Sample records for force-shedding force recovery

  1. Cryogenic recovery analysis of forced flow supercritical helium cooled superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.Y.


    A coupled heat conduction and fluid flow method of solution was presented for cryogenic stability analysis of cabled composite superconductors of large scale magnetic coils. The coils are cooled by forced flow supercritical helium in parallel flow channels. The coolant flow reduction in one of the channels during the spontaneous recovery transient, after the conductor undergoes a transition from superconducting to resistive, necessitates a parallel channel analysis. A way to simulate the parallel channel analysis is described to calculate the initial channel inlet flow rate required for recovery after a given amount of heat is deposited. The recovery capability of a NbTi plus copper composite superconductor design is analyzed and the results presented. If the hydraulics of the coolant flow is neglected in the recovery analysis, the recovery capability of the superconductor will be over-predicted

  2. Forced Aerobic Exercise Preceding Task Practice Improves Motor Recovery Poststroke. (United States)

    Linder, Susan M; Rosenfeldt, Anson B; Dey, Tanujit; Alberts, Jay L

    To understand how two types of aerobic exercise affect upper-extremity motor recovery post-stroke. Our aims were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of having people who had a stroke complete an aerobic exercise intervention and (2) determine whether forced or voluntary exercise differentially facilitates upper-extremity recovery when paired with task practice. Seventeen participants with chronic stroke completed twenty-four 90-min sessions over 8 wk. Aerobic exercise was immediately followed by task practice. Participants were randomized to forced or voluntary aerobic exercise groups or to task practice only. Improvement on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment exceeded the minimal clinically important difference: 12.3, 4.8, and 4.4 for the forced exercise, voluntary exercise, and repetitive task practice-only groups, respectively. Only the forced exercise group exhibited a statistically significant improvement. People with chronic stroke can safely complete intensive aerobic exercise. Forced aerobic exercise may be optimal in facilitating motor recovery associated with task practice. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  3. Effect of temperature on crossbridge force changes during fatigue and recovery in intact mouse muscle fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Nocella

    Full Text Available Repetitive or prolonged muscle contractions induce muscular fatigue, defined as the inability of the muscle to maintain the initial tension or power output. In the present experiments, made on intact fiber bundles from FDB mouse, fatigue and recovery from fatigue were investigated at 24°C and 35°C. Force and stiffness were measured during tetani elicited every 90 s during the pre-fatigue control phase and recovery and every 1.5 s during the fatiguing phase made of 105 consecutive tetani. The results showed that force decline could be split in an initial phase followed by a later one. Loss of force during the first phase was smaller and slower at 35°C than at 24°C, whereas force decline during the later phase was greater at 35°C so that total force depression at the end of fatigue was the same at both temperatures. The initial force decline occurred without great reduction of fiber stiffness and was attributed to a decrease of the average force per attached crossbridge. Force decline during the later phase was accompanied by a proportional stiffness decrease and was attributed to a decrease of the number of attached crossbridge. Similarly to fatigue, at both 24 and 35°C, force recovery occurred in two phases: the first associated with the recovery of the average force per attached crossbridge and the second due to the recovery of the pre-fatigue attached crossbridge number. These changes, symmetrical to those occurring during fatigue, are consistent with the idea that, i initial phase is due to the direct fast inhibitory effect of [Pi]i increase during fatigue on crossbridge force; ii the second phase is due to the delayed reduction of Ca(2+ release and /or reduction of the Ca(2+ sensitivity of the myofibrils due to high [Pi]i.

  4. Hindrances to precise recovery of cellular forces in fibrous biopolymer networks (United States)

    Zhang, Yunsong; Feng, Jingchen; Heizler, Shay I.; Levine, Herbert


    How cells move through the three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) is of increasing interest in attempts to understand important biological processes such as cancer metastasis. Just as in motion on flat surfaces, it is expected that experimental measurements of cell-generated forces will provide valuable information for uncovering the mechanisms of cell migration. However, the recovery of forces in fibrous biopolymer networks may suffer from large errors. Here, within the framework of lattice-based models, we explore possible issues in force recovery by solving the inverse problem: how can one determine the forces cells exert to their surroundings from the deformation of the ECM? Our results indicate that irregular cell traction patterns, the uncertainty of local fiber stiffness, the non-affine nature of ECM deformations and inadequate knowledge of network topology will all prevent the precise force determination. At the end, we discuss possible ways of overcoming these difficulties.

  5. A Model for Determining Modular Heat Recovery Incinerator Feasibility on Air Force Installations. (United States)


    recognize that there are limits in the level of control that an Air Force installation can yield to the public (73:86). e Polluion •Issues. It is...AD-A261 336 11 lHINN 1 AFIT/GEE/ENV/92S-2 DTIC ELECTE MAR2 1993 C A MODEL FOR DETERMINING MODULAR HEAT RECOVERY INCINERATOR FEASIBILITY ON AIR FORCE...INCINERATOR FEASIBILITY ON AIR FORCE INSTALLATIONS THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology

  6. The force recovery following repeated quick releases applied to pig urinary bladder smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Mastrigt (Ron)


    textabstractA method for measuring several quick-releases during one contraction of a pig urinary bladder smooth muscle preparation was developed. The force recovery following quick release in this muscle type was studied by fitting a multiexponential model to 926 responses measured during the first

  7. Excitation-induced cell damage and beta2-adrenoceptor agonist stimulated force recovery in rat skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Gissel, Hanne; Fredsted, Anne; Clausen, Torben


    Intensive exercise leads to a loss of force, which may be long lasting and associated with muscle cell damage. To simulate this impairment and to develop means of compensating the loss of force, extensor digitorum longus muscles from 4-wk-old rats were fatigued using intermittent 40-Hz stimulation (10 s on, 30 s off). After stimulation, force recovery, cell membrane leakage, and membrane potential were followed for 240 min. The 30-60 min of stimulation reduced tetanic force to approximately 10% of the prefatigue level, followed by a spontaneous recovery to approximately 20% in 120-240 min. Loss of force was associated with a decrease in K+ content, gain of Na+ and Ca2+ content, leakage of the intracellular enzyme lactic acid dehydrogenase (10-fold increase), and depolarization (13 mV). Stimulation of the Na+-K+ pump with either the beta2-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol, epinephrine, rat calcitonin gene-related peptide (rCGRP), or dibutyryl cAMP improved force recovery by 40-90%. The beta-blocker propranolol abolished the effect of epinephrine on force recovery but not that of CGRP. Both spontaneous and salbutamol-induced force recovery were prevented by ouabain. The salbutamol-induced force recovery was associated with repolarization of the membrane potential (12 mV) to the level measured in unfatigued muscles. In conclusion, in muscles exposed to fatiguing stimulation leading to a considerable loss of force, cell leakage, and depolarization, stimulation of the Na+-K+ pump induces repolarization and improves force recovery, possibly due to the electrogenic action of the Na+-K+ pump. This mechanism may be important for the restoration of muscle function after intense exercise.

  8. Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribb Paul J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eccentric exercise-induced damage leads to reductions in muscle force, increased soreness, and impaired muscle function. Creatine monohydrate's (Cr ergogenic potential is well established; however few studies have directly examined the effects of Cr supplementation on recovery after damage. We examined the effects of Cr supplementation on muscle proteins and force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Methods Fourteen untrained male participants (22.1 ± 2.3 yrs, 173 ± 7.7 cm, 76.2 ± 9.3 kg were randomly separated into 2 supplement groups: i Cr and carbohydrate (Cr-CHO; n = 7; or ii carbohydrate (CHO; n = 7. Participants consumed their supplement for a period of 5 days prior to, and 14 days following a resistance exercise session. Participants performed 4 sets of 10 eccentric-only repetitions at 120% of their maximum concentric 1-RM on the leg press, leg extension and leg flexion exercise machine. Plasma creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity were assessed as relevant blood markers of muscle damage. Muscle strength was examined by voluntary isokinetic knee extension using a Cybex dynamometer. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05. Results The Cr-supplemented group had significantly greater isokinetic (10% higher and isometric (21% higher knee extension strength during recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. Furthermore, plasma CK activity was significantly lower (by an average of 84% after 48 hrs (P Conclusion The major finding of this investigation was a significant improvement in the rate of recovery of knee extensor muscle function after Cr supplementation following injury.

  9. Nanoscale Hydrophobic Recovery: A Chemical Force Microscopy Study of UV/Ozone-Treated Cross-Linked Poly(dimethylsiloxane)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillborg, Henrik; Tomczak, N.; Oláh, A.; Schönherr, Holger; Vancso, Gyula J.


    Chemical force microscopy (CFM) in water was used to map the surface hydrophobicity of UV/ozone-treated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS; Sylgard 184) as a function of the storage/recovery time. In addition to CFM pull-off force mapping, we applied indentation mapping to probe the changes in the

  10. Bending, force recovery, and D-cones in origami inspired model geometries (United States)

    Eldar, Theresa; Rozairo, Damith; Croll, Andrew B.

    The need for materials with advanced functionality has driven a considerable amount of modern materials science. One idea that has gained significant traction is combining of the ideas Origami and Kirigami with existing materials to build in advanced functionality. In most origami damage is induced in order to trap areas of high curvature in desirable locations in a material. However, the long term and dynamic consequences of local failure are largely unknown. In order to gauge the complex interplay of material properties, relaxation and failure in a set of model thin films, a series of bending and force recovery experiments were carried out. We focus on three materials; polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polycarbonate (PC), and polystyrene (PS) chosen for their varying responses to stress. We first measured the load bearing capacity of a single bend in each material, examining the force recovery of bends at various curvatures. Next we examined a doubly folded system in which a single developable cone was created in a similar manner. While the D-cone clearly has massive local consequences for each system, it plays an insignificant role in the system's overall behavior. Finally, we considered higher order combinations of d-cones, ridges and bends. AFOSR under the Young Investigator Program (FA9550-15-1-0168).

  11. Forced Aerobic Exercise Enhances Motor Recovery After Stroke: A Case Report (United States)

    Rosenfeldt, Anson B.; Rasanow, Matthew; Alberts, Jay L.


    OBJECTIVE. Previously, we demonstrated that forced aerobic exercise (FE) increases the pattern of neural activation in Parkinson’s disease. We sought to evaluate whether FE, when coupled with repetitive task practice, could promote motor recovery poststroke. METHOD. A 46-yr-old man with ischemic stroke exhibited chronic residual upper-extremity deficits, scoring 35/66 on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) at baseline. He completed 24 training sessions comprising 45 min of FE on a motorized stationary bicycle followed by 45 min of upper-extremity repetitive task practice. RESULTS. From baseline to end of treatment, the FMA score improved by 20 points, perceived level of recovery on the Stroke Impact Scale increased by 20 percentage points, and cardiovascular function measured by peak oxygen uptake improved 30%. These improvements persisted 4 wk after the intervention ceased. CONCLUSION. FE may be a safe and feasible rehabilitation approach to augment recovery of motor and nonmotor function while improving aerobic fitness in people with chronic stroke. PMID:26114455

  12. Acoustic Radiation Force-Induced Creep-Recovery (ARFICR): A Noninvasive Method to Characterize Tissue Viscoelasticity. (United States)

    Amador Carrascal, Carolina; Chen, Shigao; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F


    Ultrasound shear wave elastography is a promising noninvasive, low cost, and clinically viable tool for liver fibrosis staging. Current shear wave imaging technologies on clinical ultrasound scanners ignore shear wave dispersion and use a single group velocity measured over the shear wave bandwidth to estimate tissue elasticity. The center frequency and bandwidth of shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force depend on the ultrasound push beam (push duration, -number, etc.) and the viscoelasticity of the medium, and therefore are different across scanners from different vendors. As a result, scanners from different vendors may give different tissue elasticity measurements within the same patient. Various methods have been proposed to evaluate shear wave dispersion to better estimate tissue viscoelasticity. A rheological model such as the Kelvin-Voigt model is typically fitted to the shear wave dispersion to solve for the elasticity and viscosity of tissue. However, these rheological models impose strong assumptions about frequency dependence of elasticity and viscosity. Here, we propose a new method called Acoustic Radiation Force Induced Creep-Recovery (ARFICR) capable of quantifying rheological model-independent measurements of elasticity and viscosity for more robust tissue health assessment. In ARFICR, the creep-recovery time signal at the focus of the push beam is used to calculate the relative elasticity and viscosity (scaled by an unknown constant) over a wide frequency range. Shear waves generated during the ARFICR measurement are also detected and used to calculate the shear wave velocity at its center frequency, which is then used to calibrate the relative elasticity and viscosity to absolute elasticity and viscosity. In this paper, finite-element method simulations and experiments in tissue mimicking phantoms are used to validate and characterize the extent of viscoelastic quantification of ARFICR. The results suggest that ARFICR can measure tissue

  13. A control study of muscle force recovery in hemiparetic patients during treatment with functional electrical stimulation. (United States)

    Merletti, R; Zelaschi, F; Latella, D; Galli, M; Angeli, S; Sessa, M B


    A group of forty-nine hemiparetic patients with limited emotional, communication and sensibility involvement and with recent lesion of cerebrovascular aetiology was randomly divided into two groups of twenty-four and twenty-five subjects. Both groups received traditional physiotherapy treatment for one hour/day, one group received twenty min/day of peroneal nerve stimulation. The maximum voluntary dorsal flexion moments of the ankle joint of the affected and non affected extremities were measured with an isometric brace twice a week for one month and for both groups. The recovery of moment in the stimulated group turned out to be about three times greater than in the control group and considerably less dependent upon age, time from lesion, initial value, side of lesion. Three patients using a peroneal brace at home as an assisting device were again evaluated two months later and a further improvement was observed. This work gives statistical support to previous observations based on very few cases and provides a statistically reliable answer concerning the entity of FES induced recovery of muscle force in hemiparetic subjects.

  14. Can Russia's Military Expansion be Impossible Mission Force for its V-Shaped Growth Recovery under Declining Oil Prices?


    Kuboniwa, Masaaki


    This paper investigates whether Russia's expansion of military goods can be Impossible Mission Force (IMF) for its V-Shaped growth recovery under declining oil prices. Looking at long-run relationships between domestic outputs and international oil prices for 1995–2016, we focus on the impact of the military output expansion on growth of GDP and manufacturing for 2011–2016. We demonstrate that the military output expansion checked further growth retardation for 2012–2014 as a counter power ag...

  15. Dutchess County Resource Recovery Task Force report: Dutchess County Pyrolysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Dutchess County initiated development of a long-range master plan for Solid Waste Management in 1971. The plan included development of a resource recovery facility to service the municipalities in the County population center. Based on early recommendations, a pyrolysis facility employing Purox technology was to be implemented. A feasibility study, paid for by County funds was completed in 1975. The study provided siting recommendations, estimation of available waste, and preliminary facility design. Because of various considerations, the project was not developed. Under the Department of Energy grant, the County reassessed the feasibility of a resource recovery facility, with emphasis on confirming previous conclusions supporting the Purox technology, waste availability, energy recovery and sale and siting of the plant. The conclusions reached in the new study were: a resource recovery facility is feasible for the County; sufficient waste for such a facility is available and subject to control; While Purox technology was feasible it is not the most appropriate available technoloy for the County; that mass burning with steam recovery is the most appropriate technology; and that resource recovery while presently more expensive than landfilling, represents the only cost effective, energy efficient, and environmentally sound way to handle the solid waste problem in the County.

  16. Reduction of centrifugation force in discontinuous percoll gradients increases in vitro fertilization rates without reducing bovine sperm recovery. (United States)

    Guimarães, A C G; Leivas, F G; Santos, F W; Schwengber, E B; Giotto, A B; Machado, C I U; Gonçalves, C G M; Folchini, N P; Brum, D S


    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different centrifugation forces in bovine sperm separation by discontinuous Percoll gradients for in vitro fertilization IVF. The semen samples from each bull were pooled or each bull were centrifuged separately and centrifuged in discontinuous Percoll gradients (30, 60 and 90%) at different forces: F1 (9000×g), F2 (6500×g), F3 (4500×g) and F4 (2200×g), according experiment. The sperm samples were evaluated to determine the concentration, motility, vigor, morphology, reactive oxygen species (ROS), integrity of the plasma membrane, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and embryo development were also evaluated. No difference was observed in the concentration of sperm submitted to different centrifugation forces. The total percentage of motile sperm was increased after centrifugation at F3 and F4, and the ROS production at F1 was greater than the other forces. When the bulls semen were processed individually, no significant differences were observed for the sperm quality parameters between F1 and F4, including lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, cleavage rate and average time to the first cleavage. This work demonstrated for the first time that centrifugation at 2200×g enhanced the sperm penetration and fertilization rates without reducing sperm recovery compared to the typical centrifugation force (9000×g) currently used by the commercial bovine IVF industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Assessment: Hurricane Katrina Recovery and Installation Development at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi (United States)


    AC Advisory Circular ADSL Average Daily Student Load AETC Air Education and Training Command AFB Air Force Base AFH Air Force Handbook ANSI...and 67 percent as off-base residents based on data obtained from the 2004 EIA. The military personnel figure was obtained by subtracting the ADSL ...contract, and all other non-military employees. 3ADSL provided in 2004 EIA. Assumed 100 percent of ADSL live on base, based on information obtained from

  18. Impaired recovery of intracellular calcium and force after activation in isolated myometrial and subcutaneous resistance arteries from women with preeclampsia. (United States)

    Wimalasundera, Ruwan C; Wijetunge, Sumangali; Thom, Simon M; Regan, Lesley; Hughes, Alun D


    Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, but its cause is poorly understood. This study investigated whether there is an abnormality of intracellular calcium ([Ca2=]i) and tension during recovery from activation in isolated resistance arteries in preeclampsia and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous and myometrial resistance arteries from preeclamptic, normotensive pregnant and nonpregnant women were mounted on an isometric myograph and loaded with fura-2 to allow simultaneous measurement of force and [Ca2+]i. Arteries were activated by a high-potassium solution or noradrenaline, and the rate of decline in force and [Ca2+]i examined following washout. Basal tone and [Ca2+]i and rise in force and [Ca2+]i induced by high-potassium solution did not differ between groups but the rate of decline after washout was significantly slowed in both subcutaneous and myometrial arteries from preeclamptic women as compared with normotensive pregnant or nonpregnant women. The rate of decline in force after noradrenaline was also slowed in arteries from preeclamptic women. In subcutaneous resistance arteries from nonpregnant women, removal of the endothelium did not affect the rate of decline in force after high-potassium solution. However, inhibition of the plasma membrane Ca ATPase with carboxyeosin mimicked the findings seen in preeclampsia. In contrast, inhibition of the sarcoplasmic endoreticulum Ca ATPase with cyclopiazonic acid had no effect on the rate of decline in force or [Ca2+]i. The rate of relaxation and decline in [Ca2+]i in resistance arteries are impaired in preeclampsia. This may be mediated by decreased activity of plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase and could be a mechanism contributing to elevated peripheral resistance and raised blood pressure in preeclampsia.

  19. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, July--September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))


    The report contains a general introduction and background to DOE's revised National Energy Strategy Advanced Oil Recovery Program and activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; a detailed synopsis of the symposium, including technical presentations, comments and suggestions; a section of technical information on deltaic reservoirs; and appendices containing a comprehensive listing of references keyed to general deltaic and geological aspects of reservoirs and those relevant to six selected deltaic plays. Enhanced recovery processes include chemical floodings, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, and microbial recovery.

  20. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George


    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  1. Drag-Free Control and Drag Force Recovery of Small Satellites (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh N.; Conklin, John W.


    Drag-free satellites provide autonomous precision orbit determination, accurately map the static and time varying components of Earth's mass distribution, aid in our understanding of the fundamental force of gravity, and will ultimately open up a new window to our universe through the detection and observation of gravitational waves. At the heart of this technology is a gravitational reference sensor, which (a) contains and shields a free-floating proof mass from all non-gravitational forces, and (b) precisely measures the position of the test mass inside the sensor. Thus, both test mass and spacecraft follow a pure geodesic in spacetime. By tracking the position of a low Earth orbiting drag-free satellite we can directly determine the detailed shape of geodesics and through analysis, the higher order harmonics of the Earths geopotential. This paper explores two different drag-free control systems on small satellites. The first drag-free control system is a continuously compensated single thruster 3-unit CubeSat with a suspension-free spherical proof-mass. A feedback control system commands the thruster and Attitude and Determination Control System to fly the tender spacecraft with respect to the test mass. The spheres position is sensed with a LED-based differential optical shadow sensor, its electric charge controlled by photoemission using UV LEDs, and the spacecraft position is maintained with respect to the sphere using an ion electrospray propulsion system. This configuration is the most fuel-efficient drag-free system possible today. The second drag-free control system is an electro-statically suspended cubical proof-mass that is operated with a low duty cycle, limiting suspension force noise over brief, known time intervals on a small GRACE-II -like satellite. The readout is performed using a laser interferometer, which is immune to the dynamic range limitations of voltage references. This system eliminates the need for a thruster, enabling drag

  2. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  3. An intelligent active force control algorithm to control an upper extremity exoskeleton for motor recovery (United States)

    Hasbullah Mohd Isa, Wan; Taha, Zahari; Mohd Khairuddin, Ismail; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Fikri Muhammad, Khairul; Abdo Hashem, Mohammed; Mahmud, Jamaluddin; Mohamed, Zulkifli


    This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton by means of an intelligent active force control (AFC) mechanism. The Newton-Euler formulation was used in deriving the dynamic modelling of both the anthropometry based human upper extremity as well as the exoskeleton that consists of the upper arm and the forearm. A proportional-derivative (PD) architecture is employed in this study to investigate its efficacy performing joint-space control objectives. An intelligent AFC algorithm is also incorporated into the PD to investigate the effectiveness of this hybrid system in compensating disturbances. The Mamdani Fuzzy based rule is employed to approximate the estimated inertial properties of the system to ensure the AFC loop responds efficiently. It is found that the IAFC-PD performed well against the disturbances introduced into the system as compared to the conventional PD control architecture in performing the desired trajectory tracking.

  4. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, December 1990--February 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))


    The Oil Implementation Task Force was appointed to implement the US DOE's new oil research program directed toward increasing domestic oil production by expanded research on near- or mid-term enhanced oil recovery methods. An added priority is to preserve access to reservoirs that have the largest potential for oil recovery, but that are threatened by the large number of wells abandoned each year. This report describes the progress of research activities in the following areas: chemical flooding; gas displacement; thermal recovery; resource assessment; microbial technology; geoscience technology; and environmental technology. (CK)

  5. Utility of a low-cost wireless force platform as a potential clinical test of balance recovery after neuraxial anaesthesia. (United States)

    Tweed, N; Williams, S; Williams, D; Dingley, J


    Recovery of balance after neuraxial anaesthesia can remain delayed after simple clinical tests have demonstrated motor recovery. Dynamic posturography tracks the small movements or sway of a person standing as still as possible on a force platform and has been investigated as an objective measure of the ability to walk following anaesthesia. These are expensive laboratory devices, limiting their clinical utility. One measured variable is path length, the cumulative distance travelled in the horizontal plane by the centre of pressure of a person standing on the platform over 1min. Path length might potentially be measured using the Nintendo® Wii-Fit Balance Board™. The feasibility of intercepting raw wireless data from a Wii-Fit Balance Board™ using custom software to calculate path length was explored. Subsequently, path lengths were measured using both this and a laboratory platform simultaneously. In a random order 20 volunteers (a) stood for 1min, feet together, eyes open (conventional baseline test); and (b) stood for 1min, feet together, eyes closed (simulating residual anaesthesia with increased sway). For each device, the ratio b:a was calculated as an index of performance reduction when eyes were closed. Path lengths ranged from 58.5 to 243cm, mean bias 9cm (Wii-FitWii-Fit>laboratory platform) and 95% confidence limits of 0.04 to -0.13. The path lengths were in close agreement and the Wii-Fit Balance Board™ may be worthy of further investigation as a tool to objectively assess readiness to ambulate following neuraxial anaesthesia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of tendon vibration during wide-pulse neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on the decline and recovery of muscle force. (United States)

    Bochkezanian, Vanesa; Newton, Robert U; Trajano, Gabriel S; Vieira, Amilton; Pulverenti, Timothy S; Blazevich, Anthony J


    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used to activate skeletal muscles and reverse muscle atrophy in clinical populations. Clinical recommendations for NMES suggest the use of short pulse widths (100-200 μs) and low-to-moderate pulse frequencies (30-50 Hz). However, this type of NMES causes rapid muscle fatigue due to the (non-physiological) high stimulation intensities and non-orderly recruitment of motor units. The use of both wide pulse widths (1000 μs) and tendon vibration might optimize motor unit activation through spinal reflex pathways and thus delay the onset of muscle fatigue, increasing muscle force and mass. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of patellar tendon vibration superimposed onto wide-pulse width (1000 μs) knee extensor electrical stimulation (NMES, 30 Hz) on peak muscle force, total impulse before "muscle fatigue", and the post-exercise recovery of muscle function. Tendon vibration (Vib), NMES (STIM) or NMES superimposed onto vibration (STIM + Vib) were applied in separate sessions to 16 healthy adults. Total torque-time integral (TTI), maximal voluntary contraction torque (MVIC) and indirect measures of muscle damage were tested before, immediately after, 1 h and 48 h after each stimulus. TTI increased (145.0 ± 127.7%) in STIM only for "positive responders" to the tendon vibration (8/16 subjects), but decreased in "negative responders" (-43.5 ± 25.7%). MVIC (-8.7%) and rectus femoris electromyography (RF EMG) (-16.7%) decreased after STIM (group effect) for at least 1 h, but not after STIM + Vib. No changes were detected in indirect markers of muscle damage in any condition. Tendon vibration superimposed onto wide-pulse width NMES increased TTI only in 8 of 16 subjects, but reduced voluntary force loss (fatigue) ubiquitously. Negative responders to tendon vibration may derive greater benefit from wide-pulse width NMES alone.

  7. The effects of voluntary, involuntary, and forced exercises on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and motor function recovery: a rat brain ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke rehabilitation with different exercise paradigms has been investigated, but which one is more effective in facilitating motor recovery and up-regulating brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF after brain ischemia would be interesting to clinicians and patients. Voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and involuntary muscle movement caused by functional electrical stimulation (FES have been individually demonstrated effective as stroke rehabilitation intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three common interventions on brain BDNF changes and motor recovery levels using a rat ischemic stroke model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and seventeen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups: Control (Con, Voluntary exercise of wheel running (V-Ex, Forced exercise of treadmill running (F-Ex, and Involuntary exercise of FES (I-Ex with implanted electrodes placed in two hind limb muscles on the affected side to mimic gait-like walking pattern during stimulation. Ischemic stroke was induced in all rats with the middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model and fifty-seven rats had motor deficits after stroke. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, rats were arranged to their intervention programs. De Ryck's behavioral test was conducted daily during the 7-day intervention as an evaluation tool of motor recovery. Serum corticosterone concentration and BDNF levels in the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex were measured after the rats were sacrificed. V-Ex had significantly better motor recovery in the behavioral test. V-Ex also had significantly higher hippocampal BDNF concentration than F-Ex and Con. F-Ex had significantly higher serum corticosterone level than other groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Voluntary exercise is the most effective intervention in upregulating the hippocampal BDNF level, and facilitating motor recovery. Rats that exercised voluntarily also showed less

  8. Chemical Force Microscopy Study on the Interactions of COOH Functional Groups with Kaolinite Surfaces: Implications for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipada Santha


    Full Text Available Clay–oil interactions play a critical role in determining the wettability of sandstone oil reservoirs, which, in turn, governs the effectiveness of enhanced oil recovery methods. In this study, we have measured the adhesion between –COOH functional groups and the siloxane and aluminol faces of kaolinite clay minerals by means of chemical force microscopy as a function of pH, salinity (from 0.001 M to 1 M and cation identity (Na+ vs. Ca2+. Results from measurements on the siloxane face show that Ca2+ displays a reverse low-salinity effect (adhesion decreasing at higher concentrations at pH 5.5, and a low salinity effect at pH 8. At a constant Ca2+ concentration of 0.001 M, however, an increase in pH leads to larger adhesion. In contrast, a variation in the Na+ concentration showed less effect in varying the adhesion of –COOH groups to the siloxane face. Measurements on the aluminol face showed a reverse low-salinity effect at pH 5.5 in the presence of Ca2+, whereas an increase in pH with constant ion concentration resulted in a decrease in adhesion for both Ca2+ and Na+. Results are explained by looking at the kaolinite’s surface complexation and the protonation state of the functional group, and highlight a more important role of the multicomponent ion exchange mechanism in controlling adhesion than the double layer expansion mechanism.

  9. The role of K+ channels in the force recovery elicited by Na+-K+ pump stimulation in Ba2+-paralysed rat skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Clausen, T; Overgaard, K


    The present experiments were performed to assess the role of K+ channels in hormonal stimulation of the Na+-K+ pump and to determine the contribution of Na+-K+ pumps to the recovery of excitability and contractility in depolarized skeletal muscle. In soleus muscle, Ba2+ (0.02 and 1 mM) was found to inhibit 42K+ efflux and 42K+ influx. Both in the absence and the presence of Ba2+ (1 mM), salbutamol and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) induced a marked decrease in intracellular Na+ and stimulation of 42K+ uptake. In soleus muscles Ba2+ (0.1 and 1.0 mM) decreased twitch and tetanic force. Subsequent stimulation of the Na+-K+ pumps by salbutamol, CGRP or repeated electrical stimulation produced a highly significant restoration of force development, which was suppressed by ouabain, but not by glibenclamide. Also, in extensor digitorum longus muscles Ba2+ (0.1 mM) produced a considerable force decline, which was partly restored by salbutamol and CGRP. The area of compound action potentials (M-waves) elicited by indirect stimulation was decreased by Ba2+ (0.1 mM). This was associated with a concomitant decrease in tetanic force and depolarization. Salbutamol, CGRP or repeated electrical stimulation all elicited marked recovery of M-wave area, force and membrane potential. All recordings showed close correlations between these three parameters. The data add further support to the concept that due to its electrogenic nature and large transport capacity, the Na+-K+ pump is a rapid and efficient mechanism for the maintenance of excitability in skeletal muscle, acting independently of Ba2+- or ATP-sensitive K+ channel function.

  10. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 224 Altus Air Force Base Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.


    The principal goal of this project was to evaluate altus Air Force Base for building integrated silicon or thin film module photovoltaic opportunities. This report documents PNNL's efforts and documents study conclusions.

  11. Extraction of soil solution by drainage centrifugation-effects of centrifugal force and time of centrifugation on soil moisture recovery and solute concentration in soil moisture of loess subsoils. (United States)

    Fraters, Dico; Boom, Gerard J F L; Boumans, Leo J M; de Weerd, Henk; Wolters, Monique


    The solute concentration in the subsoil beneath the root zone is an important parameter for leaching assessment. Drainage centrifugation is considered a simple and straightforward method of determining soil solution chemistry. Although several studies have been carried out to determine whether this method is robust, hardly any results are available for loess subsoils. To study the effect of centrifugation conditions on soil moisture recovery and solute concentration, we sampled the subsoil (1.5-3.0 m depth) at commercial farms in the loess region of the Netherlands. The effect of time (20, 35, 60, 120 and 240 min) on recovery was studied at two levels of the relative centrifugal force (733 and 6597g). The effect of force on recovery was studied by centrifugation for 35 min at 117, 264, 733, 2932, 6597 and 14,191g. All soil moisture samples were chemically analysed. This study shows that drainage centrifugation offers a robust, reproducible and standardised way for determining solute concentrations in mobile soil moisture in silt loam subsoils. The centrifugal force, rather than centrifugation time, has a major effect on recovery. The maximum recovery for silt loams at field capacity is about 40%. Concentrations of most solutes are fairly constant with an increasing recovery, as most solutes, including nitrate, did not show a change in concentration with an increasing recovery.

  12. Status report on energy recovery from municipal solid waste: technologies, lessons and issues. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A review is presented of the lessons learned and issues raised regarding the recovery of energy from solid wastes. The review focuses on technologies and issues significant to currently operating energy recovery systems in the US - waterwall incineration, modular incineration, refuse derived fuels systems, landfill gas recovery systems. Chapters are: Energy Recovery and Solid Waste Disposal; Energy Recovery Systems; Lessons in Energy Recovery; Issues in Energy Recovery. Some basic conclusions are presented concerning the state of the art of energy from waste. Plants in shakedown or under construction, along with technologies in the development stages, are briefly described. Sources of additional information and a bibliography are included. (MCW)

  13. Solvent recycle/recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.


    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  14. Detection of intranuclear forces by the use of laser optics during the recovery process of elongated interphase nuclei in centrifuged protonemal cells of Adiantum capillus-veneris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunsch, C.; Kurachi, M.; Kikumoto, M.; Tashiro, H.; Wada, M.


    For the direct investigation of intranuclear dynamics in living cells, extremely deformed nuclei of basipetally centrifuged protonemal cells of the fern Adiantum capillusveneris were manipulated by the laser rap and the laser scalpel. Whereas the nucleolus was tightly fixed at the central position inside the non-centrifuged nucleus and proved to be immovable by the optical trap, it could easily be trapped and moved towards three directions inside the bubble-like terminal widening of the basal thread-like extension of centrifuged nuclei. Due to the connection of the nucleolus to the chromatin inside the nuclear thread (NT), moving was not possible against the direction of the nuclear apical main body. Nucleoli in recovered nuclei were again immovable, thus indicating the presence of a dynamic nucleolar anchoring system inside the nucleus. When the nucleolus in the bubble was arrested during the thread shortening process by the optical trap, the acropetal movement of the bubble continued. Probably dye to dragging forces, some nucleoli became stretched, and a thick strand of a still unknown composition stretched between the nucleolus and the insertion site of the shortening NT. To assess whether the shrinking of the nuclear envelop (NE) and the shortening of the chromatin inside the NT were independent processes, the chromatin above the bubble was cut inside the Nt by the laser scalpel. After severance, a gap between the nucleolus and the end of the chromatin strand in the NT indicated the shortening of the chromatin inside the Nt. From these findings it was concluded that a shortening force was existing in the chromatin of the NT and that probably no physical link existed between the chromatin and the NE

  15. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  16. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)


    Nasiri, Hamidreza


    Primary oil recovery by reservoir pressure depletion and secondary oil recovery by waterflooding usually result in poor displacement efficiency. As a consequence there is always some trapped oil remaining in oil reservoirs. Oil entrapment is a result of complex interactions between viscous, gravity and capillary forces. Improving recovery from hydrocarbon fields typically involves altering the relative importance of the viscous and capillary forces. The potential of many EOR me...

  17. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Jensen, Christian; Lando, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    of Ross (2015). Our characterization is simple and intuitive, linking recovery to the relation between the number of time periods on the number of states. When recovery is feasible, our model is easy to implement, allowing a closed-form linearized solution. We implement our model empirically, testing...... the predictive power of the recovered expected return, crash risk, and other recovered statistics....

  18. Backup & Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, W


    Packed with practical, freely available backup and recovery solutions for Unix, Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X systems -- as well as various databases -- this new guide is a complete overhaul of Unix Backup & Recovery by the same author, now revised and expanded with over 75% new material.

  19. Norwegian Armed Forces Personnel Recovery Network (United States)


    PR and SERE is largely due to the personal dedication and vested interest in the field by people like “ Kid ,” “Banzai,” “Darth,” “Bilbo,” and Frode...the first tradition among many traditions of human inquiry and action.”14 In their book The Design Way: Intentional Change in an Unpredictable World...Printing Office, 1943); and War Department, Norwegian Phrase Book , TM 30-610 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943). 125 For the

  20. Recovery Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kurtz


    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  1. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Jensen, Christian; Lando, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...... of Ross (2015). Our characterization is simple and intuitive, linking recovery to the relation between the number of time periods and the number of states. When recovery is feasible, our model is easy to implement, allowing a closed-form linearized solution. We implement our model empirically, testing...

  2. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...... of Ross (2015). Our characterization is simple and intuitive, linking recovery to the relation between the number of time periods on the number of states. When recovery is feasible, our model is easy to implement, allowing a closed-form linearized solution. We implement our model empirically, testing...

  3. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015......). Recovery is feasible when the number of maturities with observable prices is higher than the number of states of the economy (or the number of parameters characterizing the pricing kernel). When recovery is feasible, our model is easy to implement, allowing a closed-form linearized solution. We implement...... our model empirically, testing the predictive power of the recovered expected return and other recovered statistics....

  4. Labor Force (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012


    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  5. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi


    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  6. Christian Spirituality in Eating Disorder Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora Grant


    Full Text Available Eating disorders are some of the most severe and destructive of all psychological conditions. They are associated with restricted capacities in cognitive, emotional, physical, and spiritual development. This paper provides an examination of the practical application of Christian spirituality as a force for recovery from an eating disorder. Specifically, it expounds the transformative potential in the spiritual qualities of hope, trust, acceptance, surrender, and courage underpinning engagement with evidence-based therapeutic models of care in eating disorder recovery.

  7. Forced marriage. (United States)


    Guidelines to help A&E staff and other healthcare professionals who suspect cases of forced marriage were launched this month by the government. The guidelines provide practical advice on how to recognise the warning signs, and what to do if patients disclose that they have been, or are about to be, forced to marry. The guidelines, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage, are available at

  8. Different forces

    CERN Multimedia


    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies or phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  9. Contract Management: Recovery Auditing Offers Potential to Identify Overpayments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Recovery auditing started about 30 years ago, and it is used in several industries, including the automobile, retail store, and food service industries, and within DOD, by the Army and Air Force...

  10. Business case Roteb: recovery strategies for monitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikke, H.R.; van Harten, Aart; Schuur, Peter


    Due to the introduction of extended producer responsibility, European Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are forced to set up a reverse logistic system for their discarded products. As part of this set-up, OEMs or their service providers have to determine strategies for the recovery of these

  11. Developing the philosophy of recovery in South African mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recovery movement has emerged as an important and powerful force in the design and implementation of mental health care in many countries around the world. This involves new and more positive understandings of the concept of recovery, both as an individual outcome and as a goal of services. The basis for these ...

