WorldWideScience

Sample records for force station integrated

  1. Space station operations task force. Panel 4 report: Management integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Management Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to provide a structure and ground rules for integrating the efforts of the other three panels and to address a number of cross cutting issues that affect all areas of space station operations. Issues addressed include operations concept implementation, alternatives development and integration process, strategic policy issues and options, and program management emphasis areas.

  2. Space station operations task force. Panel 3 report: User development and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The User Development and Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to develop concepts relating to the operations of the Space Station manned base and the platforms, user accommodation and integration activities. The needs of the user community are addressed in the context with the mature operations phase of the Space Station. Issues addressed include space station pricing options, marketing strategies, payload selection and resource allocation options, and manifesting techniques.

  3. Finding of No Significant Impact: Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    using an adaptive-management process that integrates new findings and a developing understanding of human impacts on natural systems into future...benefit of integration or overall natural resources planning. In addition, data on important natural resources of the station would not be collected, and...FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire The U.S. Air

  4. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  5. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  6. International Space Station Configuration Analysis and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchondo, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious engineering projects, such as NASA's International Space Station (ISS), require dependable modeling, analysis, visualization, and robotics to ensure that complex mission strategies are carried out cost effectively, sustainably, and safely. Learn how Booz Allen Hamilton's Modeling, Analysis, Visualization, and Robotics Integration Center (MAVRIC) team performs engineering analysis of the ISS Configuration based primarily on the use of 3D CAD models. To support mission planning and execution, the team tracks the configuration of ISS and maintains configuration requirements to ensure operational goals are met. The MAVRIC team performs multi-disciplinary integration and trade studies to ensure future configurations meet stakeholder needs.

  7. Integrated scheduling and resource management. [for Space Station Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M. T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of integrated scheduling during the Space Station era. Scheduling for Space Station entails coordinating the support of many distributed users who are sharing common resources and pursuing individual and sometimes conflicting objectives. This paper compares the scheduling integration problems of current missions with those anticipated for the Space Station era. It examines the facilities and the proposed operations environment for Space Station. It concludes that the pattern of interdependecies among the users and facilities, which are the source of the integration problem is well structured, allowing a dividing of the larger problem into smaller problems. It proposes an architecture to support integrated scheduling by scheduling efficiently at local facilities as a function of dependencies with other facilities of the program. A prototype is described that is being developed to demonstrate this integration concept.

  8. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within......-social bonding. The paper ends by discussing the gender integration strategy of the Swedish Armed Forces....

  9. International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the development process of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model which is a subsystem analyses tool utilized in the ISSA design analysis cycles. Fast-track prototyping of the detailed relationships between daily crew and station consumables, propellant needs, maintenance requirements and crew rotation via spread sheets provide adequate benchmarks to assess cargo vehicle design and performance characteristics.

  10. Space Station - An integrated approach to operational logistics support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmer, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    Development of an efficient and cost effective operational logistics system for the Space Station will require logistics planning early in the program's design and development phase. This paper will focus on Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) Program techniques and their application to the Space Station program design, production and deployment phases to assure the development of an effective and cost efficient operational logistics system. The paper will provide the methodology and time-phased programmatic steps required to establish a Space Station ILS Program that will provide an operational logistics system based on planned Space Station program logistics support.

  11. Report of Findings: Cold Bay Air Force Station (Grant Point) military contaminants: Fiscal year 1988 collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes our contaminants investigation at the abandoned Cold Bay Air Force Station (Station), located on the Izembek National Wildlife Refuge at Grant...

  12. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  13. Force Integration Doctrine and Division Staff Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    Marriot , William T. 1II, LTC. "Force Integration’s Next Big Challenge," Military Review 66 (April 1986), pp.4-13. 6. Starry, Donn A., GEN. "To Change an...Power," Army 33 (December 1983): 34-45. Marriot , William T. III., LTC. "Force Integration’s Next Big Challenge," Military Review 66 (April 1986): 4-13

  14. Validation of an Integrated Hydrogen Energy Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2012-10-26

    This report presents the results of a 10-year project conducted by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to determine the feasibility of coproducing hydrogen with electricity. The primary objective was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a hydrogen energy station using a high-temperature fuel cell designed to produce power and hydrogen. This four-phase project had intermediate go/no-go decisions and the following specific goals: Complete a technical assessment and economic analysis of the use of high-temperature fuel cells, including solid oxide and molten carbonate, for the co-production of power and hydrogen (energy park concept). Build on the experience gained at the Las Vegas H2 Energy Station and compare/contrast the two approaches for co-production. Determine the applicability of co-production from a high-temperature fuel cell for the existing merchant hydrogen market and for the emerging hydrogen economy. Demonstrate the concept on natural gas for six months at a suitable site with demand for both hydrogen and electricity. Maintain safety as the top priority in the system design and operation. Obtain adequate operational data to provide the basis for future commercial activities, including hydrogen fueling stations. Work began with the execution of the cooperative agreement with DOE on 30 September 2001. During Phase 1, Air Products identified high-temperature fuel cells as having the potential to meet the coproduction targets, and the molten carbonate fuel cell system from FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FuelCell Energy) was selected by Air Products and DOE following the feasibility assessment performed during Phase 2. Detailed design, construction and shop validation testing of a system to produce 250 kW of electricity and 100 kilograms per day of hydrogen, along with site selection to include a renewable feedstock for the fuel cell, were completed in Phase 3. The system also completed six months of demonstration operation at the

  15. Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Pernice, W H P; Xiong, C; Baehr-Jones, T; Hochberg, M; Tang, H X

    2008-11-27

    The force exerted by photons is of fundamental importance in light-matter interactions. For example, in free space, optical tweezers have been widely used to manipulate atoms and microscale dielectric particles. This optical force is expected to be greatly enhanced in integrated photonic circuits in which light is highly concentrated at the nanoscale. Harnessing the optical force on a semiconductor chip will allow solid state devices, such as electromechanical systems, to operate under new physical principles. Indeed, recent experiments have elucidated the radiation forces of light in high-finesse optical microcavities, but the large footprint of these devices ultimately prevents scaling down to nanoscale dimensions. Recent theoretical work has predicted that a transverse optical force can be generated and used directly for electromechanical actuation without the need for a high-finesse cavity. However, on-chip exploitation of this force has been a significant challenge, primarily owing to the lack of efficient nanoscale mechanical transducers in the photonics domain. Here we report the direct detection and exploitation of transverse optical forces in an integrated silicon photonic circuit through an embedded nanomechanical resonator. The nanomechanical device, a free-standing waveguide, is driven by the optical force and read out through evanescent coupling of the guided light to the dielectric substrate. This new optical force enables all-optical operation of nanomechanical systems on a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor)-compatible platform, with substantial bandwidth and design flexibility compared to conventional electrical-based schemes.

  16. Integrated Station Executive requirements and systems design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Eugene L.; Morris, C. Doug

    1992-01-01

    The Avionics Office of the Space Station Projects Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is working to define and integrate end-to-end requirements for the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) space-ground operations. As part of these efforts, the project office has had the MITRE Corporation perform assessments and analyses in areas where they had particular concern. These areas include the changing concepts for test methodologies, the operation and performance of the communication protocols, end-to-end network management, and the Master Objects Data Base (MODB). Since the recent restructure of the space station design, a new software application, the Integrated Station Executive (ISE), has been established. This application is to act as an executive agent along with the crew and ground controllers, while replacing (or absorbing) many of the system management functions that required a home when distributed element management was eliminated. This document summarizes the current state of the ISE requirements and assesses the characteristics of the current design. MITRE's goals in this assessment and analysis is twofold: first, identify any internal inconsistencies in either the requirements or in the current design; and second, to examine the applicability of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) management standards. Inasmuch as the ISE has been defined as the executive or operations manager application within the integrated avionics of the space station, special attention is given to adapting OSI management for the specification of the ISE functions.

  17. Unmanned ground vehicles for integrated force protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Daniel M.; Mikell, Kenneth; Denewiler, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The combination of Command and Control (C2) systems with Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) provides Integrated Force Protection from the Robotic Operation Command Center. Autonomous UGVs are directed as Force Projection units. UGV payloads and fixed sensors provide situational awareness while unattended munitions provide a less-than-lethal response capability. Remote resources serve as automated interfaces to legacy physical devices such as manned response vehicles, barrier gates, fence openings, garage doors, and remote power on/off capability for unmanned systems. The Robotic Operations Command Center executes the Multiple Resource Host Architecture (MRHA) to simultaneously control heterogeneous unmanned systems. The MRHA graphically displays video, map, and status for each resource using wireless digital communications for integrated data, video, and audio. Events are prioritized and the user is prompted with audio alerts and text instructions for alarms and warnings. A control hierarchy of missions and duty rosters support autonomous operations. This paper provides an overview of the key technology enablers for Integrated Force Protection with details on a force-on-force scenario to test and demonstrate concept of operations using Unmanned Ground Vehicles. Special attention is given to development and applications for the Remote Detection Challenge and Response (REDCAR) initiative for Integrated Base Defense.

  18. Nonlinear structural analysis using integrated force method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R B Krishnam Raju; J Nagabhushanam

    2000-08-01

    Though the use of the integrated force method for linear investigations is well-recognised, no efforts were made to extend this method to nonlinear structural analysis. This paper presents the attempts to use this method for analysing nonlinear structures. General formulation of nonlinear structural analysis is given. Typically highly nonlinear bench-mark problems are considered. The characteristic matrices of the elements used in these problems are developed and later these structures are analysed. The results of the analysis are compared with the results of the displacement method. It has been demonstrated that the integrated force method is equally viable and efficient as compared to the displacement method.

  19. An Integrated Approach for Site Selection of Snow Measurement Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Saghafian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Snowmelt provides a reliable water resource for meeting domestic, agricultural, industrial and hydropower demands. Consequently, estimating the available snow water equivalent is essential for water resource management of snowy regions. Due to the spatiotemporal variability of the snowfall pattern in mountainous areas and difficult access to high altitudes areas, snow measurement is one of the most challenging hydro-meteorological data collection efforts. Development of an optimum snow measurement network is a complex task that requires integration of meteorological, hydrological, physiographical and economic studies. In this study, site selection of snow measurement stations is carried out through an integrated process using observed snow course data and analysis of historical snow cover images from National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR at both regional and local scales. Several important meteorological and hydrological factors, such as monthly and annual rainfall distribution, spatial distribution of average frequency of snow observation (FSO for two periods of snow falling and melting season, as well as priority contribution of sub-basins to annual snowmelt runoff are considered for selecting optimum station network. The FSO maps representing accumulation of snowfall during falling months and snowpack persistence during melting months are prepared in the GIS based on NOAA-AVHRR historical snow cover images. Basins are partitioned into 250 m elevation intervals such that within each interval, establishment of new stations or relocation/removing of the existing stations were proposed. The decision is made on the basis of the combination of meteorological, hydrological and satellite information. Economic aspects and road access constraints are also considered in determining the station type. Eventually, for the study area encompassing a number of large basins in southwest of Iran

  20. Self-tuning Integral Force Feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holterman, J.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Samali, Bijan

    2000-01-01

    A self-tuning procedure is proposed for an active structural element with collocated sensing and actuation (a so-called ‘Smart Disc’). The procedure aims at optimal active damping by means of Integral Force Feedback control. In case the behavior of the structure to be damped may be described by a

  1. Research on network integration technology of observation stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN; Yanjun; MA; Shangchang; ZHUANG; Ting; ZHANG; Sujuan

    2015-01-01

    According to the phenomenon of "four more"and"four low "problems in the observation stations,the surface-based meteorological observing system can’t adapt to the change of the adaptive observation equipment and reduce of business intensification. A station integrated system is proposed,w hich can be configured,connected and extended to all kinds of observation equipment. And the integrated processor is designed,supporting a variety of communication interface standards. Flexible configuration,connection and expansion betw een conventional and new type of meteorological observation equipment are supported. It is capable for online calibration and maintenance of observation equipment. The effectiveness of automatic observation equipment is totally achieved to provide basic information support for disaster prevention and mitigation and national economic development.

  2. Accurate integration of forced and damped oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    García Alonso, Fernando Luis; Cortés Molina, Mónica; Villacampa, Yolanda; Reyes Perales, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The new methods accurately integrate forced and damped oscillators. A family of analytical functions is introduced known as T-functions which are dependent on three parameters. The solution is expressed as a series of T-functions calculating their coefficients by means of recurrences which involve the perturbation function. In the T-functions series method the perturbation parameter is the factor in the local truncation error. Furthermore, this method is zero-stable and convergent. An applica...

  3. Operations Data Files, driving force behind International Space Station operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Ferra, Lionel; Markus, Michael; Wolff, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    Almost all tasks performed by the astronauts on-board the International Space Station (ISS) and by ground controllers in Mission Control Centre, from operation and maintenance of station systems to the execution of scientific experiments or high risk visiting vehicles docking manoeuvres, would not be possible without Operations Data Files (ODF). ODFs are the User Manuals of the Space Station and have multiple faces, going from traditional step-by-step procedures, scripts, cue cards, over displays, to software which guides the crew through the execution of certain tasks. Those key operational documents are standardized as they are used on-board the Space Station by an international crew constantly changing every 3 months. Furthermore this harmonization effort is paramount for consistency as the crew moves from one element to another in a matter of seconds, and from one activity to another. On ground, a significant large group of experts from all International Partners drafts, prepares reviews and approves on a daily basis all Operations Data Files, ensuring their timely availability on-board the ISS for all activities. Unavailability of these operational documents will halt the conduct of experiments or cancel milestone events. This paper will give an insight in the ground preparation work for the ODFs (with a focus on ESA ODF processes) and will present an overview on ODF formats and their usage within the ISS environment today and show how vital they are. Furthermore the focus will be on the recently implemented ODF features, which significantly ease the use of this documentation and improve the efficiency of the astronauts performing the tasks. Examples are short video demonstrations, interactive 3D animations, Execute Tailored Procedures (XTP-versions), tablet products, etc.

  4. Improved social force model based on exit selection for microscopic pedestrian simulation in subway station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勋; 李海鹰; 孟令云; 许心越; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    An improved social force model based on exit selection is proposed to simulate pedestrians’ microscopic behaviors in subway station. The modification lies in considering three factors of spatial distance, occupant density and exit width. In addition, the problem of pedestrians selecting exit frequently is solved as follows: not changing to other exits in the affected area of one exit, using the probability of remaining preceding exit and invoking function of exit selection after several simulation steps. Pedestrians in subway station have some special characteristics, such as explicit destinations, different familiarities with subway station. Finally, Beijing Zoo Subway Station is taken as an example and the feasibility of the model results is verified through the comparison of the actual data and simulation data. The simulation results show that the improved model can depict the microscopic behaviors of pedestrians in subway station.

  5. Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source (ORSNS) target station design integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamy, T.; Booth, R.; Cleaves, J.; Gabriel, T. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The conceptual design for a 1- to 3-MW short pulse spallation source with a liquid mercury target has been started recently. The design tools and methods being developed to define requirements, integrate the work, and provide early cost guidance will be presented with a summary of the current target station design status. The initial design point was selected with performance and cost estimate projections by a systems code. This code was developed recently using cost estimates from the Brookhaven Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source study and experience from the Advanced Neutron Source Project`s conceptual design. It will be updated and improved as the design develops. Performance was characterized by a simplified figure of merit based on a ratio of neutron production to costs. A work breakdown structure was developed, with simplified systems diagrams used to define interfaces and system responsibilities. A risk assessment method was used to identify potential problems, to identify required research and development (R&D), and to aid contingency development. Preliminary 3-D models of the target station are being used to develop remote maintenance concepts and to estimate costs.

  6. International Systems Integration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenmaier, William H.; Ticker, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    Over the next few months, the International Space Station (ISS), and human spaceflight in general, will undergo momentous change. The European Columbus and Japanese Kibo Laboratories will be added to the station joining U.S. and Russian elements already on orbit. Columbus, Jules Vernes Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and Kibo Control Centers will soon be joining control centers in the US and Russia in coordinating ISS operations and research. The Canadian Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) will be performing extra vehicular activities that previously only astronauts on EVA could do, but remotely and with increased safety. This paper will address the integration of these international elements and operations into the ISS, both from hardware and human perspectives. Interoperability of on-orbit systems and ground control centers and their human operators from Europe, Japan, Canada, Russia and the U.S. pose significant and unique challenges. Coordination of logistical support and transportation of crews and cargo is also a major challenge. As we venture out into the cosmos and inhabit the Moon and other planets, it's the systems and operational experience and partnership development on ISS, humanity's orbiting outpost that is making these journeys possible.

  7. Integrated Power and Attitude Control Systems for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglevie, R. E.; Eisenhaure, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Power and Attitude Control Systems (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously storing electrical energy in wheels and utilizing the resulting momentum for spacecraft attitude control. It was shown that such a system possessed many advantages over other contemporary energy storage and attitude control systems in many applications. More recent technology advances in composite rotors, magnetic bearings, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the feasibility and merits of such a system. The paper presents the results of a recent study whose focus was to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for the Space Station application. A system and component design concept is developed to establish the system performance capability. A system level trade study, including life-cycle costing, is performed to define the merits of the system relative to two other candidate systems. It is concluded that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible, but offers substantial savings in mass, and life-cycle cost.

  8. From city’s station to station city: an integrative spatial approach to the (re)development of station areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins da Conceição, A.

    2015-01-01

    The spaces of station areas do not fully achieve the liveability level sought out by recent redevelopment projects. Additionally, the role that architecture plays in their spatial definition seems to be constrained, likely because of the projects’ highly complex interdisciplinary planning processes.

  9. Task force for integral test of High Energy nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    According to completion of the JENDL-High Energy file for neutron nuclear cross sections up to 50 MeV, a task force for integral test of high energy nuclear data was organized to discuss a guide line for integral test activities. A status of existing differential and integral experiments and how to perform such a test were discussed in the task force. Here the purpose and outline of the task force is explained with some future problems raised in discussion among the task member. (author)

  10. Space station operations task force. Panel 2 report: Ground operations and support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Ground Operations Concept embodied in this report provides for safe multi-user utilization of the Space Station, eases user integration, and gives users autonomy and flexibility. It provides for meaningful multi-national participation while protecting U.S. interests. The concept also supports continued space operations technology development by maintaining NASA expertise and enabling technology evolution. Given attention here are pre/post flight operations, logistics, sustaining engineering/configuration management, transportation services/rescue, and information systems and communication.

  11. Adapted nested force-gradient integrators for the Schwinger model

    CERN Document Server

    Shcherbakov, Dmitry; Günther, Michael; Finkenrath, Jacob; Knechtli, Francesco; Peardon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study a novel class of numerical integrators, the adapted nested force-gradient schemes, used within the molecular dynamics step of the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm. We test these methods in the Schwinger model on the lattice, a well known benchmark problem. We derive the analytical basis of nested force-gradient type methods and demonstrate the advantage of the proposed approach, namely reduced computational costs compared with other numerical integration schemes in HMC.

  12. Robotic experiment with a force reflecting handcontroller onboard MIR space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, M.; Matzakis, Y.

    1994-01-01

    During the French CASSIOPEE mission that will fly onboard MIR space station in 1996, ergonomic evaluations of a force reflecting handcontroller will be performed on a simulated robotic task. This handcontroller is a part of the COGNILAB payload that will be used also for experiments in neurophysiology. The purpose of the robotic experiment is the validation of a new control and design concept that would enhance the task performances for telemanipulating space robots. Besides the handcontroller and its control unit, the experimental system includes a simulator of the slave robot dynamics for both free and constrained motions, a flat display screen and a seat with special fixtures for holding the astronaut.

  13. Air Force Research Laboratory Integrated Omics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    the goals of Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is the development of new methods to assess warfighter performance by using advanced...Objective (DTO) project. The research project (MD.34 Biotechnology for Near-Real-Time Predictive Toxicology ) aimed to identify biomarkers of toxicity...Technology, established in discovery work in 2001, and has provided technical support to many researchers in the Department of Defense (DoD). The

  14. EU Integrated Tokamak Modelling (ITM) Task Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Becoulet

    2007-01-01

    @@ At the end of 2003, the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) structure set-up a long-term European task force (TF) in charge of "co-ordinating the development of a coherent set of validated simulation tools for the purpose of benchmarking on existing tokamak experiments, with the ultimate aim of providing a comprehensive simulation package for ITER plasmas" [http://www.efda-taskforce-itm.org/].

  15. Report by the International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation (IMCE) Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A. Thomas; Kellogg, Yvonne (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation Task Force (IMCE) was chartered to conduct an independent external review and assessment of the ISS cost, budget, and management. In addition, the Task Force was asked to provide recommendations that could provide maximum benefit to the U.S. taxpayers and the International Partners within the President's budget request. The Task Force has made the following principal findings: (1) The ISS Program's technical achievements to date, as represented by on-orbit capability, are extraordinary; (2) The Existing ISS Program Plan for executing the FY 02-06 budget is not credible; (3) The existing deficiencies in management structure, institutional culture, cost estimating, and program control must be acknowledged and corrected for the Program to move forward in a credible fashion; (4) Additional budget flexibility, from within the Office of Space Flight (OSF) must be provided for a credible core complete program; (5) The research support program is proceeding assuming the budget that was in place before the FY02 budget runout reduction of $1B; (6) There are opportunities to maximize research on the core station program with modest cost impact; (7) The U.S. Core Complete configuration (three person crew) as an end-state will not achieve the unique research potential of the ISS; (8) The cost estimates for the U.S.-funded enhancement options (e.g., permanent seven person crew) are not sufficiently developed to assess credibility. After these findings, the Task Force has formulated several primary recommendations which are published here and include: (1) Major changes must be made in how the ISS program is managed; (2) Additional cost reductions are required within the baseline program; (3) Additional funds must be identified and applied from the Human Space Flight budget; (4) A clearly defined program with a credible end-state, agreed to by all stakeholders, must be developed and implemented.

  16. Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales ranging from individual particles to its contribution to the regional climate forcing. This study integrates the multiplatform observations (satellites, aircraft, ships, surface stations, and balloons) with one- and four-dimensional models to derive the regional aerosol forcing resulting...

  17. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595.... The regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  18. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  19. Human Systems Integration: Unmanned Aircraft Control Station Certification Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides guidance to the FAA on important human factors considerations that can be used to support the certification of a UAS Aircraft Control Station (ACS). This document provides a synopsis of the human factors analysis, design and test activities to be performed to provide a basis for FAA certification. The data from these analyses, design activities, and tests, along with data from certification/qualification tests of other key components should be used to establish the ACS certification basis. It is expected that this information will be useful to manufacturers in developing the ACS Certification Plan,, and in supporting the design of their ACS.

  20. Simulation of bidirectional pedestrian flow in transfer station corridor based on multi forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪梅; 纪翔峰; 黄凰; 杨晓光

    2014-01-01

    A good understanding of pedestrian movement in the transfer corridor is vital for the planning and design of the station, especially for efficiency and safety.A multi-force vector grid model was presented to simulate the movement of bidirectional pedestrian flow based on cellular automata and forces between pedestrians. The model improves rule-based characteristics of cellular automata, details forces between pedestrians and solves pedestrian collisions by a several-step updating method to simulate pedestrian movements. Two general scenarios in corridor were simulated. One is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation with isolation facility, and the other is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation without isolation facility, where there exists disturbance in the middle. Through simulation, some facts can be seen that pedestrians in the case with isolation facility have the largest speed and pedestrians in the case without isolation facility have the smallest speed; pedestrians in the case of unidirectional flow have the largest volume and pedestrians in the case of without isolation facility have the smallest volume.

  1. Integrated Circuit Readout for the Silicon Sensor Test Station

    CERN Document Server

    Atkin, E; Silaev, A; Fedenko, A; Karmanov, D; Merkin, M; Voronin, A

    2009-01-01

    Various chips for the silicon sensors measurements are described. These chips are based on 0.35 um and 0.18um CMOS technology. Several analog chips together with self-trigger /derandomizer one allow to measure silicon sensors designed for different purposes. Tracking systems, calorimeters, particle charge measurement system and other application sensors can be investigated by the integrated circuit readout with laser or radioactive sources. Also electrical parameters of silicon sensors can be studied by such test setup.

  2. Application of Stochastic Sensitivity Analysis to Integrated Force Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. F. Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new formulation in structural analysis, Integrated Force Method has been successfully applied to many structures for civil, mechanical, and aerospace engineering due to the accurate estimate of forces in computation. Right now, it is being further extended to the probabilistic domain. For the assessment of uncertainty effect in system optimization and identification, the probabilistic sensitivity analysis of IFM was further investigated in this study. A set of stochastic sensitivity analysis formulation of Integrated Force Method was developed using the perturbation method. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate its application. Its efficiency and accuracy were also substantiated with direct Monte Carlo simulations and the reliability-based sensitivity method. The numerical algorithm was shown to be readily adaptable to the existing program since the models of stochastic finite element and stochastic design sensitivity are almost identical.

  3. Reinventing the International Space Station Payload Integration Processes and Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rod; Price, Carmen; Copeland, Scott; Geiger, Wade; Geiger, Wade; Rice, Amanda; Lauchner, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental ISS payload integration philosophy, processes and capabilities were established in the context of how NASA science programs were conducted and executed in the early 1990 s. Today, with the designation of the United States (US) portion of ISS as a National Lab, the ISS payload customer base is growing to include other government agencies, private and commercial research. The fields of research are becoming more diverse expanding from the NASA centric physical, materials and human research sciences to test beds for exploration and technology demonstration, biology and biotechnology, and as an Earth and Space science platform. This new customer base has a broader more diverse set of expectations and requirements for payload design, verification, integration, test, training, and operations. One size fits all processes are not responsive to this broader customer base. To maintain an organization s effectiveness it must listen to its customers, understand their needs, learn from its mistakes, and foster an environment of continual process improvement. The ISS Payloads office is evolving to meet these new customer expectations.

  4. The FCF Combustion Integrated Rack: Microgravity Combustion Science Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMalley, Terence F.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of three facility payload racks being developed for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). Most microgravity combustion experiments will be performed onboard the Space Station in the Combustion Integrated Rack. Experiment-specific equipment will be installed on orbit in the CIR to customize it to perform many different scientific experiments during the ten or more years that it will operate on orbit. This paper provides an overview of the CIR, including a description of its preliminary design and planned accommodations for microgravity combustion science experiments, and descriptions of the combustion science experiments currently planned for the CIR.

  5. Final Environmental Assessment Construction of New Recreational Lodging at Bellows Air Force Station O’ahu, Hawai’i

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    nests and hatchlings are susceptible to predation by feral mammals [small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus), cats (Felis catus), dogs...dogs; (2) Wildlife Services trap and control feral animals at Bellows Air force Station; (3) and there is existing signage at beach locations that

  6. A Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference abstract describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violatioas.The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean end peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  7. Integrated base stations and a method of transmitting data units in a communications system for mobile devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.; Narlikar, G.J.; Samuel, L.G.; Yagati, L.N.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated base stations and a method of transmitting data units in a communications system for mobile devices. In one embodiment, an integrated base station includes a communications processor having a protocol stack configured with a media access control layer and a physical layer.

  8. Computer-integrated quality management system for power stations. Computer-integriertes Qualitaetsmanagementsystem fuer Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, K.H.; Scheurer, K.; Meinhardt, H. (Siemens AG, Offenbach (Germany). Abt. Qualitaetssicherung)

    1993-03-01

    Conventional CAQ systems, which were developed for monitoring mass production, are not very suitable for quality assurance in the construction and operation of plant and power stations. Long life products have to be monitored in plant and power station construction, which were manufactured in small batches for individually. So that the quality of these products can be monitored and can be assured economically and reliably by preventive maintenance measures, it is necessary to combine the plant documentation, repeated tests and repair or replacement measures in a 'computer-integrated quality management system'. For large complex plants, such as power stations, an operation guidance system was developed which includes all important plant information and makes it available in a user-friendly way to the concern's management. The article introduces this system. (orig.).

  9. Validation of a station-prototype designed to integrate temporally soil N2O fluxes: IPNOA Station prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laville, Patricia; Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Virgili, Giorgio; Neri, Simone; Continanza, Davide; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) flux measurements from agricultural soil surface still accounts for the scientific community as major challenge. The evaluations of integrated soil N2O fluxes are difficult because these emissions are lower than for the other greenhouse gases sources (CO2, CH4). They are also sporadic, because highly dependent on few environmental conditions acting as limiting factors. Within a LIFE project (IPNOA: LIFE11 ENV/IT/00032) a station prototype was developed to integrate annually N2O and CO2 emissions using automatically chamber technique. Main challenge was to develop a device enough durable to be able of measuring in continuous way CO2 and N2O fluxes with sufficient sensitivity to allow make reliable assessments of soil GHG measurements with minimal technical field interventions. The IPNOA station prototype was developed by West System SRL and was set up during 2 years (2014 -2015) in an experimental maize field in Tuscan. The prototype involved six automatic chambers; the complete measurement cycle was of 2 hours. Each chamber was closing during 20 min and biogas accumulations were monitoring in line with IR spectrometers. Auxiliary's measurements including soil temperatures and water contents as weather data were also monitoring. All data were managed remotely with the same acquisition software installed in the prototype control unit. The operation of the prototype during the two cropping years allowed testing its major features: its ability to evaluate the temporal variation of N2O soil fluxes during a long period with weather conditions and agricultural managements and to prove the interest to have continuous measurements of fluxes. The temporal distribution of N2O fluxes indicated that emissions can be very large and discontinuous over short periods less ten days and that during about 70% of the time N2O fluxes were around detection limit of the instrumentation, evaluated to 2 ng N ha-1 day-1. N2O emission factor assessments were 1.9% in 2014

  10. Integral bubble and jet models with pressure forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfson, A. N.; Nikolaev, P. V.

    2017-07-01

    Modifications of integral bubble and jet models including the pressure force are proposed. Exact solutions are found for the modified model of a stationary convective jet from a point source of buoyancy and momentum. The exact solutions are compared against analytical solutions of the integral models for a stationary jet that are based on the approximation of the vertical boundary layer. It is found that the modified integral models of convective jets retain the power-law dependences on the altitude for the vertical velocity and buoyancy obtained in classical models. For a buoyant jet in a neutrally stratified atmosphere, the inclusion of the pressure force increases the amplitude of buoyancy and decreases the amplitude of vertical velocity. The total amplitude change is about 10%. It is shown that in this model there is a dynamic invariant expressing the law of a uniform distribution of the potential and kinetic energy along the jet axis. For a spontaneous jet rising in an unstably stratified atmosphere, the inclusion of the pressure force retains the amplitude of buoyancy and increases the amplitude of vertical velocity by about 15%. It is shown that in the model of a spontaneous jet there is a dynamic invariant expressing the law of a uniform distribution of the available potential and kinetic energy along the jet axis. The results are of interest for the problems of anthropogenic pollution diffusion in the air and water environments and the formulation of models for statistical and stochastic ensembles of thermals in a mass-flux parameterization of turbulent moments.

  11. Space Station Freedom electric power system photovoltaic power module integrated launch package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Theodore H.; Clemens, Donald D.; Spatz, Raymond R.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the Space Station Freedom solar power module requires a weight efficient structure that will include large components within the limited load capacity of the Space Shuttle cargo bay. The design iterations to meet these requirements have evolved from a proposal concept featuring a separate cradle and integrated equipment assembly (IEA), to a package that interfaces directly with the Shuttle. Size, weight, and cost have been reduced as a result.

  12. Improving energy performance power station of ship with integrated electric propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar’enkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the method of calculating the power plant fuel consumption on the basis of diesel-generating installation (DGI with variable speed for ships with integrated electric propulsion. Application DGI with variable speed allows saving fuel and therefore reducing harmful emissions into the atmosphere. In the paper calculated the fuel efficiency of unified power station on the basis of a variable speed DGI power of 1000 kW.

  13. Primal and Dual Integrated Force Methods Used for Stochastic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.

    2005-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the primal and dual integrated force methods are being extended for the stochastic analysis of structures. The stochastic simulation can be used to quantify the consequence of scatter in stress and displacement response because of a specified variation in input parameters such as load (mechanical, thermal, and support settling loads), material properties (strength, modulus, density, etc.), and sizing design variables (depth, thickness, etc.). All the parameters are modeled as random variables with given probability distributions, means, and covariances. The stochastic response is formulated through a quadratic perturbation theory, and it is verified through a Monte Carlo simulation.

  14. Briefing Number 3 to Space Station Operations Task Force Oversight Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Peter; Shelley, Carl

    1987-01-01

    This document reviews certain issues in relationship to the operation of the Space Station Freedom. The document is in outline format and includes some organizational hierarchy charts, pert charts and decision charts.

  15. Tire Force Estimation using a Proportional Integral Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Ahmad; Koenig, Damien; Hernandez-Alcantara, Diana; Morales-Menendez, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses a method for detecting critical stability situations in the lateral vehicle dynamics by estimating the non-linear part of the tire forces. These forces indicate the road holding performance of the vehicle. The estimation method is based on a robust fault detection and estimation approach which minimize the disturbance and uncertainties to residual sensitivity. It consists in the design of a Proportional Integral Observer (PIO), while minimizing the well known H ∞ norm for the worst case uncertainties and disturbance attenuation, and combining a transient response specification. This multi-objective problem is formulated as a Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI) feasibility problem where a cost function subject to LMI constraints is minimized. This approach is employed to generate a set of switched robust observers for uncertain switched systems, where the convergence of the observer is ensured using a Multiple Lyapunov Function (MLF). Whilst the forces to be estimated can not be physically measured, a simulation scenario with CarSimTM is presented to illustrate the developed method.

  16. The role of competitive forces in integrated resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, E.; Goldman, C.

    1991-10-01

    In this report, we study the potential for competitive forces to enhance the efficiency of integrated resource planning and produce consumer cost reductions. We examine the efficiency gains from competition in the private power market, and ask whether similar forces can be successful on the demand-side of the market. The goal of this analysis is to identify and elucidate options available to state Public Utility Commissions (PUCs) to support competition in utility demand-side management programs to achieve efficiencies similar to those being achieved through development of competitive forces on the supply-side of the industry. We consider the entire market structure from upstream suppliers to distribution intermediaries to ultimate consumers. The market structure differs substantially between the demand-side and the supply-side of the electricity market. Demand-site electricity markets have a longer distribution chain and more intermediaries than the supply-side, which is attributable in part to the ultimately retail nature of demand and the wholesale nature of supply, and in part indicates market failures.

  17. Joint force protection advanced security system (JFPASS) "the future of force protection: integrate and automate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Carlos E.; Fagan, Joe E.

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Defense (DoD) defines 'force protection' as "preventive measures taken to mitigate hostile actions against DoD personnel (to include family members), resources, facilities, and critical information." Advanced technologies enable significant improvements in automating and distributing situation awareness, optimizing operator time, and improving sustainability, which enhance protection and lower costs. The JFPASS Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) demonstrates a force protection environment that combines physical security and Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE) defense through the application of integrated command and control and data fusion. The JFPASS JCTD provides a layered approach to force protection by integrating traditional sensors used in physical security, such as video cameras, battlefield surveillance radars, unmanned and unattended ground sensors. The optimization of human participation and automation of processes is achieved by employment of unmanned ground vehicles, along with remotely operated lethal and less-than-lethal weapon systems. These capabilities are integrated via a tailorable, user-defined common operational picture display through a data fusion engine operating in the background. The combined systems automate the screening of alarms, manage the information displays, and provide assessment and response measures. The data fusion engine links disparate sensors and systems, and applies tailored logic to focus the assessment of events. It enables timely responses by providing the user with automated and semi-automated decision support tools. The JFPASS JCTD uses standard communication/data exchange protocols, which allow the system to incorporate future sensor technologies or communication networks, while maintaining the ability to communicate with legacy or existing systems.

