MUSCLE FORCE PREDICTIONS DURING WHEELCHAIR PROPULSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Melissa M.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Neptune, Richard R.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare static and dynamic optimization muscle force and work predictions during the push phase of wheelchair propulsion. A secondary purpose was to compare the differences in predicted shoulder and elbow kinetics and kinematics and handrim forces. The forward dynamics simulation minimized differences between simulated and experimental data (obtained from 10 manual wheelchair users) and muscle co-contraction. For direct comparison between models, the shoulder and elbow muscle moment arms and net joint moments from the dynamic optimization were used as inputs into the static optimization routine. RMS errors between model predictions were calculated to quantify model agreement. There was a wide range of individual muscle force agreement that spanned from poor (26.4 % Fmax error in the middle deltoid) to good (6.4 % Fmax error in the anterior deltoid) in the prime movers of the shoulder. The predicted muscle forces from the static optimization were sufficient to create the appropriate motion and joint moments at the shoulder for the push phase of wheelchair propulsion, but showed deviations in the elbow moment, pronation-supination motion and hand rim forces. These results suggest the static approach does not produce results similar enough to be a replacement for forward dynamics simulations, and care should be taken in choosing the appropriate method for a specific task and set of constraints. Dynamic optimization modeling approaches may be required for motions that are greatly influenced by muscle activation dynamics or that require significant co-contraction. PMID:25282075

  9. Muscle coordination and force variability during static and dynamic tracking tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jacob H; Samani, Afshin; Mayntzhusen, Klaus; Madeleine, Pascal

    2011-12-01

    This study examined muscular activity patterns of extensor and flexor muscles and variability of forces during static and dynamic tracking tasks using compensatory and pursuit display. Fourteen volunteers performed isometric actions in two conditions: (i) a static tracking task consisting of flexion/pronation, ulnar deviation, extension/supination and radial deviation of the wrist at 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and (ii) a dynamic tracking task aiming at following a moving target at 20% MVC in the four directions of contraction. Surface electromyography (SEMG) from extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum superficialis muscles and exerted forces in the transverse and sagittal plane were recorded. Normalized root mean square and mutual information (index of functional connectivity within muscles) of SEMGs and the standard deviation and sample entropy of force signals were extracted. Larger SEMG amplitudes were found for the dynamic task (pstatic task (pforce) concomitant with smaller sample entropy was observed for the dynamic task compared with the static task (pforce variability relying on feedback and feed-forward control strategies in relation to display modes during static and dynamic tracking tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioreactor for modulation of cardiac microtissue phenotype by combined static stretch and electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklas, Jason W; Sofla, Aarash; Reis, Lewis A; Pahnke, Aric; Xiao, Yun; Laschinger, Carol; Radisic, Milica; Nunes, Sara S

    2014-01-01

    We describe here a bioreactor capable of applying electrical field stimulation in conjunction with static strain and on-line force of contraction measurements. It consisted of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tissue chamber and a pneumatically driven stretch platform. The chamber contained eight tissue microwells (8.05 mm in length and 2.5 mm in width) with a pair of posts (2.78 mm in height and 0.8 mm in diameter) in each well to serve as fixation points and for measurements of contraction force. Carbon rods, stimulating electrodes, were placed into the PDMS chamber such that one pair stimulated four microwells. For feasibility studies, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were seeded in collagen gels into the microwells. Following 3 days of gel compaction, electrical field stimulation at 3–4 V cm −1 and 1 Hz, mechanical stimulation of 5% static strain or electromechanical stimulation (field stimulation at 3–4 V cm −1 , 1 Hz and 5% static strain) were applied for 3 days. Cardiac microtissues subjected to electromechanical stimulation exhibited elevated amplitude of contraction and improved sarcomere structure as evidenced by sarcomeric α-actinin, actin and troponin T staining compared to microtissues subjected to electrical or mechanical stimulation alone or non-stimulated controls. The expression of atrial natriuretic factor and brain natriuretic peptide was also elevated in the electromechanically stimulated group. (papers)

  11. Dynamic contraction behaviour of pneumatic artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Marc D.; Pardoel, Scott

    2017-07-01

    The development of a dynamic model for the Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) is an imperative undertaking for understanding and analyzing the behaviour of the PAM as a function of time. This paper proposes a Newtonian based dynamic PAM model that includes the modeling of the muscle geometry, force, inertia, fluid dynamic, static and dynamic friction, heat transfer and valve flow while ignoring the effect of bladder elasticity. This modeling contribution allows the designer to predict, analyze and optimize PAM performance prior to its development. Thus advancing successful implementations of PAM based powered exoskeletons and medical systems. To date, most muscle dynamic properties are determined experimentally, furthermore, no analytical models that can accurately predict the muscle's dynamic behaviour are found in the literature. Most developed analytical models adequately predict the muscle force in static cases but neglect the behaviour of the system in the transient response. This could be attributed to the highly challenging task of deriving such a dynamic model given the number of system elements that need to be identified and the system's highly non-linear properties. The proposed dynamic model in this paper is successfully simulated through MATLAB programing and validated the pressure, contraction distance and muscle temperature with experimental testing that is conducted with in-house built prototype PAM's.

  12. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  13. Energy contracting in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the status of energy contracting in Switzerland and compares it with the situation in USA, Germany and France, where it has been standard practice for many years. The fact that this financing and operating instrument is not widely used in Switzerland in spite of its benefits for users and suppliers is discussed, as are the obstacles placed in its way. The results of a study made by the Federal Office of Energy are presented, whereby some 220 existing contracting arrangements with a total investment volume of around CHF 200 million were noted and a further potential of around CHF 1.1 billion estimated. The author notes that in order to utilise this potential, great efforts must be made by all parties involved

  14. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... and tax changes) have the expected Keynesian effects on output and consumption. However, we find no evidence that the large fiscal consolidation in Denmark slowed the economy after controlling for a host of exogenous shocks and business cycle effects. Rather, we find some support for the hypothesis...... that the exogenous fiscal contraction in Denmark was a credible regime shift and, together with other reforms undertaken at the time, increased both private consumption and aggregate output....

  15. Between Status and Contract?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Keiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with unfree labour in Germany from the early modern age until the beginning of the 20th century. It presents the main conclusions of a book published in 2013 on this subject in German. Unfree labour is not identified in the first place with slavery or any other labour relationship based on status. Instead, this study aims at an analysis of freedom and coercion in contractual labour relationships. It will be argued that in Germany contractual labour relationships before 1800 were embedded in a legal system that strongly restricted contractual autonomy and aimed at the suppression of free labour markets. The scope of this legislation was to guarantee efficient labour performance, which was not only perceived as being in the personal interest of an employer, but as a fundamental element of the common good. After 1800 the system changed to more incentive-based legislation that established freedom of contract for labour relations. Nevertheless, coercion in order to perform the contractual duties of a work contract remained important for many groups of workers, especially farmhands and industrial workers. The last criminal sanctions for breaches of labour contracts were only abolished in the revolution of 1919. This development shows the difficulties German law had in extending the principles of private law to workers. When a system of free labour was fully established, the issue of unemployment and economic problems, especially in the Weimar Republic, required a new system of protective rules. The history of free market based labour contracts in Germany was therefore very short, with state intervention shi ing from control and coercion to social assistance.

  16. Contract types - turnkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    Turnkey or the turnkey type of contract refers to a system of management according to which one organization accepts total responsibility for completing all parts and all phases of a project. In the case of a power project the turnkey contractor undertakes to design the plant, supply or procure and erect the equipment, build the station and put it into operation. (orig./FW) [de

  17. Utility Energy Services Contracts Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The UESC Guide is a compilation of samples and templates developed as a resource to help contracting officers implement task orders for UESCs under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts.

  18. Forestry contracting in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khosa, M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available ........................................................................................... 4 Duration of contractor firm in the market.................................................................................. 5 STATUS AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE ENTERPRISE... ................................................................................. 10 Duration of the contract........................................................................................................ 11 Duration of contract by classification...

  19. CONTRACT FOLLOW UP TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    SPL is organizing Training Sessions on the Contract Follow Up application. CFU is a Web based tool, developped and supported by the Administrative Information Services. It allows the creation of Divisional Requests and the follow up of their processing, from the Market Survey to the Invitation to Tender or Price Enquiry, approval by the Finance Committee, up to the actual signature of a Contract, acccording to the CERN Purchasing procedures. It includes a document management component. It also provides link with other AIS applications such as BHT and EDH. The course is primarily intended for DPOs, Contract Technical responsibles in the division and their assistants, but is beneficial to anybody involved in the follow up of such Purchasing Procedures. This course is free of charge, but application is necessary. The details of the course may be found at http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/ENSTEC/P2001/Bureautique/cfu4_f.htm General information of CFU may be found at http://ais.cern.ch/apps/cfu/ The dates of t...

  20. Exit from contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the procedure of exiting the contract its costs and benefits. Methods statistical method comparative analysis. Results free exit from contract is one of the most powerful tools for the consumer rights protection. The procedure frees consumers from bad deals and keeps businesses honest. Yet consumers often choose transactions with lockin provisions trading off exit rights for other perks. This article examines the costs and benefits of free exit as compared to the lockin alternative. According to the authors the present regulation of exit penalties in the USA is poorly tailored to address concerns about lockin particularly in light of increasingly ubiquitous marketbased solutions. The article also calls regulatory attention to loyalty rewards which are shown to be as powerful as exit penalties and equally detrimental. Scientific novelty the article reveals a paradoxical state of the law exit regulations in the USA are used most where they are needed least. Termination penalties present an obvishyous target for regulatory intervention while loyalty programs seem benign not warranting any regulatory attention. Practical significance the article is of interest for the Russian juridical science and lawmaking authorities as in Russia the issue of exiting the contract is as topical as in the USA and requires solution which would impair neither the rights of consumers nor the rights of the sellers ofnbspproducts and services. nbsp

  1. Non-turnkey contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Shunji

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face with troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf. (orig./FW) [de

  2. Contract portfolio optimization for a gasoline supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan

    Major oil companies sell gasoline through three channels of trade: branded (associated with long-term contracts), unbranded (associated with short-term contracts), and spot market. The branded channel provides them with a long-term secured and sustainable demand source, but requires an inflexible long-term commitment with demand and price risks. The unbranded channel provides a medium level of allocation flexibility. The spot market provides them with the greatest allocation flexibility to the changing market conditions, but the spot market's illiquidity mitigates this benefit. In order to sell the product in a profitable and sustainable way, they need an optimal contract portfolio. This dissertation addresses the contract portfolio optimization problem from different perspectives (retrospective view and forward-looking view) at different levels (strategic level, tactical level and operational level). The objective of the retrospective operational model is to develop a financial case to estimate the business value of having a dynamic optimization model and quantify the opportunity values missed in the past. This model proves the financial significance of the problem and provides top management valuable insights into the business. BP has applied the insights and principles gained from this work and implemented the model to the entire Midwest gasoline supply chain to retrospectively review optimization opportunities. The strategic model is the most parsimonious model that captures the essential economic tradeoffs among different contract types, to demonstrate the need for a contract portfolio and what drives the portfolio. We examine the properties of the optimal contract portfolio and provide a comparative statics analysis by changing the model parameters. As the strategic model encapsulates the business problem at the macroscopic level, the tactical model resolves lower level issues. It considers the time dynamics, the information flow and contracting flow. Using

  3. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting... services” in all protective services solicitations and contracts involving DOE-owned facilities requiring...

  4. 48 CFR 1516.505 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 1516.505 Contract clauses. (a) The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause in 1552.216-72, Ordering—By Designated Ordering Officers, in indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity type solicitations and contracts. (b) The Contracting...

  5. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  6. Why radiologists lose their hospital contracts: is your contract secure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-03-01

    Previously, a hospital contract meant tenure for the incumbent group of radiologists; however, those days are long gone. Exclusive contracts have morphed into exclusive contracts with carve-outs. Turf erosion has become a fact of life for radiology practices. Now radiologists are losing their hospital contracts in record numbers. Group size, though helpful for a variety of reasons, does not ensure that a practice will be secure in its hospital setting. The reasons that groups lose their hospital contracts are varied, and in this paper, the author discusses the most common ones. Suggestions to help practices avoid this unfortunate fate are presented.

  7. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  8. Transnational Law of Public Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audit, M.; Schill, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Public contracts were traditionally conceived as instruments of domestic public law and used within markets confined to the territory of the state party to the contract. Globalization, however, subjects public contracting to an increasing number of processes that take place at a transnational level

  9. Practical guide on contract of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chiho

    1991-12-01

    This book gives descriptions of practical guide on contract of technology, which deals with basic of contract like meaning, function term, singing and sealing, contract and stamp tax, common things on contract of research like keeping secret and prevention and treat of dispute, compensation for damages, notice, expiration date of contract and measurement at end of contract, contract of joint research such as meaning and necessity, note at contract, check list at contract, and return of the research product.

  10. Evolution of Coextruded Structures in Static Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollogoub, C.; Guinault, A.; Pedros, M.

    2007-04-01

    Coextrusion allows to combine two thermoplastics in different ways, creating structures with different cross-sectional geometries (side-by-side structure or concentric ring structure). We use static mixers after the feedblock, in order to homogenise these initial structures and obtain different blend morphologies. The control of these morphologies is of prime importance in order to predict the final properties of the polymer blends. The aim of this paper is to study the evolution of some initial coextruded structures in different static mixers. Different static mixers, with adjustable number of mixing elements, are tested. The experimental observations are confronted with numerical simulation results.

  11. Static phantom wormholes of finite size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Mauricio; Orellana, Fabian

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we derive new static phantom traversable wormholes by assuming a shape function with a quadratic dependence on the radial coordinate r . We mainly focus our study on wormholes sustained by exotic matter with positive energy density (as seen by any static observer) and a variable equation of state pr/ρ wormhole spacetimes extending to infinity, we show that a quadratic shape function allows us to construct static spacetimes of finite size, composed of a phantom wormhole connected to an anisotropic spherically symmetric distribution of dark energy. The wormhole part of the full spacetime does not fulfill the dominant energy condition, while the dark energy part does.

  12. Functional connectivity between core and shoulder muscles increases during isometric endurance contractions in judo competitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawczyński, Adam; Samani, Afshin; Mroczek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyogram (SEMG) changes within and between muscles of the torso and shoulder region during static endurance contraction in elite judokas. We hypothesized an increased functional connectivity of muscles from the shoulder and torso...... endurance contraction consisting of bilateral arm abduction at 90°. The normalized mutual information (NMI) was computed between muscle pairs as an index indicating functional connectivity. Results: The NMIs increased significantly during endurance test for 10 of the 15 muscle pairs (P ... : We concluded that the increases in NMIs highlighted functional changes in the interplay between core and shoulder muscles during an endurance contraction in elite judokas....

  13. Short time Fourier analysis of the electromyogram - Fast movements and constant contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaford, Blake; Lehman, Steven

    1986-01-01

    Short-time Fourier analysis was applied to surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded during rapid movements, and during isometric contractions at constant forces. A portion of the data to be transformed by multiplying the signal by a Hamming window was selected, and then the discrete Fourier transform was computed. Shifting the window along the data record, a new spectrum was computed each 10 ms. The transformed data were displayed in spectograms or 'voiceprints'. This short-time technique made it possible to see time-dependencies in the EMG that are normally averaged in the Fourier analysis of these signals. Spectra of EMGs during isometric contractions at constant force vary in the short (10-20 ms) term. Short-time spectra from EMGs recorded during rapid movements were much less variable. The windowing technique picked out the typical 'three-burst pattern' in EMG's from both wrist and head movements. Spectra during the bursts were more consistent than those during isometric contractions. Furthermore, there was a consistent shift in spectral statistics in the course of the three bursts. Both the center frequency and the variance of the spectral energy distribution grew from the first burst to the second burst in the same muscle. The analogy between EMGs and speech signals is extended to argue for future applicability of short-time spectral analysis of EMG.

  14. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  15. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-04-19

    A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.

  16. Static Electricity-Responsive Supramolecular Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jintoku, Hirokuni; Ihara, Hirotaka; Matsuzawa, Yoko; Kihara, Hideyuki

    2017-12-01

    Stimuli-responsive materials can convert between molecular scale and macroscopic scale phenomena. Two macroscopic static electricity-responsive phenomena based on nanoscale supramolecular assemblies of a zinc porphyrin derivative are presented. One example involves the movement of supramolecular assemblies in response to static electricity. The assembly of a pyridine (Py) complex of the above-mentioned derivative in cyclohexane is drawn to a positively charged material, whereas the assembly of a 3,5-dimethylpyridine complex is drawn to a negatively charged material. The second phenomenon involves the movement of a non-polar solvent in response to static electrical stimulation. A cyclohexane solution containing a small quantity of the Py-complexed assembly exhibited a strong movement response towards negatively charged materials. Based on spectroscopic measurements and electron microscope observations, it was revealed that the assembled formation generates the observed response to static electricity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Static potentials from an extended gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.; Helayel Neto, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Static potentials derived from the inclusion of more than one vector field in a single simple group are calculated. A confinement mechanism including colourful unphysical particle is discussed. (Author) [pt

  18. Proximity and Innovation : From Statics to Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balland, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330821369; Boschma, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123155541; Frenken, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253

    2015-01-01

    Despite theoretical and empirical advances, the proximity framework has remained essentially static. A dynamic extension of the proximity framework is proposed that accounts for co-evolutionary dynamics between knowledge networking and proximity. For each proximity dimension, how proximities might

  19. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  20. Model Checking as Static Analysis: Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2012-01-01

    We show that the model checking problem of the μ-calculus can be viewed as an instance of static analysis. We propose Succinct Fixed Point Logic (SFP) within our logical approach to static analysis as an extension of Alternation-free Least Fixed Logic (ALFP). We generalize the notion of stratific......We show that the model checking problem of the μ-calculus can be viewed as an instance of static analysis. We propose Succinct Fixed Point Logic (SFP) within our logical approach to static analysis as an extension of Alternation-free Least Fixed Logic (ALFP). We generalize the notion...... of stratification to weak stratification and establish a Moore Family result for the new logic as well. The semantics of the μ-calculus is encoded as the intended model of weakly stratified clause sequences in SFP....