  12. Water Recovery Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is advancing environmental control and life support systems water recovery technologies to support human exploration beyond low...

  13. EPA Recovery Mapper (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  14. Characterizing and modeling the free recovery and constrained recovery behavior of a polyurethane shape memory polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, Brent L; Lagoudas, Dimitris C; Maitland, Duncan J


    In this work, tensile tests and one-dimensional constitutive modeling were performed on a high recovery force polyurethane shape memory polymer that is being considered for biomedical applications. The tensile tests investigated the free recovery (zero load) response as well as the constrained displacement recovery (stress recovery) response at extension values up to 25%, and two consecutive cycles were performed during each test. The material was observed to recover 100% of the applied deformation when heated at zero load in the second thermomechanical cycle, and a stress recovery of 1.5–4.2 MPa was observed for the constrained displacement recovery experiments. After the experiments were performed, the Chen and Lagoudas model was used to simulate and predict the experimental results. The material properties used in the constitutive model—namely the coefficients of thermal expansion, shear moduli, and frozen volume fraction—were calibrated from a single 10% extension free recovery experiment. The model was then used to predict the material response for the remaining free recovery and constrained displacement recovery experiments. The model predictions match well with the experimental data

  15. Ecosystem Considerations for Postdisaster Recovery: Lessons from China, Pakistan, and Elsewhere for Recovery Planning in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Mainka


    Full Text Available As the world joins forces to support the people of Haiti on their long road of recovery following the January 2010 earthquake, plans and strategies should take into consideration past experiences from other postdisaster recovery efforts with respect to integrating ecosystem considerations. Sound ecosystem management can both support the medium and long-term needs for recovery as well as help to buffer the impacts of future extreme natural events, which for Haiti are likely to include both hurricanes and earthquakes. An additional challenge will be to include the potential impacts of climate change into ecosystem management strategies.

  16. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla


    personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector...

  17. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl


    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  18. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)


    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  19. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    , Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco...... in 2000 by the Welsh Automotive Task Force under the Welsh Assembly Government. The Accelerate programme takes basically different two directions: The first one, which was the first to be launched, is concerned with the upgrading of existing supply chains in the automotive industry in Wales. The programme...

  20. Recovery and money management. (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I


    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Coriolis Force (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel


    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  2. Joining Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne Mette


    The interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has grown dramatically over the last three years in Greenland. A vast geographical area with a tiny population, Greenland has recently obtained self-government status and is going through a rapid development economically and socially...... as the country moves towards embracing extractive industries (oil, gas and mining) as a path to development. Both government, civil society and business are increasingly looking for new and innovative ways of joining forces across sectors to solve some of the country's many critical social issues. Greenlandic...... companies have over the last 23 years embraced the concept of strategic CSR and are increasingly engaging in cross-sector partnerships as part of their CSR strategy. The partnerships take different forms both in regards to number of partners, focus areas and level of strategic engagement. In the article...

  3. A Recovery System for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (United States)


    300170 1 of 10 A RECOVERY SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED UNDERWATER VEHICLES STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may...6 of 10 forces cannot be easily predicted and can be strong enough to require a significantly larger handling system and significantly more...the sea state, the ship handling system , the capture mechanism and the design of the capture mechanism 400. [0024] The water jets 100 will increase

  4. Diesel yield improvement and FCC energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States)


    Heat recovery modifications affect FCC LCO yields both directly and indirectly. Direct changes improve LCO recovery by improved fractionation of LCO from both slurry and naphtha. Indirect changes increase LCO yields by increasing FCC reactor feed temperature. Improved diesel yields by direct changes (or higher recovery of the existing diesel) impose changes in internal liquid rates and column temperature profiles. Mechanical and reliability limits must be respected to maintain unit reliability. High diesel recovery from slurry oil increase the slurry oil temperatures. Reliable operation requires keeping the slurry oil operating temperature below roughly 382 deg C (720 deg F). Higher slurry temperatures create a high probability of coke formation in the main fractionators. Close attention to mechanical details is required for reliable operation at 382 deg C (720 deg F). High diesel recovery from naphtha product reduces tower top temperatures. This reduces the available driving force for heat integration. Reduced top temperatures also create the potential for chloride-related and water related corrosion problems. Proper design of equipment can circumvent both these problems. Improved diesel yields by indirect changes creates more shifts heat to feed preheat. This reduces the available heat to other services. The changing yield structure also modifies the required internal liquid rates inside the main fractionators. Again, careful attention to design for heat recovery at low temperature differences is required to maintain the duty to the FCC gas plant. A series of modifications to improve control, increase heat recovery at low temperatures, and circumvent some of the more serious maintenance problems is required. (author)

  5. Recovery of central and peripheral neuromuscular fatigue after exercise. (United States)

    Carroll, T J; Taylor, J L; Gandevia, S C


    Sustained physical exercise leads to a reduced capacity to produce voluntary force that typically outlasts the exercise bout. This "fatigue" can be due both to impaired muscle function, termed "peripheral fatigue," and a reduction in the capacity of the central nervous system to activate muscles, termed "central fatigue." In this review we consider the factors that determine the recovery of voluntary force generating capacity after various types of exercise. After brief, high-intensity exercise there is typically a rapid restitution of force that is due to recovery of central fatigue (typically within 2 min) and aspects of peripheral fatigue associated with excitation-contraction coupling and reperfusion of muscles (typically within 3-5 min). Complete recovery of muscle function may be incomplete for some hours, however, due to prolonged impairment in intracellular Ca 2+ release or sensitivity. After low-intensity exercise of long duration, voluntary force typically shows rapid, partial, recovery within the first few minutes, due largely to recovery of the central, neural component. However, the ability to voluntarily activate muscles may not recover completely within 30 min after exercise. Recovery of peripheral fatigue contributes comparatively little to the fast initial force restitution and is typically incomplete for at least 20-30 min. Work remains to identify what factors underlie the prolonged central fatigue that usually accompanies long-duration single joint and locomotor exercise and to document how the time course of neuromuscular recovery is affected by exercise intensity and duration in locomotor exercise. Such information could be useful to enhance rehabilitation and sports performance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. The Rise of China and Sustained Recovery of Japan


    Shin-ichi Fukuda


    After prolonged recessions, the Japanese economy had recovered from the crisis in the first half of the 2000s and has recorded sustained growth in the last several years. Tremendous structural changes during and after the financial crisis were one of the main driving forces for the recovery. However, dramatic increases in exports were another. In particular, increases of Japanese exports to China were substantial in the 2000s and supported the recovery of the Japanese economy from its demand ...

  7. Successful recovery of a patient with thallium poisoning. (United States)

    Vrij, A A; Cremers, H M; Lustermans, F A


    We describe a patient suffering from protracted and life-threatening thallium poisoning. She was treated with Prussian blue and forced diuresis, and made a good recovery. Cisapride may be effective in improving gastric emptying and relieving constipation resulting from the thallium and the treatment. Haematological abnormalities occurred in the early phase of the poisoning, with a prolonged fall in the CD4/8 lymphocyte ratio during recovery.

  8. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  9. Recovery Audit Program (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Recovery Audit Programs mission is to identify and correct Medicare improper payments through the efficient detection and collection of overpayments made on...

  10. Recovery Action Mapping Tool (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  11. Force generation by orthodontic coil springs. (United States)

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Bonds, P W; Johnson, B E


    Nickel titanium (NiTi) coil springs are a new development in orthodontics, designed to produce light continuous forces. This study compares the force delivery by NiTi open and closed coil springs during unloading (de-activation) to that provided by comparable stainless steel (SS) springs. Open-coil springs (0.010 x 0.035 inch) were compressed from their initial length of 15 mm to 6 mm and the forces generated with spring recovery recorded. Closed-coil springs (0.009 x 0.035 inch) were distracted from their initial length of 3 mm to 9 mm and the force recorded as the spring recovered. The closed-coil NiTi springs produced light continuous forces of 75-90 g over the distraction range of 6 mm while the open-coil springs produced forces of 55-70 g within the 9 mm compression range. SS springs produced heavier forces, ca. 200 g, for an activation of 1 mm and the generated force increased rapidly as the activation was increased. The findings indicate that NiTi coil springs deliver optimal forces for orthodontic tooth movement over a longer activation range than comparable SS springs.

  12. Obstacle recovery device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terai, Fujio; Furuya, Masaaki; Ugai, Masaru.


    The device of the present invention comprises a fiber scope for taking a recovery operation portion and an obstacle into a field of vision and photographing the state of the operation in the recovery operation portion and a display section for displaying the photographed image at a remote place. Concretely, the monitor of a remote operation section displays an image photographed by the fiber scope. A operation unit attached with a forceps and a fiber scope are brought closer, for example, to a fuel assembly in a reactor in the recovery operation portion. Then, the obstacle intruded into a minute space between fuels is recovered by the forceps while displaying state of the operation on the monitor of the remote operation section. Such a device certainly recover and remove a minute obstacle present in such a circumstance that a man's hand can not access, by the operation conducted under visual confirmation. (I.S.)

  13. Recovery of personal neglect. (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Guariglia, Cecilia; Matano, Alessandro; Paolucci, Stefano; Pizzamiglio, Luigi


    Extrapersonal unilateral spatial neglect after stroke is associated to a poor rehabilitation outcome. Minor attention has been paid to the recovery of personal neglect, to its relationship with the recovery of extrapersonal neglect and of independency in activities of daily living. The present study aims at evaluating whether there is an association between recovery of extrapersonal and personal neglect. The secondary aim was to investigate if personal neglect may affect the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation in patients with subacute stroke. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation Hospital in Rome, Italy, inpatients. A sample of 49 patients with unilateral spatial neglect resulting from right ischemic cerebral infarction was enrolled in this study, divided into three subgroups according to the presence and the degree of personal neglect, and evaluated pre and postneurorehabilitation. Personal neglect was evaluated using Zoccolotti and Judica's Scale, extrapersonal neglect using Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Rivermead Mobility Index, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. Results showed the following: 1) recovery of personal neglect was not significantly correlated with that of extrapersonal neglect, despite both the disorders were ameliorated after a "non-specific" rehabilitation treatment; 2) personal neglect per se was not an additional negative prognostic factor in the rehabilitation findings. Our results suggested that the recoveries of the two types of neglect are independent from each other, and that the presence of personal neglect does not imply significant additional problems to the functional outcomes. Our study highlighted the need of novel tools to assess the presence and to improve the recovery of personal neglect.

  14. JLAB Hurricane recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Hutton; D. Arenius; J. Benesch; S. Chattopadhyay; E. F. Daly; O. Garza; R. Kazimi; R. Lauzi; L. Merminga; W. Merz; R. Nelson; W. Oren; M. Poelker; P. Powers; J. Preble; V. Ganni; C. R. Reece; R. Rimmer; M. Spata; S. Suhring


    Hurricane Isabel, originally a Category 5 storm, arrived at Jefferson Lab on September 18, 2003 with winds of only 75 mph, creating little direct damage to the infrastructure. However, electric power was lost for four days allowing the superconducting cryomodules to warm up and causing a total loss of the liquid helium. The subsequent recovery of the cryomodules and the impact of the considerable amount of opportunistic preventive maintenance provides important lessons for all accelerator complexes, not only those with superconducting elements. The details of how the recovery process was structured and the resulting improvement in accelerator availability will be discussed in detail

  15. Ventilation with heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend


    This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...... and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain...

  16. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai


    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  17. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation. (United States)

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.


    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  18. Collegiate Recovery Programs (United States)

    Harris, Kitty S.; Kimball, Thomas G.; Casiraghi, Ann M.; Maison, Sara J.


    More than ever, people are seeking substance use disorder treatment during the adolescent and young adult stages of development. Developmentally, many of these young adults new to recovery are in the process of making career decisions that may require attendance at a college or university. However, the collegiate environment is not conducive to a…

  19. Beyond enhanced recovery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik


    We read with great interest the special article by Smart and Daniels discussing several important topics of perioperative care, especially regarding lack of consensus on the definition of "postoperative recovery", and need for further understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms. However, we disagree...

  20. The youth and post-war recovery in southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    youth and access their potential in Southern Sudan, post-conflict recovery will have limited success. .... subjected to gender-based and sexual violence, and are forced into marrying commanders. The Lord's Resistance .... the form of call-ups or increased taxation, the children and the youth become the collateral. As the war ...

  1. Backup and recovery of Oracle Database using Recovery Manager


    Hubáček, Filip


    The bachelor's thesis discusses the implementation of backup and recovery of Oracle database using Recovery Manager. There are described individual backup types available in Oracle database environment and recovery types. Author introduces the benefits of using Recovery Manager, as the main backup tool in comparison to other methods of performing backup / restore.The reader is acquaint with the results of tests of the possible backup types. The tested features are speed of backup operation, t...

  2. The influence of platinum washing-out time on its recovery from used auto catalytic converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fornalczyk


    Full Text Available The used catalytic converters contain small amounts of precious metals. Recovery of these metals is essential for environmental and economic reasons. This work presents a method of Platinum Group Metals (PGM recovery from auto catalytic converters in which they are washed out by a liquid metal. The magneto-hydro-dynamic pump was used to force circulation of liquid metal under the influence of electromagnetic fields The influence of process time on platinum recovery was also carried out.

  3. Critical transitions in disturbance-driven ecosystems: identifying Windows of Opportunity for recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balke, T.; Herman, P.M.J.; Bouma, T.J.


    Vegetation recovery in disturbance-driven ecosystems is difficult to predict. We demonstrate a concept to analyse time series for short-term variability in external forcing that can identify potential events for sudden vegetation recovery in biogeomorphic ecosystems such as saltmarshes, mangroves,

  4. Recovery capital pathways: Modelling the components of recovery wellbeing. (United States)

    Cano, Ivan; Best, David; Edwards, Michael; Lehman, John


    In recent years, there has been recognition that recovery is a journey that involves the growth of recovery capital. Thus, recovery capital has become a commonly used term in addiction treatment and research yet its operationalization and measurement has been limited. Due to these limitations, there is little understanding of long-term recovery pathways and their clinical application. We used the data of 546 participants from eight different recovery residences spread across Florida, USA. We calculated internal consistency for recovery capital and wellbeing, then assessed their factor structure via confirmatory factor analysis. The relationships between time, recovery barriers and strengths, wellbeing and recovery capital, as well as the moderating effect of gender, were estimated using structural equations modelling. The proposed model obtained an acceptable fit (χ 2 (141, N=546)=533.642, pwellbeing. Gender differences were observed. We tested the pathways to recovery for residents in the recovery housing population. Our results have implications not only for retention as a predictor of sustained recovery and wellbeing but also for the importance of meaningful activities in promoting recovery capital and wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Introducing Recovery Style for Modeling and Analyzing System Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, B.; Kruchten, P.; Garlan, D.; Woods, E.

    An analysis of the existing approaches for representing architectural views reveals that they focus mainly on functional concerns and are limited when considering quality concerns. We introduce the recovery style for modeling the structure of the system related to the recovery concern. The recovery

  6. StringForce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva


    In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play StringForce ...

  7. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  8. Brine Recovery in Containment (BRIC) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Brine Residual in Containment (BRIC) system is a technology that enables recovery of water from concentrated brine wastewater. Recovery of water from...

  9. Energy Recovery Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Merminga, L


    Successfully operating, pioneering Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) – based Free Electron Lasers (FELs) have paved the way towards powerful and highly efficient accelerators based on the principle of energy recovery. Pursued and envisioned ERL applications worldwide include high brilliance light sources for the production of both spontaneous and FEL radiation, high-energy electron cooling devices, and electron-ion colliders. The required electron source parameters, average beam current and beam energy of the proposed applications are a significant extrapolation from demonstrated performance. We present an overview of the accelerator physics and technology challenges encountered in the design of the various ERL projects around the world, as well as progress and development plans to achieving the required performance.

  10. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten


    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... by the combined use of X-ray micro focusing optics, new scanning algorithms and the use of foils. The ratio of foil thickness to crystallite size should be at least 10 such that the central ones are situated in a bulk environment. To avoid thermal drifts, gold reference markers are deposited onto the sample...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...

  11. Illness management and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Helle Stentoft; Waldemar, Anna Kristine; Korsbek, Lisa


    OBJECTIVE: Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a psychosocial intervention with a recovery-oriented approach. The program has been evaluated in different settings; however evidence for the effects of IMR is still deficient. The aim of this trial was to investigate the benefits and harms...... of the IMR program compared with treatment as usual in Danish patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. METHOD: The trial was designed as a randomized, assessor-blinded, multi-center, clinical trial investigating the IMR program compared with usual treatment. 198 people diagnosed with schizophrenia...... or service utilization. CONCLUSION: This randomized trial contributes to the evidence base of IMR by providing a methodological solid base for its conclusions; however the trial has some important limitations. More research is needed to get a firm answer on the effectiveness of the IMR....

  12. Recovery of uranium values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, G.A.


    A process is provided for the recovery of uranium from an organic extractant phase containing an amine. The extractant phase is contacted in a number of mixing stages with an acidic aqueous stripping phase containing sulphate ions, and the phases are passed together through a series of mixing stages while maintaining a dispersion of droplets of one phase in the other. Uranium is precipitated from the final stage by raising the pH. An apparatus having several mixing chambers is described

  13. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.


    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  14. Recovery From Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Carter


    Full Text Available Comorbidity among mood, anxiety, and alcohol disorders is common and burdensome, affecting individuals, families, and public health. A systematic and integrative review of the literature across disciplines and research methodologies was performed. Supradisciplinary approaches were applied to the review and the ensuing critical appraisal. Definitions, measurement, and estimation are controversial and inconstant. Recovery from comorbidity cannot be easily extricated from a sociocultural milieu. Methodological challenges in quantitative and qualitative research and across disciplines are many and are discussed. The evidence supporting current treatments is sparse and short-term, and modalities operating in isolation typically fail. People easily fall into the cracks between mental health and addiction services. Clinicians feel untrained and consumers bear the brunt of this: Judgmental and moralistic interactions persist and comorbidity is unrecognized in high-risk populations. Competing historical paradigms of mental illness and addiction present a barrier to progress and reductionism is an impediment to care and an obstacle to the integration and interpretation of research. What matters to consumers is challenging to quantify but worth considering: Finding employment, safe housing, and meaning are crucial to recovery. Complex social networks and peer support in recovery are important but poorly understood. The focus on modalities of limited evidence or generalizability persists in literature and practice. We need to consider different combinations of comorbidity, transitions as opposed to dichotomies of use or illness, and explore the long-term view and emic perspectives.

  15. Interfacial force measurements using atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, L.


    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) can not only image the topography of surfaces at atomic resolution, but can also measure accurately the different interaction forces, like repulsive, adhesive and lateral existing between an AFM tip and the sample surface. Based on AFM, various extended techniques have

  16. Force Characteristics of the Rat Sternomastoid Muscle Reinnervated with End-to-End Nerve Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Sobotka


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to establish force data for the rat sternomastoid (SM muscle after reinnervation with nerve end-to-end anastomosis (EEA, which could be used as a baseline for evaluating the efficacy of new reinnervation techniques. The SM muscle on one side was paralyzed by transecting its nerve and then EEA was performed at different time points: immediate EEA, 1-month and 3-month delay EEA. At the end of 3-month recovery period, the magnitude of functional recovery of the reinnervated SM muscle was evaluated by measuring muscle force and comparing with the force of the contralateral control muscle. Our results demonstrated that the immediately reinnervated SM produced approximately 60% of the maximal tetanic force of the control. The SM with delayed nerve repair yielded approximately 40% of the maximal force. Suboptimal recovery of muscle force after EEA demonstrates the importance of developing alternative surgical techniques to treat muscle paralysis.

  17. Energy Recovery Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga


    The success and continuing progress of the three operating FELs based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), the Jefferson Lab IR FEL Upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) FEL, and the Novosibirsk High Power THz FEL, have inspired multiple future applications of ERLs, which include higher power FELs, synchrotron radiation sources, electron cooling devices, and high luminosity electron-ion colliders. The benefits of using ERLs for these applications are presented. The key accelerator physics and technology challenges of realizing future ERL designs, and recent developments towards resolving these challenges are reviewed.

  18. Recovery of organic acids (United States)

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.


    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  19. Pyrochemical recovery of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.


    This report discusses an important advantage of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is its ability to recycle fuel in the process of power generation, extending fuel resources by a considerable amount and assuring the continued viability of nuclear power stations by reducing dependence on external fuel supplies. Pyroprocessing is the means whereby the recycle process is accomplished. It can also be applied to the recovery of fuel constituents from spent fuel generated in the process of operation of conventional light water reactor power plants, offering the means to recover the valuable fuel resources remaining in that material

  20. Recovery of organic acids (United States)

    Verser, Dan W [Menlo Park, CA; Eggeman, Timothy J [Lakewood, CO


    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  1. Waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phi Wah Tooi


    Full text: The Konzen in-house designed anaerobic digester system for the POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) treatment process is one of the registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Malaysia. It is an organic wastewater treatment process which achieves excellent co-benefits objectives through the prevention of water pollution and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is estimated to be 40,000 to 50,000 t-CO 2 per year. The anaerobic digester was designed in mesophile mode with temperature ranging from 37 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius. A microorganisms growth is optimum under moderately warm temperature conditions. The operating temperature of the anaerobic digester needs to be maintained constantly. There are two waste heat recovery systems designed to make the treatment process self-sustaining. The heat recovered will be utilised as a clean energy source to heat up the anaerobic digester indirectly. The first design for the waste heat recovery system utilises heat generated from the flue gas of the biogas flaring system. A stainless steel water tank with an internal water layer is installed at the top level of the flare stack. The circulating water is heated by the methane enriched biogas combustion process. The second design utilizes heat generated during the compression process for the biogas compressor operation. The compressed biogas needs to be cooled before being recycled back into the digester tank for mixing purposes. Both the waste heat recovery systems use a design which applies a common water circulation loop and hot water tank to effectively become a closed loop. The hot water tank will perform both storage and temperature buffer functions. The hot water is then used to heat up recycled sludge from 30 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius with the maximum temperature setting at 50 degree Celsius. The recycled sludge line temperature will be measured and monitored by a temperature sensor and transmitter, which will activate the

  2. Pyrolysis with staged recovery (United States)

    Green, Norman W.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Lumpkin, Robert E.; Winter, Bruce L.


    In a continuous process for recovery of values contained in a solid carbonaceous material, the carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to flash pyrolysis in the presence of a particulate heat source fed over an overflow weir to form a pyrolysis product stream containing a carbon containing solid residue and volatilized hydrocarbons. After the carbon containing solid residue is separated from the pyrolysis product stream, values are obtained by condensing volatilized hydrocarbons. The particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing carbon in the solid residue.

  3. Labor Force Participation Rate (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  4. Aerodynamic Lifting Force. (United States)

    Weltner, Klaus


    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  5. The Search for a Permanent Home: Explaining the Organizational Instability of Air Force Rescue (United States)


    owned the first USAF dedicated rescue force, which was called the Air Rescue Service (ARS) from 1946 to 1966. In 1966 MATS 3 Recovery, an umbrella...standalone rescue force came into existence. Established in March 1946, this force was called the United States’ Air Rescue Service and fell under Air...154. 20 Koskinas, Black Hats and White Hats, 155. 26 the mission area from the Twenty-third Air Force and reactivating the Air Rescue Service on

  6. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, Andrew J.; Philipp, D. P.; Suski, C. D.


    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  7. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.


    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  8. Forces in General Relativity (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.


    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  9. Teaching recovery to medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeney, Larkin


    Community mental health services are evolving toward more holistic, patient-centered, recovery-based practices. This change necessitates an attitudinal shift from mental health workers, and training in recovery principles is helpful in achieving this change. Medical students often have narrow, doctor-centered concepts of mental health care. Traditional clinical placements in psychiatry do little to address this. We evaluated a recovery-focused teaching program for medical students in psychiatry.

  10. Business recovery: an assessment framework. (United States)

    Stevenson, Joanne R; Brown, Charlotte; Seville, Erica; Vargo, John


    This paper presents a Business Recovery Assessment Framework (BRAF) to help researchers and practitioners design robust, repeatable, and comparable studies of business recovery in various post-disruption contexts. Studies assessing business recovery without adequately considering the research aims, recovery definitions, and indicators can produce misleading findings. The BRAF is composed of a series of steps that guide the decisions that researchers need to make to ensure: (i) that recovery is indeed being measured; (ii) that the indicators of recovery that are selected align with the objectives of the study and the definition of recovery; and, where necessary, (iii) that appropriate comparative control variables are in place. The paper draws on a large dataset of business surveys collected following the earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, on 4 September 2010 and 22 February 2011 to demonstrate the varied conclusions that different recovery indicators can produce and to justify the need for a systematic approach to business recovery assessments. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  11. Statistics of force networks (United States)

    Tighe, Brian


    We study the statistics of contact forces in the force network ensemble, a minimal model of jammed granular media that emphasizes the role of vector force balance. We show that the force probability distribution can be calculated analytically by way of an analogy to equilibrium ensemble methods. In two dimensions the large force tail decays asymptotically as a Gaussian, distinct from earlier predictions, due to the existence of a conserved quantity related to the presence of local vector force balance. We confirm our predictions with highly accurate statistical sampling -- we sample the force distribution over more than 40 decades -- permitting unambiguous confrontation of theory with numerics. We show how the conserved quantity arises naturally within the context of any constant stress ensemble.

  12. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder


    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii......) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....

  13. Radiation injuries and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauly, H.


    In memory of Prof. Dr. Langendorff, a survey and a cross-section are given of the development of radiobiology during the last 40 years. The importance of radiobiology is shown using several examples. The mechanisms and effects of radiation on man, animals and plants are discussed. Effects of radiation and radiolesious are explained down ot the molecular field, and their importance is discussed quantitatively with stochastic considerations. Stress is laid upon recovering from radiolesious. It is tried to explain recovery quantitatively in all its several sorts. Using all these deliberations, the author also tries to give a wide spectrum for radiation protection. These fundamental deliberations and works of Prof. Dr. Langendorff are guidelines of great importance also for radiation protection in connection with the protection of the civil population. (GSE) [de

  14. Waste heat recovery system (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.


    A waste heat recovery system includes a Rankine cycle (RC) circuit having a pump, a boiler, an energy converter, and a condenser fluidly coupled via conduits in that order, to provide additional work. The additional work is fed to an input of a gearbox assembly including a capacity for oil by mechanically coupling to the energy converter to a gear assembly. An interface is positioned between the RC circuit and the gearbox assembly to partially restrict movement of oil present in the gear assembly into the RC circuit and partially restrict movement of working fluid present in the RC circuit into the gear assembly. An oil return line is fluidly connected to at least one of the conduits fluidly coupling the RC components to one another and is operable to return to the gear assembly oil that has moved across the interface from the gear assembly to the RC circuit.

  15. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.


    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  16. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.


    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  17. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.


    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  18. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John


    knowledge and data retrieved from the literature. Finally, the information presented in this opinion was reviewed by experts from the relevant EFSA Panels, European risk assessment bodies and through an open consultation requesting input from stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed to address......EFSA performs environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for single potential stressors such as plant protection products, genetically modified organisms and feed additives and for invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. In this risk assessment domain, the EFSA Scientific Committee...... recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...

  19. Planning tiger recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilting, Andreas; Courtiol, Alexandre; Christiansen, Per


    two subspecies: the Sunda tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, and the continental tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, which consists of two (northern and southern) management units. Conservation management programs, such as captive breeding, reintroduction initiatives, or trans-boundary projects, rely......Although significantly more money is spent on the conservation of tigers than on any other threatened species, today only 3200 to 3600 tigers roam the forests of Asia, occupying only 7% of their historical range. Despite the global significance of and interest in tiger conservation, global...... approaches to plan tiger recovery are partly impeded by the lack of a consensus on the number of tiger subspecies or management units, because a comprehensive analysis of tiger variation is lacking. We analyzed variation among all nine putative tiger subspecies, using extensive data sets of several traits...

  20. work hardening, recovery and recrystallization of alloys containing dispersed precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilha, A.F.


    This paper reviews the work hardening, recovery and recrystallization mechanisms in alloys containing dispersed precipitates. In the section on work hardening, the influence od spacing, particle size and shape on the density and distribution of dislocations have been discussed. They represent a large part of the energy stored in the material following drformation, which in turn is driving force for recrystallization. Next, the role of precipitates on recovery, on the formation and the growth of recrystallized regions has been discussed in detail. The competition between recovery and recrystallization and recrystallization of supersaturated solid solutions have also been mentioned. Finally, the technological relevance of the aspects treated in this paper has been discussed. (author) [pt

  1. SUPRA - Enhanced upset recovery simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.; Ledegang, W.; Field, J.; Smaili, H.; Roza, M.; Fucke, L.; Nooij, S.; Goman, M.; Mayrhofer, M.; Zaichik, L.E.; Grigoryev, M.; Biryukov, V.


    The SUPRA research project - Simulation of Upset Recovery in Aviation - has been funded by the European Union 7th Framework Program to enhance the flight simulation envelope for upset recovery simulation. Within the project an extended aerodynamic model, capturing the key aerodynamics during and

  2. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker...

  3. Untreated Recovery from Eating Disorders (United States)

    Woods, Susan


    This retrospective study explored the experience of recovery from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa without professional treatment. A nine-question open-ended electronic survey was posted for a period of four months at a mid-western university. Sixteen female and two male respondents reported recovery from adolescent-onset full syndrome…

  4. Effects of Gloves and Pulling Task on Achievable Downward Pull Forces on a Rung. (United States)

    Beschorner, Kurt E; Slota, Gregory P; Pliner, Erika M; Spaho, Egli; Seo, Na Jin


    Objective We examined the impacts of pulling task (breakaway and pull-down tasks at different postures), glove use, and their interaction on achievable downward pull forces from a ladder rung. Background Posture, glove use, and the type of pulling task are known to affect the achievable forces. However, a gap in the literature exists regarding how these factors affect achievable downward pulling forces, which are relevant to recovery from a perturbation during ladder climbing. Methods Forty subjects completed four downward pulling tasks (breakaway force; pull force at maximum height, shoulder height, and a middle height), using three glove conditions with varying coefficient of friction (COF) levels (cotton glove, low COF; bare hand, moderate COF; and latex-coated glove, high COF) with their dominant and nondominant hand. The outcome variable was the maximum force normalized to body weight. Results The highest forces were observed for the highest hand postures (breakaway and maximum height). Increased COF led to higher forces and had a larger effect on breakaway force than the other tasks. The dominant hand was associated with higher forces than the nondominant hand. Male subjects generated greater forces than female subjects, particularly for higher hand positions. Conclusion This study suggests that a higher hand position on the ladder, while avoiding low-friction gloves, may be effective for improving recovery from ladder perturbations. Application This study may guide preferred climbing strategies (particularly those that lead to a higher hand position) for improving recovery from a perturbation during ladder climbing.

  5. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.


    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  6. Dynamic analysis of a liquid droplet and optimization of helical angles for vortex drainage gas recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wu


    Full Text Available Downhole vortex drainage gas recovery is a new gas production technology. So far, however, the forces and motions of liquid phase in the swirling flow field of wellbores during its field application have not been figured out. In this paper, the forces of liquid droplets in the swirling flow field of wellbores were analyzed on the basis of two-phase fluid dynamics theories. Then, the motion equations of fluid droplets along axial and radical directions were established. Magnitude comparison was performed on several typical acting forces, including Basset force, virtual mass force, Magnus force, Saffman force and Stokes force. Besides, the formula for calculating the optimal helical angle of vortex tools was established according to the principle that the vertical resultant force on fluid droplets should be the maximum. And afterwards, each acting force was comprehensively analyzed in terms of its origin, characteristics and direction based on the established force analysis model. Magnitude comparison indicates that the forces with less effect can be neglected, including virtual mass force, Basset force and convection volume force. Moreover, the vertically upward centrifugal force component occurs on the fluid droplets in swirling flow field instead of those in the conventional flow field of wellbores, which is favorable for the fluid droplets to move upward. The reliability of optimal helical angle calculation formula was verified by means of case analysis. It is demonstrated that with the decrease of well depth, the fluid-carrying capability of gas and the optimal helical angle increase. The research results in this paper have a guiding significance to the optimization design of downhole vortex tools and the field application of downhole vortex drainage gas recovery technology.

  7. RSOI: Force Deployment Bottleneck

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Amato, Mark


    This study uses The Theory Of Constraints (TOC) management methodology and recent military missions to show that RSOI operations are generally the limiting constraint to force deployment operations...

  8. Bi-Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Peng; Speicher, Nora K; Röttger, Richard


    outperformed existing tools with Bi-Force at least when following the evaluation protocols from Eren et al. Bi-Force is implemented in Java and integrated into the open source software package of BiCluE. The software as well as all used datasets are publicly available at of pairwise similarities. We first evaluated the power of Bi-Force to solve dedicated bicluster editing problems by comparing Bi-Force with two existing algorithms in the BiCluE software package. We then followed a biclustering evaluation protocol in a recent review paper from Eren et al. (2013) (A...

  9. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N


    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  10. Macroscopic forces from supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Savas K


    We argue that theories in which supersymmetry breaking originates at low energies often contain scalar particles that mediate coherent gravitational strength forces at distances less than a cm. We estimate the strength and range of these forces in several cases. Present limits on such forces are inadequate. However new techniques, such as those based on small cryogenic mechanical oscillators, may improve the present limits by ten orders of magnitude or discover new forces as weak as 1 \\% of gravity at distances down to 40 microns.

  11. Myosin content of single muscle fibers following short-term disuse and active recovery in young and old healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Brocca, Lorenza; Ørtenblad, Niels


    Short-term disuse and subsequent recovery affect whole muscle and single myofiber contractile function in young and old. While the loss and recovery of single myofiber specific force (SF) following disuse and rehabilitation has been shown to correlate with alterations in myosin concentrations...

  12. LHC Report: Rocky Recovery

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team


    The last technical stop finished on Friday 8 July, but the machine returned to its pre-stop performance level over a week later.   Efficiency of LHC fills between 16 July and 20 July, 2011. The cryogenics team had the entire ring cold by Saturday morning and the usual post-technical stop tests with circulating beams started soon after. Unfortunately, they were interrupted by a major perturbation to CERN’s electrical network caused by an impressive thunderstorm that swept over the Pays de Gex. There were major knock-on effects, including the loss of cooling to the cryogenics and an inevitable recovery period once normal service had been re-established. The beams were circulating again by Tuesday afternoon and the post-technical stop checks continued, beefed up with further tests to address a number of issues related to the power cut.  Before the stop, the LHC had managed to get 1380 bunches per beam into collisions and the plan was to ramp back up relatively quickly to this leve...

  13. Climate forcings and feedbacks (United States)

    Hansen, James


    Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption

  14. Global patterns of drought recovery (United States)

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Michalak, Anna M.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Biondi, Franco; Koch, George; Litvak, Marcy; Ogle, Kiona; Shaw, John D.; Wolf, Adam; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schaefer, Kevin; Cook, Robert; Wei, Yaxing; Fang, Yuanyuan; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Jain, Atul; Tian, Hanqin


    Drought, a recurring phenomenon with major impacts on both human and natural systems, is the most widespread climatic extreme that negatively affects the land carbon sink. Although twentieth-century trends in drought regimes are ambiguous, across many regions more frequent and severe droughts are expected in the twenty-first century. Recovery time—how long an ecosystem requires to revert to its pre-drought functional state—is a critical metric of drought impact. Yet the factors influencing drought recovery and its spatiotemporal patterns at the global scale are largely unknown. Here we analyse three independent datasets of gross primary productivity and show that, across diverse ecosystems, drought recovery times are strongly associated with climate and carbon cycle dynamics, with biodiversity and CO2 fertilization as secondary factors. Our analysis also provides two key insights into the spatiotemporal patterns of drought recovery time: first, that recovery is longest in the tropics and high northern latitudes (both vulnerable areas of Earth’s climate system) and second, that drought impacts (assessed using the area of ecosystems actively recovering and time to recovery) have increased over the twentieth century. If droughts become more frequent, as expected, the time between droughts may become shorter than drought recovery time, leading to permanently damaged ecosystems and widespread degradation of the land carbon sink.

  15. Course of Recovery from Alcoholism (United States)

    Venner, Kamilla L.; Matzger, Helen; Forcehimes, Alyssa A.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Feldstein, Sarah W.; Willenbring, Mark L.; Weisner, Constance


    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2005 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Santa Barbara, California, organized and chaired by Kamilla L. Venner. This symposium integrated current empirical research on the course of recovery from alcoholism from multiple perspectives, an aim that is consistent with NIAAA's new focus on the process of recovery. The presentations and presenters were as follows: (1) The Role of Community Services and Informal Support on 7-Year Drinking Outcomes in Treated and Untreated Drinkers, by Helen Matzger; (2) The Sequence of Recovery Events in a Native American Sample, by Kamilla L. Venner; (3) Transformational Change in Recovery, by Alyssa A. Forcehimes; (4) Social Settings and Substance Use: Contextual Factors in Recovery, by Rudolf H. Moos; and (5) A Broader View of Change in Drinking Behavior, by discussant Mark L. Willenbring. A theme connecting the presentations was that treatment is but one discrete aspect to recovery and that sustained recovery is often influenced by an individual interaction with others within a social context. Collectively, presentations underscored the need to think more broadly about factors contributing to the remission of alcohol dependence. PMID:16737468

  16. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasiri, Hamidreza


    Primary oil recovery by reservoir pressure depletion and secondary oil recovery by waterflooding usually result in poor displacement efficiency. As a consequence there is always some trapped oil remaining in oil reservoirs. Oil entrapment is a result of complex interactions between viscous, gravity and capillary forces. Improving recovery from hydrocarbon fields typically involves altering the relative importance of the viscous and capillary forces. The potential of many EOR methods depends on their influence on fluid/rock interactions related to wettability and fluid/fluid interactions reflected in IFT. If the method has the potential to change the interactions favorably, it may be considered for further investigation, i.e. core flooding experiment, pilot and reservoir implementation. Enzyme-proteins can be introduced as an enhanced oil recovery method to improve waterflood performance by affecting interactions at the oil-water-rock interfaces. An important part of this thesis was to investigate how selected enzymes may influence wettability and capillary forces in a crude oil-brine-rock system, and thus possibly contribute to enhanced oil recovery. To investigate further by which mechanisms selected enzyme-proteins may contribute to enhance oil recovery, groups of enzymes with different properties and catalytic functions, known to be interfacially active, were chosen to cover a wide range of possible effects. These groups include (1) Greenzyme (GZ) which is a commercial EOR enzyme and consists of enzymes and stabilizers (surfactants), (2) The Zonase group consists of two types of pure enzyme, Zonase1 and Zonase2 which are protease enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze (breakdown) peptide bonds, (3) The Novozyme (NZ) group consists of three types of pure enzyme, NZ2, NZ3 and NZ6 which are esterase enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze ester bonds, and (4) Alpha-Lactalbumin ( -La) which is an important whey protein. The effect of

  17. When 'exact recovery' is exact recovery in compressed sensing simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.