  18. Brazilian Air Force aircraft structural integrity program: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto W. S. Mello Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the activities developed by the Structural Integrity Group at the Institute of Aeronautics and Space - IAE, Brazil, as well as the status of ongoing work related to the life extension program for aircraft operated by the Brazilian Air Force BAF. The first BAF-operated airplane to undergo a DTA-based life extension was the F-5 fighter, in the mid 1990s. From 1998 to 2001, BAF worked on a life extension project for the BAF AT- 26 Xavante trainer. All analysis and tests were performed at IAE. The fatigue critical locations (FCLs were presumed based upon structural design and maintenance data and also from exchange of technical information with other users of the airplane around the world. Following that work, BAF started in 2002 the extension of the operational life of the BAF T-25 “Universal”. The T-25 is the basic training airplane used by AFA - The Brazilian Air Force Academy. This airplane was also designed under the “safe-life” concept. As the T-25 fleet approached its service life limit, the Brazilian Air Force was questioning whether it could be kept in flight safely. The answer came through an extensive Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA program, briefly described in this paper. The current work on aircraft structural integrity is being performed for the BAF F-5 E/F that underwent an avionics and weapons system upgrade. Along with the increase in weight, new configurations and mission profiles were established. Again, a DTA program was proposed to be carried out in order to establish the reliability of the upgraded F-5 fleet. As a result of all the work described, the BAF has not reported any accident due to structural failure on aircraft submitted to Damage Tolerance Analysis.

  19. Integration of a force feedback joystick with a VR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report shows the result carried out at the Robotics and Information Systems Division of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the Casaccia Centre (Rome). The study presents an approach to the problem of integrating force feedback with a complete real-time virtual environment system: in particular bulky computations for graphics or simulation require a decoupling of the haptic servo loop from the main application loop if high-quality forces are to be obtained. The control system has been developed for the force-feedback joystick Impulse 2000, from Immersion Co., and the integration of it to a virtual environment is presented here. Technical issues related to the development of control architectures for Internet-based exchange of haptic information, in a stable way are discussed. [Italian] Il presente rapporto descrive il lavoro eseguito nella divisione robotica e informatica del dipartimento innovazione dell'ENEA del centro ricerche della Casaccia (Roma): il sistema di controllo del dispositivo con ritorno di forza in un sistema RV (real-time virtual environment system) ed illustra l'approccio a questa problematica ed in particolare la lentezza di esecuzione del ciclo di calcoli per la resa delle immagini da parte del sistema grafico e del ciclio per la simulazione della dinamica di sistema. Viene descritto il sistema di controllo per il joystick con ritorno di forza Impulse 2000 (Immersion Co.) e la sua integrazione ad un ambiente virtuale. Sono inoltre discusse le problematiche connesse allo sviluppo di sistemi che consentano lo scambio dell'informazione tattile attraverso Internet.

  20. Army Air Force Exchange Service Service (AAFES) Station Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida Final Tiered Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    Shoppette/ Gas Station at Tyndal l AFB. Florida. Th is project is located just inside the Main Gate on Ill inois Avenue (Figure 2). The Shoppette will...include a retai l store. class six, and a Blimpics. The proposed prc~jec t would consist of one bui lding. a canopied gas di spensing island and paved...ze two underground storag~: tanks f()r storage of tv.:o grades of unleaded fue l. Tank sizes ’"’·ould he 20.000 Regular Unleaded and 15.000 Premium

  1. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  2. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  3. Integrating stations from the North America Gravity Database into a local GPS-based land gravity survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoberg, Thomas G.; Stoddard, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to augment local gravity surveys with additional gravity stations from easily accessible national databases can greatly increase the areal coverage and spatial resolution of a survey. It is, however, necessary to integrate such data seamlessly with the local survey. One challenge to overcome in integrating data from national databases is that these data are typically of unknown quality. This study presents a procedure for the evaluation and seamless integration of gravity data of unknown quality from a national database with data from a local Global Positioning System (GPS)-based survey. The starting components include the latitude, longitude, elevation and observed gravity at each station location. Interpolated surfaces of the complete Bouguer anomaly are used as a means of quality control and comparison. The result is an integrated dataset of varying quality with many stations having GPS accuracy and other reliable stations of unknown origin, yielding a wider coverage and greater spatial resolution than either survey alone.

  4. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, S.D.; Shafer, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the construction phase for the new Polk Power Station, Unit {number_sign}1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for power generation. The unit will utilize oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle technology, to provide nominal net 26OMW of generation. As part of the environmental features of this process, the sulfur species in the coal will be recovered as a commercial grade sulfuric acid by-product. The sulfur will be removed from the synthesis gas utilizing a cold gas clean-up system (CGCU).

  5. The impact of integrated water management on the Space Station propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.

    1987-01-01

    The water usage of elements in the Space Station integrated water system (IWS) is discussed, and the parameters affecting the overall water balance and the water-electrolysis propulsion-system requirements are considered. With nominal IWS operating characteristics, extra logistic water resupply (LWR) is found to be unnecessary in the satisfaction of the nominal propulsion requirements. With the consideration of all possible operating characteristics, LWR will not be required in 65.5 percent of the cases, and for 17.9 percent of the cases LWR can be eliminated by controlling the stay time of theShuttle Orbiter orbiter.

  6. Final Environmental Assessment: Implementation of the Natural Resources Management Program Clear Air Force Station, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    glacial meltwater outwash. The outwash is a wedge-shaped fan, sloping downward from the south (the source of the outwash) to the north, the direction of...with many interlaced sinuous channels, terraces, and banks that formed during glacial meltwater outwash deposition. Local elevation differences of...constructed in Thule, Greenland , and Fylingdales, England. Construction of the microwave radar facilities at Clear AFS began in 1958 and the station

  7. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  8. Data Distribution System (DDS) and Solar Dynamic Observatory Ground Station (SDOGS) Integration Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Kim; Bialas, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The DDS SDOGS Integration Manager (DSIM) provides translation between native control and status formats for systems within DDS and SDOGS, and the ASIST (Advanced Spacecraft Integration and System Test) control environment in the SDO MOC (Solar Dynamics Observatory Mission Operations Center). This system was created in response for a need to centralize remote monitor and control of SDO Ground Station equipments using ASIST control environment in SDO MOC, and to have configurable table definition for equipment. It provides translation of status and monitoring information from the native systems into ASIST-readable format to display on pages in the MOC. The manager is lightweight, user friendly, and efficient. It allows data trending, correlation, and storing. It allows using ASIST as common interface for remote monitor and control of heterogeneous equipments. It also provides failover capability to back up machines.

  9. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... enforced by the Commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida and/or such persons or agencies... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  10. International Space Station Program Phase 3 Integrated Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Franks, G. D.; Knox, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Testing of the International Space Station (ISS) U.S. Segment baseline configuration of the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was conducted as part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design and development program. This testing was designed to answer specific questions regarding the control and performance of the baseline ARS subassemblies in the ISS U.S. Segment configuration. These questions resulted from the continued maturation of the ISS ECLSS configuration and design requirement changes since 1992. The test used pressurized oxygen injection, a mass spectrometric major constituent analyzer, a Four-Bed Molecular Sieve Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, and a Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly to maintain the atmospheric composition in a sealed chamber at ISS specifications for 30 days. Human metabolic processes for a crew of four were simulated according to projected ISS mission time lines. The performance of a static feed water electrolysis Oxygen Generator Assembly was investigated during the test preparation phases; however, technical difficulties prevented its use during the integrated test. The Integrated ARS Test (IART) program built upon previous closed-door and open-door integrated testing conducted at MSFC between 1987 and 1992. It is the most advanced test of an integrated ARS conducted by NASA to demonstrate its end-to-end control and overall performance. IART test objectives, facility design, pretest analyses, test and control requirements, and test results are presented.

  11. The Concept of EV’s Intelligent Integrated Station and Its Energy Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs connected to existing distribution networks as time-variant loads cause significant distortions in line current and voltage. A novel EV’s intelligent integrated station (IIS making full use of retired batteries is introduced in this paper to offer a potential solution for accommodating the charging demand of EVs. It proposes the concept of generalized energy in IIS, based on the energy/power flow between IIS and EVs, and between IIS and the power grid, to systematically evaluate the energy capacity of IIS. In order to derive a unique and satisfactory operation mode, information from both the grid (in terms of load level and IIS (in terms of its energy capacity and EVs battery charging/exchanging requests is merged. Then, based on the generalized energy of different systems, a novel charging/discharging control strategy is presented and whereby the operating status of the grid and energy capacity of IIS are monitored to make reasonable operation plans for IIS. Simulation results suggest that the proposed IIS offers peak load shifting when EV battery charging/exchanging requests are satisfied compared to existing charging stations.

  12. Integrated locating of helicopter stations and helipads for wounded transfer under demand location uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgi-Amiri, Ali; Tavakoli, Shayan; Mirzaeipour, Hossein; Rabbani, Masoud

    2017-03-01

    Health emergency medical service (HEMS) plays an important role in reducing injuries by providing advanced medical care in the shortest time and reducing the transfer time to advanced treatment centers. In the regions without ground relief coverage, it would be faster to transfer emergency patients to the hospital by a helicopter. In this paper, an integer nonlinear programming model is presented for the integrated locating of helicopter stations and helipads by considering uncertainty in demand points. We assume three transfer modes: (1) direct transfer by an ambulance, (2) transfer by an ambulance to a helicopter station and then to the hospital by a helicopter, (3) transfer by an ambulance to a predetermined point and then to the hospital by a helicopter. We also assume that demands occur in a square-shaped area, in which each side follows a uniform distribution. It is also assumed that demands in an area decrease errors in the distances between each two cities. The purpose of this model is to minimize the transfer time from demand points to the hospital by considering different modes. The proposed model is examined in terms of validity and applicability in Lorestan Province and a sensitivity analysis is also conducted on the total allocated budget. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Update to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool in Use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equaitions showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  14. Update to the Lightning Probability Forecast Equations at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May- September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  15. Update to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool in use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2013-01-01

    This conference poster describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  16. Modifications to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2010-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) includes the probability of lightning occurrence in their 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts, briefed at 0700 EDT for daily operations planning on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and CCAFS. This forecast is based on subjective analyses of model and observational data and output from an objective tool developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU). This tool was developed over two phases (Lambert and Wheeler 2005, Lambert 2007). It consists of five equations, one for each warm season month (May-Sep), that calculate the probability of lightning occurrence for the day and a graphical user interface (GUI) to display the output. The Phase I and II equations outperformed previous operational tools by a total of 56%. Based on this success, the 45 WS tasked the AMU with Phase III to improve the tool further.

  17. Structural integrity analysis of the degraded drywell containment at the Oyster Creek Nuclear generating station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Jason P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the degradation experienced in the steel drywell containment at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Specifically, the structural integrity of the containment shell is examined in terms of the stress limits using the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, Section III, Division I, Subsection NE, and examined in terms of buckling (stability) using the ASME B&PV Code Case N-284. Degradation of the steel containment shell (drywell) at Oyster Creek was first observed during an outage in the mid-1980s. Subsequent inspections discovered reductions in the shell thickness due to corrosion throughout the containment. Specifically, significant corrosion occurred in the sandbed region of the lower sphere. Since the presence of the wet sand provided an environment which supported corrosion, a series of analyses were conducted by GE Nuclear Energy in the early 1990s. These analyses examined the effects of the degradation on the structural integrity. The current study adopts many of the same assumptions and data used in the previous GE study. However, the additional computational recourses available today enable the construction of a larger and more sophisticated structural model.

  18. The Death of Psychology: Integral & Fifth Force Psychologies. Technical Paper No. 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose here is to translate the Fifth Force Psychologies movement through an integral (Wilberian) lens. One of the most significant impacts of doing this comes from the integral initiative, which has led to Ken Wilber arguing "Psychology is dead." Concomitantly, his view is that the "integral approach" is its replacement. This move…

  19. Objective Lightning Probability Forecasting for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Five logistic regression equations were created that predict the probability of cloud-to-ground lightning occurrence for the day in the KSC/CCAFS area for each month in the warm season. These equations integrated the results from several studies over recent years to improve thunderstorm forecasting at KSC/CCAFS. All of the equations outperform persistence, which is known to outperform NPTI, the current objective tool used in 45 WS lightning forecasting operations. The equations also performed well in other tests. As a result, the new equations will be added to the current set of tools used by the 45 WS to determine the probability of lightning for their daily planning forecast. The results from these equations are meant to be used as first-guess guidance when developing the lightning probability forecast for the day. They provide an objective base from which forecasters can use other observations, model data, consultation with other forecasters, and their own experience to create the final lightning probability for the 1100 UTC briefing.

  20. Stabilization Operations Through Military Capacity Building-Integration Between Danish Conventional Forces and Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    N.Y: Frank Cass Publishers, 1998), 82–83. 146 Adams, US. Special Operations Forces in Action, 84–85. 147 Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam, 69...liaison teams, which were considered an important factor in the development of the Afghan National Army ( ANA ). Operational mentoring and liaison...Chief of Defence. Adams, Thomas K. U.S. Special Operations Forces in Action: The Challenge of Unconventional Warfare. New York: Frank Cass Publishers

  1. Atomic force microscope with integrated optical microscope for biological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) is capable of imaging nonconducting surfaces, the technique holds great promises for high‐resolution imaging of biological specimens. A disadvantage of most AFMs is the fact that the relatively large sample surface has to be scanned multiple times to pinpoint a

  2. Atomic force microscope featuring an integrated optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to image the surface of both conductors and nonconductors. Biological specimens constitute a large group of nonconductors. A disadvantage of most AFM's is the fact that relatively large areas of the sample surface have to be scanned to pinpoint a biological

  3. Innovating to integrate the intangibles into the learning Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Benjamin T; Weigel, Fred K; Overstreet, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    United States federal law and other regulations require the US military services to provide professional military education to their forces. Meeting that requirement will become increasingly difficult with the absence of a federal government budget, significant cuts to defense spending, and expected future cuts to both defense spending and manpower. Additionally, the operations tempo remains high despite the withdrawal of troops from Iraq and the planned withdrawal from Afghanistan. The resulting time and budget constraints will likely make it more difficult for the services to provide every member with the opportunity to compete for positions in coveted in-residence professional military education programs. Thus, the Air Force is considering a new lifetime learning approach to professional military education. As the Air Force seeks to develop its new paradigm, we must understand what benefits of the current system should be retained and what drawbacks should be allayed. Unfortunately, there is little research in this area. We content analyze data collected from Air Force officers attending in-residence professional military education, synthesize our findings with education and technology literature, and suggest innovative technologies that can maximize the intangible benefits and minimize the drawbacks of professional military education. The blended approach we present can create a richer, more meaningful learning experience for the service member, while simultaneously lowering the cost per member and providing greater opportunity to attend in-residence professional military education.

  4. Hybrid viscous damper with filtered integral force feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    In hybrid damper systems active control devices are usually introduced to enhance the performance of otherwise passive dampers. In the present paper a hybrid damper concept is comprised of a passive viscous damper placed in series with an active actuator and a force sensor. The actuator motion...

  5. Magnetic force micropiston: An integrated force/microfluidic device for the application of compressive forces in a confined environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. K.; Kleckner, N.

    2014-02-01

    Cellular biology takes place inside confining spaces. For example, bacteria grow in crevices, red blood cells squeeze through capillaries, and chromosomes replicate inside the nucleus. Frequently, the extent of this confinement varies. Bacteria grow longer and divide, red blood cells move through smaller and smaller passages as they travel to capillary beds, and replication doubles the amount of DNA inside the nucleus. This increase in confinement, either due to a decrease in the available space or an increase in the amount of material contained in a constant volume, has the potential to squeeze and stress objects in ways that may lead to changes in morphology, dynamics, and ultimately biological function. Here, we describe a device developed to probe the interplay between confinement and the mechanical properties of cells and cellular structures, and forces that arise due to changes in a structure's state. In this system, the manipulation of a magnetic bead exerts a compressive force upon a target contained in the confining space of a microfluidic channel. This magnetic force microfluidic piston is constructed in such a way that we can measure (a) target compliance and changes in compliance as induced by changes in buffer, extract, or biochemical composition, (b) target expansion force generated by changes in the same parameters, and (c) the effects of compression stress on a target's structure and function. Beyond these issues, our system has general applicability to a variety of questions requiring the combination of mechanical forces, confinement, and optical imaging.

  6. Integrating Carbon Nanotubes For Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qi; Cassell, Alan M.; Liu, Hongbing; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) related nanostructures possess remarkable electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties. To produce these nanostructures for real world applications, a large-scale controlled growth of carbon nanotubes is crucial for the integration and fabrication of nanodevices and nanosensors. We have taken the approach of integrating nanopatterning and nanomaterials synthesis with traditional silicon micro fabrication techniques. This integration requires a catalyst or nanomaterial protection scheme. In this paper, we report our recent work on fabricating wafer-scale carbon nanotube AFM cantilever probe tips. We will address the design and fabrication considerations in detail, and present the preliminary scanning probe test results. This work may serve as an example of rational design, fabrication, and integration of nanomaterials for advanced nanodevice and nanosensor applications.

  7. Integrated Ultra-Wideband Tracking and Carbon Dioxide Sensing System Design for International Space Station Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun (David); Hafermalz, David; Dusl, John; Barton, Rick; Wagner, Ray; Ngo, Phong

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time-of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide (CO2) and felt upset. Recent findings indicate that frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. To evaluate the risks associated with transient elevated CO2 levels and design effective countermeasures, doctors must have access to frequent CO2 measurements in the immediate vicinity of individual crew members along with simultaneous measurements of their location in the space environment. To achieve this goal, a small, low-power, wearable system that integrates an accurate CO2 sensor with an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio capable of real-time location estimation and data communication is proposed. This system would be worn by crew members or mounted on a free-flyer and would automatically gather and transmit sampled sensor data tagged with real-time, high-resolution location information. Under the current proposed effort, a breadboard prototype of such a system has been developed. Although the initial effort is targeted to CO2 monitoring, the concept is applicable to other types of sensors. For the initial effort, a micro-controller is leveraged to integrate a low-power CO2 sensor with a commercially available UWB radio system with ranging capability. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested

  8. Mixed time integration schemes for transient conduction forced-convection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. K.; Lin, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    A partition procedure for forced-convection conduction transient problems is presented. Mixed time partitions are defined wherein coupled conduction force-matrix equations are discretized using an implicit integration method, followed by derivation of a mixed time integration technique. Explicit-implicit and explicit-explicit partitions are performed for a stability analysis for transient conditions, e.g., those found in an actively air-cooled engine and airframe structure.

  9. An Integrated Strategy Framework (ISF) for Combining Porter's 5-Forces, Diamond, PESTEL, and SWOT Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Roman

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Porter's Five-Forces, Porter's Diamond, PESTEL, the 6th-Forths, and Humphrey's SWOT analysis are among the most important and popular concepts taught in business schools around the world. A new integrated strategy framework (ISF) combines all major concepts. PURPOSE Porter's Five-Forces, Porter's Diamond, PESTEL, the 6th-Forths, and Humphrey's SWOT analysis are among the most important and popular concepts taught in business schools around the world. A new integrated strategy fr...

  10. Developing a Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, WInifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  11. Developing Empirical Lightning Cessation Forecast Guidance for the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses the 45th Weather Squadron's (45WS) need for improved guidance regarding lightning cessation at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). KSC's Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) network was the primary observational tool to investigate both cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning. Five statistical and empirical schemes were created from LDAR, sounding, and radar parameters derived from 116 storms. Four of the five schemes were unsuitable for operational use since lightning advisories would be canceled prematurely, leading to safety risks to personnel. These include a correlation and regression tree analysis, three variants of multiple linear regression, event time trending, and the time delay between the greatest height of the maximum dBZ value to the last flash. These schemes failed to adequately forecast the maximum interval, the greatest time between any two flashes in the storm. The majority of storms had a maximum interval less than 10 min, which biased the schemes toward small values. Success was achieved with the percentile method (PM) by separating the maximum interval into percentiles for the 100 dependent storms.

  12. An Objective Verification of the North American Mesoscale Model for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers use the 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) text and graphical product forecasts extensively to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) has not been measured objectively. In order to have tangible evidence of model performance, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct a detailed statistical analysis of model output compared to observed values. The model products are provided to the 45 WS by ACTA, Inc. and include hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The objective analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point, as well as the changes in these parameters over time, to the observed values from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. Objective statistics will give the forecasters knowledge of the model's strength and weaknesses, which will result in improved forecasts for operations.

  13. An Analysis of Total Force Integration in RED HORSE Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    questions could also be examined from a qualitative perspective using a number of methodologies such as Delphi methods , grounded theory, and case study... Delphi method for graduate research." Journal of information technology education 6 (2007): 1. Tongco, Ma. Dolores C. “Purposive Sampling as a...a prevalent method for greater utilization of ARC forces to reduce operating costs. This research examines TFI implementation in Rapid Engineer

  14. Logistics and operations integration requirements to support Space Station servicing of free flying spacecraft - OMV flight operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jerome A.; Mcgeehan, Richard T.

    1987-01-01

    The logistics of OMV free-flyer servicing are examined, with emphasis on integrating the OMV operations into the overall STS-Space Station system. The depletion rate of consumables and lifetimes of free-flyer components are known quantities, which permits definition of a predictable maintenance schedule. Servicing with an OMV will depend on the position and capabilities of the OMV, Shuttle and Station when free-flyer maintenance is needed. Optimized orbital servicing of free-flyers will involve coordination of and resolution of schedule conflicts among STS, the OMV and the Station. The scheduled availability of any of the three components will be predicted in terms of probabilities that any one of the components will not be needed for another mission while performing the mission they are on.

  15. Logistics and operations integration requirements to support Space Station servicing of free flying spacecraft - OMV flight operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jerome A.; Mcgeehan, Richard T.

    1987-01-01

    The logistics of OMV free-flyer servicing are examined, with emphasis on integrating the OMV operations into the overall STS-Space Station system. The depletion rate of consumables and lifetimes of free-flyer components are known quantities, which permits definition of a predictable maintenance schedule. Servicing with an OMV will depend on the position and capabilities of the OMV, Shuttle and Station when free-flyer maintenance is needed. Optimized orbital servicing of free-flyers will involve coordination of and resolution of schedule conflicts among STS, the OMV and the Station. The scheduled availability of any of the three components will be predicted in terms of probabilities that any one of the components will not be needed for another mission while performing the mission they are on.

  16. Early Pleistocene glacial cycles and the integrated summer insolation forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybers, Peter

    2006-07-28

    Long-term variations in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation are generally thought to control glaciation. But the intensity of summer insolation is primarily controlled by 20,000-year cycles in the precession of the equinoxes, whereas early Pleistocene glacial cycles occur at 40,000-year intervals, matching the period of changes in Earth's obliquity. The resolution of this 40,000-year problem is that glaciers are sensitive to insolation integrated over the duration of the summer. The integrated summer insolation is primarily controlled by obliquity and not precession because, by Kepler's second law, the duration of the summer is inversely proportional to Earth's distance from the Sun.

  17. Multinational Force Integration: The ROK Army’s Integration With The US Army In The Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    British 1st Armoured Division serving directly under I MEF.53 The coalition’s special operations command consisted of the special operations forces of...War, the US Army successfully integrated a foreign army into a multinational force under a unified headquarters, through a mix of formal and informal...then escalating into combat operations in 1965. The US Army operated with small teams of advisors under the Military Advisory Assistance Group

  18. The Need and Opportunity for an Integrated Research, Development and Testing Station in the Alaskan High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, J. O.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Dexheimer, D.; Cahill, C. F.; Bendure, A.; Lucero, D. A.; Roesler, E. L.

    2016-12-01

    This presentation will make the case for development of a permanent integrated research and testing station at Oliktok Point, Alaska; taking advantage of existing assets and infrastructure, controlled airspace, an active UAS program and local partnerships. Arctic research stations provide critical monitoring and research on climate change for conditions and trends in the Arctic. The US Chair of the Arctic Council has increased awareness of gaps in our understanding of Artic systems, scarce monitoring, lack of infrastructure and readiness for emergency response. Less sea ice brings competition for commercial shipping and resource extraction. Search and rescue, pollution mitigation and safe navigation need real-time, wide-area monitoring to respond to events. Multi-national responses for international traffic will drive a greater security presence to protect citizens and sovereign interests. To address research and technology gaps, there is a national need for a High Arctic Station with an approach that partners stakeholders from science, safety and security to develop comprehensive solutions. The Station should offer year-round use, logistic support and access to varied ecological settings; phased adaptation to changing needs; and support testing of technologies such as multiple autonomous platforms, renewable energies and microgrids, and sensors in Arctic settings. We propose an Arctic Station at Oliktok Point, Alaska. Combined with the Toolik Field Station and Barrow Environmental Observatory, they form a US network of Arctic Stations. An Oliktok Point Station can provide complementary and unique assets that include: ocean access, and coastal and terrestrial systems; road access; controlled airspaces on land and ocean; nearby air facilities, medical and logistic support; atmospheric observations from an adjacent ARM facility; connections to Barrow and Toolik; fiber-optic communications; University of Alaska Fairbanks UAS Test Facility partnership; and an airstrip

  19. Outcome of the First wwPDB Hybrid/Integrative Methods Task Force Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sali, Andrej; Berman, Helen M.; Schwede, Torsten; Trewhella, Jill; Kleywegt, Gerard; Burley, Stephen K.; Markley, John; Nakamura, Haruki; Adams, Paul; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113691238; Chiu, Wah; Peraro, Matteo Dal; Di Maio, Frank; Ferrin, Thomas E.; Grünewald, Kay; Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Henderson, Richard; Hummer, Gerhard; Iwasaki, Kenji; Johnson, Graham; Lawson, Catherine L.; Meiler, Jens; Marti-Renom, Marc A.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Nilges, Michael; Nussinov, Ruth; Patwardhan, Ardan; Rappsilber, Juri; Read, Randy J.; Saibil, Helen; Schröder, Gunnar F.; Schwieters, Charles D.; Seidel, Claus A M; Svergun, Dmitri; Topf, Maya; Ulrich, Eldon L.; Velankar, Sameer; Westbrook, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Structures of biomolecular systems are increasingly computed by integrative modeling that relies on varied types of experimental data and theoretical information. We describe here the proceedings and conclusions from the first wwPDB Hybrid/Integrative Methods Task Force Workshop held at the European

  20. The Total Force: Cultural Considerations for the Future of the Total Force Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    and complaint, but significant movement has yet to be realized because formal education today is virtually non-existent.”2 Acknowledging the...prevent everything. Perceptions are reality when working together as AD and ARC.”3 The barriers commanders faced dealt with regulatory limitations to...budgetary reasons. Second, the Air Force will need to simultaneously teach and develop a holistic academic plan throughout, ensuring education occurs at

  1. Demonstration of An Integrated Approach to Mercury Control at Lee Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly

    2007-12-31

    General Electric (GE) has developed an approach whereby native mercury reduction on fly ash can be improved by optimizing the combustion system. This approach eliminates carbon-rich areas in the combustion zone, making the combustion process more uniform, and allows increasing carbon content in fly ash without significant increase in CO emissions. Since boiler excess O{sub 2} can be also reduced as a result of optimized combustion, this process reduces NO{sub x} emissions. Because combustion optimization improves native mercury reduction on fly ash, it can reduce requirements for activated carbon injection (ACI) when integrated with sorbent injection for more efficient mercury control. The approach can be tailored to specific unit configurations and coal types for optimal performance. This report describes results of a U.S. DOE sponsored project designed to evaluate the effect of combustion conditions on 'native' mercury capture on fly ash and integrate combustion optimization for improved mercury and NO{sub x} reduction with ACI. The technology evaluation took place in Lee Station Unit 3 located in Goldsboro, NC and operated by Progress Energy. Unit 3 burns a low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal and is a 250 MW opposed-wall fired unit equipped with an ESP with a specific collection area of 249 ft{sup 2}/kacfm. Unit 3 is equipped with SO{sub 3} injection for ESP conditioning. The technical goal of the project was to evaluate the technology's ability to achieve 70% mercury reduction below the baseline emission value of 2.9 lb/TBtu, which was equivalent to 80% mercury reduction relative to the mercury concentration in the coal. The strategy to achieve the 70% incremental improvement in mercury removal in Unit 3 was (1) to enhance 'naturally' occurring fly ash mercury capture by optimizing the combustion process and using duct humidification to reduce flue gas temperatures at the ESP inlet, and (2) to use ACI in front of the ESP to further

  2. Application of Different Statistical Techniques in Integrated Logistics Support of the International Space Station Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehry-Fard, F.; Coulthard, Maurice H.

    1995-01-01

    The process to predict the values of the maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as mean time between failures (MTBF) over time must be one that will not in turn introduce uncontrolled deviation in the results of the ILS analysis such as life cycle cost spares calculation, etc. A minor deviation in the values of the maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as MTBF over time will have a significant impact on the logistics resources demands, International Space Station availability, and maintenance support costs. It is the objective of this report to identify the magnitude of the expected enhancement in the accuracy of the results for the International Space Station reliability and maintainability data packages by providing examples. These examples partially portray the necessary information hy evaluating the impact of the said enhancements on the life cycle cost and the availability of the International Space Station.

  3. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  4. GLOBAL INTEGRATED ISR: A BETTER ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRUCT FOR AIR FORCE LD/HD ISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY GLOBAL INTEGRATED ISR: A BETTER ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRUCT FOR AIR FORCE LD/HD ISR by Nicholas A. Nobriga...agility and flexibility in order to counter trans-regional threats seamlessly. This is especially true for the Air Force’s fleet of U-2, RQ-4, RC-135, and...Concept for Joint Operations: Joint Force 2020—providing maximum global agility and flexibility .3 Current trends around the globe point toward a future

  5. Indirect (source-free) integration method. II. Self-force consistent radial fall

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, P.; Aoudia, S.; Spallicci, A.; S. Cordier

    2015-01-01

    We apply our method of indirect integration, described in Part I, at fourth order, to the radial fall affected by the self-force. The Mode-Sum regularisation is performed in the Regge-Wheeler gauge using the equivalence with the harmonic gauge for this orbit. We consider also the motion subjected to a self-consistent and iterative correction determined by the self-force through osculating stretches of geodesics. The convergence of the results confirms the validity of the integration method. T...

  6. Indirect (source-free) integration method. II. Self-force consistent radial fall

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, P; Spallicci, A; Cordier, S

    2015-01-01

    We apply our method of indirect integration, described in Part I, at fourth order, to the radial fall affected by the self-force. The Mode-Sum regularisation is performed in the Regge-Wheeler gauge using the equivalence with the harmonic gauge for this orbit. We consider also the motion subjected to a self-consistent and iterative correction determined by the self-force through osculating stretches of geodesics. The convergence of the results confirms the validity of the integration method. This work complements and justifies the analysis and the results appeared in Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys., 11, 1450090 (2014).

  7. Integration of a Self-Coherence Algorithm into DISAT for Forced Oscillation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-03

    With the increasing number of phasor measurement units on the power system, behaviors typically not observable on the power system are becoming more apparent. Oscillatory behavior on the power system, notably forced oscillations, are one such behavior. However, the large amounts of data coming from the PMUs makes manually detecting and locating these oscillations difficult. To automate portions of the process, an oscillation detection routine was coded into the Data Integrity and Situational Awareness Tool (DISAT) framework. Integration into the DISAT framework allows forced oscillations to be detected and information about the event provided to operational engineers. The oscillation detection algorithm integrates with the data handling and atypical data detecting capabilities of DISAT, building off of a standard library of functions. This report details that integration with information on the algorithm, some implementation issues, and some sample results from the western United States’ power grid.

  8. Developing and integrating a computer-based AM/FM radio station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Inzunza González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the development of a personal computer based AM/FM radio station operating on the AM/FM commercial band. Developing the graphical user interface for the software and the interconnection with an RF function generator by means of a GPIB is presented. Computer users can enter the desired transmission frequency within the commercial band as well as the transmission potency.

  9. Pipeline integrity management: integration of geotechnical and mechanical assessment to control potential risks due to external forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malpartida Moya, John E.; Sota, Giancarlo Massucco de la; Seri, Walter [Compania Operadora de Gas del Amazonas, Lima (Peru)

    2009-07-01

    Every pipeline integrity management system evaluates and controls various threats. On pipelines which have particular characteristics as it is the case of the Andean pipelines and pipelines crossing jungles, one of the main threats are the external forces. Even, this threat causes a greater number of failures than other threats like corrosion or the third part damage. Facing this situation, the pipeline integrity management system of TgP has achieved an important development in the use and suitable handling of the information provided by diverse techniques of pipeline mechanical inspection and geotechnical inspection of the right-of-way (ROW). This document presents our methodology, which interrelate information of the in-line inspection, information of geotechnical inspections of the ROW, instrumentation (Strain Gages), topographic monitoring, among others. All this information is supported in a Geographic Information System (GIS) which allows us to integrate the information. By means of the pipeline integrity management system we control potential risks due to external forces, we have been able to act before events become critical, with no occurrence of failures. This system allows us simultaneously to optimize efforts and preserve the mechanical integrity of our pipelines, not producing neither personal nor environmental nor economical affectation. (author)

  10. Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force: a vehicle for integrated water resources management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, David D; Mueller, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    This article examines what is generally considered to be an unattainable goal in the western United States: integrated water resources management (IWRM). Specifically, we examine an organization that is quite unique in the West, Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force (Task Force), and we analyze its activities since its formation in 2001 to answer the question: are the activities and contributions of the Task Force working to promote a more strongly integrated approach to water resources management in Montana? After reviewing the concepts underlying IWRM, some of the issues that have been identified for achieving IWRM in the West, and the Montana system of water right allocation and issues it faces, we adapt Mitchell's IWRM framework and apply it to the analysis of the Task Force's activities in the context of IWRM. In evaluating the physical, interaction, and protocol/planning/policy components of IWRM, we find that the Task Force has been contributing to the evolution of Montana's water resources management towards this framework, though several factors will likely continue to prevent its complete realization. The Task Force has been successful in this regard because of its unique nature and charge, and because of the authority and power given it by successive Montana legislatures. Also critical to the success of the organization is its ability to help translate into policy the outcomes of legal and quasi-judicial decisions that have impacted the state's water resources management agency.

  11. Finite Element Based Stress Analysis of Seat Belt Using Integrated Force Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kale

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated force method (IFM has been developed for solving various continuum mechanics problems, where all the internal forces are taken as independent variables. The system equilibrium equations (EE's are mathematically concatenated with the MATLAB based compatibility conditions (CC's to form the global set of equations. This paper explains the solution strategy of prototype seat-belt component using integrated force method. Actual seat belt component is taken here to verify IFM based FE element are readily used which is named as REC_5F_8D and REC_13F_16D where 5F and 13F reflects number of internal unknowns and 8D and 16D are number of total displacements respectively. The results for “Von Mises Stress” and Maximum Displacement using IFM based formulation and compared with ANSYS.

  12. Prediction of metallic nano-optical trapping forces by finite element-boundary integral method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-Min; Xu, Kai-Jiang; Yang, Ming-Lin; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2015-03-01

    The hybrid of finite element and boundary integral (FE-BI) method is employed to predict nano-optical trapping forces of arbitrarily shaped metallic nanostructures. A preconditioning strategy is proposed to improve the convergence of the iterative solution. Skeletonization is employed to speed up the design and optimization where iteration has to be repeated for each beam configuration. The radiation pressure force (RPF) is computed by vector flux of the Maxwell's stress tensor. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the developed method in analyzing the plasmonic effects as well as the optical trapping forces. It is shown that the proposed method is capable of predicting the trapping forces of complex metallic nanostructures accurately and efficiently.