  1. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E. von

    1975-01-01

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW) [de

  2. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    and tax changes) have the expected Keynesian effects on output and consumption. However, we find no evidence that the large fiscal consolidation in Denmark slowed the economy after controlling for a host of exogenous shocks and business cycle effects. Rather, we find some support for the hypothesis......The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...

  3. Defining International Contracting Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    procedures laid down in the International Traffic of Arms Regulations (ITARS) and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act." ( FCPA )(56:50) 2. Main Theme Discussion...direct control of the ODTC. This helps the ODTC follow the rules and procedures outlined in the ITARS and FCPA . This list is also used in applying the...Don’t Know May Hurt You," Contract Management. 30: 18-19, 4 i-44, 50 (October 1990). 22. Ellenson, Leslie A. "A Primer on Export Control Compliance

  4. Effects of acute static, ballistic, and PNF stretching exercise on the muscle and tendon tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, A; Stafilidis, S; Tilp, M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a single static, ballistic, or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching exercise on the various muscle-tendon parameters of the lower leg and to detect possible differences in the effects between the methods. Volunteers (n = 122) were randomly divided into static, ballistic, and PNF stretching groups and a control group. Before and after the 4 × 30 s stretching intervention, we determined the maximum dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM) with the corresponding fascicle length and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius medialis. Passive resistive torque (PRT) and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured with a dynamometer. Observation of muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement with ultrasound allowed us to determine the length changes in the tendon and muscle, respectively, and hence to calculate stiffness. Although RoM increased (static: +4.3%, ballistic: +4.5%, PNF: +3.5%), PRT (static: -11.4%, ballistic: -11.5%, PNF: -13,7%), muscle stiffness (static: -13.1%, ballistic: -20.3%, PNF: -20.2%), and muscle-tendon stiffness (static: -11.3%, ballistic: -10.5%, PNF: -13.7%) decreased significantly in all the stretching groups. Only in the PNF stretching group, the pennation angle in the stretched position (-4.2%) and plantar flexor MVC (-4.6%) decreased significantly. Multivariate analysis showed no clinically relevant difference between the stretching groups. The increase in RoM and the decrease in PRT and muscle-tendon stiffness could be explained by more compliant muscle tissue following a single static, ballistic, or PNF stretching exercise. © 2017 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching on hamstring muscle flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hashim; Iqbal, Amir; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five male subjects with hamstring tightness were included in this study. The subjects were randomly placed into three groups: the modified hold-relax stretching, static stretching and control groups. The modified hold-relax stretching group performed 7 seconds of isometric contraction and then relaxed for 5 seconds, and this was repeated five times daily for five consecutive days. The static stretching group received 10 minutes of static stretching with the help of a pulley and weight system for five consecutive days. The control group received only moist heat for 20 minutes for five consecutive days. A baseline reading of passive knee extension (PKE) was taken prior to the intervention; rest measurements were taken immediate post intervention on day 1, day 3, day 5, and after a 1 week follow-up, i.e., at the 12th day. [Results] On comparing the baseline readings of passive knee extension (PKE), there was no difference noted between the three groups. On comparing the posttest readings on day 5 between the 3 groups, a significant difference was noted. However, post hoc analysis revealed an insignificant difference between the modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching groups. There was a significant difference between the static stretching and control groups and between the modified hold-relax stretching and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that both the modified hold-relax stretching technique and static stretching are equally effective, as there was no significant difference in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility between the two groups.

  6. Lorentz contracted proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro, D. Bedoya; Kelkar, N.G.; Nowakowski, M. [Dept. de Fisica, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1E No. 18A-10, Santafe de Bogota (Colombia)

    2015-09-30

    The proton charge and magnetization density distributions can be related to the well known Sachs electromagnetic form factors G{sub E,M}(/emph {q}{sup 2}) through Fourier transforms, only in the Breit frame. The Breit frame however moves with relativistic velocities in the Lab and a Lorentz boost must be applied before extracting the static properties of the proton from the corresponding densities. Apart from this, the Fourier transform relating the densities and form factors is inherently a non-relativistic expression. We show that the relativistic corrections to it can be obtained by extending the standard Breit equation to higher orders in its 1/c{sup 2} expansion. We find that the inclusion of the above corrections reduces the size of the proton as determined from electron proton scattering data by about 4%.

  7. Immediate effect of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on hip adductor flexibility in female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Ercole C; Souza, Andréa C; Mello, Mônica L; Bacurau, Reury F P; Cabral, Leonardo F; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the immediate effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on the flexibility of hip adductors in female ballet dancers. Forty-five subjects (age: 28.5 ± 8.0 years; minimum two years of ballet training) were randomly assigned to three groups: PNF (contract-release technique), Static, and Control. Subjects in the PNF and Static groups performed four sets of 30 second stretching with an interval of 30 seconds between sets. The control group stayed at rest for the same time spent by the PNF and Static groups during the stretching sessions. Maximal range of motion was measured before and immediately after the experimental and control protocols in all groups. The results indicated significant differences between pre- and post-stretching flexibility in both PNF and Static groups (p < 0.0001; effect size = 0.24 and 0.39, respectively), whereas no change was identified in the Control group (p = 0.265). However, no differences in post-exercise flexibility were found between PNF and Static groups (p = 0.235). It is concluded that static and PNF stretching methods provoked similar post-exercise acute effects on the maximal range of motion of hip adductors in highly flexible female ballet dancers.

  8. Static Members of Classes in C#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The C# language is object-oriented, which is why the declared member data must be part of a class. Thus, there is no possibility to declare certain variables that can be accessed from anywhere within the application, as it happens, for example, with global variables at the C language level. Making this work in C# is possible through static members of the class. Declaring a class implies defining some of its member data that later receive values when creating each object. A static member of the class can be interpreted as belonging only to the class, not to the objects subsequently created, which means that for the non-static data, there are as many children as there were objects created, while for the static ones there is only one copy, regardless of the number of created objects. In this regard, this paper presents the main aspects that characterize these abstract concepts of object oriented programming in general and C# language in particular, detailing how to develop an application that includes both static and non-static members. At the same time, particularities in the mirror for the two types of data, restrictions on use and potential limitations are presented.

  9. Characteristics of nuclear contracts. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.

    1976-01-01

    While the object of nuclear contracts is specific, these contracts are concluded according to proven techniques based on general regulations on contracts. Following a review of contract classification, they are differentiated according to the nature of the co-contracting parties, the purpose of the contract itself, the procedure for drawing up the contracts, and payment. The operations prior to the contract vary in that they may include a call for tenders, an option for delays or a letter of intent. (NEA) [fr

  10. 48 CFR 315.371 - Contract preparation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.371 Contract... the contract until the finance office certifies that the funds are available for obligation. ...

  11. 48 CFR 1316.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.406 Section 1316.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.406 Contract clauses. Insert a clause...

  12. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses. The...

  13. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (g) Insert the...

  14. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) [Reserved] (b) USAID may... Agency-specific indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using...

  15. 48 CFR 935.071 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 935.071... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 935.071 Contract clause. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 952.235-71, Research Misconduct, in contracts, including management and operating...

  16. 48 CFR 217.7406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Undefinitized Contract..., in— (1) All UCAs; (2) Solicitations associated with UCAs; (3) Basic ordering agreements; (4) Indefinite-delivery contracts; (5) Any other type of contract providing for the use of UCAs; and (6) Unpriced...

  17. Contractions of group representations. - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celeghini, E.; Tarlini, M.

    1981-01-01

    A new definition of contraction as a limit on the parameters defining the basis of the space of representations is given. From the representations of the original group, those of the contracted one are directly obtained. The contraction of inner automorphisms into outer automorphisms and the splitting of one representation into representations of the same or different group are discussed and illustrated by examples. The procedure is also a technique for the study of representations of non-semi-simple groups. (author)

  18. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  19. Modelling of pneumatic muscle actuator using Hill's model with different approximations of static characteristics of artificial muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piteľ Ján

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For modelling and simulation of pneumatic muscle actuators the mathematical dependence of the muscle force on the muscle contraction at different pressures in the muscles is necessary to know. For this purpose the static characteristics of the pneumatic artificial muscle type FESTO MAS-20-250N used in the experiments were approximated. In the paper there are shown some simulation results of the pneumatic muscle actuator dynamics using modified Hill's muscle model, in which four different approximations of static characteristics of artificial muscle were used.

  20. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published in early April 2011. In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened this spring is available at the following address: Indefinite contract posts - spring 2011 A second exercise will take place in autumn 2011 and, as of 2012, the indefinite contract award procedure will only be held once a year, in autumn. For more information please consult: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp  

  1. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  2. URGENSI STUDI TENTANG PROCUREMENT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Sogar Simamora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractualization is kind of goverment activity in acquiring goods, services and infrastructure as well. Procurement contract has several important function especially in enhancing economic development in a state. In Indonesia, this kind of contract also has function in empowering micro economic scale. Since the aim of procurement study is to provide equal protection between public fund interest in one hand and privat sector in the other hand, general principle of contract law must be taken into consideration together with transparency as the most important principle in government contract.

  3. Changes in force and stiffness after static stretching of eccentrically-damaged hamstrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Shingo; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Iwata, Masahiro; Hatano, Genki; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2015-05-01

    This study compared responses to static stretching between eccentrically damaged and non-damaged muscles. Twelve young men performed 60 maximum knee flexor eccentric contractions of one leg, and received a 300-s continuous passive static stretching at tolerable intensity without pain to both knee flexors at 2 and 4 days after the eccentric exercise. Range of motion (ROM) and passive stiffness during knee extension, passive torque at onset of pain (PT), maximum voluntary isometric (MVC-ISO) and isokinetic concentric contraction torque (MVC-CON), and visual analogue scale (VAS) for muscle soreness were measured before, immediately after, 60 min, 2 and 4 days after exercise as well as before, immediately after, 20 and 60 min after the stretching. Changes in these variables after eccentric exercise and stretching were compared between limbs. The eccentric exercise decreased MVC-ISO, MVC-CON, ROM and PT, and increased passive stiffness and VAS (p static stretching at tolerable intensity without pain produced greater positive effects on damaged than non-damaged muscles.

  4. EFFECTS OF CYCLIC STATIC STRETCH ON FATIGUE RECOVERY OF TRICEPS SURAE IN FEMALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Ghasemia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Static stretch is a safe and feasible method which usually is used before exercise to avoid muscle injury and to improve muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cyclic static stretch (CSS on fatigue recovery of triceps surae (TS in female basketball players.Nine athlete volunteers between 20 and 30 years participated in this study containing two sessions. After warm-up a pressure cuff was fastened above the knee joint and its pressure was increased to 140 mmHg. The subjects were asked to perform one maximum voluntary contraction (MVC followed by a fatigue test including maximum isometric fatiguing contraction of TS. These steps were similar in both sessions. Then, a two-minute rest was included in the first session while 4 static stretches were performed to TS in the second session. After interventions, one MVC was done and the pressure cuff was released. During these steps, peak torque (PT and electromyography (EMG were recorded. The amount of lower leg pain was determined by the visual analogue scale (VAS. The value of PT increased significantly after CSS but its increase was not significant after rest. It seems that the effects of rest and CSS on the EMG parameters, PT and pain are similar.

  5. RELATION BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL WORKING CAPACITY (PWC170 AND STATIC RELATIVE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the relationship within the segments, and establish the correlation between the functional and motor areas may be important for programming load both in education and in sports and recreation. For this reason we set goals and work this year. The main objective of this research is to determine association and motor characteristics impact on functional ability (physical work capacity. The sample is defined as a sample of 263 respondents drawn from the population of secondary schools: Gymnasium Zenel Hajdini; Marin Barleti and Mehmet Isai in city of Gjilan. Nine tests were used to estimate motoric capabilities and a test of functional capacity of aerobic-type (physical work capacity. To determine the relation between the predictor (motor variables and criterion variables (physical working capacity - PWC170 it is prepared the regression analysis of the manifest space. Analyses were made to the program SPSS 12.0 for Windows. The connection of the entire system of variables static relative strength with a score of Physics working capacity (PWC170 on a bicycle ergo meter as aerobic type variable explains the coefficient of multiple correlations, which is RO 0.394. Regression analysis indicates that the better results on a bicycle ergo meter will have respondents who score better in tests of static relative strength of the leg (at the test isometric muscle contraction quadriceps thighs and static tests of the relative strength of arm and shoulder area (at the test of isometric contraction triceps muscle circumference.

  6. Unfair contract terms in B2C contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Loos, M.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its textual similarity to the Unfair Terms Directive 1993, Chapter 8 of the proposed CESL, on ‘Unfair contract terms’, can benefit from two decades of interpretative experience which is likely to provide a comparably high degree of instant legal certainty to contracting parties.

  7. From Wigner Inoenue group contraction to contractions of algebraic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of the notion of group contraction first introduced by Inoenue and Wigner in 1953 is briefly reviewed. The fundamental role of the idea of degenerate transformations is stressed. The significance of contractions of algebraic structures for exactly solvable problems of mathematical physics is noticed. (author)

  8. Demographics of the Contracting Workforce within the Army Contracting Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-25

    Empresas in Madrid. Dr. Reed retired from Active Military Service in 2008 after 21 years in the Air Force. Dr. Reed held various assignments in...Contracting Implications Portfolio Optimization via KVA + RO Private Military Sector Software Requirements for OA Spiral Development Strategy...for Defense Acquisition Research The Software , Hardware Asset Reuse Enterprise (SHARE) repository Contract Management Commodity Sourcing

  9. Acceleration of a Static Observer Near the Event Horizon of a Static Isolated Black Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Noel A.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the magnitude of the proper acceleration of a static observer in a static, isolated, spherically symmetric space-time region with the Newtonian result including the situation in the interior of a perfect-fluid star. This provides a simple physical interpretation of surface gravity and illustrates the global nature of the event horizon.…

  10. 14 CFR 23.177 - Static directional and lateral stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static directional and lateral stability... Flight Stability § 23.177 Static directional and lateral stability. (a) The static directional stability... first, and at speeds from 1.2 VS1 to VO, the rudder pedal force must not reverse. (b) The static lateral...

  11. From Flow Logic to Static Type Systems in Coordination Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Nicola, Rocco; Gorla, Daniele; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    ; therefore, the correctness properties cannot be statically enforced. By contrast, static analysis approaches based on Flow Logic usually guarantee properties statically. In this paper we show how to combine these two approaches to obtain a static type system for describing secure access to tuple spaces...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6602 - Static electricity dissipation during loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static electricity dissipation during loading... MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6602 Static electricity dissipation... generates a static electricity hazard— (a) An evaluation of the potential static electricity hazard shall be...

  13. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contract so different from other contracts. We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by these two concepts.

  14. Utility of the Static-99 and Static-99R With Latino Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguízamo, Alejandro; Lee, Seung C; Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Calkins, Cynthia

    2017-12-01

    The predictive validity of the Static-99 measures with ethnic minorities in the United States has only recently been assessed with mixed results. We assessed the predictive validity of the Static-99 and Static-99R with a sample of Latino sex offenders ( N = 483) as well as with two subsamples (U.S.-born, including Puerto Rico, and non-U.S.-born). The overall sexual recidivism rate was very low (1.9%). Both the Static-99 measures were able to predict sexual recidivism for offenders born in the United States and Puerto Rico, but neither was effective in doing so for other Latino immigrants. Calibration analyses ( N = 303) of the Static-99R were consistent with the literature and provided support for the potential use of the measure with Latinos born in the United States and Puerto Rico. These findings and their implications are discussed as they pertain to the assessment of Latino sex offenders.

  15. Extending and Enhancing SAS (Static Analysis Suite)

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, David

    2016-01-01

    The Static Analysis Suite (SAS) is an open-source software package used to perform static analysis on C and C++ code, helping to ensure safety, readability and maintainability. In this Summer Student project, SAS was enhanced to improve ease of use and user customisation. A straightforward method of integrating static analysis into a project at compilation time was provided using the automated build tool CMake. The process of adding checkers to the suite was streamlined and simplied by developing an automatic code generator. To make SAS more suitable for continuous integration, a reporting mechanism summarising results was added. This suitability has been demonstrated by inclusion of SAS in the Future Circular Collider Software nightly build system. Scalability of the improved package was demonstrated by using the tool to analyse the ROOT code base.

  16. Static Analysis for JavaScript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Holm

    Web applications present unique challenges to designers of static analysis tools. One of these challenges is the language JavaScript used for client side scripting in the browser. JavaScript is a complex language with many pitfalls and poor tool support compared to other languages....... This dissertation describes the design and implementation of a static analysis for JavaScript that can assist programmers in finding bugs in code during development. We describe the design of a static analysis tool for JavaScript, built using the monotone framework. This analysis infers detailed type information...... about programs. This information can be used to detect bugs such as null pointer dereferences and unintended type coercions. The analysis is sound, enabling it to prove the absence of certain program errors. JavaScript is usually run within the context of the browser and the DOM API. The major...