    In a simulation of compressed sensing (CS), one must test whether the recovered solution \\(\\vax\\) is the true solution \\(\\vx\\), i.e., ``exact recovery.'' Most CS simulations employ one of two criteria: 1) the recovered support is the true support; or 2) the normalized squared error is less than...... \\(\\epsilon^2\\). We analyze these exact recovery criteria independent of any recovery algorithm, but with respect to signal distributions that are often used in CS simulations. That is, given a pair \\((\\vax,\\vx)\\), when does ``exact recovery'' occur with respect to only one or both of these criteria...... for a given distribution of \\(\\vx\\)? We show that, in a best case scenario, \\(\\epsilon^2\\) sets a maximum allowed missed detection rate in a majority sense....

  18. Elementary Particles and Forces. (United States)

    Quigg, Chris


    Discusses subatomic particles (quarks, leptons, and others) revealed by higher accelerator energies. A connection between forces at this subatomic level has been established, and prospects are good for a description of forces that encompass binding atomic nuclei. Colors, fundamental interactions, screening, camouflage, electroweak symmetry, and…

  19. The forces in Nature

    CERN Multimedia



    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies of phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  20. Forces in yeast flocculation (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.


    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  1. General introduction and recovery factors (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.


    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compared methods for estimating an incremental recovery factor (RF) for the carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process involving the injection of CO2 into oil reservoirs. This chapter first provides some basic information on the RF, including its dependence on various reservoir and operational parameters, and then discusses the three development phases of oil recovery—primary, second­ary, and tertiary (EOR). It ends with a brief discussion of the three approaches for estimating recovery factors, which are detailed in subsequent chapters.

  2. Effects of β₂-agonists on force during and following anoxia in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle. (United States)

    Fredsted, A; Gissel, H; Ortenblad, N; Clausen, T


    Electrical stimulation of isolated muscles may lead to membrane depolarization, gain of Na(+), loss of K(+) and fatigue. These effects can be counteracted with β(2)-agonists possibly via activation of the Na(+)-K(+) pumps. Anoxia induces loss of force; however, it is not known whether β(2)-agonists affect force and ion homeostasis in anoxic muscles. In the present study isolated rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles exposed to anoxia showed a considerable loss of force, which was markedly reduced by the β(2)-agonists salbutamol (10(-6) M) and terbutaline (10(-6) M). Intermittent stimulation (15-30 min) clearly increased loss of force during anoxia and reduced force recovery during reoxygenation. The β(2)-agonists salbutamol (10(-7)-10(-5) M) and salmeterol (10(-6) M) improved force development during anoxia (25%) and force recovery during reoxygenation (55-262%). The effects of salbutamol on force recovery were prevented by blocking the Na(+)-K(+) pumps with ouabain or by blocking glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose. Dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM) or theophylline (1 mM) also improved force recovery remarkably. In anoxic muscles, salbutamol decreased intracellular Na(+) and increased (86)Rb uptake and K(+) content, indicating stimulation of the Na(+)-K(+) pumps. In fatigued muscles salbutamol induced recovery of excitability. Thus β(2)-agonists reduce the anoxia-induced loss of force, leading to partial force recovery. These data strongly suggest that this effect is mediated by cAMP stimulation of the Na(+)-K(+) pumps and that it is not related to recovery of energy status (PCr, ATP, lactate).

  3. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  4. Untreated recovery from eating disorders. (United States)

    Woods, Susan


    This retrospective study explored the experience of recovery from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa without professional treatment. A nine-question open-ended electronic survey was posted for a period of four months at a mid-western university. Sixteen female and two male respondents reported recovery from adolescent-onset full syndrome anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. All respondents reported onset factors supporting a sociocultural etiology. Recovery was initiated through the empathic, participatory efforts of parents and friends, or was self-initiated. Respondents with the shortest disorder duration and most complete recovery reported early parental intervention. Onset factors similar to those in research with a clinically treated population were found. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  5. Substance use recovery and diet (United States)

    ... they were taking stimulants. It is important to eat healthy meals and snacks and avoid calorie foods with low ... the odds of a lasting and healthy recovery: Eat nutritious meals and snacks. Get physical activity and enough rest. ...

  6. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers - KML (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a KML file for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  7. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.


    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  8. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery. (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E


    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  9. Global patterns of drought recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Michalak, Anna M.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Biondi, Franco; Koch, George; Litvak, Marcy; Ogle, Kiona; Shaw, John D.; Wolf, Adam; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schaefer, Kevin; Cook, Robert; Wei, Yaxing; Fang, Yuanyuan; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Jain, Atul; Tian, Hanqin


    Drought is a recurring multi-factor phenomenon with major impacts on natural and human systems1-3. Drought is especially important for land carbon sink variability, influencing climate regulation of the terrestrial biosphere4. While 20th Century trends in drought regime are ambiguous, “more extreme extremes” as well as more frequent and severe droughts3,7 are expected in the 21st Century. Recovery time, the length of time an ecosystem requires to revert to its pre-drought functional state, is a critical metric of drought impact. Yet the spatiotemporal patterning and controls of drought recovery are largely unknown. Here we use three distinct global datasets of gross primary productivity to show that across diverse terrestrial ecosystems drought recovery times are driven by biological productivity and biodiversity, with drought length and severity of secondary importance. Recovery time, especially for extreme droughts, and the areal extent of ecosystems in recovery from drought generally increase over the 20th Century, supporting an increase globally in drought impact8. Our results indicate that if future Anthropocene droughts become more widespread as expected, that droughts will become more frequent relative to recovery time. This increases the risk of entering a new regime where vegetation never recovers to its original state and widespread degradation of the land carbon sink ensues.

  10. Forced magnetic reconnection (United States)

    Vekstein, G.


    This is a tutorial-style selective review explaining basic concepts of forced magnetic reconnection. It is based on a celebrated model of forced reconnection suggested by J. B. Taylor. The standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory of this process has been pioneered by Hahm & Kulsrud (Phys. Fluids, vol. 28, 1985, p. 2412). Here we also discuss several more recent developments related to this problem. These include energetics of forced reconnection, its Hall-mediated regime, and nonlinear effects with the associated onset of the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability.

  11. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J


    development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms......The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...

  12. Objective Force Warrior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shisler, Vernon


    This presentation concerns technology aimed at the dismounted soldier, Capstone demonstrations for FY06-07, fielding in the Objective Force time frame, strong interest in a lightweight weapon family...

  13. Packing force data correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiman, S.M.


    One of the issues facing valve maintenance personnel today deals with an appropriate methodology for installing and setting valve packing that will minimize leak rates, yet ensure functionality of the the valve under all anticipated operating conditions. Several variables can affect a valve packing's ability to seal, such as packing bolt torque, stem finish, and lubrication. Stem frictional force can be an excellent overall indicator of some of the underlying conditions that affect the sealing characteristics of the packing and the best parameter to use when adjusting the packing. This paper addresses stem friction forces, analytically derives the equations related to these forces, presents a methodology for measuring these forces on valve stems, and attempts to correlate the data directly to the underlying variables

  14. Institutionalizing Security Force Assistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binetti, Michael R


    .... It looks at the manner in which security assistance guidance is developed and executed. An examination of national level policy and the guidance from senior military and civilian leaders highlights the important role of Security Force Assistance...

  15. Hanscom Air Force Base (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MIT Lincoln Laboratory occupies 75 acres (20 acres of which are MIT property) on the eastern perimeter of Hanscom Air Force Base, which is at the nexus of Lexington,...

  16. On the fifth forces (United States)

    Treder, Hans-Jürgen


    We discuss the possibility of “fifth forces” in relativistic gravitation theories of fourth order. The fifth force may be an analog to the “weak forces” in the theories of electroweak interactions.

  17. Bow Crushing Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    The purpose of these notes is to present a basis for the estimation of the internal collision forces between conventinal merchant vessels and large volume offshore structures in the form of gravity-supported offshore installations and bridges crossing international shipping routes.The main emphasis...... is on the presentation of impact loads on fixed offshore structures due to bow collisions. The crushing forces are determined as functions of vessels size, vessels speed, bow profile, collision angles and eccentric impacts....

  18. Security Force Assistance (United States)


    Group 8-59. Cultures may be individualistic or collectivist in their orientation. An individualist culture is one in which the ties between...relatively little weight on offensive and defensive operations from a U.S. perspective . However, when U.S. forces accompany foreign security forces (FSF) in...precedence when conducting SFA. As a result, the brigade combat team (BCT) may be a supported command from a U.S. perspective as well as acting as

  19. Joint Force Fires Coordination: Towards a Joint Force Answer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fearn, William


    .... Components compete for decisive effect not only with each other but with the joint force. The contemporary joint force is confederated, the joint force headquarters a weak arbitration authority...

  20. Development of Functional Recovery Training Device for Hemiplegic Fingers with Finger-expansion Facilitation Exercise by Stretch Reflex (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Iwashita, Hisashi; Kawahira, Kazumi; Hayashi, Ryota

    This paper develops a functional recovery training device to perform repetition facilitating exercise for hemiplegic finger rehabilitation. On the facilitation exercise, automatic finger expansion can be realized and facilitated by stretch reflex, where a stimulation forces is applied instantaneously on flexion finger for making strech reflex and resistance forces are applied for maintaining the strech reflex. In this paper, novel parallel mechanisms, force sensing system with high sensitivity and resistance accompanying cooperation control method are proposed for sensing, controlling and realizing the stimulation force, resistance forces, strech reflex and repetition facilitating exercise. The effectivities and performances of the device are shown by some experiments.

  1. Device for controlling gas recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichioka, Atsushi.


    Purpose: To provide a controlling device for UF 6 gas recovery device, which can increase working efficiency and to discriminate normality and abnormality of the recovery device. Constitution: The gas recovery device comprises a plurality of traps, which are connected in series. The UF 6 gas is introduced into the first trap where adsorbing work is taken place to accumulate UF 6 gases, and the UF 6 gases partly flow into the succeeding trap. Even in this trap, when the adsorbing work begins, the succeeding trap is operated in series fashion. In this manner, two traps are continuously operated to recover the gases while performing the steps of adsorbing, waiting and regenerating in that order. The switching operation of the aforesaid steps is accomplished on the basis of concentration of the UF 6 detected between two traps, which are continuously driven. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.


    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  3. Review of sulphur recovery guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This issue of the General Bulletin of the EUB (Alberta Energy and Utilities Board) gives notice of an update and clarification of Board policy regarding sulphur recovery requirements for grandfathered sour gas plants, the application of the sulphur recovery guidelines to other facilities, and small gas plant proliferation guidelines. The Board`s policy was first enunciated in EUB Information Letter IL 88-13, entitled ``Sulphur recovery guidelines for sour gas plants in Alberta`` which established revised sulphur recovery guidelines for new and/or expanding sour gas processing facilities. Increasing sour gas activity and age of the plants has given rise to questions regarding the adequacy of policies established in 1988. The EUB concurs with this concern and is advising operators that it intends to conduct a review of certain elements of the provincial sulphur recovery guidelines. The EUB also intends to examine how the current sulphur recovery guidelines might be applied to non-sour gas facilities such as production batteries, refineries and heavy oil upgraders. Consideration will also be given in the review to the potential risk of proliferation of new small gas plants emitting less than one ton/day of sulphur. These plants are not currently required to remove sulphur, and there is justifiable concern that large numbers of such plants within a given area could have significant cumulative sulphur emissions, effectively negating the sulphur emission targets specified in IL 88-13. A working draft of the review findings will be made available to industry for their examination and input. 3 tabs.

  4. The Dutch "Crisis and Recovery Act": Economic recovery and legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Netherlands, the 2010 Crisis and Recovery Act aims at speeding up decisionmaking on a wide variety of activities, hoping that after the financial and economic crisis has passed, development projects can immediately be carried out without any delay caused by legal procedures in court or elsewhere. The Act meets ...

  5. Multidimensionality of psychological recovery from anaesthesia. Analysing six recovery tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurmond, W. W.; Balk, V. A.; van Dis, H.; van Leeuwen, L.; Paul, E. A.


    Six recovery tests, choice reaction time (CRT), CRT doubletask, finger tapping test (FTT), critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF), Maddox wing, and p-deletion test, which cover basic cognitive, motor and perceptive functions as well as concentration, were analysed and compared with each other.

  6. From recovery values to recovery-oriented practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Helle; Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Cunningham, Harry


    with mental illness; “A New Focus in the Dialogue With Clients” thematizes how the HCPs focus more on the individual's own goal for recovery rather than disease-induced goals in the dialog with clients; “A Person-Centered Role” comprises a shift in the professional role whereby the HCPs value the client's own...

  7. Dynamic recovery in nanocrystalline Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.; Van Petegem, S.; Cervellino, A.; Durst, K.; Blum, W.; Van Swygenhoven, H.


    The constant flow stress reached during uniaxial deformation of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni reflects a quasi-stationary balance between dislocation slip and grain boundary (GB) accommodation mechanisms. Stress reduction tests allow to suppress dislocation slip and bring recovery mechanisms into the foreground. When combined with in situ X-ray diffraction it can be shown that grain boundary recovery mechanisms play an important role in producing plastic strain while hardening the microstructure. This result has a significant consequence for the parameters of thermally activated glide of dislocations, such as athermal stress and activation volume, which are traditionally derived from stress/strain rate change tests

  8. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.


    This report discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991 small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility which processes nuclear material in an economical fashion. The material dissolved in this facility was uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid. The paper explained the release of fission material, and the decontamination and recovery of the fuel material. The safety and protection procedures were also discussed. Also described was the chemical analysis which was used to speculate the most probable cause of the explosion. (MB)

  9. Recovery of uranium by chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoto, Shigetoshi; Taki, Tomihiro


    The recovery of uranium from uraniferous phosphate by conventional process is generally uneconomic, except that uranium is recovered as a by-product. If an economical process by which uranium is recovered efficiently as a chief product is discovered, uraniferous phosphate will be used effectively as uranium ore. By using chiorination which will be expected to be favorable in comparison with conventional process, the recovery of uranium from uraniferous phosphate has been carried out. The paper describes the reaction machanism and general characteristics of the uranium chiorination, and the research done so for. (author)

  10. Mobile inert gas generator for attic oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, H.B. Jr.; Mosby, J.; Anson, R.H.


    Attic oil is usually defined as that oil which is trapped upstructure of the structurally highest producible well in a reservoir. If it is not economically feasible to drill a well for this oil accumulation, attic oil recovery by gas displacement is a possible secondary recovery method. The mechanics of the method are that gas is injected into the structurally highest well, the gas migrating up dip into the attic, forcing the oil downdip where it can be produced from the injection well or other wells in the reservoir. Where natural gas is in short supply or if injected gas cannot be recovered, inert gas generators for gas injection have a practical application. Oil accumulations found over and around piercement-type salt domes, such as the Bayou Des Allemands field, are usually excellent prospects for attic oil recovery by inert gas injection. After an economical comparison between recovery by natural gas or inert gas injection, it was found that the inert gas generator would be advantageous; therefore, an inert gas generator mounted on a cement barge was purchased. This study deals with this equipment which has now been in operation for one yr.

  11. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron


    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  12. Voluntary low-force contraction elicits prolonged low-frequency fatigue and changes in surface electromyography and mechanomyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Madeleine, Pascal


    Controversies exist regarding objective documentation of fatigue development with low-force contractions. We hypothesized that non-exhaustive, low-force muscle contraction may induce prolonged low-frequency fatigue (LFF) that in the subsequent recovery period is detectable by electromyography (EMG......) and in particular mechanomyography (MMG) during low-force rather than high-force test contractions. Seven subjects performed static wrist extension at 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 10 min (10%MVC10 min). Wrist force response to electrical stimulation of extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) quantified...... LFF. EMG and MMG were recorded from ECR during static test contractions at 5% and 80% MVC. Electrical stimulation, MVC, and test contractions were performed before 10%MVC10 min and at 10, 30, 90 and 150 min recovery. In spite of no changes in MVC, LFF persisted up to 150 min recovery but did...

  13. Electrochemical force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Collins, Liam F.; Rodriguez, Brian J.


    A system and method for electrochemical force microscopy are provided. The system and method are based on a multidimensional detection scheme that is sensitive to forces experienced by a biased electrode in a solution. The multidimensional approach allows separation of fast processes, such as double layer charging, and charge relaxation, and slow processes, such as diffusion and faradaic reactions, as well as capturing the bias dependence of the response. The time-resolved and bias measurements can also allow probing both linear (small bias range) and non-linear (large bias range) electrochemical regimes and potentially the de-convolution of charge dynamics and diffusion processes from steric effects and electrochemical reactivity.

  14. ForcePAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, J.; Damkilde, Lars


    ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design and engin......ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design...

  15. The recovery: A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVine, J.C. Jr.


    This paper provides an up-to-date synopsis of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Recovery Program. The discussion is presented within the context of the three-phase program approach that is followed by the GPU Nuclear/Bechtel Group integrated organization, in restoring safe stable conditions at TMI-2, following the March 1979 accident. In the first few weeks after the accident, efforts centered upon regaining control and assessing the damage incurred. The early recovery work centered around the new systems required to supplement or replace damaged systems and components, and the new procedures needed to deal with the damaged plant. This technical summary describes the subsequent work including Phase II, Defueling, and Phase III, Cleanup. leading to future decisions and work efforts. To date, the TMI-2 recovery program has been successful in achieving: A high degree of public and worker safety; Progress in the recovery program, resulting in a vast improvement at TMI-2. Moreover, the program has proved to be a significant learning experience for the entire nuclear industry, which is enhancing the safety of nuclear plant operations


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Photostress Recovery Time (PSRT) of different age groups in a sample of healthy subjects. Two hundred subjects with an age range of 11 years to 70years (mean age of 33.30±12.74years) were used for this study. All the subjects had clear ocular media, normal appearance of the fundus, and visual acuity of 6/6 or better.

  17. Recovery Rate of Clustering Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Fajie; Klette, Reinhard; Wada, T; Huang, F; Lin, S


    This article provides a simple and general way for defining the recovery rate of clustering algorithms using a given family of old clusters for evaluating the performance of the algorithm when calculating a family of new clusters. Under the assumption of dealing with simulated data (i.e., known old

  18. Enzyme recovery using reversed micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.


    The objective of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery of extracellular enzymes. The potentials of reaching this goal by using reversed micelles in an organic solvent have been investigated.

    Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant

  19. Notation-Parametric Grammar Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim); A.M. Sloane; S. Andova


    htmlabstractAutomation of grammar recovery is an important research area that received attention over the last decade and a half. Given the abundance of available documentation for software languages that is only going to keep increasing in the future, there is need for reliable extraction

  20. Resource recovery from black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.S.


    New sanitation systems based on separation at source offer a large potential for resource recovery from wastewater, e.g. energy and nutrients from black water and irrigation water from grey water. This review focuses on the components in source separated black water. The treatment options for the

  1. Multimodal approach to postoperative recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide updated information on recent developments within individual components of multimodal interventions to improve postoperative outcome (fast-track methodology). RECENT FINDINGS: The value of the fast-track methodology to improve recovery and decrease hospital stay and ...

  2. Recovery mechanisms in nanostructured aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu


    Commercial purity aluminium (99.5%) has been cold rolled to a true strain of 5.5 (99.6% reduction in thickness). The material is very strong but low temperature recovery may be a limiting factor. This has been investigated by isothermal annealing treatments in the temperature range 5–100C. Hardness...

  3. due to Capillary Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen M. Ouakad


    Full Text Available We present modeling and analysis for the static behavior and collapse instabilities of doubly-clamped and cantilever microbeams subjected to capillary forces. These forces can be as a result of a volume of liquid trapped underneath the microbeam during the rinsing and drying process in fabrication. The model considers the microbeam as a continuous medium, the capillary force as a nonlinear function of displacement, and accounts for the mid-plane stretching and geometric nonlinearities. The capillary force is assumed to be distributed over a specific length underneath the microbeam. The Galerkin procedure is used to derive a reduced-order model consisting of a set of nonlinear algebraic and differential equations that describe the microbeams static and dynamic behaviors. We study the collapse instability, which brings the microbeam from its unstuck configuration to touch the substrate and gets stuck in the so-called pinned configuration. We calculate the pull-in length that distinguishes the free from the pinned configurations as a function of the beam thickness and gap width for both microbeams. Comparisons are made with analytical results reported in the literature based on the Ritz method for linear and nonlinear beam models. The instability problem, which brings the microbeam from a pinned to adhered configuration is also investigated. For this case, we use a shooting technique to solve the boundary-value problem governing the deflection of the microbeams. The critical microbeam length for this second instability is also calculated.

  4. The fifth force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, E.; Sudarsky, D.; Szafer, A.; Talmadge, C.; Aronson, S.H.


    We present a phenomenological description of the ''fifth force'' which focuses on the implications of the existing data from satellite and geophysical measurements of gravity, the Eoetvoes experiment, decays into hyperphotons, and the energy-dependence of the K 0 - anti K 0 parameters

  5. Magnetic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelmann, Leon

    Principle of MFM In magnetic force microscopy (MFM), the magnetic stray field above a very flat specimen, or sample, is detected by placing a small magnetic element, the tip, mounted on a cantilever spring very close to the surface of the sample (Figure 1). Typical dimensions are a cantilever length

  6. Separation problems and forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jindřich


    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 1350002 ISSN 0219-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : separation * set of uniqueness * forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2012

  7. Allegiance: Egypt Security Forces (United States)


    expected after the uprising of 2011 never truly materialized; the Interior Ministry instituted various cosmetic changes, but its basic construct and...military forces located there. The masked men appeared to be shooting and the army responded, shooting back.284 Whatever the stories

  8. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  9. Fifth force, sixth force and all that

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Tonin Zanchin, V.


    In the recent literature, a few claims appeared about possible deviations from the ordinary gravitational laws (both at the terrestrial and at the galactic level). The experimental evidence does not seem to be conclusive; nor its is clear if new forces are showing up, or if we have to accept actual deviations from Newton or Einstein gravitation (in the latter case, the validity of the very Equivalence Principle might be on the stage). In such a situation, the attempts by various authors at explaining the ''new effects'' just on the basis of the ordinary theory of General Relativity (for instance, in terms of quantum gravity) can be regarded as logically instance, in terms of quantum gravity) can be regarded as logically questionable. In this pedagogically oriented paper, the problem is approached within the classical realm, by exploring whether the possible new effects can be accounted for through minimal modifications of the standard formulatiaon of General Relativity: in particular, through exploitation and extension of the role of the cosmological constant

  10. Defining recovery in adult bulimia nervosa. (United States)

    Yu, Jessica; Agras, W Stewart; Bryson, Susan


    To examine how different definitions of recovery lead to varying rates of recovery, maintenance of recovery, and relapse in bulimia nervosa (BN), end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up data were obtained from 96 adults with BN. Combining behavioral, physical, and psychological criteria led to recovery rates between 15.5% and 34.4% at EOT, though relapse was approximately 50%. Combining these criteria and requiring abstinence from binge eating and purging when defining recovery may lead to lower recovery rates than those found in previous studies; however, a strength of this definition is that individuals who meet this criteria have no remaining disordered behaviors or symptoms.

  11. 31P NMR spectroscopy and electromyography during exercise and recovery in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, P; Thomsen, C; Nørregaard, J


    OBJECTIVE. To investigate whether patients with fibromyalgia (FM) have normal motor unit recruitment in relation to muscle metabolism during exhausting exercise and recovery, and whether the reduced voluntary muscle force normally seen is related to a smaller muscle size. METHODS. Female patients...

  12. Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center. License application, PSAR, volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Volume 3 comprises Chapter 5 which provides descriptive information on Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center buildings and other facilities, including their locations. The design features discussed include those used to withstand environmental and accidental forces and to insure radiological protection

  13. Biodegradable Piezoelectric Force Sensor. (United States)

    Curry, Eli J; Ke, Kai; Chorsi, Meysam T; Wrobel, Kinga S; Miller, Albert N; Patel, Avi; Kim, Insoo; Feng, Jianlin; Yue, Lixia; Wu, Qian; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Lo, Kevin W-H; Laurencin, Cato T; Ilies, Horea; Purohit, Prashant K; Nguyen, Thanh D


    Measuring vital physiological pressures is important for monitoring health status, preventing the buildup of dangerous internal forces in impaired organs, and enabling novel approaches of using mechanical stimulation for tissue regeneration. Pressure sensors are often required to be implanted and directly integrated with native soft biological systems. Therefore, the devices should be flexible and at the same time biodegradable to avoid invasive removal surgery that can damage directly interfaced tissues. Despite recent achievements in degradable electronic devices, there is still a tremendous need to develop a force sensor which only relies on safe medical materials and requires no complex fabrication process to provide accurate information on important biophysiological forces. Here, we present a strategy for material processing, electromechanical analysis, device fabrication, and assessment of a piezoelectric Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) polymer to create a biodegradable, biocompatible piezoelectric force sensor, which only employs medical materials used commonly in Food and Drug Administration-approved implants, for the monitoring of biological forces. We show the sensor can precisely measure pressures in a wide range of 0-18 kPa and sustain a reliable performance for a period of 4 d in an aqueous environment. We also demonstrate this PLLA piezoelectric sensor can be implanted inside the abdominal cavity of a mouse to monitor the pressure of diaphragmatic contraction. This piezoelectric sensor offers an appealing alternative to present biodegradable electronic devices for the monitoring of intraorgan pressures. The sensor can be integrated with tissues and organs, forming self-sensing bionic systems to enable many exciting applications in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and medical devices.

  14. Enhanced oil recovery by nanoparticles injection: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed


    In the present paper, a mathematical model and numerical simulation to describe the nanoparticles-water suspension imbibes into a water-oil two-phase flow in a porous medium is introduced. We extend the model to include the negative capillary pressure and mixed relative permeabilities correlations to fit with the mixed-wet system. Also, buoyancy and capillary forces as well as Brownian diffusion are considered. Throughout this investigation, we monitor the changing of the fluids and solid properties due to addition of the nanoparticles and check for possible enhancement of the oil recovery process using numerical experiments.

  15. Changes in muscle strength and morphology after muscle unloading in Special Forces missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, J B; Jakobsen, O; Madsen, T


    The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in maximal muscle strength, rapid force capacity, jumping performance and muscle morphology following a Special Forces military operation involving 8 days of muscle unloading. Nine male Special Forces soldiers were tested before (pre......) and immediately after (post1) an 8-day simulated special support and reconnaissance (SSR) mission and after 3 h of active recovery (post2). Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) were measured along with maximal counter movement jump height (JH). Muscle biopsies were obtained from...

  16. Microbial Heat Recovery Cell (MHRC) System Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This factsheet describes a project that aimed to develop a microbial heat recovery cell (MHRC) system that combines a microbial reverse electrodialysis technology with waste heat recovery to convert industrial effluents into electricity and hydrogen.

  17. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.


    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization. In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus).

  18. Voluntary low-force contraction elicits prolonged low-frequency fatigue and changes in surface electromyography and mechanomyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Madeleine, Pascal


    Controversies exist regarding objective documentation of fatigue development with low-force contractions. We hypothesized that non-exhaustive, low-force muscle contraction may induce prolonged low-frequency fatigue (LFF) that in the subsequent recovery period is detectable by electromyography (EMG...

  19. Anti-gravity treadmills are effective in reducing knee forces. (United States)

    Patil, Shantanu; Steklov, Nikolai; Bugbee, William D; Goldberg, Timothy; Colwell, Clifford W; D'Lima, Darryl D


    Lower body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmills permit significant unweighting of patients and have the potential to enhance recovery following lower limb surgery. We determined the efficacy of an LBPP treadmill in reducing knee forces in vivo. Subjects, implanted with custom electronic tibial prostheses to measure forces in the knee, were tested on a treadmill housed within a LBPP chamber. Tibiofemoral forces were monitored at treadmill speeds from 1.5 mph (0.67 m/s) to 4.5 mph (2.01 m/s), treadmill incline from -10° to +10°, and four treadmill chamber pressure settings adjusted to decrease net treadmill reaction force from 100% to 25% of the subject's body weight (BW). The peak axial tibiofemoral force ranged from 5.1 times BW at a treadmill speed of 4.5 mph (2.01 m/s) and a pressure setting of 100% BW to 0.8 times BW at 1.5 mph (0.67 m/s) and a pressure setting of 25% BW. Peak knee forces were significantly correlated with walking speed and treadmill reaction force (R(2)  = 0.77, p = 0.04). The LBPP treadmill might be an effective tool in the rehabilitation of patients following lower-extremity surgery. The strong correlation between tibiofemoral force and walking speed and treadmill reaction forces allows for more precisely achieving the target knee forces desired during early rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  20. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark


    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  1. Suicide and forced marriage. (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Walter, Garry


    The prevailing view that the vast majority of those who complete suicide have an underlying psychiatric disorder has been recently challenged by research on the contribution of "predicaments", in the absence of mental illness, to suicide. In this paper, we sought data to support the notion that forced marriage may lead to suicide without the presence of psychiatric disorder. Historical records, newspapers, and the electronic media were searched for examples. Two examples from ancient times and six from the last hundred years were located and described. These cases suggest that forced marriage may lead to suicide and complements earlier findings that loss of fortune, health, liberty, and reputation may lead to suicide in the absence of mental disorder.

  2. Flora rapid reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Васильевич Туганаев


    Full Text Available Flora rapid reaction forces ­– there are explerents that have high productivity and weak competitiveness. Their innately functional allocation is to plant disturbed acres as soon as possible preventing by that biosphere homeostasis disturbance. Disturbed acres were used to take place in geological history. Nowadays they take especially big areas. Considering a historical line of Dactylis glomerata L. authors suggest to separate out an especial group of anthropochores which they call medieophytes

  3. Air Force Leadership Diversity (United States)


    College, Air University, Maxwell AFB, AL. He grew up as part of an Air Force family, entered active duty in 1996, and is a career Aircraft Maintenance... artificially limit them to capping out at O-6 if we want to encourage diversity in our most senior leadership levels as we seek to create a stronger...but I am not sure it does. I find it interesting that as of 31 December 2016 the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence , Surveillance and

  4. Predictors of recovery in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen F; Mors, Ole; Secher, Rikke Gry


    Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis.......Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis....

  5. Recovery of uranium and lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, F.T.; Habashi, F.


    The authors discuss how solutions containing Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 -Ca(NO 3 ) 2-H2 O and Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 -CaCI-H 2 O obtained by leaching phosphate rock in situ or in dumps can be treated for uranium and lanthanides recovery prior to P 2 O 5 recovery as follows: In a nitrate system, uranium is first extracted by a mixture of bis(2-ethylehexl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in hexane followed by the extraction of the lanthanides with TBP. In a chloride system, uranium is first extracted by the same mixture, D2EHPA + TBP, followed by the extraction of lanthanides with D2EHPA in toluene

  6. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.


    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  7. Buddhist Approaches to Addiction Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramabandhu Groves


    Full Text Available The Buddha recognized addiction problems and advised his followers accordingly, although this was not the primary focus of his teachings. Thailand and Japan, which have long-standing Buddhist traditions, have developed Buddhist influenced responses to addiction. With its emphasis on craving and attachment, an understanding of the workings of the mind, as well as practices to work with the mind, Buddhism lends itself as a rich resource to assist addiction recovery. The twelve step movement has been an impetus to making use of ideas and practices from Buddhism. In particular, mindfulness, has started to be used to support addiction recovery, with promising results. Exploration of other areas of Buddhism is beginning, and may provide additional benefit in the future.

  8. The task force process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, J.S.


    This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several open-quotes big pictureclose quotes issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald

  9. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  10. ``Force,'' ontology, and language (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia


    We introduce a linguistic framework through which one can interpret systematically students’ understanding of and reasoning about force and motion. Some researchers have suggested that students have robust misconceptions or alternative frameworks grounded in everyday experience. Others have pointed out the inconsistency of students’ responses and presented a phenomenological explanation for what is observed, namely, knowledge in pieces. We wish to present a view that builds on and unifies aspects of this prior research. Our argument is that many students’ difficulties with force and motion are primarily due to a combination of linguistic and ontological difficulties. It is possible that students are primarily engaged in trying to define and categorize the meaning of the term “force” as spoken about by physicists. We found that this process of negotiation of meaning is remarkably similar to that engaged in by physicists in history. In this paper we will describe a study of the historical record that reveals an analogous process of meaning negotiation, spanning multiple centuries. Using methods from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar, we will present an analysis of the force and motion literature, focusing on prior studies with interview data. We will then discuss the implications of our findings for physics instruction.

  11. Iodine recovery from brine solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weetall, H.H.; Hertl, W.


    Iodine has been produced by the reaction of iodide with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of the catalyst ferrous sulfate. The presence of high concentrations of chloride or bromide in both natural and synthetic brines have no effect on the reaction specificity or kinetics. This approach is potentially a less caustic method for the recovery of iodine from brine as compared to the most commonly used chlorine displacement methods.

  12. Resource Recovery Technology Application Document. (United States)


    screening contamination. Glass bottle users Sort, wash Whole bottles ( wine , beverage). Intermediate glass Magnetic separation, Whole bottles; mixed bottles...scale tests have been carried out, but no pilot or full-scale plans have beer developed. More basic research, economic analysis, and testing is...bioconversion, fermentation , and residue disposal processes. Resour. Recov. Conserv., 1:295-313, 1976. Preston, G. T. Resource recovery and flash

  13. Vacation from work as prototypical recovery opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, J. de; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kompier, M.A.J.


    Chronic incomplete recovery from work may have serious consequences in terms of ill-health. Although vacation is one of the most powerful manipulations of recovery in a field context, up to now only few researchers have addressed the impact of vacation on recovery from work. The aim of the current

  14. Recovery Following Bereavement: Metaphor, Phenomenology, and Culture (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.


    The concept of recovery following bereavement can be both useful and misleading. As a metaphor, the concept of recovery highlights some aspects of bereavement and obscures others. Bereaved people interviewed in 3 different studies typically did not bring up the term recovery so it did not seem to be a term that described their experience. Across…

  15. Advanced regenerative heat recovery system (United States)

    Prasad, A.; Jasti, J. K.


    A regenerative heat recovery system was designed and fabricated to deliver 1500 scfm preheated air to a maximum temperature of 1600 F. Since this system is operating at 2000 F, the internal parts were designed to be fabricated with ceramic materials. This system is also designed to be adaptable to an internal metallic structure to operate in the range of 1100 to 1500 F. A test facility was designed and fabricated to test this system. The test facility is equipped to impose a pressure differential of up to 27 inches of water column in between preheated air and flue gas lines for checking possible leakage through the seals. The preliminary tests conducted on the advanced regenerative heat recovery system indicate the thermal effectiveness in the range of 60% to 70%. Bench scale studies were conducted on various ceramic and gasket materials to identify the proper material to be used in high temperature applications. A market survey was conducted to identify the application areas for this heat recovery system. A cost/benefit analysis showed a payback period of less than one and a half years.

  16. Force transmission in epithelial tissues. (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C


    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Dynamics of subcritical CO/sub 2//brine floods for heavy-oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, G.A.; Ali, S.M.F.


    Immiscible CO/sub 2/ flooding is an important, field-proven heavy-oil recovery method, particularly suited for thin, marginal, or otherwise poor heavy-oil reservoirs, where thermal recovery processes are likely to be uneconomical. This paper describes the dynamics of this recovery technique on the basis of experiments conducted in a scaled model. The experiments represent a medium-heavy oil (1032 mPa . s at 23/sup 0/C (1,032 cp at 73/sup 0/F)) occurring in a shallow, thin sand. CO/sub 2/ was injected together with brine at subcritical conditions (5.5 MPa and 21 to 23/sup 0/C (800 psi and 70 to 73/sup 0/F)). The CO/sub 2/ and brine superficial velocities were varied from 0.18 to 2.9 m/d (0.6 to 9.5 ft/D). This broad range of velocities permitted the study of the effect of the viscous, diffusive, and gravitational forces on the CO/sub 2/ slug (20% HCPV) process for heavy-oil recovery. It was found that viscous forces completely dominant CO/sub 2/ injection. Also, the mass transfer between CO/sub 2/ and oil had a stabilizing effect on the brine injection. Although the molecular diffusion of CO/sub 2/ in oil was high, it was not high enough to mobilize appreciable amounts of oil from uninvaded zones. The scaled experiment results showed that oil recoveries at CO/sub 2/ and brine breakthroughs were rate-dependent. While recovery at CO/sub 2/ breakthrough decreased with increasing rate, recovery at brine breakthrough increased. Reduction of interfacial tension (IFT) between brine and oil, leading to the formation of brine-in-oil emulsions, was found to be an additional effective mechanism of heavy-oil recovery by CO/sub 2//brine injection.