  13. Integration of force reflection with tactile sensing for minimally invasive robotics-assisted tumor localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talasaz, A; Patel, R V

    2013-01-01

    Tactile sensing and force reflection have been the subject of considerable research for tumor localization in soft-tissue palpation. The work presented in this paper investigates the relevance of force feedback (presented visually as well as directly) during tactile sensing (presented visually only) for tumor localization using an experimental setup close to one that could be applied for real robotics-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The setup is a teleoperated (master-slave) system facilitated with a state-of-the-art minimally invasive probe with a rigidly mounted tactile sensor at the tip and an externally mounted force sensor at the base of the probe. The objective is to capture the tactile information and measure the interaction forces between the probe and tissue during palpation and to explore how they can be integrated to improve the performance of tumor localization. To quantitatively explore the effect of force feedback on tactile sensing tumor localization, several experiments were conducted by human subjects to locate artificial tumors embedded in the ex vivo bovine livers. The results show that using tactile sensing in a force-controlled environment can realize, on average, 57 percent decrease in the maximum force and 55 percent decrease in the average force applied to tissue while increasing the tumor detection accuracy by up to 50 percent compared to the case of using tactile feedback alone. The results also show that while visual presentation of force feedback gives straightforward quantitative measures, improved performance of tactile sensing tumor localization is achieved at the expense of longer times for the user. Also, the quickness and intuitive data mapping of direct force feedback makes it more appealing to experienced users.

  14. Climate Forcings and Climate Sensitivities Diagnosed from Coupled Climate Model Integrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, P M A F; Taylor, K E

    2006-07-25

    A simple technique is proposed for calculating global mean climate forcing from transient integrations of coupled Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs). This 'climate forcing' differs from the conventionally defined radiative forcing as it includes semi-direct effects that account for certain short timescale responses in the troposphere. Firstly, we calculate a climate feedback term from reported values of 2 x CO{sub 2} radiative forcing and surface temperature time series from 70-year simulations by twenty AOGCMs. In these simulations carbon dioxide is increased by 1%/year. The derived climate feedback agrees well with values that we diagnose from equilibrium climate change experiments of slab-ocean versions of the same models. These climate feedback terms are associated with the fast, quasi-linear response of lapse rate, clouds, water vapor and albedo to global surface temperature changes. The importance of the feedbacks is gauged by their impact on the radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere. We find partial compensation between longwave and shortwave feedback terms that lessens the inter-model differences in the equilibrium climate sensitivity. There is also some indication that the AOGCMs overestimate the strength of the positive longwave feedback. These feedback terms are then used to infer the shortwave and longwave time series of climate forcing in 20th and 21st Century simulations in the AOGCMs. We validate the technique using conventionally calculated forcing time series from four AOGCMs. In these AOGCMs the shortwave and longwave climate forcings we diagnose agree with the conventional forcing time series within {approx}10%. The shortwave forcing time series exhibit order of magnitude variations between the AOGCMs, differences likely related to how both natural forcings and/or anthropogenic aerosol effects are included. There are also factor of two differences in the longwave climate forcing time series, which may indicate

  15. Numerical integration of dynamical systems with Lie series: Relativistic acceleration and non-gravitational forces

    CERN Document Server

    Bancelin, D; Thuillot, W

    2016-01-01

    The integration of the equations of motion in gravitational dynamical systems -- either in our Solar System or for extra-solar planetary system -- being non integrable in the global case, is usually performed by means of numerical integration. Among the different numerical techniques available for solving ordinary differential equations, the numerical integration using Lie series has shown some advantages. In its original form (Hanslmeier 1984), it was limited to the N-body problem where only gravitational interactions are taken into account. We present in this paper a generalisation of the method by deriving an expression of the Lie-terms when other major forces are considered. As a matter of fact, previous studies had been made but only for objects moving under gravitational attraction. If other perturbations are added, the Lie integrator has to be re-built. In the present work we consider two cases involving position and position-velocity dependent perturbations: relativistic acceleration in the framework ...

  16. Strategic planning for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, Carolyn S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept for utilization and operations planning for the International Space Station Freedom was developed in a NASA Space Station Operations Task Force in 1986. Since that time the concept has been further refined to definitize the process and products required to integrate the needs of the international user community with the operational capabilities of the Station in its evolving configuration. The keystone to the process is the development of individual plans by the partners, with the parameters and formats common to the degree that electronic communications techniques can be effectively utilized, while maintaining the proper level and location of configuration control. The integration, evaluation, and verification of the integrated plan, called the Consolidated Operations and Utilization Plan (COUP), is being tested in a multilateral environment to prove out the parameters, interfaces, and process details necessary to produce the first COUP for Space Station in 1991. This paper will describe the concept, process, and the status of the multilateral test case.

  17. Real-Time Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station High-Resolution Model Implementation and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Watson, Leela R.

    2015-01-01

    Customer: NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP), Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO), and Space Launch System (SLS) programs. NASA's LSP, GSDO, SLS and other programs at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) use the daily and weekly weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) as decision tools for their day-to-day and launch operations on the Eastern Range (ER). For example, to determine if they need to limit activities such as vehicle transport to the launch pad, protect people, structures or exposed launch vehicles given a threat of severe weather, or reschedule other critical operations. The 45 WS uses numerical weather prediction models as a guide for these weather forecasts, particularly the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) 1.67 kilometer Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Considering the 45 WS forecasters' and Launch Weather Officers' (LWO) extensive use of the AFWA model, the 45 WS proposed a task at the September 2013 Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Tasking Meeting requesting the AMU verify this model. Due to the lack of archived model data available from AFWA, verification is not yet possible. Instead, the AMU proposed to implement and verify the performance of an ER version of the AMU high-resolution WRF Environmental Modeling System (EMS) model (Watson 2013) in real-time. The tasking group agreed to this proposal; therefore the AMU implemented the WRF-EMS model on the second of two NASA AMU modeling clusters. The model was set up with a triple-nested grid configuration over KSC/CCAFS based on previous AMU work (Watson 2013). The outer domain (D01) has 12-kilometer grid spacing, the middle domain (D02) has 4-kilometer grid spacing, and the inner domain (D03) has 1.33-kilometer grid spacing. The model runs a 12-hour forecast every hour, D01 and D02 domain outputs are available once an hour and D03 is every 15 minutes during the forecast period. The AMU assessed the WRF-EMS 1

  18. A piecewise-integration method for simulating the influence of external forcing on climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifu Zhang; Chongjian Qiu; Chenghai Wang

    2008-01-01

    Climate drift occurs in most general circulation models (GCMs) as a result of incomplete physical and numerical representation of the complex climate system,which may cause large uncertainty in sensitivity experiments evaluating climate response to changes in external forcing.To solve this problem,we propose a piecewise-integration method to reduce the systematic error in climate sensitivity studies.The observations are firstly assimilated into a numerical model by using the dynamic relaxation technique to relax to the current state of atmosphere,and then the assimilated fields are continuously used to reinitialize the simulation to reduce the error of climate simulation.When the numerical model is integrated with changed external forcing,the results can be split into two parts,background and perturbation fields,and the background is the state before the external forcing is changed.The piecewise-integration method is used to continuously reinitialize the model with the assimilated field,instead of the background.Therefore,the simulation error of the model with the external forcing can be reduced.In this way,the accuracy of climate sensitivity experiments is greatly improved.Tests with a simple low-order spectral model show that this approach can significantly reduce the uncertainty of climate sensitivity experiments.

  19. An integrated model for the assessment of global water resources – Part 1: Model description and input meteorological forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanasaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess global water availability and use at a subannual timescale, an integrated global water resources model was developed consisting of six modules: land surface hydrology, river routing, crop growth, reservoir operation, environmental flow requirement estimation, and anthropogenic water withdrawal. The model simulates both natural and anthropogenic water flow globally (excluding Antarctica on a daily basis at a spatial resolution of 1°×1° (longitude and latitude. This first part of the two-feature report describes the six modules and the input meteorological forcing. The input meteorological forcing was provided by the second Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP2, an international land surface modeling project. Several reported shortcomings of the forcing component were improved. The land surface hydrology module was developed based on a bucket type model that simulates energy and water balance on land surfaces. The crop growth module is a relatively simple model based on concepts of heat unit theory, potential biomass, and a harvest index. In the reservoir operation module, 452 major reservoirs with >1 km3 each of storage capacity store and release water according to their own rules of operation. Operating rules were determined for each reservoir by an algorithm that used currently available global data such as reservoir storage capacity, intended purposes, simulated inflow, and water demand in the lower reaches. The environmental flow requirement module was newly developed based on case studies from around the world. Simulated runoff was compared and validated with observation-based global runoff data sets and observed streamflow records at 32 major river gauging stations around the world. Mean annual runoff agreed well with earlier studies at global and continental scales, and in individual basins, the mean bias was less than ±20% in 14 of the 32 river basins and less than ±50% in 24 basins. The error in the peak was less

  20. An integrated model for the assessment of global water resources Part 1: Model description and input meteorological forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.; Masuda, K.; Motoya, K.; Shirakawa, N.; Shen, Y.; Tanaka, K.

    2008-07-01

    To assess global water availability and use at a subannual timescale, an integrated global water resources model was developed consisting of six modules: land surface hydrology, river routing, crop growth, reservoir operation, environmental flow requirement estimation, and anthropogenic water withdrawal. The model simulates both natural and anthropogenic water flow globally (excluding Antarctica) on a daily basis at a spatial resolution of 1°×1° (longitude and latitude). This first part of the two-feature report describes the six modules and the input meteorological forcing. The input meteorological forcing was provided by the second Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP2), an international land surface modeling project. Several reported shortcomings of the forcing component were improved. The land surface hydrology module was developed based on a bucket type model that simulates energy and water balance on land surfaces. The crop growth module is a relatively simple model based on concepts of heat unit theory, potential biomass, and a harvest index. In the reservoir operation module, 452 major reservoirs with >1 km3 each of storage capacity store and release water according to their own rules of operation. Operating rules were determined for each reservoir by an algorithm that used currently available global data such as reservoir storage capacity, intended purposes, simulated inflow, and water demand in the lower reaches. The environmental flow requirement module was newly developed based on case studies from around the world. Simulated runoff was compared and validated with observation-based global runoff data sets and observed streamflow records at 32 major river gauging stations around the world. Mean annual runoff agreed well with earlier studies at global and continental scales, and in individual basins, the mean bias was less than ±20% in 14 of the 32 river basins and less than ±50% in 24 basins. The error in the peak was less than ±1 mo in 19 of the 27

  1. Observation Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  2. Development and testing of an integrated smart tool holder for four-component cutting force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengyou; Lu, Yong; Li, Jianguang

    2017-09-01

    Cutting force measurement is a significant requirement for monitoring and controlling the machining processes. Hence, various methods of measuring the cutting force have been proposed by many researchers. In this study, an innovative integrated smart tool holder system based on capacitive sensors is designed, constructed and tested, which is capable of measuring triaxial cutting force and a torque simultaneously in a wireless environment system. A standard commercial tool holder is modified to make itself be the force sensing element that has advantages of simple structure and easy machining. Deformable beams are created in the tool holder, and the tiny deformations of which used to calculate the four-component cutting force are detected by six high precision capacitive sensors. All the sensors and other electronics, like data acquisition and transmitting unit, and wireless power unit, are incorporated into the tool holder as a whole system. The device is intended to be used in a rotating spindle such as in milling and drilling processes. Eventually, the static and dynamic characteristics of the smart tool holder have been determined by a series of tests. Cutting tests have also been carried out and the results show it is stable and practical to measure the cutting force in milling and drilling processes.

  3. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily morning forecast for ground and space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) must issue forecast advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect peak gusts for >= 25, >= 35, and >= 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. In Phase I of this task, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a cool-season (October - April) tool to help forecast the non-convective peak wind from the surface to 300 ft at KSC/CCAFS. During the warm season, these wind speeds are rarely exceeded except during convective winds or under the influence of tropical cyclones, for which other techniques are already in use. The tool used single and multiple linear regression equations to predict the peak wind from the morning sounding. The forecaster manually entered several observed sounding parameters into a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI), and then the tool displayed the forecast peak wind speed, average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, the timing of the peak wind and the probability the peak wind will meet or exceed 35, 50 and 60 kt. The 45 WS customers later dropped the requirement for >= 60 kt wind warnings. During Phase II of this task, the AMU expanded the period of record (POR) by six years to increase the number of observations used to create the forecast equations. A large number of possible predictors were evaluated from archived soundings, including inversion depth and strength, low-level wind shear, mixing height, temperature lapse rate and winds from the surface to 3000 ft. Each day in the POR was stratified in a number of ways, such as by low-level wind direction, synoptic weather pattern, precipitation and Bulk Richardson number. The most accurate Phase II equations were then selected for an independent verification. The Phase I and II forecast methods were

  4. An Evaluation of Selected Communications Assemblies and Hearing Protection Systems: A Field Study Conducted for the Future Force Warrior Integrated Headgear Integrated Process Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Integrated Headgear Integrated Process Team by Angélique A. Scharine , Paula P. Henry, and Mary S. Binseel ARL-TR-3475 April 2005...the Future Force Warrior Integrated Headgear Integrated Process Team Angélique A. Scharine , Paula P. Henry, and Mary S. Binseel Human Research...Integrated Process Team 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 6102A74A 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Angélique A. Scharine

  5. Indirect (source-free) integration method. II. Self-force consistent radial fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Patxi; Aoudia, Sofiane; Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.; Cordier, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    We apply our method of indirect integration, described in Part I, at fourth order, to the radial fall affected by the self-force (SF). The Mode-Sum regularization is performed in the Regge-Wheeler gauge using the equivalence with the harmonic gauge for this orbit. We consider also the motion subjected to a self-consistent and iterative correction determined by the SF through osculating stretches of geodesics. The convergence of the results confirms the validity of the integration method. This work complements and justifies the analysis and the results appeared in [Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys. 11 (2014) 1450090].

  6. Resonant passive–active vibration absorber with integrated force feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Brodersen, Mark Laier; Krenk, Steen

    2016-01-01

    A general format of a two-terminal vibration absorber is constructed by placing a passive unit in series with a hybrid unit, composed of an active actuator in parallel with a second passive element. The displacement of the active actuator is controlled by an integrated feedback control...... with the difference in force between the two passive elements as input. This format allows passive and active contributions to be combined arbitrarily within the hybrid unit, which results in a versatile absorber format with guaranteed closed-loop stability. This is demonstrated for resonant absorbers with inertia...... realized passively by a mechanical inerter or actively by the integrated force feedback. Accurate calibration formulae are presented for two particular absorber configurations and the performance is subsequently demonstrated with respect to both equal modal damping and effective response reduction....

  7. Rehabilitation of the Rocket Vehicle Integration Test Stand at Edwards Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Ray, Ronald J.; Phillips, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Since initial use in 1958 for the X-15 rocket-powered research airplane, the Rocket Engine Test Facility has proven essential for testing and servicing rocket-powered vehicles at Edwards Air Force Base. For almost two decades, several successful flight-test programs utilized the capability of this facility. The Department of Defense has recently demonstrated a renewed interest in propulsion technology development with the establishment of the National Aerospace Initiative. More recently, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is undergoing a transformation to realign the organization, focusing on the Vision for Space Exploration. These initiatives provide a clear indication that a very capable ground-test stand at Edwards Air Force Base will be beneficial to support the testing of future access-to-space vehicles. To meet the demand of full integration testing of rocket-powered vehicles, the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, the Air Force Flight Test Center, and the Air Force Research Laboratory have combined their resources in an effort to restore and upgrade the original X-15 Rocket Engine Test Facility to become the new Rocket Vehicle Integration Test Stand. This report describes the history of the X-15 Rocket Engine Test Facility, discusses the current status of the facility, and summarizes recent efforts to rehabilitate the facility to support potential access-to-space flight-test programs. A summary of the capabilities of the facility is presented and other important issues are discussed.

  8. Accurate integral equation theory for the central force model of liquid water and ionic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiye, Toshiko; Haymet, A. D. J.

    1988-10-01

    The atom-atom pair correlation functions and thermodynamics of the central force model of water, introduced by Lemberg, Stillinger, and Rahman, have been calculated accurately by an integral equation method which incorporates two new developments. First, a rapid new scheme has been used to solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation. This scheme combines the renormalization methods of Allnatt, and Rossky and Friedman with an extension of the trigonometric basis-set solution of Labik and co-workers. Second, by adding approximate ``bridge'' functions to the hypernetted-chain (HNC) integral equation, we have obtained predictions for liquid water in which the hydrogen bond length and number are in good agreement with ``exact'' computer simulations of the same model force laws. In addition, for dilute ionic solutions, the ion-oxygen and ion-hydrogen coordination numbers display both the physically correct stoichiometry and good agreement with earlier simulations. These results represent a measurable improvement over both a previous HNC solution of the central force model and the ex-RISM integral equation solutions for the TIPS and other rigid molecule models of water.

  9. Integral force feedback control with input shaping: Application to piezo-based scanning systems in ECDLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Zhu, Yu; Bu, Mingfan; Hong, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a hybrid control system is developed by integrating the closed-loop force feedback and input shaping method to overcome the problem of the hysteresis and dynamic behavior in piezo-based scanning systems and increase the scanning speed of tunable external cavity diode lasers. The flexible hinge and piezoelectric actuators are analyzed, and a dynamic model of the scanning systems is established. A force sensor and an integral controller are utilized in integral force feedback (IFF) to directly augment the damping of the piezoelectric scanning systems. Hysteresis has been effectively eliminated, but the mechanical resonance is still evident. Noticeable residual vibration occurred after the inflection points and then gradually disappeared. For the further control of mechanical resonance, based on the theory of minimum-acceleration trajectory planning, the time-domain input shaping method was developed. The turning sections of a scanning trajectory are replaced by smooth curves, while the linear sections are retained. The IFF method is combined with the input shaping method to control the non-linearity and mechanical resonance in high-speed piezo-based scanning systems. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  10. The multi megawatt target station integration of the MAFF/PIAFE fission target design

    CERN Document Server

    Kharoua, C; Herrera-Martinez, A; Lettry, J; Ashrafi-Nik, M; Groeschel, F; Samec, K; Zanini, L; Alyakriskiy, O; Barbui, M; Tecchio, Luigi; Freibergs, J; Gross, M; Nebel, F; Thirolf, P; Negoita, F; Serbina, L; Romanets, Y; Vaz, P; Lindroos, M; Kadi, Y

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the ‘next-generation’ European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010.In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW liquid metal proton-to-neutron converter, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In the aforementioned multi-MW target assembly, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source.This article summarises the work carried out within Task 2 of the EURISOL Design Study, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the liquid converter and fission target (MAFF/PIAFE design like) and the overall performance of the facility, which will sust...

  11. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

  12. Thirteen years of integrated precipitable water derived by GPS at Mario Zucchelli Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierguido Sarti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Italian Antarctic Programme has been funding space geodetic activities based on the use of episodic and permanent global positioning system (GPS observations. As well as their exploitation in geodynamics, these data can be used to sense the atmosphere and to retrieve and monitor its water vapor content and variations. The surface pressure p and temperature Ts at the GPS tracking sites are necessary to compute the zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD, and consequently, the precipitable water. At sites where no surface information is recorded, the p and Ts values can be retrieved from, e.g., global numerical weather prediction models. Alternatively, the site-specific ZHD values can be computed by interpolation of the ZHD values provided in a grid model (2.5° × 2.0°. We have processed the data series of the permanent GPS site TNB1 (Mario Zucchelli Station, Antarctica from 1998 to 2010, with the purpose of comparing the use of grid ZHD values as an alternative to the use of real surface records. With these approaches, we estimate almost 7 × 104 hourly values of precipitable water over 13 years, and we find discrepancies that vary between 1.8 (±0.2 mm in summer and 3.3 (±0.5 mm in winter. In addition, the discrepancies of the two solutions show a clear seasonal dependency. Radiosounding measurements were used to derive an independent series of precipitable water. These agree better with the GPS precipitable water derived from real surface data. However, the GPS precipitable water time series is dry biased, as it is ca. 77% of the total moisture measured by the radiosoundings. Both the GPS and radiosounding observations are processed through the most up-to-date strategies, to reduce known systematic errors.

  13. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Fast Charge Station Operational Analysis with Integrated Renewables: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, M.; Markel, T.

    2012-08-01

    The growing, though still nascent, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market currently operates primarily via level 1 and level 2 charging in the United States. Fast chargers are still a rarity, but offer a confidence boost to oppose 'range anxiety' in consumers making the transition from conventional vehicles to PEVs. Because relatively no real-world usage of fast chargers at scale exists yet, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed a simulation to help assess fast charging needs based on real-world travel data. This study documents the data, methods, and results of the simulation run for multiple scenarios, varying fleet sizes, and the number of charger ports. The grid impact of this usage is further quantified to assess the opportunity for integration of renewables; specifically, a high frequency of fast charging is found to be in demand during the late afternoons and evenings coinciding with grid peak periods. Proper integration of a solar array and stationary battery thus helps ease the load and reduces the need for new generator construction to meet the demand of a future PEV market.

  14. Optical pulse shaper with integrated slab waveguide for arbitrary waveform generation using optical gradient force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sha-Sha; Min, Shu-Cun; Dong, Jian-Ji

    2014-12-01

    Integrated optical pulse shaper opens up possibilities for realizing the ultra high-speed and ultra wide-band linear signal processing with compact size and low power consumption. We propose a silicon monolithic integrated optical pulse shaper using optical gradient force, which is based on the eight-path finite impulse response. A cantilever structure is fabricated in one arm of the Mach—Zehnder interferometer (MZI) to act as an amplitude modulator. The phase shift feature of waveguide is analyzed with the optical pump power, and five typical waveforms are demonstrated with the manipulation of optical force. Unlike other pulse shaper schemes based on thermo—optic effect or electro—optic effect, our scheme is based on a new degree of freedom manipulation, i.e., optical force, so no microelectrodes are required on the silicon chip, which can reduce the complexity of fabrication. Besides, the chip structure is suitable for commercial silicon on an insulator (SOI) wafer, which has a top silicon layer of about 220 nm in thickness.

  15. Design of a microelectromechanical systems microgripper with integrated electrothermal actuator and force sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the conceptual design of a novel compliant microelectromechanical systems (MEMS-based gripper with integrated electrothermal actuator and electrothermal force sensor. By this design solution, the device possesses some unique characteristics including a small and compact footprint size, and a large driving force by the thermal actuator. Owing to the use of a compliant rotational bearing, a large gripping range is obtained. The sensing arm has a capability of detecting the force transmitted from the left arm so as to prevent the damage of the grasped object. Analytical models are developed to evaluate the statics and dynamics performance of the gripper. Simulation results show that the thermal actuator produces sufficient gripping force to execute the gripping operation with a range of 80 µm under a low input voltage of 6 V. Moreover, the results of the established theoretical models match well with the finite element analysis (FEA simulation results, which verifies the feasibility of the proposed gripper design.

  16. Resonant passive–active vibration absorber with integrated force feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Brodersen, Mark Laier; Krenk, Steen

    2016-01-01

    A general format of a two-terminal vibration absorber is constructed by placing a passive unit in series with a hybrid unit, composed of an active actuator in parallel with a second passive element. The displacement of the active actuator is controlled by an integrated feedback control with the d......A general format of a two-terminal vibration absorber is constructed by placing a passive unit in series with a hybrid unit, composed of an active actuator in parallel with a second passive element. The displacement of the active actuator is controlled by an integrated feedback control...... with the difference in force between the two passive elements as input. This format allows passive and active contributions to be combined arbitrarily within the hybrid unit, which results in a versatile absorber format with guaranteed closed-loop stability. This is demonstrated for resonant absorbers with inertia...... realized passively by a mechanical inerter or actively by the integrated force feedback. Accurate calibration formulae are presented for two particular absorber configurations and the performance is subsequently demonstrated with respect to both equal modal damping and effective response reduction....

  17. A large-stroke compliant joint–based force/displacement integrated sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechao Duan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The design methodology and validation of a compliant translational joint–based force/displacement integrated sensor is presented in this article. The stiffness analysis of the large displacement high precision compliant translational joint is developed, in which the screw theory–based symbolic formulation method for structures is employed. By combining the stiffness matrix of the single compliant beams and components in this joint, the entire stiffness matrix is derived. The stiffness matrix is validated by finite element analysis (FEA method. Finally, the compliant translational joint was fabricated with a three-dimensional printer and equipped with a linear position sensor and microcontroller. The displacement of the translational joint is measured and then the force is calculated using the stiffness matrix. A calibration is conducted so that the sub-Newton precision of the sensor is achieved.

  18. A novel fully-integrated miniature six-axis force/torque sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiali; Xie Zongwu; Liu Hong; Jiang Li; Gao Xiaohui

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new designed miniature six DOF (degree of freedom) force/torque sensor.This sensor is fully integrated with a micro DSP (digital signal processor), so all the signal conditioning,A/D, decoupling, digital-signals serial output are performed in the sensor. Some experimental results are presented to demonstrate the capability of the proposed design. Finally, a neural network was used for decoupling the interacting signals, compared with the conventional method using the inverse matrix, this new method is more accurate.

  19. Efficient Evaluation of Casimir Force in Arbitrary Three-dimensional Geometries by Integral Equation Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Jie L; Atkins, Phillip; Chew, Weng Cho

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we generalized the surface integral equation method for the evaluation of Casimir force in arbitrary three-dimensional geometries. Similar to the two-dimensional case, the evaluation of the mean Maxwell stress tensor is cast into solving a series of three-dimensional scattering problems. The formulation and solution of the three-dimensional scattering problem is well-studied in classical computational electromagnetics. This paper demonstrates that this quantum electrodynamic phenomena can be studied using the knowledge and techniques of classical electrodynamics.

  20. Infrastructure design integration to optimize structures and minimize groundwater impacts. Case of a bottom slab and groundwater by-pass integration in La Sagrera railway station, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Juan, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñè, Enric; Pujades, Estanislao; Velasco, Violeta; Criollo, Rotman; Jurado, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Underground constructions search the most efficient solutions to increase safety, reduce impacts in both underground construction (such as bottom slab water pressures) and groundwater (such as groundwater barrier effect), reduce future maintenance processes and ensure that everything is implemented by the minimum cost. Even being all the previous solutions directly related to groundwater, independent solutions are usually designed to independently deal with each problem. This paper shows how with a groundwater by-pass design that enables the groundwater flow through the structure it is possible to provide an homogeneous distribution of the water pressures under the bottom slab and reduce the barrier effect produced by the structure. The new integrated design has been applied to the largest infrastructure of Barcelona: La Sagrera railway station. Through a hydrogeological model has been possible to test the project and the integrated designs in three different scenarios. This new solution resolves the barrier effect produced by the structure and optimizes the bottom slab, reducing considerably the costs and increasing safety during the construction phase.

  1. Integrity Management for Process Piping in Oil & Gas Station%油气站场工艺管道完整性管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程万洲; 张华兵; 王新

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of leakage incidents occurred in station pipeline, which resulted in production stoppage and surrounding environment contamination due to the oil spilled outside. With the increase of times of station operation, the safety condition of station pipeline has been paid attention by the administrator. With the ideas and methods of integrity management, station pipeline integrity management process has been established, management content determined,and integrity management system document set and its content given. Station pipeline integrity management was then carried out, and maintenance strategies based on risk assessment and testing evaluation were realized, so that the level of station safety operation was enhanced finally.%近年来国内发生了多起站场工艺管道泄漏事件,导致管道站场输送生产中断,泄漏油品甚至溢出站外污染了周边环境。随着站场运行年限的增长,作为连接站场设备的工艺管道的安全状况引起了管理者的重视。借鉴管道完整性管理“风险可控、预防失效、动态管理”的管理思路及方法,建立了站场工艺管道完整性管理流程,明确了管理内容,给出了完整性管理体系文件设置及主要内容。开展站场工艺管道完整性管理,实现基于风险评价和检测评价的维修维护策略,最终提升站场安全运行水平。

  2. Integral localized approximation description of ordinary Bessel beams and application to optical trapping forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Leonardo A.; Hernández-Figueroa, Hugo E.

    2011-01-01

    Ordinary Bessel beams are described in terms of the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT) by adopting, for what is to our knowledge the first time in the literature, the integral localized approximation for computing their beam shape coefficients (BSCs) in the expansion of the electromagnetic fields. Numerical results reveal that the beam shape coefficients calculated in this way can adequately describe a zero-order Bessel beam with insignificant difference when compared to other relative time-consuming methods involving numerical integration over the spherical coordinates of the GLMT coordinate system, or quadratures. We show that this fast and efficient new numerical description of zero-order Bessel beams can be used with advantage, for example, in the analysis of optical forces in optical trapping systems for arbitrary optical regimes. PMID:21750767

  3. Microrobotic Station for Nano-Optical Component Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komati Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compact photonic structures have strategic importance in several fields. In order to fabricate more complex structures with optimized optical function, robotic nano-assembly is a promising solution because it enables to integrate several types of materials from different fabrication processes into the same structure. This paper presents a microrobotic station which is designed for the assembly of nano-optical components. The robotic station has 8-DOF for positioning and 4-DOF microgripper with integrated force sensors to perform dexterous and accurate manipulation of components by considering both position and contact force to achieve precise alignment and parallelism of structures.

  4. Robust Motion Control for Mobile Manipulator Using Resolved Acceleration and Proportional-Integral Active Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Mailah

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A resolved acceleration control (RAC and proportional-integral active force control (PIAFC is proposed as an approach for the robust motion control of a mobile manipulator (MM comprising a differentially driven wheeled mobile platform with a two-link planar arm mounted on top of the platform. The study emphasizes on the integrated kinematic and dynamic control strategy in which the RAC is used to manipulate the kinematic component while the PIAFC is implemented to compensate the dynamic effects including the bounded known/unknown disturbances and uncertainties. The effectivenss and robustness of the proposed scheme are investigated through a rigorous simulation study and later complemented with experimental results obtained through a number of experiments performed on a fully developed working prototype in a laboratory environment. A number of disturbances in the form of vibratory and impact forces are deliberately introduced into the system to evaluate the system performances. The investigation clearly demonstrates the extreme robustness feature of the proposed control scheme compared to other systems considered in the study.

  5. Mineralization of integrated gasification combined-cycle power-station wastewater effluent by a photo-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I; Aguirre, M

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the mineralization of wastewater effluent from an integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power station sited in Spain to meet the requirements of future environmental legislation. This study was done in a pilot plant using a homogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation process with continuous addition of H(2)O(2) and air to the system. The mineralization process was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. Experimental kinetic constants were fitted using neural networks (NNs). The NNs model reproduced the experimental data to within a 90% confidence level and allowed the simulation of the process for any values of the parameters within the experimental range studied. At the optimum conditions (H(2)O(2) flow rate=120 mL/h, [Fe(II)]=7.6 mg/L, pH=3.75 and air flow rate=1 m(3)/h), a 90% mineralization was achieved in 150 min. Determination of the hydrogen peroxide consumed and remaining in the water revealed that 1.2 mol of H(2)O(2) was consumed per each mol of total organic carbon removed from solution. This result confirmed that an excess of dissolved H(2)O(2) was needed to achieve high mineralization rates, so continuous addition of peroxide is recommended for industrial application of this process. Air flow slightly improved the mineralization rate due to the formation of peroxo-organic radicals which enhanced the oxidation process.

  6. Prior Surface Integrity Assessment of Coated and Uncoated Carbide Inserts Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Almazrouee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Coated carbide inserts are considered vital components in machining processes and advanced functional surface integrity of inserts and their coating are decisive factors for tool life. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM implementation has gained acceptance over a wide spectrum of research and science applications. When used in a proper systematic manner, the AFM features can be a valuable tool for assessment of tool surface integrity. The aim of this paper is to assess the integrity of coated and uncoated carbide inserts using AFM analytical parameters. Surface morphology of as-received coated and uncoated carbide inserts is examined, analyzed, and characterized through the determination of the appropriate scanning setting, the suitable data type imaging techniques and the most representative data analysis parameters using the MultiMode AFM microscope in contact mode. The results indicate that it is preferable to start with a wider scan size in order to get more accurate interpretation of surface topography. Results are found credible to support the idea that AFM can be used efficiently in detecting flaws and defects of coated and uncoated carbide inserts using specific features such as “Roughness” and “Section” parameters. A recommended strategy is provided for surface examination procedures of cutting inserts using various AFM controlling parameters.

  7. Forced Responses of the Parametric Vibration System for the Electromechanical Integrated Magnetic Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-hong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the magnetic fields modulating in the electromechanical integrated magnetic gear (EIMG, the electromagnetic coupling stiffnesses vary periodically and the expressions are given by the finite element method. The parametric vibration model and the dynamic differential equations are founded. The expressions of forced responses of EIMG system are deduced when the main resonances and the combination resonances occur. And then, the time and frequency responses are figured out. The dynamic characteristics of EIMG system are discussed. The results show that the dominant frequencies in the resonances are always the natural frequency of EIMG system. The relative amplitudes of the components have great difference and the components amplitudes of the main resonances are much bigger than the components amplitudes of the combination resonances. The time-varying meshing stiffness wave between the inner stator and the inner ferromagnetic pole-pieces has little influence on EIMG system.

  8. Integrated atomic force microscopy techniques for analysis of biomaterials: Study of membrane proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Laura S.

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is the prominent techniques for structural studies of biological materials in physiological relevant fluidic environments. AFM has been used to resolve the three-dimensional (3D) surface structure of cells, membranes, and proteins structures. Ion channels, formed by membrane proteins, are the key structures that control the activity of all living systems. This dissertation focuses on the structural evaluation of membrane proteins through atomic force microscopy. In Part I, AFM is utilized to study one of the most prominent medical issues facing our society, Alzheimer's Disease (AD). AD is a misfolded protein disease characterized by the accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide as senile plaques, progressive neurodegeneration, and memory loss. Recent evidence suggests that AD pathology is linked to the destabilization of cellular ionic homeostasis mediated by toxic channel structures composed of Abeta peptides. Selectively engineered sequences of Abeta were examined by AFM to elucidate the substructures and thus activity Abeta channels. Key residues were evaluated with the intent better understand the exact nature by which these pores conduct electrical and molecular signals, which could aid in identifying potential therapeutic targets for the prevention/treatment of AD. Additionally, AFM was used to analyze brain derived Abeta and newly developed pharmacological agents to study membranes and Abeta. Part II, presents a novel technology that incorporates electrophysiology into the AFM interface, enabling simultaneous imaging and complementary conductance measurements. The activity of ion channels is studied by various techniques, including patch clamp, free standing lipid bilayers, droplet interface bilayers, and supported lipid bilayers. However, direct correlation with channel structures has remained a challenge. The integrated atomic force microscopy system presented offers a solution to this challenge. The functionality of the

  9. Objective Lightning Forecasting at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winfred; Wheeler, Mark; Roeder, William

    2005-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at Cape Canaveral Air-Force Station (CCAFS)ln Florida issues a probability of lightning occurrence in their daily 24-hour and weekly planning forecasts. This information is used for general planning of operations at CCAFS and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). These facilities are located in east-central Florida at the east end of a corridor known as 'Lightning Alley', an indication that lightning has a large impact on space-lift operations. Much of the current lightning probability forecast is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data and an objective forecast tool developed over 30 years ago. The 45 WS requested that a new lightning probability forecast tool based on statistical analysis of more recent historical warm season (May-September) data be developed in order to increase the objectivity of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast. The resulting tool is a set of statistical lightning forecast equations, one for each month of the warm season, that provide a lightning occurrence probability for the day by 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) during the warm season.

  10. Peak Wind Forecasts for the Launch-Critical Wind Towers on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred

    2011-01-01

    This final report describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The peak winds arc an important forecast clement for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to update the statistics in the current peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool includes onshore and offshore flow climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  11. A Sounding-based Severe Weather Tool to Support Daily Operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H.; Roeder, William P.