  17. On the geometric phenomenology of static friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shankar; Merin, A. P.; Nitsure, Nitin

    2017-09-01

    In this note we introduce a hierarchy of phase spaces for static friction, which give a graphical way to systematically quantify the directional dependence in static friction via subregions of the phase spaces. We experimentally plot these subregions to obtain phenomenological descriptions for static friction in various examples where the macroscopic shape of the object affects the frictional response. The phase spaces have the universal property that for any experiment in which a given object is put on a substrate fashioned from a chosen material with a specified nature of contact, the frictional behaviour can be read off from a uniquely determined classifying map on the control space of the experiment which takes values in the appropriate phase space.

  18. On the geometric phenomenology of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shankar; Merin, A P; Nitsure, Nitin

    2017-09-06

    In this note we introduce a hierarchy of phase spaces for static friction, which give a graphical way to systematically quantify the directional dependence in static friction via subregions of the phase spaces. We experimentally plot these subregions to obtain phenomenological descriptions for static friction in various examples where the macroscopic shape of the object affects the frictional response. The phase spaces have the universal property that for any experiment in which a given object is put on a substrate fashioned from a chosen material with a specified nature of contact, the frictional behaviour can be read off from a uniquely determined classifying map on the control space of the experiment which takes values in the appropriate phase space.

  19. Statics and rotational dynamics of composite beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorashi, Mehrdaad

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive study of the nonlinear statics and dynamics of composite beams and consists of solutions with and without active elements embedded in the beams. The static solution provides the initial conditions for the dynamic analysis. The dynamic problems considered include the analyses of clamped (hingeless) and articulated (hinged) accelerating rotating beams. Two independent numerical solutions for the steady state and the transient responses are presented. The author illustrates that the transient solution of the nonlinear formulation of accelerating rotating beam converges to the steady state solution obtained by the shooting method. Other key areas considered include calculation of the effect of perturbing the steady state solution, coupled nonlinear flap-lag dynamics of a rotating articulated beam with hinge offset and aerodynamic damping, and static and dynamic responses of nonlinear composite beams with embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. The book is intended as a t...

  20. Sawja: Static Analysis Workshop for Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Laurent; Barré, Nicolas; Besson, Frédéric; Demange, Delphine; Jensen, Thomas; Monfort, Vincent; Pichardie, David; Turpin, Tiphaine

    Static analysis is a powerful technique for automatic verification of programs but raises major engineering challenges when developing a full-fledged analyzer for a realistic language such as Java. Efficiency and precision of such a tool rely partly on low level components which only depend on the syntactic structure of the language and therefore should not be redesigned for each implementation of a new static analysis. This paper describes the Sawja library: a static analysis workshop fully compliant with Java 6 which provides OCaml modules for efficiently manipulating Java bytecode programs. We present the main features of the library, including i) efficient functional data-structures for representing a program with implicit sharing and lazy parsing, ii) an intermediate stack-less representation, and iii) fast computation and manipulation of complete programs. We provide experimental evaluations of the different features with respect to time, memory and precision.

  1. A comparison of assisted and unassisted proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddigan, Meaghan E; Peach, Ashley A; Behm, David G

    2012-05-01

    A comparison of assisted and unassisted proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and static stretching. J Strength Cond Res 26(5): 1238-1244, 2012-Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching often requires a partner. Straps are available allowing an individual to perform PNF stretching alone. It is not known if a strap provides similar improvements in the range of motion (ROM) as partner-assisted PNF or static stretching. The purpose of this study was to compare assisted and unassisted (with a strap) PNF stretching and static stretching. Hip joint ROM, reaction time (RT), and movement time (MT) were measured prestretching and poststretching. Thirteen recreationally active adults participated in this study. The participants were subjected to 5 different stretch interventions in a random order on separate days. Stretch conditions included unassisted PNF stretching using (a) isometric, (b) concentric, and (c) eccentric contractions with a stretch strap, (d) partner-assisted isometric PNF, and (e) static stretching. The RT, MT, dynamic, active, passive hip flexion angle, and angular velocity with dynamic hip flexion were measured before and after the intervention. The ROM improved (p < 0.05) 2.6, 2.7, and 5.4%, respectively, with dynamic, active static, and passive static ROM, but there was no significant difference between the stretching protocols. There was a main effect for time (p < 0.05) with all stretching conditions negatively impacting dynamic angular velocity (9.2%). Although there was no significant effect on RT, MT showed a negative main effect for time (p < 0.05) slowing 3.4%. In conclusion, it was found that all 3 forms of active stretching provided similar improvements in the ROM and poststretching performance decrements in MT and angular velocity. Thus, individuals can implement PNF stretching techniques with a partner or alone with a strap to improve ROM, but athletes should not use these techniques before important

  2. Thermal effects in static friction: thermolubricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, A; Bortolani, V; Santoro, G; Brigazzi, M

    2008-10-01

    We present a molecular dynamics analysis of the static friction between two thick slabs. The upper block is formed by N2 molecules and the lower block by Pb atoms. We study the effects of the temperature as well as the effects produced by the structure of the surface of the lower block on the static friction. To put in evidence the temperature effects we will compare the results obtained with the lower block formed by still atoms with those obtained when the atoms are allowed to vibrate (e.g., with phonons). To investigate the importance of the geometry of the surface of the lower block we apply the external force in different directions, with respect to a chosen crystallographic direction of the substrate. We show that the interaction between the lattice dynamics of the two blocks is responsible for the strong dependence of the static friction on the temperature. The lattice dynamics interaction between the two blocks strongly reduces the static friction, with respect to the case of the rigid substrate. This is due to the large momentum transfer between atoms and the N2 molecules which disorders the molecules of the interface layer. A further disorder is introduced by the temperature. We perform calculations at T = 20K which is a temperature below the melting, which for our slab is at 50K . We found that because of the disorder the static friction becomes independent of the direction of the external applied force. The very low value of the static friction seems to indicate that we are in a regime of thermolubricity similar to that observed in dynamical friction.

  3. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The work of Abadi and Fournet introduces the notion of a frame to describe the knowledge of the environment of a cryptographic protocol. Frames are lists of terms; two frames are indistinguishable under the notion of static equivalence if they satisfy the same equations on terms. We present a first......-order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...

  4. QuickChecking Static Analysis Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs......, to verified fixed point checking. In this paper we demonstrate how quickchecking can be useful for testing a range of static analysis properties with limited effort. We show how to check a range of algebraic lattice properties, to help ensure that an implementation follows the formal specification...

  5. QuickChecking static analysis properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2017-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs......, to verified fixed point checking. In this paper, we demonstrate how quickchecking can be useful to test a range of static analysis properties with limited effort. We show how to check a range of algebraic lattice properties, to help ensure that an implementation follows the formal specification of a lattice...

  6. Static compensators (STATCOMs) in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shahnia, Farhad; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    A static compensator (STATCOM), also known as static synchronous compensator, is a member of the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. It is a power-electronics based regulating device which is composed of a voltage source converter (VSC) and is shunt-connected to alternating current electricity transmission and distribution networks. The voltage source is created from a DC capacitor and the STATCOM can exchange reactive power with the network. It can also supply some active power to the network, if a DC source of power is connected across the capacitor. A STATCOM

  7. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I

    2011-01-01

    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  8. Compositional specification of commercial contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Elsborg, Ebbe; Henglein, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    -definable analysis of their state before, during and after execution. We provide several realistic examples of commercial contracts and their analyses. A variety of (real) contracts can be expressed in such a fashion as to support their integration, management and analysis in an operational environment...

  9. On CNC commuting contractive tuples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characteristic function has been an important tool for studying completely non-unitary contractions on Hilbert spaces. In this note, we consider completely non-coisometric contractive tuples of commuting operators on a Hilbert space H . We show that the characteristic function, which is now an operator-valued analytic ...

  10. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...

  11. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  12. Opportunities for health in contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargadon, J

    1995-01-01

    Contracts are about much more than the simple purchasing of services. In an NHS context, they are also about working in partnership with patients, and about good employment practices, writes Judy Hargadon. Here she outlines how contracts can be used to improve health care services, and the health of those involved in both receiving and providing that care.

  13. Contracting and Performance in Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi; Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    As part of New Public Management (NPM), contracting represents a supplement to the traditional hierarchical and rule-based managing of relations between actors in order to improve performance (Fortin and van Hassel 2000; Greve and Ejersbo 2002; Drewry et al. 2005; Verhoest 2005). To various degrees...... contracts combine some degree of managerial autonomy and influence on goal setting in return for a consistent and congruent system of control and monitoring. Internal contracts are often finalized within the ‘shadow of hierarchy’ between mutually dependent parties in a long-term, co......-operation-based relationship (Brownsword 1996: 19; Greve 2000:155), which create special conditions for contracting. Few studies have empirically investigated internal contracting processes within public organizations (e.g. Verhoest 2005; Greve and Ejersbo 2005; Greve 2000) but resent research shows that agencies attain...

  14. Choreography Synthesis as Contract Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a formal model for distributed systems, where each participant advertises its requirements and obligations as behavioural contracts, and where multiparty sessions are started when a set of contracts allows to synthesise a choreography. Our framework is based on the CO2 calculus for contract-oriented computing, and borrows concepts and results from the session type literature. It supports sessions where the number of participants is not determined beforehand, and keeps CO2's ability to rule out participants that are culpable if contracts are not fulfilled at runtime. We show that we have progress and session fidelity in CO2, as a result of the honesty of participants — i.e., their ability to always adhere to their contracts.

  15. Alternative staffing services. Contract transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, C

    1992-03-01

    Contract medical transcription services can be of great assistance in meeting the demands for transcription, without jeopardizing patient, physician, or institutional confidentiality. You simply must require the contract service to provide at least the same degree of protection and preservation of confidentiality that you should require inhouse. To achieve this you must make these requirements explicit, comprehensive, comprehensible, believable, and enforceable. Discuss the requirements with prospective contractors. Review them at least annually with existing contractors and when contracts are due for renewal. Be sure to specify the consequence of breaching confidentiality, and if there are breaches, enforce the terms of the contract. Consult your institution's legal counsel both in developing the contract and in enforcing its provisions. Take into consideration your department's and institution's policies, AHIMA's statement on confidentiality, as well as local, state, and federal laws. Above all, never lose sight of the patient. Ultimately, it is not patient information that you are obligated to protect. It is the patient.

  16. [Ulysses contract in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Saya, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Over the last twenty years we have witnessed a growing focus on the rights of the ill people. The debate on informed consent and a new redefinition of the therapeutic relationship is constantly evolving. With this article, we propose a critical literature review of the so-called "Ulysses contract" or "psychiatric advance directives". It refers to the will that a subject expresses in writing, or orally, about the treatments he or she wishes or does not wish to be subject to if the time comes when it may be impossible to express his/her consent. This can especially occur in those with psychiatric disorders with serious clinical involvement and remitting-relapse (typically bipolar disorder, but also chronic delusional disorders and schizophrenia). In this context, the question is whether during intercritical periods the patient may or may not leave instructions to their care-givers. This aspect opens up to a series of interdisciplinary problems. In this article, we want to show the complexity of this debate from a clinical, ethical, legal and psychodynamic point of view, emphasizing the strengths and the major criticisms of the psychiatric advance directives for each area.

  17. INFINITY construction contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  18. Static and Dynamic Verification of Critical Software for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, F.; Maia, R.; Costa, D.; Duro, N.; Rodríguez-Dapena, P.; Hjortnaes, K.

    , and the Xception tool for fault-injection. Keywords: Verification &Validation, RAMS, Onboard software, SFMEA, STA, Fault-injection 1 This work is being performed under the project STADY Applied Static And Dynamic Verification Of Critical Software, ESA/ESTEC Contract Nr. 15751/02/NL/LvH.

  19. A hybrid static optimisation method to estimate muscle forces during muscle co-activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jongsang; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Youngho

    2012-01-01

    The general static optimisation (GSO) process is one of various muscle force estimation methods due to its low computational requirements. However, it can show biased muscle force estimation under muscle co-contraction. In the present study, we introduced a novel hybrid static optimisation (HSO) method to estimate reasonable muscle forces during muscle co-activation movements using more specific equality constraints, i.e. agonist and antagonist muscle moments predicted from a new correlation coefficient approach. The new method was evaluated for heel-rise movements. We found that the proposed method improved the potential of antagonist muscle force estimation in comparison to the GSO solutions. The proposed HSO method could be applied in biomechanics and rehabilitation, for example.

  20. Behaviour of human motor units in different muscles during linearly varying contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, C. J.; LeFever, R. S.; McCue, M. P.; Xenakis, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    1. The electrical activity of up to eight concurrently active motor units has been recorded from the human deltoid and first dorsal interosseous (f.d.i.) muscles. The detected myoelectric signals have been decomposed into their constituent motor-unit action potential trains using a recently developed technique. 2. Concurrently active motor unit behaviour has been examined during triangular force-varying isometric contractions reaching 40 and 80% of maximal voluntary contraction (m.v.c.). Experiments were performed on four normal subjects and three groups of highly trained performers (long-distance swimmers, powerlifters and pianists). 3. Results revealed a highly ordered recruitment and decruitment scheme, based on motoneurone excitability, in both muscles and in all subject groups. 4. Differences were observed between the initial (recruitment) and final (decruitment) firing rates in each muscle. These parameters were invariant with respect to the force rates studied, although some differences were observed among subject groups. 5. In general, firing rates of f.d.i. motor units increased steadily with increasing force (up to 80% m.v.c.). The firing rates of deltoid motor units rose sharply just after recruitment and then increased only slightly thereafter. 6. Recruitment was found to be the major mechanism for generating extra force between 40 and 80% m.v.c. in the deltoid, while rate coding played the major role in the f.d.i. 7. The potential of rate coding for increasing force levels up to m.v.c. is discussed. PMID:7143246

  1. Static Typing for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1994-01-01

    We develop a theory of statically typed object-oriented languages. It represents classes as labeled, regular trees, types as finit sets of classes , and sub-classing as a partial order on trees. We show that our sub-classing order strictly generalizes inheritance, and that a novel genericity...

  2. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol is formali...

  3. Static Analysis for Java Servlets and JSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for statically reasoning about the behavior of Web applications that are developed using Java Servlets and JSP. Specifically, we attack the problems of guaranteeing that all output is well-formed and valid XML and ensuring consistency of XHTML form fields and session state...

  4. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  5. Supporting software inspection with static profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, C.; Moonen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Static software checking tools are useful as an additional automated software inspection step that can easily be integrated in the development cycle and assist in creating secure, reliable and high quality code. However, an often quoted disadvantage of these tools is that they generate an inordinate

  6. Prioritizing software inspection results using static profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, C.; Moonen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Static software checking tools are useful as an additional automated software inspection step that can easily be integrated in the development cycle and assist in creating secure, reliable and high quality code. However, an often quoted disadvantage of these tools is that they generate an overly

  7. PARAMETRIC RESONANSE IN STATICALLY INDETERMINATE FRAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Vorona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique for development and reduction of discrete dynamics models of frames is presented. Construction of the models is carried out using finite element method, generalized coordinates and tools of modern computer software. Parametric resonance in a statically indeterminate frame caused by external excitations is investigated. Main instability domains of the frame are determined.

  8. Device measures static friction of magnetic tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, P. T.

    1967-01-01

    Device measures the coefficient of static friction of magnetic tape over a range of temperatures and relative humidities. It uses a strain gage to measure the force of friction between a reference surface and the tape drawn at a constant velocity of approximately 0.0001 inch per second relative to the reference surface.

  9. Static validation of licence conformance policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2008-01-01

    Policy conformance is a security property gaining importance due to commercial interest like Digital Rights Management. It is well known that static analysis can be used to validate a number of more classical security policies, such as discretionary and mandatory access control policies, as well...

  10. 48 CFR 1242.7000 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Administration Clauses 1242.7000 Contract... Information—Educational Institutions, in lieu of the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR 1252.242-72, Dissemination of Contract Information, in DOT research contracts with educational institutions that require the release or...

  11. 48 CFR 2432.908 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-reimbursement type solicitations and contracts when vouchers are to be sent directly to the paying office. The... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 2432.908 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The Contracting Officer shall insert a clause substantially the same as provided at 2452.232-70, Payment Schedule...

  12. Ontologies for commitment-based smart contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruijff, Joost; Weigand, Hans; Panetto, H; Debruyne, C.; Gaaloul, W.; Papazoglou, M.; Paschke, A.; Ardagna, C.A.; Meersman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts gain rapid exposure since the inception of blockchain technology. Yet there is no unified ontology for smart contracts. Being categorized as coded contracts or substitutes of conventional legal contracts, there is a need to reduce the conceptual ambiguity of smart contracts. We

  13. 7 CFR 631.14 - Contract violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Contracts § 631.14 Contract violations. Contract violations, determinations and appeals will be handled in accordance with the terms of the... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract violations. 631.14 Section 631.14 Agriculture...

  14. 77 FR 71458 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Contracts 1. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related procedural... Reseller Expedited Package (GREP) contract (Contracts 1).\\1\\ It seeks to have the instant Contract included...

  15. 48 CFR 926.7104 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 926.7104... 1993. 926.7104 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR (DEAR) 952.226-74, Displaced Employee Hiring Preference, in contracts (except for contracts for commercial items...

  16. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance, in...

  17. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract Work...

  18. 48 CFR 811.503 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.503... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Liquidated Damages 811.503 Contract clause. When the contracting... contracting officer must include the clause in 852.211-74, Liquidated damages, in the contract. ...

  19. 48 CFR 217.204 - Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 217.204 Contracts. (e)(i) Notwithstanding FAR 17.204(e), the ordering period of a task order or delivery order contract... require a longer ordering period. (ii) DoD must submit a report to Congress, annually through fiscal year...