  18. Advances in primary recovery: centrifugation and membrane technology. (United States)

    Roush, David J; Lu, Yuefeng


    Significant and continual improvements in upstream processing for biologics have resulted in challenges for downstream processing, both primary recovery and purification. Given the high cell densities achievable in both microbial and mammalian cell culture processes, primary recovery can be a significant bottleneck in both clinical and commercial manufacturing. The combination of increased product titer and low viability leads to significant relative increases in the levels of process impurities such as lipids, intracellular proteins and nucleic acid versus the product. In addition, cell culture media components such as soy and yeast hydrolysates have been widely applied to achieve the cell culture densities needed for higher titers. Many of the process impurities can be negatively charged at harvest pH and can form colloids during the cell culture and harvest processes. The wide size distribution of these particles and the potential for additional particles to be generated by shear forces within a centrifuge may result in insufficient clarification to prevent fouling of subsequent filters. The other residual process impurities can lead to precipitation and increased turbidity during processing and even interference with the performance of the capturing chromatographic step. Primary recovery also poses significant challenges owing to the necessity to execute in an expedient manner to minimize both product degradation and bioburden concerns. Both microfiltration and centrifugation coupled with depth filtration have been employed successfully as primary recovery processing steps. Advances in the design and application of membrane technology for microfiltration and dead-end filtration have contributed to significant improvements in process performance and integration, in some cases allowing for a combination of multiple unit operations in a given step. Although these advances have increased productivity and reliability, the net result is that optimization of primary

  19. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob


    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  20. Effects of a Strength Training Session After an Exercise Inducing Muscle Damage on Recovery Kinetics. (United States)

    Abaïdia, Abd-Elbasset; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Leduc, Cédric; Lamblin, Julien; McCall, Alan; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Grégory


    Abaïdia, A-E, Delecroix, B, Leduc, C, Lamblin, J, McCall, A, Baquet, G, and Dupont, G. Effects of a strength training session after an exercise inducing muscle damage on recovery kinetics. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 115-125, 2017-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an upper-limb strength training session the day after an exercise inducing muscle damage on recovery of performance. In a randomized crossover design, subjects performed the day after the exercise, on 2 separate occasions (passive vs. active recovery conditions) a single-leg exercise (dominant in one condition and nondominant in the other condition) consisting of 5 sets of 15 eccentric contractions of the knee flexors. Active recovery consisted of performing an upper-body strength training session the day after the exercise. Creatine kinase, hamstring strength, and muscle soreness were assessed immediately and 20, 24, and 48 hours after exercise-induced muscle damage. The upper-body strength session, after muscle-damaging exercise accelerated the recovery of slow concentric force (effect size = 0.65; 90% confidence interval = -0.06 to 1.32), but did not affect the recovery kinetics for the other outcomes. The addition of an upper-body strength training session the day after muscle-damaging activity does not negatively affect the recovery kinetics. Upper-body strength training may be programmed the day after a competition.

  1. Force modulation for improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, W.W.; Sebastian, Abu; Despont, Michel; Pozidis, Haris

    We present an improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) method by modulating the applied loading force on the tip. Unreliable electrical contact and tip wear are the primary challenges for electrical characterization at the nanometer scale. The experiments show that force modulation

  2. Predictability of Forced Lorenz Systems (United States)

    Li, Baosheng; Ding, Ruiqiang; Li, Jianping; Zhong, Quanjia


    Based on the nonlinear local Lyapunov exponent (NLLE) approach, the influences of external forcing on the predictability are studied in the Lorenz systems with constant and quasi-periodic forces in this paper. The results indicate that for the Lorenz systems with constant and quasi-periodic forces, their predictability limits increase with the forcing strength. With the same magnitude and different directions, the constant or quasi-periodic forcing shows different effects on the predictability limit in the Lorenz system, and these effects become significant with the increase of the forcing strength. Generally speaking, the positive forcing leads to a higher predictability limit than the negative forcing. Therefore, when we think about the effects of positive and negative elements and phases in the atmosphere and ocean research, the predictability problems driven by different phases should be considered separately. In addition, the influences of constant and quasi-periodic forces on the predictability are different in the Lorenz system. The effect of the constant forcing on the predictability is mainly reflected in the linear phase of error growth, while the nonlinear phase should also be considered for the situation of the quasi-periodic forcing. The predictability limit of the system under constant forcing is longer than the system under quasi-periodic forcing. These results based on simple chaotic model could provide insight into the studies of the actual atmosphere predictability.

  3. Functional Recovery After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Tessa; Kozlowski, Allan; Whyte, John


    recovery was best modeled with linear, cubic, and quadratic components: relatively steep recovery was followed by deceleration of improvement, which attenuated prior to discharge. Slower recovery was associated with older age, longer coma, and interruptions to rehabilitation. Patients admitted at lower...... functional levels received more treatment and more treatment was associated with slower recovery, presumably because treatment was allocated according to need. Thus, effects of treatment on outcome could not be disentangled from effects of case mix factors. CONCLUSIONS: FIM gain during inpatient recovery...

  4. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas


    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  5. Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Woźny


    Full Text Available Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation The concepts of motion and force are both extensively discussed in cognitive linguistics literature. But they are discussed separately. The first usually in the context of ‘motion situations’ (Talmy, Slobin, Zlatev, the other as part of the Force Dynamics framework, which was developed by Talmy. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to argue that the concepts of force and motion should not be isolated but considered as two inseparable parts of force-motion events. The second goal is to prove that the modified Force Dynamics (force-motion framework can be used for precise characterization of the verb complementation patterns. To this end, a random sample of 50 sentences containing the verb ‘went’ is analyzed, demonstrating the differences between the categories of intensive and intransitive complementation with respect to the linguistically coded parameters of force and motion.

  6. Recovery and Performance in Sport: Consensus Statement. (United States)

    Kellmann, Michael; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bosquet, Laurent; Brink, Michel; Coutts, Aaron J; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Halson, Shona L; Hecksteden, Anne; Heidari, Jahan; Kallus, K Wolfgang; Meeusen, Romain; Mujika, Iñigo; Robazza, Claudio; Skorski, Sabrina; Venter, Ranel; Beckmann, Jürgen


    The relationship between recovery and fatigue and its impact on performance has attracted the interest of sport science for many years. An adequate balance between stress (training and competition load, other life demands) and recovery is essential for athletes to achieve continuous high-level performance. Research has focused on the examination of physiological and psychological recovery strategies to compensate external and internal training and competition loads. A systematic monitoring of recovery and the subsequent implementation of recovery routines aims at maximizing performance and preventing negative developments such as underrecovery, nonfunctional overreaching, the overtraining syndrome, injuries, or illnesses. Due to the inter- and intraindividual variability of responses to training, competition, and recovery strategies, a diverse set of expertise is required to address the multifaceted phenomena of recovery, performance, and their interactions to transfer knowledge from sport science to sport practice. For this purpose, a symposium on Recovery and Performance was organized at the Technical University Munich Science and Study Center Raitenhaslach (Germany) in September 2016. Various international experts from many disciplines and research areas gathered to discuss and share their knowledge of recovery for performance enhancement in a variety of settings. The results of this meeting are outlined in this consensus statement that provides central definitions, theoretical frameworks, and practical implications as a synopsis of the current knowledge of recovery and performance. While our understanding of the complex relationship between recovery and performance has significantly increased through research, some important issues for future investigations are also elaborated.

  7. The law of electromagnetic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy


    Full Text Available Calculation peculiarities for Lorentz force, Ampere force, interaction of parallel electric currents, and the moment of electrical machines are analyzed. They have exceptions on application, and they are the rules which result from the law of electromagnetic force as coordinate derivative of the operating magnetic flow. An addition to the direction of electromagnetic force action is proposed. Standards of salient-pole electrical machine designing are considered.

  8. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.


    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  9. Causal Entropic Forces (United States)

    Wissner-Gross, A. D.; Freer, C. E.


    Recent advances in fields ranging from cosmology to computer science have hinted at a possible deep connection between intelligence and entropy maximization, but no formal physical relationship between them has yet been established. Here, we explicitly propose a first step toward such a relationship in the form of a causal generalization of entropic forces that we find can cause two defining behaviors of the human “cognitive niche”—tool use and social cooperation—to spontaneously emerge in simple physical systems. Our results suggest a potentially general thermodynamic model of adaptive behavior as a nonequilibrium process in open systems.

  10. Role of attractive forces in tapping tip force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Bohr, Jakob


    We present experimental and numerical results demonstrating the drastic influence of attractive forces on the behaviour of the atomic force microscope when operated in the resonant tapping tip mode in an ambient environment. It is often assumed that tapping is related to repulsive interaction....... In contrast, we find that in general the attractive forces are the most dominant interaction in this mode of operation. We show that attractive forces in combination with the repulsive elastic type of forces cause points of instability in the parameter space constituted by: the cantilever swing amplitude...

  11. Recovery of marine animal populations and ecosystems. (United States)

    Lotze, Heike K; Coll, Marta; Magera, Anna M; Ward-Paige, Christine; Airoldi, Laura


    Many marine populations and ecosystems have experienced strong historical depletions, yet reports of recoveries are increasing. Here, we review the growing research on marine recoveries to reveal how common recovery is, its magnitude, timescale and major drivers. Overall, 10-50% of depleted populations and ecosystems show some recovery, but rarely to former levels of abundance. In addition, recovery can take many decades for long-lived species and complex ecosystems. Major drivers of recovery include the reduction of human impacts, especially exploitation, habitat loss and pollution, combined with favorable life-history and environmental conditions. Awareness, legal protection and enforcement of management plans are also crucial. Learning from historical recovery successes and failures is essential for implementing realistic conservation goals and promising management strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of nanotechnology for enhancing oil recovery – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chegenizadeh Negin


    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has attracted a great attention in enhancing oil recovery (EOR due to the cost-effective and environmental friendly manner. The size of nanoparticles for EOR usually is in a range of 1–100 nm, which may slightly differ from various international organisations. Nanoparticles exhibit significantly different properties compared to the same fine or bulk molecules because of much higher concentration of atoms at their surface as a result of ultra-small size. In particular, one of the most useful and fascinating properties of these particles is to creating a massive diffusion driving force due to the large surface area, especially at high temperatures. Previous studies have shown that nanoparticles can enhance oil recovery by shifting reservoir wettability towards more water-wet and reducing interfacial tension, yet this area is still open for discussion. It is worth noting that the potential of nanoparticles to reduce the oil viscosity, increase the mobility ratio, and to alter the reservoir permeability has not been investigated to date. Depending on the operational conditions of the EOR process, some nanoparticles perform more effectively than others, thus leading to different levels of enhanced recovery. In this study, we aim to provide a summary on each of the popular and available nanoparticles in the market and list their optimum operational conditions. We classified nanoparticles into the three categories of metal oxide, organic and inorganic particles in this article.

  13. Small amplitude atomic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Ebeling, Daniel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Bhushan, Bharat


    Over the years atomic force microscopy has developed from a pure imaging technique to a tool that can be employed for measuring quantitative tip–sample interaction forces. In this chapter we provide an overview of various techniques to extract quantitative tip–sample forces focusing on both

  14. Combat Search and Rescue Air Force Doctrine Document 2-1.6. (United States)


    ments. By 1946, the Army Air Force had consolidated search and rescue operations and training under the Air Rescue Service (ARS). Credited with...Military Airlift Coinm-y l aiI. mand (MAC). In 1989, Head-~ ........... iiL ------ W~ h 4 ~ ifin ~ f iquarters Air Rescue Service ...... ......... ... . ..... ..... was...Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service ARS Air Rescue Service ASETF Air and Space Expeditionary Task Force AID air tasking order AWACS Airborne Warning and

  15. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C


    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  16. TRIGA forced shutdowns analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Laslau, Florica


    The need for improving the operation leads us to use new methods and strategies. Probabilistic safety assessments and statistical analysis provide insights useful for our reactor operation. This paper is dedicated to analysis of the forced shutdowns during the first reactor operation period, between 1980 to 1989. A forced shutdown data base was designed using data on forced shutdowns collected from the reactor operation logbooks. In order to sort out the forced shutdowns the records have the following fields: - current number, date, equipment failed, failure type (M for mechanical, E for electrical, D for irradiation device, U for human factor failure; - scram mode, SE for external scram, failure of reactor cooling circuits and/or irradiation devices, SR for reactor scram, exceeding of reactor nuclear parameters, SB for reactor scram by control rod drop, SM for manual scram required by the abnormal reactor status; - scram cause, giving more information on the forced shutdown. This data base was processed using DBase III. The data processing techniques are presented. To sort out the data, one of the criteria was the number of scrams per year, failure type, scram mode, etc. There are presented yearly scrams, total operation time in hours, total unavailable time, median unavailable time period, reactor availability A. There are given the formulae used to calculate the reactor operational parameters. There are shown the scrams per year in the 1980 to 1989 period, the reactor operation time per year, the reactor shutdown time per year and the operating time versus down time per year. Total number of scrams in the covered period was 643 which caused a reactor down time of 4282.25 hours. In a table the scrams as sorted on the failure type is shown. Summarising, this study emphasized some problems and difficulties which occurred during the TRIGA reactor operation at Pitesti. One main difficulty in creating this data base was the unstandardized scram record mode. Some times

  17. Role of arm motion in feet-in-place balance recovery. (United States)

    Cheng, Kuangyou B; Wang, Kuan-Mao; Kuo, Shih-Yu


    Although considerable arm movements have been observed at loss of balance, research on standing balance focused primarily on the ankle and hip strategies. This study aimed to investigate the effect of arm motion on feet-in-place balance recovery. Participants stood on a single force plate and leaned forward with a straight body posture. They were then released from three forward-lean angles and regained balance without moving their forefeet under arm-swing (AS) and arm-constrained (AC) conditions. Higher success rates and shorter recovery times were found with arm motion under moderate balance perturbations. Recovery time was significantly correlated with peak linear momentum of the arms. Circumduction arm motion caused initial shoulder extension (backward arm movement) to generate reaction forces to pull the body forward, but later forward linear momentum of the arms helped move the whole body backward to avoid forward falling. However, greater lean angles increased difficulty in balance recovery, making the influences of the arms less significant. Since arm motions were observed in all participants with significantly enhanced performance under moderate balance perturbation, it was concluded that moving the arms should also be considered (together with the ankles and hips) as an effective strategy for balance recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. System i Disaster Recovery Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Dolewski, Richard


    Mapping out all the preparations necessary for an effective disaster recovery plan and its safeguard-a continuous maintenance program-this guide is aimed at IT managers of small and medium businesses. The opening section covers the initial steps of auditing vulnerability, ranking essential IT functions, and reviewing the storage of tape backups, with the following discussion focused on the elements of the plan itself. The plan includes a mission statement, a definition of disaster, the assignment of staff to teams, methods of compensating for human error, and standards for documenting the step

  19. Microwave Plasma Hydrogen Recovery System (United States)

    Atwater, James; Wheeler, Richard, Jr.; Dahl, Roger; Hadley, Neal


    A microwave plasma reactor was developed for the recovery of hydrogen contained within waste methane produced by Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), which reclaims oxygen from CO2. Since half of the H2 reductant used by the CRA is lost as CH4, the ability to reclaim this valuable resource will simplify supply logistics for longterm manned missions. Microwave plasmas provide an extreme thermal environment within a very small and precisely controlled region of space, resulting in very high energy densities at low overall power, and thus can drive high-temperature reactions using equipment that is smaller, lighter, and less power-consuming than traditional fixed-bed and fluidized-bed catalytic reactors. The high energy density provides an economical means to conduct endothermic reactions that become thermodynamically favorable only at very high temperatures. Microwave plasma methods were developed for the effective recovery of H2 using two primary reaction schemes: (1) methane pyrolysis to H2 and solid-phase carbon, and (2) methane oligomerization to H2 and acetylene. While the carbon problem is substantially reduced using plasma methods, it is not completely eliminated. For this reason, advanced methods were developed to promote CH4 oligomerization, which recovers a maximum of 75 percent of the H2 content of methane in a single reactor pass, and virtually eliminates the carbon problem. These methods were embodied in a prototype H2 recovery system capable of sustained high-efficiency operation. NASA can incorporate the innovation into flight hardware systems for deployment in support of future long-duration exploration objectives such as a Space Station retrofit, Lunar outpost, Mars transit, or Mars base. The primary application will be for the recovery of hydrogen lost in the Sabatier process for CO2 reduction to produce water in Exploration Life Support systems. Secondarily, this process may also be used in conjunction with a Sabatier reactor employed to

  20. Yellowcake processing in uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.M.


    This information relates to the recovery of uranium from uranium peroxide yellowcake produced by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide. The yellowcake is calcined at an elevated temperature to effect decomposition of the yellowcake to uranium oxide with the attendant evolution of free oxygen. The calcination step is carried out in the presence of a reducing agent which reacts with the free oxygen, thus retarding the evolution of chlorine gas from sodium chloride in the yellowcake. Suitable reducing agents include ammonia producing compounds such as ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate. Ammonium carbonate and/or ammonium bicarbonate may be provided in the eluant used to desorb the uranium from an ion exchange column

  1. Development of SGTR Recovery Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Han Lee; Se Chang Kim; Jong Joo Sohn; Jong Tae Seo


    The Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) recovery guideline of the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) Emergency Operating Guidelines (EOG) provides operator actions which must be accomplished in the event of a SGTR. The goal of the guideline is to safely establish Shutdown Cooling System (SCS) entry conditions while minimizing radiological releases to the environment and maintaining adequate core cooling. The current KSNP SGTR EOG uses the strategy that requires immediate rapid cooldown of Reactor Coolant System (RCS) using Atmospheric Dump Valves (ADVs) on both steam generators to a temperature lower than the saturation temperature corresponding to the lowest Main Steam Safety Valves (MSSVs) opening setpoint, followed by an isolation of the affected steam generator. This strategy helps to prevent unnecessary lifting and possible stuck-open of MSSVs on the affected steam generator side after isolation. Generally, the safety analysis for SGTR is performed based on the automatic mitigation actions provided by the engineered safety features and operator actions as directed in the SGTR EOG. For a conservatism, this analysis assumes a Loss of Off-site Power (LOOP) and a postulated single-failure of stuck-open ADV which is used for the initial rapid RCS cooldown. However, a concern on the radiological release through the stuck-open ADV can be eliminated by changing the SGTR recovery strategy. Therefore, a feasibility study has been performed to develop a new SGTR recovery strategy which requires an immediate isolation of the affected steam generator followed by a rapid cooldown of RCS using the ADV on the intact steam generator only. The results of the analyses have been evaluated from the standpoint of the total amount of radiological release to the environment and the possibility of overfill of the affected steam generator. The best-estimate analysis results with the new SGTR recovery strategy show that the amount of radiological release to the environment can

  2. Phased operations and recovery options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.


    The event sequence diagram is extended with embedded state submodels. This allows process oriented modeling of phased missions, and flexible modeling of recovery from failure states. This also enhances the structured consideration of time dependences in process conditions, and earlier scenario of events. Operational decision alternatives can straightforwardly be included. In fact, the approach has been developed for the analysis of operational alternatives such as plant shutdown versus continued operation, in failure situations of standby safety systems, with the aim of realistic quantification of shutdown related transient risks

  3. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)


    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  4. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith


    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  5. Yellowcake processing in uranium recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J.M.


    This information relates to the recovery of uranium from uranium peroxide yellowcake produced by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide. The yellowcake is calcined at an elevated temperature to effect decomposition of the yellowcake to uranium oxide with the attendant evolution of free oxygen. The calcination step is carried out in the presence of a reducing agent which reacts with the free oxygen, thus retarding the evolution of chlorine gas from sodium chloride in the yellowcake. Suitable reducing agents include ammonia producing compounds such as ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate. Ammonium carbonate and/or ammonium bicarbonate may be provided in the eluant used to desorb the uranium from an ion exchange column.

  6. Preliminary Study on Effect of Chemical Composition Alteration on Elastic Recovery and Stress Recovery of Nitrile Gloves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kai Yang


    Full Text Available Nitrile gloves are widely used in the medical and automobile field due to its superiority in hypo-allergic component and chemical resistance over natural latex gloves. However, poor elastic recovery of nitrile glove to compressive force also creates an aesthetic issue for customers with high levels of wrinkling after removing from glove box. This paper demonstrates the preliminary study on the varies chemical composition such as crosslinking agents, sulphur and zinc oxide, the accelerator agent added during curing process, and the rubber filler Titanium Dioxide, on the elastic recovery and stress relaxation in nitrile gloves manufacturing. These chemical were studied at different concentration level comparing the high and low level versus the normal production range. Due to the inconsistency in the analysis technique on the surface imaging, the elastic recovery result was unable to be quantified and was not conclusive at this point. The cross linking agents, sulphur and zinc oxide, and the accelerator agent, played a significant role in the mechanical strength of the gloves. Increment of these chemicals result in higher tensile strength, but a reduction in the elasticity of the materials in which causes a lesser elongation at break percentage for the gloves. Both cross-linkers demonstrate different behaviour where higher sulphur content, provide higher stress relaxation (SR% yet zinc oxide shows otherwise.

  7. The differential effect of metabolic alkalosis on maximum force and rate of force development during repeated, high-intensity cycling. (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul W M; Raftry, Sean; Brooks, Cristy; Dowswell, Ben; Romero, Rick; Green, Simon


    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on maximal force production, rate of force development (RFD), and muscle recruitment during repeated bouts of high-intensity cycling. Ten male and female (n = 10) subjects completed two fixed-cadence, high-intensity cycling trials. Each trial consisted of a series of 30-s efforts at 120% peak power output (maximum graded test) that were interspersed with 30-s recovery periods until task failure. Prior to each trial, subjects consumed 0.3 g/kg sodium bicarbonate (ALK) or placebo (PLA). Maximal voluntary contractions were performed immediately after each 30-s effort. Maximal force (F max) was calculated as the greatest force recorded over a 25-ms period throughout the entire contraction duration while maximal RFD (RFD max) was calculated as the greatest 10-ms average slope throughout that same contraction. F max declined similarly in both the ALK and PLA conditions, with baseline values (ALK: 1,226 ± 393 N; PLA: 1,222 ± 369 N) declining nearly 295 ± 54 N [95% confidence interval (CI) = 84-508 N; P alkalosis on maximum force vs. maximum rate of force development during a whole body fatiguing task.

  8. Myoelectric manifestations of jaw elevator muscle fatigue and recovery in healthy and TMD subjects. (United States)

    Castroflorio, T; Falla, D; Tartaglia, G M; Sforza, C; Deregibus, A


    The effects of muscle pain and fatigue on the control of jaw elevator muscles are not well known. Furthermore, the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue and recovery from fatigue in the masticatory muscles are not reported in literature. The main aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the possible use of surface electromyography (sEMG) as an objective measure of fatigue of the jaw elevator muscles, (ii) to compare the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in the temporalis anterior and masseter muscles bilaterally, (iii) to assess recovery of the investigated muscles after an endurance test and (iv) to compare fatigue and recovery of the jaw elevator muscles in healthy subjects and patients with muscle-related temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The study was performed on twenty healthy volunteers and eighteen patients with muscle-related TMD. An intra-oral compressive-force sensor was used to measure the voluntary contraction forces close to the intercuspal position and to provide visual feedback of submaximal forces to the subject. Surface EMG signals were recorded with linear electrode arrays during isometric contractions at 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the maximum voluntary contraction force, during an endurance test and during the recovery phase. The results showed that (i) the slope of the mean power spectral frequency (MNF) and the initial average rectified value (ARV) could be used to monitor fatigue of the jaw elevators, (ii) the temporalis anterior and masseter muscle show the same myoelectric manifestations of fatigue and recovery and (iii) the initial values of MNF and ARV were lower in patients with muscle-related TMD. The assessment of myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in the masticatory muscles may assist in the clinical assessment of TMDs. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Factors Associated With Recovery from Anorexia Nervosa (United States)

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Lund, Brian C.; Holle, Ann Von; Thornton, Laura M.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steven; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; La Via, Maria; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D. Blake; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.


    Previous studies of prognostic factors of anorexia nervosa (AN) course and recovery have followed clinical populations after treatment discharge. This retrospective study examined the association between prognostic factors—eating disorder features, personality traits, and psychiatric comorbidity—and likelihood of recovery in a large sample of women with AN participating in a multi-site genetic study. The study included 680 women with AN. Recovery was defined as the offset of AN symptoms if the participant experienced at least one year without any eating disorder symptoms of low weight, dieting, binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Participants completed a structured interview about eating disorders features, psychiatric comorbidity, and self-report measures of personality. Survival analysis was applied to model time to recovery from AN. Cox regression models were used to fit associations between predictors and the probability of recovery. In the final model, likelihood of recovery was significantly predicted by the following prognostic factors: vomiting, impulsivity, and trait anxiety. Self-induced vomiting and greater trait anxiety were negative prognostic factors and predicted lower likelihood of recovery. Greater impulsivity was a positive prognostic factor and predicted greater likelihood of recovery. There was a significant interaction between impulsivity and time; the association between impulsivity and likelihood of recovery decreased as duration of AN increased. The anxiolytic function of some AN behaviors may impede recovery for individuals with greater trait anxiety. PMID:23535032

  10. Equivalent linearization of nonlinear forces (United States)

    Meng, Guang; Xue, Zhongqing


    A method used for equivalent linearization of the two orthogonal squeeze-film forces is extended here to the general case of n degrees of freedom and n components of nonlinear forces, and the expressions for equivalent linear coefficients are derived. Nonlinear forces can be linearized by the methods of Fourier expansion, active and reactive powers, or mean-square error. The n components of nonlinear forces can all be expressed formally as the sum of an average force, a linear spring force, and a linear damping force. This paper also gives a flow chart for calculating the steady-state responses of a nonlinear system with many degrees of freedom, using the method of equivalent linearization. The resulting saving in computation time is demonstrated by a numerical example of a flexible rotor-bearing system with a noncentralized squeeze-film damper.

  11. Differential magnetic force microscope imaging. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zuobin; Liu, Jinyun; Hou, Liwei


    This paper presents a method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging based on a two-pass scanning procedure to extract differential magnetic forces and eliminate or significantly reduce background forces with reversed tip magnetization. In the work, the difference of two scanned images with reversed tip magnetization was used to express the local magnetic forces. The magnetic sample was first scanned with a low lift distance between the MFM tip and the sample surface, and the magnetization direction of the probe was then changed after the first scan to perform the second scan. The differential magnetic force image was obtained through the subtraction of the two images from the two scans. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the proposed method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging is able to reduce the effect of background or environment interference forces, and offers an improved image contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR). © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison between static maximal force and handbrake pulling force. (United States)

    Chateauroux, E; Wang, X


    The measurement of maximum pulling force is important not only for specifying force limit of industrial workers but also for designing controls requiring high force. This paper presents a comparison between maximal static handbrake pulling force (FST) and force exerted during normal handbrake pulling task (FDY). These forces were measured for different handle locations and subject characteristics. Participants were asked to pull a handbrake on an adjustable car mock-up as they would do when parking their own car, then to exert a force as high as possible on the pulled handbrake. Hand pulling forces were measured using a six-axes force sensor. 5 fixed handbrake positions were tested as well as a neutral handbrake position defined by the subject. FST and FDY were significantly correlated. Both were found to be dependent on handbrake position, age and gender. As expected, women and older subjects exerted lower forces. FST was significantly higher than FDY. The ratio FmR (FDY divided by FST) was also analyzed. Women showed higher FmR than men meaning that the task required a higher amount of muscle capability for women. FmR was also influenced by handbrake location. These data will be useful for handbrake design.

  13. Flow mechanotransduction regulates traction forces, intercellular forces, and adherens junctions (United States)

    Ting, Lucas H.; Jahn, Jessica R.; Jung, Joon I.; Shuman, Benjamin R.; Feghhi, Shirin; Han, Sangyoon J.; Rodriguez, Marita L.


    Endothelial cells respond to fluid shear stress through mechanotransduction responses that affect their cytoskeleton and cell-cell contacts. Here, endothelial cells were grown as monolayers on arrays of microposts and exposed to laminar or disturbed flow to examine the relationship among traction forces, intercellular forces, and cell-cell junctions. Cells under laminar flow had traction forces that were higher than those under static conditions, whereas cells under disturbed flow had lower traction forces. The response in adhesion junction assembly matched closely with changes in traction forces since adherens junctions were larger in size for laminar flow and smaller for disturbed flow. Treating the cells with calyculin-A to increase myosin phosphorylation and traction forces caused an increase in adherens junction size, whereas Y-27362 cause a decrease in their size. Since tugging forces across cell-cell junctions can promote junctional assembly, we developed a novel approach to measure intercellular forces and found that these forces were higher for laminar flow than for static or disturbed flow. The size of adherens junctions and tight junctions matched closely with intercellular forces for these flow conditions. These results indicate that laminar flow can increase cytoskeletal tension while disturbed flow decreases cytoskeletal tension. Consequently, we found that changes in cytoskeletal tension in response to shear flow conditions can affect intercellular tension, which in turn regulates the assembly of cell-cell junctions. PMID:22447948

  14. Measuring individual disaster recovery: a socioecological framework. (United States)

    Abramson, David M; Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Park, Yoon Soo; Walsh, Lauren; Culp, Derrin


    Disaster recovery is a complex phenomenon. Too often, recovery is measured in singular fashion, such as quantifying rebuilt infrastructure or lifelines, without taking in to account the affected population's individual and community recovery. A comprehensive framework is needed that encompasses a much broader and far-reaching construct with multiple underlying dimensions and numerous causal pathways; without the consideration of a comprehensive framework that investigates relationships between these factors, an accurate measurement of recovery may not be valid. This study proposes a model that encapsulates these ideas into a single framework, the Socio-Ecological Model of Recovery. Using confirmatory factor analysis, an operational measure of recovery was developed and validated using the five measures of housing stability, economic stability, physical health, mental health, and social role adaptation. The data were drawn from a sample of displaced households following Hurricane Katrina. Measures of psychological strength, risk, disaster exposure, neighborhood contextual effects, and formal and informal help were modeled to examine their direct and indirect effects on recovery using a structural equation model. All five elements of the recovery measure were positively correlated with a latent measure of recovery, although mental health and social role adaptation displayed the strongest associations. An individual's psychological strength had the greatest association with positive recovery, followed by having a household income greater than $20,000 and having informal social support. Those factors most strongly associated with an absence of recovery included the time displaced since the hurricane, being disabled, and living in a community with substantial social disorder. The socio-ecological framework provides a robust means for measuring recovery, and for testing those factors associated with the presence or absence of recovery.

  15. Gas engine heat recovery unit (United States)

    Kubasco, A. J.


    The objective of Gas Engine Heat Recovery Unit was to design, fabricate, and test an efficient, compact, and corrosion resistant heat recovery unit (HRU) for use on exhaust of natural gas-fired reciprocating engine-generator sets in the 50-500 kW range. The HRU would be a core component of a factory pre-packaged cogeneration system designed around component optimization, reliability, and efficiency. The HRU uses finned high alloy, stainless steel tubing wound into a compact helical coil heat exchanger. The corrosion resistance of the tubing allows more heat to be taken from the exhaust gas without fear of the effects of acid condensation. One HRU is currently installed in a cogeneration system at the Henry Ford Hospital Complex in Dearborn, Michigan. A second unit underwent successful endurance testing for 850 hours. The plan was to commercialize the HRU through its incorporation into a Caterpillar pre-packaged cogeneration system. Caterpillar is not proceeding with the concept at this time because of a downturn in the small size cogeneration market.

  16. Recovery of uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Takahiro; Takagi, Norio; Katoh, Shunsaku


    Present status of the development of chelating adsorbents for the recovery of uranium from seawater is outlined with emphasis on the research by the author. Uranium is estimated to exist as stable tri (carbonate) uranylate (6) ion in seawater in a very low concentration. The adsorbent for uranium from seawater in a very low concentration. The adsorbent for uranium from seawater should have high selectivity and affinity for uranium around pH 8. The required characteristics for uranium adsorbent are examined. Various chelating adsorbents have been proposed for the uranium adsorbent and their structures are discussed. Amidoxime type adsorbents have the highest adsorbing power for uranium among the adsorbents hitherto developed and fibrous amidoxime adsorbents are most promising for the practical application. Synthesis, structure and suitable shape of the amidoxime adsorbents are discussed. Uranium adsorption behavior and the amount of saturated adsorption are examined theoretically based on the complexation of an amidoxime monomer and the formula for the adsorption equiliburium is derived. The adsorption and recovery process for uranium from seawater is composed of adsorption, desorption, separation and concentration and finally, uranium is recovered as the yellow cake. A floating body mooring system is proposed by Nobukawa. (T.H.)

  17. Chin force in violin playing. (United States)

    Obata, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi


    Force generated between the left mandible of violinists and the chinrest of the violin was examined using a force-sensing chinrest developed in this study. A strain-gauge force sensor was built, and it was fixed between the violin's top plate and a chin cup. Fifteen professional/amateur violinists held the violin statically, played musical scales with different sound properties and sounding techniques, as well as an excerpt from a Max Bruch concerto. Peak and mean forces were evaluated for each task. In a separate experiment, lateral movement of the lower teeth due to different levels of voluntary chin force exertion was measured. Static holding forces observed were 15 and 22 N with and without the help of the left hand, respectively. Peak force increased from 16 N at soft dynamics to 20 N at strong dynamics during scales. The force further increased to 29 N with the use of vibrato technique and 35 N during shifts. Tempo and hand position did not affect the force. Playing a Bruch concerto induced a mean peak force of 52 N, ranging from 31 to 82 N among the violinists. The developed force-sensing chinrest could accurately record the generated chin force. Typical chin force to stabilize the violin during ordinary musical performance was less than 30 N, but it could momentarily exceed 50 N when technically demanding musical pieces were performed. The lateral shift of the mandible was fairly small (<0.4 mm) even with high chin-force exertion, possibly due to clenching of the molars.

  18. Approaches to Post-disaster Environmental Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Farrokhi


    Full Text Available Background: Environment and its ecosystems are affected by various natural and man-made disasters. The environmental management in disasters tries to protect ecosystems, sustain development, reduce disaster risk, and adapt to or decrease the impact of climate change. This study aimed to investigate the impact of disasters on the environment and methods of reducing these effects. Materials and Methods: This review study was conducted by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier, UNEP, SID, and Magiran databases using keywords of “environment”, “disasters”, “recovery”, and “lessons learned” from 1999 to 2015. Results: Decrease in surface and groundwater resources, pollution of water resources, deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, air pollution and extinction of animal species are among post-disaster environmental damages. As a result of such changes in the environment and ecosystem, water shortage and drought, loss of vegetation, and food insecurity will ensue. Due to these destructive incidents, the people’s ability to provide necessary resources for living decreases and their very lives are threatened. Consequently, they are forced to immigrate to save their lives. Conclusion: Environmental recovery is one of the effective strategies for achieving sustainable development. In this regard, public and private organizations as well as international ones and people should work together. Responsible organizations, the stakeholders at different levels, and the public must be trained in this area and introduced to the latest international standards. Rules and policies should be reviewed and revised in accordance with today’s needs and international standards.

  19. Students' conceptions about force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Oe.


    Students from a young age have developed in their own minds differing concepts of things such as all creatures having a soul. Also children see the environment and interpret what they see according to their own understanding and explanation. In particular, with regards to physics, things like light, heat, motion, structure of matter and energy are understood at the level of a child s comprehension. Most often the child s understanding varies quite differently from the actual true meaning. As a result the child is reluctant to accept any other explanation. In such situations the necessary difficulties must be tackled with care and caution pertinent to the individual. Studies at K.S.U University related to force and motion of various departments in the Faculty of Science and Letters have been investigated. After evaluations of all the findings a number of suggestions have been made to change student views and ideas

  20. Silicon force sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Nishida, Erik E.; Burnett, Damon J.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.


    The various technologies presented herein relate to a sensor for measurement of high forces and/or high load shock rate(s), whereby the sensor utilizes silicon as the sensing element. A plate of Si can have a thinned region formed therein on which can be formed a number of traces operating as a Wheatstone bridge. The brittle Si can be incorporated into a layered structure comprising ductile and/or compliant materials. The sensor can have a washer-like configuration which can be incorporated into a nut and bolt configuration, whereby tightening of the nut and bolt can facilitate application of a compressive preload upon the sensor. Upon application of an impact load on the bolt, the compressive load on the sensor can be reduced (e.g., moves towards zero-load), however the magnitude of the preload can be such that the load on the sensor does not translate to tensile stress being applied to the sensor.

  1. The resistible force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeschlin, D.L.


    Many people of today have an oppositional attitude towards the continual loss of sense of existence which manifests itself in 'the great refusal'. They also behave in an anti-authoritarian manner towards their first father Marx. They realize that it is ourselves who have to search and find. The protest groups of the most different origin have come into being as 'the sand in the wheels' of a seemingly irresistable force. They have formed themselves beyond the 'Left' and the 'Right'. Nuclear energy is the instrument which acts as a gear for their opposition, which establishes it and which provides the basis for their self-concept. It is the symbol where the conflict between living standard and living quality breaks open. In essential, however, the protest is growing towards supporting an effective administration of all goods of our world. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Direct measurements of intermolecular forces by chemical force microscopy (United States)

    Vezenov, Dmitri Vitalievich


    Detailed description of intermolecular forces is key to understanding a wide range of phenomena from molecular recognition to materials failure. The unique features of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to make point contact force measurements with ultra high sensitivity and to generate spatial maps of surface topography and forces have been extended to include measurements between well-defined organic molecular groups. Chemical modification of AFM probes with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) was used to make them sensitive to specific molecular interactions. This novel chemical force microscopy (CFM) technique was used to probe forces between different molecular groups in a range of environments (vacuum, organic liquids and aqueous solutions); measure surface energetics on a nanometer scale; determine pK values of the surface acid and base groups; measure forces to stretch and unbind a short synthetic DNA duplex and map the spatial distribution of specific functional groups and their ionization state. Studies of adhesion forces demonstrated the important contribution of hydrogen bonding to interactions between simple organic functionalities. The chemical identity of the tip and substrate surfaces as well as the medium had a dramatic effect on adhesion between model monolayers. A direct correlation between surface free energy and adhesion forces was established. The adhesion between epoxy polymer and model mixed SAMs varied with the amount of hydrogen bonding component in the monolayers. A consistent interpretation of CFM measurements in polar solvents was provided by contact mechanics models and intermolecular force components theory. Forces between tips and surfaces functionalized with SAMs terminating in acid or base groups depended on their ionization state. A novel method of force titration was introduced for highly local characterization of the pK's of surface functional groups. The pH-dependent changes in friction forces were exploited to map spatially the

  3. Force 2025 and Beyond Strategic Force Design Analytic Model (United States)


    the methodology used to construct force design models. The Summary section provides a summary of our findings. Background By 2025, a leaner ...designs. We describe a data development methodology that characterizes the data required to construct a force design model using our approach. We...from a model constructed using this methodology in a case study. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Force design, mixed integer programming, optimization, value


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; S.K. Maudgalya; R. Knapp; M. Folmsbee


    Current technology recovers only one-third to one-half of the oil that is originally present in an oil reservoir. Entrapment of petroleum hydrocarbons by capillary forces is a major factor that limits oil recovery (1, 3, 4). Hydrocarbon displacement can occur if interfacial tension (IFT) between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases is reduced by several orders of magnitude. Microbially-produced biosurfactants may be an economical method to recover residual hydrocarbons since they are effective at low concentrations. Previously, we showed that substantial mobilization of residual hydrocarbon from a model porous system occurs at biosurfactant concentrations made naturally by B. mojavensis strain JF-1 if a polymer and 2,3-butanediol were present (2). In this report, we include data on oil recovery from Berea sandstone experiments along with our previous data from sand pack columns in order to relate biosurfactant concentration to the fraction of oil recovered. We also investigate the effect that the JF-2 biosurfactant has on interfacial tension (IFT). The presence of a co-surfactant, 2,3-butanediol, was shown to improve oil recoveries possibly by changing the optimal salinity concentration of the formulation. The JF-2 biosurfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that biosurfactant solutions with concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 mg/l in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of the residual oil present in Berea sandstone cores. When PHPA was used alone, about 10% of the residual oil was recovered. Thus, about 10% of the residual oil recovered in these experiments was due to the increase in viscosity of the displacing fluid. Little or no oil was recovered at

  5. Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Atsushi, E-mail:, E-mail:; Scheuring, Simon, E-mail:, E-mail: [U1006 INSERM, Université Aix-Marseille, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)


    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed.