    2014-01-01

    People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

  12. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Forecasts on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred

    2010-01-01

    This final report describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations.The tool includes climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  13. The Joint Force Air Component Commander and the Integration of Offensive Cyberspace Effects: Power Projection through Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    86 | Air & Space Power Journal The Joint Force Air Component Commander and the Integration of Offensive Cyberspace Effects Power Projection through...and Space Power Journal requests a courtesy line. Cyberspace can provide great opportunities to assist the joint force air compo-nent commander (JFACC...in theory. Offensive cyberspace operations have the potential to provide these types of power - projecting effects in the battlespace, but how can

  14. Research and simulation on integration of station and section of railway%车站区间一体化的研究与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建国; 陈光武; 苗成伟; 吴伟楷

    2011-01-01

    车站区间一体化是铁路,地铁、轻轨的发展方向.本文对铁路车站区间一体化进行研究,在此基础上进行基本功能的仿真.同时还对其拓展功能一现场安全作业防护预报进行仿真,连一步验证车站区间一体化的优越性.仿真结果表明,本方案在行车效率和维护管理方面具有显著的优势.%The integration of station and section was the developing trends of railway, subway and light railway. This paper researched on the integrative of station and section of railway, simulated the basic function and enlarged function of local safety operation defend forecast. This software was validated the scheme' s feasibility of integrative station and section of railway. The scheme was predominant in enhancing the efficiency of travelling and convenience of maintenance management aspect.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF PIPELINES INTEGRITY ASSOCIATED WITH PUMP MODULES VIBRATION FOR PUMPING STATION 9 OF ALYESKA PIPELINE SERVICE COMPANY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL

    2009-09-01

    Since the operation of PS09 SR module in 2007, it has been observed that there is vibration in various parts of the structures, on various segments of piping, and on appurtenance items. At DOT Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) request, ORNL Subject Matter Experts support PHMSA in its review and analysis of the observed vibration phenomenon. The review and analysis consider possible effects of pipeline design features, vibration characteristics, machinery configuration, and operating practices on the structural capacity and leak tight integrity of the pipeline. Emphasis is placed on protection of welded joints and machinery against failure from cyclic loading. A series of vibration measurements were carried out by the author during the site visit to PS09, the power of the operating pump during the data collection is at about 2970KW, which is less than that of APSC's vibration data collected at 3900KW. Thus, a first order proportional factor of 4900/2970 was used to project the measured velocity data to that of APSC's measurement of the velocity data. It is also noted here that the average or the peak-hold value of the measured velocity data was used in the author's reported data, and only the maximum peak-hold data was used in APSC's reported data. Therefore, in some cases APSC's data is higher than the author's projective estimates that using the average data. In general the projected velocity data are consistent with APSC's measurements; the examples of comparison at various locations are illustrated in the Table 1. This exercise validates and confirms the report vibration data stated in APSC's summary report. After the reinforcement project for PS09 Station, a significant reduction of vibration intensity was observed for the associated pipelines at the SR Modules. EDI Co. provided a detailed vibration intensity investigation for the newly reinforced Pump Module structures and the associated

  16. Female labour force integration and the alleviation of urban poverty: a case study of Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J

    1995-01-01

    The author posits that female labor force integration in Jamaica accomplishes little in alleviating poverty and making maximum use of human resources. Women are forced into employment in a labor market that limits their productivity. Women have greater needs to increase their economic activity due to price inflation and cuts in government spending. During the 1980s and early 1990s the country experienced stabilization and structural adjustment resulting in raised interest rates, reduced public sector employment, and deflated public expenditures. Urban population is particularly sensitive to monetary shifts due to dependency on social welfare benefits and lack of assets. Current strategies favor low wage creation in a supply-side export-oriented economy. These strategies were a by-product of import-substitution industrialization policies during the post-war period and greater control by multilateral financial institutions in Washington, D.C. The World Bank and US President Reagan's Caribbean Basin Initiative stressed export-oriented development. During the 1980s, Jamaican government failed to control fiscal policy, built up a huge external debt, and limited the ability of private businessmen to obtain money for investment in export-based production. Over the decade, uncompetitive production declined and light manufacturing increased. Although under 10% of new investment was in textile and apparel manufacturing, almost 50% of job creation occurred in this sector and 80% of all apparel workers were low-paid women. Devaluation occurred both in the exchange rate and in workers' job security, fringe benefits, union representation, and returns on skills. During 1977-89 women increased employment in the informal sector, which could not remain competitive under devaluation. Women's stratification in the labor market, high dependency burdens, and declining urban infrastructure create conditions of vulnerability for women in Jamaica.

  17. The entropic forces and dynamic integrity of single file water in hydrophobic nanotube confinements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Pooja; Ali, Sk. M., E-mail: musharaf@barc.gov.in [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-11-14

    Water in nanotube exhibits remarkably different properties from the bulk phase, which can be exploited in various nanoconfinement based technologies. The properties of water within nanotube can be further tuned by varying the nanotube electrostatics and functionalization of nanotube ends. Here, therefore, we investigate the effect of quantum partial charges and carbon nanotube (CNT) termination in terms of associated entropic forces. An attempt has been made to correlate the entropic forces with various dynamical and structural properties. The simulated structural features are consistent with general theoretical aspects, in which the interfacial water molecules at H terminated CNT are found to be distributed in a different way as compared to other CNTs. The rotational entropy components for different cases of CNTs are well corroborated by the decay time of hydrogen bond (HB) correlation functions. A part of this event has been explained in terms of orientation of water molecules in the chain, i.e., the change in direction of dipole moment of water molecules in the chain and it has been revealed that the HBs of CNT confined water molecules show long preserving correlation if their rotations inside CNT are restricted. Furthermore, the translational entropy components are rationally integrated with the differing degree of translational constraints, added by the CNTs. To the best of our information, perhaps this is the first study where the thermodynamic effects introduced by H-termination and induced dipole of CNT have been investigated. Additionally, we present a bridge relation between “translational diffusivity and configurational entropy” for water transport from bulk phase to inside CNTs.

  18. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  19. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  20. An integrated instrumental setup for the combination of atomic force microscopy with optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, R J; Heyes, C D; Knebel, D; Röcker, C; Nienhaus, G U

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, the study of single biomolecules using fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques has resulted in a plethora of new information regarding the physics underlying these complex biological systems. It is especially advantageous to be able to measure the optical, topographical, and mechanical properties of single molecules simultaneously. Here an AFM is used that is especially designed for integration with an inverted optical microscope and that has a near-infrared light source (850 nm) to eliminate interference between the optical experiment and the AFM operation. The Tip Assisted Optics (TAO) system consists of an additional 100 x 100-microm(2) X-Y scanner for the sample, which can be independently and simultaneously used with the AFM scanner. This allows the offset to be removed between the confocal optical image obtained with the sample scanner and the simultaneously acquired AFM topography image. The tip can be positioned exactly into the optical focus while the user can still navigate within the AFM image for imaging or manipulation of the sample. Thus the tip-enhancement effect can be maximized and it becomes possible to perform single molecule manipulation experiments within the focus of a confocal optical image. Here this is applied to simultaneous measurement of single quantum dot fluorescence and topography with high spatial resolution.

  1. Computerized Integrated Inventory Control for an Air Force Base-Level Supply System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Monterey, California 93940 5. Major Angelo C. Molato 1 Philippine Air Force (Student) No. 62 Medicion I Imus, Cavite Philippines 6. Air Force Computer Center 1 HPAF, Nichols Air Base Pasay City Philippines 136

  2. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  3. Electric power irrigation and drainage pumping station integrated automation and application%电力排灌站综合自动化及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何荣锋; 何婕

    2014-01-01

    本文研究了电排站的优化调度模型,理论分析了分层分布式结构的泵站综合自动化系统。结合工程实例,针对大中型和小型电排站的综合自动化系统进行了整体设计,提供了一个设计典范。通过综合自动化改造和优化调度,能对电排站进行集中监控、调度和管理,大大提高泵站运行的可靠性、经济性,有效提高管理水平和排渍效果。%This paper studies the DianPaiZhan optimization scheduling model, theoretical analysis of the pumping station integrated au-tomation system of hierarchical distributed structure. Combined with project example, the integrated automation system for large and medium-sized and small DianPaiZhan has carried on the overall design, provides a design model. Through integrated automation transfor-mation and optimization of scheduling, can the DianPaiZhan centralized monitoring, scheduling and management, greatly improve the re-liability of pump station operation, economy, improve the management level and effect of stains.

  4. Measurement of Giardia lamblia adhesion force using an integrated microfluidic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling; Zheng, Guo-Xia; Yang, Yu-Suo; Feng, Cheng-Yu; Liu, Fang-Fang; Wang, Yun-Hua

    2017-02-01

    The mechanisms how Giardias attach to the intestinal epithelium remain unclear. None of the methods currently being used to measure the attachment force could provide a continuous nutrition supply and a micro-aerobic atmosphere to the Giardia. Besides, they are all labor-intensive. In the present research, a microfluidic method based on electric circuit analogy was developed. The input fluid flowed through the inlet channel with different lengths and was distributed in four assay chambers. Shear force gradients were generated in chambers, too. This allowed an easy control of fluids and the shear forces. Most importantly, the shear stress large enough to detach Giardia could be generated in laminar flow regime. Moreover, analysis could be accomplished in one single test. By applying inlet flow rates of 30, 60, and 120 μL ml(-1), shear force gradients ranging from 19.47 to 60.50 Pa were generated. The adhesion forces of trophozoites were analyzed and the EC50 of the force that caused 50% trophozoites detachment was calculated as 36.60 Pa. This paper presents a novel method for measurement of Giardia adhesion force. Graphical Abstract Measurement of Giardia adhesion force. Various of flow rates were applied to generate different shear forces and Giardia trophozoites remaining attached were counted (a-c). The percentages of attachment vs shear stress were plotted and the EC50 of adhesion force was calculated (d).

  5. Objective Lightning Forecasting at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) forecasters at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Florida include a probability of thunderstorm occurrence in their daily morning briefings. This information is used by personnel involved in determining the possibility of violating Launch Commit Criteria, evaluating Flight Rules for the Space Shuttle, and daily planning for ground operation activities on Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/CCAFS. Much of the current lightning probability forecast is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data. The forecasters requested that a lightning probability forecast tool based on statistical analysis of historical warm-season (May - September) data be developed in order to increase the objectivity of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast. The tool is a set of statistical lightning forecast equations that provide a lightning occurrence probability for the day by 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) during the warm season. This study used 15 years (1989-2003) of warm season data to develop the objective forecast equations. The local CCAFS 1000 UTC sounding was used to calculate stability parameters for equation predictors. The Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data were used to determine lightning occurrence for each day. The CGLSS data have been found to be more reliable indicators of lightning in the area than surface observations through local informal analyses. This work was based on the results from two earlier research projects. Everitt (1999) used surface observations and rawinsonde data to develop logistic regression equations that forecast the daily thunderstorm probability at CCAFS. The Everitt (1999) equations showed an improvement in skill over the Neumann-Pfeffer thunderstorm index (Neumann 1971), which uses multiple linear regression, and also persistence and climatology forecasts. Lericos et al. (2002) developed lightning distributions over the Florida peninsula based on specific flow regimes. The

  6. Isolating the roles of different forcing agents in global stratospheric temperature changes using model integrations with incrementally added single forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, V.; Swartz, W. H.; Waugh, D. W.; Colarco, P. R.; Pawson, S.; Polvani, L. M.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2016-07-01

    Satellite instruments show a cooling of global stratospheric temperatures over the whole data record (1979-2014). This cooling is not linear and includes two descending steps in the early 1980s and mid-1990s. The 1979-1995 period is characterized by increasing concentrations of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and by the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón (1982) and Mount Pinatubo (1991). The 1995-present period is characterized by decreasing ODS concentrations and by the absence of major volcanic eruptions. Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations increase over the whole time period. In order to isolate the roles of different forcing agents in the global stratospheric temperature changes, we performed a set of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model with prescribed sea surface temperatures. We find that in our model simulations the cooling of the stratosphere from 1979 to present is mostly driven by changes in GHG concentrations in the middle and upper stratosphere and by GHG and ODS changes in the lower stratosphere. While the cooling trend caused by increasing GHGs is roughly constant over the satellite era, changing ODS concentrations cause a significant stratospheric cooling only up to the mid-1990s, when they start to decrease because of the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. Sporadic volcanic events and the solar cycle have a distinct signature in the time series of stratospheric temperature anomalies but do not play a statistically significant role in the long-term trends from 1979 to 2014. Several factors combine to produce the step-like behavior in the stratospheric temperatures: in the lower stratosphere, the flattening starting in the mid-1990s is due to the decrease in ozone-depleting substances; Mount Pinatubo and the solar cycle cause the abrupt steps through the aerosol-associated warming and the volcanically induced ozone depletion. In the middle and upper stratosphere, changes in solar

  7. Development of Integrated ASR Model Forcing Data and Their Applications to Improve CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Minghua [Research Foundation of the State University of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this project, we have (1) improved the constrained variational analysis algorithm of ARM model forcing data, and (2) used the ARM forcing data to identify systematic biases in clouds and radiation in the CAM5 and design new physical parameterizations to improve it.

  8. A study of System Interface Sets (SIS) for the host, target and integration environments of the Space Station Program (SSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Charles; Auty, David; Rogers, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    System interface sets (SIS) for large, complex, non-stop, distributed systems are examined. The SIS of the Space Station Program (SSP) was selected as the focus of this study because an appropriate virtual interface specification of the SIS is believed to have the most potential to free the project from four life cycle tyrannies which are rooted in a dependance on either a proprietary or particular instance of: operating systems, data management systems, communications systems, and instruction set architectures. The static perspective of the common Ada programming support environment interface set (CAIS) and the portable common execution environment (PCEE) activities are discussed. Also, the dynamic perspective of the PCEE is addressed.

  9. 水质自动监测站综合防雷技术研究%Research on Integrated Lightning Protection Technology of Automatic Water Quality Monitoring Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊希彬; 于淼; 梁铁军

    2011-01-01

    基于建筑物雷击风险评估方法,得出本地可能遭受到的雷击形式和雷电破坏电子设备途径.以鸭绿江丹东江桥水质自动监测站综合防雷系统工程设计与施工为基础,对水质自动监测站外部、内部综合防雷技术体系进行阐述,通过现代防雷技术方法,有效降低监测设备因雷击而产生的故障率、最大限度预防和减少雷击所发生的人身伤亡和国家财产损失.%According to the method of building lightning risk assessment, ways of local lightning and means that lightning damages to electronic devices are obtained. Based on the design and construction of integrated lightning protection system of Yalu River automatic water quality monitoring stations in Dandong, external and internal integrated lightning protection system of automatic water quality monitoring stations is illustrated. Through methods of modern lightning protection technology, the failure rate generated from monitoring equipment stuck by lightning can be effectively reduced, the body injuries, deaths and the loss of state property led by lightning can be maximally prevented and reduced.

  10. Technical and environmental aspects of combined cycle power stations with integrated gasification (CCGI); Aspectos tecnicos y medioambientales de las centrales de ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada (CCGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Mora, Hector Alejandro; Urias Romero, Francisco [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    A description is presented of the operation of the Combined Cycle Power Stations with Integrated Gasification (CCGI) where the use of solid fuels (coal, vacuum residues, petroleum coke, and biomass) or liquids is possible in a thermal power station with the efficiency and many of the own environmental benefits of the combined cycles. The gasification process is analyzed, that is a thermo-chemical process by means of which a fuel that is in solid state or liquid becomes to the gaseous state by means of a partial oxidation and the obtained gas of this process is called synthesis gas (syngas, by its abbreviations in English) that is used in Combined Cycle Power Stations as a substitute for the natural gas. Also the other components of this type of power stations are shown, such as the air separating unit, and some of the modifications that are due to make to adapt a gas turbine so that it uses syngas, and the considerations of their integration with the air separating unit to optimize the operation of the plant are detailed. A comparison of efficiency values of power stations CCGI with the conventional carbon-electric and the power stations of combined cycle that use natural gas is also shown. Finally the emissions of pollutants of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} are analyzed. The possibility of using fuels like petroleum coke and vacuum tower residues that are produced in the Cadereyta refinery is studied for the possible construction of a CCGI power station in Mexico. [Spanish] Se presenta la descripcion del funcionamiento de las centrales ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada (CCGI) donde es posible el uso de combustibles solidos (carbon, residuos de vacio, coque de petroleo, biomasa) o liquidos en una central termica con la eficiencia y muchos de los beneficios ambientales propios de los ciclos combinados. Se analiza el proceso de gasificacion, que es un proceso termoquimico mediante el cual se convierte un combustible que se encuentra en estado solido o

  11. Integration of the Forced-Choice Questionnaire and the Likert Scale: A Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yue; Liu, Hongyun; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The Thurstonian item response theory (IRT) model allows estimating the latent trait scores of respondents directly through their responses in forced-choice questionnaires. It solves a part of problems brought by the traditional scoring methods of this kind of questionnaires. However, the forced-choice designs may still have their own limitations: The model may encounter underidentification and non-convergence and the test may show low test reliability in simple test designs (e.g., test design...

  12. Integrated Planning for the Air Force Senior Leader Workforce. Background and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Matters Office AFSLMO Air Force Senior Leader Management Office C2ISR command, control, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance CMDB Command...as follows, using proxies available in the Air Force’s Command Manpower Data Base ( CMDB ). 2 Size. Organizational size was defined as the number of...organization. 2 For the analysis reported here, we used the CMDB as of the end of FY 2002. 3 Given the wide variations found in organizational sizes, we

  13. Solar energy assessment in the Alpine area: satellite data and ground instruments integration for studying the radiative forcing of aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, M.; Petitta, M.; Emili, E.

    2012-04-01

    The primary objective of this work is to purpose an approach for estimating the effect of aerosols on surface incoming shortwave radiation (SIS) in the Alpine region, which is based on the integration of different instruments: we develop a GIS model, whose output is corrected by monthly atmospheric coefficients, and then we progressively add details by daily updated atmospheric information. The assessment of solar energy availability at the earth's surface over a specific geographic area is crucial for planning photovoltaic panels installation. When modeling SIS with GIS instruments or retrieving it from satellites measurements, we have to account for terrain shadowing and atmospheric extinction, both of which are difficult to describe in the Alpine area, because of the topographic complexity and the local atmospheric circulation influence on the atmospheric composition. While advanced methods were developed to carefully describe the effect of topography, the atmospheric attenuation was considered so far only through monthly turbidity values, and the question remains whether it be possible to develop a time-effective routine to model the atmospheric effect on SIS at daily scale. As a first step we produced a WebGIS for the town of Bressanone, Italy, showing a classification of the roofs of the buildings according to the yearly amount of global irradiance. Furthermore we provide the annual electricity production based on the efficiency of the most common PV technologies. At this stage clear sky irradiance was computed with a GIS based model, and afterwards monthly correction coefficients were applied to add real sky conditions to the merely geometrical computations, which were obtained from 20 years of measurement collected by the pyranometer in the closest meteorological station. As a second step we investigate the influence of aerosol optical properties on SIS by running the radiative transfer model libRadtran by using as input the aerosol model defined for the

  14. Integrated dynamic and static tactile sensor: focus on static force sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettels, Nicholas; Pletner, Baruch

    2012-04-01

    Object grasping by robotic hands in unstructured environments demands a sensor that is durable, compliant, and responsive to static and dynamic force conditions. In order for a tactile sensor to be useful for grasp control in these, it should have the following properties: tri-axial force sensing (two shear plus normal component), dynamic event sensing across slip frequencies, compliant surface for grip, wide dynamic range (depending on application), insensitivity to environmental conditions, ability to withstand abuse and good sensing behavior (e.g. low hysteresis, high repeatability). These features can be combined in a novel multimodal tactile sensor. This sensor combines commercial-off-the-shelf MEMS technology with two proprietary force sensors: a high bandwidth device based on PZT technology and low bandwidth device based on elastomers and optics. In this study, we focus on the latter transduction mechanism and the proposed architecture of the completed device. In this study, an embedded LED was utilized to produce a constant light source throughout a layer of silicon rubber which covered a plastic mandrel containing a set of sensitive phototransistors. Features about the contacted object such as center of pressure and force vectors can be extracted from the information in the changing patterns of light. The voltage versus force relationship obtained with this molded humanlike finger had a wide dynamic range that coincided with forces relevant for most human grip tasks.

  15. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  16. Statistical Analysis of Model Data for Operational Space Launch Weather Support at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) is used by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support space launch weather operations. The 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct an objective statistics-based analysis of MesoNAM output compared to wind tower mesonet observations and then develop a an operational tool to display the results. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction began running the current version of the MesoNAM in mid-August 2006. The period of record for the dataset was 1 September 2006 - 31 January 2010. The AMU evaluated MesoNAM hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point were compared to the observed values of these parameters from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. The data sets were stratified by model initialization time, month and onshore/offshore flow for each wind tower. Statistics computed included bias (mean difference), standard deviation of the bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and a hypothesis test for bias = O. Twelve wind towers located in close proximity to key launch complexes were used for the statistical analysis with the sensors on the towers positioned at varying heights to include 6 ft, 30 ft, 54 ft, 60 ft, 90 ft, 162 ft, 204 ft and 230 ft depending on the launch vehicle and associated weather launch commit criteria being evaluated. These twelve wind towers support activities for the Space Shuttle (launch and landing), Delta IV, Atlas V and Falcon 9 launch vehicles. For all twelve towers, the results indicate a diurnal signal in the bias of temperature (T) and weaker but discernable diurnal signal in the bias of dewpoint temperature (T(sub d)) in the MesoNAM forecasts. Also, the standard deviation of the bias and RMSE of T, T(sub d), wind speed and wind

  17. Design and implementation of an integrated safety management system for compressed natural gas stations using ubiquitous sensor network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Mo; Ko, Byung Seok; Park, Chulhwan; Ko, Jae Wook [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Byungtae [National Disaster Management Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongil [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To increase awareness of safety in facilities where hazards may exist, operators, managers, and executive officers on the site should be able to monitor such facilities. However, most compressed natural gas (CNG) service stations in Korea use only local-mode monitoring, with only on-site operators to monitor the facility. To complement this local-mode monitoring, an online safety management system called Ubiquitous-gas safety management system (U-GSMS) was developed. The U-GSMS consists largely of software and hardware. The software consists of systems that can manage safety and operations, while the hardware consists of sensors installed in the gas facility and wireless communication systems using a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technology that facilitates communication between sensors as well as between sensors and other devices. As these systems are web-based, on-site operators as well as managers and executive officers at the headquarters can more effectively and efficiently perform monitoring and safety management.

  18. An integrated platform enabling optogenetic illumination of Caenorhabditis elegans neurons and muscular force measurement in microstructured environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhichang; Tu, Long; Huang, Liang; Zhu, Taoyuanmin; Nock, Volker; Yu, Enchao; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics has been recently applied to manipulate the neural circuits of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to investigate its mechanosensation and locomotive behavior, which is a fundamental topic in model biology. In most neuron-related research, free C. elegans moves on an open area such as agar surface. However, this simple environment is different from the soil, in which C. elegans naturally dwells. To bridge up the gap, this paper presents integration of optogenetic illumination of C. elegans neural circuits and muscular force measurement in a structured microfluidic chip mimicking the C. elegans soil habitat. The microfluidic chip is essentially a ∼1 × 1 cm(2) elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane micro-pillar array, configured in either form of lattice (LC) or honeycomb (HC) to mimic the environment in which the worm dwells. The integrated system has four key modules for illumination pattern generation, pattern projection, automatic tracking of the worm, and force measurement. Specifically, two optical pathways co-exist in an inverted microscope, including built-in bright-field illumination for worm tracking and pattern generation, and added-in optogenetic illumination for pattern projection onto the worm body segment. The behavior of a freely moving worm in the chip under optogenetic manipulation can be recorded for off-line force measurements. Using wild-type N2 C. elegans, we demonstrated optical illumination of C. elegans neurons by projecting light onto its head/tail segment at 14 Hz refresh frequency. We also measured the force and observed three representative locomotion patterns of forward movement, reversal, and omega turn for LC and HC configurations. Being capable of stimulating or inhibiting worm neurons and simultaneously measuring the thrust force, this enabling platform would offer new insights into the correlation between neurons and locomotive behaviors of the nematode under a complex environment.

  19. Mechanical forces as information: an integrated approach to plant and animal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria eHernández-Hernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical forces such as tension and compression act throughout growth and development of multicellular organisms. These forces not only affect the size and shape of the cells and tissues but are capable of modifying the expression of genes and the localization of molecular components within the cell, in the plasma membrane, and in the plant cell wall. The magnitude and direction of these physical forces change with cellular and tissue properties such as elasticity. Thus, mechanical forces and the mesoscopic fields that emerge from their local action constitute important sources of positional information. Moreover, physical and biochemical processes interact in non-linear ways during tissue and organ growth in plants and animals. In this review we discuss how such mechanical forces are generated, transmitted, and sensed in these two lineages of multicellular organisms to yield long-range positional information. In order to do so we first outline a potentially common basis for studying patterning and mechanosensing that relies on the structural principle of tensegrity, and discuss how tensegral structures might arise in plants and animals. We then provide some examples of morphogenesis in which mechanical forces appear to act as positional information during development, offering a possible explanation for ubiquitous processes, such as the formation of periodic structures. Such examples, we argue, can be interpreted in terms of tensegral phenomena. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis of mechanically isotropic points as a potentially generic mechanism for the localization and maintenance of stem-cell niches in multicellular organisms. This comparative approach aims to help uncovering generic mechanisms of morphogenesis and thus reach a better understanding of the evolution and development of multicellular phenotypes, focusing on the role of physical forces in these processes.

  20. Mechanical forces as information: an integrated approach to plant and animal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Valeria; Rueda, Denisse; Caballero, Lorena; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Benítez, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces such as tension and compression act throughout growth and development of multicellular organisms. These forces not only affect the size and shape of the cells and tissues but are capable of modifying the expression of genes and the localization of molecular components within the cell, in the plasma membrane, and in the plant cell wall. The magnitude and direction of these physical forces change with cellular and tissue properties such as elasticity. Thus, mechanical forces and the mesoscopic fields that emerge from their local action constitute important sources of positional information. Moreover, physical and biochemical processes interact in non-linear ways during tissue and organ growth in plants and animals. In this review we discuss how such mechanical forces are generated, transmitted, and sensed in these two lineages of multicellular organisms to yield long-range positional information. In order to do so we first outline a potentially common basis for studying patterning and mechanosensing that relies on the structural principle of tensegrity, and discuss how tensegral structures might arise in plants and animals. We then provide some examples of morphogenesis in which mechanical forces appear to act as positional information during development, offering a possible explanation for ubiquitous processes, such as the formation of periodic structures. Such examples, we argue, can be interpreted in terms of tensegral phenomena. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis of mechanically isotropic points as a potentially generic mechanism for the localization and maintenance of stem-cell niches in multicellular organisms. This comparative approach aims to help uncovering generic mechanisms of morphogenesis and thus reach a better understanding of the evolution and development of multicellular phenotypes, focusing on the role of physical forces in these processes. PMID:24959170

  1. Transient Intervals of Hyper-Gravity Enhance Endothelial Barrier Integrity: Impact of Mechanical and Gravitational Forces Measured Electrically.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Szulcek

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells (EC guard vascular functions by forming a dynamic barrier throughout the vascular system that sensitively adapts to 'classical' biomechanical forces, such as fluid shear stress and hydrostatic pressure. Alterations in gravitational forces might similarly affect EC integrity, but remain insufficiently studied.In an unique approach, we utilized Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS in the gravity-simulators at the European Space Agency (ESA to study dynamic responses of human EC to simulated micro- and hyper-gravity as well as to classical forces.Short intervals of micro- or hyper-gravity evoked distinct endothelial responses. Stimulated micro-gravity led to decreased endothelial barrier integrity, whereas hyper-gravity caused sustained barrier enhancement by rapid improvement of cell-cell integrity, evidenced by a significant junctional accumulation of VE-cadherin (p = 0.011, significant enforcement of peripheral F-actin (p = 0.008 and accompanied by a slower enhancement of cell-matrix interactions. The hyper-gravity triggered EC responses were force dependent and nitric-oxide (NO mediated showing a maximal resistance increase of 29.2±4.8 ohms at 2g and 60.9±6.2 ohms at 4g vs. baseline values that was significantly suppressed by NO blockage (p = 0.011.In conclusion, short-term application of hyper-gravity caused a sustained improvement of endothelial barrier integrity, whereas simulated micro-gravity weakened the endothelium. In clear contrast, classical forces of shear stress and hydrostatic pressure induced either short-lived or no changes to the EC barrier. Here, ECIS has proven a powerful tool to characterize subtle and distinct EC gravity-responses due to its high temporal resolution, wherefore ECIS has a great potential for the study of gravity-responses such as in real space flights providing quantitative assessment of a variety of cell biological characteristics of any adherent growing cell type in an

  2. Provider accountability as a driving force towards physician–hospital integration: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Trybou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospitals and physicians lie at the heart of our health care delivery system. In general, physicians provide medical care and hospitals the resources to deliver health care. In the past two decades many countries have adopted reforms in which provider financial risk bearing is increased. By making providers financially accountable for the delivered care integrated care delivery is stimulated. Purpose: To assess the evidence base supporting the relationship between provider financial risk bearing and physician–hospital integration and to identify the different types of methods used to measure physician–hospital integration to evaluate the functional value of these integrative models. Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. The evidence base is mixed and inconclusive. Our methodological analysis of previous research shows that previous studies have largely focused on the formal structures of physician–hospital arrangements as an indicator of physician–hospital integration. Conclusion: The link between provider financial risk bearing and physician–hospital integration can at this time be supported merely on the basis of theoretical insights of agency theory rather than empirical research. Physician–hospital integration measurement has concentrated on the prevalence of contracting vehicles that enables joint bargaining in a managed care environment but without realizing integration and cooperation between hospital and physicians. Therefore, we argue that these studies fail to shed light on the impact of risk shifting on the hospital–physician relationship accurately.

  3. Provider accountability as a driving force towards physician–hospital integration: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Trybou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospitals and physicians lie at the heart of our health care delivery system. In general, physicians provide medical care and hospitals the resources to deliver health care. In the past two decades many countries have adopted reforms in which provider financial risk bearing is increased. By making providers financially accountable for the delivered care integrated care delivery is stimulated.Purpose: To assess the evidence base supporting the relationship between provider financial risk bearing and physician–hospital integration and to identify the different types of methods used to measure physician–hospital integration to evaluate the functional value of these integrative models.Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. The evidence base is mixed and inconclusive. Our methodological analysis of previous research shows that previous studies have largely focused on the formal structures of physician–hospital arrangements as an indicator of physician–hospital integration.Conclusion: The link between provider financial risk bearing and physician–hospital integration can at this time be supported merely on the basis of theoretical insights of agency theory rather than empirical research. Physician–hospital integration measurement has concentrated on the prevalence of contracting vehicles that enables joint bargaining in a managed care environment but without realizing integration and cooperation between hospital and physicians. Therefore, we argue that these studies fail to shed light on the impact of risk shifting on the hospital–physician relationship accurately.

  4. Local and integral forces on the vacuum vessel during thermal quench in the ITER tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayrutdinov, R. R.; Lukash, V. E.; Pustovitov, V. D.

    2016-11-01

    The forces arising during an early stage of disruption in tokamaks are studied here. The analysis is based on DINA calculations and comparison with recent analytical predictions (Pustovitov 2015 Plasma Phys. Rep. 41 952). One such prediction was that a large radial force on the vacuum vessel wall can be generated by a thermal quench (TQ) alone, even before the plasma current is changed. The numerical results presented here confirm this and provide precise quantitative characteristics. The calculations are performed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) geometry by using the DINA code. It is shown, in particular, that the TQ-produced radial force in ITER can reach ~70 MN. Its poloidal distribution has a peak ~2.8 times larger than the average. The relevant details of physics models are also presented.

  5. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration on the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    African Standby Force is one of five regional structures that are intended to provide robust tools to the continental conflict management regime. In the book The Future of African Peace Operations from 2016, de Coning et al. shows the changing nature and role of African Peace Operations (Coning , Gelot......, & Karlsrud, 2016). They also ask the key question about the future of the African Standby Force, and end by asking an open and important question: how should the future force be structured and equipped to enable it to deal effectively with the hybrid threats that confront African states, which have...... announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015. Their readiness was tested in the continental field exercise, Amani Africa II, that took place in South Africa in October-November 2015 (Defence Web, 2015) The exercise successfully tested both...

  6. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  7. Jet engine test stand and soil stockpile. 107th fighter-interceptor group Niagara Falls Air Force Reserve Station, New York Air National Guard, Niagara Falls, New York. Final site assessment addendum report, 9-12 February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    THis report outlines additional site assessment activities which were conducted at the Jet Engine Test Stand (JETS), Building No. 852 located at the 197th Fighter-Interceptor Group, Niagara Falls Air National Guard Station (NFANGS), Air Force Reserve Facility (AFRF) approximately 6 miles northeast of Niagara Falls, New York (Figure 1.1). The additional site assessment activities were performed in response to requests, dated February 9 and 12, 1993, by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) to further investigate contaminated soil and groundwater conditions at the JETS and at an existing soil stockpile (Appendix A).

  8. Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  9. A piezo motor based on a new principle with high output force, rigidity and integrity: The Tuna Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Lu, Qingyou

    2012-11-01

    We present a linear piezoelectric motor as simple as one piezoelectric scanner tube (PST) spring-clamping a central shaft at both ends with roughly equal clamping forces. The clamping points are aligned with ±X electrodes at one end and ±Y electrodes at the other end. Thus, the ±X (or ±Y) push-pull motions of the PST can cause the push-pull motions of the clamping points on the shaft (called push-pull rubbing), which reduces the total dynamic friction force at one (or the other) end of the PST. This new piezo motor advances one step by fast push-pull rubbing at one end while slowly retracting the PST followed by fast push-pull rubbing at the other end while slowly elongating the PST. Apart from the obvious advantages of simplicity, rigidity, integrity, etc., we will also show that this motor can produce a large output force, which we believe is because of the huge drop of the clamping friction force when the push-pull rubbing occurs.

  10. Chemosterilant bait stations coupled with sterile insect technique: an integrated strategy to control the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Llopis, V; Vacas, S; Sanchis, J; Primo, J; Alfaro, C

    2011-10-01

    During 2008 and 2009, the efficacy of the combination of two Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), control techniques, sterile insect technique (SIT) and a chemosterilant bait station system (Adress), was tested in three crops: citrus (Citrus spp.), stone fruit (Prunus spp.), and persimmon (Diospyros spp.). Two thousand sterile males were released per ha each week in the whole trial area (50,000 ha, SIT area). For 3,600 ha, within the whole trial area, 24 Adress traps per ha were hung (SIT + Adress area). Ten SIT + Adress plots and 10 SIT plots in each of three different fruit crops were arranged to assess Mediterranean fruit fly population densities and fruit damage throughout the trial period. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment, the male and female populations were each monitored from August 2008 to November 2009, and injured fruit was assessed before harvest. Results showed a significant reduction in the C. capitata population in plots treated with both techniques versus plots treated only with the SIT. Likewise, a corresponding reduction in the percentage of injured fruit was observed. These data indicate the compatibility of these techniques and suggest the possibility of using Adress coupled with SIT to reduce C. capitata populations in locations with high population densities, where SIT alone is not sufficiently effective to suppress fruit fly populations to below damaging levels.

  11. Young ethnic German late resettlers from Poland – “(quasi-forced nature of migration” vs. success of integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Tomaszewska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available “(Late resettlers”, or to put it in simple terms, people of German ancestry who came to Germany from Eastern Europe after World War II, constitute a peculiar case within the spectrum of German migration. On one hand, they are distinct from foreigners, on the other hand, despite having German citizenship, they stand out from the native German population. L. Wilkiewicz refers to this category as “quasi-forced resettlers”. The forced nature of the young resettlers migration may then be seen as doubly strengthened by the fact that they had no impact on their parents decision to leave the country. They were, in a sort of way, uprooted from their original environment and planted into a new, alien one. Having accepted German citizenship and having been attributed the purpose of “living as Germans among Germans”, the resettlers were expected to show a higher degree of integration with local society than “ordinary” migrants. In this study, I shall confine myself to a few selected aspects affecting the success of integration. Presented below are some of the memories that the young resettlers have of the moment of their “(quasi-forced” migration, of their early days in Germany, of Poland as the country of their childhood, of the reasons for departure as given by their parents, and of the main factors – apart from those personality-related such as intelligence – that contributed to their successful integration.