  20. 48 CFR 1817.204 - Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 1817.204 Contracts. (e)(i) The 5... procurement award instruments. This includes agreements (e.g. basic ordering agreements, blanket purchase... Schedule or other indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity contracts awarded by other agencies. (iii...

  1. A comparison of static and dynamic optimization muscle force predictions during wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Melissa M; Rankin, Jeffery W; Neptune, Richard R; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2014-11-07

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare static and dynamic optimization muscle force and work predictions during the push phase of wheelchair propulsion. A secondary purpose was to compare the differences in predicted shoulder and elbow kinetics and kinematics and handrim forces. The forward dynamics simulation minimized differences between simulated and experimental data (obtained from 10 manual wheelchair users) and muscle co-contraction. For direct comparison between models, the shoulder and elbow muscle moment arms and net joint moments from the dynamic optimization were used as inputs into the static optimization routine. RMS errors between model predictions were calculated to quantify model agreement. There was a wide range of individual muscle force agreement that spanned from poor (26.4% Fmax error in the middle deltoid) to good (6.4% Fmax error in the anterior deltoid) in the prime movers of the shoulder. The predicted muscle forces from the static optimization were sufficient to create the appropriate motion and joint moments at the shoulder for the push phase of wheelchair propulsion, but showed deviations in the elbow moment, pronation-supination motion and hand rim forces. These results suggest the static approach does not produce results similar enough to be a replacement for forward dynamics simulations, and care should be taken in choosing the appropriate method for a specific task and set of constraints. Dynamic optimization modeling approaches may be required for motions that are greatly influenced by muscle activation dynamics or that require significant co-contraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physics of muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called ‘descending limb’ of the isometric tetanus.

  3. Analysis of the 314th Contracting Squadrons Contract Management Capability Using the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Jr, Carl J

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project is to analyze the 314th Contracting Squadron contracting processes and requirement target areas for improvement efforts by the application of the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM...

  4. Duration of general practitioner contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelsen, Birgit; Gaski, Margrete; Brandstorp, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The regular GP scheme is intended to promote continuity in the relationship between doctor and patient. The duration of GP contracts is therefore a key factor in the success of the scheme. This study examines how long the GP contracts last and whether their duration varies according to doctors' gender and age, municipality size and list size. The study encompasses 7,359 GP contracts throughout Norway, entered into between municipalities and doctors in the period 1 May 2001 - 1 May 2014. Duration is measured as the time from which the contract was signed until its expiry or the end of the study period. The material was analysed with measures of central tendencies and dispersion, Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. Median duration of a GP contract at the time of the study was 5.91 years. It varied between 2.75 years in the smallest municipalities and 8.37 years in the largest ones. The duration of a GP contract increased significantly if the doctor was a woman, or with the doctor's age at the start of the contract, increased municipality size and increased list size. If it is assumed that continuity in the doctor-patient relationship provides a qualitatively better GP service, the results indicate that patients in small municipalities are generally offered a lower-quality service than patients in large municipalities.

  5. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  6. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  7. Modelling of pneumatic muscle actuator using Hill's model with different approximations of static characteristics of artificial muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Piteľ Ján; Tóthová Mária

    2016-01-01

    For modelling and simulation of pneumatic muscle actuators the mathematical dependence of the muscle force on the muscle contraction at different pressures in the muscles is necessary to know. For this purpose the static characteristics of the pneumatic artificial muscle type FESTO MAS-20-250N used in the experiments were approximated. In the paper there are shown some simulation results of the pneumatic muscle actuator dynamics using modified Hill's muscle model, in which four different appr...

  8. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-01-01

    The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is...

  9. Contracting with the Enemy: The Contracting Officer’s Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    contracting command xv KO contracting officer KTR contractor LSC lead service component MGAA Mesopotamia Group Atlas Apache NAT National Afghanistan...49 Table 6. Overview of MG Altus Apache Company v. United States (2013) b. Context Mesopotamia Group Altus Apache (MG AA) Company protested the...Fifth Amendment. MG Altus Apache Co. is a joint venture consisting of Mesopotamia Group Services Limited (MG), Altus Supply and Services (Altus

  10. The North Sea contracting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.J.C.

    1996-09-01

    The North Sea Contracting Industry provides in-depth profiles of major contracting organisations including manpower, facilities, expertise, future directions and financial details. It addresses key issues such as: how will the role of operators and contractors change toward 2000 and beyond?; how will the contractor-operator relationship develop?; will the contractors take a more speculative role in projects such as leasing and contract to produce?; does the future belong to broad skilled providers or small specialised niche players, or both?; and how will rapid technological improvements affect the industry? (author)

  11. Infrared imaging of the anterior deltoid during overhead static exertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertmaring, Ian; Babski-Reeves, Kari; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2008-10-01

    Infrared imaging has been used to detect the presence of neuromuscular disorders of the cervical spine and upper extremities. Despite diagnostic uses, evaluative or prognostic uses of thermography are limited. The objective of this study was to quantify surface temperature changes over the anterior deltoid and evaluate efficacy of thermography as an assessment tool. Surface temperature, discomfort ratings and endurance time were quantified during overhead static exertions until exhaustion at two work loads (15 and 30% maximum voluntary contraction) and shoulder angles (90 degrees and 115 degrees ). Ten participants free of confounding conditions participated in the study. The 90 degrees shoulder angle and 30% exertion level resulted in significantly faster thermal image rates of change, shorter endurance times and faster perceived discomfort increases. Thermography readings were more sensitive to changes in shoulder posture than load changes. This study provides preliminary evidence that thermography may be a useful exposure assessment tool. There is a need for new evaluation tools to quantify risk factor exposure for injury. Thermography was sensitive to changes in task loadings, illustrating its potential use for risk assessment. Specifically, changes in observed blood flow patterns during task performance are likely to conform to known physiological responses to injury.

  12. Learning to control arm stiffness under static conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darainy, Mohammad; Malfait, Nicole; Gribble, Paul L; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Ostry, David J

    2004-12-01

    We used a robotic device to test the idea that impedance control involves a process of learning or adaptation that is acquired over time and permits the voluntary control of the pattern of stiffness at the hand. The tests were conducted in statics. Subjects were trained over the course of 3 successive days to resist the effects of one of three different kinds of mechanical loads: single axis loads acting in the lateral direction, single axis loads acting in the forward/backward direction, and isotropic loads that perturbed the limb in eight directions about a circle. We found that subjects in contact with single axis loads voluntarily modified their hand stiffness orientation such that changes to the direction of maximum stiffness mirrored the direction of applied load. In the case of isotropic loads, a uniform increase in endpoint stiffness was observed. Using a physiologically realistic model of two-joint arm movement, the experimentally determined pattern of impedance change could be replicated by assuming that coactivation of elbow and double joint muscles was independent of coactivation of muscles at the shoulder. Moreover, using this pattern of coactivation control we were able to replicate an asymmetric pattern of rotation of the stiffness ellipse that was observed empirically. These findings are consistent with the idea that arm stiffness is controlled through the use of at least two independent co-contraction commands.

  13. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  14. Predicting Commitment Forms From Psychological Contract Breach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures to be taken by management at equilibrating employees' psychological contract breach, reducing labour turnover and increasing commitment are suggested. Keywords: Mergers, acquisition, Commitment, psychological contract breach, and psychological contract violation, human resource management.

  15. 48 CFR 42.1305 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of..., Government Delay of Work, in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price contract is contemplated for...

  16. 77 FR 76091 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... an expired International Business Reply Service (IBRS) competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 1 Negotiated Service Agreement, December 14, 2012... history. The Commission added International Business Reply Service Contract 1 to the competitive product...

  17. 78 FR 11699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 negotiated service agreement... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement, February 11, 2013.... 684, Order Approving International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service...

  18. 48 CFR 19.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 19... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (the 8(a) Program) 19.808 Contract negotiation. ...

  19. 48 CFR 619.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 619... SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 619.808 Contract negotiation. ...

  20. 48 CFR 542.1107 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 542.1107 Contract... clause may be used in indefinite-delivery definite-quantity contracts for Stock or Special Order Program...

  1. Construction contracts law and management

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Will; Murdoch, John

    2015-01-01

    The fifth edition of this bestselling textbook has been thoroughly revised to provide the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the legislation, administration and management of construction contracts. It now includes comparisons of working with JCT, NEC3, and FIDIC contracts throughout. Introducing this topic at the core of construction law and management, this book provides students with a one-stop reference on construction contracts. Significant new material covers: procurement tendering developments in dispute settlement commentary on all key legislation, case law and contract amendments In line with new thinking in construction management research, this authoritative guide is essential reading for every construction undergraduate and an extremely useful source of reference for practitioners.

  2. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been......This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...

  3. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  4. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2013 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts to indefinite contracts) was officially launched last week.  The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 9 August 2013 for a period of four weeks (until 8 September 2013). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: Information on the location of these sessions will be provided in due course on the CERN announcements page. HR Department

  5. Contract Reform Self Assessment Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this self assessment is to report on the Department of Energy's progress in implementing the Contract Reform initiative launched in February 1994 and to discuss remaining challenges...

  6. Contraction of the solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of Roche limit is applied to the Laplacian theory of the origin of the solar system to study the contraction of a spherical gas cloud (solar nebula). In the process of contraction of the solar nebula, it is assumed that the phenomenon of supersonic turbulent convection is operative and brings about the halt at various stages of contraction. It is found that the radius of the contracting solar nebula follows the Titius-Bode law. The consequences of the relation are also discussed. The aim is to attempt to explain, on the basis of the concept of Roche limit, the distribution of planets in the solar system and try to understand the physics underlying it. (Auth.)

  7. Contractions of quantum algebraic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, A.; Sfetsos, K.

    2010-01-01

    A general framework for obtaining certain types of contracted and centrally extended algebras is reviewed. The whole process relies on the existence of quadratic algebras, which appear in the context of boundary integrable models. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Price management mechanisms and the gas contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Pricing objectives and risk management strategies that can be achieved through the proper use of the standard gas contract, were discussed. Main topics of discussion were: (1) gas sales contract and convertible pricing, (2) gas contract and imbedded hedging, gas contracts and exchange traded instruments, (4) gas contracts fixed for floating swaps, and OTC options and exotics, (5) options and exotic price structures, and (6) advantages and disadvantages of using the gas contract versus the swap agreement

  9. Host City Contract operational requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Host City Contract - Operational Requirements (the “HCC Operational Requirements”) are an important part of the Host City Contract, detailing a set of core elements for the project, which provide Olympic quality conditions for the athletes and all participants, while at the same time allowing potential host cities to responsibly match their Games concepts to their own sport, economic, social, and environmental long-term planning needs.

  10. Maximising value from PFI contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Karen; Gates, Russell

    2012-05-01

    Against a backdrop where the Coalition Government has said more 'value' needs to be squeezed out of existing healthcare PFI projects, Karen Prosser, head of the health sector team at built asset consultancy, EC Harris, and Russell Gates, one of the company's partners on the same team, set out some of the key elements that NHS Trusts with operational PFI contracts should consider when undertaking a contract savings review.

  11. Unfair Contract Terms in European Contract Law : Legal consequences for and beyond Swedish Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Huidobro, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    Recent case law from the ECJ on one of the most important EU contract law legislation has left questions open about the compatibility of Swedish con­tract law with the Unfair Contracts Term Directive. The case law on Article 6 (1) in the directive seem to have changed the view on how to deal with the legal consequence of an unfair term in consumer contracts; namely that unfair terms cannot be adjusted but need to be declared invalid. This essay examines how the effects from the ECJ case law p...

  12. Air Force Network-Centric Solutions Contract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... The report addresses contracting, information assurance, small business, and oversight issues that require management attention to ensure Government contracts are sufficiently planned and implemented. Background...

  13. Long-term contract auctions and market power in regulated power industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soledad Arellano, M.; Serra, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    A number of countries with oligopolistic power industries have used marginal cost pricing to set the price of energy for small customers. This course of action, however, does not necessarily ensure an efficient outcome when competition is imperfect. The purpose of this paper is to study how the auction of long-term contracts could reduce market power. We do so in a two-firm, two-technology, linear-cost, static model where demand is summarized by a price inelastic load curve. In this context we show that the larger the proportion of total demand auctioned in advance, the lower are both the contract and the average spot price of energy.

  14. Static devices with new permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Laforest, J.; Pauthenet, R.

    1987-01-01

    The high remanence and coercivity of the new permanent magnet materials are of special interest in the static applications. High ordering temperature and are uniaxial anisotropy at the origin of their good permanent magnet properties are obtained in rare earth-transition metal compounds. Binary SmCo/sub 5/ and Sm/sub 2/Co/sub 17/ and ternary Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B compounds are the basis materials of the best permanent magnets. new concepts of calculations of static devices with these magnets can be applied: the magnetization can be considered as ridig, the density of the surface Amperian current is constant, the relative permeability is approximately 1 and the induction calculations are linear. Examples of hexapoles with Sm-Co and NdFeB magnets are described and the performances are compared. The problems of temperature behavior and corrosion resistance are underlined

  15. LAMINAR MIXING IN SMX STATIC MIXERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally examines the performance of a commercial static mixer (SMX. Experiments were carried out to obtain the pressure drop across different numbers of mixing elements (4, 8, 12 and 16. The quality of mixing was visually assessed using flow visualization techniques. Experiments were performed for Reynolds number between 50 and 3000 (based on the unobstructed pipe diameter. The presence of the mixing elements in the flow stream promotes a non-laminar, turbulent-like flow which considerably enhances the mixing. Addition of more mixing elements triggered mixing in the flow at lower Reynolds numbers but this was achieved at the expense of higher pressure drop. This work represents the first stage of an on going work to develop correlations to assess the mixing quality and pressure loss in the SMX static mixers.

  16. Variational approach for static mirror structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, E. A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninsky Ave., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Space Research Institute RAS, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya str., 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 2 Kosygin str., 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L. [UNS, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Ruban, V. P. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 2 Kosygin str., 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-15

    Anisotropic static plasma equilibria where the parallel and perpendicular pressures are only functions of the amplitude of the local magnetic field are shown to be amenable to a variational principle with a free energy density given by the parallel tension. This approach is used to demonstrate that two-dimensional small-amplitude static magnetic holes constructed from a Grad-Shafranov type equation slightly below the (subcritical) mirror instability threshold identify with lump solitons of KPII equation, but turn out to be unstable. Differently, large-amplitude magnetic structures, which are stable as they realize a minimum of the free energy, are computed using a gradient method within two-dimensional numerical simulations where the regularizing effect of finite Larmor radius corrections is retained. Interestingly, these structures transform from stripes to bubbles when the angle of the magnetic field with the coordinate plane is increased.

  17. Static traversable wormholes in Lyra manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, A. Sayahian; Moradpour, H.

    At first, considering the Einstein framework, we introduce some new static traversable wormholes and study the effects of a dark energy-like source on them. Thereinafter, a brief review on Einstein field equations in Lyra manifold is presented, and we address some static traversable wormholes in the Lyra manifold which satisfy the energy conditions. It is also shown that solutions introduced in the Einstein framework may also meet the energy conditions in the Lyra manifold. Finally, we focus on vacuum Lyra manifold and find some traversable asymptotically flat wormholes. In summary, our study shows that it is theoretically possible to find a Lyra displacement vector field in a manner in which traversable wormholes satisfy the energy conditions in a Lyra manifold.

  18. Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Resource-constrained devices are becoming ubiquitous. Examples include cell phones, palm pilots, and digital thermostats. It can be difficult to fit required functionality into such a device without sacrificing the simplicity and clarity of the software. Increasingly complex embedded systems...... require extensive brute-force testing, making development and maintenance costly. This is particularly true for system components that are written in assembly language. Static checking has the potential of alleviating these problems, but until now there has been little tool support for programming...... at the assembly level. In this paper we present the design and implementation of a static checker for interrupt-driven Z86-based software with hard real-time requirements. For six commercial microcontrollers, our checker has produced upper bounds on interrupt latencies and stack sizes, as well as verified...

  19. Static compliance of foundations of arbitrary shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejazi, M.; Nemat-Nasser, S.

    1982-01-01

    The calculation of the compliance matric of foundations is an essential first step in the static or dynamics analysis of soil-foundation interaction problems. An effective numerical method is presented for accurate computation of the static compliance of rigid foundations with arbitrary shapes, which rest on an elastic half-space and are subjected to vertical and horizontal loads, as well as tilting and torsional moments. In this method the contacting area is subbivided into a finite number of 'equivalent' circular elements, which leads to solutions in a rather simple form that require minimal numerical computations. The results are illustrated by calculating the overall compliances of foundations of various geometries, and these are compared with results obtained by means of another, more elaborate, method. (orig.)

  20. 48 CFR 1542.705-70 - Solicitation and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AGENCY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1542.705-70 Solicitation and... solicitations and contracts where indirect costs apply, unless contracting with an educational institution where...

  1. 48 CFR 1515.209 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of... their relative importance in each solicitation. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the provisions...

  2. DMRG-CASPT2 study of the longitudinal static second hyperpolarizability of all-trans polyenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, Sebastian; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    We have implemented internally contracted complete active space second order perturbation theory (CASPT2) with the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) as active space solver [Y. Kurashige and T. Yanai, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 094104 (2011)]. Internally contracted CASPT2 requires to contract the generalized Fock matrix with the 4-particle reduced density matrix (4-RDM) of the reference wavefunction. The required 4-RDM elements can be obtained from 3-particle reduced density matrices (3-RDM) of different wavefunctions, formed by symmetry-conserving single-particle excitations op top of the reference wavefunction. In our spin-adapted DMRG code CHEMPS2https://github.com/sebwouters/chemps2, we decompose these excited wavefunctions as spin-adapted matrix product states and calculate their 3-RDM in order to obtain the required contraction of the generalized Fock matrix with the 4-RDM of the reference wavefunction. In this work, we study the longitudinal static second hyperpolarizability of all-trans polyenes C 2n H 2n+2 [n = 4–12] in the cc-pVDZ basis set. DMRG-SCF and DMRG-CASPT2 yield substantially lower values and scaling with system size compared to RHF and MP2, respectively.