  6. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.


    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  7. Key factors of recovery in psychotic disorders


    García-Álvarez, Leticia; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo; Ordóñez-Camblor, Nuria; Paino, Mercedes; Burón-Fernández, Patricia; Vallina-Fernández, Óscar; Fernández-Iglesias, Purificación; Solares-Vázquez, Jessica


    Introduction: The research about recovery in psychosis could be consideredas a process that involves the illness management. It means, the development of coping skills, the disorder knowledge and a healthy lifestyle. Theobjective of this research is to study what factors are important in personal recovery in a sample of Spanish patients with psychosis. Methods: The sample consisted of 95 patients (males 70,5%) who had at least one psychotic episode. Results: The lowest level of recovery corre...

  8. Super-Diffusive Gas Recovery from Nanopores


    Wu, Haiyi; He, Yadong; Qiao, Rui


    Understanding the recovery of gas from reservoirs featuring pervasive nanopores is essential for effective shale gas extraction. Classical theories cannot accurately predict such gas recovery and many experimental observations are not well understood. Here we report molecular simulations of the recovery of gas from single nanopores, explicitly taking into account molecular gas-wall interactions. We show that, in very narrow pores, the strong gas-wall interactions are essential in determining ...

  9. Improved oil recovery (IOR). Possibility and challenges on the Norwegian continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Recently, estimates of the oil reserves on the Norwegian continental shelf have been substantially adjusted upwards due to technological development. In this report, the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate presents the current status. Based on current technology and recovery plans, an average of 41% of the oil that was originally in place in Norwegian fields will be recovered. Of these reserves, totaling just over 3 billion Sm{sup 3} of oil, about half have been produced. The potential for improved oil recovery is estimated at 1 billion Sm{sup 3} and it is anticipated that this potential can be realised. The objective is to attain an average recovery factor of at least 50%. Among the great technological advances that have taken place are developments within drilling and well technology and better techniques for reservoir management and reservoir monitoring. Technology using chemicals is available that will counteract increased water production and unwanted breakthrough of gas in oil producing wells. A significant part of the development of improved oil recovery technology is made jointly by the oil companies, often with the authorities as active providers. FORCE (FOrum for Reservoir Characterisation and reservoir Engineering) has been established in this context as a central forum for exchange of experience. Gas injection will be an efficient way of achieving high recovery factors for a number of fields. The foremost objective in projects for improved oil recovery is to be capable of achieving a total value creation while also ensuring that environmental considerations are taken into account. 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Migratory Recovery from Infection as a Selective Pressure for the Evolution of Migration. (United States)

    Shaw, Allison K; Binning, Sandra A


    Migration, a widespread animal behavior, can influence how individuals acquire and transmit pathogens. Past work has demonstrated that migration can reduce the costs of pathogen or parasite infection through two processes: migratory escape from infected areas or individuals and migratory culling of infected individuals. Here, we propose a third process: migratory recovery, where infected individuals lose their parasites and recover from infection during migration. Recovery can occur when parasites and/or their intermediate hosts cannot support changes in the migratory host's internal or external environment during migration. Thus, parasite mortality increases with migration. Although migratory recovery is likely widespread across species, it remains challenging to empirically test it as a selective force promoting migration. We develop a model and determine the conditions under which migratory recovery theoretically favors the evolution of migration. We show that incorporating migratory recovery into a model of migratory escape increases the range of biologically realistic conditions favoring migration and leads to scenarios where partial migration can evolve. Motivated by empirical estimates of infection costs, our model shows how recovery from infection could drive the evolution of migration. We suggest a number of future directions for both theoretical and empirical research in this area.

  11. Recovery of Overpayments Accounting Reporting Master (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains detailed accounting of refund and remittance data, beneficiary data, and a history of overpayment recovery efforts. It also house data for overpayments of...

  12. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) system contains information reported to the state environmental programs on activities and cleanup...

  13. Leading a Recovery-oriented Social Enterprise. (United States)

    Raeburn, Toby; Hungerford, Catherine; Sayers, Jan; Escott, Phil; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle


    Recovery-oriented mental health services promote the principles of recovery, such as hope and optimism, and are characterized by a personalized approach to developing consumer self-determination. Nurse leaders are increasingly developing such services as social enterprises, but there is limited research on the leadership of these programs. Leading a recovery-oriented mental health nurse social enterprise requires visionary leadership, collaboration with consumers and local health providers, financial viability, and commitment to recovery-focused practice. This article describes the framework of an Australian mental health nursing social enterprise, including the service attributes and leadership lessons that have been learned from developing program sustainability.

  14. Detecting recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer (United States)

    Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Bekki, Slimane; Dhomse, Sandip; Harris, Neil R. P.; Hassler, Birgit; Hossaini, Ryan; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Thiéblemont, Rémi; Weber, Mark


    As a result of the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments, the atmospheric loading of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances is decreasing. Accordingly, the stratospheric ozone layer is expected to recover. However, short data records and atmospheric variability confound the search for early signs of recovery, and climate change is masking ozone recovery from ozone-depleting substances in some regions and will increasingly affect the extent of recovery. Here we discuss the nature and timescales of ozone recovery, and explore the extent to which it can be currently detected in different atmospheric regions.

  15. Renal recovery after acute kidney injury. (United States)

    Forni, L G; Darmon, M; Ostermann, M; Oudemans-van Straaten, H M; Pettilä, V; Prowle, J R; Schetz, M; Joannidis, M


    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of critical illness and carries a significant risk of short- and long-term mortality, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular events. The degree of renal recovery from AKI may substantially affect these long-term endpoints. Therefore maximising recovery of renal function should be the goal of any AKI prevention and treatment strategy. Defining renal recovery is far from straightforward due in part to the limitations of the tests available to assess renal function. Here, we discuss common pitfalls in the evaluation of renal recovery and provide suggestions for improved assessment in the future. We review the epidemiology of renal recovery and of the association between AKI and the development of CKD. Finally, we stress the importance of post-discharge follow-up of AKI patients and make suggestions for its incorporation into clinical practice. Summary key points are that risk factors for non-recovery of AKI are age, CKD, comorbidity, higher severity of AKI and acute disease scores. Second, AKI and CKD are mutually related and seem to have a common denominator. Third, despite its limitations full recovery of AKI may best be defined as the absence of AKI criteria, and partial recovery as a fall in AKI stage. Fourth, after an episode of AKI, serial follow-up measurements of serum creatinine and proteinuria are warranted to diagnose renal impairment and prevent further progression. Measures to promote recovery are similar to those preventing renal harm. Specific interventions promoting repair are still experimental.

  16. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  17. Indirect effects of recovery strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Rice, Jake

    For a higher organism to grow another organism has to die. This obvious and fundamentalrelation means that if one species group increases in abundance, the prey species will sufferincreased mortality. One the other hand, the predators of said species will have a moreabundant food supply. Size......-based models of fish communities indicate that theserelationships have lawful dynamics that continue to be expressed, even when individualspecies become rarer - as predators or as prey. An ecosystem based management recoverystrategies of a given species or group of species should therefore not be seen...... in isolation,but the expected consequences for the rest of the ecosystem must be analyzed. We use ageneral size- and trait-based model to calculate the ecosystem effects of fishing andrecovery. We present a general analysis of a recovery strategies targeting either large fishes(consumer fishery), small fishes...

  18. Heat recovery system series arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, Justin P.; Welch, Andrew M.; Dawson, Gregory R.; Minor, Eric N.


    The present disclosure is directed to heat recovery systems that employ two or more organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units disposed in series. According to certain embodiments, each ORC unit includes an evaporator that heats an organic working fluid, a turbine generator set that expands the working fluid to generate electricity, a condenser that cools the working fluid, and a pump that returns the working fluid to the evaporator. The heating fluid is directed through each evaporator to heat the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit, and the cooling fluid is directed through each condenser to cool the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit. The heating fluid and the cooling fluid flow through the ORC units in series in the same or opposite directions.

  19. Hydrodynamic force microscopy (United States)

    Ulrich, Elaine Schmid

    Microfluidic networks and microporous materials have long been of interest in areas such as hydrology, petroleum engineering, chemical and electrochemical engineering, medicine and biochemical engineering. With the emergence of new processes in gas separation, cell sorting, ultrafiltration, and advanced materials synthesis, the importance of building a better qualitative and quantitative understanding of these key technologies has become apparent. However, microfluidic measurement and theory is still relatively underdeveloped, presenting a significant obstacle to the systematic design of microfluidic devices and materials. Theoretical challenges arise from the breakdown of classical viscous flow models as the flow dimensions approach the mean free path of individual molecules. Experimental challenges arise from the lack of flow profilometry techniques at sub-micron length scales. Here we present an extension of scanning probe microscopy techniques, which we have termed Hydrodynamic Force Microscopy (HFM). HFM exploits fluid drag to profile microflows and to map the permeability of microporous materials. In this technique, an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is scanned close to a microporous sample surface. The hydrodynamic interactions arising from a pressure-driven flow through the sample are then detected by mapping the deflection of an AFM cantilever. For gas flows at atmospheric pressure, HFM has been shown to achieve a velocity sensitivity of 1 cm/s with a spatial resolution of ˜ 10 nm. This compares very favorably to established techniques such as hot-wire and laser Doppler anemometry, whose spatial resolutions typically exceed 1 mum and which may rely on the use of tracer particles or flow markers1. We demonstrate that HFM can successfully profile Poiseuille flows inside pores as small as 100 nm and can distinguish Poiseuille flow from uniform flow for short entry lengths. HFM detection of fluid jets escaping from porous samples can also reveal a

  20. Petz recovery versus matrix reconstruction (United States)

    Holzäpfel, Milan; Cramer, Marcus; Datta, Nilanjana; Plenio, Martin B.


    The reconstruction of the state of a multipartite quantum mechanical system represents a fundamental task in quantum information science. At its most basic, it concerns a state of a bipartite quantum system whose subsystems are subjected to local operations. We compare two different methods for obtaining the original state from the state resulting from the action of these operations. The first method involves quantum operations called Petz recovery maps, acting locally on the two subsystems. The second method is called matrix (or state) reconstruction and involves local, linear maps that are not necessarily completely positive. Moreover, we compare the quantities on which the maps employed in the two methods depend. We show that any state that admits Petz recovery also admits state reconstruction. However, the latter is successful for a strictly larger set of states. We also compare these methods in the context of a finite spin chain. Here, the state of a finite spin chain is reconstructed from the reduced states of a few neighbouring spins. In this setting, state reconstruction is the same as the matrix product operator reconstruction proposed by Baumgratz et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 020401 (2013)]. Finally, we generalize both these methods so that they employ long-range measurements instead of relying solely on short-range correlations embodied in such local reduced states. Long-range measurements enable the reconstruction of states which cannot be reconstructed from measurements of local few-body observables alone and hereby we improve existing methods for quantum state tomography of quantum many-body systems.

  1. Non-conservative optical forces (United States)

    Sukhov, Sergey; Dogariu, Aristide


    Undoubtedly, laser tweezers are the most recognized application of optically induced mechanical action. Their operation is usually described in terms of conservative forces originating from intensity gradients. However, the fundamental optical action on matter is non-conservative. We will review different manifestations of non-conservative optical forces (NCF) and discuss their dependence on the specific spatial properties of optical fields that generate them. New developments relevant to the NCF such as tractor beams and transversal forces are also discussed.

  2. MEMS Bragg grating force sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Hansen, Ole


    We present modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of a new type of all-optical frequency modulated MEMS force sensor based on a mechanically amplified double clamped waveguide beam structure with integrated Bragg grating. The sensor is ideally suited for force measurements in harsh...... environments and for remote and distributed sensing and has a measured sensitivity of -14 nm/N, which is several times higher than what is obtained in conventional fiber Bragg grating force sensors. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  3. The Recovery Knowledge Inventory: assessment of mental health staff knowledge and attitudes about recovery. (United States)

    Bedregal, Luis E; O'Connell, Maria; Davidson, Larry


    In order to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward recovery-oriented practices among providers of mental health and substance abuse treatment and rehabilitation services throughout the state of Connecticut, an instrument named the Recovery Knowledge Inventory (RKI) was developed and administered. The items that comprise the instrument are based on the emerging literature on recovery in psychiatric and substance use disorders, and assess four different domains of understanding, namely: 1) roles and responsibilities in recovery, 2) non-linearity of the recovery process, 3) the roles of self-definition and peers in recovery, and 4) expectations regarding recovery. This paper describes the instrument and its preliminary psychometric properties, and provides an example of its utility in assessing the training needs of staff who increasingly are being expected to deliver recovery-oriented care.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy System (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM) system, developed by ARL, is the world's most sensitive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis tool,...

  5. Blocking of Brute Force Attack


    M.Venkata Krishna Reddy


    A common threat Web developers face is a password-guessing attack known as a brute-force attack. A brute-force attack is an attempt to discover a password by systematically trying every possible combination of letters, numbers, and symbols until you discover the one correct combination that works. If your Web site requires user authentication, you are a good target for a brute-force attack. An attacker can always discover a password through a brute-force attack, but the downside is that it co...

  6. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent


    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  7. Force As A Momentum Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munera, Hector A.


    Advantages of a neo-Cartesian approach to classical mechanics are noted. If conservation of linear momentum is the fundamental principle, Newton's three laws become theorems. A minor paradox in static Newtonian mechanics is identified, and solved by reinterpreting force as a current of momentum. Contact force plays the role of a mere midwife in the exchange of momentum; however, force cannot be eliminated from physics because it provides the numerical value for momentum current. In this sense, in a neo-Cartesian formulation of mechanics the concept of force becomes strengthened rather than weakened.

  8. Forces of nature

    CERN Document Server



    A breathtaking and beautiful exploration of our planet. This groundbreaking book, which accompanies the new BBC1 TV series, provides the deepest answers to the simplest questions. 'Why is the sky blue?' 'Why is the Earth round?' 'Why is every snowflake unique?' To answer these and many other questions, Professor Brian Cox will reveal some of the most extraordinary phenomena and events on Earth and in the Universe and beyond. From the immensity of Earth's globe to all the world's myriad snowflakes, the forces of nature shape everything we see. Pushed to extremes, the results are astonishing. From the realm of auroras to the heart of our planet, the ingredients that make everything on Earth connect each one of us in an eternal cycle of life. Brian will reveal why Earth is the most colourful world we know, exploring the white light of the sun as it travels through the darkness of space until it hits Earth's atmosphere where it begins a new journey, splitting into a rainbow of colours. From the great plains of th...

  9. Breaking the Time Barrier in Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy: Fast Free Force Reconstruction Using the G-Mode Platform. (United States)

    Collins, Liam; Ahmadi, Mahshid; Wu, Ting; Hu, Bin; Kalinin, Sergei V; Jesse, Stephen


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers unparalleled insight into structure and material functionality across nanometer length scales. However, the spatial resolution afforded by the AFM tip is counterpoised by slow detection speeds compared to other common microscopy techniques (e.g., optical, scanning electron microscopy, etc.). In this work, we develop an ultrafast AFM imaging approach allowing direct reconstruction of the tip-sample forces with ∼3 order of magnitude higher time resolution than is achievable using standard AFM detection methods. Fast free force recovery (F 3 R) overcomes the widely viewed temporal bottleneck in AFM, that is, the mechanical bandwidth of the cantilever, enabling time-resolved imaging at sub-bandwidth speeds. We demonstrate quantitative recovery of electrostatic forces with ∼10 μs temporal resolution, free from influences of the cantilever ring-down. We further apply the F 3 R method to Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements. F 3 R-KPFM is an open loop imaging approach (i.e., no bias feedback), allowing ultrafast surface potential measurements (e.g., <20 μs) to be performed at regular KPFM scan speeds. F 3 R-KPFM is demonstrated for exploration of ion migration in organometallic halide perovskite materials and shown to allow spatiotemporal imaging of positively charged ion migration under applied electric field, as well as subsequent formation of accumulated charges at the perovskite/electrode interface. In this work, we demonstrate quantitative F 3 R-KPFM measurements-however, we fully expect the F 3 R approach to be valid for all modes of noncontact AFM operation, including noninvasive probing of ultrafast electrical and magnetic dynamics.

  10. Measuring Forces between Oxide Surfaces Using the Atomic Force Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Guldberg; Høj, Jakob Weiland


    The interactions between colloidal particles play a major role in processing of ceramics, especially in casting processes. With the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) it is possible to measure the inter-action force between a small oxide particle (a few micron) and a surface as function of surface...

  11. Relationship Between Magnitude of Applied Spin Recovery Moment and Ensuing Number of Recovery Turns (United States)

    Anglin, Ernie L.


    An analytical study has been made to investigate the relationship between the magnitude of the applied spin recovery moment and the ensuing number of turns made during recovery from a developed spin with a view toward determining how to interpolate or extrapolate spin recovery results with regard to determining the amount of control required for a satisfactory recovery. Five configurations were used which are considered to be representative of modern airplanes: a delta-wing fighter, a stub-wing research vehicle, a boostglide configuration, a supersonic trainer, and a sweptback-wing fighter. The results obtained indicate that there is a direct relationship between the magnitude of the applied spin recovery moments and the ensuing number of recovery turns made and that this relationship can be expressed in either simple multiplicative or exponential form. Either type of relationship was adequate for interpolating or extrapolating to predict turns required for recovery with satisfactory accuracy for configurations having relatively steady recovery motions. Any two recoveries from the same developed spin condition can be used as a basis for the predicted results provided these recoveries are obtained with the same ratio of recovery control deflections. No such predictive method can be expected to give satisfactory results for oscillatory recoveries.

  12. Design of heat-recovery and seed-recovery units in MHD power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, P.D.; Joubert, J.I.; Demski, R.J.; Bienstock, D.


    Crucial and limiting engineering and materials problems associated with the design of an MHD steam bottoming plant are discussed. Existing experimental and theoretical results on corrosion, fouling and deposits, potassium seed recovery and regeneration, are reviewed. The state of knowledge regarding the design of heat recovery and seed recovery units for coal-fired MHD plants is inadequate at the present time.

  13. Recovery Supports for Young People: What Do Existing Supports Reveal about the Recovery Environment? (United States)

    Fisher, Emily A.


    This article seeks to address how our understanding of the recovery process and resulting supports can be made more comprehensive: How can links from treatment to home to school to communities be made so that there are fewer and fewer recovery gaps for adolescents? Using the ecology of recovery model developed by White (2009) as the impetus for…

  14. [Natural recovery and treatment recovery from drug and alcohol abuse]. (United States)

    Pérez Gómez, Augusto; Sierra Acuña, Diana Raquel


    This study examines the concept of natural recovery (without formal treatment) from problems associated with alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and heroin abuse, each one alone or in any combination. Two groups of males (40 Ss between 18 and 60 years of age) and two groups of females (19 Ss between 18 and 55 years of age) with at least one year of abstinence were studied. The main issues considered were: reason for attending treatment or ceasing the use of substances, factors related to maintenance of abstinence, and difficulties and threats associated with abstinence. Several significant differences were found between groups with and without treatment, as well as between males and females, particularly regarding factors related to the maintenance of abstinence. In both cases family and affective links appear as the most relevant factors in the decision to stop using substances. On the other hand, commitment to one's goals and life project are the principal motives for maintaining abstinence or moderate consumption. This reflects the progressive transition from cognitive and emotional processes with external referents to processes with internal referents, associated with personal achievement.

  15. Benthic algal communities : recovery from experimental acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.A.; Findlay, D.L.; Kasian, S.E.M. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Freshwater Inst.; Baulch, H.M. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada); Armstrong, L.M. [Ducks Unlimited Canada, Stonewall, MB (Canada). Inst. for Wetland and Waterfowl Research; McNicol, D.K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Vinebrooke, R.D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences


    This study evaluated the hypothesis that chemical recovery promotes the rapid recovery of benthic algal communities in formerly acidified lakes. The study was conducted at an experimental lake in Ontario over a 10 year period of pH recovery that followed a 10 year period of experimental acidification from a pH of 6.7 to 4.5. A reference lake in the region was also studied to account for regional changes during the study period. Changes in the epilithon on rock surfaces included lower cyanobacterial biomass following the acidification as well as increases in diatoms and greens. Acidification-induced increases in respiration prevented epilithic metabolic recovery. Prior declines in photosynthesis were reversed. Blooms of metaphytic filamentous green algae with a higher pH occurred during the recovery period. The recovery of many aggregate functional and taxonomic properties lagged behind reductions in acidity. Incomplete chemical recovery and the absence of functionally important biota were attributed to incomplete algal recovery at the lake. 59 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. Immiscible foam for enhancing oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simjoo, M.


    Growing worldwide oil demand increased the need of new and efficient oil recovery methods. Gas injection in oil reservoirs is deemed one of the most widely used methods to increase oil recovery. However, the full potential of gas injection is often not realized due to poor vertical and areal sweep

  17. Factors determining lumber recovery in sawmilling (United States)

    Philip H. Steele


    Lumber volume recovery in sawmilling is determined by a confusing interaction of several factors. The more one knows about each individual factor, the more one can understand how the factors interact. The author identifies and discusses in detail seven factors influencing lumber recovery. Past and current research is cited, and examples are given to illustrate the...

  18. Electrochemical phosphate recovery from nanofiltration concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappel, C.; Yasadi, K.; Temmink, H.; Metz, S.J.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.


    The high total phosphorus content of raw domestic wastewater with its significant eutrophication potential offers an excellent possibility for phosphate recovery. Continuous recirculation of NF concentrate to an MBR and simultaneous phosphate recovery from the NF concentrate can be applied to

  19. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal recovery post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolonged, strenuous exercise results in muscle glycogen depletion. Recovery of these stores prior to the next training session or competition is crucial to optimise exercise performance. Nutrition plays an important role during the post-exercise recovery period when processes such as muscle regeneration, glycogen and ...

  20. Nutrition for recovery in aquatic sports. (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Mujika, Iñigo


    Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs.

  1. Recovery i fællesskaber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Diana Astrup


    in the fundamental concepts of recovery-orientation. The primary conclusion derived from the analyses is, that recovery-orientation cannot stand alone, but needs to be combined with other theoretical concepts and approaches. It is argued that an em-phasis on context will provide a wider range of ideas and possible...

  2. 7 CFR 1779.95 - Future recovery. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Future recovery. 1779.95 Section 1779.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.95 Future recovery. After a loan has...

  3. Isothermal recovery rates in shape memory polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azra, Charly; Plummer, Christopher J G; Månson, Jan-Anders E


    This work compares the time dependence of isothermal shape recovery in thermoset and thermoplastic shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) with comparable glass transition temperatures. In each case, tensile tests have been used to quantify the influence of various thermo-mechanical programming parameters (deformation temperature, recovery temperature, and stress and storage times following the deformation step) on strain recovery under zero load (free recovery) and stress recovery under fixed strain (constrained recovery). It is shown that the duration of the recovery event may be tuned over several decades of time with an appropriate choice of programming parameters, but that there is a trade-off between the rate of shape recovery and the recoverable stress level. The results are discussed in terms of the thermal characteristics of the SMPUs in the corresponding temperature range as characterized by modulated differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis, with the emphasis on the role of the effective width of the glass transition temperature and the stability of the network that gives rise to the shape memory effect. (fast track communication)

  4. Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry (United States)

    Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey


    While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the lived…

  5. A Modest Proposal about Bereavement and Recovery (United States)

    Balk, David E.


    The author argues that the term "recovery" aptly describes the trajectory following the bereavement of most persons. While the term "resilience" has gained ascendancy in the thanatology literature and the term "recovery" has been dismissed as inappropriate to denote responses over time to being bereaved, the irony is that all dictionaries of the…

  6. 75 FR 6681 - National Disaster Recovery Framework (United States)


    ... with the interagency Long Term Disaster Recovery Working Group, is accepting comments on the draft National Disaster Recovery Framework (NDRF). The NDRF is intended to work in concert with the National... Team, Office of Chief Counsel, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Room 835, 500 C Street, SW...

  7. Explorative research on innovative nitrogen recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekert, van M.H.A.; Weijma, J.; Verdoes, N.; Buisonje, de F.E.; Reitsma, B.A.H.; Bulk, van den J.


    This report comprises the results of an explorative study on innovative nitrogen recovery from side streams of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Netherlands. The main objective of the study was to identify promising new technologies for recovery of nitrogen which can be subsequently used as

  8. 30 CFR 75.207 - Pillar recovery. (United States)


    ... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.207 Pillar recovery. Pillar recovery shall be... be left in place. (b) Before mining is started in a pillar split or lift— (1) At least two rows of breaker posts or equivalent support shall be installed— (i) As close to the initial intended breakline as...

  9. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air... (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.660 Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of...

  10. Rescuing Joint Personnel Recovery: Using Air Force Capability to Address Joint Shortfalls (United States)


    of that year, Air Training Command created the Air Rescue Service (ARS). Colonel Richard Kight took command with marching orders to either build up...dates back to World War II. Col Kight started building the Air Rescue Service in 1946 in response to these concerns. The ARS became the Air Rescue...34Pinpoint and pick up: Combat search and rescue." Jane’s International Defense Review, vol 31 (January 1998): 35-39. History. Air Rescue Service (Volume 1

  11. Environmental Assessment: Replacement of Subscale Drone Recovery Boat Dock at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida (United States)


    arc attached fo r your rev iew and comment. The draft EA was prepared in accordance \\\\·ith the Nat iona l Env iwnmcntal Policy Act o f 1969. as...existing dock and the con..;rn.JCiion or a rH.’ \\\\ dock in the same lo<:ati(’ll. Under the ~o 1\\cti<’n Ah~:rn< Hiv c. the ~:~isting drone r~covcry d1’d...OK 74702 Dear l’crry Cole. The draft Env ironmental Asscs~ment (I ~A) and drnfL Finding of No Significant Impact OCT 2 2 2009 ( FON Sl) for a

  12. Evaluation of Why the Air Force Dedicated Personnel Recovery Mission Should Remain with Air Combat Command (United States)


    Korean War.............................................................................................................................. 9 War in South ...early years, the ARS truly set forth to create a community that stood counter to much of the focus of the rest of the AF. During the Korean and Vietnam...organizational culture and identity of the 23rd AF, he addresses this diverging of priorities between the ARS and the rest of the AF by stating, “…from the

  13. Heat recovery from solids in industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J.J.


    Heat recovery from solids in industrial heat-treatment processes is considered. There are two main ways to improve the energy efficiency and economy of the heating process. The waste energy can again be used in the process to preheat the cool input. Another possibility is to use the waste energy in a process requiring a lower-temperature level. Heat-recovery arrangements both for continuous and discontinuous processes are presented. The energy demand of a heating or a heat-treatment process (in metal, clay, glass, and food industries) can greatly be decreased by the heat recovery. New methods for the heat-treatment processes requiring much less energy are presented. Several heat-recovery arrangements are described, and analytical solutions for the efficiency of the heat recovery are presented.

  14. Recovery and recrystallization of U3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillibot, P.F.; Wyatt, B.S.


    The recovery and recrystallization temperatures of U 3 Si were determined for an alloy of uranium-3.98 wt% silicon containing 600 ppm carbon. Small specimens, deformed by compression, were isothermally and isochronally annealed at temperatures between 350 and 700 o C and their recovery and recrystallization temperatures determined using hardness, grain size and X-ray measurements. For small amounts of strain and an annealing time of 6 hours both recovery and recrystallization begin at 400-450 o C. Complete recrystallization is achieved at 650-700 o C. The effect of small changes in silicon and carbon concentration were determined by examining two further alloys containing 3.27 wt% silicon and 600 ppm carbon, and 4.02 wt% silicon and 140 ppm carbon respectively. A small change in silicon concentration does not affect recovery and recrystallization but decreasing the carbon concentration from 600 to 140 ppm decreases the recovery and recrystallization temperatures. (author)

  15. Societal Forces That ERODE Creativity (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert; Kaufman, James C.


    Background/Context: Creativity is an indispensable force in intellectual, social, cultural, and economic development. Yet societal forces conspire to erode it. Educators have despaired for many years over how schools often fail to encourage creativity, but society as a whole is just as guilty. But how do schools and society fail to encourage, or…

  16. Adhesive forces at bimetallic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.; Nafari, N.; Ziesche, P.; Kaschner, H.R.


    Force concepts in condensed systems have progressed significantly in recent years. In the context of bimetallic interfaces we consider the Pauli-Hellman-Feynman theorem, use it to check the variational calculations of interfacial energies and estimate the force constants. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Force optimized recoil control system (United States)

    Townsend, P. E.; Radkiewicz, R. J.; Gartner, R. F.


    Reduction of the recoil force of high rate of fire automatic guns was proven effective. This system will allow consideration of more powerful guns for use in both helicopter and armored personnel carrier applications. By substituting the large shock loads of firing guns with a nearly constant force, both vibration and fatigue problems that prevent mounting of powerful automatic guns is eliminated.

  18. enterprise architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Fawcett, Andrew


    This book is for advanced developers and architects who need to understand the Salesforce platform from the perspective of enterprise-level requirements. You should have an existing understanding of Apex and Visualforce. Those familiar with other enterprise software ecosystems will also find this book ideal as they adopt

  19. Delayed coral recovery in a warming ocean. (United States)

    Osborne, Kate; Thompson, Angus A; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Johns, Kerryn A; Jonker, Michelle J; Logan, Murray; Miller, Ian R; Sweatman, Hugh P A


    Climate change threatens coral reefs across the world. Intense bleaching has caused dramatic coral mortality in many tropical regions in recent decades, but less obvious chronic effects of temperature and other stressors can be equally threatening to the long-term persistence of diverse coral-dominated reef systems. Coral reefs persist if coral recovery rates equal or exceed average rates of mortality. While mortality from acute destructive events is often obvious and easy to measure, estimating recovery rates and investigating the factors that influence them requires long-term commitment. Coastal development is increasing in many regions, and sea surface temperatures are also rising. The resulting chronic stresses have predictable, adverse effects on coral recovery, but the lack of consistent long-term data sets has prevented measurement of how much coral recovery rates are actually changing. Using long-term monitoring data from 47 reefs spread over 10 degrees of latitude on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), we used a modified Gompertz equation to estimate coral recovery rates following disturbance. We compared coral recovery rates in two periods: 7 years before and 7 years after an acute and widespread heat stress event on the GBR in 2002. From 2003 to 2009, there were few acute disturbances in the region, allowing us to attribute the observed shortfall in coral recovery rates to residual effects of acute heat stress plus other chronic stressors. Compared with the period before 2002, the recovery of fast-growing Acroporidae and of "Other" slower growing hard corals slowed after 2002, doubling the time taken for modest levels of recovery. If this persists, recovery times will be increasing at a time when acute disturbances are predicted to become more frequent and intense. Our study supports the need for management actions to protect reefs from locally generated stresses, as well as urgent global action to mitigate climate change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  20. Handbook of Molecular Force Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Noy, Aleksandr


    "...Noy's Handbook of Molecular Force Spectroscopy is both a timely and useful summary of fundamental aspects of molecular force spectroscopy, and I believe it would make a worthwhile addition to any good scientific library. New research groups that are entering this field would be well advisedto study this handbook in detail before venturing into the exciting and challenging world of molecular force spectroscopy." Matthew F. Paige, University of Saskatchewan, Journal of the American Chemical Society Modern materials science and biophysics are increasingly focused on studying and controlling intermolecular interactions on the single-molecule level. Molecular force spectroscopy was developed in the past decade as the result of several unprecedented advances in the capabilities of modern scientific instrumentation, and defines a number of techniques that use mechanical force measurements to study interactions between single molecules and molecular assemblies in chemical and biological systems. Examples of these...

  1. Force sensing in surgical sutures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Horeman

    Full Text Available The tension in a suture is an important factor in the process of wound healing. If there is too much tension in the suture, the blood flow is restricted and necrosis can occur. If the tension is too low, the incision opens up and cannot heal properly. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and evaluation of the Stitch Force (SF sensor and the Hook-In Force (HIF sensor. These sensors were developed to measure the force on a tensioned suture inside a closed incision and to measure the pulling force used to close the incision. The accuracy of both sensors is high enough to determine the relation between the force in the thread of a stitch and the pulling force applied on the suture by the physician. In a pilot study, a continuous suture of 7 stitches was applied on the fascia of the abdominal wall of multiple pigs to study this relationship. The results show that the max force in the thread of the second stitch drops from 3 (SD 1.2 to 1 (SD 0.3 newton after the 4(th stitch was placed. During placement of the 5(th, 6(th and 7(th stitch, the force in the 2(nd stitch was not influenced anymore. This study indicates that in a continuous suture the force in the thread remains constant up to more than 3 stiches away from the pulled loose end of the suture. When a force feedback tool is developed specially for suturing in surgery on patients, the proposed sensors can be used to determine safety threshold for different types of tissue and sutures.

  2. Force sensing in surgical sutures. (United States)

    Horeman, Tim; Meijer, Evert-Jan; Harlaar, Joris J; Lange, Johan F; van den Dobbelsteen, John J; Dankelman, Jenny


    The tension in a suture is an important factor in the process of wound healing. If there is too much tension in the suture, the blood flow is restricted and necrosis can occur. If the tension is too low, the incision opens up and cannot heal properly. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and evaluation of the Stitch Force (SF) sensor and the Hook-In Force (HIF) sensor. These sensors were developed to measure the force on a tensioned suture inside a closed incision and to measure the pulling force used to close the incision. The accuracy of both sensors is high enough to determine the relation between the force in the thread of a stitch and the pulling force applied on the suture by the physician. In a pilot study, a continuous suture of 7 stitches was applied on the fascia of the abdominal wall of multiple pigs to study this relationship. The results show that the max force in the thread of the second stitch drops from 3 (SD 1.2) to 1 (SD 0.3) newton after the 4(th) stitch was placed. During placement of the 5(th), 6(th) and 7(th) stitch, the force in the 2(nd) stitch was not influenced anymore. This study indicates that in a continuous suture the force in the thread remains constant up to more than 3 stiches away from the pulled loose end of the suture. When a force feedback tool is developed specially for suturing in surgery on patients, the proposed sensors can be used to determine safety threshold for different types of tissue and sutures.

  3. MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) recovery and regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlroy, R. A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Probert, P. B. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Lahoda, E. J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Swift, W. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jackson, D. M. [Univ. of Tennessee Space Inst. (UTSI), Tullahoma, TN (United States); Prasad, J. [Univ. of Tennessee Space Inst. (UTSI), Tullahoma, TN (United States); Martin, J. [Hudson Engineering (United States); Rogers, C. [Hudson Engineering (United States); Ho, K. K. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Senary, M. K. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)


    A two-phase program investigating MHD seed regeneration is described. In Phase I, bench scale experiments were carried out to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a proposed Seed Regeneration Process. The Phase I data has been used for the preliminary design of a Proof-of-Concept (POC) plant which will be built and tested in Phase II. The Phase I data will also be used to estimate the costs of a 300 Mw(t) demonstration plant for comparison with other processes. The Seed Regeneration Process consists of two major subprocesses; a Westinghouse Dry Reduction process and a modified Tampella (sulfur) Recovery process. The Westinghouse process reduces the recovered spent seed (i.e., potassium sulfate) to potassium polysulfide in a rotary kiln. The reduction product is dissolved in water to form green liquor, clarified to remove residual coal ash, and sent to the Tampella sulfur release system. The sulfur is released using carbon dioxide from flue gas in a two stage reaction. The sulfur is converted to elemental sulfur as a marketable by product. The potassium is crystallized from the green liquor and dried to the anhydrous form for return to the MHD unit.

  4. Recovery of lithium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, Kenta; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Katoh, Shunsaku; Abe, Mitsuo.