  12. Integration of acoustic radiation force and optical imaging for blood plasma clot stiffness measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caroline W; Perez, Matthew J; Helmke, Brian P; Viola, Francesco; Lawrence, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the life-preserving function blood clotting serves in the body, inadequate or excessive blood clot stiffness has been associated with life-threatening diseases such as stroke, hemorrhage, and heart attack. The relationship between blood clot stiffness and vascular diseases underscores the importance of quantifying the magnitude and kinetics of blood's transformation from a fluid to a viscoelastic solid. To measure blood plasma clot stiffness, we have developed a method that uses ultrasound acoustic radiation force (ARF) to induce micron-scaled displacements (1-500 μm) on microbeads suspended in blood plasma. The displacements were detected by optical microscopy and took place within a micro-liter sized clot region formed within a larger volume (2 mL sample) to minimize container surface effects. Modulation of the ultrasound generated acoustic radiation force allowed stiffness measurements to be made in blood plasma from before its gel point to the stage where it was a fully developed viscoelastic solid. A 0.5 wt % agarose hydrogel was 9.8-fold stiffer than the plasma (platelet-rich) clot at 1 h post-kaolin stimulus. The acoustic radiation force microbead method was sensitive to the presence of platelets and strength of coagulation stimulus. Platelet depletion reduced clot stiffness 6.9 fold relative to platelet rich plasma. The sensitivity of acoustic radiation force based stiffness assessment may allow for studying platelet regulation of both incipient and mature clot mechanical properties.

  13. The Imperative to Integrate Air Force Command and Control Systems into Maritime Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    accurate surface picture and an institutionally joint culture , the E-8C is ideally suited and al- ready vetted to complement the sea services’ own... ZULU .” July–August 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 116 Dalman, Kopp, & Redman Air Force Command and Control Systems in Maritime Plans Feature 18

  14. Combined dynamic stiffness matrix and precise time integration method for transient forced vibration response analysis of beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin

    2008-01-01

    A method has been developed for determining the transient response of a beam. The beam is divided into several continuous Timoshenko beam elements. The overall dynamic stiffness matrix is assembled in turn. Using Leung's equation, we derive the overall mass and stiffness matrices which are more suitable for response analysis than the overall dynamic stiffness matrix. The forced vibration of the beam is computed by the precise time integration method. Three illustrative beams are discussed to evaluate the performance of the current method. Solutions calculated by the finite element method and theoretical analysis are also enumerated for comparison. In these examples, we have found that the current method can solve the forced vibration of structures with a higher precision.

  15. PERFORMANCE OF A FORCED CONVECTION SOLAR DRIER INTEGRATED WITH GRAVEL AS HEAT STORAGE MATERIAL FOR CHILI DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MOHANRAJ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An indirect forced convection solar drier integrated with different sensible heat storage maternal has been developed and tested its performance for drying chili under the metrological conditions of Pollachi, India. The system consists of a flat plate solar air heater with heat storage unit, a drying chamber and a centrifugal blower. Drying experiments have been performed at an air flow rate of 0.25 kg/s. Drying of chili in a forced convection solar drier reduces the moisture content from around 72.8% (wet basis to the final moisture content about 9.1% in 24 h. Average drier efficiency was estimated to be about 21%. The specific moisture extraction rate was estimated to be about 0.87 kg/kWh.

  16. Quantitative optical coherence elastography based on fiber-optic probe with integrated Fabry-Perot force sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi; Wang, Yahui; Xu, Yiqing; Chandra, Namas; Haorah, James; Hubbi, Basil; Pfister, Bryan J.; Liu, Xuan

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a versatile imaging technique and has great potential in tissue characterization for breast cancer diagnosis and surgical guidance. In addition to structural difference, cancerous breast tissue is usually stiffer compared to normal adipose breast tissue. However, previous studies on compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) are qualitative rather than quantitative. It is challenging to identify the cancerous status of tissue based on qualitative OCE results obtained from different measurement sessions or from different patients. Therefore, it is critical to develop technique that integrates structural imaging and force sensing, for quantitative elasticity characterization of breast tissue. In this work, we demonstrate a quantitative OCE (qOCE) microsurgery device which simultaneously quantifies force exerted to tissue and measures the resultant tissue deformation. The qOCE system is based on a spectral domain OCT engine operated at 1300 nm and a probe with an integrated Febry-Perot (FP) interferometric cavity at its distal end. The FP cavity is formed by the cleaved end of the lead-in fiber and the end surface of a GRIN lens which allows light to incident into tissue for structural imaging. The force exerted to tissue is quantified by the change of FP cavity length which is interrogated by a fiber-optic common-paths phase resolved OCT system with sub-nanometer sensitivity. Simultaneously, image of the tissue structure is acquired from photons returned from tissue through the GRIN lens. Tissue deformation is obtained through Doppler analysis. Tissue elasticity can be quantified by comparing the force exerted and tissue deformation.

  17. An Archaeological Curation-Needs Assessment for Fort Irwin, Naval Air Station, North Island, Edwards Air Force Base, Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trimble, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... Louis District, conducted an investigation of all archaeological materials and associated records in the care of NAS North Island, Edwards Air Force Base, Fort Irwin, and MCAGCC Twentynine Palms...

  18. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing the Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of a New Fire Station at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of a New Fire Station Kirtland AFB, NM May 2012 3-21 Amphibians and reptiles found on the grasslands at Kirtland AFB include the...source, stage in the breeding cycle, activity, age, and sex . Prior experience with noise is the most important factor in the response of wildlife...pollution in a watershed that are contributing to the impairment and to develop an implementation plan that will allocate reductions to each source to

  19. ASCPT Task Force for advancing pharmacometrics and integration into drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, M J; Singh, N; Allerheiligen, S; Allerheiligan, S; Gobburu, J V S; Lalonde, R; Smith, B; Ryder, S; Yozviak, A

    2010-08-01

    Traditionally, medical and biostatistical experts have played a central role in ensuring validity of pharmaceutical testing. The science of pharmacometrics provides powerful approaches for supporting important drug development and regulatory decisions. Numerous case studies published by academic, industry, and US Food and Drug Administration scientists attest to the significant contribution of pharmacometrics to decision making. The economic and public health benefits of applying this discipline to clinical trials far outweigh the cost associated with its implementation. The purpose of the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT) Task Force is to build on the momentum and accelerate dissemination of its impact and adoption into drug development. We describe briefly the contributions of pharmacometrics and the specific goals of the Task Force.

  20. Building A Better Force: Regular Army / Reserve Components Integration In The Army Chemical Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    capabilities. Today, these changes detract from the Army Chemical Corps’ ability to provide the required capabilities to the joint force commander to execute...structural changes , including the creation of the US Army Reserve Command (USARC) and elevation of the Chief of the National Guard Bureau (NGB) to a...will enhance the CBRN force’s capabilities, evolving threats, changes in operational requirements , and equipment modernization continue to energize

  1. Integration of the Forced-Choice Questionnaire and the Likert Scale: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yue; Liu, Hongyun; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The Thurstonian item response theory (IRT) model allows estimating the latent trait scores of respondents directly through their responses in forced-choice questionnaires. It solves a part of problems brought by the traditional scoring methods of this kind of questionnaires. However, the forced-choice designs may still have their own limitations: The model may encounter underidentification and non-convergence and the test may show low test reliability in simple test designs (e.g., test designs with only a small number of traits measured or short length). To overcome these weaknesses, the present study applied the Thurstonian IRT model and the Graded Response Model to a different test format that comprises both forced-choice blocks and Likert-type items. And the Likert items should have low social desirability. A Monte Carlo simulation study is used to investigate how the mixed response format performs under various conditions. Four factors are considered: the number of traits, test length, the percentage of Likert items, and the proportion of pairs composed of items keyed in opposite directions. Results reveal that the mixed response format can be superior to the forced-choice format, especially in simple designs where the latter performs poorly. Besides the number of Likert items needed is small. One point to note is that researchers need to choose Likert items cautiously as Likert items may bring other response biases to the test. Discussion and suggestions are given to construct personality tests that can resist faking as much as possible and have acceptable reliability.

  2. The United States Marine Corps Reserve: Reorganization for an Integrated Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-28

    other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...to believe that active duty Marines do not accept them initially, but eventually, after passing through Tuckman’s model they do feel accepted . Like...controls assigned forces for the purpose of augmenting and reinforcing the Active Component.” This mission offers no direction to subordinate commands

  3. Exploration and Resource Assessment at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Using an Integrated Team Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home AFB.

  4. Integration of the Forced-Choice Questionnaire and the Likert Scale: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xiao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Thurstonian item response theory (IRT model allows estimating the latent trait scores of respondents directly through their responses in forced-choice questionnaires. It solves a part of problems brought by the traditional scoring methods of this kind of questionnaires. However, the forced-choice designs may still have their own limitations: The model may encounter underidentification and non-convergence and the test may show low test reliability in simple test designs (e.g., test designs with only a small number of traits measured or short length. To overcome these weaknesses, the present study applied the Thurstonian IRT model and the Graded Response Model to a different test format that comprises both forced-choice blocks and Likert-type items. And the Likert items should have low social desirability. A Monte Carlo simulation study is used to investigate how the mixed response format performs under various conditions. Four factors are considered: the number of traits, test length, the percentage of Likert items, and the proportion of pairs composed of items keyed in opposite directions. Results reveal that the mixed response format can be superior to the forced-choice format, especially in simple designs where the latter performs poorly. Besides the number of Likert items needed is small. One point to note is that researchers need to choose Likert items cautiously as Likert items may bring other response biases to the test. Discussion and suggestions are given to construct personality tests that can resist faking as much as possible and have acceptable reliability.

  5. Transforming America’s Military: Integrating Unconventional Ground Forces into Combat Air Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the Vietnam War, Operation Desert One (the failed Iranian hostage rescue attempt), and Operation Urgent Fury (the disjointed Grenada operation) was...airpower could have in the upcoming operation to liberate Kuwait. The former commander of JSOC , Army General (Ret.) Wayne Downing, believed that “no...Operations Air Component Commander JSOC —Joint Special Operations Command JSOTF—Joint Special Operations Task Force 22 JSTARS—Joint Surveillance Target

  6. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  7. General Forced Oscillations in a Real Power Grid Integrated with Large Scale Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the monitoring of the wide area measurement system, inter-area oscillations happen more and more frequently in a real power grid of China, which are close to the forced oscillation. Applying the conventional forced oscillation theory, the mechanism of these oscillations cannot be explained well, because the oscillations vary with random amplitude and a narrow frequency band. To explain the mechanism of such oscillations, the general forced oscillation (GFO mechanism is taken into consideration. The GFO is the power system oscillation excited by the random excitations, such as power fluctuations from renewable power generation. Firstly, properties of the oscillations observed in the real power grid are analyzed. Using the GFO mechanism, the observed oscillations seem to be the GFO caused by some random excitation. Then the variation of the wind power measured in this power gird is found to be the random excitation which may cause the GFO phenomenon. Finally, simulations are carried out and the power spectral density of the simulated oscillation is compared to that of the observed oscillation, and they are similar with each other. The observed oscillation is thus explained well using the GFO mechanism and the GFO phenomenon has now been observed for the first time in real power grids.

  8. Research on Integrated Lightning Defending Technology of Air Automatic Monitoring Station%空气自动监测站综合防雷技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁铁军

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses lightning form and its damage to electronic equipment, discusses internal and external integrated lightning defending technology on the basis of integrated lightning defending system of air automatic monitoring station of DanDong Bearing Corporation Ltd. The system is useful to decrease failure rate of monitoring equipment and hurt of person.%基于建筑物雷击风险评估方法,得出本地可能遭受到的雷击形式和雷电破坏电子设备途径。以丹东轴承有限公司空气自动监测站综合防雷系统工程设计与施工为基础,对空气自动监测站外部、内部综合防雷技术体系进行阐述,通过现代防雷技术方法,有效降低监测设备因雷击而产生的故障率、最大限度预防和减少雷击所发生的人身伤亡和国家财产损失。

  9. Arm tremor and precision of hand force control in a short and long term flight on the Mir-Space-Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallasch, E.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Löscher, W. N.; Konev, A.; Kenner, T.

    To determine whether long and short time exposure of man in 0g alters normal physiological tremor patterns we recorded arm tremor using an accelerometer as well as hand forces and tremor during constant isometric contraction using a load cell. Arm tremor was decreased during both flights in amplitude and frequency. Shortly after the long term flight arm tremor amplitude was increased, indicating adaptive changes in the tonic reflex loop. Isometric hand tremor remained unchanged during the long and short time flight demonstrating that the contractile properties of hand muscles remained constant. Precision of hand force was decreased until the half duration of the long term flight.

  10. Navy Should Join the Air Force and Army Program to Develop an Advanced Integrated Avionics System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-17

    1990s. Advanced development is expected to cost about $131 million. Full-scale engineering and production costs have not yet been estimated. INTEGRATED...effectiveness, .i tle !CNIA system could be a viable candidate for retrofitting cider aircraft. Finally, the ICNIA program is a laboratory and fliqnt

  11. Source-free integration method for black hole perturbations and self-force computation: Radial fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoudia, Sofiane; Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.

    2011-03-01

    Perturbations of Schwarzschild-Droste black holes in the Regge-Wheeler gauge benefit from the availability of a wave equation and from the gauge invariance of the wave function, but lack smoothness. Nevertheless, the even perturbations belong to the C0 continuity class, if the wave function and its derivatives satisfy specific conditions on the discontinuities, known as jump conditions, at the particle position. These conditions suggest a new way for dealing with finite element integration in the time domain. The forward time value in the upper node of the (t,r*) grid cell is obtained by the linear combination of the three preceding node values and of analytic expressions based on the jump conditions. The numerical integration does not deal directly with the source term, the associated singularities and the potential. This amounts to an indirect integration of the wave equation. The known wave forms at infinity are recovered and the wave function at the particle position is shown. In this series of papers, the radial trajectory is dealt with first, being this method of integration applicable to generic orbits of EMRI (Extreme Mass Ratio Inspiral).

  12. Silicon nanowire-based ring-shaped tri-axial force sensor for smart integration on guidewire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Beibei; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Hamidullah, Muhammad; Tsu-Hui Lin, Angel; Park, Woo-Tae

    2014-06-01

    A ring-shaped tri-axial force sensor with a 200 µm × 200 µm sensor area using silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as piezoresistive sensing elements is developed and characterized. The sensor comprises a suspended ring structure located at the center of four suspended beams that can be integrated on the distal tip of a guidewire by passing through the hollow core of the sensor. SiNWs with a length of 6 µm and a cross section of 90 nm × 90 nm are embedded at the anchor of each silicon bridge along direction as the piezoresistive sensing element. Finite element analysis has been used to determine the location of maximum stress and the simulation results are verified with the experimental measurements. Taking advantage of the high sensitivity of SiNWs, the fabricated ring-shaped sensor is capable of detecting small displacement in nanometer ranges with a sensitivity of 13.4 × 10-3 µm-1 in the z-direction. This tri-axial force sensor also shows high linearity (>99.9%) to the applied load and no obvious hysteresis is observed. The developed SiNW-based tri-axial force sensor provides new opportunities to implement sensing capability on medical instruments such as guidewires and robotic surgical grippers, where ultra-miniaturization and high sensitivity are essential.

  13. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  14. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Elliott, D.B.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost effective energy projects at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Patrick AFB which is located south of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume.2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance, and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value and value index of each ERO.

  15. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; King, D.A.; Parker, S.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-08-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption on the base. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Patrick AFB. It is a comparison report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profile information to be used to improve the characterization of energy use on the base. The characteristics of electricity, natural gas, and No. 2 fuel oil are analyzed for on-base facilities and housing. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Patrick AFB facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985-1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the north and south substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  16. Air Mobility Command’s Total Force Integration: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-26

    there is an underlying assumption of a medium level of collectivism, whereby individual skills are wanted and encouraged within the framework of being...it does provide a framework to communicate cultural assumptions, norms and ideas that may be at the heart of integration difficulties. Focus...CONOPS), 1 September 2006, 7. 10 Robert R. Allardice, Memorandum for 18 AF Active Associate Units, 2 September 2011. 11 Geert Hofstede , Culture’s

  17. An Integrated Work Force Planning Strategy For The Health Services 2009 - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health and Children

    2009-01-01

    Workforce planning identifies the composition of the workforce required to deliver health service goals. It encompasses a range of human resource activities aimed at the short, medium and long-term. Workforce planning that is integrated with service and financial planning offers the best opportunity for linking human resource decisions to the strategic goals for the health services. Systems and structures are required to support and develop workforce planning activities

  18. Tactical Integration of Conventional and Special Operations Forces in Training for a Complex World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    focused approach developed by George and Bennett to analyze the single case study of OEF to analyze the instances of SOF and CF integration and...21 Andrew Bennett and Alexander L. George, Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences (BCSIA Studies in International...Leavenworth, KS, 4; Briscoe et al., Weapon of Choice, 218. 44 Major Roger Crombie, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, March 30

  19. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Dittmer, A.L.; Elliott, D.B.; Halverson, M.A.; Hickman, B.J.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command (SPACECOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the SPACECOM VAFB facility located approximately 50 miles northwest of Santa Barbara, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analysis of EROs are presented in ten common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). In addition, a case study of process loads at Space Launch Complex-4 (SLC-4) is included. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O and M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and value index (VI) of each ERO. Finally, an appendix includes a summary of an economic analysis case study of the South Vandenberg Power Plant (SVPP) operating scenarios.

  20. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  1. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  2. An Archaeological Curation-Needs Assessment for Fort Irwin, Naval Air Station, North Island, Edwards Air Force Base, Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Management of Archaeological Collections (MCX-CMAC), located at the St. Louis District, conducted an investigation of all archaeological materials and...evidence documenting widespread deterioration and neglect of many of the Air Force, Army, and Navy archaeological collections. None of the 18...repositories are in full compliance with 36 CFR Part 79 (Curation of Federally-Owned and Administered Archaeological Collections) and one-half were not designed for, or adapted to, the requirements of a modem curation center.

  3. Integrated modelling of corrosion-induced deterioration in rein-forced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, M.R.; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    An integrated finite element based modelling approach is presented, which allows for fully coupled simulation of reinforcement corrosion and corrosion-induced concrete damage. While a finite element method (FEM) based corrosion model was used to describe electrochemical processes at the reinforce...... use of the modelling approach, a numerical example is presented which illustrates full coupling of formation of corrosion cells, propagation of corrosion, and subsequent development of corrosion-induced concrete damage.......An integrated finite element based modelling approach is presented, which allows for fully coupled simulation of reinforcement corrosion and corrosion-induced concrete damage. While a finite element method (FEM) based corrosion model was used to describe electrochemical processes...... at the reinforcement surface, a FEM based me-chanical model was used to simulate corrosion-induced concrete damage. Both FEM models were fully coupled, i.e. information, such as corrosion current density, dam-age state of concrete cover, etc., were constantly exchanged between the models. To demonstrate the potential...

  4. Comprehensive integrated spirometry using raised volume passive and forced expirations and multiple-breath nitrogen washout in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mohy G

    2010-02-28

    With the rapid somatic growth and development in infants, simultaneous accurate measurements of lung volume and airway function are essential. Raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression (RTC) is widely used to generate forced expiration from an airway opening pressure of 30 cmH(2)O (V(30)). The (dynamic) functional residual capacity (FRC(dyn)) remains the lung volume most routinely measured. The aim of this study was to develop comprehensive integrated spirometry that included all subdivisions of lung volume at V(30) or total lung capacity (TLC(30)). Measurements were performed on 17 healthy infants aged 8.6-119.7 weeks. A commercial system for multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) to measure lung volumes and a custom made system to perform RTC were used in unison. A refined automated raised volume RTC and the following two novel single maneuvers with dual volume measurements were performed from V(30) during a brief post-hyperventilation apneic pause: (1) the passive expiratory flow was integrated to produce the inspiratory capacity (IC) and the static (passive) FRC (FRC(st)) was estimated by initiating MBNW after end-passive expiration; (2) RTC was initiated late during passive expiration, flow was integrated to produce the slow vital capacity ((j)SVC) and the residual volume (RV) was measured by initiating MBNW after end-expiration while the jacket (j) was inflated. Intrasubject FRC(dyn) and FRC(st) measurements overlapped (p=0.6420) but neither did with the RV (pvital capacity and tidal volume were 21.2 (19.7-22.7), 36.7 (33.0-40.4), 21.2 (19.6-22.8), 40.7 (37.2-44.2), 18.1 (16.6-19.7), 40.7 (37.1-44.2) and 10.2 (9.6-10.7)ml/kg, respectively. Static lung volumes and capacities at V(30) and variables from the best forced expiratory flow-volume curve were dependent on age, body length and weight. In conclusion, we developed a comprehensive physiologically integrated approach for in-depth investigation of lung function at V(30) in infants.

  5. Smart Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel - Integrated Structural Health Monitoring System to Meet Space Exploration and International Space Station Mission Assurance Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsberry, Regor; Nichols, Charles; Waller, Jess

    2012-01-01

    Currently there are no integrated NDE methods for baselining and monitoring defect levels in fleet for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) or related fracture critical composites, or for performing life-cycle maintenance inspections either in a traditional remove-and-inspect mode or in a more modern in situ inspection structural health monitoring (SHM) mode. Implicit in SHM and autonomous inspection is the existence of quantitative accept-reject criteria. To be effective, these criteria must correlate with levels of damage known to cause composite failure. Furthermore, implicit in SHM is the existence of effective remote sensing hardware and automated techniques and algorithms for interpretation of SHM data. SHM of facture critical composite structures, especially high pressure COPVs, is critical to the success of nearly every future NASA space exploration program as well as life extension of the International Space Station. It has been clearly stated that future NASA missions may not be successful without SHM [1]. Otherwise, crews will be busy addressing subsystem health issues and not focusing on the real NASA mission

  6. Case Study of Risk Mitigation Based on Hardware/Software Integration (HSI) Testing for the International Space Station (ISS) Node 2 Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James Mike; Clanton, Stephen Edward

    2004-01-01

    Within the pressurized elements of the International Space Station (ISS), requirements exist to ensure a safe, habitable environment for the crew. In order to provide this environment, thermal control components work in conjunction with software controls to provide heat rejection for subsystem avionics equipment, for the environmental control system and for experiment payloads. It is essential to ISS operations, mission success and crew safety that necessary testing incorporates the extreme conditions to ensure proper performance. This paper provides a general description and methodology applied to thermal related Hardware/Software Integration (HSI) tests for the ISS Node 2 module. A detailed test plan was developed and implemented with two objectives: the first was for risk mitigation of the thermal control algorithms and software qualification, and the second was for data collection which will substantiate thermalhydraulic models of the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). Analytical models are utilized to determine on-orbit performance for conditions and scenarios where the simulation of actual on-orbit system performance is limited by test configuration constraints. Node 2 IATCS HSI activities were performed at the Alenia Spazio facility in Torino, Italy with participation from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Alenia Spazio, Jacobs Engineering Sverdrup (JE Sverdrup) and Boeing.

  7. Categorizing patients in a forced-choice triad task: the integration of context in patient management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Devantier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of experts' problem-solving abilities have shown that experts can attend to the deep structure of a problem whereas novices attend to the surface structure. Although this effect has been replicated in many domains, there has been little investigation into such effects in medicine in general or patient management in particular. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a 10-item forced-choice triad task in which subjects chose which one of two hypothetical patients best matched a target patient. The target and its potential matches were related in terms of surface features (e.g., two patients of a similar age and gender and deep features (e.g., two diabetic patients with similar management strategies: a patient with arthritis and a blind patient would both have difficulty with self-injected insulin. We hypothesized that experts would have greater knowledge of management categories and would be more likely to choose deep matches. We contacted 130 novices (medical students, 11 intermediates (medical residents, and 159 experts (practicing endocrinologists and 15, 11, and 8 subjects (respectively completed the task. A linear mixed effects model indicated that novices were less likely to make deep matches than experts (t(68 = -3.63, p = .0006, while intermediates did not differ from experts (t(68 = -0.24, p = .81. We also found that the number of years in practice correlated with performance on diagnostic (r = .39, p = .02, but not management triads (r = .17, p = .34. CONCLUSIONS: We found that experts were more likely than novices to match patients based on deep features, and that this pattern held for both diagnostic and management triads. Further, management and diagnostic triads were equally salient for expert physicians suggesting that physicians recognize and may create management-oriented categories of patients.

  8. 某水电站地下输水管道整体结构内力分析%Internal Force Analysis of Whole Structure of Underground Water Conveyance Pipeline in Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂萱; 程翔; 赵杰

    2013-01-01

    为分析水电站地下输水管道整体结构在土压力、温度、地震等多荷载复杂环境下内力的变化情况,采用ANSYS实体单元模拟了输水管道整体结构,运用五点法提取了相应内力,绘制了结构内力包络图,并进行了配筋设计及裂缝校核,进而综合分析了温度荷载、地震荷载及管道横截面形式等因素对管道整体结构内力的影响.研究结果对地下输水管道设计与施工具有一定的参考价值和指导意义.%In order to analyze the internal force change for the whole structure of underground water pipeline in hy-dropower station under complex environment with multiple loads, such as earth pressure load, temperature load, seismic load, ANSYS solid elements is used to simulate the whole structure of water pipeline. Corresponding internal force is obtained by five-point method. The envelope diagram of structure internal force is drawn and the reinforcement design and crack check has been implemented. The influence of temperature loading, seismic loading and water pipeline cross section form on internal force of pipeline whole structure is analyzed comprehensively. The study result provides useful guidance for design and construction of underground water conveyance pipeline.

  9. Application for the Tape Station

    CERN Document Server

    Solero, A

    2003-01-01

    The Tape Station is used as an Isolde facility to observe the variations of intensity and the lifespan of certain isotopes. A Siemens Simatic FM-352-5 module controls the Tape Station in a PLC system then a DSC controls the PLC, which will be controlled the Tape station program. During the Isolde consolidation project, the Tape Station has been rebuilt, and the control system has been fully integrated in the PS control. Finally, a new application has been written in JAVA Development kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment. The main purpose of this note is to explain how to use this program.

  10. Force decomposition in robot force control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The unit inconsistency in force decomposition has motivated an investigation into the force control problem in multiple-arm manipulation. Based on physical considerations, it is argued that the force that should be controlled is the internal force at the specified frame in the payload. This force contains contributions due to both applied forces from the arms and the inertial force from the payload and the arms. A least-squares scheme free of unit inconsistency for finding this internal force is presented. The force control issue is analyzed, and an integral force feedback controller is proposed.

  11. How mothers mediate the social integration of their children conceived of forced marriage within the Lord's Resistance Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Fiona; Veale, Angela

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to understand how formerly abducted young mothers mediate the social integration of their children conceived of forced marriage and sexual violence within the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) in northern Uganda. Interviews and photographic methods were used in six Internally Displaced Persons Camps in northern Uganda. This article draws on data derived from ten mothers of thirteen children who were conceived in the LRA, five boys and eight girls. The analytic approach used was Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (Smith & Osborn, 2008). The analysis identified turning points of sites of action where young formerly abducted mothers used diverse strategies to support the reintegration of their children born or conceived within the LRA. Six key turning points are identified, these are (a) participating in rituals and ceremonies, (b) naming, (c) adapting to changing family structures, (d) responding to discrimination against boys (e) managing disclosure and (f) sharing positive memories and identities. Formerly abducted young mothers mediate the social integration of their children by engaging in strategies to support and foster their wellbeing and social relationships. However, the contexts in which they are operating are highly constrained and the relational identities of children born in the LRA are fluid and potentially insecure within communities of return. Implications for policy and programming are discussed.

  12. Technical Note: Harmonized retrieval of column-integrated atmospheric water vapor from the FTIR network – first examples for long-term records and station trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Servais

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for harmonized retrieval of integrated water vapor (IWV from existing, long-term, measurement records at the ground-based mid-infrared solar FTIR spectrometry stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. Correlation of IWV from FTIR with radiosondes shows an ideal slope of 1.00(3. This optimum matching is achieved via tuning one FTIR retrieval parameter, i.e., the strength of a Tikhonov regularization constraining the derivative (with respect to height of retrieved water profiles given in per cent difference relative to an a priori profile. All other FTIR-sonde correlation parameters (intercept=0.02(12 mm, bias=0.02(5 mm, standard deviation of coincident IWV differences (stdv=0.27 mm, R=0.99 are comparable to or better than results for all other ground-based IWV sounding techniques given in the literature. An FTIR-FTIR side-by-side intercomparison reveals a strong exponential increase in stdv as a function of increasing temporal mismatch starting at Δt≈1 min. This is due to atmospheric water vapor variability. Based on this result we derive an upper limit for the precision of the FTIR IWV retrieval for the smallest Δt(=3.75 min still giving a statistically sufficient sample (32 coincidences, i.e., precision(IWVFTIR As first application examples long-term IWV data sets are retrieved from the FTIR records of the Zugspitze (47.4° N, 11.0° E, 2964 m a.s.l. and Jungfraujoch (46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l. NDACC sites. Station-trend analysis comprises a linear fit after subtracting an intra-annual model (3 Fourier components and constructing an uncertainty interval [95% confidence] via bootstrap resampling. For the Zugspitze a significant trend of 0.79 [0.65, 0.92] mm/decade is found for the time interval [1996–2008], whereas for the Jungfraujoch no significant trend is found. This confirms recent findings that strong variations of IWV trends do occur above land on the local to

  13. Altering the cellular mechanical force balance results in integrated changes in cell, cytoskeletal and nuclear shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J. R.; Karp, S.; Ingber, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Studies were carried out with capillary endothelial cells cultured on fibronectin (FN)-coated dishes in order to analyze the mechanism of cell and nuclear shape control by extracellular matrix (ECM). To examine the role of the cytoskeleton in shape determination independent of changes in transmembrane osmotic pressure, membranes of adherent cells were permeabilized with saponin (25 micrograms/ml) using a buffer that maintains the functional integrity of contractile microfilaments. Real-time videomicroscopic studies revealed that addition of 250 microM ATP resulted in time-dependent retraction and rounding of permeabilized cells and nuclei in a manner similar to that observed in intact living cells following detachment using trypsin-EDTA. Computerized image analysis confirmed that permeabilized cells remained essentially rigid in the absence of ATP and that retraction was stimulated in a dose-dependent manner as the concentration of ATP was raised from 10 to 250 microM. Maximal rounding occurred by 30 min with projected cell and nuclear areas being reduced by 69 and 41%, respectively. ATP-induced rounding was also accompanied by a redistribution of microfilaments resulting in formation of a dense net of F-actin surrounding retracted nuclei. Importantly, ATP-stimulated changes in cell, cytoskeletal, and nuclear form were prevented in permeabilized cells using a synthetic myosin peptide (IRICRKG) that has been previously shown to inhibit actomyosin filament sliding in muscle. In contrast, both the rate and extent of cell and nuclear rounding were increased in permeabilized cells exposed to ATP when the soluble FN peptide, GRGDSP, was used to dislodge immobilized FN from cell surface integrin receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  14. Integrated multi purpose underwater station

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_SYMPOL-'95_1995_46.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_SYMPOL-'95_1995_46.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. Future Expansion of the Lightning Surveillance System at the Kennedy Space Center and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, C. T.; Wilson, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Eastern Range (ER) use data from two cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detection networks, the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and a volumetric mapping array, the lightning detection and ranging II (LDAR II) system: These systems are used to monitor and characterize lightning that is potentially hazardous to launch or ground operations and hardware. These systems are not perfect and both have documented missed lightning events when compared to the existing lightning surveillance system at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B). Because of this finding it is NASA's plan to install a lightning surveillance system around each of the active launch pads sharing site locations and triggering capabilities when possible. This paper shows how the existing lightning surveillance system at LC39B has performed in 2011 as well as the plan for the expansion around all active pads.