  3. DMRG-CASPT2 study of the longitudinal static second hyperpolarizability of all-trans polyenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Sebastian; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri

    2016-08-01

    We have implemented internally contracted complete active space second order perturbation theory (CASPT2) with the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) as active space solver [Y. Kurashige and T. Yanai, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 094104 (2011)]. Internally contracted CASPT2 requires to contract the generalized Fock matrix with the 4-particle reduced density matrix (4-RDM) of the reference wavefunction. The required 4-RDM elements can be obtained from 3-particle reduced density matrices (3-RDM) of different wavefunctions, formed by symmetry-conserving single-particle excitations op top of the reference wavefunction. In our spin-adapted DMRG code chemps2 https://github.com/sebwouters/chemps2, we decompose these excited wavefunctions as spin-adapted matrix product states and calculate their 3-RDM in order to obtain the required contraction of the generalized Fock matrix with the 4-RDM of the reference wavefunction. In this work, we study the longitudinal static second hyperpolarizability of all-trans polyenes C2nH2n+2 [n = 4-12] in the cc-pVDZ basis set. DMRG-SCF and DMRG-CASPT2 yield substantially lower values and scaling with system size compared to RHF and MP2, respectively.

  4. Model of the static universe within GR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbanovski, V. V., E-mail: karbanovski_v_v@mail.ru; Tarasova, A. S.; Salimova, A. S.; Bilinskaya, G. V.; Sumbulov, A. N. [Murmansk State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15

    Within GR, the problems of the Robertson-Walker universe are discussed. The approach based on transition to a nondiagonal line element is suggested. Within the considered approach, the static universe model is investigated. The possibility of constructing scenarios without an initial singularity and 'exotic' matter is discussed. Accordance of the given model to the properties of the observable universe is discussed.

  5. Static three- and four-quark potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Tsapalis, A; Forcrand, Ph.de

    2002-01-01

    We present results for the static three- and four-quark potentials in SU(3) and SU(4) respectively. Using a variational approach, combined with multi-hit for the time-like links, we determine the ground state of the baryonic string with sufficient accuracy to test the $Y-$ and $\\Delta-$ ans\\"atze for the baryonic Wilson area law. Our results favor the $\\Delta$ ansatz, where the potential is the sum of two-body terms.

  6. Predicting environmental restoration activities through static simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, T.L.; King, D.A.; Wilkins, M.L.; Forward, M.F.

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses a static simulation model that predicts several performance measures of environmental restoration activities over different remedial strategies. Basic model operation consists of manipulating and processing waste streams via selecting and applying remedial technologies according to the strategy. Performance measure prediction is possible for contaminated soil, solid waste, surface water, groundwater, storage tank, and facility sites. Simulations are performed for the U.S. Department of Energy in support of its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

  7. Optimal Mutation Rates on Static Fitness Landscpes

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We study the evolution of mutation rates for an asexual population living on a static fitness landscape, consisting of multiple peaks forming an evolutionary staircase. The optimal mutation rate is found by maximizing the diffusion towards higher fitness. Surprisingly the optimal genomic copying fidelity is given by Q = e^(-1/ln(n)) (where n is the genome length), independent of all other parameters in the model. Simulations confirm this theoretical result. We also discuss the relation betwee...

  8. Adding Traits to (Statically Typed) Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Nierstrasz, Oscar; Ducasse, Stéphane; Reichhart, Stefan; Schärli, Nathanael

    2005-01-01

    Traits offer a fine-grained mechanism for composing classes in object-oriented languages from reusable components, while avoiding the fragility problems introduced by multiple inheritance and mixins. Although traits were developed in the context of dynamically typed languages, they would also offer clear benefits for statically typed languages like Java and C#. This report summarizes the issues raised when integrating traits into such languages. We examine traits in the context of the statica...

  9. Supporting software inspection with static profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Boogerd, C.; Moonen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Static software checking tools are useful as an additional automated software inspection step that can easily be integrated in the development cycle and assist in creating secure, reliable and high quality code. However, an often quoted disadvantage of these tools is that they generate an inordinate number of warnings, including many false positives due to the use of approximate analysis techniques. This information overload effectively limits their usefulness. In this paper we present ELAN, ...

  10. Prioritizing Software Inspection Results using Static Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Boogerd, Cathal; Moonen, Leon

    2006-01-01

    Static software checking tools are useful as an additional automated software inspection step that can easily be integrated in the development cycle and assist in creating secure, reliable and high quality code. However, an often quoted disadvantage of these tools is that they generate an overly large number of warnings, including many false positives due to the approximate analysis techniques. This information overload effectively limits their usefulness. In this paper we present ELAN, a tec...

  11. Proximity and Innovation: From Statics to Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Alexandre Balland; Ron Boschma; Koen Frenken

    2013-01-01

    Despite theoretical and empirical advances, the proximity framework has remained essentially static in that the given proximity between actors explains the extent to which they interact in knowledge networks and profit from such interactions. We propose a dynamic extension of the proximity framework of Boschma in which we account for co-evolutionary dynamics between knowledge networking and proximity. For each proximity dimension, we describe how proximities might increase over time as a resu...

  12. Plate shell structures - statics and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the basic structural system, statics and spatial stability of plate shells. The structural system can be considered as a single layer of planar elements, where each element only transfers in-plane (membrane) forces to its neighbouring elements. External out-of-plane loads...... system is dual to that of a spatial truss system, which means the stringer system [1] can be applied to plate-shell structures....

  13. Structural Encoding of Static Single Assignment Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Static Single Assignment (SSA) form is often used as an intermediate representation during code optimization in Java Virtual Machines. Recently, SSA has successfully been used for bytecode verification. However, constructing SSA at the code consumer is costly. SSAbased mobile code transport formats...... Java bytecode. While the resulting bytecode sequence can still be directly executed by traditional Virtual Machines, our novel VM can infer SSA form and confirm its safety with virtually no overhead....

  14. Comparing numerically exact and modelled static friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krengel Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there exists no mechanically consistent “numerically exact” implementation of static and dynamic Coulomb friction for general soft particle simulations with arbitrary contact situations in two or three dimension, but only along one dimension. We outline a differential-algebraic equation approach for a “numerically exact” computation of friction in two dimensions and compare its application to the Cundall-Strack model in some test cases.

  15. A field theoretic model for static friction

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyaeh, I.; Rouhani, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present a field theoretic model for friction, where the friction coefficient between two surfaces may be calculated based on elastic properties of the surfaces. We assume that the geometry of contact surface is not unusual. We verify Amonton's laws to hold that friction force is proportional to the normal load.This model gives the opportunity to calculate the static coefficient of friction for a few cases, and show that it is in agreement with observed values. Furthermore we show that the ...

  16. Slinky Mechanics: Static Shapes and Unstable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Douglas; Borum, Andy; Moore, Billy; Plaut, Raymond; Dillard, David

    2014-03-01

    The floppy nature of a tumbling Slinky has captivated children and adults alike for over half a century. Highly flexible, the spring will walk down stairs, turn over in your hands, and-much to the chagrin of children everywhere-become easily entangled. The Slinky is an educational tool for demonstrating standing waves, and a structural inspiration due to its ability to extend to many times beyond its initial length without imparting plastic strain on the material. In this work, we provide a mechanical model that captures the static equilibrium configurations of the Slinky in terms of its geometric and material properties. We present both continuous and discrete models to capture a Slinky's static equilibria and unstable transitions. We compare these with experimental results obtained for the Slinky's static equilibrium shapes. We emphasize the importance of modeling coil contact, and determine the critical criteria for the Slinky to topple over in terms of a tilt angle, and the vertical displacement of one bale of coils. Finally, we provide a general description of highly flexible helical springs by considering the nondimensional potential energy of the spring, which characterizes the ``Slinkiness'' of a spring.

  17. ARC Code TI: Inference Kernel for Open Static Analyzers (IKOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IKOS is a C++ library designed to facilitate the development of sound static analyzers based on Abstract Interpretation. Specialization of a static analyzer for an...

  18. Analysis of Developed Country's Export Contract and Contract Risk and Development of Sample Contract and Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, K. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yang, M. H.

    2008-10-01

    This paper aimed at developing legal support for the non nuclear power plant industry's export. This study aids establishing government policy and promoting export of non nuclear power plant industry. This paper treated analysis of contractual risk and caution before entering into contract. To promote continuing export result, governmental and legal aids and guide will be required continuously. This study showed risks related with export contract and explained export control acts and procedures

  19. What Sexual Recidivism Rates Are Associated With Static-99R and Static-2002R Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R Karl; Thornton, David; Helmus, Leslie-Maaike; Babchishin, Kelly M

    2016-04-01

    Empirical actuarial risk tools are routinely used to assess the recidivism risk of adult sexual offenders. Compared with other forms of risk assessment, one advantage of actuarial risk tools is that they provide recidivism rate estimates. Previous research, however, suggests that there is considerable variability in the recidivism rates associated with the most commonly used sexual offender risk assessment tools (Static-99/R, Static-2002/R). The current study examined the extent to which the variability in the recidivism rates across 21 Static-99R studies (N = 8,805) corresponded to the normative groups proposed by the STATIC development group (routine, treatment, high risk/high need). We found strong evidence that routine (i.e., complete) samples were, on average, less likely to reoffend with a sexual offense than offenders in the high-risk/high-need samples (i.e., those explicitly preselected on risk-relevant variables external to STATIC scales). The differences between routine/complete and high-risk/high-need samples, however, were only consistently observed for offenders with low or moderate scores; for offenders with high STATIC scores, the 5-year sexual recidivism rates for these two groups were not meaningfully different. There was only limited evidence to support treatment samples as a distinct sample type; consequently, the use of separate normative tables for treatment samples is not recommended. The current results reinforce the value of regularly updating the norms for empirical actuarial risk tools. Options are discussed on how STATIC scores could be used to inform recidivism rates estimates in applied assessments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. 14 CFR 33.64 - Pressurized engine static parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressurized engine static parts. 33.64... engine static parts. (a) Strength. The applicant must establish by test, validated analysis, or a combination of both, that all static parts subject to significant gas or liquid pressure loads for a...

  1. 14 CFR 105.47 - Use of static lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of static lines. 105.47 Section 105.47... static lines. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no person may conduct a parachute operation using a static line attached to the aircraft and the main parachute unless an assist device...

  2. Static potential for a string with a topological term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikov, R.P.; Zlatev, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    We study the static potential for a string in (2+1)-dimensional space-time with action including a topological term. An appropriate static solution is found and the corresponding potential is obtained. Such a solution does not exist beyond a critical distance between the ends of the string. The one-loop corrections to the static potential are calculated. (orig.)

  3. 30 CFR 18.67 - Static-pressure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static-pressure tests. 18.67 Section 18.67....67 Static-pressure tests. Static-pressure tests shall be conducted by the applicant on each enclosure... pressure to be applied shall be 150 pounds per square inch (gage) or one and one-half times the maximum...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1325 - Static pressure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... atmosphere through an appropriate piping system. (b) Each static port must be designed and located in such manner that the static pressure system performance is least affected by airflow variation, or by moisture... and true ambient atmospheric static pressure is not changed when the airplane is exposed to the...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1325 - Static pressure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign matter does not seriously affect its accuracy. (b) Each static pressure port must be designed and... ambient atmospheric static pressure is not altered when the rotorcraft encounters icing conditions. An... reading of the altimeter when on the primary static system by more than 50 feet, a correction card must be...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6602 - Static electricity dissipation during loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static electricity dissipation during loading... Explosives Extraneous Electricity § 56.6602 Static electricity dissipation during loading. When explosive material is loaded pneumatically into a blasthole in a manner that generates a static electricity hazard...

  7. 14 CFR 27.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection....610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against... static electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of...

  8. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  9. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2015 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts into indefinite contracts) has been officially launched. The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 3 August 2015 for a period of four weeks (until 31 August 2015). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: We would like to remind you that all staff members holding a limited-duration contract who have successfully completed their probation period at the time of application and who meet the eligibility criteria in the vacancy notices (VNs) are eligible to apply for posts for the award of a...

  10. Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive.

  11. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2015 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts into indefinite contracts) has been officially launched. The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 3 August 2015 for a period of four weeks (until 31 August 2015). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: We would like to remind you that all staff members holding a limited-duration contract who have successfully completed their probation period at the time of application and who meet the eligibility criteria in the vacancy notices (VNs) are eligible to apply for posts for the awa...

  12. Managed care contracting/capitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, T M

    1995-11-01

    Both the general approach for entering into a managed care contract and the subject of capitation are presented. The general approach section outlines the criteria that a physician group should apply in analyzing the feasibility of entering into a managed care contract with any insurer. The physician group's contracting process should be iterative and refined over time. The capitation section addresses issues revolving around the assessment of a capitated contract. The example assumes a typical health maintenance organization-primary care group contract. Not analyzed in this article are the exciting opportunities presented through specialty carveout capitation. Managing the transition to a more competitive environment will be the major challenge facing group practices. Survival in the tightening healthcare market will depend on sound strategic decisions regarding the physician group's mission as well as its relationship to its hospital partners and other delivery systems. To support these strategic decisions, a solid knowledge base and a thorough understanding of the terms and provisions regarding the formulation of these new relationships are necessary. The budget methodology is a relatively straightforward approach to establishing a capitation. Careful consideration will have to be given to the method of allocating the capitation among providers. A special concern is the risk-sharing arrangement with primary care physicians.

  13. Termination of Commercial Contracts by giving Notice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Some long-term contracts are brought to an end if one of the parties gives notice. Usually, such a step is not considered a breach of contract. It causes the contract to end in accordance with the contract. When no express rules cover the situation, it is often not entirely clear whether or not t...

  14. 48 CFR 39.107 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., in solicitations and contracts for information technology which require security of information technology, and/or are for the design, development, or operation of a system of records using commercial... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.107 Contract clause. The contracting officer...

  15. 42 CFR 460.70 - Contracted services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... request. (d) Content of contract. Each contract must be in writing and include the following information... sound as defined in § 460.80(a) of this part and has demonstrated competence with the PACE model as... services as described in § 460.100. (b) Contract requirements. A contract between a PACE organization and a...

  16. 48 CFR 17.109 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... solicitations and contracts when a multiyear contract is contemplated. (b) Economic price adjustment clauses. Economic price adjustment clauses are adaptable to multiyear contracting needs. When the period of... officer should normally use an economic price adjustment clause (see 16.203). When contracting for...

  17. 43 CFR 2.53 - Government contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government contracts. 2.53 Section 2.53 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Privacy Act § 2.53 Government contracts. (a) Required contract provisions. When a contract...

  18. 48 CFR 904.7201 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 904.7201... MATTERS Public Affairs 904.7201 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.204-75, Public Affairs, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to release...

  19. 48 CFR 803.7001 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 803.7001... Practices 803.7001 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.203-71, Display of Department of Veterans Affairs Hotline poster, in solicitations and contracts expected to equal or...

  20. 48 CFR 819.7009 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 819.7009... Acquisition Program 819.7009 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-10... Veteran-Owned Small Business Set-Aside in solicitations and contracts for acquisitions under this subpart. ...

  1. 48 CFR 745.106 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 745.106 Section 745.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY General 745.106 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the...

  2. 48 CFR 846.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 846.710 Section 846.710 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 846.710 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at...

  3. 48 CFR 903.971 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 903.971... Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.203-70, Whistleblower Protection for Contractor Employees, in contracts that involve work to be done on behalf of DOE directly related...

  4. 77 FR 3288 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2012-14; Order No. 1138] International Mail Contract...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional Global Reseller Expedited Package contract... Expedited Package (GREP) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service believes the instant contract is functionally...

  5. 48 CFR 747.507 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 747.507 Section 747.507 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Ocean Transportation by U.S.-Flag Vessels 747.507 Contract clauses. Contracting...

  6. 48 CFR 871.212 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 871.212... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.212 Contract clauses. Contracting officers must use the following clauses, as appropriate, in solicitations and contracts for vocational rehabilitation and employment...

  7. 42 CFR 422.504 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract provisions. 422.504 Section 422.504 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Application Procedures and Contracts for Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.504 Contract provisions. The contract between the MA organization and CMS must contain the...

  8. 48 CFR 53.111 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 53.111... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.111 Contract clause. Contracting officers shall insert the clause at 52.253-1, Computer Generated Forms, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to submit...

  9. 48 CFR 970.1504 - Contract pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract pricing. 970.1504 Section 970.1504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504 Contract pricing. ...

  10. 48 CFR 833.215 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 833.215 Section 833.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 833.215 Contract clause. The contracting...

  11. 48 CFR 927.303 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 927.303 Section 927.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 927.303 Contract clauses...

  12. 48 CFR 947.7002 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 947.7002 Section 947.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 947.7002 Contract clause. When foreign travel may be required under the contract...

  13. 48 CFR 811.404 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.404... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules 811.404 Contract clause. When delivery is required by or on a particular date for f.o.b. destination contracts, the contracting officer...

  14. 78 FR 72572 - Operational Contract Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... 0790-AI48 Operational Contract Support AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... contract support (OCS), including OCS program management, contract support integration, and integration of..., Director, Operational Contract Support Policy, Office of the Deputy Assistance Secretary of Defense...

  15. 48 CFR 925.7004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 925.7004... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7004 Contract clause. The contracting... solicitations and contracts involving nuclear hot cell services. This clause does not flow down to second-tier...