    Lithium has been used for air conditioners, aluminum refining, ceramics, organic metal compounds, batteries and many other uses. Besides, attention is paid as the aluminum-lithium alloys as aircraft materials, and the raw materials for large capacity batteries and nuclear fusion reactors for the future. The amount of lithium resources has been estimated as 14 million tons, and is relatively abundant, but when the future increase of demand is considered, it is not necessarily sufficient. Japan lacks lithium resources, and the stable ensuring of the resources has become an important problem. Seawater contains lithium by 170 μg/l, and its total amount reaches 230 billion tons. The process of recovering lithium from seawater, geothermal water and natural gas brine has been actively researched since 10 years ago centering around Japan. At present, the search for the adsorbent that effectively collects lithium is the main subject. Also the recovery by coprecipitation has been investigated basically. The inorganic adsorbent for lithium is classified into aluminum type, compound antimonic acid type, layered compound type, ion sieve oxide type and others. Their lithium adsorption performance and adsorption mechanism are different remarkably, therefore, these of each group are described. (K.I.) 70 refs

  5. Radioactive rare gas recoverying device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeo


    The apparatus of the present invention comprises a vessel for containing coolants, an introduction valve and an introduction pipe for introducing radioactive rare gases and an adsorption floor disposed in the coolants. A josephson device is disposed being immersed in the coolants between a radiation detector for detecting the radioactive level adsorbed to the adsorption floor and a driving section for driving the introduction valve by the signal from the detector. With this constitution, radioactive rare gases introduced into the coolants and then cooled and liquefied are recovered by the adsorption floor. As the adsorption proceeds and when the radioactivity level exceeds a maximum level in the effective shielding range of the recovery apparatus, the signal current from the radiation detector also exceeds a predetermined level. If radioactivity exceeds the maximum level, the electrical resistance of the josephson device is increased infinitely by the josephson effect to close the introduction valve. Accordingly, the radioactivity is not absorbed beyond the effective shielding range. (I.S.)

  6. SOR/93-163 AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Atomic Energy Control Board (Cost Recovery Fees Regulations 1990 and subsequent amendments have been revoked and replaced by those new Regulations of 30 march 1993 which entered into force on 1 April 1993. The regulations were first made in 1990 in order to carry out the Government's policy of introducing the principle of ''user pay'' for the cost incurred by the AECB in its regulatory activities. The objective of the policy was to shift the cost of Government regulatory efforts for the taxpayer at large to those who most benefited from or whose activities were the reason for such effort. This new version of the Regulations reflects licensees' comments, e.g. extension of the period for review of proposed fees, and sets out increases in the fees. (NEA)

  7. ISS Ammonia Pump Failure, Recovery, and Lesson Learned A Hydrodynamic Bearing Perspective (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.; Manco, Richard A., II


    The design, development, and operation of long duration spaceflight hardware has become an evolutionary process in which meticulous attention to details and lessons learned from previous experiences play a critical role. Invaluable to this process is the ability to retrieve and examine spaceflight hardware that has experienced a premature failure. While these situations are rare and unfortunate, the failure investigation and recovery from the event serve a valuable purpose in advancing future space mechanism development. Such a scenario began on July 31, 2010 with the premature failure of an ammonia pump on the external active thermal control system of the International Space Station. The ground-based inspections of the returned pump and ensuing failure investigation revealed five potential bearing forces that were un-accounted for in the design phase and qualification testing of the pump. These forces could combine in a number of random orientations to overload the pump bearings leading to solid-surface contact, wear, and premature failure. The recovery plan identified one of these five forces as being related to the square of the operating speed of the pump and this fact was used to recover design life through a change in flight rules for the operation of the pump module. Through the course of the failure investigation, recovery, and follow-on assessment of pump wear life, design guidance has been developed to improve the life of future mechanically pumped thermal control systems for both human and robotic exploration missions.

  8. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital or facilitators of (presence of capital sustained recovery post treatment. Methods A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Results Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular was a key motivator post treatment. Conclusions Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. ‘human capital’, provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and

  9. The social impact of cost recovery measures in Zimbabwe. (United States)

    Nyambuya, M N


    Since the International Monetary Fund/World Bank Economic Structural Adjustment Program (ESAP) in Zimbabwe was adopted in 1990, health care and education costs have escalated, and many people fail to get these services owing to poverty. The post-independence era in Zimbabwe witnessed a tremendous growth in education and health with many schools, colleges, hospitals and clinics built, professional staff employed, and a general expansion in demand. Nevertheless, the question of drug shortages and ever-increasing health care costs were not addressed. A deficient transport network, the increases in drug prices, the exodus of professional staff, the devaluation of the Zimbabwe dollar, and the cost recovery measures endangered the right to acceptable health care. The social service cutbacks adopted by the government in education will deepen poverty. After independence, the Zimbabwean education system had a free tuition policy at primary school levels. Now that the government reintroduced school fees, a generation of illiterate and semi-illiterate school dropouts will grow up. The social implications of this include increases in crime, prostitution, the number of street kids, the spread of diseases, and social discontent, which are the symptoms of a shrinking economy. As a result of the cost recovery measures, school enrollment in rural areas has gone up. Some urban parents have been forced to transfer their children to rural schools. Higher education also suffers, as government subsidies to colleges and universities have been drastically curtailed. The budgetary cuts have grave repercussions for teaching and research, as poor working conditions and low morals of lecturers and students become prevalent. Most wage-earning Zimbabweans' living standards have deteriorated as the cost of living continues to escalate, coupled with the cost recovery measures in the name of ESAP.

  10. Milk: An Effective Recovery Drink for Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rankin


    Full Text Available Milk has become a popular post-exercise recovery drink. Yet the evidence for its use in this regard comes from a limited number of investigations utilising very specific exercise protocols, and mostly with male participants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of post-exercise milk consumption on recovery from a sprinting and jumping protocol in female team-sport athletes. Eighteen females participated in an independent-groups design. Upon completion of the protocol participants consumed 500 mL of milk (MILK or 500 mL of an energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO drink. Muscle function (peak torque, rate of force development (RFD, countermovement jump (CMJ, reactive strength index (RSI, sprint performance, muscle soreness and tiredness, symptoms of stress, serum creatine kinase (CK and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP were determined pre- and 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post-exercise. MILK had a very likely beneficial effect in attenuating losses in peak torque (180○/s from baseline to 72 h (0.0 ± 10.0% vs. −8.7 ± 3.7%, MILK v CHO, and countermovement jump (−1.1 ± 5.2% vs. −10.4 ± 6.7% and symptoms of stress (−13.5 ± 7.4% vs. −18.7 ± 11.0% from baseline to 24 h. MILK had a likely beneficial effect and a possibly beneficial effect on other peak torque measures and 5 m sprint performance at other timepoints but had an unclear effect on 10 and 20 m sprint performance, RSI, muscle soreness and tiredness, CK and hsCRP. In conclusion, consumption of 500 mL milk attenuated losses in muscle function following repeated sprinting and jumping and thus may be a valuable recovery intervention for female team-sport athletes following this type of exercise.

  11. Adaptation to and Recovery from Global Catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth D. Baum


    Full Text Available Global catastrophes, such as nuclear war, pandemics and ecological collapse threaten the sustainability of human civilization. To date, most work on global catastrophes has focused on preventing the catastrophes, neglecting what happens to any catastrophe survivors. To address this gap in the literature, this paper discusses adaptation to and recovery from global catastrophe. The paper begins by discussing the importance of global catastrophe adaptation and recovery, noting that successful adaptation/recovery could have value on even astronomical scales. The paper then discusses how the adaptation/recovery could proceed and makes connections to several lines of research. Research on resilience theory is considered in detail and used to develop a new method for analyzing the environmental and social stressors that global catastrophe survivors would face. This method can help identify options for increasing survivor resilience and promoting successful adaptation and recovery. A key point is that survivors may exist in small isolated communities disconnected from global trade and, thus, must be able to survive and rebuild on their own. Understanding the conditions facing isolated survivors can help promote successful adaptation and recovery. That said, the processes of global catastrophe adaptation and recovery are highly complex and uncertain; further research would be of great value.

  12. Fatigue and Recovery in Rugby: A Review. (United States)

    Tavares, Francisco; Smith, Tiaki Brett; Driller, Matthew


    The physical demands and combative nature of rugby lead to notable levels of muscle damage. In professional rugby, athletes only have a limited timeframe to recover following training sessions and competition. Through the implementation of recovery strategies, sport scientists, practitioners and coaches have sought to reduce the effect of fatigue and allow athletes to recover faster. Although some studies demonstrate that recovery strategies are extensively used by rugby athletes, the research remains equivocal concerning the efficacy of recovery strategies in rugby. Moreover, given the role of inflammation arising from muscle damage in the mediation of protein synthesis mechanisms, some considerations have been raised on the long-term effect of using certain recovery modalities that diminish inflammation. While some studies aimed to understand the effects of recovery modalities during the acute recovery phase (benefit to recovery from rugby training or competition. Given that cold modalities may potentially affect muscle size adaptations from training, their inclusion should be treated with caution and perhaps restricted to certain periods where athlete readiness is more important than increases in muscle size.

  13. Measuring the Recovery Orientation of ACT (United States)

    Salyers, Michelle P.; Stull, Laura G.; Rollins, Angela L.; McGrew, John H.; Hicks, Lia J.; Thomas, Dave; Strieter, Doug


    Background Approaches to measuring recovery orientation are needed, particularly for programs that may struggle with implementing recovery-oriented treatment. Objective A mixed methods comparative study was conducted to explore effective approaches to measuring recovery orientation of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams. Design Two ACT teams exhibiting high and low recovery orientation were compared using surveys, treatment plan ratings, diaries of treatment visits, and team-leader-reported treatment control mechanisms. Results The recovery-oriented team differed on one survey measure (higher expectations for consumer recovery), treatment planning (greater consumer involvement and goal-directed content), and use of control mechanisms (less use of representative payee, agency-held lease, daily medication delivery, and family involvement). Staff and consumer diaries showed the most consistent differences (e.g., conveying hope and choice) and were the least susceptible to observer bias, but had the lowest response rates. Conclusions Several practices differentiate recovery orientation on ACT teams, and a mixed-methods assessment approach is feasible. PMID:23690285

  14. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Mavros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. CONCLUSION: Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  15. Prevalence and causes of abnormal PSA recovery. (United States)

    Lautenbach, Noémie; Müntener, Michael; Zanoni, Paolo; Saleh, Lanja; Saba, Karim; Umbehr, Martin; Velagapudi, Srividya; Hof, Danielle; Sulser, Tullio; Wild, Peter J; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Poyet, Cédric


    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is of paramount importance as a diagnostic tool for the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. In the presence of interfering factors such as heterophilic antibodies or anti-PSA antibodies the PSA test can yield significantly falsified results. The prevalence of these factors is unknown. We determined the recovery of PSA concentrations diluting patient samples with a standard serum of known PSA concentration. Based on the frequency distribution of recoveries in a pre-study on 268 samples, samples with recoveries 120% were defined as suspect, re-tested and further characterized to identify the cause of interference. A total of 1158 consecutive serum samples were analyzed. Four samples (0.3%) showed reproducibly disturbed recoveries of 10%, 68%, 166% and 4441%. In three samples heterophilic antibodies were identified as the probable cause, in the fourth anti-PSA-autoantibodies. The very low recovery caused by the latter interference was confirmed in serum, as well as heparin- and EDTA plasma of blood samples obtained 6 months later. Analysis by eight different immunoassays showed recoveries ranging between PSA which however did not show any disturbed PSA recovery. About 0.3% of PSA determinations by the electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) of Roche diagnostics are disturbed by heterophilic or anti-PSA autoantibodies. Although they are rare, these interferences can cause relevant misinterpretations of a PSA test result.

  16. Music and psychophysiological recovery from stress. (United States)

    Radstaak, Mirjam; Geurts, Sabine A E; Brosschot, Jos F; Kompier, Michiel A J


    This experimental study examined whether listening to self-chosen music after stress exposure improves mood, decreases subjective arousal and rumination, and facilitates cardiovascular recovery. Participants (N = 123) were exposed to a mental arithmetic task with harassment to induce stress. Afterward, participants were randomly assigned to one of four "recovery" conditions where they (1) listened to self-chosen relaxing music, (2) listened to self-chosen happy music, (3) listened to an audio book, or (4) sat in silence. After this 5-minute "recovery manipulation period," participants sat in silence for another 5 minutes. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were continuously measured. The recovery conditions caused differences in positive affect (F(3,119) = 13.13, p music or happy music. The conditions showed no differences in subjective arousal (F(3,117) = 2.03, p = .11) and rumination (F(3,119) = 1.10, p = .35). Systolic blood pressure recovery, however, differed between the conditions (linear time trend: F(3,116) = 4.50, p = .005; quadratic time trend: F(3,115) = 5.24, p = .002). Listening to both relaxing and happy music delayed systolic blood pressure recovery when compared with both control conditions. Listening to self-selected music is an effective mood enhancer, but it delays blood pressure recovery.

  17. Differential force balances during levitation (United States)

    Todd, Paul

    The simplest arithmetic of inertial, buoyant, magnetic and electrokinetic levitation is explored in the context of a model living system with “acceleration-sensitive structures” in which motion, if allowed, produces a biological effect. The simple model is a finite-sized object enclosed within another finite-sized object suspended in an outer fluid (liquid or vapor) medium. The inner object has density and electrical and magnetic properties quantitatively different from those of the outer object and the medium. In inertial levitation (“weightlessness”) inertial accelerations are balanced, and the forces due to them are canceled in accordance with Newton’s third law. In the presence of inertial acceleration (gravity, centrifugal) motionlessness depends on a balance between the levitating force and the inertial force. If the inner and outer objects differ in density one or the other will be subjected to an unbalanced force when one object is levitated by any other force (buoyant, magnetic, electrokinetic). The requirements for motionlessness of the internal object in the presence of a levitating force are equality of density in the case of buoyant levitation, equality of magnetic susceptibility in the case of magnetic levitation, and equality of zeta potential and dielectric constant in the case of electrokinetic levitation. Examples of internal “acceleration-sensitive structures” are cellular organelles and the organs of advanced plants and animals. For these structures fundamental physical data are important in the interpretation of the effects of forces used for levitation.

  18. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols (United States)

    Charlson, R. J.; Schwartz, S. E.; Hales, J. M.; Cess, R. D.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Hansen, J. E.; Hofmann, D. J.


    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, in particular, has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short-wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square meter, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes.

  19. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlson, R.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Hales, J.M.; Cess, R.D.; Coakley, J.A. Jr.; Hansen, J.E.; Hofmann, D.J. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA (USA). Inst. for Environmental Studies, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences)


    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square metre, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes. 73 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Embedded Media - A Force Multiplier or Force Divider

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sipes, John A


    .... forces operating in Iraq. Some had preconceived agendas about how they were going to exploit the terrible horrors they were about to encounter in an effort to degrade the military leadership, dissuade the civilian leadership...

  1. Contractors on the Battlefield Force Multipliers or Force Dividers?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Kim


    .... An increased reliance on contractor support has helped ease the burden on a heavily reduced force structure, but has left military commanders vulnerable to declaring a non-mission capable status during times of crisis...

  2. Stress and Recovery during Simulated Microgravity (United States)

    Nicolas, Michel

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 60-day head-down tilt long-term bed rest (HDT) on stress and recovery in sixteen healthy female volunteers during the WISE-2005 study (Women International Space Simulation for Exploration). Participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise group (Exe) that followed a training program combining resistive and aerobic exercises, or to a no-exercise control group (Ctl). Psychological states were assessed using the Rest-Q, a validated questionnaire based on stress-recovery responses. A longitudinal analysis revealed significant changes in the general and specific stress scales for all participants throughout the experiment with a critical stage from supine to standing posture leading to a significant decrease in physical recovery. During HDT, Exe reported higher scores in stress subscales, as well as lower recovery scores compared to the Ctl. During the post HDT ambulatory recovery period, the exercisers still reported higher scores than the non-exercisers on the Lack of energy stress related scale, along with lower scores in general well-being and personal accomplishment. The present findings show that simulated weightlessness such as HDT may induce psychological stress and lead to subsequent alterations in perceived recovery. Exercise did not reduce HDT impaired effects on stress and recovery states. In the perspective of spaceflights of long-duration such as the future missions to Mars, there is a need for additional experiments to further investigate spaceflight-induced changes of stress and recovery parameters and the effects of exercise on these parameters. Further studies might determine and analyze the psychological factors involved, but also how to intervene concerning these factors with efficient psychological preparation which, although not yet fully investigated, may reduce stress, promote recovery and support adaptive responses to such extreme environments.

  3. Radiohumeral stability to forced translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Lund; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Seki, Atsuhito


    Radiohumeral stability to forced translation was experimentally analyzed in 8 osteocartilaginous joint preparations. The joints were dislocated in 8 centrifugal directions at 12 different combinations of joint flexion and rotation while a constant joint compression force of 23 N was applied....... Stability was measured as the maximum resistance to translation. On average, the specimens could resist a transverse force of 16.4 N (range, 13.0-19.1 N). Stability was greater in some directions than in others. Rotating the joint changed the direction at which stability was greatest, whereas joint flexion...

  4. Optimization of Force Balancing Mechanisms (United States)


    2) The derivation of generalized force starts from the principle of virtual work (see Ref. 4); i.e., 6W = 0 (3-3) 15 y q th SoRs io L 0 3PRIN I J Y Q...I I OYT Figure 3- ierFoc-aacigSse 16 The virtual work due to the applied force during the virtual displacement is 6W = FT 6r (3-4) where F = applied...the virtual work done by equilibrators and by external forces be 6Weq and 6W ex, respectively. Then the virtual work done by r linear spring

  5. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld


    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  6. Phenol recovery with liquid ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report covers the results of a phenol recovery plant at Ludwigshafen which had recently suffered a severe explosion. From a Gelsenberg hydrogenation middle oil with 18 percent phenol, an 86 to 96 percent phenol fraction was recovered. Because the occurring neutral oil was phenol-free and because with the process a phenol loss was impossible, it was assumed that the yield was quantitative. With regard to the working process, the middle oil was fed into the upper section of a column four feet high, in which liquid ammonia from below climbed upward. The ammonia thereby absorbed the phenol quantitatively, and the ammonium phenolate solution absorbed a certain amount of neutral oil. The loaded ammonia went over the top of the column while at the foot of the column the phenol-free neutral oil collected and was drawn off. The ammonium phenolate solution was then washed with light gasoline in a second column. For this, the ammonia was fed into the upper, the light gasoline into the lower part of the column. The light gasoline absorbed almost quantitatively the neutral oil which was molecularly or actually colloidally dissolved in the ammonium phenolate solution, and even a small amount of the phenol and ammonia. Thickening in concentration, the light gasoline was fed into a storage tank where it was freed of its dissolved components by atmospheric distillation and recycled into the process. The ammonium phenolate solution which before the gasoline wash left behind a vaporization residue with about 40 percent phenol afterwards produced a raw phenol of 86 to 96 percent pure phenol. Because of technical difficulties, the concentration of the washed ammonium phenolate solution could not be determined. It was gathered at the bottom of the second column and fed into a storage tank where the phenol was freed by pressure distillation. The ammonia was then recycled into the process.

  7. Mesothelioma Treatment: Recovery, Side Effects, What to Expect (United States)

    ... Treatment > Mesothelioma Treatment > Mesothelioma Treatment Recovery Side Effects Mesothelioma Treatment and Recovery Scenarios: e-News Signup Click ... questions. (877) END-MESO (877) 363-6376 Testimonials Mesothelioma Treatment: Recovery, Side Effects, What to Expect Mesothelioma ...

  8. Compression and information recovery in ptychography (United States)

    Loetgering, L.; Treffer, D.; Wilhein, T.


    Ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging (PCDI) is a scanning microscopy modality that allows for simultaneous recovery of object and illumination information. This ability renders PCDI a suitable technique for x-ray lensless imaging and optics characterization. Its potential for information recovery typically relies on large amounts of data redundancy. However, the field of view in ptychography is practically limited by the memory and the computational facilities available. We describe techniques that achieve robust ptychographic information recovery at high compression rates. The techniques are compared and tested with experimental data.

  9. Plasma glucagon and glucose recovery after hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Holst, Janett


    ) and of isolated alpha-adrenergic blockade on hormonal responses to hypoglycemia and on blood glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy subjects. Neither of the pharmacological blockades had any significant effects on plasma glucagon responses to hypoglycemia nor had they any effect on the rate of blood...... glucose recovery after hypoglycemia. We conclude that the autonomic nervous system has no major influence on the glucagon response to hypoglycemia in healthy man. Changes in autonomic nervous activity are not essential for blood glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy man....

  10. Precipitating factors of somnambulism: impact of sleep deprivation and forced arousals. (United States)

    Pilon, Mathieu; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio


    Experimental attempts to induce sleepwalking with forced arousals during slow-wave sleep (SWS) have yielded mixed results in children and have not been investigated in adult patients. We hypothesized that the combination of sleep deprivation and external stimulation would increase the probability of inducing somnambulistic episodes in sleepwalkers recorded in the sleep laboratory. The main goal of this study was to assess the effects of forced arousals from auditory stimuli (AS) in adult sleepwalkers and control subjects during normal sleep and following post-sleep deprivation recovery sleep. Ten sleepwalkers and 10 controls were investigated. After a baseline night, participants were presented with AS at predetermined sleep stages either during normal sleep or recovery sleep following 25 hours of sleep deprivation. One week later, the conditions with AS were reversed. No somnambulistic episodes were induced in controls. When compared to the effects of AS during sleepwalkers' normal sleep, the presentation of AS during sleepwalkers' recovery sleep significantly increased their efficacy in experimentally inducing somnambulistic events and a significantly greater proportion of sleepwalkers (100%) experienced at least one induced episode during recovery SWS as compared to normal SWS (30%). There was no significant difference between the mean intensity of AS that induced episodes during sleepwalkers' SWS and the mean intensity of AS that awakened sleepwalkers and controls from SWS. Sleep deprivation and forced arousals during slow-wave sleep can induce somnambulistic episodes in predisposed adults. The results highlight the potential value of this protocol in establishing a video-polysomnographically based diagnosis for sleepwalking.

  11. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves plantaris muscle recovery after disuse in aged rats (United States)

    Alway, Stephen E.; Bennett, Brian T.; Wilson, Joseph C.; Edens, Neile K.; Pereira, Suzette L.


    Aging exacerbates muscle loss and slows the recovery of muscle mass and function after disuse. In this study we investigated the potential that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), an abundant catechin in green tea, would reduce signaling for apoptosis and promote skeletal muscle recovery in the fast plantaris muscle and the slow soleus muscle after hindlimb unloading (HLS) in senescent animals. Fischer 344 × Brown Norway inbred rats (age 34 mo.) received either EGCg (50 mg/kg body weight), or water daily by gavage. One group of animals received HLS for 14 days and a second group of rats received 14 days of HLS, then the HLS was removed and they recovered from this forced disuse for 2 weeks. Animals that received EGCg over the HLS followed by 14 days of recovery, had a 14% greater plantaris muscle weight (p proteins Bax (−22%), and FADD (−77%) were lower in EGCg treated plantaris muscles after recovery. While EGCg did not prevent unloading-induced atrophy, it improved muscle recovery after the atrophic stimulus in fast plantaris muscles. However, this effect was muscle specific because EGCg had no major impact in reversing HLS-induced atrophy in the slow soleus muscle of old rats. PMID:24316035

  12. Houston Recovery Initiative: A Rich Case Study of Building Recovery Communities One Voice at a Time. (United States)

    Bitting, Sara; Nash, Angela; Ochoa, Ashley


    Recovery from alcohol and drug problems is a process of change through which an individual achieves control and improved quality of life. Recovery is a primary goal for individuals with substance use disorder as it provides hope that treatment and overall health are possible for every individual. More than 23 million Americans are in recovery from addiction to alcohol and other drugs.Recovery-oriented systems of care (ROSC) are networks of community services and peer support that help individuals and families achieve recovery from substances and improve overall health. ROSC is a strengths-based and person-centered model that leverages existing community resources to address the needs of individuals and families as they progress through the journey of recovery. The ROSC model serves as the foundation of the Houston Recovery Initiative (HRI).The purpose of this article is to describe the history, development, and infrastructure of the HRI, which is a volunteer collaboration whose main goal is to educate the community on recovery and broaden the recovery safety net for people with substance use disorder in Houston, Texas. Since 2010, the HRI has grown to include more than 200 agencies across the spectrum of treatment and recovery support services in Houston so as to provide a resource for the community. Herein, we detail efforts to grow the HRI, lessons learned, future plans, and resources needed to move the HRI forward.

  13. Spousal recovery support, recovery experiences, and life satisfaction crossover among dual-earner couples. (United States)

    Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte


    Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Command in the Objective Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbeck, Christopher


    This paper seeks to answer what type of command will best serve the Army's Objective Force in gaining the initiative, building momentum, and exploiting success to achieve land dominance in the future...

  15. US Air Force Balloon Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  16. Centrifugal force: a few surprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching


    The need for a rather fundamental revision in understanding of the nature of the centrifugal force is discussed. It is shown that in general relativity (and contrary to the situation in Newtonian theory) rotation of a reference frame is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the centrifugal force to appear. A sufficient condition for its appearance, in the instantaneously corotating reference frame of a particle, is that the particle motion in space (observed in the global rest frame) differs from a photon trajectory. The direction of the force is the same as that of the gradient of the effective potential for photon motion. In some cases, the centrifugal force will attract towards the axis of rotation. (author)

  17. Voice Force tulekul / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-


    60. sünnipäeva tähistava Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Akadeemilise Meeskoori juubelihooaja üritusest - a capella pop-gruppide festivalist Voice Force (kontserdid 12. nov. klubis Parlament ja 3. dets. Vene Kultuurikeskuses)

  18. Teleoperation with virtual force feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.J.


    In this paper we describe an algorithm for generating virtual forces in a bilateral teleoperator system. The virtual forces are generated from a world model and are used to provide real-time obstacle avoidance and guidance capabilities. The algorithm requires that the slaves tool and every object in the environment be decomposed into convex polyhedral Primitives. Intrusion distance and extraction vectors are then derived at every time step by applying Gilbert`s polyhedra distance algorithm, which has been adapted for the task. This information is then used to determine the compression and location of nonlinear virtual spring-dampers whose total force is summed and applied to the manipulator/teleoperator system. Experimental results validate the whole approach, showing that it is possible to compute the algorithm and generate realistic, useful psuedo forces for a bilateral teleoperator system using standard VME bus hardware.

  19. Active media under rotational forcing (United States)

    Pérez-Villar, Vicente; Porteiro, Jose L. F.; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.


    The bubble-free Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction has been used to study the effects of centrifugal forces on autowave propagation. The reaction parameters were chosen such that the system oscillates naturally creating target waves. In the present study, the system was forced to rotate with a constant velocity around a central axis. In studying the effects of such a forcing on the system, we focused on target dynamics. The system reacts to this forcing in different ways, the most spectacular being a dramatic increase in the period of the target, the effect growing stronger as we move away from the center of rotation. A numerical study was carried out using the two-variable Oregonator model, modified to include convective effects through the diffusion coefficient. The numerical results showed a good qualitative agreement with those of the experiments.

  20. US Air Force Base Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations taken by U.S. Air Force personnel at bases in the United States and around the world. Foreign observations concentrated in the Middle East and...

  1. Forces in Liquid Metal Contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan


    Using rather well known theory about capillary bridges between two electrodes we calculate the tensile force that can be applied to liquid metal contacts in the micrometer regime. Assuming circular symmetry, full wetting of the electrodes, and neglecting gravity, we present a brief review of the ...... of the necessary theory and find numerically the forces to be in the 100μN range for liquid metals as mercury and liquid Gallium suspended between electrodes of 20μm radius....

  2. Productive force and labour productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulik V.I.


    Full Text Available the authors discuss productive forces of a society – work and capital, as well as two intermediaries: the intermediary between the world of the nature and the person – means of work or “fixed capital” of a society, as productive force of social activities, and the intermediary inside a society – cost in the form of money that allows to define labour productivity and structural transformations in a society.

  3. Feedback trap using optical force (United States)

    Jun, Yonggun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    Recently, the feedback trap using electrophoretic force (ABEL trap) has been used in the experimental study of non-equilibrium thermodynamics such as Landauer's erasure principle. This trap can trap and manipulate a small particle in solution by canceling the Brownian fluctuations. Here, we propose a simple way to control a bead using optical force with feedback and show the dynamics of a single particle in the virtual potential.

  4. A New Set of Forces (United States)


    correcting forces is the free market itself. Unfortunately, macroeconomic principles do not always prove useful at the microeconomic level...model for this discussion are not relevant, but the underlying principle of the model is—forces can be self-correcting. Any im- balance in one...Performance-based acqui- sition appears to be one of those principles that looks good on paper and has proved quite successful in private industry but has had

  5. Wave Forces on Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    A testprogramme has been performed to determine the wave forces on two types of foundations for an offshore windturbine. the tested foundation types are a monopile and cone. Furthermore the shaft of the cone has been tested.......A testprogramme has been performed to determine the wave forces on two types of foundations for an offshore windturbine. the tested foundation types are a monopile and cone. Furthermore the shaft of the cone has been tested....

  6. A new force in nature?

    CERN Document Server

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Szafer, A; Talmadge, C; Aronson, S H


    We review recent experimental and theoretical work dealing with the proposed fifth force. Further analysis of the original Eötvös experiments has uncovered no challenges to our original assertion that these data evidence a correlation characteristic of the presence of a new coupling to baryon number or hypercharge. Various models suggest that the proposed fifth force could be accomodated naturally into the existing theoretical framework.

  7. The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running


    Katelyn Peschek; Robert Pritchett; Ethan Bergman; Kelly Pritchett


    Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min) completed a downhill running protocol t...

  8. Active Magnetic Bearing Online Levitation Recovery through μ-Synthesis Robust Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander H. Pesch


    Full Text Available A rotor supported on active magnetic bearings (AMBs is levitated inside an air gap by electromagnets controlled in feedback. In the event of momentary loss of levitation due to an acute exogenous disturbance or external fault, reestablishing levitation may be prevented by unbalanced forces, contact forces, and the rotor’s dynamics. A novel robust control strategy is proposed for ensuring levitation recovery. The proposed strategy utilizes model-based μ-synthesis to find the requisite AMB control law with unique provisions to account for the contact forces and to prevent control effort saturation at the large deflections that occur during levitation failure. The proposed strategy is demonstrated experimentally with an AMB test rig. First, rotor drop tests are performed to tune a simple touchdown-bearing model. That model is then used to identify a performance weight, which bounds the contact forces during controller synthesis. Then, levitation recovery trials are conducted at 1000 and 2000 RPM, in which current to the AMB coils is momentarily stopped, representing an external fault. The motor is allowed to drive the rotor on the touchdown bearings until coil current is restored. For both cases, the proposed control strategy shows a marked improvement in relevitation transients.

  9. Nutritional Recovery Outcome among Moderately Malnourished ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional Recovery Outcome among Moderately Malnourished Under-five Children in Communities Implementing Positive Deviance - Hearth or Community Health Workers' Nutrition Promotion Approaches in Karusi and Kirundo Provinces, Burundi.

  10. Life Support Systems: Oxygen Generation and Recovery (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Oxygen Generation and Recovery technology development area encompasses several sub-tasks in an...

  11. Recovery Act. Tapoco project. Cheoah upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Paul [Alcoa Inc., Alcoa Center, PA (United States)


    Under Funding Opportunity Announcement Number: DE-FOA-0000120, Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Modernization, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (APGI), a fully owned subsidiary of Alcoa Inc., implemented major upgrades at its Cheoah hydroelectric facility near Robbinsville, North Carolina.

  12. Further development of recovery boiler; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Siiskonen, P.; Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)] [and others


    The global model of a recovery boiler was further developed. The aim is to be able to model the velocity, temperature and concentration fields in a boiler. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. The preliminary study of NO{sub x} and fly ash behaviour in a boiler was carried out. The study concerning flow field in the superheater area was carried out a 2-dimensional case in which the inflow parameters were taken from global model of a recovery boiler. Further the prediction methods of fouling in a recovery boiler were developed based on theoretical calculations of smelting behaviour of multicomponent mixtures and measurements at operating recovery boilers. (author)

  13. Factors affecting biological recovery of wetland restorations (United States)


    This report describes a long-term study to monitor and evaluate the ecosystem recovery of seven wetland restorations in south central Minnesota. The study looks at the impact of planting on wetland restoration success in inland wetlands and develops ...

  14. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  15. Metal recovery from high-grade WEEE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    Based on available data in the literature the recovery of aluminium, copper, gold, iron, nickel, palladium and silver from high-grade WEEE was modeled by LCA. The pre-treatment of WEEE included manual sorting, shredding, magnetic sorting, Eddy-current sorting, air classification and optical sorting...... and refining of ore. The resource recovery per tonne of high-grade WEEE ranged from 2 g of palladium to 386 kg of iron. Quantified in terms of person-equivalents the recovery of palladium, gold, silver, nickel and copper constituted the major environmental benefit of the recovery of metals from WEEE...... effect compared to the metallurgical treatment. However only 12-26% of silver, gold and palladium are recovered during pre-treatment, which suggest that the reduction of the apparent losses of precious metals as palladium, gold and silver during pre-treatment of WEEE is of environmental importance. Our...

  16. Recovery and recrystallisation of zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derep, J.L.; Rouby, D.; Fantozzi, G.


    Examination of the three mechanisms that control the recovery of zircaloy-4 workhardened by rolling: polygonisation leading to a cellular structure, annihilation of dislocations of opposite sign producing thinning of the cell walls, and growth of subgrains by coalescence [fr

  17. Viability of Biopolymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveistrup, Marte; van Mastrigt, Frank; Norrman, Jens; Picchioni, Francesco; Paso, Kristofer


    Xanthan gum and scleroglucan are assessed as environmentally friendly enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Viscometric and interfacial tension measurements show that the polysaccharides exhibit favorable viscosifying performance, robust shear tolerance, electrolyte tolerance, and moderate

  18. The Implementation of E1 Clock Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ziyu


    Full Text Available Clock transform and recovery is of significant importance in microwave TDM service, and it is always extracted from the E1 line data stream in most cases. However, intrinsically uncertain delay and jitter caused by packet transmission of E1 data information, may lead to the indexes of the data recovery clock exceed the clock performance template. Through analysis of the E1 clock indexes and measuring methods, this paper proposes a new clock recovery method. The method employs two buffers, the first RAM is used as a buffer to deduct excess information, and the second FIFO is used as a buffer to recovery the clock and data. The first buffer has a feedback from the second one, and is able to actively respond to changes in the data link and requests from the second one. The test results validate the effectiveness of the method, and the corresponding scheme is also valuable for the other communication systems.

  19. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Surfactant Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandersen, Sara Bülow

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being increasingly applied in the oil industry and several different technologies have emerged during, the last decades in order to optimize oil recovery after conventional recovery methods have been applied. Surfactant flooding is an EOR technique in which the phase...... behavior inside the reservoir can be manipulated by the injection of surfactants and co-surfactants, creating advantageous conditions in order to mobilize trapped oil. Correctly designed surfactant systems together with the crude oil can create microemulsions at the interface between crude oil and water......, thus reducing the interfacial tension (IFT) to ultra low (0.001 mN/m), which consequently will mobilize the residual oil and result in improved oil recovery. This EOR technology is, however, made challenging by a number of factors, such as the adsorption of surfactant and co-surfactant to the rock...

  20. Recovery of Gait After Stroke: What Changes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurke, Jaap; Nene, A.V.; Kwakkel, Gert; Erren-Wolters, Victorien; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Hermens, Hermanus J.


    Background. Little is known about whether changes in coordination patterns of muscle activation after stroke are related to functional recovery of walking. Objective . The present study investigated the longitudinal relationship between changes in neuromuscular activation patterns of paretic muscles

  1. Recovery of gait after stroke: what changes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurke, J.H.; Nene, A.V.; Kwakkel, G.; Erren-Wolters, V.; IJzerman, M.J.; Hermens, H.J.


    Background. Little is known about whether changes in coordination patterns of muscle activation after stroke are related to functional recovery of walking. Objective. The present study investigated the longitudinal relationship between changes in neuromuscular activation patterns of paretic muscles

  2. Recovery of gait after stroke: what changes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurke, Jaap; Nene, A.V.; Kwakkel, G.; Erren-Wolters, V.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Hermens, Hermanus J.


    Background. Little is known about whether changes in coordination patterns of muscle activation after stroke are related to functional recovery of walking. Objective . The present study investigated the longitudinal relationship between changes in neuromuscular activation patterns of paretic muscles

  3. Music and Psychophysiological Recovery from Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radstaak, M.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Brosschot, J.F.; Kompier, M.A.J.


    Objective: This experimental study examined whether listening to self-chosen music after stress exposure improves mood, decreases subjective arousal and rumination, and facilitates cardiovascular recovery. Method: Participants (N = 123) were exposed to a mental arithmetic task with harassment to

  4. How can we begin to measure recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Paul J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of consensus in the addiction treatment literature regarding the definition of substance abuse "recovery". Methods This study utilized a review of the literature together with a participatory research design to construct a conceptual model of recovery from the perspectives of addiction treatment professionals, those recovering from addictions, and researchers. Results A multidimensional, comprehensive hypothetical model consisting of seven conceptual domains (physical, biomarker, psychological, psychiatric, chemical dependency, family/social, and spiritual is presented. Each domain is operationally defined by identifying reliable and valid instruments that may be used to measure the domain. It is proposed that the conceptual model be tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusions If empirically supported, this conceptual model would validate the hypothesized multidimensional nature of recovery and provide a potential means for assessing recovery in future treatment outcome studies.