  16. Diamond-modified AFM probes: from diamond nanowires to atomic force microscopy-integrated boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Waldemar; Kriele, Armin; Hoffmann, René; Sillero, Eugenio; Hees, Jakob; Williams, Oliver A; Yang, Nianjun; Kranz, Christine; Nebel, Christoph E

    2011-06-15

    In atomic force microscopy (AFM), sharp and wear-resistant tips are a critical issue. Regarding scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), electrodes are required to be mechanically and chemically stable. Diamond is the perfect candidate for both AFM probes as well as for electrode materials if doped, due to diamond's unrivaled mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical properties. In this study, standard AFM tips were overgrown with typically 300 nm thick nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layers and modified to obtain ultra sharp diamond nanowire-based AFM probes and probes that were used for combined AFM-SECM measurements based on integrated boron-doped conductive diamond electrodes. Analysis of the resonance properties of the diamond overgrown AFM cantilevers showed increasing resonance frequencies with increasing diamond coating thicknesses (i.e., from 160 to 260 kHz). The measured data were compared to performed simulations and show excellent correlation. A strong enhancement of the quality factor upon overgrowth was also observed (120 to 710). AFM tips with integrated diamond nanowires are shown to have apex radii as small as 5 nm and where fabricated by selectively etching diamond in a plasma etching process using self-organized metal nanomasks. These scanning tips showed superior imaging performance as compared to standard Si-tips or commercially available diamond-coated tips. The high imaging resolution and low tip wear are demonstrated using tapping and contact mode AFM measurements by imaging ultra hard substrates and DNA. Furthermore, AFM probes were coated with conductive boron-doped and insulating diamond layers to achieve bifunctional AFM-SECM probes. For this, focused ion beam (FIB) technology was used to expose the boron-doped diamond as a recessed electrode near the apex of the scanning tip. Such a modified probe was used to perform proof-of-concept AFM-SECM measurements. The results show that high-quality diamond probes can be fabricated, which are

  17. Performance/Design Requirements and Detailed Technical Description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem for Integration into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. K.; And Others

    The performance/design requirements and a detailed technical description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem to be integrated into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System are described. The subsystem may be used for computer-assisted lesson construction and has presentation capability for on-the-job training for data automation, staff, and…

  18. Gender Integration of Women into U.S. Army Special Forces Operational Detachments Alpha as an 18 Series Military Occupational Specialty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    combined with strenuous physical requirements are much harder for females mostly due to our generally smaller size and muscle capacity. I have...foster success for gender integration rather than tear it down behind the scenes. 2. It is important to both Special Forces males and U.S. Army

  19. Regional Military Integration in West Africa: A Case Study of the Multi-National Joint Task Force in the Fight against Boko Haram

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    REGIONAL MILITARY INTEGRATION IN WEST AFRICA: A CASE STUDY OF THE MULTI-NATIONAL JOINT TASK FORCE IN THE FIGHT AGAINST BOKO HARAM......ABSTRACT The militant Jihadist group Boko Haram has established itself as a regional threat in the areas surrounding the Lake Chad Basin (LCB) of

  20. 电动汽车充放储一体化电站调度参数分析%Dispatch Parameters Analysis of Charging/Discharging and Storage Integrated Station for Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯俊淇; 解大; 贾玉健; 刘高维; 张宇

    2013-01-01

    Compared to electric vehicles charging station with single structural function, in integrative charging/discharging and storage station such functions as charging/discharging, battery-exchanging, energy storage and degrade use are integrated, so new demands on dispatching of electric vehicle station are put forward. The structure and functions of the integrative charging/discharging and storage station are presented, including dispatching and monitoring system, charging/discharging system and energy storage system. The information flows among power grid, integrative station and electric vehicles are analyzed, and combining with the structure and functions of the integrative station the core thought of its power dispatching is proposed to clarify the definition of dispatching parameter and the interaction of parameter information, then corresponding dispatching algorithm and constraint conditions are put forward. Based on the feature that at present electric vehicles are mainly used as omnibuses in China and combined with daily load data of Jiading district power network and actual operating condition of three bus lines subordinate to integrative charging/discharging and storage station located in electric vehicle demonstration park of the district, the proposed power dispatching algorithm is validated by simulation, and the comparative analysis on the obtained simulation results and results from other dispatching methods is performed. Comparative result is available for reference to demonstration operation and commercial operation of integrative charging/discharging and storage station.%相比单一结构功能的电动汽车充电站,充放储一体化电站融合了充放电、换电、储能、梯次利用的功能,因此对电站的调度提出了新的要求。文章介绍了充放储一体化电站的结构和功能,包括调度监控系统、充换系统和储能系统。分析了电网、一体化电站和电动汽车之间的信息流,结合一体

  1. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  2. Integrated Logistics Support Analysis of the International Space Station Alpha: An Overview of the Maintenance Time Dependent Parameter Prediction Methods Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehry-Fard, F.; Coulthard, Maurice H.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this publication is to introduce the enhancement methods for the overall reliability and maintainability methods of assessment on the International Space Station. It is essential that the process to predict the values of the maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as mean time between failure (MTBF) over time do not in themselves generate uncontrolled deviation in the results of the ILS analysis such as life cycle costs, spares calculation, etc. Furthermore, the very acute problems of micrometeorite, Cosmic rays, flares, atomic oxygen, ionization effects, orbital plumes and all the other factors that differentiate maintainable space operations from non-maintainable space operations and/or ground operations must be accounted for. Therefore, these parameters need be subjected to a special and complex process. Since reliability and maintainability strongly depend on the operating conditions that are encountered during the entire life of the International Space Station, it is important that such conditions are accurately identified at the beginning of the logistics support requirements process. Environmental conditions which exert a strong influence on International Space Station will be discussed in this report. Concurrent (combined) space environments may be more detrimental to the reliability and maintainability of the International Space Station than the effects of a single environment. In characterizing the logistics support requirements process, the developed design/test criteria must consider both the single and/or combined environments in anticipation of providing hardware capability to withstand the hazards of the International Space Station profile. The effects of the combined environments (typical) in a matrix relationship on the International Space Station will be shown. The combinations of the environments where the total effect is more damaging than the cumulative effects of the environments acting singly, may include a

  3. Opening Angle and Impact Force Analysis of Different Types Flap Valve in Pumping Stations%泵站不同类型拍门的开启角和撞击力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志祥; 李端明; 李娜; 陈坚

    2012-01-01

    Deriving motion equation of flap valve with the energy method,calculating and analyzing the opening angle and impact force of different forms of installation(free rollover,free suspended,covers),different valve pages(single-leaf and double-leaf) and different materials(steel and composite materials) with the example of Bailizhou Pumping Station.Under the same conditions,the results show that:for single-block flap valve of different installations,opening angle of free rollover flap valve is bigger than free suspended flap valve at 22°,and bigger than cover flap valve at 12°,impact force of three installation forms flap valve is close.For different valve pages,opening angle of double-leaf flap valve is slightly larger than the single-leaf,impact force of free rollover double-leaf flap valve is 42% of the single-leaf,and cover double-leaf flap valve is 49% of the single-leaf.Comparing different materials,opening angle of free rollover composite flap valve is 4% bigger than the steel flap valve,its impact force is 9.6% smaller than steel flap valve,and opening angle of free suspended composite flap valve and cover composite flap valve is 10%~15% bigger than their steel flap valve,impact force of free suspended composite flap valve is 39.5% smaller than the steel flap valve,and cover composite flap valve is 28.5% smaller than the steel flap valve.This shows that,for the hydraulic performance,free rollover and composite material flap valve is worthy of popularization.%基于能量法推导了拍门的运动方程,结合百里洲泵站实例,分析计算了不同安装形式(自由侧翻式、自由起落式和井盖式)、不同门页数(单扇、双扇)和不同材质(钢质、复合材料)拍门的开启角和撞击力。同等条件下,计算结果表明:对不同安装形式的单块拍门,自由侧翻式拍门的开启角比自由起落式大22°,比井盖式大12°,撞击力三者相差不多;对不同的

  4. New Network of Automatic Stations integrated in the CSNs Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network; Nueva Red de Estaciones Automaticas integrada en la Red de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental del CSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parages Perez del Yerro, C.; Garcia Cadierno, J. P.; Calvin Cuartero, M.

    2016-05-01

    In 1992, the Council put into operation a network comprising 25 automatic stations for continuous monitoring of the radiological quality of the air and the detection of anomalous situations. It has now decided to undertake the renewal and modernisation of these installations, incorporating sensors and automatic connection and communication systems based on the best technology currently available. (Author)

  5. Labour force participation rates at the regional and national levels of the European Union : An integrated analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J. Paul; Zeilstra, Annette S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the causes of variation in regional labour force participation rates in a cross-country perspective. A microeconomic framework of the tabour force participation decision is aggregated across individuals to obtain an explanatory rnodel of regional participation rates in which

  6. Transient intervals of hyper-gravity enhance endothelial barrier integrity: impact of mechanical and gravitational forces measured electrically

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szulcek, R.; van Bezu, J.; Boonstra, J.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; van Nieuw Amerongen, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Endothelial cells (EC) guard vascular functions by forming a dynamic barrier throughout the vascular system that sensitively adapts to ‘classical’ biomechanical forces, such as fluid shear stress and hydrostatic pressure. Alterations in gravitational forces might similarly affect EC integ

  7. Optimizing the configuration of precipitation stations in a space-ground integrated sensor network based on spatial-temporal coverage maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Guan, Qingfeng; Chen, Nengcheng; Tong, Daoqin; Hu, Chuli; Peng, Yuling; Dong, Xianyong; Yang, Chao

    2017-05-01

    The two major rainfall observation techniques, ground-based measurements and remote sensing, have distinct coverage characteristics. Large-scale spatial coverage and long-term temporal coverage cannot be achieved simultaneously by using only ground-based precipitation stations or space-borne sensors. Given the temporal discontinuity of satellite coverage and limited ground-based observation resources, we propose a method for siting precipitation stations in conjunction with satellite-based rainfall sensors to maximize the total spatial-temporal coverage of weighted demand in a continuous observation period. Considering the special principles of deploying precipitation stations and the requirement for continuous coverage in space and time, a time-continuous maximal covering location problem (TMCLP) model is introduced. The maximal spatial coverage range of a precipitation station is determined based on the minimum density required and the site-specific terrain conditions. The coverage of a satellite sensor is calculated for each time period when it passes overhead. The polygon intersection point set (PIPS) is refined to identify finite candidate sites. By narrowing the continuous search space to a finite dominating set and discretizing the continuous observation period to sequential sub-periods, the siting problem is solved using the TMCLP model and refined PIPS. According to specific monitoring purposes, different weighting schemes can be used to evaluate the coverage priority of each demand object. The Jinsha River Basin is selected as the study region to test the proposed method. Satellite-borne precipitation radar is used to evaluate the satellite coverage. The results show that the proposed method is effective for precipitation station configuration optimization, and the model solution achieves higher coverage than the real-world deployment. The applicability of the proposed method, site selection criteria, deployment strategies in different observation modes

  8. Optimal design and application for building-integrated PV station connecting with distribution network%建筑光伏接入配电网优化设计及工程案例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯炜; 夏玉印

    2012-01-01

    The building-integrated photovoltaic (PV) generation will become one of the main modes of China's solar PV generation with the development of new energy. In this paper, based on the characteristics of PV generation and distribution network, a corresponding optimal design scheme for the construction of the building-integrated PV power station is proposed by analyzing specific engineering cases in consideration of power station access planning, electric energy supply quality, relay protection, operation and maintenance. Through overall planning and design, the PV station got access to distribution network reliably, and worked safely and stably. Distribution network users should focus on quality of electric energy supply and relay protection configuration during the access assessment of PV power station. Some actual cases indicate that the scheme is applied to practical engineering and has achieved a good effect.%针对光伏发电以及配电网的特点,考虑电站接入规划设计、电能质量、继电保护、运行维护系统等方面的因素,提出了建筑光伏建设及其接入方案的优化设计方法.通过整体规划和设计,光伏电站能够可靠接入配电网,并安全稳定运行.提出对于配电网用户,在进行光伏电站接入评估时应重点关注电能质量及继电保护配置.通过具体的工程实例表明该方案在实际工程中得到了运用,效果较好.

  9. Alkaline RFC Space Station prototype - 'Next step Space Station'. [Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, I. M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell, a candidate technology for the Space Station's energy storage system, is described. An advanced development program was initiated to design, manufacture, and integrate a regenerative fuel cell Space Station prototype (RFC SSP). The RFC SSP incorporates long-life fuel cell technology, increased cell area for the fuel cells, and high voltage cell stacks for both units. The RFC SSP's potential for integration with the Space Station's life support and propulsion systems is discussed.

  10. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  11. Integrated Analysis of Contractile Kinetics, Force Generation, and Electrical Activity in Single Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan David Kijlstra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative analysis of cardiomyocyte function is essential for stem cell-based approaches for the in vitro study of human cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. We present a method to comprehensively assess the function of single human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hPSC-CMs through simultaneous quantitative analysis of contraction kinetics, force generation, and electrical activity. We demonstrate that statistical analysis of movies of contracting hPSC-CMs can be used to quantify changes in cellular morphology over time and compute contractile kinetics. Using a biomechanical model that incorporates substrate stiffness, we calculate cardiomyocyte force generation at single-cell resolution and validate this approach with conventional traction force microscopy. The addition of fluorescent calcium indicators or membrane potential dyes allows the simultaneous analysis of contractility and calcium handling or action potential morphology. Accordingly, our approach has the potential for broad application in the study of cardiac disease, drug discovery, and cardiotoxicity screening.

  12. United States Air Force Role in Mass Atrocity Response Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    through the lens of their own perspective. They cannot view the world objectively because of their own preconceptions : history, prejudices, ideology...initial stages of the genocide. Similarly, the RC-135’s ability to detect and locate those stations would provide the perfect target for strikes having...all levels. Air Force unit exercises would integrate air power, focusing on those specific tasks required in a MARO. These training exercises , in

  13. Intrinsic driving force of rural land integrated consolidation%农村土地综合整治的内在驱动力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹伟; 胡莉; 林庶民; 胡锋

    2013-01-01

      为充分发挥农村土地综合整治的积极作用,从理论上探究其与城乡统筹发展的关系,从历史角度对其进行定位,并进行理论升华。在对农村土地整治内涵剖析的基础上,从经济、社会、政治3个方面分析农村土地综合整治的内在驱动力,揭示了农村土地综合整治对社会经济的积极影响,进而对农村土地综合整治进行了理性思考,最后从规划管理、决策机制、产权制度、收益分配、主导主体和配套制度等方面提出相关的对策建议,该文为进一步推进农村土地综合整治提供了较好的理论支撑和实践参考。%Urban-rural integrated development is one of the important topics of today's society and economic development in China. In recent years, being a crucial means of urban-rural integrated development, rural land integrated consolidation has received unprecedented advancement, which has also functioned positively in aspects such as alleviating the contradiction between supply and demand of land, changing farmers' production and lifestyle, and so on. However, issues such as farmers' being forced to go upstairs and poverty due to going upstairs which went against farmers' will and did harm to farmers' right appeared in some places, and those issues have a negative influence on propelling consolidation activity. Some researchers and management levels expressed doubts about it, and a land-management department was once forced to suspend the approval of relevant project. Now, it is very urgent to clarify the relationship between rural land integrated consolidation and the urban-rural integrated development theoretically, discuss the inner driving force, and to implement the theory. Firstly, from the perspective of concept refreshment, this paper makes fundamental analysis of the connotation, nature, function, and significance of rural land integrated consolidation under urban-rural integrated development, proposes

  14. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  15. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  16. Determining Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) System Effectiveness, and Integration as Part of Force Protection and System Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    36 H. QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT ( QFD ...Prediction Profiler for Force Exchange Ratio (FER) – Main Effects Model ..59 Figure 32. Step History of the Selected ISR Parameters...2. Capability Needs and System Requirements ...................................................34 Table 3. QFD for ISR Capability Needs

  17. Fingertip force planning during grasp is disrupted by impaired sensorimotor integration in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, A.M.; Charles, J.; Steenbergen, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we examine the ability of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) to use anticipatory control of fingertip forces during grasping, and whether anticipatory control is facilitated by lifts with the contralateral hand. Eight children with CP (age 4-13) were asked to perform s

  18. Evaluation of POE and instructor-led problem-solving approaches integrated into force and motion lecture classes using a model analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkapao, S.; Pengpan, T.; Srikeaw, S.; Prasitpong, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the use of the predict-observe-explain (POE) approach integrated into large lecture classes on forces and motion. It is compared to the instructor-led problem-solving method using model analysis. The samples are science (SC, N = 420) and engineering (EN, N = 434) freshmen, from Prince of Songkla University, Thailand. Research findings from the force and motion conceptual evaluation indicate that the multimedia-supported POE method promotes students’ learning better than the problem-solving method, in particular for the velocity and acceleration concepts. There is a small shift of the students’ model states after the problem-solving instruction. Moreover, by using model analysis instructors are able to investigate students’ misconceptions and evaluate teaching methods. It benefits instructors in organizing subsequent instructional materials.

  19. Development of automated microrobot-based nanohandling stations for nanocharacterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatikow, Sergej; Eichhorn, Volkmar; Krohs, Florian; Mircea, Iulian; Stolle, Christian; Hagemann, Saskia

    2007-05-01

    Current research work on the development of automated microrobot-based nanohandling stations (AMNSs) using the probe of an atomic force microscope (AFM) as an endeffector is presented. The manipulation of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the characterization of eukaryotic cells are aspired applications. For this reason, the developed AMNSs have to be integrated both into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the nanomanipulation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and into an optical microscope for the cell characterization. Such an AMNS combines different micro- and nanomanipulators, each offering three degrees of freedom (DoF), in order to perform the coarse and fine positioning between object and endeffector. Piezoresistive AFM probes are applied as an endeffector allowing to measure the acting forces and to realize a force feedback for the station's control system. First investigations have been carried out by bending of MWCNTs and calculating the Young's modulus of a MWCNT. Electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) have been developed for the microelectronics industry, and their mechanical properties have to be determined. Therefore an AMNS for the mechanical characterization of thin ECA coatings by nanoindentation inside an SEM is presented as well, showing first experimental results.

  20. Boundary management and integration framework for a joint cyber defence capability for military forces: analysis and synthesis from a through-life capability management perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roodt, JHS

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available five JCD domains. As was stated, the model is simplistic to say the least, but was developed to demonstrate the approach. C2W PO IBW Application Layer Information Layer Network Layer Communications LayerEW Other NW IIW Sensor Layer... Management and Integration Framework for a Joint Cyber Defence Capability for Military Forces: Analysis and Synthesis from a Through-Life Capability Management Perspective J H S Roodt 1 , R Oosthuizen 2 , J C Jansen van Vuuren 1 1 Defence Peace...

  1. Integrated Analysis of Contractile Kinetics, Force Generation, and Electrical Activity in Single Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Jan David Kijlstra; Dongjian Hu; Nikhil Mittal; Eduardo Kausel; Peter van der Meer; Arman Garakani; Ibrahim J. Domian

    2015-01-01

    Summary The quantitative analysis of cardiomyocyte function is essential for stem cell-based approaches for the in vitro study of human cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. We present a method to comprehensively assess the function of single human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hPSC-CMs) through simultaneous quantitative analysis of contraction kinetics, force generation, and electrical activity. We demonstrate that statistical analysis of movies of contracting hPSC-CMs can b...

  2. Evaluation of Technical and Utility Programmatic Challenges With Residential Forced-Air Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, Tim [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Vadnal, Hillary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, Shawn [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kalensky, Dave [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented ETPs.

  3. Evaluation of Technical and Utility Programmatic Challenges With Residential Forced-Air Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, Tim [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Vadnal, Hillary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, Shawn [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kalensky, Dave [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented ETPs.

  4. Bifurcations, basin erosion and dynamic integrity in a single-mode model of noncontact atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Settimi V.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dynamical behavior of a single-mode model of noncontact AFM is analyzed in terms of attractors robustness and basin integrity. The model considered for the analyses, proposed by Hornstein and Gottlieb [7], consistently includes the nonlinear atomic interaction and the scan control, which appears as parametric excitation. Local bifurcation analyses are carried out to define the overall stability boundary in the excitation parameter space as the envelope of system local escapes, to be compared with the one obtained via numerical simulations. The dynamical integrity of the periodic bounded solutions is studied, and basin erosion is evaluated by means of IF and GIM integrity measures. The obtained erosion profiles allow us to dwell on the possible lack of homogeneous safeness of the stability boundary in terms of attractors robustness and to identify practical escape thresholds ensuring an a priori design safety target.

  5. Human Capital Management Through the Use of a Standard Integrated Personnel System in Royal Saudi Naval Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    and Supply System CRM Customer Relationship Management DOD Department of Defense DP Demand Planning EIS Employee Information System ERP...provides. These software solutions include payroll, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Customer Relationship Management ( CRM ), and Supply Chain...the RSNF doctrine in terms of customization , analytics, integration, interoperability, network management , system upgradation, and security. The

  6. Universal quantifier derived from AFM analysis links cellular mechanical properties and cell-surface integration forces with microbial deposition and transport behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueyun; Wang, Xin; Onnis-Hayden, Annalisa; Wan, Kai-tak; Gu, April Z

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we employed AFM analysis combined with mathematical modeling for quantifying cell-surface contact mechanics and magnitude and range of cell-surface interaction forces for seven bacterial strains with a wide range of cell morphology, dimension, and surface characteristics. Comprehensive cell-surface characterization including surface charge, extracellular polymeric substance content, hydrophobicity, and cell-cell aggregation analyses were performed. Flow-through column tests were employed to determine the attachment efficiency and deposition-transport behavior of these bacterial strains. No statistically significant correlation between attachment efficiency and any single-cell surface property was identified. Single-cell characterization by atomic force microscopy (AFM) yielded the mechanical deformation and elastic modulus, penetration resistance to AFM probe penetration by cellular surface substances (CSS), range and magnitude of the repulsive-attractive intersurface forces, and geometry of each strain. We proposed and derived a universal dimensionless modified Tabor's parameter to integrate all these properties that account for their collective behavior. Results showed that the Tabor parameter derived from AFM analysis correlated well with experimentally determined attachment efficiency (α), which therefore is able to link microscale cell-surface properties with macroscale bacterial transport behavior. Results suggested that the AFM tests performed between a single cell and a surface captured the key quantities of the interactions between the cell and the surface that dictate overall cell attachment behavior. Tabor's parameter therefore can be potentially incorporated into the microbial transport model.

  7. Cooperativity in Thermal and Force-Induced Protein Unfolding: Integration of Crack Propagation and Network Elasticity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit; Granek, Rony

    2013-03-01

    We investigate force-induced and temperature-induced unfolding of proteins using the combination of a Gaussian network model and a crack propagation model based on “bond”-breaking independent events. We assume the existence of threshold values for the mean strain and strain fluctuations that dictate bond rupture. Surprisingly, we find that this stepwise process usually leads to a few cooperative, first-order-like, transitions in which several bonds break simultaneously, reminiscent of the “avalanches” seen in disordered networks.

  8. 空管雷达站一体化监控系统分析与设计%Analysis of integrated monitoring system for ATC radar station and its design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张衡; 徐廷新; 林强; 张堃

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the support capability of ATC radar, this paper puts forward a design scheme for the integrated monitoring system of ATC radar station. First of all, this paper carries on a demand analysis of the monitor system of ATC radar station, and proposes a concrete design scheme in terms of such three aspects as the system task and functions, system architecture and software design, and then presents the implementation of the part of the monitoring units, and finally, performs the pilot trial of the system designed. The trial rests show this system can be of high security, practical use and reliability.%为了提高空管雷达的保障能力,提出了一种空管雷达站一体化监控系统设计方案。首先对空管雷达站监控系统进行了需求分析;然后从系统任务与功能、总体架构、软件设计等三个方面提出具体设计方案,并给出部分监控单元的实现方法;最后对所设计的系统进行了试点试用。试用结果表明该系统安全、实用、可靠。

  9. US Air Force Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  10. Integrated Logistics Support Analysis of the International Space Station Alpha, Background and Summary of Mathematical Modeling and Failure Density Distributions Pertaining to Maintenance Time Dependent Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehry-Fard, F.; Coulthard, Maurice H.

    1995-01-01

    The process of predicting the values of maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as mean time between failures (MTBF) over time must be one that will not in turn introduce uncontrolled deviation in the results of the ILS analysis such as life cycle costs, spares calculation, etc. A minor deviation in the values of the maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as MTBF over time will have a significant impact on the logistics resources demands, International Space Station availability and maintenance support costs. There are two types of parameters in the logistics and maintenance world: a. Fixed; b. Variable Fixed parameters, such as cost per man hour, are relatively easy to predict and forecast. These parameters normally follow a linear path and they do not change randomly. However, the variable parameters subject to the study in this report such as MTBF do not follow a linear path and they normally fall within the distribution curves which are discussed in this publication. The very challenging task then becomes the utilization of statistical techniques to accurately forecast the future non-linear time dependent variable arisings and events with a high confidence level. This, in turn, shall translate in tremendous cost savings and improved availability all around.

  11. Integrated Logistics Support Analysis of the International Space Station Alpha, Background and Summary of Mathematical Modeling and Failure Density Distributions Pertaining to Maintenance Time Dependent Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehry-Fard, F.; Coulthard, Maurice H.

    1995-01-01

    The process of predicting the values of maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as mean time between failures (MTBF) over time must be one that will not in turn introduce uncontrolled deviation in the results of the ILS analysis such as life cycle costs, spares calculation, etc. A minor deviation in the values of the maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as MTBF over time will have a significant impact on the logistics resources demands, International Space Station availability and maintenance support costs. There are two types of parameters in the logistics and maintenance world: a. Fixed; b. Variable Fixed parameters, such as cost per man hour, are relatively easy to predict and forecast. These parameters normally follow a linear path and they do not change randomly. However, the variable parameters subject to the study in this report such as MTBF do not follow a linear path and they normally fall within the distribution curves which are discussed in this publication. The very challenging task then becomes the utilization of statistical techniques to accurately forecast the future non-linear time dependent variable arisings and events with a high confidence level. This, in turn, shall translate in tremendous cost savings and improved availability all around.

  12. A source-free integration method for black hole perturbations and self-force computation: I. Radial fall

    CERN Document Server

    Aoudia, Sofiane

    2010-01-01

    Perturbations of Schwarzschild-Droste black holes in the Regge-Wheeler gauge benefit of the availability of a wave equation and of the gauge invariance of the wavefunction, but lack of smoothness. Nevertheless, the even perturbations belong to the C\\textsuperscript{0} continuity class, if the wavefunction and its derivatives satisfy specific conditions on the discontinuities (jump conditions) at the particle position. These conditions underpin a new strategy of finite elements integration in time domain, which we present herein. The forward time value in the upper node of the $(t, r^*$) grid cell is obtained by the linear combination of the three preceding node values and of analytic expressions, namely the jump conditions. Therefore, the numerical integration doesn't deal with the source term and the associated singularities. The known waveforms at infinity are recovered and the wavefunction at the particle position is also displayed. In this series of papers, the radial trajectory is dealt with first, being...

  13. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  14. The role of refugee-established churches in integrating forced migrants: A case study of Word of Life Assembly in Yeoville, Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedaste Nzayabino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing embeddedness of religious issues within contemporary global phenomena has increased the role religion plays in migrants’ spiritual, social, and economic lives. Drawing on the findings of the study, conducted within one of the Pentecostal migrant churches in Johannesburg, this paper explored ways in which a (migrant church shapes a refugee’s motivation to integrate and his resultant quest for a transient alternative belonging and inclusion within diasporic communities through church affiliation. Through interviews with members of the Word of Life Assembly (WOLA, one of the independent churches established by forced migrants in Yeoville, the study revealed that refugees tend to integrate themselves within their own churches, while the refugee church itself – labelled a ‘foreign’ entity by South African community members – works to garner approval and acceptance from South Africans and faith-based institutions. Cultural and linguistic problems were identified as major barriers to a refugee’s attempts to integrate into local churches, thereby becoming important issues that need to be considered in the establishment of migrant churches within the South African host community.

  15. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  16. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  17. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  18. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  19. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  20. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  1. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  2. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  3. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  4. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  5. Station Climatic Summaries, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    OCDS) ................................................... 077 BIRJAND 408090 8612 (OCDS) ............................................. ( 381 BUSHEHR...ALL HOURS # 2 1 0 1 0 # 0 # 1 # 1 1 CACECR-IB 080 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMM ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID...082. L@ OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SIJ44ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID: OIMB LOCATION: 32054’N, 59016’E ELEVATION (FEET): 4823 LST

  6. Integrated Surface and Mechanical Characterization of Freestanding Biological and Other Nano-Structures Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin

    This dissertation is focused on surface and mechanical characterization of freestanding biological and other nano-structures using atomic force microscopy including two parts: cell mechanics and nano-structure mechanics. The main purpose of this work is to investigate how the nano- / micro-scale mechanical properties affect macro-scale function. In cancer cells, efficacy of drug delivery is oftentimes declined due to the thick dendritic network of oligosaccharide mucin chains on the cell surface. AFM is used to measure the force needed to pierce the mucin layer to reach the cell surface. A pool of ovarian, pancreatic, lung, colorectal and breast cancer cells are characterized. The studies offer additional support for the development of clinical and pharmaceutical approaches to combat mucin over-expression in tumors during cancer chemotherapy. Macroscopic adhesion-aggregation and subsequent transportation of microorganisms in porous medium are closely related to the microscopic deformation and adhesion mechanical properties. The classical Tabor's parameter is modified. Multiple bacterial strains are characterized in terms of aggregates size, aggregation index and transportation kinetics. AFM is employed to obtain the microscopic coupled adhesion-deformation properties. The strong correlation between Tabor's parameter and aggregation-deposition-transportation suggests the AFM characterization is capable of making reliable predication of macroscopic behavior. A novel "nano-cheese-cutter" is fabricated on tipless AFM cantilever to measure elastic modulus and interfacial adhesion of a 1-D freestanding nano-structure. A single electrospun fiber is attached to the free end of AFM cantilever, while another fiber is similarly prepared on a mica substrate in an orthogonal direction. An external load is applied to deform the two fibers into complementary V-shapes. This work is extended to investigate the interfacial adhesion energy between dissimilar materials. SWCNT thin

  7. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  8. Enhancing the optical lever sensitivity of microcantilevers for dynamic atomic force microscopy via integrated low frequency paddles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda Shaik, Nurul; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Raman, Arvind

    2016-05-01

    A method is presented to enhance the optical lever sensitivity in dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) by nearly an order of magnitude over a wide frequency bandwidth. This is achieved by fabricating or releasing a paddle with a soft hinge close to the free end of the AFM microcantilever such that the paddle resonance frequency is well below the fundamental resonance frequency of the microcantilever. We show a significant increase in signal to noise ratio when cantilever motion is observed at the paddle for AFM systems that are not limited by thermal noise. Also, any effects due to the excitation of the second eigenmode were decoupled by locating the paddle at the node of the second eigenmode. We use these probes for higher harmonic imaging in amplitude modulated AFM (AM-AFM) on a standard polymer blend made of polystyrene and low density polyethylene. We demonstrate significantly improved contrast in higher harmonic images when observing cantilever motion at the paddle. Thus this microcantilever design can improve significantly conventional cantilever performance for dynamic AFM and is compatible with low-cost, high yield microfabrication processes.

  9. Energy conservation in forcing bulb flowers by means of temperature integration; Energiebesparing bij de broeierij van bolbloemen door temperatuurintegratie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.H.G.E.

    2006-03-15

    The options of Temperature Integration (TI) have been described for application in heating tulips, hyacinths and daffodils. The tolerance levels of the crops for increasing the day temperature and lowering the night temperature has been examined. In the first year, tests were conducted under fully conditioned circumstances in climate cabinets; in the second year tests were done in cabinets and greenhouses; in the third year only in the greenhouse. The tests are described in chronological order per crop [Dutch] De mogelijkheden van Temperatuur Integratie (TI) zijn beschreven voor toepassing in de broeierij van tulp, hyacint en narcis. De tolerantie van de gewassen voor verhogingen van de dagtemperatuur en verlagingen van de nachttemperatuur is vastgesteld. In het eerste jaar zijn de proeven onder volledig geconditioneerde omstandigheden in klimaatkasten uitgevoerd, in het tweede jaar in klimaatkasten en kas en in het derde jaar alleen in de kas. De proeven worden chronologisch per gewas beschreven.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of subnanometric tool-workpiece contact on a force sensor-integrated fast tool servo for ultra-precision microcutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yindi; Chen, Yuan-Liu; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Liangchi

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the contact characteristics between a copper workpiece and a diamond tool in a force sensor-integrated fast tool servo (FS-FTS) for single point diamond microcutting and in-process measurement of ultra-precision surface forms of the workpiece. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to identify the subnanometric elastic-plastic transition contact depth, at which the plastic deformation in the workpiece is initiated. This critical depth can be used to optimize the FS-FTS as well as the cutting/measurement process. It is clarified that the vibrations of the copper atoms in the MD model have a great influence on the subnanometric MD simulation results. A multi-relaxation time method is then proposed to reduce the influence of the atom vibrations based on the fact that the dominant vibration component has a certain period determined by the size of the MD model. It is also identified that for a subnanometric contact depth, the position of the tool tip for the contact force to be zero during the retracting operation of the tool does not correspond to the final depth of the permanent contact impression on the workpiece surface. The accuracy for identification of the transition contact depth is then improved by observing the residual defects on the workpiece surface after the tool retracting.

  11. Regeneration of water at space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Sinyak, Yu. E.; Samsonov, N. M.; Bobe, L. S.; Protasov, N. N.; Andreychuk, P. O.

    2011-05-01

    The history, current status and future prospects of water recovery at space stations are discussed. Due to energy, space and mass limitations physical/chemical processes have been used and will be used in water recovery systems of space stations in the near future. Based on the experience in operation of Russian space stations Salut, Mir and International space station (ISS) the systems for water recovery from humidity condensate and urine are described. A perspective physical/chemical system for water supply will be composed of an integrated system for water recovery from humidity condensate, green house condensate, water from carbon dioxide reduction system and condensate from urine system; a system for water reclamation from urine; hygiene water processing system and a water storage system. Innovative processes and new water recovery systems intended for Lunar and Mars missions have to be tested on the international space station.

  12. PREFIT project: Integration of man-in-the-loop and automation for manipulation of heavy loads and forces in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubus, G. [CEA, LIST, Interactive Robotics Unit, 18 route du Panorama, BP6, Fontenay-aux-Roses F-92265 (France)], E-mail: gregory.dubus@cea.fr; David, O.; Measson, Y.; Friconneau, J.-P. [CEA, LIST, Interactive Robotics Unit, 18 route du Panorama, BP6, Fontenay-aux-Roses F-92265 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Operating within the framework of the Euratom Fusion Training Scheme (EFTS), the PREFIT partnership prepares remote handling (RH) engineers for ITER with an integrated programme of training and research over 3 years. One of the research topics aims at improving effectiveness and safety of remote handling manipulation of heavy loads, a significant challenge associated with ITER's maintenance scheme. In all areas needing scheduled maintenance work - in-vessel components, neutral beam injector, hot cells - introduction of man-in-the-loop technologies would provide very useful help in case of unexpected events. The focus of this work is the problem of vibrations experienced when handling heavy loads using flexible robotic structures. Vibrations are induced during start and stop movements, high accelerations or in the case of collision. It is therefore necessary to develop strategies to remove undesired effects of stimulating dynamics or critical trajectories. Analysis of previous works on flexible arms proves that model-based control of light structures gives good performance providing that dynamic terms take into account the compliance of the joints and the structural deformation.

  13. Comparison between integral equation method and molecular dynamics simulation for three-body forces: Application to supercritical argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Bretonnet, Jean-Louis; van der Hoef, Martin A.

    2001-04-01

    The prediction of the structural and thermodynamic properties of supercritical argon has been carried out by two independent routes: semianalytical calculations and numerical simulations. The first one is based on the hybridized mean spherical approximation (HMSA) conjugated with an effective pair potential that incorporates multipole dispersion interactions. The second one uses a very recent numerical simulation technique, inspired by the Car-Parrinello method [van der Hoef et al., J. Chem. Phys. 111, 1520 (1999)], which contains an effective quantum-mechanical representation of the underlying electronic structure. The latter approach allows us to treat the contribution of the three-body effects as well, and to validate the use of an effective pair potential for them in the framework of the self-consistent integral equation method. For all the supercritical argon states studied, the results obtained with the semianalytical approach are in good agreement with the predictions of the numerical simulation. Here it is shown that HMSA remains competitive with molecular dynamics simulation when the triple-dipole and the dipole-dipole-quadrupole three-body terms are taken into account.

  14. Vector design Tour de Force: integrating combinatorial and rational approaches to derive novel adeno-associated virus variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsic, Damien; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Currlin, Seth; Markusic, David M; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Herzog, Roland W; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Zolotukhin, Sergei

    2014-11-01

    Methodologies to improve existing adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors for gene therapy include either rational approaches or directed evolution to derive capsid variants characterized by superior transduction efficiencies in targeted tissues. Here, we integrated both approaches in one unified design strategy of "virtual family shuffling" to derive a combinatorial capsid library whereby only variable regions on the surface of the capsid are modified. Individual sublibraries were first assembled in order to preselect compatible amino acid residues within restricted surface-exposed regions to minimize the generation of dead-end variants. Subsequently, the successful families were interbred to derive a combined library of ~8 × 10(5) complexity. Next-generation sequencing of the packaged viral DNA revealed capsid surface areas susceptible to directed evolution, thus providing guidance for future designs. We demonstrated the utility of the library by deriving an AAV2-based vector characterized by a 20-fold higher transduction efficiency in murine liver, now equivalent to that of AAV8.

  15. A Data-driven Approach to Integrate Crop Rotation Agronomic Practices in a Global Gridded Land-use Forcing Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahajpal, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Chini, L. P.; Frolking, S. E.; Izaurralde, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    Agro-ecosystems are the dominant land-use type on Earth, covering more than a third of ice-free land surface. Agricultural practices have influenced the Earth's climate system by significantly altering the biogeophysical and biogeochemical properties from hyper-local to global scales. While past work has focused largely on characterizing the effects of net land cover changes, the magnitude and nature of gross transitions and agricultural management practices on climate remains highly uncertain. To address this issue, a new set of global gridded land-use forcing datasets (LUH2) have been developed in a standard format required by climate models for CMIP6. For the first time, this dataset includes information on key agricultural management practices including crop rotations. Crop rotations describe the practice of growing crops on the same land in sequential seasons and are essential to agronomic management as they influence key ecosystem services such as crop yields, water quality, carbon and nutrient cycling, pest and disease control. Here, we present a data-driven approach to infer crop rotations based on crop specific land cover data, derived from moderate resolution satellite imagery and created at an annual time-step for the continental United States. Our approach compresses the more than 100,000 unique crop rotations prevalent in the United States from 2013 - 2015 to about 200 representative crop rotations that account for nearly 80% of the spatio-temporal variability. Further simplification is achieved by mapping individual crops to crop functional types, which identify crops based on their photosynthetic pathways (C3/C4), life strategy (annual/perennial) and whether they are N-fixing or not. The resulting matrix of annual transitions between crop functional types averages 41,000 km2/yr for rotations between C3 and C4 annual crops, and 140,000 km2/yr between C3 N-fixing and C4 annual crops. The crop rotation matrix is combined with information on other land

  16. Nuclear applications in manned space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooksbank, W. A., Jr.; Sieren, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    The zirconium hydride reactor, coupled to a thermo-electric or Brayton conversion system, and the Pu 238 isotope/Brayton system, are considered to be the viable nuclear candidates for the modular space station electrical power system. The basic integration aspects of these nuclear electrical power systems are reviewed, including unique requirements imposed by the buildup and incremental utilization considerations of the modular station. Also treated are the various programmatic aspects of nuclear power system design and selection.