  16. 77 FR 71642 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Services 3 contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related... Expedited Package Services (GEPS) 3 contract (Contract).\\1\\ The Notice was filed in accordance with 39 CFR...

  17. 77 FR 54937 - International Mail Postal Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... recently-filed Postal Service filing addressing a new International Business Reply Service Contract 3. It... contract within the International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 grouping.\\1\\ The... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  18. Claims in civil engineering contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Speirs, N A

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers claims arising during civil engineering construction contracts. The meaning of the word 'claim' is considered and its possible implications for additional cost and time to completion. The conditions of the construction contract selected will influence the risk apportionment between contractor and client and the price offered by the contractor for the work. Competitive bidding constraints and profit margins in the construction industry, however, may also influence the price offered. This in turn can influence the likelihood of claims arising. The client from his point of view is concerned to complete the work within an agreed time and budget. The circumstances under which claims may arise are reviewed in relation to typical conditions of contract. These circumstances are then related to the CERN LHC civil works. Ways of avoiding claims, where this is possible, are considered. Finally, the means of evaluation of claims and their settlement are considered.

  19. Incentive contracts for development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  20. Towards Certified Management of Financial Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Berthold, Jost; Elsman, Martin

    2014-01-01

    options. We show that plenty of information can be derived from, and useful manipulations defined on, just the symbolic contract specification, independent of any stochastic aspects of the modelled contracts. Contracts modelled in our language are analysed and transformed for management according....... The seminal work by Peyton-Jones and Eber on financial contracts shows how an algebraic approach to contract specification can be used for valuation of contracts (when combined with a model of the underlying observables) and for managing how contracts evolve under so-called fixings and decision......-taking, with the contracts eventually evaporating into the empty contract, for which no party have further obligations. The ideas have emerged into Eber's company LexiFi, which has become a leading software provider for a range of financial institutions, with all contract management operations centralised around a domain...

  1. Dynamic XRD, Shock and Static Compression of CaF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Patricia; Specht, Paul; Root, Seth; Sinclair, Nicholas; Schuman, Adam; White, Melanie; Cornelius, Andrew; Smith, Jesse; Sinogeikin, Stanislav

    2017-06-01

    The high-pressure behavior of CaF2 is probed with x-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with both dynamic compression, using a two-stage light gas gun, and static compression, using diamond anvil cells. We use XRD to follow the unfolding of a shock-driven, fluorite to cotunnite phase transition, on the timescale of nanoseconds. The dynamic behavior of CaF2 under shock loading is contrasted with that under static compression. This work leverages experimental capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source: dynamic XRD and shock experiments at the Dynamic Compression Sector, as well as XRD and static compression in diamond anvil cell at the High-Pressure Collaborative Access Team. These experiments and cross-platform comparisons, open the door to an unprecedented understanding of equations of state and phase transitions at the microstructural level and at different time scales and will ultimately improve our capability to simulate the behavior of materials at extreme conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Contract Design, Supply Chain Complexity, and Accountability in Federal Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Theory , Public Administration Review, International Public Management Journal, and other outlets. Previously, Girth was a manager for a global...governance mechanisms that are favored under different conditions of endogenous and exogenous supply chain risk reflect the risk management... endogenous risk is low, suppliers tend to bear most of the disruption risk by agreeing to fixed price contracts. Conversely, when endogenous risk is

  3. The Contracting Parties' Ability To Conclude The Employment Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Constantina NENU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study's main objective is to analyze certain effects produced by the changes of the Labor Code and by the entry into force of the current Romanian Civil Code. These effects refer to one of the fundamental conditions for the valid conclusion of the individual employment contract, that is, to the legal capacity of employers and employees. Thus, a complete analysis of legal regulations and of the correlations between different provisions on the legal capacity of parties to the individual employment contract is required to identify the existing noncompliance and to propose solutions. The research demonstrated that the current regulatory framework governing the legal capacity of the parties to an individual employment contract does not entirely correspond to the social reality. Therefore, only the employer benefits from a relatively comprehensive statutory regulation on the legal capacity to conclude an individual employment contract. The employee, however, does not benefit from the same attention from legislature. Considering the above, the study represents a significant scientific contribution, whose value lies in the proposed changes to modify legislature, so that the legal capacity of job holders would benefit from fair regulation, in accordance with the principle of legal protection of employee rights.

  4. 48 CFR 35.006 - Contracting methods and contract type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... generally not available, thus making negotiation necessary. However, the use of negotiation in R&D... is the responsibility of the contracting officer. However, because of the importance of technical... cost estimate for price negotiations. (See 16.207.) (e) Projects having production requirements as a...

  5. A survey of formal languages for contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper we present the current status on formal languages and models for contracts. By a formal model is meant an unambiguous and rigorous representation of contracts, in order to enable their automatic validation, execution, and analysis — activates that are collectively referred...... to as contract lifecycle management (CLM). We present a set of formalism requirements, which represent features that any ideal contract model should support, based on which we present a comparative survey of existing contract formalisms....

  6. Terms of payment in the sales contract

    OpenAIRE

    Harmáčková, Iva

    2009-01-01

    This thesis makes an analysis of price and terms of payment in the sales contract. Both elements are conceived in terms of legal framework and in terms of importance for the parties to an international sales contract. The theoretical part deals with the role of the sales contract in business relations, structure and legal norms of the international sales contract. The practical part includes an analysis of specific international sales contract.

  7. Assessment of Navy Contract Management Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Gregory Sanders, Deputy Director and Fellow, Defense-Industrial Initiatives Group, CSIS Samantha Cohen, Research Assistant , Defense-Industrial...risk rating and the DoDIG reported deficiencies include an increased hiring of contracting specialists and auditors , increased contracting training...contracts for supplies and services • GAO has identified DoD contract management as a high risk (since 1992) • Contracting techniques and

  8. Calculating contracted tensor Feynman integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, J.; Riemann, T.

    2011-01-01

    A recently derived approach to the tensor reduction of 5-point one-loop Feynman integrals expresses the tensor coefficients by scalar 1-point to 4-point Feynman integrals completely algebraically. In this Letter we derive extremely compact algebraic expressions for the contractions of the tensor integrals with external momenta. This is based on sums over signed minors weighted with scalar products of the external momenta. With these contractions one can construct the invariant amplitudes of the matrix elements under consideration, and the evaluation of one-loop contributions to massless and massive multi-particle production at high energy colliders like LHC and ILC is expected to be performed very efficiently.

  9. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  10. Calculating contracted tensor Feynman integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, J.

    2011-05-01

    A recently derived approach to the tensor reduction of 5-point one-loop Feynman integrals expresses the tensor coefficients by scalar 1-point to 4-point Feynman integrals completely algebraically. In this letter we derive extremely compact algebraic expressions for the contractions of the tensor integrals with externalmomenta. This is based on sums over signedminors weighted with scalar products of the external momenta. With these contractions one can construct the invariant amplitudes of the matrix elements under consideration, and the evaluation of one-loop contributions to massless and massive multi-particle production at high energy colliders like LHC and ILC is expected to be performed very efficiently. (orig.)

  11. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published as from the last week of September.  In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened is available at the following address: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/Autumn_2011_listofslots.pdf Information sessions for candidates are being organised for 26 and 27 September 2011. For more information please consult:  https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp

  12. Lightlike contractions in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichelburg, P.C.; Embacher, F.

    1984-01-01

    The technique of lightlike contractions in flat and curved space is described. The method consists in boosting a classical field configuration to the velocity of light by an appropriate generalized Lorentz transformation. Within this framework the gravitational field of a massless neutral particle is a meaningful concept. For electrically charged particles, however, the field equations seem to prevent an analogous procedure. We thus conjecture that general relativity forbids the existance of charged point particles moving with the velocity of light. Further examples for lightlike contractions of a self-dual electromagnetic field and of a linearized Rarita-Schwinger (spin-3/2) field are given. (Author)

  13. Relationships between force and muscle oxygenation kinetics during sustained static gripping using a progressive workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Shinichi; Nakada, Masakatsu

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationships between force and subjective muscle-fatigue sensation (SMS), and muscle oxygenation kinetics during sustained static gripping using a progressive workload. Subjects consisted of 10 males (height 173.2+/-7.1 cm, body weight 70.3+/-15.1 kg, and age 21.1+/-1.5 years). They performed sustained static gripping with 7 gradually increasing relative demand values of 20% to 80% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The staging of the progressive workload was 10 s for 20% MVC, 20 s each for 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70% MVC, and 10 s for 80% MVC. Borg's SMS was used to measure the fatigue sensation of the antebrachial region in a pre-test and every 10 s during the test. The time to reach minimum Oxy-Hb/Mb appeared at about 50 s (52.6+/-25.2 s) after the onset of sustained static gripping, and the time to reach maximum Deoxy-Hb/Mb occurred later at 90 s. Significant and high correlations (r=0.632-0.721) were found between the time to reach maximum Deoxy-Hb/Mb, and Peak Force Time and Average Force. Even though the demand values caused a workload increase and reached 50% MVC, the change of Total Hb/Mb and Oxy-Hb/Mb kinetics was relatively small. Therefore, the effect caused by an obstruction of blood volume may not occur during the progressive workload. It was determined that the contraction time after the peak of SMS is relatively short and an individual difference in force value expands in the phase where SMS reaches its peak.

  14. Acute effect of static stretching on muscle force in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Demantova Gurjão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effect of static stretching on the peak rate of force development (PRFD and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC in older women. Ten women (68.5 ± 7.0 years; 70.9 ± 8.1 kg; 159.4 ± 6.0 cm; body mass index: 28.0 ± 3.8 kg/m2 were studied. MVC and PRFD were determined by leg press exercise before and after the control or stretching condition (three sets of 30 seconds of static stretching of the quadriceps on two different days (interval of 24 hours. PRFD was determined as the steepest slope of the curve, calculated within regular windows of 20 milliseconds (∆force/∆time for the first 200 milliseconds after the onset of contraction. MVC was determined as the highest value recorded in each set. Only one condition was tested on each day and the order of application of each condition was determined randomly. The stretching intensity was evaluated by the muscle pain threshold. Four post-condition assessments (post-treatment, 10, 20, and 30 minutes were performed to monitor muscle strength. ANCOVA 2x5, followed by the Scheffé post-hoc test, showed no significant interactions between conditions vs. times (P > 0.05 for PRFD or MVC. In conclusion, acute bouts of static stretching of the quadriceps femoris do not affect the ability of rapid and maximum muscle force production in older women.

  15. Superconductor in a weak static gravitational field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ummarino, Giovanni Alberto [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI-Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gallerati, Antonio [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    We provide the detailed calculation of a general form for Maxwell and London equations that takes into account gravitational corrections in linear approximation. We determine the possible alteration of a static gravitational field in a superconductor making use of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations, providing also an analytic solution in the weak field condition. Finally, we compare the behavior of a high-T{sub c} superconductor with a classical low-T{sub c} superconductor, analyzing the values of the parameters that can enhance the reduction of the gravitational field. (orig.)

  16. Static Analysis of XML Transformations in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael I.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract--XML documents generated dynamically by programs are typically represented as text strings or DOM trees. This is a low-level approach for several reasons: 1) Traversing and modifying such structures can be tedious and error prone, 2) although schema languages, e.g., DTD, allow classes...... of XML documents to be defined, there are generally no automatic mechanisms for statically checking that a program transforms from one class to another as intended. We introduce Xact, a high-level approach for Java using XML templates as a first-class data type with operations for manipulating XML values...

  17. Static Model of Cement Rotary Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar D. Hernández-Arboleda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a static model of cement rotary kilns is proposed. The system model is obtained through polynomial series. The proposed model is contrasted with data of a real plant, where optimal results are obtained. Expected results are measured with respect to the clinker production and the combustible consumption is measured in relation with the consumption calorific. The expected result of the approach is the increase of the profitability of the factory through the decrease of the consumption of the combustible.

  18. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... programs and evaluated using incremental tabled evaluation, a technique for efficiently updating memo tables in response to changes in facts and rules. The approach has been implemented and integrated into the Eclipse IDE. Our measurements show that this technique is effective for automatically...

  19. Defects in Static Elasticity of Quasicrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A review on mathematical elasticity of quasicrystals is given. In this review, the focus is on various defects of quasicrystals. Dislocation and crack are two classes of typical topological defects, while their existence has great influence on the mechanical behavior of quasicrystals. The analytic and numerical solutions of dislocations and crack in quasicrystals are the core of the static and dynamic elasticity theory, and this paper gives a comprehensive review on the solutions for dislocations and crack with different configurations in different various important quasicrystalline systems. We review some results in linear elasticity of quasicrystals, referring to different boundary value problems. We also add some new achievements.

  20. Monotone Comparative Statics for the Industry Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand; Bache, Peter Arendorf

    2015-01-01

    We let heterogeneous firms face decisions on a number of complementary activities in a monopolistically-competitive industry. The endogenous level of competition and selection regarding entry and exit of firms introduces a wedge between monotone comparative statics (MCS) at the firm level and MCS...... for the industry composition. The latter phenomenon is defined as first-order stochastic dominance shifts in the equilibrium distributions of all activities across active firms. We provide sufficient conditions for MCS at both levels of analysis and show that we may have either type of MCS without the other...

  1. Compiler-assisted static checkpoint insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a compiler-assisted approach for static checkpoint insertion. Instead of fixing the checkpoint location before program execution, a compiler enhanced polling mechanism is utilized to maintain both the desired checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint 1ocations. The technique has been implemented in a GNU CC compiler for Sun 3 and Sun 4 (Sparc) processors. Experiments demonstrate that the approach provides for stable checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint placements with performance overhead comparable to a previously presented compiler assisted dynamic scheme (CATCH) utilizing the system clock.

  2. Static analysis of software the abstract interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature currently available to students and researchers is very general, covering only the formal techniques of static analysis. This book presents real examples of the formal techniques called ""abstract interpretation"" currently being used in various industrial fields: railway, aeronautics, space, automotive, etc. The purpose of this book is to present students and researchers, in a single book, with the wealth of experience of people who are intrinsically involved in the realization and evaluation of software-based safety critical systems. As the authors are people curr

  3. Static strain aging in austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, S.N.

    1978-07-01

    The static strain aging effects were investigated in austenitic stainless steels by measuring the yield points developed in tensile tests following the arrest of the crosshead for some period of time. The results appear to indicate that the dragging of dislocations in the interval of temperatures from 100 to 300 0 C, where the strain aging is effective, does not apparently depend on the Cottrell's atmosphere. Moreover the influence of the pre-deformation and time on the yield point intensity displayed the existence of stages. The strain aging mechanics and the reasons for the stages were discussed. (Author) [pt

  4. 48 CFR 42.101 - Contract audit responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Audit Services 42.101 Contract... supporting proposed and incurred costs. (b) Normally, for contractors other than educational institutions and... meet contract audit requirements. For educational institutions and nonprofit organizations, audit...

  5. 48 CFR 16.506 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 16.506 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (a) Insert the clause at 52.216-18, Ordering, in solicitations...

  6. 48 CFR 616.506-70 - DOSAR contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 616.506-70 DOSAR contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 652.216-70, Ordering—Indefinite-Delivery...

  7. Static current profile control and RFP confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, Jan; Mirza, Ahmed A.; Schnack, Dalton D.

    2013-01-01

    Static current profile control (CPC) is shown numerically to substantially enhance plasma confinement in the reversed-field pinch (RFP). By suitable application of an auxiliary electric field and adjustment of its internal location, width and amplitude, strongly decreased levels of dynamo fluctuations are obtained. The simulations are performed using a fully non-linear, resistive magnetohydrodynamic model, including the effects of ohmic heating as well as parallel and perpendicular heat conduction along stochastic field lines. The importance of controlling the parallel current profile in the core plasma to minimize the effects of tearing modes on confinement is thus confirmed. A near three-fold increase in energy confinement is found and poloidal plasma beta increases by 30% from 0.20 to 0.27. The edge heat flux is reduced to a third of that of the conventional RFP. The high-confinement phase is interrupted here by a crash, characterized by a rapid decrease in confinement. A detailed study of the crash phase is carried out by the standard Δ′ theory and a fully resistive linearized time-spectral method; the generalized weighted residual method. The analysis suggests that the instability is caused by pressure-driven, resistive g-modes. Inclusion of anisotropic thermal conduction reduces the linear growth rates. As compared with our earlier numerical studies of CPC in the RFP, employing feedback control, the present static control scheme should be more easily implemented experimentally. (paper)

  8. Robot-Crawler: Statically Balanced Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new statically balanced walking technique for a robot-crawler. The gait design and the control of the robot crawler aim to achieve stability while walking. This statically balanced gait has to be designed in a different fashion to a wheeled robot, as there are discrete changes in the support of the robot when its legs are lifted or placed on the ground. The stability of the robot depends on how the legs are positioned relative to the body and also on the sequence and timing with which the legs are lifted and placed. In order to reduce the risk of stability loss while walking, a measure for the robot stability (so-called stability margin is typically used in the gait and motion planning. In this paper different biological behaviours of four-legged animals are studied and mapped on a quad-legrobot-crawler. Experiments were carried out on the forward walking gaits of lizards and horses. Based on these results, the stability margins of different gaits are discussed and compared.