  5. Forensic recovery within contaminated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.


    the past been a major issue in terrorist trials. Every effort should be made to avoid this occurrence at all stages of a forensic investigation. This requires adherence to strict protocols at both recovery and at subsequent examination. (author)

  6. H-Canyon Recovery Crawler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hera, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marzolf, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Phillips, M. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The Nuclear Material Disposition Project group asked the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) Research and Development Engineering (R&DE) department to help procure, test, and deploy a remote crawler to recover the 2014 Inspection Crawler (IC) that tipped over in the H-Canyon Air Exhaust Tunnel. R&DE wrote a Procurement Specification for a Recovery Crawler (RC) and SRNS Procurement Department awarded the contract to Power Equipment Manufacturing Inc. (PEM). The PEM RC was based on their standard sewer inspection crawler with custom arms and forks added to the front. The arms and forks would be used to upright the 2014 Inspection Crawler. PEM delivered the RC and associated cable reel, 2014 Inspection Crawler mockup, and manuals in late April 2015. R&DE and the team tested the crawler in May of 2015 and made modifications based on test results and Savannah River Site (SRS) requirements. R&DE delivered the RC to H-Area at the end of May. The team deployed the RC on June 9, 10, and 11, 2015 in the H-Canyon Air Exhaust Tunnel. The RC struggled with some obstacles in the tunnel, but eventually made it to the IC. The team spent approximately five hours working to upright the IC and eventually got it on its wheels. The IC travelled approximately 20 feet and struggled to drive over debris on the air tunnel floor. Unfortunately the IC tripped over trying to pass this obstacle. The team decided to leave the IC in this location and inspect the tunnel with the RC. The RC passed the IC and inspected the tunnel as it travelled toward H-Canyon. The team turned the RC around when it was about 20 feet from the H-Canyon crossover tunnel. From that point, the team drove the RC past the manway towards the new sand filter and stopped approximately 20 feet from the new sand filter. The team removed the RC from the tunnel, decontaminated the RC, and stored it the manway building, 294-2H. The RC deployment confirmed the IC was not in a condition to perform useful tunnel inspections and

  7. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.


    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  8. An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment


    Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping


    A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this article will enable instructors to use inversion recovery as a laboratory activity in applied NMR classes and provide research students with a conveni...

  9. DNA damage checkpoint recovery and cancer development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiyong [First affiliated hospital, Zhejiang University, School of medicine, Cancer Center, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zhang, Xiaoshan [Department of Genetics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Genetics Unit 1010, 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Teng, Lisong, E-mail: [First affiliated hospital, Zhejiang University, School of medicine, Cancer Center, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Legerski, Randy J., E-mail: [Department of Genetics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Genetics Unit 1010, 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030 (United States)


    Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observed to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins. These findings suggest that when progressing from pre-neoplastic lesions to cancer, DNA damage checkpoint barriers are overridden. How the DDR checkpoint is bypassed in this process remains largely unknown. Activated cytokine and growth factor-signaling pathways were very recently shown to suppress the DDR and to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in the context of oncovirus infection. In recent decades, data from cell line and tumor models showed that a group of checkpoint recovery proteins function in promoting tumor progression; data from patient samples also showed overexpression of checkpoint recovery proteins in human cancer tissues and a correlation with patients' poor prognosis. In this review, the known cell cycle checkpoint recovery proteins and their roles in DNA damage checkpoint recovery are reviewed, as well as their implications in cancer development. This review also provides insight into the mechanism by which the DDR suppresses oncogene-driven tumorigenesis and tumor progression. - Highlights: • DNA damage checkpoint works as a barrier to cancer initiation. • DDR machinary response to genotoxic and oncogenic stress in similar way. • Checkpoint recovery pathways provide active signaling in cell cycle control. • Checkpoint

  10. Lignin recovery. A resource to value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbardi, P.; Cardinale, G.; Demichele, M.; Nanna, F.; Viggiano, D.; Bonini, C.; D'Alessio, L.; D'Auria, M.; Teghil, R.; Tofani, D.


    In the present paper, the effects of the steam explosion (ES) pretreatment conditions on recovery and chemical structure of wheat straw lignin are reported. The experimental data of lignin recovery by caustic extraction, followed by acid precipitation, have been interpolated to obtain the dependence on the time and temperature of SE. The lignin has been characterised by using several methods. Preliminary results on the synthesis of copolymers lignin-styrene are also reported [it

  11. Service recovery following dysfunctional consumer participation


    Hibbert, SA; Piacentini, Maria; Hogg, Margaret


    This article introduces the notion of dysfunctional consumer participation. It advances a theoretical model of service recovery for contexts in which the smooth functioning of a service has been disrupted by consumers’ dysfunctional contributions, founded on justice theory and cognitive appraisal theory. The model presents perceived justice as the core element of the evaluation of service recovery encounters. Stressful appraisal evokes emotions in consumers and influences the cooperative or re...

  12. Heat Recovery Potential from Urban Underground Infrastructures


    Davies, G; Boot-Handford, N; Grice, J; Dennis, W; Ajileye, A; Revesz, A; Maidment, GG


    This paper describes the results from a collaborative research project in the UK, focussing on the recovery of waste heat from underground railway tunnels, using London as a case study. The aim of the project was to investigate the feasibility of combining cooling of London’s underground railway tunnels with a waste heat recovery system. The recovered heat will then be transferred to a heat pump to upgrade its temperature, before delivery to a district heating network for reuse. The paper des...

  13. Fast Electrocardiogram Amplifier Recovery after Defibrillation Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dotsinsky


    Full Text Available A procedure for fast ECG amplifier recovery after defibrillation shocks was developed and simulated in the MATLAB environment. Exponentially decaying post-shock voltages have been recorded. Signals from the AHA database are taken and mixed with the recorded exponential disturbances. The algorithm applies moving averaging (comb filter on the compound input signal, thereby obtaining the samples of the disturbance. They are currently subtracted from the input signal. The results obtained show that its recovery is practically instantaneous.

  14. Improved timing recovery in wireless mobile receivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO


    Full Text Available is critical. This is partly because timing recovery functions must follow rapid parameter changes inherent in mobile systems and partly because both bandwidth and power must be conserved in low signal to noise ratio communication channels. The ultimate goal... in low signal to noise ratios. In order to develop a bandwidth and power efficient timing recovery method for wireless mobile receivers, a raised cosine filter and a multilevel phase shift keying modulation scheme are implemented and no clock signals...

  15. Biotechnology in petroleum recovery. The microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)


    Biotechnology has played a significant role in enhancing crude oil recovery from the depleted oil reservoirs to solve stagnant petroleum production, after a three-stage recovery process employing mechanical, physical and chemical methods. Biotechnologically enhanced oil recovery processes, known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), involve stimulating indigenous reservoir microbes or injecting specially selected consortia of natural bacteria into the reservoir to produce specific metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. This also involves flooding with oil recovery agents produced ex situ by industrial or pilot scale fermentation. This paper essentially reviews the operating mechanisms and the progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products. Improvement in oil recovery by injecting solvents and gases or by energizing the reservoir microflora to produce them in situ for carbonate rock dissolution and reservoir re-pressurization has been enunciated. The role of biosurfactants in oil mobilization through emulsification and that of biopolymers for selective plugging of oil-depleted zones and for biofilm formation have been delineated. The spoil sport played by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in MEOR has also been briefly reviewed. The importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed. The results of some laboratory studies and worldwide field trials applying ex situ and in situ MEOR technologies were compiled and interpreted. However, the potential of the MEOR technologies has not been fully realized due to poor yield of the useful microbial metabolic products, growth inhibition by accumulated toxic metabolites and longer time of incubation. A complete evaluation and assessment of MEOR from an engineering standpoint based on economics, applicability and performance is required to further

  16. Recovery of neurofilament following early monocular deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P O'Leary


    Full Text Available A brief period of monocular deprivation in early postnatal life can alter the structure of neurons within deprived-eye-receiving layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The modification of structure is accompanied by a marked reduction in labeling for neurofilament, a protein that composes the stable cytoskeleton and that supports neuron structure. This study examined the extent of neurofilament recovery in monocularly deprived cats that either had their deprived eye opened (binocular recovery, or had the deprivation reversed to the fellow eye (reverse occlusion. The degree to which recovery was dependent on visually-driven activity was examined by placing monocularly deprived animals in complete darkness (dark rearing. The loss of neurofilament and the reduction of soma size caused by monocular deprivation were both ameliorated equally following either binocular recovery or reverse occlusion for 8 days. Though monocularly deprived animals placed in complete darkness showed recovery of soma size, there was a generalized loss of neurofilament labeling that extended to originally non-deprived layers. Overall, these results indicate that recovery of soma size is achieved by removal of the competitive disadvantage of the deprived eye, and occurred even in the absence of visually-driven activity. Recovery of neurofilament occurred when the competitive disadvantage of the deprived eye was removed, but unlike the recovery of soma size, was dependent upon visually-driven activity. The role of neurofilament in providing stable neural structure raises the intriguing possibility that dark rearing, which reduced overall neurofilament levels, could be used to reset the deprived visual system so as to make it more ameliorable with treatment by experiential manipulations.

  17. Veneer recovery from Douglas-fir logs. (United States)

    E.H. Clarke; A.C. Knauss


    During 1956, the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station made a series of six veneer-recovery studies in the Douglas-fir region of Oregon and Washington. The net volume of logs involved totaled approximately 777 M board-feet. Purpose of these studies was to determine volume recovery, by grade of veneer, from the four principal grades of Douglas-fir logs...

  18. Recovery of boric acid from ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, C.W.


    The recovery of boric acid from an anion exchange resin is improved by eluting the boric acid with an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The boric acid can be readily purified and concentrated by distilling off the water and ammonium bicarbonate. This process is especially useful for the recovery of boric acid containing a high percentage of 10 B which may be found in some nuclear reactor coolant solutions. 10 claims

  19. APD Properties and Recovery from Radiation Damage

    CERN Document Server

    Baccaro, Stefania; Caruso, S; Cavallari, Francesca; Dafinei, Ioan; Diemoz, Marcella; Emeliantchik, Igor; Festinesi, Armando; Longo, Egidio; Montecchi, Marco; Organtini, Giovanni; Rosi, G


    Avalanche photodiodes will be used to detect scintillation light from PWO crystals in the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. Properties of Hamamatsu APD are reported special attention has been devoted to the study of radiation hardness and room temperature annealing. We found a fast recovery with a time constant of 1.3 days a medium fast recovery with a lifetime of the order of 10 days and indication of a third component with very long time constant of the order of 300 days.

  20. Inverse regression for ridge recovery II: Numerics


    Glaws, Andrew; Constantine, Paul G.; Cook, R. Dennis


    We investigate the application of sufficient dimension reduction (SDR) to a noiseless data set derived from a deterministic function of several variables. In this context, SDR provides a framework for ridge recovery. In this second part, we explore the numerical subtleties associated with using two inverse regression methods---sliced inverse regression (SIR) and sliced average variance estimation (SAVE)---for ridge recovery. This includes a detailed numerical analysis of the eigenvalues of th...

  1. Safety aspects in rare earths recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.


    Recovery of rare earths involves mining of beach sands, mineral separation to obtain monazite and its chemical processing to obtain rare earth composites. The composites are then subjected to further chemical treatment to obtain individual rare earths. Although the separated out rare earths are not radioactive, the process for recovery of rare earths involve both radiological as well as conventional hazards. This paper highlights the safety aspects in the mining, mineral separation and chemical processing of monazite to obtain rare earths

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for the Okaloosa Regional Airport Expansion at Eglin Air Force Base, FL (United States)


    proposed to be a N/S Corporation 5- Brush system, would require a power usage between 0.5 and 3.4 amps maximum for the wash cycle, which is a minimal...a water recovery system. The water recovery system of the proposed car wash model (N/S Corporation 5- Brush System) is built to reclaim...Expansion at Eglin Air Force Base, FL Erica L. Teets , SAIC NEPA Specialist Planner/Author B.S. Biochemistry M.A. Biology M.S. Biological

  3. Cultural competency and recovery within diverse populations. (United States)

    Ida, D J


    Recovery for diverse populations with mental health problems includes communities of color, those with limited English proficiency and individuals who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT). The process of healing and recovery must take into consideration the critical role of culture and language and look at the individual within the context of an environment that is influenced by racism, sexism, colonization, homophobia, and poverty as well as the stigma and shame associated with having a mental illness. Recovery must assess the impact of isolation brought about by cultural and language barriers and work towards reducing the negative influence it has on the emotional and physical well-being of the person. It is imperative that recovery occur at multiple levels and involves the person in recovery, the service provider, the larger community and the system that establishes policies that often work against those who do not fit the mold of what mainstream society considers being "the norm." Recovery must respect the cultural and language backgrounds of the individual.

  4. Effect of hydrotherapy on recovery from fatigue. (United States)

    Vaile, J; Halson, S; Gill, N; Dawson, B


    The present study investigated the effects of three hydrotherapy interventions on next day performance recovery following strenuous training. Twelve cyclists completed four experimental trials differing only in 14-min recovery intervention: cold water immersion (CWI), hot water immersion (HWI), contrast water therapy (CWT), or passive recovery (PAS). Each trial comprised five consecutive exercise days of 105-min duration, including 66 maximal effort sprints. Additionally, subjects performed a total of 9-min sustained effort (time trial - TT). After completing each exercise session, athletes performed one of four recovery interventions (randomly assigned to each trial). Performance (average power), core temperature, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout each session. Sprint (0.1 - 2.2 %) and TT (0.0 - 1.7 %) performance were enhanced across the five-day trial following CWI and CWT, when compared to HWI and PAS. Additionally, differences in rectal temperature were observed between interventions immediately and 15-min post-recovery; however, no significant differences were observed in HR or RPE regardless of day of trial/intervention. Overall, CWI and CWT appear to improve recovery from high-intensity cycling when compared to HWI and PAS, with athletes better able to maintain performance across a five-day period.

  5. Ultrabilitation: beyond recovery-oriented rehabilitation. (United States)

    Buetow, Stephen A; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; McCormack, Brendan


    Current rehabilitation models emphasize therapy that attempts to return to "normal" the lives of persons who are disabled. An opportunity is available to scrutinize whether this recovery orientation of rehabilitation is necessarily optimal. This conceptual article uses reasoning, informed by experience and a nonsystematic review of literature across diverse disciplines. For some persons with disability, optimizing recovery might be unwanted or insufficient. To expand rehabilitation, we append the Latin "ultra", beyond, to "habilitare", make fit. The resulting term, "ultrabilitate", commits to human flourishing that moves persons toward, around or beyond recovery of particular functioning. By expanding the scope of disability management, ultrabilitation could inform therapy selection and facilitate human flourishing. Empirical research is needed to test our ideas. Implications for rehabilitation Despite significant progress, rehabilitation limits some people with disabilities. Modern health systems still benchmark therapy for rehabilitation against "normal" or species-typical standards to aid recovery. "Ultrabilitation", meaning "beyond fitness", promotes flourishing, either without an interest in recovery or in moving toward, beyond or around recovery. Biological, social and technological conditions are needed to support ultrabilitation. Ultrabilitation complements rehabilitation when rehabilitation is not sufficient to optimize functioning and personal growth.

  6. Resource recovery: research development and demonstration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaramelli, A B


    Implementation of resource recovery is being retarded by technological uncertainties and institutional impediments. Development and commercialization of new competitive technologies are not proceeding rapidly because a structured development program for the industry is lacking. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized these problems, and as part of its overall program in energy recovery from urban waste, it is developing a near- and longer-term research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program to accelerate commercialization of promising resource recovery technologies. The MITRE Corporation was contracted to develop a near-term RD and D Plan for resource recovery which identifies actions which should be taken over the next three years to accelerate commercialization of existing and developing technologies. The research needs presented in this Plan exist in the industry today. The resolution, however, is not necessarily the sole responsibility of DOE, but rather calls for a combination of public and private sector efforts. An individual research program is presented for each resource recovery technology. A program consists of a combination of bench-, pilot-, demonstration-, and full-scale process and equipment evaluations as well as qualitative and quantitative studies. Each research program is tailored to alleviate the problems of a technology such that their resolution will accelerate the rate at which the technology advances toward commercial readiness and realizes commercial implementation. All the research needs identified are actions which should be taken in the next three years to advance the field of resource recovery.

  7. Ecological Indicators of Ecosystem Recovery : Microbial Communities as Ecological Indicators of Ecosystem Recovery Following Chemical Pollution


    Pesce, Stéphane; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice


    ‘Ecosystem recovery’ is a concept that emerged from the need to preserve our environment against increasing contamination from human activity. However, ecological indicators of ecosystem recovery remain scarce, and it is still difficult to assess recovery of ecological processes at relevant spatial and temporal scales. Microbial communities hold key relevance as indicators of ecosystem recovery as they are ubiquitous among diverse ecosystems, respond rapidly to environmental changes, and supp...

  8. Picturing recovery: a photovoice exploration of recovery dimensions among people with serious mental illness. (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Nicasio, Andel; Whitley, Rob


    Recovery from mental disorders encompasses multiple interrelated dimensions. This study used photovoice to explore how individuals with serious mental illness and a history of substance abuse and homelessness envisioned their recovery. A dimensional recovery model was applied to examine how the interrelationships between recovery dimensions supported consumers' recovery journeys. Photovoice is a participatory research method that empowers people by giving them cameras to document their experiences and inform social action. Sixteen consumers recruited from two supported housing agencies participated in six weekly sessions to which they brought photographs that they took of persons and events in their lives that reflected recovery and wellness and discussed the meaning of the photographs in individual interviews and group sessions. The authors used pile-sorting, grounded theory, and a deductive template-analytic technique to analyze narrative and visual data. Spirituality, life achievements, and receiving and providing support were the most salient themes that emerged from the analysis and illustrate beneficial interrelationships between recovery dimensions. Participants discussed how they relied on their spirituality to support their sobriety and cope with addictions-aspects of clinical recovery. Educational and vocational achievements represented gains in functioning that contributed to increasing self-esteem and self-agency and reducing self-stigma. Social dimensions of recovery, such as receiving and giving support to loved ones, rippled through consumers' lives reducing isolation and enhancing their self-worth. The findings illustrate the value of participatory methods to understand what recovery signified to people with serious mental illness and how understanding the interrelationships between recovery dimensions can inform recovery-oriented services.

  9. Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.


    On March 19, 2008, policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and Public Health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about restoration and recovery through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems.

  10. Predicting recovery from whiplash injury in the primary care setting. (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert


    The effect of expectation of recovery on the recovery rate of whiplash patients in the primary care setting is not known. Whiplash patients were assessed in a primary care setting within 1 week of their collision for their expectations of recovery and were re-examined 3 months later for recovery. Initial expectations of recovery predicted recovery. According to adjusted odds ratios, subjects who expected 'to get better slowly' had a recovery rate that was nearly 1.9 times that of subjects with poor recovery expectations. Subjects who expected 'to get better soon' had a recovery rate that was 2.6 times greater than either of those with poor recovery expectations. In the primary care setting, asking patients with whiplash about their expectations of recovery is a useful predictor of their outcome.

  11. Illness Insight and Recovery: How Important is Illness Insight in Peoples’ Recovery Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa


    Topic: This account reflects on the topic of illness insight and recovery. Purpose: The purpose of the account is to clarify our understanding about the importance of illness insight in peoples’ recovery process, especially when relating the question of illness insight to the question of identity....... Sources Used:The writing is based on research literature related to illness insight and on personal recovery experiences.Conclusions and Implications for Practice: It is helpful to consider the integration of the issue of illness insight when addressing the questions and consequences of diagnosis...... in relation to the importance of illness insight in the recovery process....

  12. Disaster recovery using VMware vSphere Replication and vCenter Site Recovery Manager

    CERN Document Server

    GB, Abhilash


    This is a step-by-step guide that will help you understand disaster recovery using VMware vSphere Replication 5.5 and VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager (SRM) 5.5. The topics and configuration procedures are accompanied with relevant screenshots, flowcharts, and logical diagrams that makes grasping the concepts easier. This book is a guide for anyone who is keen on using vSphere Replication or vCenter Site Recovery Manager as a disaster recovery solution. This is an excellent handbook for solution architects, administrators, on-field engineers, and support professionals. Although the book as

  13. Effects of active vs. passive recovery on repeated rugby-specific exercises. (United States)

    Jougla, A; Micallef, J P; Mottet, D


    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of active vs. passive recovery on performance of a rugby-specific intermittent test in rugby union players. Seven male rugby players (20.6+/-0.5 yrs; 181.9+/-10.0 cm; 94.5+/-12.8 kg) performed in random order, over two separate sessions, a specific repeated-sprint rugby test, the Narbonne test (6 x 4 consecutive actions: 1, scrummaging; 2, agility sprinting; 3, tackling; 4, straight sprinting) with 30s of passive or active recovery (running at 50% of maximal aerobic speed). The Narbonne tests were completed before (pre-test) and after (post-test) a 30-min rugby match. During the Narbonne test, scrum forces, agility and sprint times, heart rate and rate of perceived exertion were measured. Scrum forces were lower in active (74.9+/-13.4 kg) than in passive recovery (90.4+/-20.9 kg), only during the post-test (p<0.05). Fatigue index (%) (p<0.05) and total sprint time (s) (p<0.01) were significantly greater in active than in passive recovery, both during the pre-test (11.5+/-5.7% vs. 6.7+/-4.5% and 18.1+/-1.3s vs. 16.9+/-0.9s) and the post-test (7.3+/-3.3% vs. 4.3+/-1.5% and 18.3+/-1.6s vs. 16.9+/-1.1s). Consequently, the results indicated that passive recovery enabled better performance during the Narbonne test. However, it is obviously impractical to suggest that players should stand still during and following repeated-sprint bouts: the players have to move to ensure they have taken an optimal position. 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Post-exercise recovery of contractile function and endurance in humans and mice is accelerated by heating and slowed by cooling skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Arthur J; Willis, Sarah J; Zinner, Christoph


    muscle fibres where we found that recovery of submaximal force and restoration of fatigue resistance was worsened by cooling (16-26°C) and improved by heating (36°C). Isolated whole mouse muscle experiments confirmed that cooling impaired muscle glycogen resynthesis. We conclude that skeletal muscle...... recovery from fatigue-induced by endurance exercise is impaired by cooling and improved by heating, due to changes in glycogen resynthesis rate. ABSTRACT: Manipulation of muscle temperature is believed to improve post-exercise recovery, with cooling being especially popular among athletes. However...... the all-out exercise was better maintained when muscles were heated during recovery, whereas cooling had the opposite effect. Mechanisms underlying the temperature-dependent effect on recovery were tested in mouse intact single muscle fibres, which were exposed to ∼12 min of glycogen-depleting fatiguing...

  15. A method to simulate motor control strategies to recover from perturbations: application to a stumble recovery during gait. (United States)

    Forner-Cordero, Arturo; Ackermann, Marko; de Lima Freitas, Mateus


    Perturbations during human gait such as a trip or a slip can result in a fall, especially among frail populations such as the elderly. In order to recover from a trip or a stumble during gait, humans perform different types of recovery strategies. It is very useful to uncover the mechanisms of the recovery to improve training methods for populations at risk of falling. Moreover, human recovery strategies could be applied to implement controllers for bipedal robot walker, as an application of biomimetic design. A biomechanical model of the response to a trip during gait might uncover the control mechanisms underlying the different recovery strategies and the adaptation of the responses found during the execution of successive perturbation trials. This paper introduces a model of stumble in the multibody system framework. This model is used to assess different feedforward strategies to recover from a trip. First of all, normal gait patterns for the musculoskeletal system model are obtained by solving an optimal control problem. Secondly, the reference gait is perturbed by the application of forces on the swinging foot in different ways: as an instantaneous inelastic collision of the foot with an obstacle, as an impulsive horizontal force or using a force curve measured experimentally during gait perturbation experiments. The influence of the type of perturbation, the timing of the collision with respect to the gait cycle, as well as of the coefficient of restitution was investigated previously. Finally, in order to test the effects of different muscle excitation levels on the initial phases of the recovery response, several muscle excitations were added to selected muscles of the legs, thus providing a simulation of the recovery reactions. These results pave the way for future analysis and modeling of the control mechanisms of gait.

  16. Forces in electromagnetic field and gravitational field


    Weng, Zihua


    The force can be defined from the linear momentum in the gravitational field and electromagnetic field. But this definition can not cover the gradient of energy. In the paper, the force will be defined from the energy and torque in a new way, which involves the gravitational force, electromagnetic force, inertial force, gradient of energy, and some other new force terms etc. One of these new force terms can be used to explain why the solar wind varies velocity along the magnetic force line in...

  17. Method of Calibrating a Force Balance (United States)

    Parker, Peter A. (Inventor); Rhew, Ray D. (Inventor); Johnson, Thomas H. (Inventor); Landman, Drew (Inventor)


    A calibration system and method utilizes acceleration of a mass to generate a force on the mass. An expected value of the force is calculated based on the magnitude and acceleration of the mass. A fixture is utilized to mount the mass to a force balance, and the force balance is calibrated to provide a reading consistent with the expected force determined for a given acceleration. The acceleration can be varied to provide different expected forces, and the force balance can be calibrated for different applied forces. The acceleration may result from linear acceleration of the mass or rotational movement of the mass.

  18. Mechanical forces in skin disorders. (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Kai; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Harn, Hans I-Chen; Hughes, Michael W; Tang, Ming-Jer; Yang, Chao-Chun


    Mechanical forces are known to regulate homeostasis of the skin and play a role in the pathogenesis of skin diseases. The epidermis consists of keratinocytes that are tightly adhered to each other by cell junctions. Defects in keratins or desmosomal/hemidesmosomal proteins lead to the attenuation of mechanical strength and formation of intraepidermal blisters in the case of epidermolysis bullosa simplex. The dermis is rich in extracellular matrix, especially collagen, and provides the majority of tensile force in the skin. Keloid and hypertrophic scar, which is the result of over-production of collagen by fibroblasts during the wound healing, are associated with extrinsic tensile forces and changes of intrinsic mechanical properties of the cell. Increasing evidences shows that stiffness of the skin environment determines the regenerative ability during wound healing process. Mechanotransduction pathways are also involved in the morphogenesis and cyclic growth of hair follicles. The development of androgenetic alopecia is correlated to tensile forces generated by the fibrous tissue underlying the scalp. Acral melanoma predominantly occurs in the weight-bearing area of the foot suggesting the role of mechanical stress. Increased dermal stiffness from fibrosis might be the cause of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa associated squamous cell carcinoma. Strategies to change the mechanical forces or modify the mechanotransduction signals may lead to a new way to treat skin diseases and promote skin regeneration. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Water recovery from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijboer, R.; Van Deelen-Bremer, M.H.; de Vos, F.; Zeijseink, A.G.L. [KEMA Nederland B.V. (Netherlands)


    In the power generation process a large amount of water is needed, for steam generation, flue gas cleaning etc. On the other hand a large amount of water is emitted to the atmosphere via the stack. For example a 400 MW coal fired power plant with a flue gas desulfurisation plant emits about 1,500,000 m{sup 3} per hour with a water concentration of about 11%. The emitted water has a rather good quality compared to surface water and needs less effort to be treated for use as make-up water. As the available amount of water in the flue gas from the earlier mentioned power plant is about 150 tons per hour, recovering 20% of this amount covers the make-up water needs of this 400 MW power plant. Direct condensation of the flue gas needs large cooling power and the condensed water is acidic and corrosive and needs cleanup treatment before it can be used in the water/steam cycle. KEMA developed a technology based on gas separation membranes which makes it possible to recover water from flue gas. The process is covered by a wide patent. The principle of the membrane is comparable to the material that is used in fabric like SympaTex{reg_sign} and GORE-TEX{reg_sign}. The GORE-TEX material is permeable to water vapor but rejects liquid water. The driving force is the water vapor pressure close to the human skin which is the higher than the water vapor pressure open the outside of the clothing. The selectivity of the GORE-TEX material however is not good enough to be used at the temperature of flue gas. The University of Twente (Netherlands) developed a membrane material based on modified PEEK which is highly selective of water vapor at flue gas temperatures. Based on the fact that flat membranes have an uneconomical surface to volume ratio, the choice has been made to use hollow fibre membranes. 6 figs.

  20. Influence of the Coriolis force on the structure and evolution of wind turbine wakes (United States)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Porté-Agel, Fernando


    In this study, large-eddy simulation combined with a turbine model is used to investigate the effect of vertical wind veer associated with the Coriolis force on the structure and evolution of wind turbine wakes. In order to isolate the Coriolis effect on the wake, two cases are considered. In the first case, atmospheric boundary-layer flow is driven by a geostrophic wind, including the effect of Earth's rotation and the Coriolis force. In the second case, the boundary-layer flow is unidirectional and is forced by an imposed pressure gradient. Both cases have the same mean horizontal velocity and turbulence intensity at the hub height. The simulation results show that the Coriolis force significantly affects the aerodynamics of the wake including the mean velocity deficit, turbulence statistics, and wake-meandering characteristics downwind of the turbine. In particular, when the flow is forced by a geostrophic wind, vertical wind veer causes a skewed spatial structure in the wake. Moreover, the presence of lateral wind shear, in addition to the vertical one, enhances the shear production of turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent momentum flux. This leads to a larger flow entrainment and, thus, a faster wake recovery compared to the case forced by unidirectional pressure gradient. Consistent with this result, wake meandering is also stronger in both lateral and vertical directions in the case of geostrophic forcing compared to the case with pressure-gradient forcing.

  1. Building addiction recovery capital through online participation in a recovery community. (United States)

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Best, David; Iqbal, Muhammad; Upton, Katie


    This study examines how online participation in a community of recovery contributes to personal journeys of recovery. It investigates whether recovery capital building - as indicated by increased levels and quality of online social interactions - and markers of positive identity development predict retention in a recovery program designed around fostering community involvement for early stage recovery addicts. It was predicted that online participation on the group's Facebook page and positive identity development are associated to retention in the program. To map how participants interact online, social network analysis (SNA) based on naturally occurring online data (N = 609) on the Facebook page of a recovery community was conducted. Computerised linguistic analyses evaluated sentiment of the textual data (capturing social identity markers). Linear regression analyses evaluated whether indicators of recovery capital predict program retention. To illustrate the findings in the context of the specific recovery community, presented are two case studies of key participants who moved from the periphery to the centre of the social network. By conducting in-depth interviews with these participants, personal experiences of engagement in the online community of group members who have undergone the most significant changes since joining the community are explored. Retention in the program was determined by a) the number of comment 'likes' and all 'likes' received on the Facebook page; b) position in the social network (degree of centrality); and c) linguistic content around group identity and achievement. Positive online interactions between members of recovery communities support the recovery process through helping participants to develop recovery capital that binds them to groups supportive of positive change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu


    Full Text Available Building an effective sales force starts with selecting good salespeople, but good salespeople are very difficult to find. The reason for this is that most sales jobs are very demanding and require a great deal from the salesperson. There are many different types of sales jobs. Before it can hire salespeople, each company must do a careful job analysis to see what particular types of selling and other skills are necessary for each sales job. One task of the market planner is to establish clear objectives each year for the entire sales force, for each region, each sales office, and each salesperson. Sales jobs are different from in-house jobs in some significant ways. Nevertheless, each company must continually work on building and maintaining an effective sales force using the following steps: recruitment, selection, training, compensation and evaluation of each salesperson.

  3. Forced draft wet cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daubert, A.; Caudron, L.; Viollet, P.L.


    The disposal of the heat released from a 1000MW power plant needs a natural draft tower of about 130m of diameter at the base, and 170m height, or a cooling system with a draft forced by about forty vans, a hundred meters in diameter, and thirty meters height. The plumes from atmospheric cooling systems form, in terms of fluid mechanics, hot jets in a cross current. They consist in complex flows that must be finely investigated with experimental and computer means. The study, currently being performed at the National Hydraulics Laboratory, shows that as far as the length and height of visible plumes are concerned, the comparison is favorable to some types of forced draft cooling system, for low and medium velocities, (below 5 or 6m/s at 10m height. Beyond these velocities, the forced draft sends the plume up to smaller heights, but the plume is generally more dilute [fr

  4. CD Review: Tour de Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Golden


    Full Text Available Review of Tour de Force, the third album from C Force, an ensemble comprised of flutist Christine Gangelhoff, euphoniumist Christian Justilien, and pianist Christy Lee. With repertoire spanning over two centuries, the trio embarks on a musical tour to Guadaloupe, Jamaica, and Haiti on Disc One, and then Trinidad and Tobago, Curaçao, the U.S. Virgin Islands and the Bahamas on Disc Two. Just as the eclectic album artwork by John Cox might suggest, Tour de Force provides listeners with a sense of the rich tapestry of musical connections shared in art music across the Caribbean. This two-disc set (released March 2016 was recorded at the Performing Arts Center of The College of The Bahamas and produced by Terry Manning of Lucky Seven Records.

  5. Optimizing Global Force Management for Special Operations Forces (United States)


    for Global Force Management. This tool empowers the analyst to conduct timely what-if analysis and easily develop alternate courses of action... Journal of Operational Research , 23(3): 367–381. Bradley, JH (2016) Mission attribute hierarchy, data for mission prioritization and requests, draft...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. OPTIMIZING GLOBAL

  6. Imaging and force probing RNA by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schön, Peter Manfred


    In the past 30 years, the atomic force microscope (AFM) has become a true enabling platform in the life sciences opening entire novel avenues for structural and dynamic studies of biological systems. It enables visualization, probing and manipulation across the length scales, from single molecules

  7. Keeping Special Forces Special: Regional Proficiency in Special Forces (United States)


    communicating and teaching across intercultural barriers. Special Forces Soldiers use their interpersonal skills to obtain and maintain appropriate...or in a simulated environment with native speakers .”258 Immersion programs were “overwhelmingly described as effective and useful” by the language increases intercultural adjustment.”263


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek


    This technical progress report describes work performed from April 1 through June 30, 2002, for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms.'' We investigate a broad spectrum of topics related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. Significant results were obtained in the areas of multiphase flow and rock properties, hot-fluid injection, improved primary heavy oil recovery, and reservoir definition. The research tools and techniques used are varied and span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history-matching techniques. Briefly, experiments were conducted to image at the pore level matrix-to-fracture production of oil from a fractured porous medium. This project is ongoing. A simulation studied was completed in the area of recovery processes during steam injection into fractured porous media. We continued to study experimentally heavy-oil production mechanisms from relatively low permeability rocks under conditions of high pressure and high temperature. High temperature significantly increased oil recovery rate and decreased residual oil saturation. Also in the area of imaging production processes in laboratory-scale cores, we use CT to study the process of gas-phase formation during solution gas drive in viscous oils. Results from recent experiments are reported here. Finally, a project was completed that uses the producing water-oil ratio to define reservoir heterogeneity and integrate production history into a reservoir model using streamline properties.

  9. Thermal injury and recovery of Streptococcus faecalis. (United States)

    Clark, C W; Witter, L D; Ordal, Z J


    Exposure of Streptococcus faecalis R57 to sublethal heating produced a temporary change in the salt tolerance and growth of the organism. After sublethal heat treatment at 60 C for 15 min, greater than 99.0% of the viable population was unable to reproduce on media containing 6% NaCl. In addition, the heated cells displayed a sensitivity to incubation temperature, pH, and 0.01% methylene blue. When the injured cells were placed in a synthetic medium, recovery occurred at a much slower rate than in a complex medium. However, both media supported comparable growth of the uninjured organism. Various media used for the enrichment of streptococci also provided a suitable environment for the recovery of the injured cells. Generally, as more selective agents were present in the medium, the rates of recovery decreased. Metabolic inhibitor studies with chloramphenicol, penicillin, and actinomycin D substantiated the fact that the process involved was recovery and not growth, and that this recovery was linked to ribonucleic acid synthesis.

  10. Recovery of Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss. (United States)

    Edizer, Deniz Tuna; Çelebi, Özlem; Hamit, Bahtiyar; Baki, Ahmet; Yiğit, Özgür


    The objective was to identify and evaluate factors that may influence the recovery rate in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss between 2009 and 2013. Those with an identified etiology were excluded. The patients were divided into four treatment groups: (i) systemic corticosteroids (SC) only, (ii) SC+low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), (iii) SC+hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), and (iv) SC+LMWH+HBO. Recovery was evaluated according to Siegel's criteria. Age, initial hearing level, onset, treatment and audiogram types, comorbidities, and associated tinnitus and vestibular symptoms were investigated for their impact on prognosis. Two hundred five patients with ISSNHL were included. Recovery was seen in 59% of the patients. The complete recovery rate was significantly lower in patients older than 60 years and in patients presenting with profound hearing loss. Different audiogram curves had no significant effect on recovery. Sudden hearing loss was accompanied by tinnitus in 107 (52.1%) patients and vestibular symptoms in 55 (26.8%); however, neither was noted to affect prognosis. Different treatment combinations did not significantly affect prognosis. However, hypertension and a delay in treatment by more than 10 days from the onset of hearing loss were associated with a worse prognosis. Profound hearing loss, older than 60 years, a delay in treatment by more than 10 days, and hypertension were negative prognostic factors in this study, whereas, the type of audiogram curve and addition of HBO to SC did not affect prognosis.

  11. Force-Time Entropy of Isometric Impulse. (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Newell, Karl M


    The relation between force and temporal variability in discrete impulse production has been viewed as independent (R. A. Schmidt, H. Zelaznik, B. Hawkins, J. S. Frank, & J. T. Quinn, 1979 ) or dependent on the rate of force (L. G. Carlton & K. M. Newell, 1993 ). Two experiments in an isometric single finger force task investigated the joint force-time entropy with (a) fixed time to peak force and different percentages of force level and (b) fixed percentage of force level and different times to peak force. The results showed that the peak force variability increased either with the increment of force level or through a shorter time to peak force that also reduced timing error variability. The peak force entropy and entropy of time to peak force increased on the respective dimension as the parameter conditions approached either maximum force or a minimum rate of force production. The findings show that force error and timing error are dependent but complementary when considered in the same framework with the joint force-time entropy at a minimum in the middle parameter range of discrete impulse.

  12. What does recovery mean in practice? A qualitative analysis of international recovery-oriented practice guidance. (United States)

    Le Boutillier, Clair; Leamy, Mary; Bird, Victoria J; Davidson, Larry; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike


    Recovery is a multifaceted concept, and the need for operationalization in practice has been identified. Although guidance on recovery-oriented practice exists, it is from disparate sources and is difficult to apply. The aims of the study were to identify the key characteristics of recovery-oriented practice guidance on the basis of current international perspectives and to develop an overarching conceptual framework to aid the translation of recovery guidance into practice. A qualitative analysis of 30 international documents offering recovery-oriented practice guidance was conducted. Inductive, semantic-level, thematic analysis was used to identify dominant themes. Interpretive analysis was then undertaken to group the themes into practice domains. The guidance documents were diverse; from six countries-the United States, England, Scotland, Republic of Ireland, Denmark, and New Zealand-and varied in document type, categories of guidance, and level of service user involvement in guidance development. The emerging conceptual framework consists of 16 dominant themes, grouped into four practice domains: promoting citizenship, organizational commitment, supporting personally defined recovery, and working relationship. A key challenge for mental health services is the lack of clarity about what constitutes recovery-oriented practice. The conceptual framework contributes to this knowledge gap and provides a synthesis of recovery-oriented practice guidance.