  17. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    After a long history dominated by out-migration, Denmark, Norway and Sweden have, in the past 50 years, become immigration societies. This article compares how these Scandinavian welfare societies have sought to incorporate immigrants and refugees into their national communities. It suggests that......, while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  18. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  19. Extending molecular simulation time scales: Parallel in time integrations for high-level quantum chemistry and complex force representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylaska, Eric J; Weare, Jonathan Q; Weare, John H

    2013-08-21

    Parallel in time simulation algorithms are presented and applied to conventional molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) models of realistic complexity. Assuming that a forward time integrator, f (e.g., Verlet algorithm), is available to propagate the system from time ti (trajectory positions and velocities xi = (ri, vi)) to time ti + 1 (xi + 1) by xi + 1 = fi(xi), the dynamics problem spanning an interval from t0[ellipsis (horizontal)]tM can be transformed into a root finding problem, F(X) = [xi - f(x(i - 1)]i = 1, M = 0, for the trajectory variables. The root finding problem is solved using a variety of root finding techniques, including quasi-Newton and preconditioned quasi-Newton schemes that are all unconditionally convergent. The algorithms are parallelized by assigning a processor to each time-step entry in the columns of F(X). The relation of this approach to other recently proposed parallel in time methods is discussed, and the effectiveness of various approaches to solving the root finding problem is tested. We demonstrate that more efficient dynamical models based on simplified interactions or coarsening time-steps provide preconditioners for the root finding problem. However, for MD and AIMD simulations, such preconditioners are not required to obtain reasonable convergence and their cost must be considered in the performance of the algorithm. The parallel in time algorithms developed are tested by applying them to MD and AIMD simulations of size and complexity similar to those encountered in present day applications. These include a 1000 Si atom MD simulation using Stillinger-Weber potentials, and a HCl + 4H2O AIMD simulation at the MP2 level. The maximum speedup (serial execution/timeparallel execution time) obtained by parallelizing the Stillinger-Weber MD simulation was nearly 3.0. For the AIMD MP2 simulations, the algorithms achieved speedups of up to 14.3. The parallel in time algorithms can be implemented in a

  20. Extending molecular simulation time scales: Parallel in time integrations for high-level quantum chemistry and complex force representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, Jonathan Q.; Weare, John H.

    2013-08-01

    Parallel in time simulation algorithms are presented and applied to conventional molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) models of realistic complexity. Assuming that a forward time integrator, f (e.g., Verlet algorithm), is available to propagate the system from time ti (trajectory positions and velocities xi = (ri, vi)) to time ti + 1 (xi + 1) by xi + 1 = fi(xi), the dynamics problem spanning an interval from t0…tM can be transformed into a root finding problem, F(X) = [xi - f(x(i - 1)]i = 1, M = 0, for the trajectory variables. The root finding problem is solved using a variety of root finding techniques, including quasi-Newton and preconditioned quasi-Newton schemes that are all unconditionally convergent. The algorithms are parallelized by assigning a processor to each time-step entry in the columns of F(X). The relation of this approach to other recently proposed parallel in time methods is discussed, and the effectiveness of various approaches to solving the root finding problem is tested. We demonstrate that more efficient dynamical models based on simplified interactions or coarsening time-steps provide preconditioners for the root finding problem. However, for MD and AIMD simulations, such preconditioners are not required to obtain reasonable convergence and their cost must be considered in the performance of the algorithm. The parallel in time algorithms developed are tested by applying them to MD and AIMD simulations of size and complexity similar to those encountered in present day applications. These include a 1000 Si atom MD simulation using Stillinger-Weber potentials, and a HCl + 4H2O AIMD simulation at the MP2 level. The maximum speedup (serial execution time/parallel execution time) obtained by parallelizing the Stillinger-Weber MD simulation was nearly 3.0. For the AIMD MP2 simulations, the algorithms achieved speedups of up to 14.3. The parallel in time algorithms can be implemented in a distributed computing

  1. Extending molecular simulation time scales: Parallel in time integrations for high-level quantum chemistry and complex force representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylaska, Eric J., E-mail: Eric.Bylaska@pnnl.gov [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Weare, Jonathan Q., E-mail: weare@uchicago.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Weare, John H., E-mail: jweare@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2013-08-21

    Parallel in time simulation algorithms are presented and applied to conventional molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) models of realistic complexity. Assuming that a forward time integrator, f (e.g., Verlet algorithm), is available to propagate the system from time t{sub i} (trajectory positions and velocities x{sub i} = (r{sub i}, v{sub i})) to time t{sub i+1} (x{sub i+1}) by x{sub i+1} = f{sub i}(x{sub i}), the dynamics problem spanning an interval from t{sub 0}…t{sub M} can be transformed into a root finding problem, F(X) = [x{sub i} − f(x{sub (i−1})]{sub i} {sub =1,M} = 0, for the trajectory variables. The root finding problem is solved using a variety of root finding techniques, including quasi-Newton and preconditioned quasi-Newton schemes that are all unconditionally convergent. The algorithms are parallelized by assigning a processor to each time-step entry in the columns of F(X). The relation of this approach to other recently proposed parallel in time methods is discussed, and the effectiveness of various approaches to solving the root finding problem is tested. We demonstrate that more efficient dynamical models based on simplified interactions or coarsening time-steps provide preconditioners for the root finding problem. However, for MD and AIMD simulations, such preconditioners are not required to obtain reasonable convergence and their cost must be considered in the performance of the algorithm. The parallel in time algorithms developed are tested by applying them to MD and AIMD simulations of size and complexity similar to those encountered in present day applications. These include a 1000 Si atom MD simulation using Stillinger-Weber potentials, and a HCl + 4H{sub 2}O AIMD simulation at the MP2 level. The maximum speedup ((serial execution time)/(parallel execution time) ) obtained by parallelizing the Stillinger-Weber MD simulation was nearly 3.0. For the AIMD MP2 simulations, the algorithms achieved speedups of up

  2. Manned space stations - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disher, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    The findings from the Skylab missions are discussed as they relate to the operations planning of future space stations such as Spacelab and the proposed Space Operations Center. Following a brief description of the Skylab spacecraft, the significance of the mission as a demonstration of the possibility of effecting emergency repairs in space is pointed out. Specific recommendations made by Skylab personnel concerning capabilities for future in-flight maintenance are presented relating to the areas of spacecraft design criteria, tool selection and spares carried. Attention is then given to relevant physiological findings, and to habitability considerations in the areas of sleep arrangements, hygiene, waste management, clothing, and food. The issue of contamination control is examined in detail as a potential major system to be integrated into future design criteria. The importance of the Skylab results to the designers of future space stations is emphasized.

  3. Space station, 1959 to . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, G. V.

    1981-04-01

    Early space station designs are considered, taking into account Herman Oberth's first space station, the London Daily Mail Study, the first major space station design developed during the moon mission, and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program of DOD. Attention is given to Skylab, new space station studies, the Shuttle and Spacelab, communication satellites, solar power satellites, a 30 meter diameter radiometer for geological measurements and agricultural assessments, the mining of the moons, and questions of international cooperation. It is thought to be very probable that there will be very large space stations at some time in the future. However, for the more immediate future a step-by-step development that will start with Spacelab stations of 3-4 men is envisaged.

  4. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  5. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  6. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation of subnanometric tool-workpiece contact on a force sensor-integrated fast tool servo for ultra-precision microcutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yindi [Department of Nanomechanics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Chen, Yuan-Liu, E-mail: yuanliuchen@nano.mech.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Nanomechanics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei [Department of Nanomechanics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Zhang, Liangchi [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • Subnanometric contact between a diamond tool and a copper workpiece surface is investigated by MD simulation. • A multi-relaxation time technique is proposed to eliminate the influence of the atom vibrations. • The accuracy of the elastic-plastic transition contact depth estimation is improved by observing the residual defects. • The simulation results are beneficial for optimization of the next-generation microcutting instruments. - Abstract: This paper investigates the contact characteristics between a copper workpiece and a diamond tool in a force sensor-integrated fast tool servo (FS-FTS) for single point diamond microcutting and in-process measurement of ultra-precision surface forms of the workpiece. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to identify the subnanometric elastic-plastic transition contact depth, at which the plastic deformation in the workpiece is initiated. This critical depth can be used to optimize the FS-FTS as well as the cutting/measurement process. It is clarified that the vibrations of the copper atoms in the MD model have a great influence on the subnanometric MD simulation results. A multi-relaxation time method is then proposed to reduce the influence of the atom vibrations based on the fact that the dominant vibration component has a certain period determined by the size of the MD model. It is also identified that for a subnanometric contact depth, the position of the tool tip for the contact force to be zero during the retracting operation of the tool does not correspond to the final depth of the permanent contact impression on the workpiece surface. The accuracy for identification of the transition contact depth is then improved by observing the residual defects on the workpiece surface after the tool retracting.

  8. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: A pilot-scale investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guiying [The State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao [The State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); An, Taicheng, E-mail: antc99@gig.ac.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Bing [Experiment Medical Research Centre, Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou 510182 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► VOCs and biohazards emitted during garbage compressing process were monitored. ► BTF–PC integrated reactor was employed for VOCs and biohazards removal. ► Health risk of target VOCs and biohazards were assessed before and after treatment. -- Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32–306.03 μg m{sup −3}) were much higher than those as compressor off (0–13.31 μg m{sup −3}). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m{sup −3} as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter–photocatalytic (BTF–PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF–PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale.

  9. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to se

  10. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  11. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  12. The Roman stational liturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mieczkowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The papal stational liturgy in Rome was a particular kind of worship service from the Christian Antiquity to the XIV century. Its essential elements are four. Its always took place under the leadership of the pope or his representative. This form of liturgy was mobile: it was celebrated in different basilicas or churches of Rome. Third, the choice of church depended on the feast, liturgical seasons or commemoration being celebrated. Fourth, the stational liturgy was the urban liturgical celebration of the day. The highpoint of this system was Lent. Throughout the entire system Church of Rome manifested its own unity. The station was usually the Pope’s solemn mass in the stational church for the whole city. But on certain days in the year the Pope went in another church (collecta, from which a solemn procession was made to the stational church.

  13. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  14. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  15. Signal Station Inspection Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  16. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  17. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  18. Realtime USGS Streamflow Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Approximately 5,000 of the 6,900 U.S. Geological Survey sampling stations are equipped with telemetry to transmit data on streamflow, temperature, and other...

  19. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  20. ASOS Station Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the ASOS...

  1. Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Standard/Legacy MSHR, formally identified as the DSI-9767 dataset, is the legacy dataset/report sorted by NCDC Station ID and period of record. This...

  2. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  3. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  4. Station Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following plan is the result of a recent initiative in Region 5 to produce general management guidance based on stated objectives for individual field stations....

  5. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  6. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  7. USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  8. Space Station Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  9. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  10. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  11. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  12. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  13. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  14. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  15. Leadership at Antarctic Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Claseification 6. No. Pegees LEADERSHIP AT ANTARTIC STATIONS hxIs i4 5, C =r~eta(C), 17 Rfs~W (R, Udusiied U)J 7. No Refs 8. Author(s) Edocumesnt I...whether there is a "best" approach to leadership at an Antartic Station and what leadership style may have the most to offer. 3~~ __ ___ Tipesis to be

  16. LAERTIS, a multidisciplinary station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Tsagli, V.; Zhukov, V. A.

    2006-11-01

    LAERTIS, designed to collect environmental data from the deep-sea, is operated since 1999 and has been deployed several time at 4000 m depth at the NESTOR site. Power and data were transferred through a 30-km electro-optical cable to the Shore Station. In this report, we describe briefly the LAERTIS instrumentation and present typical data that were collected successfully during those deployment demonstrating the importance of a deep-sea station permanently connected to shore.

  17. Ecosystem function and particle flux dynamics across the Mackenzie Shelf (Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean: an integrative analysis of spatial variability and biophysical forcings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Forest

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of how environmental changes affect organic matter fluxes in Arctic marine ecosystems is sorely needed. Here we combine mooring times series, ship-based measurements and remote sensing to assess the variability and forcing factors of vertical fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC across the Mackenzie Shelf in 2009. We developed a geospatial model of these fluxes to proceed to an integrative analysis of their determinants in summer. Flux data were obtained with sediment traps moored around 125 m and via a regional empirical algorithm applied to particle size distributions (17 classes from 0.08–4.2 mm measured by an Underwater Vision Profiler 5. The low fractal dimension (i.e., porous, fluffy particles derived from the algorithm (1.26 ± 0.34 and the dominance (~ 77% of rapidly sinking small aggregates (p r2 cum. = 0.37. Bacteria were correlated with small aggregates, while northeasterly wind was associated with large size classes (> 1 mm ESD, but these two factors were weakly related with each other. Copepod biomass was overall negatively correlated (p < 0.05 with vertical POC fluxes, implying that metazoans acted as regulators of export fluxes, even if their role was minor given that our study spanned the onset of diapause. Our results demonstrate that on interior Arctic shelves where productivity is low in mid-summer, localized upwelling zones (nutrient enrichment may result in the formation of large filamentous phytoaggregates that are not substantially retained by copepod and bacterial communities.

  18. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  19. US Air Force Data Processing Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data Processing Reference manual for United States Air Force surface stations, circa 1960s. TDF-13 stands for Tape Deck Format number 13, the format in which the...

  20. The CGE-PLATO Electronic Laboratory Station Structure and Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, J. P.

    An electronic laboratory station was designed for student use in learning electronic instrumentation and measurement by means of the computer-guided experimentation (CGE) system. The station features rack-mounted electronic laboratory equipment on a laboratory table adjacent to a PLATO IV terminal. An integrated logic system behind the laboratory…

  1. 2014 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2015-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2014 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  2. 2013 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2014-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2013 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  3. A Brazilian network of carbon flux stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Débora R.; Acevedo, Otávio C.; Moraes, Osvaldo L. L.

    2012-05-01

    First Brasflux Workshop; Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 14-15 November 2011 Last November, 33 researchers participated in a workshop to establish Brasflux, the Brazilian network of carbon flux stations, with the objective of integrating previous efforts and planning for the future. Among the participants were those leading ongoing flux observation projects and others planning to establish flux stations in the near future. International scientists also participated to share the experiences gained with other networks. The need to properly characterize terrestrial ecosystems for their roles in the global carbon, water, and energy budgets has motivated the implementation of hundreds of micrometeorological research sites throughout the world in recent years. The eddy covariance (EC) technique for turbulent flux determination is the preferred method to provide integral information on ecosystematmosphere exchanges. Integrating the observations regionally and globally has proven to be an effective approach to maximizing the usefulness of this technique for carbon cycle studies at multiple scales.

  4. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  5. The Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, R.; Hieatt, J.

    1984-11-01

    The configuration of the Space Station under design studies by NASA is limited only by the capabilities of the Shuttle and the purposes to which it is applied. Once the standard interlocks, launch vibration modes, and pallet designs are fixed, all other assembly of modular components, testing, and trim will be performed in space. The Station will serve for long-term experiments, as a base for planetary missions asembly, launch, and retrieval, and for loading and launching multiple satellites on an orbital transfer vehicle. Materials processing research will be carried out in the Station, as will various scientific and commercial remote sensing activities. The first operational version (1990) will require four Shuttle launches to reach an assembled mass of 70,000 kg drawing 30 kWe from solar panels and housing a crew of five. By the year 2000 the station will support 10-12 crew members in five habitat modules, will be 31 m long, will have cost $18-20 billion, and will be returning $2 billion per year. The station will be periodically reboosted to higher orbits that decay suficiently for orbiter rendezvous for supplies and assignments.

  6. Ecosystem function and particle flux dynamics across the Mackenzie Shelf (Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean: an integrative analysis of spatial variability and biophysical forcings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Forest

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of how environmental changes affect organic matter fluxes in Arctic marine ecosystems is sorely needed. Here, we combine mooring times-series, ship-based measurements and remote-sensing to assess the variability and forcing factors of vertical fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC across the Mackenzie Shelf in 2009. We developed a geospatial model of these fluxes to proceed to an integrative analysis of their biophysical determinants in summer. Flux data were obtained with sediment traps and via a regional empirical algorithm applied to particle size-distributions (17 classes from 0.08–4.2 mm measured by an Underwater Vision Profiler 5. Redundancy analyses and forward selection of abiotic/biotic parameters, linear trends, and spatial structures (i.e. principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM, were conducted to partition the variation of POC flux size-classes. Flux variability was explained at 69.5 % by the addition of a linear temporal trend, 7 significant PCNM and 9 biophysical variables. The interaction of all these factors explained 27.8 % of the variability. The first PCNM canonical axis (44.4 % of spatial variance reflected a shelf-basin gradient controlled by bottom depth and ice concentration (p < 0.01, but a complex assemblage of fine-to-broad scale patterns was also identified. Among biophysical parameters, bacterial production and northeasterly wind (upwelling-favorable were the two strongest explanatory variables (r2 cum. = 0.37, suggesting that bacteria were associated with sinking material, which was itself partly linked to upwelling-induced productivity. The second most important spatial structure corresponded actually to the two areas where shelf break upwelling is known to occur under easterlies. Copepod biomass was negatively correlated (p < 0.05 with vertical POC fluxes, implying that metazoans played a significant role in the regulation of export fluxes. The

  7. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  8. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  9. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  10. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  11. Centaur operations at the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J.; Thompson, W.; Bennett, F.; Holdridge, J.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted on the feasibility of using a Centaur vehicle as a testbed to demonstrate critical OTV technologies at the Space Station. Two Technology Demonstration Missions (TDMs) were identified: (1) Accommodations, and (2) Operations. The Accommodations TDM contained: (1) berthing, (2) checkout, maintenance and safing, and (3) payload integration missions. The Operations TDM contained: (1) a cryogenic propellant resupply mission, and (2) Centaur deployment activities. A modified Space Station Co-Orbiting Platform (COP) was selected as the optimum refueling and launch node due to safety and operational considerations. After completion of the TDMs, the fueled Centaur would carry out a mission to actually test deployment and help offset TDM costs. From the Station, the Centaur could carry a single payload in excess of 20,000 pounds to geosynchronous orbit or multiple payloads.

  12. Supercritical water oxidation - Concept analysis for evolutionary Space Station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John B., Jr.; Brewer, Dana A.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) concept to reduce the number of processes needed in an evolutionary Space Station design's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), while reducing resupply requirements and enhancing the integration of separate ECLSS functions into a single Supercritical Water Oxidation process, is evaluated. While not feasible for an initial operational capability Space Station, the SCWO's application to the evolutionary Space Station configuration would aid the integration of eight ECLSS functions into a single one, thereby significantly reducing program costs.

  13. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...

  14. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  15. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  17. Summit Station Skiway Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    operating procedures (SOPs) for future construction and maintenance efforts. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for...Runway Construction .......................................................... 22 Appendix B: Rammsonde Instructions...13. Snow accumulation at Summit Station in the Bamboo Forest. .......................................... 13 Figure 14. Strength of Summit skiway

  18. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  19. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A station-keeping strategy for collinear libration point orbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Spacecrafts in periodic or quasi-periodic orbits near the collinear libration points are proved to be excellent platforms for scientific investigations of various phenomena.Since such periodic or quasi-periodic orbits are exponentially unstable,the station-keeping maneuver is needed. A station-keeping strategy which is found by an analytical method is presented to eradicate the dominant unstable component of the libration point trajectories.The inhibit force transforms the unstable component to a stable ...

  1. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  2. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  3. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  4. Systems Concepts for Integrated Air Defense of Multinational Mobile Crisis Reaction Forces (Concepts de systemes pour la defense aerienne integree de forces internationales mobiles d’intervention en situation de crise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    tendances dans le domaine de la défense antiaérienne pour le nouveau millénaire. Six communications ont été présentées lors de la première session...instabilities and the ease with which politically unstable countries may obtain near state-of-the- art equipment makes the definition of Intent volatile...the art multi- sensor integration (MSI) system calls for real-time integration of all available information pertaining to a real world object, in

  5. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  6. 50 kWp并网光伏实验电站的综合设计、搭建与运行%Integrated design and construction and operation of 50 kW p grid-connected PV station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永庆; 陈来军; 司杨; 黄少伟; 陈晓弢; 梅生伟

    2016-01-01

    To confirm actual performance of new photovoltaic devices and key factors affecting the ef-ficiency of PV system, 50 kWp grid-connected PV power station that integrated a variety of photo-voltaic devices and installation methods was designed and built. Based on actual operating data, the power generation of PV arrays that installed different PV modules, inverters and smart optimizer un-der different meteorological conditions was compared. Furthermore, the influence of radiation on the power generation was analyzed. The results show that the bifacial PV module has the best output performance and its power generation is higher than other PV modules. Smart optimizer has less effect on PV system with no shadows, while small capacity inverter can reduce the influence of dif-ferent PV modules and increase the total power generation. Moreover the actual output of polycrystal-line silicon solar cell is most stable in various types of photovoltaic module under the influence of so-lar irradiance variations. Comprehensive research results show that polycrystalline silicon solar cell and bifacial PV module have a great advantage in the application of grid connected photovoltaic pow-er generation system.%为深入研究新型光伏器件的实际性能及影响光伏电站发电效率的关键性因素,设计并建成一座多种光伏设备组合交叉安装的50 kWp并网光伏实验电站。根据电站实际运行数据,对比了不同气象条件下光伏阵列选用不同类型组件、智能优化器以及不同容量逆变器的发电状况,分析了辐射量变化对光伏电站发电量的影响。结果表明:各类型光伏组件中双面电池输出特性表现最佳,其发电量高于其他类型组件;对于无阴影遮挡的光伏发电系统,智能优化器的作用得不到有效发挥;采用较小容量逆变器可减少太阳能电池组串模块间的差异性带来的影响,增大光伏阵列总发电量;受太阳辐照度变化影响

  7. SWOT Analysis and Strategic Choice for Development of Civil - military Integration Maritime Strategic Transportation Forces%海上战略投送力量军民融合式发展的SWOT分析与战略选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春颖; 苏春华; 孙大同

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing strong and weak points, opportunities and threats of the development of civil - military integration maritime strategic transportation forces of army, this paper proposes the strategic choice for development of civil- military integration maritime strategic transportation forces of army, combining with the present rapid growth situation of the economy and shipping power. It has important significance for the construction of maritime strategic transportation forces.%在运用SWOT方法分析海上战略投送力量军民融合式发展优势、劣势、机会和威胁的基础上,结合我国经济和海运力量快速增长的现状,提出了我军海上战略投送力量军民融合式发展的战略选择,对我军海上战略投送力量的建设具有重要意义。

  8. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  9. Climate forcings and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James

    1993-01-01

    Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption

  10. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  11. Mesocarnivore Photo Stations [ds26

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This database was established to record furbearer and raptor presence through photographs taken at camera stations. The general study area where camera stations were...

  12. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  13. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  14. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  15. Station Climatic Summaries, Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    265 MEXICO - Acapulco 768056 8403 ................................ 267 Campeche 766950 8403................271 Chetumal 767500...0 0 1 # # I I # or I OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: CHETUMAL , MEXICO STATIONS #: 767500 1CAO ID: NILC LOCATION: 18030’N, 88*18’W...0 0 0 0 0 0 # ALL HOURS I # # 1 # # # # # # 1 1 ]% OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY SUPPLEMENT STATION: CHETUMAL , MEXICO STATIONS #: 767500 ICAO ID

  16. Applicability of AgMERRA Forcing Dataset to Fill Gaps in Historical in-situ Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannayan, M.; Lashkari, A.; Zare, H.; Asadi, S.; Salehnia, N.

    2015-12-01

    Integrated assessment studies of food production systems use crop models to simulate the effects of climate and socio-economic changes on food security. Climate forcing data is one of those key inputs of crop models. This study evaluated the performance of AgMERRA climate forcing dataset to fill gaps in historical in-situ meteorological data for different climatic regions of Iran. AgMERRA dataset intercompared with in- situ observational dataset for daily maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation during 1980-2010 periods via Root Mean Square error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Bias Error (MBE) for 17 stations in four climatic regions included humid and moderate, cold, dry and arid, hot and humid. Moreover, probability distribution function and cumulative distribution function compared between model and observed data. The results of measures of agreement between AgMERRA data and observed data demonstrated that there are small errors in model data for all stations. Except for stations which are located in cold regions, model data in the other stations illustrated under-prediction for daily maximum temperature and precipitation. However, it was not significant. In addition, probability distribution function and cumulative distribution function showed the same trend for all stations between model and observed data. Therefore, the reliability of AgMERRA dataset is high to fill gaps in historical observations in different climatic regions of Iran as well as it could be applied as a basis for future climate scenarios.

  17. Build Your Own Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  18. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  19. Thermal management of space stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal management aims at making full use of energy resources available in the space station to reduce energy consumption, waste heat rejection and the weight of the station. It is an extension of the thermal control. This discussion introduces the concept and development of thermal management, presents the aspects of thermal management and further extends its application to subsystems of the space station.

  20. Canaan Valley A Watershed Protection Approach An Integrated Approach To Problem Solving Through An Open Forum Known As The Canaan Valley Task Force

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Canaan Valley Master Plan guides the long-range development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management strategies, program...

  1. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a) Stations must identify transmissions by announcing in the English language the station's assigned call sign...) Marine utility stations, private coast stations, and associated hand-held radios, when...

  2. Integration Of Low-Cost Single-Frequency GPS Stations Using 'Spider' Technology Within Existing Dual-Frequency GPS Network at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (West Indies): Processing And Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, K.; Palamartchouk, K.; Lahusen, R. G.; Young, K.; Voight, B.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty years ago, began the eruption of the explosive Soufrière Hills Volcano, dominating the southern part of the island of Montserrat, West Indies. Five phases of effusive activity have now occurred, characterized by dome building and collapse, causing numerous evacuations and the emigration of half of the population. Over the years, the volcano monitoring network has greatly expanded. The GPS network, started from few geodetic markers, now consists of 14 continuous dual frequency GPS stations, distributed on and around the edifice, where topography and vegetation allow. The continuous GPS time series have given invaluable insight into the volcano behavior, notably revealing deflation/inflation cycles corresponding to phases and pauses of effusive activity, respectively. In 2014, collaboration of the CALIPSO Project (Penn State; NSF) with the Montserrat Volcano Observatory enriched the GPS and seismic monitoring networks with six 'spider' stations. The 'spiders', developed by R. Lahusen at Cascades Volcano Observatory, are designed to be deployed easily in rough areas and combine a low cost seismic station and a L1-only GPS station. To date, three 'spiders' have been deployed on Soufrière Hills Volcano, the closest at ~1 km from the volcanic conduit, adjacent to a lava lobe on the dome. Here we present the details of GPS data processing in a network consisting of both dual and single frequency receivers ('spiders') using GAMIT/GLOBK software. Processing together single and dual frequency data allowed their representation in a common reference frame, and a meaningful geophysical interpretation of all the available data. We also present the 'spiders' time series along with the results from the rest of the network and examine if any significant deformation, correlating with other manifestations of volcanic activity, has been recorded by the 'spiders' since deployment. Our results demonstrate that low cost GNSS equipment can serve as valuable components in volcano

  3. AAFES Gas Station at Creech Air Force Base Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    agassizii). Several snakes may also be present, including king snake (Lampropeltus getulus), rosy boa (Lichanura trivirgata), gopher snake...1985 Years of Experience: 12 Lesley Hamilton, Air Quality B.A., Chemistry, Mary Baldwin College, 1988 Years of Experience: 17 Chareé

  4. Application of comprehensive evaluation method integrating Delphi and GAHP in optimal siting of electric vehicle charging station%Delphi和GAHP集成的综合评价方法在电动汽车充电站选址最优决策中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯超; 周步祥; 林楠; 李阳; 夏榆杭

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation method integrating Delphi method and GAHP(Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process) method is applied in the optimal siting of electric vehicle charging station. The Delphi method is used to establish the comprehensive evaluation index system for the location of electric vehicle charging station while the GAHP method to quantify the qualitatively influencing factors, process the uncertain grey factors and define the weight of each index,based on which,the rationality of each optional location is comprehensively evaluated for the optimal siting of charging station. Case analysis shows the good practicability of the proposed method.%将德尔菲(Delphi)法和灰色层次分析(GAHP)法集成为一种新的综合评价方法,并将其运用于电动汽车充电站选址最优决策中.采用Delphi法建立电动汽车充电站站址综合评价指标体系.采用GAHP法量化定性影响因素,处理不确定性灰色因素,确定各指标的权重.在此基础上进一步确定候选站址的合理性综合评价值,为充电站选址最优决策提供依据.实际算例证明了该方法具有良好的实用性.

  5. A Class of Integral Equations of Erlang(2) Risk Process under Interest Force%带息力的Erlang(2)风险过程下的一类积分方程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓红; 汪荣明; 康凯

    2003-01-01

    本文考虑了带息力的Erlang(2)风险模型,利用Sundt和Teugels(1995),Yang和Zhang(2001a,2001b和2001c)文中的技巧,得到了生存概率所满足的积分方程和指数型的积分方程,然后研究了生存概率的Laplace-Stieltjes变换所满足的二阶微分方程.%In this paper, we consider and Erlang(2) risk model with a constant interest force for an insurance portfolio. By using the techniques of Sundt & Teugels (1995) and Yang & Zhang (2001a, 2001b and 2001c), the integral equation and exponential integral equation satisfied by survival probability have been obtained. Then we have investigated the two-order differential equation satisfied by the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of survival probability.

  6. MEMS Bragg grating force sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Hansen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We present modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of a new type of all-optical frequency modulated MEMS force sensor based on a mechanically amplified double clamped waveguide beam structure with integrated Bragg grating. The sensor is ideally suited for force measurements in harsh...... environments and for remote and distributed sensing and has a measured sensitivity of -14 nm/N, which is several times higher than what is obtained in conventional fiber Bragg grating force sensors. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  7. Strong Force

    CERN Document Server

    Without the strong force, there could be no life. The carbon in living matter is synthesised in stars via the strong force. Lighter atomic nuclei become bound together in a process called nuclear fusion. A minor change in this interaction would make life impossible. As its name suggests, the strong force is the most powerful of the 4 forces, yet its sphere of influence is limited to within the atomic nucleus. Indeed it is the strong force that holds together the quarks inside the positively charged protons. Without this glue, the quarks would fly apart repulsed by electromagnetism. In fact, it is impossible to separate 2 quarks : so much energy is needed, that a second pair of quarks is produced. Text for the interactive: Can you pull apart the quarks inside a proton?

  8. An integrated, multi-sensing approach to describe the dynamic relations between turbulence, fluid-forces, and reconfiguration of a submerged plant model in steady flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Pierre-Yves; Aberle, Jochen; Dijkstra, Jasper; Myrhaug, Dag

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic vegetation plays a vital role in ecohydrological systems regulating many physical, chemical, and biological processes across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. As a consequence, plant-flow interactions are of particular interest to a wide range of disciplines. While early studies of the interactions between vegetation and flowing water employed simplified and non-flexible structures such as rigid cylinders, recent studies have included flexible plants to identify the main characteristics of the hydrodynamics of vegetated flows. However, the description of plant reconfiguration has often been based on a static approach, i.e. considering the plant's deformation under a static load and neglecting turbulent fluctuations. Correlations between drag fluctuations, plant movements, and upstream turbulence were recently established showing that shear layer turbulence at the surface of the different plant elements (such as blades or stems) can contribute significantly to the dynamic behaviour of the plant. However, the relations between plant movement and force fluctuations might change under varying flow velocities, and although this point is crucial for mixing processes and plant dislodgement by fatigue, these aspects of fluid-structure interactions applied to aquatic vegetation remain largely unexplored. Using an innovative combination of sensing techniques in one set of experiments, this study investigates the relations between turbulence, fluctuating fluid forces and movements of a flexible cylindrical plant surrogate. A silicone-based flexible cylinder was attached at the bottom of a 1m wide flume in fully-developed uniform flow. The lower 22 cm of the plant surrogate were made of plain flexible silicone, while the higher 13cm included a casted rigid sensor, measuring accelerations at the tip of the surrogate. Forces were sampled at high frequencies at the surrogate's base by a 6-degrees-of-freedom force/torque sensor measuring down to the gram-force

  9. CHARACTERIZATION AND INTEGRATED UTILIZATION OF WASTEWATER FROM OIL PRODUCTION STATIONS IN SHENGLI OIL FIELDS%胜利油田采油污水综合特征及利用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永红; 李义曼; 李晓燕; 张红波; 罗霁

    2015-01-01

    Shengli oil fields are one of the most important petroleum occurring areas.Its geothermal resources are abundant.With the background of energy saving,wastewater from petroleum producing is of relatively high-temperature.It can be used for water flooding,space heating and bathing.Wastewater samples from 19 typical oil production stations of seven oil factories in Shengli oil fields are obtained.Water chemical compositions are analyzed by ion chromatography.Scaling tendency &corrosion of wastewater are also discussed.Results show that the pH of wastewater is 6.8-8.0 and the average is 7.4.It is saline water-brine with TDS ranging from 6.0g·L-1 to 59.7g·L-1 . The wastewater is rich in Li,Mn,Cr,Ni,Cu,Zn and Sr.The microelements of Li and Sr are in particular rich.Its average concentrations are 1mg·L-1 and 70.5mg·L-1 ,which satisfy the mineral water requirement but cannot be used for minerals exploitation.Corrosive efficiency factor,larson and reruo method are used to assess the corrosion of wastewater.Results indicate that the wastewater is strongly corrosive,which is caused by chloride ion. Carbonate,sulfate and silicate scale are assessed using references from GB-T-11615-2010.The results indicate that carbonate and silicate scale wont occur while sulfate scale would form in wastewater from Binnan and Hekou oil production plant and pretreatment should be done before integrated utilization.Based on suggestions from published papers on wastewater utilization and local requirement,it can be used for water flooding,space heating,bathing, hothouse and aquaculture,which can mitigate environmental pollution and improve energy structure,showing favorable social and economic benefits.When using the wastewater,its corrosion and scaling tendency must be considered and choose proper pretreatment and pipeline.%胜利油田作为我国石油的重要赋存区,其地热资源也相当丰富。在节能减排的背景下,采油产生的污水由于其相对较高的温度

  10. Fokker-Planck and Fortet equation-based parameter estimation for a leaky integrate-and-fire model with sinusoidal and stochastic forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iolov, Alexandre; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Longtin, Andrë

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of sinusoidal noisy leaky integrate-and-fire models and comparison with experimental data are important to understand the neural code and neural synchronization and rhythms. In this paper, we propose two methods to estimate input parameters using interspike interval data only. One is based...... on numerical solutions of the Fokker–Planck equation, and the other is based on an integral equation, which is fulfilled by the interspike interval probability density. This generalizes previous methods tailored to stationary data to the case of time-dependent input. The main contribution is a binning method...

  11. Compressor station layout considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Rainer; Ohanian, Sebouh; Lubomirsky, Matt [Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses issues that influence the decision on the arrangement of compressors and the type of equipment in gas pipeline compressor stations. Different concepts such as multiple small units versus single large units are considered, both regarding their impact on the individual station and the overall pipeline. The necessity of standby units is discussed. Various concepts for drivers (gas turbine, gas motor and electric motor) and compressors (centrifugal and reciprocating) are analyzed. The importance of considering all possible operating conditions is stressed. With the wide range of possible operating conditions for the pipeline in mind, the discussion is brought into the general context of operational flexibility, availability, reliability, installation issues, remote control, and operability of gas turbine driven centrifugal compressors compared to other solutions such as electric motor driven compressors or gas engine driven reciprocating compressors. The impact of different concepts on emissions and fuel cost is discussed. Among the assumptions in this paper are the performance characteristics of the compressor. This paper outlines how these performance characteristics influence the conclusions. (author)

  12. Forces in tissue morphogenesis and patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Bellaïche, Yohanns

    2013-05-23

    During development, mechanical forces cause changes in size, shape, number, position, and gene expression of cells. They are therefore integral to any morphogenetic processes. Force generation by actin-myosin networks and force transmission through adhesive complexes are two self-organizing phenomena driving tissue morphogenesis. Coordination and integration of forces by long-range force transmission and mechanosensing of cells within tissues produce large-scale tissue shape changes. Extrinsic mechanical forces also control tissue patterning by modulating cell fate specification and differentiation. Thus, the interplay between tissue mechanics and biochemical signaling orchestrates tissue morphogenesis and patterning in development.