  9. Static viscoelasticity of biomass polyethylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Yang

    Full Text Available The biomass polyethylene composites filled with poplar wood flour, rice husk, cotton stalk or corn stalk were prepared by extrusion molding. The static viscoelasticity of composites was investigated by the dynamic thermal mechanical analyzer (DMA. Through the stress-strain scanning, it is found that the linear viscoelasticity interval of composites gradually decreases as the temperature rises, and the critical stress and strain values are 0.8 MPa and 0.03% respectively. The experiment shows that as the temperature rises, the creep compliance of biomass polyethylene composites is increased; under the constant temperature, the creep compliance decreases with the increase of content of biomass and calcium carbonate. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler can improve damping vibration attenuation and reduce stress deformation of composites. The stress relaxation modulus of composites is reduced and the relaxation rate increases at the higher temperature. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler not only can reduce costs, but also can increase stress relaxation modulus and improve the size thermostability of composites. The corn stalk is a good kind of biomass raw material for composites since it can improve the creep resistance property and the stress relaxation resistance property of composites more effectively than other three kinds of biomass (poplar wood flour, rice husk and cotton stalk. Keywords: Biomass, Composites, Calcium carbonate, Static viscoelasticity, Creep, Stress relaxation

  10. Static Code Analysis with Gitlab-CI

    CERN Document Server

    Datko, Szymon Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Static Code Analysis is a simple but efficient way to ensure that application’s source code is free from known flaws and security vulnerabilities. Although such analysis tools are often coming with more advanced code editors, there are a lot of people who prefer less complicated environments. The easiest solution would involve education – where to get and how to use the aforementioned tools. However, counting on the manual usage of such tools still does not guarantee their actual usage. On the other hand, reducing the required effort, according to the idea “setup once, use anytime without sweat” seems like a more promising approach. In this paper, the approach to automate code scanning, within the existing CERN’s Gitlab installation, is described. For realization of that project, the Gitlab-CI service (the “CI” stands for "Continuous Integration"), with Docker assistance, was employed to provide a variety of static code analysers for different programming languages. This document covers the gene...

  11. Incomplete contract and divisional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, T.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which

  12. Contracting a planar graph efficiently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob; Italiano, Giuseppe F.; Karczmarz, Adam

    2017-01-01

    We present a data structure that can maintain a simple planar graph under edge contractions in linear total time. The data structure supports adjacency queries and provides access to neighbor lists in O(1) time. Moreover, it can report all the arising self-loops and parallel edges. By applying th...

  13. Jazzing up the Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Nell Tabor

    2010-01-01

    Helping students and practitioners to understand and utilize the Psychological Contract is often a difficult task. Unlike fault-finding research, this paper presents the PC as a positive, vibrant and valuable tool. In an effort to make the concept less elusive, the paper draws upon the metaphor of jazz. The metaphor is an accepted tool of…

  14. SSC Test Operations Contract Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Kerry D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Test Operations Contract at the Stennis Space Center (SSC). There are views of the test stands layouts, and closer views of the test stands. There are descriptions of the test stand capabilities, some of the other test complexes, the Cryogenic propellant storage facility, the High Pressure Industrial Water (HPIW) facility, and Fluid Component Processing Facility (FCPF).

  15. Construction contract revenue recording comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly traded companies prepare their consolidated accounts in conformity with the international accounting standards (IAS/IFRS in accordance with the Regulation No. 1606/2002. This is obliged for all publicly traded joint-stock companies in the Czech Republic. Other companies prepare financial statements in accordance with national accounting standards. There are Accounting Act No. 563/1991 of Coll. and Regulation No. 500/2002 of Coll., Czech Accounting Standards in the Czech Republic. Both systems are based on different principles so there are many differences. The Czech Accounting System (CAS is based on the rules while IAS/IFRS are based on principles (Kovanicová, 2005. These differences are mainly caused by the different philosophy. CAS prefers the fiscal policy to the economic substance while IAS/IFRS prefere the economic substance. One of the most significant dif­fe­ren­ces is in the field of revenue recording. There are two standards concerning the revenues recording (IAS 18 − Revenue, IAS 11 – Construction Contracts in IAS/IFRS. CAS 019 – Expenses and Revenue are dealing with the revenue recording in the Czech Republic. The paper is aimed at the comparison of the methodical approaches for revenue recording used by IAS/IFRS and by CAS. The most important differences are caused by the different approach to the long term contracts (construction contracts, software development contracts revenues recording.

  16. AGILE DRAFTING OF OUTSOURCING CONTRACTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Storgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    and in several parallel tracks using different competencies. By the use of an illustrative case-study, this paper explores how scrum can be applied to enhance the process of drafting outsourcing contracts. The analysis indicates that the use of an agile method, such as Scrum, can be beneficial in this context...

  17. Iterative Contracts as Proactive Law Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, René Franz

    2012-01-01

    . This software development process has driven the need for a new contract design that supports the product life cycle better than the traditional contracts. As will be shown in the analysis, the iterative contracts represent important legal innovation and can be categorized as a proactive law instrument that has......The purpose of this article is to analyse the use of proactive law in contracts illustrated by the use of a particular type of contract within the IT industry, the so-called iterative contract. This type of contract has its root in a special software development process called iterative...... the potential to create more business success. However, empirical research still needs to be done in order to confirm that these types of contracts are better at securing business success than traditional contract forms....

  18. Static optimization of muscle forces during gait in comparison to EMG-to-force processing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Sofia; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2007-07-01

    Individual muscle forces evaluated from experimental motion analysis may be useful in mathematical simulation, but require additional musculoskeletal and mathematical modelling. A numerical method of static optimization was used in this study to evaluate muscular forces during gait. The numerical algorithm used was built on the basis of traditional optimization techniques, i.e., constrained minimization technique using the Lagrange multiplier method to solve for constraints. Measuring exact muscle forces during gait analysis is not currently possible. The developed optimization method calculates optimal forces during gait, given a specific performance criterion, using kinematics and kinetics from gait analysis together with muscle architectural data. Experimental methods to validate mathematical methods to calculate forces are limited. Electromyography (EMG) is frequently used as a tool to determine muscle activation in experimental studies on human motion. A method of estimating force from the EMG signal, the EMG-to-force approach, was recently developed by Bogey et al. [Bogey RA, Perry J, Gitter AJ. An EMG-to-force processing approach for determining ankle muscle forcs during normal human gait. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2005;13:302-10] and is based on normalization of activation during a maximum voluntary contraction to documented maximal muscle strength. This method was adapted in this study as a tool with which to compare static optimization during a gait cycle. Muscle forces from static optimization and from EMG-to-force muscle forces show reasonably good correlation in the plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscles, but less correlation in the knee flexor and extensor muscles. Additional comparison of the mathematical muscle forces from static optimization to documented averaged EMG data reveals good overall correlation to patterns of evaluated muscular activation. This indicates that on an individual level, muscular force patterns from mathematical

  19. Tendon vibration attenuates superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during static arm exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooue Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superficial vein of the resting limb constricts sympathetically during exercise. Central command is the one of the neural mechanisms that controls the cardiovascular response to exercise. However, it is not clear whether central command contributes to venous vessel response during exercise. Tendon vibration during static elbow flexion causes primary muscle spindle afferents, such that a lower central command is required to achieve a given force without altering muscle force. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether a reduction in central command during static exercise with tendon vibration influences the superficial venous vessel response in the resting limb. Methods Eleven subjects performed static elbow flexion at 35% of maximal voluntary contraction with (EX + VIB and without (EX vibration of the biceps brachii tendon. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE in overall and exercising muscle were measured. The cross-sectional area (CSAvein and blood velocity of the basilic vein in the resting upper arm were assessed by ultrasound, and blood flow (BFvein was calculated using both variables. Results Muscle tension during exercise was similar between EX and EX + VIB. However, RPEs at EX + VIB were lower than those at EX (P P vein in the resting limb at EX decreased during exercise from baseline (P vein at EX + VIB did not change during exercise. CSAvein during exercise at EX was smaller than that at EX + VIB (P vein did not change during the protocol under either condition. The decreases in circulatory response and RPEs during EX + VIB, despite identical muscle tension, showed that activation of central command was less during EX + VIB than during EX. Abolishment of the decrease in CSAvein during exercise at EX + VIB may thus have been caused by a lower level of central command at EX + VIB rather than EX. Conclusion Diminished central command induced by tendon

  20. Tendon vibration attenuates superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during static arm exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooue, Anna; Sato, Kohei; Hirasawa, Ai; Sadamoto, Tomoko

    2012-11-07

    The superficial vein of the resting limb constricts sympathetically during exercise. Central command is the one of the neural mechanisms that controls the cardiovascular response to exercise. However, it is not clear whether central command contributes to venous vessel response during exercise. Tendon vibration during static elbow flexion causes primary muscle spindle afferents, such that a lower central command is required to achieve a given force without altering muscle force. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether a reduction in central command during static exercise with tendon vibration influences the superficial venous vessel response in the resting limb. Eleven subjects performed static elbow flexion at 35% of maximal voluntary contraction with (EX + VIB) and without (EX) vibration of the biceps brachii tendon. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in overall and exercising muscle were measured. The cross-sectional area (CSAvein) and blood velocity of the basilic vein in the resting upper arm were assessed by ultrasound, and blood flow (BFvein) was calculated using both variables. Muscle tension during exercise was similar between EX and EX + VIB. However, RPEs at EX + VIB were lower than those at EX (P tension, showed that activation of central command was less during EX + VIB than during EX. Abolishment of the decrease in CSAvein during exercise at EX + VIB may thus have been caused by a lower level of central command at EX + VIB rather than EX. Diminished central command induced by tendon vibration may attenuate the superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during sustained static arm exercise.

  1. Financial Management: Reopening of Contracts in the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    2003-01-01

    .... In anticipation of transitioning to the new contract payment system, the Defense Finance and Accounting Service and the Defense Contract Management Agency were attempting to close out as many contracts as possible...

  2. Forward Volatility Contract Pricing in the Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Magalhães Manteiga

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider the pricing of a special class of volatility derivatives, the so-called variance swaps. The fair value of a variance swap is equal to the expected value of the realized variance of the underlying of the swap during the lifetime of the contract. It is shown how this expected value can be computed by means of an exotic option with logarithmic pay-off. We show how to statically replicate this pay-off in terms of a basket of synthetic vanilla call and put options. We apply this construction to the TNLP4 ticker of BOVESPA and synthetize a basket with pure exposure to volatility using actual market prices.

  3. Covenant Violations and Dynamic Loan Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudenberg, Felix; Imbierowicz, Björn; Saunders, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic allocation of control rights in private debt contracts of firms. We show that a covenant violation in the prior loan contract implies a stigma for borrowers which results in stricter loan contract terms in subsequent new loan contracts. Our analyses reject...... potentially other explanations such as firm characteristics or agency problems between the lender and firm management, shareholders or public debtholders. After covenant violations in the prior contract, new loans have on average 18 bps higher spreads and include more of those covenant types which also have...... been violated in the prior contract, with tighter thresholds....

  4. Prolonged passive static stretching-induced innervation zone shift in biceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W; Wages, Nathan P

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a bout of repeated and prolonged passive static stretching on the innervation zone (IZ) location of the human biceps brachii muscle. Eleven men performed 12 sets of 100-s passive stretches on their biceps brachii. Before (Pre) and immediately after (Post) the stretching intervention, isometric strength was tested during the maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the forearm flexors. The subjects also performed several separate isometric forearm flexion muscle actions at 30%, 50%, and 70% of their predetermined MVCs for examining the locations of the IZ at different contraction intensities. The IZ was identified through multi-channel surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings from a linear electrode array. The stretching intervention induced an average of 10% isometric strength loss for the forearm flexors (mean±SD: Pre-MVC vs. Post-MVC=332.12±59.40 N vs. 299.53±70.51 N; p<0.001). In addition, the average IZ shift was nearly 4.5 mm in average in the proximal direction. However, this shift was not specific to the contraction intensity. We believe that the IZ shift was caused by the elongation of the entire muscle-tendon unit in the proximal direction. Therefore, caution should be taken when using surface EMG technique to examine possible changes in the EMG variables after a stretching protocol, as these variables can be contaminated by the shift of the IZ.

  5. Forced Employment Contract Change and the Psychological Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, M; Thornhill, A

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the implications for all employees’ psychological contracts of a forced change from permanent to temporary employment status for some employees within an organisation. Methodology/Approach: A random sample of 30 employees, stratified by employment status was selected. Each employee undertook a structured card sort of possible emotional responses to change followed by an in-depth interview to explore and explain their categorisation of these responses. Findings: Th...

  6. Duplicate Recording of Contracts in the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1996-01-01

    The audit objective was to evaluate whether controls in the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services system were adequate to detect or prevent the recording of contract payment information...

  7. Analysis of Naval Facilities Engineering Command's (NAVFAC) Contracting Processes Using the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ludwig, Walter S; Moore, Alexander M

    2006-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study is to analyze NAVFAC's contracting processes, establish a baseline for contract management maturity and ethical context, and recommend target areas for improvement efforts...

  8. Assessing Static Performance of the Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge by Monitoring the Correlation between Temperature Field and Its Static Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Xin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the structural health monitoring system installed on the steel truss arch girder of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge, the temperature field data and static strain data are collected and analyzed for the static performance assessment of the bridge. Through analysis, it is found that the static strain changes are mainly caused by temperature field (temperature and temperature difference and train. After the train-induced static strains are removed, the correlation between the remaining static strains and the temperature field shows apparent linear characteristics, which can be mathematically modeled for the description of static performance. Therefore, multivariate linear regression function combined with principal component analysis is introduced to mathematically model the correlation. Furthermore, the residual static strains of mathematical model are adopted as assessment indicator and three kinds of degradation regulations of static performance are obtained after simulation of the residual static strains. Finally, it is concluded that the static performance of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge was in a good condition during that period.

  9. Friction-induced hysteresis in quasi-static granular jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Mahesh; Libal, Andras; Rivera, Michael; Ecke, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Static granular packings are usually interrogated via quasi-static measurements where the packing fraction serves as the control parameter to study the pack evolution. In the absence of externally induced vibrations (effective granular temperature), quasi-static measurements are justified because the system in question is athermal. Whereas this is true for frictionless granular packings, we experimentally demonstrate the failure of quasi-staticity for frictional packings in a quasi two-dimensional system of disks. This failure is traced to hysteretic responses in the system which shifts the critical packing fraction at which the system jams to progressively higher values as the system is repeatedly jammed and un-jammed. The shift in critical packing fraction marks the system's evolution from a Random Loose Packed (RLP) to a Random Close Packed (RCP) density. This rate of evolution is experimentally determined to depend upon the quasi-static step size and the static friction coefficient of the constituent disks in the system.

  10. Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.

  11. Network Completion for Static Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsu Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the problem of completing and inferring genetic networks under stationary conditions from static data, where network completion is to make the minimum amount of modifications to an initial network so that the completed network is most consistent with the expression data in which addition of edges and deletion of edges are basic modification operations. For this problem, we present a new method for network completion using dynamic programming and least-squares fitting. This method can find an optimal solution in polynomial time if the maximum indegree of the network is bounded by a constant. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method through computational experiments using synthetic data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed method can distinguish the differences between two types of genetic networks under stationary conditions from lung cancer and normal gene expression data.

  12. Weyl curvature tensor in static spherical sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce de Leon, J.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the Weyl curvature tensor in static sources of the Schwarzschild field is studied. It is shown that in general the contribution from the Weyl curvature tensor (the ''purely gravitational field energy'') to the mass-energy inside the body may be positive, negative, or zero. It is proved that a positive (negative) contribution from the Weyl tensor tends to increase (decrease) the effective gravitational mass, the red-shift (from a point in the sphere to infinity), as well as the gravitational force which acts on a constituent matter element of a body. It is also proved that the contribution from the Weyl tensor always is negative in sources with surface gravitational potential larger than (4/9. It is pointed out that large negative contributions from the Weyl tensor could give rise to the phenomenon of gravitational repulsion. A simple example which illustrates the results is discussed

  13. Static structure of active Brownian hard disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo Biniossek, N.; Löwen, H.; Voigtmann, Th; Smallenburg, F.

    2018-02-01

    We explore the changes in static structure of a two-dimensional system of active Brownian particles (ABP) with hard-disk interactions, using event-driven Brownian dynamics simulations. In particular, the effect of the self-propulsion velocity and the rotational diffusivity on the orientationally-averaged fluid structure factor is discussed. Typically activity increases structural ordering and generates a structure factor peak at zero wave vector which is a precursor of motility-induced phase separation. Our results provide reference data to test future statistical theories for the fluid structure of active Brownian systems. This manuscript was submitted for the special issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter associated with the Liquid Matter Conference 2017.

  14. Construction of STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Onodera, Seiji; Hirose, Hideyuki

    1998-08-01

    Two critical assemblies, STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility) and TRACY (Transient Experiment Critical Facility), were constructed in NUCEF (Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility) to promote researches on the criticality safety at a reprocessing facility. STACY aims at providing critical data of uranium nitrate solution, plutonium nitrate solution and their mixture while varying concentration of solution fuel, core tank shape and size and neutron reflecting condition. STACY achieved first criticality in February 1995, and passed the licensing inspection by STA (Science and Technology Agency of Japan) in May. After that a series of critical experiments commenced with 10 w/o enriched uranium solution. This report describes the outline of STACY at the end of FY 1996. (author)

  15. Orienting Paramecium with intense static magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, James M., Jr.; Guevorkian, Karine; Quindel, Carl

    2004-03-01

    Recent experiments on cell division suggest the application of intense static magnetic fields as a novel tool for the manipulation of biological systems [1]. The magnetic field appears to couple to the intrinsic anisotropies in the diamagnetic components of the cells. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic average diamagnetic anisotropy of the whole single celled ciliate, Paramecium Caudatum. Magnetic fields, 2.5 T Paramecium Caudatum that were suspended in a density matched medium. The organisms align with their long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field. Their intrinsic diamagnetic anisotropy is 3x10-11 in cgs units. We will discuss the implications of these results for employing magnetic fields to probe the behavior of swimming Paramecium. [1] J. M. Valles, Jr. et al., Expt. Cell Res.274, 112-118 (2002).