  13. the dutch crisis and recovery act: economic recovery and legal crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    THE DUTCH CRISIS AND RECOVERY ACT: ECONOMIC RECOVERY AND. LEGAL CRISIS? J Verschuuren. 1 Introduction. Throughout the world, governments are responding to the financial and economic crisis. Such responses vary from supporting the banking system to adopting economic stimulus packages. The latter ...

  14. Facilitating College Students' Recovery through the Use of Collegiate Recovery Programs (United States)

    DePue, M. Kristina; Hagedorn, W. Bryce


    This article describes an untapped resource that counselors can use to help serve the multiple needs of college students recovering from addiction: collegiate recovery programs. The authors provide detailed information about the collegiate recovery population and give examples of successful programs. Implications for future research are discussed,…

  15. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument (United States)

    Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.


    A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  16. Wave Forces on Crown Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jan; Burcharth, H. F.


    This paper presents some of the results from a large parametric laboratory study including more than 200 long-duration model tests. The study addresses both the wave forces imposed on the breakwater crown wall as well as the performance of the structure in reducing the wave overtopping. The testing...... programme includes variations of the sea state parameters and of the geometrical configuration of the breakwater and crown wall. Basic relations between forces/overtopping and the varied parameters are examined and preliminary design guidelines for structures within the tested range of variations...

  17. A downward buoyant force experiment


    Lima,F.M.S.; Venceslau,G.M.; Brasil,G.T.


    In hydrostatics, the Archimedes principle predicts an upward force whenever a body is submerged in a liquid. In contrast to common sense, this physical law is not free of exceptions, as for example when the body touches the container. This is more evident when a rectangular block less dense than the liquid rests on the bottom, with no liquid underneath it, a case in which a downward force is expected, according to a recent work by the first author. In the present work, we describe a simple, l...

  18. Effects of tendon and muscle belly dissection on muscular force transmission following tendon transfer in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.


    The aim of the present study was to quantify to what extent the scar tissue formation following the transfer of flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) to the distal tendon of extensor carpi radialis (ECR) affects the force transmission from transferred FCU in the rat. Five weeks after recovery from surgery

  19. Environmental Assessment for the Routine and Recurring Realignment of Units and Personnel at Edwards Air Force Base, California (United States)


    The Air Force analyzed the following environmental issues and concerns: Air Quality, Biological Resources, Cultura l Resources, Noise and Vibration...Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan MDAQMD Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standard NASA National...10 microns in diameter RAMP Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act SAAQ State Ambient Air Quality

  20. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted... (United States)


    ... your comment. Electronic comments should avoid the use of any special characters, any form of... use of the area, the Corps expects that this regulation, if adopted, will not have a significant... and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla...

  1. Characterizing recovery of sleep after four successive night shifts. (United States)

    Kubo, Tomohide; Takahashi, Masaya; Tachi, Norihide; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Ebara, Takeshi; Inoue, Tatsuki; Takanishi, Toshimasa; Murasaki, Gen-i; Itani, Toru


    The purpose of this study was to characterize the recovery pattern of sleep following simulated, four successive night shifts in ten healthy men (22.9 + or - 3.2 yr). Poor sleep was defined as sleep efficiency of 80% or lower as determined actigraphically. The results showed that four (rapid, slow, pseudo, and incomplete) patterns of sleep recovery were observed over three recovery sleep periods. The rapid and slow recovery pattern represented immediate and slow return to baseline level prior to the nightshifts, respectively. The pseudo recovery pattern demonstrated poor sleep at the 3rd recovery sleep period, despite transient recovery at the 2nd sleep period. The incomplete recovery pattern was characterized by consistently poorer sleep during the entire recovery period. The correlation analysis indicated that sleep habits (bed time and variation of wake time) prior to the experiment were significantly related to the recovery patterns, rather than performance and alertness during the night shifts.

  2. Test Area C-74 Complex Final Range Environmental Assessment at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida (United States)


    testing category (U.S. Air Force, 2007). Kinetic Energy Munitions Facility (KEMTF) The KEMTF is a 2,000-foot, dual rail sled track inclined to 0.6...KEMTF. After the munitions impact with the reusable wall, the wall can be removed and a new concrete wall can be welded into place (U.S. Air Force...dual- rail sled track. The downrange impact/recovery area consists of about 773 acres of maintained grassland, a 4-acre pond, and 83 acres in riparian

  3. Recent Advances in Nanoparticles Enhanced Oil Recovery: Rheology, Interfacial Tension, Oil Recovery, and Wettability Alteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahzad Kamal


    Full Text Available Chemically enhanced oil recovery methods are utilized to increase the oil recovery by improving the mobility ratio, altering the wettability, and/or lowering the interfacial tension between water and oil. Surfactants and polymers have been used for this purpose for the last few decades. Recently, nanoparticles have attracted the attention due to their unique properties. A large number of nanoparticles have been investigated for enhanced oil recovery applications either alone or in combination with surfactants and/or polymers. This review discusses the various types of nanoparticles that have been utilized in enhanced oil recovery. The review highlights the impact of nanoparticles on wettability alteration, interfacial tension, and rheology. The review also covers the factors affecting the oil recovery using nanoparticles and current challenges in field implementation.

  4. Recovery from acidification of lakes in Finland, Norway and Sweden 1990–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Skjelkvåle


    Full Text Available Sulphate deposition has decreased by about 60% in the Nordic countries since the early 1980s. Nitrogen deposition has been roughly constant during the past 20 years, with only a minor decrease in the late 1990s. The resulting changes in the chemistry of small lakes have been followed by national monitoring programmes initiated in the 1980s in Finland (163 lakes, Norway (100 lakes and Sweden (81 lakes. These lakes are partly a subset from the survey of 5690 lakes in the Northern European lake survey of 1995. Trend analyses on data for the period 1990-1999 show that the non-marine sulphate concentrations in lakes have decreased significantly in 69% of the monitored lakes. Changes were largest in lakes with the highest mean concentrations. Nitrate concentrations, on the other hand, were generally low and showed no systematic changes. Concentrations of non-marine base cations decreased in 26% of the lakes, most probably an ionic-strength effect due to the lower concentrations of mobile strong-acid anions. Acid neutralising capacity increased in 32% of the lakes. Trends in recovery were in part masked by large year-to-year variations in sea-salt inputs and by increases in total organic carbon concentrations. These changes were most probably the result of climatic variations. Nordic lakes, therefore, show clear signs of recovery from acidification. Recovery began in the 1980s and accelerated in the 1990s. Reductions in sulphur deposition are the major "driving force" in the process of recovery from acidification. Further recovery can be expected in the next 10 years if the Gothenburg protocol on emissions of acidifying pollutants is implemented. Keywords: Nordic countries, sulphur deposition, lakes, recovery

  5. Propulsive force calculations in swimming frogs. I. A momentum-impulse approach. (United States)

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Stamhuis, Eize J; Aerts, Peter


    Frogs are animals that are capable of locomotion in two physically different media, aquatic and terrestrial. A comparison of the kinematics of swimming frogs in a previous study revealed a difference in propulsive impulse between jumping and swimming. To explore this difference further, we determined the instantaneous forces during propulsion in swimming using an impulse-momentum approach based on DPIV flow data. The force profile obtained was compared with force profiles obtained from drag-thrust equilibrium of the centre of mass and with the force profiles generated during jumping. The new approach to quantifying the instantaneous forces during swimming was tested and proved to be a valid method for determining the external forces on the feet of swimming frogs. On the kinematic profiles of swimming, leg extension precedes propulsion. This means that it is not only the acceleration of water backwards that provides thrust, but also that the deceleration of water flowing towards the frog as a result of recovery accelerates the centre of mass prior to leg extension. The force profile obtained from the impulse-momentum approach exposed an overestimation of drag by 30% in the drag-thrust calculations. This means that the difference in impulse between jumping and swimming in frogs is even larger than previously stated. The difference between the force profiles, apart from a slightly higher peak force during jumping, lies mainly in a difference in shape. During swimming, maximal force is reached early in the extension phase, 20% into it, while during jumping, peak force is attained at 80% of the extension phase. This difference is caused by a difference in inter-limb coordination.

  6. Isolation and recovery of microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The deleterious environmental impacts caused by plastic wastes have attracted worldwide concern. The biobased and biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA appears to be one of the potential candidates to replace some conventional plastics. However, high production cost of PHAs has limited their market penetration. The major cost absorbing factors are the upstream fermentation processes and the downstream PHA recovery technologies. The latter significantly affects the overall process economics. Various recovery technologies have been proposed and studied in small scales in the laboratory as well as in industrial scales. These include solvent extraction, chemical digestion, enzymatic treatment and mechanical disruption, supercritical fluid disruption, flotation techniques, use of gamma irradiation and aqueous two-phase system. This paper reviews all the recovery methods known to date and compares their efficiency and the quality of the resulting PHA. Some of the large-scale production of PHA and the strategies employed to reduce the production cost are also discussed.

  7. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry


    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  8. Recovery after whole-body radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, E.L.

    A recovery formula recommended by commissions III and IV of the Federal Ministry of Internal Affairs was tested on goldhamsters. Two test schemes were studied: in the first one recovery took place after irradiating 5 times ''equivalent'' to 100 R at a distance of 20 d with a combined residual damage ''equivalent'' to 100 R, in the second one with ''equivalent'' doses of up to the residual damage of 100 R at a distance of 11 d, which corresponds to a particularly bad recovery phase of the hamster. In both events the residual damage proved to be below the anticipated values. It is being discussed whether these results can be transferred to humans. (MG) [de

  9. Narrowband interference parameterization for sparse Bayesian recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Anum


    This paper addresses the problem of narrowband interference (NBI) in SC-FDMA systems by using tools from compressed sensing and stochastic geometry. The proposed NBI cancellation scheme exploits the frequency domain sparsity of the unknown signal and adopts a Bayesian sparse recovery procedure. This is done by keeping a few randomly chosen sub-carriers data free to sense the NBI signal at the receiver. As Bayesian recovery requires knowledge of some NBI parameters (i.e., mean, variance and sparsity rate), we use tools from stochastic geometry to obtain analytical expressions for the required parameters. Our simulation results validate the analysis and depict suitability of the proposed recovery method for NBI mitigation. © 2015 IEEE.

  10. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery - Advanced Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    In this project, a generic model has been set up to include the two main mechanisms in the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process; reduction of the interfacial tension (IFT) due to surfactant production, and microscopic fluid diversion as a part of the overall fluid diversion mechanism due...... is reduced. Therefore, the transfer part of the surfactant to oil phase is equivalent to its “disappearance”. The oil phase captures the surfactant, but it may as well be adsorbed to the pore walls in the oil phase. We have looked into three methods how to translate the IFT reduction into changes......, the curve levels off. Partitioning of surfactant between the oil and water phase is a novel effect in the context of microbial enhanced oil recovery. The partitioning coefficient determines the time lag before the surfactant effect can be seen. The surfactant partitioning does not change final recovery...

  11. Expectation of recovery from low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Vach, Werner; Axø, Marie


    participants completed questionnaires at their first consultation due to LBP and 78% were followed for 3 months. At baseline, recovery expectations were measured on a 0-10 scale. Outcome measures were LBP intensity and Global Perceived Effect (GPE). Associations were tested in regression models......Study Design. A prospective cohort study conducted in general practice (GP) and chiropractic practice (CP).Objectives. To explore which patient characteristics were associated with recovery expectations in low back pain (LBP) patients, whether expectations predicted 3-month outcome, and to what...... extent expectations were associated with empirical prognostic factors.Summary of Background Data. Patients' recovery expectations have been associated with prognosis, but it is largely unknown why patients expect what they do, and how expectations relate to other prognostic factors.Methods. 1169...

  12. String formulation of space charge forces in a deflecting bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Talman


    Full Text Available The force between two moving point charges, because of its inverse square law singularity, cannot be applied directly in the numerical simulation of bunch dynamics; radiative effects make this especially true for short bunches being deflected by magnets. This paper describes a formalism circumventing this restriction in which the basic ingredient is the total force on a point charge comoving with a longitudinally aligned, uniformly charged string. Bunch evolution can then be treated using direct particle-to-particle, intrabeam scattering, with no need for an intermediate, particle-in-cell, step. Electric and magnetic fields do not appear individually in the theory. Since the basic formulas are both exact (in paraxial approximation and fully relativistic, they are applicable to beams of all particle types and all energies. But the theory is expected to be especially useful for calculating the emittance growth of the ultrashort electron bunches of current interest for energy recovery linacs and free-electron lasers. The theory subsumes coherent synchrotron radiation and centrifugal space charge force. Renormalized, on-axis, longitudinal field components are in excellent agreement with values from Saldin et al. [DESY Report No. DESY-TESLA-FEL-96-14, 1995; Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 417, 158 (1998.NIMAER0168-900210.1016/S0168-9002(9800623-8

  13. The Acute Effect of Local Vibration As a Recovery Modality from Exercise-Induced Increased Muscle Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Pournot, Jérémy Tindel, Rodolphe Testa, Laure Mathevon, Thomas Lapole


    Full Text Available Exercise involving eccentric muscle contractions is known to decrease range of motion and increase passive muscle stiffness. This study aimed at using ultrasound shear wave elastography to investigate acute changes in biceps brachii passive stiffness following intense barbell curl exercise involving both concentric and eccentric contractions. The effect of local vibration (LV as a recovery modality from exercise-induced increased stiffness was further investigated. Eleven subjects performed 4 bouts of 10 bilateral barbell curl movements at 70% of the one-rep maximal flexion force. An arm-to-arm comparison model was then used with one arm randomly assigned to the passive recovery condition and the other arm assigned to the LV recovery condition (10 min of 55-Hz vibration frequency and 0.9-mm amplitude. Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus measurements were performed prior to exercise (PRE, immediately after exercise (POST-EX and 5 min after the recovery period (POST-REC. Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus was significantly increased at POST-EX (+53 ± 48%; p < 0.001 and POST-REC (+31 ± 46%; p = 0.025 when compared to PRE. No differences were found between passive and LV recovery (p = 0.210. LV as a recovery strategy from exercise-induced increased muscle stiffness was not beneficial, probably due to an insufficient mechanical action of vibrations.

  14. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Magera

    Full Text Available Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1 publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2 abundance trends and recovery status, and (3 historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%, Significantly Decreasing (10%, Non-Significant Change (28% and Unknown (20%. Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47, larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular

  15. Recovery of the immune system after exercise. (United States)

    Peake, Jonathan M; Neubauer, Oliver; Walsh, Neil P; Simpson, Richard J


    The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an "open window" of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions [e.g., natural killer (NK) cells, γδ T cells, and CD8 + T cells]. These lymphocytes most likely translocate to peripheral sites of potential antigen encounter (e.g., lungs and gut). This redeployment of effector lymphocytes is an integral part of the physiological stress response to exercise. Current knowledge about changes in immune function during recovery from exercise is derived from assessment at the cell population level of isolated cells ex vivo or in blood. This assessment can be biased by large changes in the distribution of immune cells between blood and peripheral tissues during and after exercise. Some evidence suggests that reduced immune cell function in vitro may coincide with changes in vivo and rates of illness after exercise, but more work is required to substantiate this notion. Among the various nutritional strategies and physical therapies that athletes use to recover from exercise, carbohydrate supplementation is the most effective for minimizing immune disturbances during exercise recovery. Sleep is an important aspect of recovery, but more research is needed to determine how sleep disruption influences the immune system of athletes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. 77 FR 30875 - Armed Forces Day, 2012 (United States)


    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8823 of May 18, 2012 Armed Forces Day, 2012 By the President of the United... circumstances. On Armed Forces Day, we pay tribute to the unparalleled service of our Armed Forces and recall... the greatest force for freedom and security the world has ever known. From their earliest training to...

  17. Constructive consequences of leaders' forcing influence styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, B.J.M.; Munduate, L; Klaver, E; Van de Vliert, E.

    In contrast to non-forcing influence styles used by leaders, their forcing influence styles are commonly found to be ineffective, evoking sheer resistance, rather than compliance. As a corollary of conglomerate conflict behavior theory, we state that forcing, if combined with non-forcing, may

  18. Deriving force field parameters for coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrby, Per-Ola; Brandt, Peter


    The process of deriving molecular mechanics force fields for coordination complexes is outlined. Force field basics are introduced with an emphasis on special requirements for metal complexes. The review is then focused on how to set up the initial model, define the target, refine the parameters......, and validate the final force field, Alternatives to force field derivation are discussed briefly....

  19. Security force effectiveness and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaton, M.B.


    No one would propose ineffective security forces. Applied technology always has, as its purpose, to increase effectiveness. Evidence exists, however, that poorly conceived or executed technological solutions can actually do more harm than good. The author argues for improved human factor considerations in physical security applied technology -- especially in the area of security console operations

  20. Force balancing in mammographic compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branderhorst, W.; de Groot, J. E.; Neeter, L. M. F. H.; van Lier, M. G. J. T. B.; Neeleman, C.; den Heeten, G. J.; Grimbergen, C. A.


    In mammography, the height of the image receptor is adjusted to the patient before compressing the breast. An inadequate height setting can result in an imbalance between the forces applied by the image receptor and the paddle, causing the clamped breast to be pushed up or down relative to the body

  1. NASA's Big Data Task Force (United States)

    Holmes, C. P.; Kinter, J. L.; Beebe, R. F.; Feigelson, E.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Mentzel, C.; Smith, G.; Tino, C.; Walker, R. J.


    Two years ago NASA established the Ad Hoc Big Data Task Force (BDTF -, an advisory working group with the NASA Advisory Council system. The scope of the Task Force included all NASA Big Data programs, projects, missions, and activities. The Task Force focused on such topics as exploring the existing and planned evolution of NASA's science data cyber-infrastructure that supports broad access to data repositories for NASA Science Mission Directorate missions; best practices within NASA, other Federal agencies, private industry and research institutions; and Federal initiatives related to big data and data access. The BDTF has completed its two-year term and produced several recommendations plus four white papers for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This presentation will discuss the activities and results of the TF including summaries of key points from its focused study topics. The paper serves as an introduction to the papers following in this ESSI session.

  2. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy (United States)

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.


    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  3. Inertial forces and physics teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva Martinez, J.M.; Pontes Pedrajas, A.


    An epistemological and didactic analysis about inertial forces and the role of validity of Newton's Laws seen from several reference systems is performed. On the basis of considerations fulfilled, a discussion about the necessity of introducing these topics in the curriculum of physics teaching at different levels is also carried out. (Author) 21 refs

  4. Air Force Heroes in Vietnam (United States)


    Forces of the United States and South Vietnam. A modified version was employed for psychological warfare, including leaflet drops and loudspeaker...out of that spot ten seconds when mortars started dropping directly on it," he remembers. "That was a real thriller . I figured they just got zeroed in

  5. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented

  6. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.

  7. An Evaluation of KSNP SGTR Recovery Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Han; Kim, Se Chang; Sohn, Jong Joo; Seo, Jong Tae


    The Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) recovery guideline of the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) Emergency Operating Guidelines (EOG) provides operator actions which must be accomplished in the event of an SGTR. The goal of the guideline is to safely establish Shutdown Cooling System (SCS) entry conditions while minimizing radiological releases to the environment and maintaining adequate core cooling. An evaluation has been performed to verify the effectiveness of SGTR recovery strategy for an SGTR occurred in lower power condition as well as full power operation condition, especially in view of the affected steam generator level and pressure controls

  8. Disaster recovery: mitigating loss through documentation. (United States)

    Boisvert, Sue


    Flood, fire, tornado, hurricane. Whatever the cause, natural or man-made, the result on an organization can be devastating. Planning and preparation for disaster must include significant attention to disaster recovery. The ability to produce documentation of what existed, what was damaged, recovery costs and income losses will be essential to the claims adjustment process. This article discusses strategies for creating a historical record, leveraging contemporaneous incident command documentation and working with contractors to identify and record disaster-related expenses. © 2011 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  9. Methane recovery from landfill in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaolai, L.


    GEF has approved a special project for a demonstration project for Methane Recovery from the Urban Refuse Land Fill. This paper will introduce the possibility of GHG reduction from the landfill in China, describe the activities of the GEF project, and the priorities for international cooperation in this field. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) approved the project, China Promoting Methane Recovery and Unlization from Mixed Municipal Refuse, at its Council meeting in last April. This project is the first one supported by international organization in this field.

  10. Helicopter collision avoidance and brown-out recovery with HELLAS (United States)

    Seidel, Christian; Schwartz, Ingo; Kielhorn, Peter


    EADS Germany is the world market leader in commercial and military Helicopter Laser Radar (HELLAS) Obstacle Warning Systems. The HELLAS-Warning System has been introduced into the market in 2000, is in service at German Federal Police and Royal Thai Air Force. HELLAS was also successfully evaluated by the Foreign Comparative Test Program (FCT) of the U.S. Army and other governmental agencies. Currently the successor system for military applications, HELLAS-Awareness, is in qualification phase. It will have extended sensor performance, enhanced real-time data processing capabilities and advanced human machine interface (HMI) features. Flight tests on NH90 helicopter have been successfully performed. Helicopter series integration is scheduled to begin from 2009. We will give an outline of the new sensor unit concerning detection technology and helicopter integration aspects. The system provides a widespread field of view with additional dynamic line of sight steering and a large detection range in combination with a high frame rate. We will show the HMI representations. This HELLAS system is the basis for a 3 dimensional see-and-remember-system for brown-out recovery. When landing in sandy or dusty areas the downwash of the helicopter rotor causes clouds of visually-restrictive material that can completely obstruct the pilot's outside reference, resulting in a complete loss of situational awareness and spatial orientation of the pilot which can end up in total loss of aircraft control and dangerous accidents. The brown-out recovery system presented here creates an augmented enhanced synthetic vision of the landing area with the surrounding which is based on HELLAS range image data as well as altimeter and inertial reference information.

  11. A Qualitative Force Structure Analysis of the Global Mobility Task Force (United States)


    Force GSTF Global Strike Task Force HLSTF Homeland Response Task Force HUMRO Humanitarian Relief Operation ISR Intelligence...Task Force (S&C4ISRTF) 3. Global Strike Task Force ( GSTF ) 4. Global Response Task Force (GRTF) 5. Homeland Security Task Force (HLSTF) 6. Global...enable the “ GSTF and GRTF to deploy and employ rapidly anywhere in the world at any time” (DAF, 2002:16). Therefore, the GMTF has three key

  12. Upper Limb Asymmetry in the Sense of Effort Is Dependent on Force Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E. Adamo


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that asymmetries in upper limb sensorimotor function are dependent on the source of sensory and motor information, hand preference and differences in hand strength. Further, the utilization of sensory and motor information and the mode of control of force may differ between the right hand/left hemisphere and left hand/right hemisphere systems. To more clearly understand the unique contribution of hand strength and intrinsic differences to the control of grasp force, we investigated hand/hemisphere differences when the source of force information was encoded at two different force levels corresponding to a 20 and 70% maximum voluntary contraction or the right and left hand of each participant. Eleven, adult males who demonstrated a stronger right than left maximum grasp force were requested to match a right or left hand 20 or 70% maximal voluntary contraction reference force with the opposite hand. During the matching task, visual feedback corresponding to the production of the reference force was available and then removed when the contralateral hand performed the match. The matching relative force error was significantly different between hands for the 70% MVC reference force but not for the 20% MVC reference force. Directional asymmetries, quantified as the matching force constant error, showed right hand overshoots and left undershoots were force dependent and primarily due to greater undershoots when matching with the left hand the right hand reference force. Findings further suggest that the interaction between internal sources of information, such as efferent copy and proprioception, as well as hand strength differences appear to be hand/hemisphere system dependent. Investigations of force matching tasks under conditions whereby force level is varied and visual feedback of the reference force is available provides critical baseline information for building effective interventions for asymmetric (stroke

  13. Special Operations Forces and Conventional Forces: Integration, Interoperability, and Interdependence (United States)


    commanding general of the 4th Infantry Division (ID), had a short meeting with incoming and outgoing special operations leadership. The topic: in the opening days of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan . U.S. forces were not always open to this sort of synergy, but the last 15...capability to work well together in large-scale military operations, such as in Afghanistan , where they conducted village sta- bility operations and built

  14. Perceptions about recovery needs and drug-avoidance recovery behaviors among youth in substance abuse treatment. (United States)

    Gonzales, Rachel; Anglin, M Douglas; Glik, Deborah C; Zavalza, Christina


    This study used mixed methods to explore youth attitudes about recovery-related needs and important drug-avoidance behaviors after treatment. Focus groups were conducted with 118 substance using youth in treatment (four residential and 10 outpatient settings) throughout Los Angeles County. The average age was 17.4 (SD = 2.9); 78.3% were male, 66.1% Latino; and most were in treatment for primary marijuana (40.9%) or methamphetamine (30.4%) abuse. Quantitatve results from the drug-avoidance activity survey identified the following factors youth rated as important to their recovery after treatment: lifestyle improvement activities (95.7%); changing personal drug behaviors (89.6%); drug environment/culture change activities (82.5%); with the least important being therapeutic activities (78.5%). Qualitative findings from focus groups that asked what youth think are important for recovery programs to address after treatment revealed the following four areas: (1) recovery promotion to developmentally appropriate activities (95%); (2) facilitating the use of coping skills to deal with stress (85%); (3) offering alternative recovery support options (not just abstinence only) (75%); and (4) continuing to provide substance use education (65%). Findings highlight essential aspects of recovery in terms of need and drug-avoidance behaviors considered important to youth in treatment. Such information will help to better address clinical and recovery support models aimed at relapse prevention to ensure that the perceived problems of substance-abusing youth are adequately met.

  15. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A mixture of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. The mixture is single phase for higher salinity or calcium concentrations than that for either surfactant used alone. This makes it possible to inject the surfactant slug with polymer close to optimal conditions and yet be single phase. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. It uses partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide for mobility control. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of naphthenic soap and significant reduction of synthetic surfactant adsorption. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT takes advantage of the observation that the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Even for a fixed ratio of soap to surfactant, the range of salinity for low IFT was wider than that reported for surfactant systems in the literature. Low temperature, forced displacement experiments in dolomite and silica sandpacks demonstrate that greater than 95% recovery of the waterflood remaining oil is possible with 0.2% surfactant concentration, 0.5 PV surfactant slug, with no alcohol. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the role of soap/surfactant ratio on passage of the profile through the ultralow IFT region, the importance of a wide salinity range of low IFT, and the importance of the viscosity of the surfactant slug. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs as well as a

  16. Lorentz force actuation of a heated atomic force microscope cantilever. (United States)

    Lee, Byeonghee; Prater, Craig B; King, William P


    We report Lorentz force-induced actuation of a silicon microcantilever having an integrated resistive heater. Oscillating current through the cantilever interacts with the magnetic field around a NdFeB permanent magnet and induces a Lorentz force that deflects the cantilever. The same current induces cantilever heating. With AC currents as low as 0.2 mA, the cantilever can be oscillated as much as 80 nm at resonance with a DC temperature rise of less than 5 °C. By comparison, the AC temperature variation leads to a thermomechanical oscillation that is about 1000 times smaller than the Lorentz deflection at the cantilever resonance. The cantilever position in the nonuniform magnetic field affects the Lorentz force-induced deflection, with the magnetic field parallel to the cantilever having the largest effect on cantilever actuation. We demonstrate how the cantilever actuation can be used for imaging, and for measuring the local material softening temperature by sensing the contact resonance shift.

  17. World production and possible recovery of cobalt from the Kupferschiefer stratiform copper ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazik Paulina M.


    Full Text Available Cobalt is recognized as a strategic metal and also E-tech element, which is crucial for worlds development. An increasing demand for cobalt forces for searching of new resources that could be explored in European countries. There are many examples of cobalt recoveries, mostly from laterite and sulphide deposits. However, the accurate choice of the technology depends on many factors. The Kupferschiefer stratiform copper ore located in Poland is the biggest deposit of cobalt in Europe. Although KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. recovers many precious metals from this ore, cobalt is not recovered yet. This metal occurs as an accompanying element, mostly in the form of cobaltite (CaAsS, with the average content of 50–80 g/Mg. In this paper a possible recovery of cobalt from the Kupferschiefer ore, with the use of hydrometallurgical methods, was investigated.

  18. Structural and mechanical design challenges of space shuttle solid rocket boosters separation and recovery subsystems (United States)

    Woodis, W. R.; Runkle, R. E.


    The design of the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) subsystems for reuse posed some unique and challenging design considerations. The separation of the SRBs from the cluster (orbiter and external tank) at 150,000 ft when the orbiter engines are running at full thrust meant the two SRBs had to have positive separation forces pushing them away. At the same instant, the large attachments that had reacted launch loads of 7.5 million pounds thrust had to be servered. These design considerations dictated the design requirements for the pyrotechnics and separation rocket motors. The recovery and reuse of the two SRBs meant they had to be safely lowered to the ocean, remain afloat, and be owed back to shore. In general, both the pyrotechnic and recovery subsystems have met or exceeded design requirements. In twelve vehicles, there has only been one instance where the pyrotechnic system has failed to function properly.

  19. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Z N; Wu, P; Wu, D Z; Wang, L Q


    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m 3 /h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result

  20. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system (United States)

    Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.


    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

  1. Modelling stressors on the eelgrass recovery process in two Danish estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuusemäe, Kadri; Rasmussen, Erik Kock; Canal-Vergés, Paula


    succeeded. The mechanisms hindering/delaying eelgrass recovery were recently identified: 1) lack of sediment anchoring capacity, 2) resuspension created by drifting ephemeral macroalgae, 3) seedling uprooting created by current and wave forces, 4) ballistic stress from attached macroalgae and 5) burial...... of seeds and seedlings by lugworms. These processes were quantified and introduced to an ecological MIKE 3D model. The developed model was calibrated and validated on two Danish estuaries, Odense Fjord and Roskilde Fjord. Analyses of the simulations were performed on area distribution maps...... the ability of eelgrass to cope with above mentioned stressors. The spatial resolution of the model setup made it possible to generate maps where eelgrass is exposed to lowest stress, revealing areas for potential eelgrass recovery. The developed eelgrass model is now used as a national tool to predict areas...

  2. Nanomaterials for in vivo imaging of mechanical forces and electrical fields (United States)

    Mehlenbacher, Randy D.; Kolbl, Rea; Lay, Alice; Dionne, Jennifer A.


    Cellular signalling is governed in large part by mechanical forces and electromagnetic fields. Mechanical forces play a critical role in cell differentiation, tissue organization and diseases such as cancer and heart disease; electrical fields are essential for intercellular communication, muscle contraction, neural signalling and sensory perception. Therefore, quantifying a biological system's forces and fields is crucial for understanding physiology and disease pathology and for developing medical tools for repair and recovery. This Review highlights advances in sensing mechanical forces and electrical fields in vivo, focusing on optical probes. The emergence of biocompatible optical probes, such as genetically encoded voltage indicators, molecular rotors, fluorescent dyes, semiconducting nanoparticles, plasmonic nanoparticles and lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles, offers exciting opportunities to push the limits of spatial and temporal resolution, stability, multi-modality and stimuli sensitivity in bioimaging. We further discuss the materials design principles behind these probes and compare them across various metrics to facilitate sensor selection. Finally, we examine which advances are necessary to fully unravel the role of mechanical forces and electrical fields in vivo, such as the ability to probe the vectorial nature of forces, the development of combined force and field sensors, and the design of efficient optical actuators.

  3. Development of Device to Evoke Stretch Reflexes by Use of Electromagnetic Force for the Rehabilitation of the Hemiplegic Upper Limb after Stroke (United States)

    Hayashi, Ryota; Ishimine, Tomoyasu; Kawahira, Kazumi; Yu, Yong; Tsujio, Showzow

    In this research, we focus on the method of rehabilitation with stretch reflexes for the hemiplegic upper limb in stroke patients. We propose a new device which utilizes electromagnetic force to evoke stretch reflexes. The device can exert an assisting force safely, because the electromagnetic force is non contact force. In this paper, we develop a support system applying the proposed device for the functional recovery training of the hemiplegic upper limb. The results obtained from several clinical tests with and without our support system are compared. Then we discuss the validity of our support system.

  4. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal recovery post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Costill DL, Sherman WM, Fink WJ, Maresh C, Witten M, Miller JM. The role of dietary carbohydrates in muscle glycogen resynthesis after strenu- ous running. Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34: 1831-6. 18. Coyle EF. Timing and method of increased carbohydrate intake to cope with heavy training, competition and recovery. J Sports ...

  5. Plasma glucagon and glucose recovery after hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Holst, Janett


    ) and of isolated alpha-adrenergic blockade on hormonal responses to hypoglycemia and on blood glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy subjects. Neither of the pharmacological blockades had any significant effects on plasma glucagon responses to hypoglycemia nor had they any effect on the rate of blood...

  6. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal recovery post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    60% VO2max). After a 2-hour recovery period there was a net gain in whole-body protein and leg protein in the CHO-pro- tein-fat supplement group, while the placebo ..... females. The placebo group exhibited a significantly greater increase in creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydroge- nase activity compared with the ...

  7. Intraoperative and recovery room outcome | Edomwonyi | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To identify and quantitate anaesthesia related complications in the intraoperative period and in the post anaesthesia recovery room. Design: A prospective study. Setting: University of Benin Teaching Hospital; a University - affiliated tertiary centre. Subjects: Patients scheduled for elective and emergency surgery ...

  8. Removal and Recovery of Phosphonate Antiscalants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boels, L.


    In reverse osmosis (RO) desalination processes, the use of phosphonates prevents scaling, thus allowing for a higher product water recovery, which increases the efficiency of the process. However, a major concern associated with their use in RO desalination is the high cost and environmental impacts

  9. Observation of viscoelastic displacement recovery after microindentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minster, Jiří; Novák, Z.


    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2011), s. 317-325 ISSN 1385-2000 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200710801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : quasi-homogenous and quasi-isotropic viscoelastic material * microindentation * viscoelastic compliance * interferometry * creep recovery Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2011


    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  11. Recovery of the secondary raw materials, recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.


    In this chapter the recovery and recycling of secondary raw materials is explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: Paper and tetrapaks; Car wrecks; Scrap metal; Plastics; Used tires; Electrical and electronic equipment; Glass; Accumulators and batteries; Spent oil; Low-and non-waste technology.

  12. Recovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve; Schauffler, Sue; Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Pawson, Steven; Nielsen, J. Eric


    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS and OMI instruments. The severity of the hole has been assessed using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole), the average size during the September-October period, and the ozone mass deficit. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. We use two methods to estimate ozone hole recovery. First, we use projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates in a parametric model. Second, we use a coupled chemistry climate model to assess recovery. We find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. Furthermore, full recovery to 1980 levels will not occur until approximately 2068. We will also show some error estimates of these dates and the impact of climate change on the recovery.

  13. Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.


    Electronic abstract of the thesis for the library for the acquisitions department of Wageningen UR library (published as a html file so hyperlinks may be included) In English, one or 2 pages. Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery Currently in the tropics, the area of

  14. Robust seismic images amplitude recovery using curvelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghaddam, Peyman P.; Herrmann, Felix J.; Stolk, C.C.


    In this paper, we recover the amplitude of a seismic image by approximating the normal (demigration-migration) operator. In this approximation, we make use of the property that curvelets remain invariant under the action of the normal operator. We propose a seismic amplitude recovery method that

  15. Making recovery sustainable : lessons from country innovations


    International Labour Office; International Institute for Labour Studies


    Examines the crucial contribution of employment and incomes to a sustainable recovery and assesses how policies can best be designed in order to promote employment and incomes, taking into account the lessons learned from country experiences since the start of the global crisis in 2008.

  16. Disaster Resiliency and Recovery: Capabilities (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the nation's leader in energy efficient and renewable energy technologies, practices, and strategies. For the last 15 years, NREL has provided expertise, tools, and innovations to private industry; federal, state, and local governments; non-profit organizations; and communities during the planning, recovery, and rebuilding stages after disaster strikes.

  17. Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.


    Electronic abstract of the thesis for the library for the acquisitions department of Wageningen UR library (published as a html file so hyperlinks may be included)

    In English, one or 2 pages.

    Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

    Currently in the

  18. Social sciences in Puget Sound recovery (United States)

    Katharine F. Wellman; Kelly Biedenweg; Kathleen Wolf


    Advancing the recovery of large-scale ecosystems, such as the Puget Sound inWashington State, requires improved knowledge of the interdependencies between nature and humans in that basin region. As Biedenweg et al. (this issue) illustrate, human wellbeing and human behavior do not occur independently of the biophysical environment. Natural environments contribute to...

  19. 38 CFR 61.67 - Recovery provisions. (United States)


    ...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.67 Recovery provisions. (a) If after 3 years from the date of award of a capital grant, the grant recipient has withdrawn from the VA Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program (Program); does not establish the project for which the grant was made...

  20. Biosurfactants and their role in oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, Michael J. [University of Oklahoma (United States)


    This paper presents the role of biosurfactants in oil recovery. Types of biosurfactants include, among others, lipopeptides, rhamnolipids, sophorolipids. The process of oil recovery and the involvement of microbes are explained. The objective is to know if lipopeptide biosurfactants lower interfacial tension. Fatty acid composition is important for lipopeptide biosurfactant activity and microbial surfactants are hydrophilic and Interfacial Tension (IFT) values are high. Examples of biosurfactants with lower IFT values with mixtures are also given. An experiment was conducted to determine whether lipopeptides recovery entrapped oil or not. The procedure and experimental setup are shown. It is seen that with higher concentration of biosurfactants, the percentage of residual oil recovery is higher. Another experiment was conducted to see if biosurfactants greater than 40 mg/l can be produced in oil reservoirs. The experimental design and the analysis with the results are given. It was seen that more oil was produced. Conclusions from the study were, among other findings, that, in situ biosurfactant production and inoculation are possible.