  16. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  17. Measurement of excited state static moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergolle, Henri

    Electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole moments are defined from a classical description of the nucleus and a quantum expression is given for the operators. The principal characteristics of the moment interaction with an outer electric or magnetic field are recalled. The study of the perturbed angular distributions of nuclear reaction products allows half-lives of high spin isomer states to be measured (from a few ps to several hours). The decay gamma rays present, under certain conditions, a strong anisotropy; in principle only one detector is sufficient to observe the angular distribution; coincidences are unnecessary and a high counting rate becomes possible. The measurement of the Coulomb excitation probabilities give the electric (dynamic and static) moments and indirectly quadrupolar moments; two techniques are used: the analysis of elastically and inelastically scattered particles and measurement of the deexcitation γ rays in coincidence with the scattered ions. Quadrupole moments can be measured from the precession of the angular distribution [fr

  18. Static analysis of an office desk construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Novotný

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is a static analysis of a desk construction and the determination of its probable mechanical behaviour using Finite Element Method. The construction was modelled and numerically analysed in Autocad Inventor 2011 and the stability of the entire desk was calculated with the size and placement of the loading force based on the standards and cited literature. Possible locations and directions of the deformation were analysed and a solution for its prevention was proposed and the stability of the desk as well as the extreme position of the stand were calculated. The verification of the obtained results in an accredited furniture testing lab is planned using a prototype of the office desk.

  19. Pion and an improved static bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J.F.; Johnson, K.

    1980-04-01

    Quark-model calculations involve an extended static object localized in space. We introduce new methods, involving momentum-space wave packets, which account for this localization. These methods have little effect on heavy states, whose sizes are large compared to their Compton size 1/m, but are very important for light particles such as the pion. In this treatment the pion's mass is naturally very small, and, in order to connect with a spontaneously broken chiral symmetry, we require that m/sub ..pi../ vanish when the light quarks are massless. Expanding about this limit (and also readjusting the fit to other hadrons), we obtain m/sub q/=(m-italic/sub u/+m/sub d/)/2=33 MeV. We calculate F/sub ..pi../ approx. = 145 MeV (using a normalization such that F/sub ..pi../ vertical-bar /sub exp/=93 MeV), F/sub K//F/sub ..pi../ approx. = 1, and various corrections to static properties of baryons. In addition we explore the relationship of our methods with chiral perturbation theory, deriving the formula m/sub ..pi../ /sup 2/=(m-italic/sub u/+m/sub d/) < ..pi..(p) vertical-bar q-bar(0)q(0) vertical-bar ..pi..(p) > in the appropriate approximation and commenting on the quark mass obtained from the nucleon's sigma term. Finally we discuss the bag model's use of the scalar density q-barq as an order parameter describing the separation of the spontaneously broken vacuum phase from the perturbative vacuum of the bag's interior.

  20. A Progression of Static Equilibrium Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Kutzner, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Although simple architectural structures like bridges, catwalks, cantilevers, and Stonehenge have been integral in human societies for millennia, as have levers and other simple tools, modern students of introductory physics continue to grapple with Newton's conditions for static equilibrium. As formulated in typical introductory physics textbooks, these two conditions appear as ΣF=0(1) and Στ=0,(2) where each torque τ is defined as the cross product between the lever arm vector r and the corresponding applied force F, τ =r×F,(3) having magnitude, τ =Frsinθ.(4) The angle θ here is between the two vectors F and r. In Eq. (1), upward (downward) forces are considered positive (negative). In Eq. (2), counterclockwise (clockwise) torques are considered positive (negative). Equation (1) holds that the vector sum of the external forces acting on an object must be zero to prevent linear accelerations; Eq. (2) states that the vector sum of torques due to external forces about any axis must be zero to prevent angular accelerations. In our view these conditions can be problematic for students because a) the equations contain the unfamiliar summation notation Σ, b) students are uncertain of the role of torques in causing rotations, and c) it is not clear why the sum of torques is zero regardless of the choice of axis. Gianino5 describes an experiment using MBL and a force sensor to convey the meaning of torque as applied to a rigid-body lever system without exploring quantitative aspects of the conditions for static equilibrium.

  1. Sensing of Static Forces with Free-Falling Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Hebestreit, Erik; Frimmer, Martin; Reimann, René; Novotny, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Miniaturized mechanical resonators have proven to be excellent force sensors. However, they usually rely on resonant sensing schemes, and their excellent performance cannot be utilized for the detection of static forces. Here, we report on a novel static-force sensing scheme and demonstrate it using optically levitated nanoparticles in vacuum. Our technique relies on an off-resonant interaction of the particle with a weak static force, and a resonant read-out of the displacement caused by thi...

  2. Investigation of two pitot-static tubes at supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasel, Lowell E; Coletti, Donald E

    1948-01-01

    The results of tests at a Mach number of 1.94 of an ogives-nose cylindrical pitot-static tube and similar tests at Mach numbers of 1.93 and 1.62 of a service pitot-static tube to determine body static pressures and indicated Mach numbers are presented and discussed. The radial pressure distribution on the cylindrical bodies is compared with that calculated by an approximate theory.

  3. Electrodynamic contraction of multiwire liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekhtev, M.V.; Vikharev, V.D.; Zakharov, S.V.; Smirnov, V.P.; Tulupov, M.V.; Tsarfin, V.Ya.

    1989-01-01

    Results of experiments and theoretical calculations of electrodynamic contraction of multiwire liners are reported. It is shown that collapse of a multiwire array produces on its axis a high-temperature radiating plasma pinch. Wire liners permit adequate matching to a high-power electric-pulse generator; an appreciable fraction (up to 25%) of the electric energy fed to the liner (up to 100 kJ per pulse) is converted into radiation. Experiments and a theoretical analysis have shown, however, that the contraction dynamics of such liners does not ensure a compact collapse of the arrays to the axis; the soft X-ray flashes generated by the axial-pinch plasma are therefore not shorter than 30 ns. An important feature of such systems is the jetlike flow, due to the action of MHD tidal forces, of plasma from the wires to the liner axis

  4. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2008-01-01

    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TransportRequest/ To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  5. The NYMEX electricity futures contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer-Huggins, D.

    1998-01-01

    Members of the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) include bankers, industry (such as refiners, producers, and electricity marketers) brokerage houses, and individuals. NYMEX is the largest physical commodity futures exchange in the world. The primary economic role of the commodity exchange industry was discussed, with special emphasis on open interest, volume, and liquidity. Hedge dynamics were also reviewed. A hedge was described as a financial instrument used to lock in prices, costs, and profit margins. Futures contracts in general, and electricity futures contracts in particular were defined ('a firm commitment to deliver or to receive a specified quantity or grade of commodity at a specific location within a designated month'). Results expected from hedging, - cost control, predictable margins, securing a certain market share, price stabilization - , the nature of options trading, and its benefits were also reviewed. 1 tab., 4 figs

  6. Strategic Inventories in Vertical Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok

    2008-01-01

    Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...

  7. Army Contract Writing System (ACWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval...Military Construction MS - Milestone N/A - Not Applicable O&S - Operating and Support OSD - Office of the Secretary of Defense PB - President’s...Budget RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAE - Service Acquisition Executive TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then Year U.S.C- United

  8. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published as from the first week of July 2012.   In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened will soon be available at the following address: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/ListOfPosts-Autumn2012.pdf For more information please consult this page.

  9. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  10. Risk Allocation in Construction Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    loss and the surety would discover any potential losses in its investigation. An insurer expects some losses in an insured group . 30. Mason, pp. 39-40...liquidated damages is that they cannot be imposed as a 55. Laurence P. Simpson , Handbook of the Law of Contracts, (St. Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Co...before the date established for each hv the falire to aet of the Contractor or of persons or entities pro gress payment, thle Contractor shall suhm ~lit to

  11. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  12. Contract & agency labour: beyond self-regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    A paper about the regulation of contract labour. Academic and legal aspects as well as case studies of global union federation work to organise and regulate contract labour in Thailand, Pakistan, Colombia, South Korea and at international level.

  13. Dynamic contracting mechanism for pavement maintenance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, H.C.; De Ridder, H.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances, financial possibilities and changes of demands have increasingly affected the pavement maintenance environment for outsourcing in recent years. This induces complexity in the contracting methods of pavement maintenance activities. Despite the fact that current contracting

  14. The IAEA's Research Contract Programme in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The IAEA's research contract programme for 1993 is outlined, under which the IAEA places contracts and agreements with research institutes in Member States for carrying out research projects related to their scientific programmes. 2 tabs

  15. Renewable Energy Contract Development Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides information on how available resources can help organizations effectively navigate the solar contract development process with the goal of RFP and contract transparency, completeness, and accountability of all involved parties.

  16. Public works concession. Delimitation from other contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Georgeta MATEI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concession of public services without the concession of the related public works was viewed as an exception. The public services contract was considered to rank first among the administrative contracts. The European Court of Justice ruled that establishing of the nature of a contract – whether it is a public works contract or a public contract of a different nature – is made by identifying the main purpose of the contract that determines the applicable directive, including situations where the contract has elements regarding the concession of public works as well as other types of public contracts. Also, the concept of concession used in relation to both concession and PPP was deemed in Romania as a source of confusion and ambiguity regarding the confidence of both the public and private partner within the context of project development.

  17. The Public Sector and Obligation to Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karsten Naundrup; Indén, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the situation where public sector bodies are forced to enter into contracts. These obligations to contract are analysed from two angles. First, the paper offers an analysis of the reasons for imposing such obligations to contract under Swedish and Danish law. Secondly the paper...... discusses some consequences of the public entities’ obligations to contract, more specific consequences for the use of rules that usually regulate contracts and the fact that obligations to contract imposed on public entities establish a new market and at the same time the obligations deprive the entities...... of the freedom to contract which is a fundamental to market behaviour. Finally attention is drawn to the fact that obligations to contract are also imposed on private entities. The paper takes Swedish and Danish regulations as a point of departure and provides an insight into regulations from these two countries...

  18. 48 CFR 239.7103 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and... performance of information assurance functions as described in DoD 8570.01-M. ... Against Compromising Emanations, in solicitations and contracts involving information technology that...

  19. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  20. Fast static field CIPT mapping of unpatterned MRAM film stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Current In-Plane Tunneling (CIPT) method measures both RA and TMR, but the usefulness for uniformity mapping, e.g. for tool optimization, is limited by excessive measurement time. Thus, we develop and demonstrate a fast complementary static magnetic field method focused only on measurement of RA. We...... compare the static field method to the standard CIPT method and find perfect agreement between the extracted RA values and measurement repeatability while the static field method is several times faster. The static field CIPT method is demonstrated for 200 mm wafer mapping showing radial as well...

  1. Static model for a 3-DOF underactuated finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guay

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a static model of a three-degree-of-freedom underactuated finger. The model includes all static forces, namely actuation forces, return forces and gravity. All geometric and static parameters can be freely changed (pulley radius, member's mass, etc.. Hence, the model allows complete static simulations to be performed and it can also be used for numerical optimization.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  2. Static magnets: what are they and what do they do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Laakso

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic static magnets have gained wide community acceptance for neuromusculoskeletal pain relief in many countries yet, apart from strong anecdotal reports of benefit, there is a paucity of scientific evidence for their use. OBJECTIVES: In this review we describe the physical characteristics of traditional and commonplace unipolar and bipolar static magnets as well as newer quadripolar magnetic arrays; discuss what is known of the physiological effects of static magnets and the strength of the literature; and make suggestions for targeted future research for static magnets in the management of neuromusculoskeletal pain conditions.

  3. Hemodynamic Changes After Static and Dynamic Exercises and Treadmill Stress Test; Different Patterns in Patients with Primary Benign Exertional Headache?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rostami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of primary benign exertional headache (EH is not still clearly defined. Some researchers have suggested an impaired vascular response as the etiology of this disorder. In this study we investigated whether there are any differences in blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR of the subjects in course of the static and dynamic exercises and the treadmill stress test between those with and without EH. From university students, 22 patients with EH (mean age: 19.8 ± 2.10, Female to Male: 7:15 and 20 normal subjects (mean age: 19.3 ± 1.97, Female: Male: 8:12 were recruited. All the subjects performed the static and dynamic exercises at 30 and 20 percent of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC and Bruce treadmill stress test according to the standard protocols. HR and BP of all the cases at the baseline and during and immediately after each test were measured. No significant difference was found between the mean rise of HR, systolic and diastolic BP of the subjects with and without EH in static and dynamic exercises and also treadmill stress test. It seems that between those with and without EH, there is no significant difference in rise of HR and BP response to static and dynamic exercises and treadmill stress test. Further studies are required to find the pathophysiology and risk factors of EH.

  4. 48 CFR 3042.202-70 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Administration Services 3042.202-70 Contract clause. The contracting officer may insert... contracts with educational institutions, the contracting officer may instead use (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.235-70...

  5. 48 CFR 1816.506-70 - NASA contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 1816.506-70 NASA contract clause. Insert the clause at 1852.216-80, Task Ordering Procedure, in solicitations and contracts when an indefinite-delivery, task order contract is contemplated. The clause is...

  6. Analysis of international oil and gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.

    1992-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to describe the main types of international petroleum contracts, to give the reader methods for comparing contract qualities and analyzing the profitability of petroleum field models under basic contract terms, to describe methods for assessing tradeoffs between various terms of a contract, to describe briefly U.S. Taxation of international petroleum extraction income, and to discuss certain special considerations that apply to the international arena

  7. Optional forward contracts for electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedra, T.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper extends the idea of callable forward contracts, which are potentially useful as demand-side (interruptible-load) contracts, to their supply-side analogues. Together, these contracts allow market participants to take advantage of flexibility in generation or consumption to obtain a monetary benefit, while simultaneously removing the risk of market price fluctuations. This paper also considers the effects of strategic behavior on the part of market participants in their contract sales/purchase decisions

  8. The Issue of Property Insurance Contract Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras Y. Luzyanin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of termination of the contract and its legal effects illustrated by a property insurance contract. The author proposes a definition of termination of the property insurance contract and considers its main features. The article addresses the controversial issues of participation of third parties in the termination of the contract. The analysis of legal acts, judicial performance and the doctrine allows the author to propose improvements to the legal regulation.

  9. Legal Considerations for International Collaborative Research Contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Though collaborative research is pure academic activity the research plan and resource allocation for the research are shaped under foam of contract. Thus, legal binding effect and compulsive instrument is adopted at the research contract. This paper aimed at guiding equal collaborative research contract in legal aspect. To reach the goal (1) enforceability and elements of international collaborative contract, (2) damage calculation and related issues with those topics shall be discussed in each section

  10. Contract Dynamics : Lessons from Empirical Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Chaudey

    2010-01-01

    Working paper GATE 2010-35; The recognition that contracts have a time dimension has given rise to a very abundant literature since the end of the 1980s. In such a dynamic context, the contract may take place over several periods and develop repeated interactions. Then, the principal topics of the analysis are commitment, reputation, memory and the renegotiation of the contract. Few papers have tried to apply the predictions of dynamic contract theory to data. The examples of applications int...

  11. 48 CFR 2439.107 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Departmental automated information systems or applications as they are defined in the clause. (b) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 2452.239-71, Information Technology Virus Security, in... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 2439.107 Contract clauses. (a) The...

  12. 48 CFR 32.908 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Prompt Payment for Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts, in solicitations and contracts that contain the clause at 52.232-10, Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts. (1) As authorized in... specify a period longer than 7 days for constructive acceptance or constructive approval, if required to...

  13. 48 CFR 11.701 - Supply contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Variation in Quantity 11.701 Supply contracts. (a) A fixed-price supply contract may authorize Government acceptance of a variation in the quantity of items called for if the variation is... items in a fixed-price contract, within allowable variations, if any. If a contractor delivers a...

  14. Practice Makes Perfect: Contracting Quantity and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how contract grading promotes quality writing as well as a larger quantity of writing. Considers how teachers can use contract grading to support and promote the behaviors, thinking skills, and writing skills they believe will help students create quality writing. Notes that contract grading leads students to write more, to have fewer…

  15. Periodic review in natural resource contracts | Mandelbaum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Periodic contract review mechanisms, which are provisions in contracts that formally require parties to meet at particular intervals to review the terms of the contract, are mechanisms that may facilitate the process of negotiating contractual changes to accommodate changing circumstances over the term of extractive ...

  16. Contractions of bialgebras and super-bialgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juszczak, C.

    1997-01-01

    The contraction scheme of Z 2 graded super-bialgebras is discussed. The existence of the contraction limit and the classical r-matrix with and without the coproduct rescaling is investigated. As an example, the contraction of D = 4 Poincare N = 2 super-bialgebra to D = 2 Poincare N = 2 super-bialgebra is given. (author). 9 refs

  17. 78 FR 4906 - International Mail Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-43; Order No. 1624] International Mail Contracts...-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 1C contract. This document invites... notice announcing that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 1C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The...

  18. 78 FR 3476 - International Mail Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-37; Order No. 1617] International Mail Contracts...-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 1C contract. This document invites... that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 1C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service seeks...

  19. 77 FR 5443 - Longevity Annuity Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Longevity Annuity Contracts AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed... purchase of longevity annuity contracts under tax-qualified defined contribution plans under section 401(a... section 401(a)(9). The regulations will affect individuals for whom a longevity annuity contract is...

  20. 78 FR 3478 - International Mail Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-36; Order No. 1616] International Mail Contracts...-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 2C contract. This document invites... that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 2C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service seeks...