  13. Exact integral constraint requiring only the ground-state electron density as input on the exchange-correlation force - partial differential(V)(xc)(r)/partial differential(r) for spherical atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, N H; Nagy, A

    2008-11-21

    Following some studies of integral(n)(r)inverted DeltaV(r)dr by earlier workers for the density functional theory (DFT) one-body potential V(r) generating the exact ground-state density, we consider here the special case of spherical atoms. The starting point is the differential virial theorem, which is used, as well as the Hiller-Sucher-Feinberg [Phys. Rev. A 18, 2399 (1978)] identity to show that the scalar quantity paralleling the above vector integral, namely, integral(n)(r) partial differential(V)(r)/partial differential(r)dr, is determined solely by the electron density n(0) at the nucleus for the s-like atoms He and Be. The force - partial differential(V)/ partial differential(r) is then related to the derivative of the exchange-correlation potential V(xc)(r) by terms involving only the external potential in addition to n(r). The resulting integral constraint should allow some test of the quality of currently used forms of V(xc)(r). The article concludes with results from the differential virial theorem and the Hiller-Sucher-Feinberg identity for the exact many-electron theory of spherical atoms, as well as for the DFT for atoms such as Ne with a closed p shell.

  14. Automated electric power management and control for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.; Kish, James A.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. It strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. An integrated approach to the power system command and control problem is defined and used to direct technology development in: diagnosis, security monitoring and analysis, battery management, and cooperative problem-solving for resource allocation. The prototype automated power system is developed using simulations and test-beds.

  15. Microrobotic Station for Nano-Optical Component Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Komati Bilal; Clévy Cédric; Courjal Nadège; Ulliac Gwenn; Lutz Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Compact photonic structures have strategic importance in several fields. In order to fabricate more complex structures with optimized optical function, robotic nano-assembly is a promising solution because it enables to integrate several types of materials from different fabrication processes into the same structure. This paper presents a microrobotic station which is designed for the assembly of nano-optical components. The robotic station has 8-DOF for positioning and 4-DOF microgripper wit...

  16. Fokker-Planck and Fortet equation-based parameter estimation for a leaky integrate-and-fire model with sinusoidal and stochastic forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iolov, Alexandre; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Longtin, Andrë

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of sinusoidal noisy leaky integrate-and-fire models and comparison with experimental data are important to understand the neural code and neural synchronization and rhythms. In this paper, we propose two methods to estimate input parameters using interspike interval data only. One is based...

  17. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  18. Open control/display system for a telerobotics work station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keslowitz, Saul

    1987-01-01

    A working Advanced Space Cockpit was developed that integrated advanced control and display devices into a state-of-the-art multimicroprocessor hardware configuration, using window graphics and running under an object-oriented, multitasking real-time operating system environment. This Open Control/Display System supports the idea that the operator should be able to interactively monitor, select, control, and display information about many payloads aboard the Space Station using sets of I/O devices with a single, software-reconfigurable workstation. This is done while maintaining system consistency, yet the system is completely open to accept new additions and advances in hardware and software. The Advanced Space Cockpit, linked to Grumman's Hybrid Computing Facility and Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS), was used to test the Open Control/Display System via full-scale simulation of the following tasks: telerobotic truss assembly, RCS and thermal bus servicing, CMG changeout, RMS constrained motion and space constructible radiator assembly, HPA coordinated control, and OMV docking and tumbling satellite retrieval. The proposed man-machine interface standard discussed has evolved through many iterations of the tasks, and is based on feedback from NASA and Air Force personnel who performed those tasks in the LASS.

  19. Ductile cutting of silicon microstructures with surface inclination measurement and compensation by using a force sensor integrated single point diamond tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Cai, Yindi; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a measurement and compensation method of surface inclination for ductile cutting of silicon microstructures by using a diamond tool with a force sensor based on a four-axis ultra-precision lathe. The X- and Y-directional inclinations of a single crystal silicon workpiece with respect to the X- and Y-motion axes of the lathe slides were measured respectively by employing the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe, in which the tool-workpiece contact is sensitively detected by monitoring the force sensor output. Based on the measurement results, fabrication of silicon microstructures can be thus carried out directly along the tilted silicon workpiece by compensating the cutting motion axis to be parallel to the silicon surface without time-consuming pre-adjustment of the surface inclination or turning of a flat surface. A diamond tool with a negative rake angle was used in the experiment for superior ductile cutting performance. The measurement precision by using the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe was investigated. Experiments of surface inclination measurement and ultra-precision ductile cutting of a micro-pillar array and a micro-pyramid array with inclination compensation were carried out respectively to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  20. Power electronic applications for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrell, Roy L.; Lazbin, Igor

    1990-01-01

    NASA plans to orbit a permanently manned space station in the late 1990s, which requires development and assembly of a photovoltaic (PV) power source system to supply up to 75 kW of electrical power average during the orbital period. The electrical power requirements are to be met by a combination of PV source, storage, and control elements for the sun and eclipse periods. The authors discuss the application of power electronics and controls to manage the generation, storage, and distribution of power to meet the station loads, as well as the computer models used for analysis and simulation of the PV power system. The requirements for power source integrated controls to adjust storage charge power during the insolation period current limiting, breaker interrupt current values, and the electrical fault protection approach are defined. Based on these requirements, operating concepts have been defined which then become drivers for specific system and element design.

  1. Materials Science Experiments on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    The Performance Goal for NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program reads "Use microgravity to establish and improve quantitative and predictive relationships between the structure, processing and properties of materials." The advent of the International Space Station will open up a new era in Materials Science Research including the ability to perform long term and frequent experiments in microgravity. As indicated the objective is to gain a greater understanding of issues of materials science in an environment in which the force of gravity can be effectively switched off. Thus gravity related issues of convection, buoyancy and hydrostatic forces can be reduced and the science behind the structure/processing/properties relationship can more easily be understood. The specific areas of research covered within the program are (1) the study of Nucleation and Metastable States, (2) Prediction and Control of Microstructure (including pattern formation and morphological stability), (3) Phase Separation and Interfacial Stability, (4) Transport Phenomena (including process modeling and thermophysical properties measurement), and (5) Crystal Growth, and Defect Generation and Control. All classes of materials, including metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, polymers, electronic materials (including organic and inorganic single crystals), aerogels and nanostructures, are included in these areas. The principal experimental equipment available to the materials scientist on the International Space Station (ISS) will be the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). Each of these systems will be accommodated in a single ISS rack, which can operate autonomously, will accommodate telescience operations, and will provide real time data to the ground. Eventual plans call for three MSRF racks, the first of which will be shared with the European Space Agency (ESA). Under international agreements, ESA and other partners will provide some of the equipment, while NASA covers launch

  2. Materials Science Experiments on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    The Performance Goal for NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program reads "Use microgravity to establish and improve quantitative and predictive relationships between the structure, processing and properties of materials." The advent of the International Space Station will open up a new era in Materials Science Research including the ability to perform long term and frequent experiments in microgravity. As indicated the objective is to gain a greater understanding of issues of materials science in an environment in which the force of gravity can be effectively switched off. Thus gravity related issues of convection, buoyancy and hydrostatic forces can be reduced and the science behind the structure/processing/properties relationship can more easily be understood. The specific areas of research covered within the program are (1) the study of Nucleation and Metastable States, (2) Prediction and Control of Microstructure (including pattern formation and morphological stability), (3) Phase Separation and Interfacial Stability, (4) Transport Phenomena (including process modeling and thermophysical properties measurement), and (5) Crystal Growth, and Defect Generation and Control. All classes of materials, including metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, polymers, electronic materials (including organic and inorganic single crystals), aerogels and nanostructures, are included in these areas. The principal experimental equipment available to the materials scientist on the International Space Station (ISS) will be the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). Each of these systems will be accommodated in a single ISS rack, which can operate autonomously, will accommodate telescience operations, and will provide real time data to the ground. Eventual plans call for three MSRF racks, the first of which will be shared with the European Space Agency (ESA). Under international agreements, ESA and other partners will provide some of the equipment, while NASA covers launch

  3. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  4. The Calern atmospheric turbulence station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabé, Julien; Ziad, Aziz; Fantéï-Caujolle, Yan; Aristidi, Éric; Renaud, Catherine; Blary, Flavien; Marjani, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    From its long expertise in Atmospheric Optics, the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur and the J.L. Lagrange Laboratory have equipped the Calern Observatory with a station of atmospheric turbulence measurement (CATS: Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station). The CATS station is equipped with a set of complementary instruments for monitoring atmospheric turbulence parameters. These new-generation instruments are autonomous within original techniques for measuring optical turbulence since the first meters above the ground to the borders of the atmosphere. The CATS station is also a support for our training activities as part of our Masters MAUCA and OPTICS, through the organization of on-sky practical works.

  5. Laser ranging ground station development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of ground to conduct radar range measurements of the lunar distance is discussed. The advantages of additional ground stations for this purpose are analyzed. The goals which are desirable for any new type of ranging station are: (1) full time availability of the station for laser ranging, (2) optimization for signal strength, (3) automation to the greatest extent possible, (4) the capability for blind pointing, (5) reasonable initial and modest operational costs, and (6) transportability to enhance the value of the station for geophysical purposes.

  6. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  7. The study on force, surface integrity, tool life and chip on laser assisted machining of inconel 718 using Nd:YAG laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, K

    2017-07-01

    Inconel 718, a high-temperature alloy, is a promising material for high-performance aerospace gas turbine engines components. However, the machining of the alloy is difficult owing to immense shear strength, rapid work hardening rate during turning, and less thermal conductivity. Hence, like ceramics and composites, the machining of this alloy is considered as difficult-to-turn materials. Laser assisted turning method has become a promising solution in recent years to lessen cutting stress when materials that are considered difficult-to-turn, such as Inconel 718 is employed. This study investigated the influence of input variables of laser assisted machining on the machinability aspect of the Inconel 718. The comparison of machining characteristics has been carried out to analyze the process benefits with the variation of laser machining variables. The laser assisted machining variables are cutting speeds of 60-150 m/min, feed rates of 0.05-0.125 mm/rev with a laser power between 1200 W and 1300 W. The various output characteristics such as force, roughness, tool life and geometrical characteristic of chip are investigated and compared with conventional machining without application of laser power. From experimental results, at a laser power of 1200 W, laser assisted turning outperforms conventional machining by 2.10 times lessening in cutting force, 46% reduction in surface roughness as well as 66% improvement in tool life when compared that of conventional machining. Compared to conventional machining, with the application of laser, the cutting speed of carbide tool has increased to a cutting condition of 150 m/min, 0.125 mm/rev. Microstructural analysis shows that no damage of the subsurface of the workpiece.

  8. The study on force, surface integrity, tool life and chip on laser assisted machining of inconel 718 using Nd:YAG laser source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkatesan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718, a high-temperature alloy, is a promising material for high-performance aerospace gas turbine engines components. However, the machining of the alloy is difficult owing to immense shear strength, rapid work hardening rate during turning, and less thermal conductivity. Hence, like ceramics and composites, the machining of this alloy is considered as difficult-to-turn materials. Laser assisted turning method has become a promising solution in recent years to lessen cutting stress when materials that are considered difficult-to-turn, such as Inconel 718 is employed. This study investigated the influence of input variables of laser assisted machining on the machinability aspect of the Inconel 718. The comparison of machining characteristics has been carried out to analyze the process benefits with the variation of laser machining variables. The laser assisted machining variables are cutting speeds of 60–150 m/min, feed rates of 0.05–0.125 mm/rev with a laser power between 1200 W and 1300 W. The various output characteristics such as force, roughness, tool life and geometrical characteristic of chip are investigated and compared with conventional machining without application of laser power. From experimental results, at a laser power of 1200 W, laser assisted turning outperforms conventional machining by 2.10 times lessening in cutting force, 46% reduction in surface roughness as well as 66% improvement in tool life when compared that of conventional machining. Compared to conventional machining, with the application of laser, the cutting speed of carbide tool has increased to a cutting condition of 150 m/min, 0.125 mm/rev. Microstructural analysis shows that no damage of the subsurface of the workpiece.

  9. Waterproof Fire Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Peer; Stjernfelt, Frederik; Østergaard, Svend

    2006-01-01

    of Fauconnier & Turner’s theory of conceptual integration, which historically is a reelaboration of Lakoff & Johnson’s theory of metaphor.    The first section sums up two classical approaches in the analysis of nominal compounds; it comments on their inadequacies, and how these have been assessed by Fauconnier...

  10. Impacts of the pumped storage power station on the wind generation integration capability of the Shandong Power Grid%抽水蓄能电站对山东电网风电接纳能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋豪; 宋曙光; 王超; 刘远龙; 于大洋; 韩学山

    2011-01-01

    将抽水蓄能机组纳入机组组合问题当中,据此建立了含风电与抽水蓄能电站的系统优化运行模型。以山东电网实际系统为例,根据机组组合的结果分析了不同季节典型日下抽水蓄能电站对于风电接入电网各项指标的影响。结果表明,当风电容量较小时,抽水蓄能电站的作用不明显;只有当风电容量超出系统的接纳能力出现弃风以后,抽水蓄能电站的作用才得以体现出来,风电并网的各项指标随抽水蓄能电站容量的增加有明显的改善。%The pumped storage power station was considered in unit commitment problem.Based on this,an optimal operation model of the power system was built.The impacts of the pumped storage power station(PSPS) with different capacities to targets of grid-connected wind power in a typical day in different seasons were analyzed according to unit commitment results based on the Shandong Power Grid.The results showed that the impact was not obvious when capacity of wind power was small.The targets were improved with increasing the pumped power storage station until the capacity of wind power was so large that some wind power was abandoned.

  11. Risk Management for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, J.; Brezovic, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an extremely complex system, both technically and programmatically. The Space Station must support a wide range of payloads and missions. It must be launched in numerous launch packages and be safely assembled and operated in the harsh environment of space. It is being designed and manufactured by many organizations, including the prime contractor, Boeing, the NASA institutions, and international partners and their contractors. Finally, the ISS has multiple customers, (e.g., the Administration, Congress, users, public, international partners, etc.) with contrasting needs and constraints. It is the ISS Risk Management Office strategy to proactively and systematically manages risks to help ensure ISS Program success. ISS program follows integrated risk management process (both quantitative and qualitative) and is integrated into ISS project management. The process and tools are simple and seamless and permeate to the lowest levels (at a level where effective management can be realized) and follows the continuous risk management methodology. The risk process assesses continually what could go wrong (risks), determine which risks need to be managed, implement strategies to deal with those risks, and measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. The process integrates all facets of risk including cost, schedule and technical aspects. Support analysis risk tools like PRA are used to support programatic decisions and assist in analyzing risks.

  12. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  13. Forced Snaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponedel, Benjamin; Knobloch, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    We study spatial localization in the real subcritical Ginzburg-Landau equation ut =m0 u +m1 cos2/π l x u +uxx +d | u | 2 u -| u | 4 u with spatially periodic forcing. When d > 0 and m1 = 0 this equation exhibits bistability between the trivial state u = 0 and a homogeneous nontrivial state u =u0 with stationary localized structures which accumulate at the Maxwell point m0 = - 3d2 / 16 . When spatial forcing is included its wavelength is imprinted on u0 creating conditions favorable to front pinning and hence spatial localization. We use numerical continuation to show that under appropriate conditions such forcing generates a sequence of localized states organized within a snakes-and-ladders structure centered on the Maxwell point, and refer to this phenomenon as forced snaking. We determine the stability properties of these states and show that longer lengthscale forcing leads to stationary trains consisting of a finite number of strongly localized, weakly interacting pulses exhibiting foliated snaking.

  14. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  15. Naval Weapons Station Earle Reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    surveys for their Section 110 compliance: Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger 1999...text within brackets. Berger Report 1999 Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger... architectural treatment of buildings at NWS Earle: a traditional vernacular theme with minimal decorative detailing. This so-called minimal traditional

  16. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  17. International Space Station -- Fluid Physics Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The optical bench for the Fluid Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown in its operational configuration. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  18. Thermal battery automated assembly station conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D

    1988-08-01

    Thermal battery assembly involves many operations which are labor- intense. In August 1986, a project team was formed at GE Neutron Devices to investigate and evaluate more efficient and productive battery assembly techniques through the use of automation. The result of this study was the acceptance of a plan to automate the piece part pellet fabrication and battery stacking operations by using computerized pellet presses and robots which would be integrated by a main computer. This report details the conceptual design and development plan to be followed in the fabrication, development, and implementation of a thermal battery automated assembly station. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Space Station Freedom attached payloads and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furio, N.; Pyfer, B.; Smith, R. B., Jr.; Hunt, S. R.; Suddeth, D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Freedom (SSF) attaches external payloads to its main truss structure via Attached Payload Accommodation Equipment (APAE); this equipment also provides access to such SSF resources as electrical power, command/control, and data handling. In orbit, APAE payloads are installed and maintained by a teleoperated robot or by an astronaut in EVA. Commercialization of EPAE will be accomplished by private companies concerned with the development of materials processing, earth resources and ocean resources monitoring, telecommunications, and industrial services. Attention is given to APAE user-integration activity.

  20. Intermolecular forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, A D

    1975-11-06

    The nature of molecular interactions is examined. Intermolecular forces are divided into long-range and short-range components; the former operate at distances where the effects of electron exchange are negligible and decrease as an inverse power of the separation. The long-range interactions may be subdividied into electrostatic, induction and dispersion contributions, where the electrostatic component is the interaction of the permanent charge distributions and the others originate in the fluctuations in the distributions. Typical magnitudes of the various contributions are given. The forces between macroscopic bodies are briefly considered, as are the effects of a medium. Some of the manifestations of molecular interactions are discussed.

  1. “To be without a home, like a rolling stone”: Anticipating the global management of forced migration flows and the social integration of asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    and INGOs involved in the future management and governance of Syrian, Palestinian Syrian, Saharaoui, Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers. The study is based on shadowing 5 managers across different in-office and in-field locations and 24 months of fieldwork in informal tented settlements in Bekaa Valley......—all for estimating the movements and framing the choices, freedoms and rights of asylum seekers. The study shows how anticipatory practices constitute asylum seekers as ‘global problems’ which reinforce dominance relations of ‘vulnerability’ and remove individuals’ agency while providing them with life......-saving solutions. The findings show the paradoxical implications of anticipatory governance as it creates undefined spaces between nation-states in which asylum seekers are confined, cannot become self-reliant and do not have access to resilient social integration programs....

  2. An analysis of relationships among climate forcing and time-integrated NDVI of grasslands over the U.S. northern and central Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Wylie, B.K.; Reed, B.C. [Hughes STX Corp., Sioux Falls, SD (United States). EROS Data Center; Tieszen, L.L. [Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls, SD (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1998-07-01

    Time-integrated normalized difference vegetation index (TI NDVI) derived from the multitemporal satellite imagery (1989--1993) was used as a surrogate for primary production to investigate climate impacts on grassland performance for central and northern Great Plains grasslands. Results suggest that spatial and temporal variability in growing season precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and growing degree days are the most important controls on grassland performance and productivity. When TI NDVI and climate data of all grassland land cover classes were examined as a whole, a statistical model showed significant positive correlation between the TI NDVI and accumulated spring and summer precipitation, and a negative correlation between TI NDVI and spring potential evapotranspiration. The coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) of the general model was 0.45. When the TI NDVI-climate relationship was examined by individual land cover type, the relationship was generally better defined in terms of the variance accounted for by class-specific models.

  3. The role of family planning in achieving safe pregnancy for serodiscordant couples: commentary from the United States government's interagency task force on family planning and HIV service integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jennifer; Medley, Amy; Yeiser, Sarah; Nightingale, Vienna R; Mani, Nithya; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Abutu, Andrew; Johnston, Beverly; Watts, D Heather

    2017-03-08

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have the right to exercise voluntary choices about their health, including their reproductive health. This commentary discusses the integral role that family planning (FP) plays in helping PLHIV, including those in serodiscordant relationships, achieve conception safely. The United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is committed to meeting the reproductive health needs of PLHIV by improving their access to voluntary FP counselling and services, including prevention of unintended pregnancy and counselling for safer conception. Inclusion of preconception care and counselling (PCC) as part of routine HIV services is critical to preventing unintended pregnancies and perinatal infections among PLHIV. PLHIV not desiring a current pregnancy should be provided with information and counselling on all available FP methods and then either given the method onsite or through a facilitated referral process. PLHIV, who desire children should be offered risk reduction counselling, support for HIV status disclosure and partner testing, information on safer conception options to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the partner and the importance of adhering to antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy and breastfeeding to reduce the risk of vertical transmission to the infant. Integration of PCC, HIV and FP services at the same location is recommended to improve access to these services for PLHIV. Other considerations to be addressed include the social and structural context, the health system capacity to offer these services, and stigma and discrimination of providers. Evaluation of innovative service delivery models for delivering PCC services is needed, including provision in community-based settings. The US Government will continue to partner with local organizations, Ministries of Health, the private sector, civil society, multilateral and bilateral donors, and other key stakeholders to strengthen both the policy and

  4. INEGI's Network of GPS permanent stations in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Franco, G. A.

    2013-05-01

    The Active National Geodetic Network administered by INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) is a set of 24 GPS permanent stations in Mexico that was established in 1993 for a national rural cadastral project, its has been mainly used for geodetic surveys through Mexico including international borders, and has been progressing to contribute to national, regional and international reference frames through the delivering of GPS data or coordinate solutions from INEGI Processing Center to SIRGAS and NAREF. Recently GAMIT/GLOBK Processing of permanent stations in Mexico was realized from 2007-2011 to determine station's velocity. Related to natural hazards, a subset of INEGI network contributes to the project Real Time Integrated Atmosferic Water Wapor and TEC from GPS. The GPS network planned evolution consider changing to a GNSS network, adding stations to IGS, maintain the services of the present, and contribute to multidisciplinary geodetic studies through data publicly available.

  5. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  6. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  7. Interface Hombre-Máquina para la Estación Neumática PN-2800 de un Centro Integrado de Manufactura utilizando una Pantalla de Interface Man-Machine Interface for the Pneumatics PN-2800 station of an Integrated Center of Manufacture using a Panel View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika J Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una Interface Hombre-Máquina con el software Panel Builder 32, que interactúa con un una pantalla de interface (Panel View 1000, para realizar el control de la Estación de Neumática PN-2800, que es la abastecedora de materia prima en un Centro Integrado de Manufactura. Se realizó una programación visual y se analizaron las dimensiones de las barras cilíndricas, acrílicos y la abertura de las pinzas de los manipuladores, así como sus ángulos y espacios de trabajo para considerar nuevas materias primas. Para la configuración para la comunicación del protocolo Data Highway Plus y la compatibilidad con el protocolo Modbus Plus se utilizó un convertidor DL-3500. El trabajo presentado en este artículo muestra la integración de nuevos materiales para el proceso de maquilado y el manejo de diferentes protocolos que se encuentran en las diferentes industrias.A Man-Machine Interface with the software Panel Builder 32, that interacts with Panel View 1000, to perform the control of the Pneumatics Station PN-2800 is presented. This station provides raw material to an Integrated Manufacturing Center. Visual programming was used and the dimensions of the cylindrical bars, acrylic parts and the gap of the gripers of the manipulators, as well as their angles and spaces of work to consider new raw material. For the configuration of the communication protocol Dates Highway Plus and the compatibility with the protocol Modbus Plus a converter DL-3500 was used. The work presented in this article shows the integration of new materials for the process of maquilado and the handling of different protocols that are found in different industries.

  8. Biomechanical Analysis of Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, J. K.; Fincke, R. S.; Guilliams, M. E.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    Treadmill locomotion exercise is an important aspect of ISS exercise countermeasures. It is widely believed that an optimized treadmill exercise protocol could offer benefits to cardiovascular and bone health. If training heart rate is high enough, treadmill exercise is expected to lead to improvements in aerobic fitness. If impact or bone loading forces are high enough, treadmill exercise may be expected to contribute to improved bone outcomes. Ground-based research suggests that joint loads increase with increased running speed. However, it is unknown if increases in locomotion speed results in similar increases in joint loads in microgravity. Although data exist regarding the biomechanics of running and walking in microgravity, a majority were collected during parabolic flight or during investigations utilizing a microgravity analog. The Second Generation Treadmill (T2) has been in use on the International Space Station (ISS) and records the ground reaction forces (GRF) produced by crewmembers during exercise. Biomechanical analyses will aid in understanding potential differences in typical gait motion and allow for modeling of the human body to determine joint and muscle forces during exercise. By understanding these mechanisms, more appropriate exercise prescriptions can be developed that address deficiencies. The objective of this evaluation is to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise prior to and during flight. The goal is to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between normal and microgravity environments and to determine how combinations of subject load and speed influence joint loading during in-flight treadmill exercise. Further, the data will be used to characterize any differences in specific bone and muscle loading during locomotion in these two gravitational conditions. This project maps to the HRP Integrated Research Plan risks including Risk of Bone Fracture (Gap B15), Risk of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due to

  9. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  10. Standardization of Mobile Satellite Service Technology in ITU-R:Driving Force of Integrated Mobile Services%ITU-R卫星移动通信标准--整合移动业务的动力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秀英

    2015-01-01

    认为国际电信联盟无线电通信部门(ITU-R)关于卫星移动通信的标准化新进展将在全球移动通信设备和系统无缝连接的实现过程中起到重要作用,卫星和地面的集成/混合的天地一体化系统将充分发挥原系统各自的优势,未来多数的卫星移动业务(MSS)都将基于这种天地一体化系统。指出IMT-Advanced系统的卫星部分和ITU-R标准化无线接口是集成MSS系统的关键技术,将成为激活MSS产业的新的驱动力。%Wel-developed standards wil play an important role in facilitating seamless interworking of equipment and systems global y. Most future MSS services wil use integrated and/or hybrid satel ite-terrestrial networks that leverage both satel ite and terrestrial networks. Satel ite components of IMT-Advanced systems and ITU-R standardized radio interfaces provide key technology in integrated satel ite and terrestrial networks, and this wil be a new driving force behind MSS industries.

  11. 水电厂运维一体化管理模式探讨——以龙开口水电厂为例%Discussion on Management Mode of Operation and Maintenance Integration in Hydropower Station:Taking Longkaikou Hydropower Station as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科发

    2015-01-01

    龙开口水电厂严格按照华能集团澜沧江公司"高起点、敢创新、严管理、重效益"的管理理念规划设计、建设并运营管理.在参观学习过程中,笔者听取了该厂管理人员和生产技术骨干对安全生产管理、人员管理及设备管理等方面的详细介绍.同时到生产现场进行了参观,并结合本厂生产过程中存在的问题进行了对口探讨,使笔者对其现场管理、安全管理、职工培训、设备管理等方面有了比较深刻的了解,文章即为笔者对该厂生产管理模式的学习和探讨.%Longkaikou Hydropower Station in strict accordance with management concept "High starting point,Dare to innovate, Srict management,Pay attention to benefit"of Huaneng Group Lancang River Branch,planning and design,construction and operation management.During the visit to the learning process,we listened detailed introduction from the management and production technology backbone of total production management,personnel management and equipment management.At the same time we visit the production site.In combination with the problems encountered in the production process of our factory,we have carried on the discussion to the problem.So we have a more profound understanding of its field management,safety management,staff training,equipment management and so on.This article is the author of the production management mode of learning and discussion.

  12. Gravity Station Data for Portugal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  13. Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  14. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  15. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  16. Non-Coop Station History (Unindexed)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Documents should be compared with those in the Non-Coop Station History...

  17. A simple approach to adjust tidal forcing in fjord models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmervik, Karina; Kristensen, Nils Melsom; Staalstrøm, André; Røed, Lars Petter

    2017-07-01

    To model currents in a fjord accurate tidal forcing is of extreme importance. Due to complex topography with narrow and shallow straits, the tides in the innermost parts of a fjord are both shifted in phase and altered in amplitude compared to the tides in the open water outside the fjord. Commonly, coastal tide information extracted from global or regional models is used on the boundary of the fjord model. Since tides vary over short distances in shallower waters close to the coast, the global and regional tidal forcings are usually too coarse to achieve sufficiently accurate tides in fjords. We present a straightforward method to remedy this problem by simply adjusting the tides to fit the observed tides at the entrance of the fjord. To evaluate the method, we present results from the Oslofjord, Norway. A model for the fjord is first run using raw tidal forcing on its open boundary. By comparing modelled and observed time series of water level at a tidal gauge station close to the open boundary of the model, a factor for the amplitude and a shift in phase are computed. The amplitude factor and the phase shift are then applied to produce adjusted tidal forcing at the open boundary. Next, we rerun the fjord model using the adjusted tidal forcing. The results from the two runs are then compared to independent observations inside the fjord in terms of amplitude and phases of the various tidal components, the total tidal water level, and the depth integrated tidal currents. The results show improvements in the modelled tides in both the outer, and more importantly, the inner parts of the fjord.

  18. Internationalization of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottmann, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  19. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Kurz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  20. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  1. Conveying International Space Station Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goza, Sharon P.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1,000 experiments have been completed, and others are being conducted and planed on the International Space Station (ISS). In order to make the information on these experiments accessible, the IGOAL develops mobile applications to easily access this content and video products to convey high level concepts. This presentation will feature the Space Station Research Explorer as well as several publicly available video examples.

  2. Regenerative water supply for an interplanetary space station: The experience gained on the space stations “Salut”, “Mir”, ISS and development prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobe, Leonid; Samsonov, Nikoly; Gavrilov, Lev; Novikov, Vladimir; Tomashpolskiy, Mihail; Andreychuk, Peter; Protasov, Nikoly; Synjak, Yury; Skuratov, Vladimir

    2007-06-01

    Based on the experience in operation of Russian space stations Salut, Mir and International space station ISS the station's water balance data, parameters and characteristics of the systems for water recovery have been obtained. Using the data design analysis an integrated water supply system for an interplanetary space station has been performed. A packaged physical/chemical system for water supply is composed of an integrated system for water recovery from humidity condensate, green house condensate, water from carbon dioxide reduction system and condensate from urine system; a system for water reclamation from urine; hygiene water processing system and a water storage system. The take off mass of the packaged water supply system (including expendables, redundancy hardware, equivalent mass of power consumption and of thermal control) is appropriate for Mars missions. The international space station is indispensable for verifying innovative processes and new water recovery systems intended for missions to Mars.

  3. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-utility stations. 80.107 Section 80.107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for...

  4. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed...

  5. Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Betty S.; Lippert, Buddy O.; Mckee, Sandra D.; Lewis, James L., Jr.; Mount, Francis E.

    1993-01-01

    Viewing requirements were identified early in the Space Station Freedom program for both direct viewing via windows and indirect viewing via cameras and closed-circuit television (CCTV). These requirements reside in NASA Program Definition and Requirements Document (PDRD), Section 3: Space Station Systems Requirements. Currently, analyses are addressing the feasibility of direct and indirect viewing. The goal of these analyses is to determine the optimum locations for the windows, cameras, and CCTV's in order to meet established requirements, to adequately support space station assembly, and to operate on-board equipment. PLAID, a three-dimensional computer graphics program developed at NASA JSC, was selected for use as the major tool in these analyses. PLAID provides the capability to simulate the assembly of the station as well as to examine operations as the station evolves. This program has been used successfully as a tool to analyze general viewing conditions for many Space Shuttle elements and can be used for virtually all Space Station components. Additionally, PLAID provides the ability to integrate an anthropometric scale-modeled human (representing a crew member) with interior and exterior architecture.

  6. A Data Management System for International Space Station Simulation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Bradley J.; DelMundo, Rommel; Elcott, Sharif; McIntosh, Dawn; Niehaus, Brian; Papasin, Richard; Mah, Robert W.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Groups associated with the design, operational, and training aspects of the International Space Station make extensive use of modeling and simulation tools. Users of these tools often need to access and manipulate large quantities of data associated with the station, ranging from design documents to wiring diagrams. Retrieving and manipulating this data directly within the simulation and modeling environment can provide substantial benefit to users. An approach for providing these kinds of data management services, including a database schema and class structure, is presented. Implementation details are also provided as a data management system is integrated into the Intelligent Virtual Station, a modeling and simulation tool developed by the NASA Ames Smart Systems Research Laboratory. One use of the Intelligent Virtual Station is generating station-related training procedures in a virtual environment, The data management component allows users to quickly and easily retrieve information related to objects on the station, enhancing their ability to generate accurate procedures. Users can associate new information with objects and have that information stored in a database.

  7. Leveled cost of the generation in a power station of combined cycle with integrated gas producer (CCGI); Costo nivelado de la generacion en una central de ciclo combinado con gasificador integrado (CCGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiriart Le Bert, Gerardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), (Mexico); Beltran Mora, Hector [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    A brief description of a combined cycle power station that uses synthesis gas, better known as CCGI, is presented. The costs of the initial investment of several plants of this type, that have been described in literature, are analyzed and the predictions that different experts do on the costs that are expected in the near future are reviewed. Also the maintenance expenses that would be expected during the normal operation and the main maintenance are examined. The availability factors that reasonably must be considered based on the recent experiences are analyzed. Afterwards the sense which that the plant factor has in one of natural gas and one of synthesis, where generally are used as base plant. The costs of the different fuels that can be used in a CCGI are examined. Finally the leveled cost of the energy for both cases is calculated and the sensitivity of both to the cost of the respective fuels is examined. The result is presented in graphical form to show in a first attempt, the circumstances under which one or another technology could be preferable. It is made clear that the data used in this brief study are the best reasoned estimation and in no way they must be considered as definitive, in special in those of investment and maintenance of the CCGI where the operation history is still short. [Spanish] Se presenta una breve descripcion de una Central de Ciclo Combinado que utiliza Gas de Sintesis o mejor conocidas como CCGI. Se analizan los costos de la inversion inicial de varias plantas de este tipo que han sido descritas en la literatura y se resenan las predicciones que hacen diferentes expertos sobre los costos que se esperan para el futuro cercano. Tambien se examinan los gastos de mantenimiento que se esperarian durante la operacion normal y durante los mantenimientos mayores. Se analizan los factores de disponibilidad que razonablemente deben considerarse, basados en las experiencias recientes. Luego se discute el sentido que tiene el factor de

  8. Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudawar, Issam; Hasan, Mohammad M.; Kharangate, Chirag; O'Neill, Lucas; Konishi, Chris; Nahra, Henry; Hall, Nancy; Balasubramaniam, R.; Mackey, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research aims to develop an integrated two-phase flow boiling/condensation facility for the International Space Station (ISS) to serve as primary platform for obtaining two-phase flow and heat transfer data in microgravity.

  9. Space station systems: A bibliography with indexes (supplement 10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography lists 1,422 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1, 1989 and December 31, 1989. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  10. Space station systems: A bibliography with indexes (supplement 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 1,313 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1989 and June 30, 1989. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  11. Space Station Systems: a Bibliography with Indexes (Supplement 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 950 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1, 1989 and December 31, 1989. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  12. Space station systems: A bibliography with indexes (supplement 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 1,158 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1988 and June 30, 1988. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  13. Seasonal features of black carbon measured at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, K.; Osada, K.; Yabuki, M.; Shiobara, M.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is one of important aerosol constituents because the strong light absorption ability. Low concentrations of aerosols and BC let BC make insignificant contribution to aerosol radiative forcing in the Antarctica at the moment. Because of less or negligible source strength of BC in the Antarctic circle, BC can be used as a tracer of transport from the mid-latitudes. This study aims to understand seasonal feature, transport pathway, and origins of black carbon in the Antarctic coats. Black carbon measurement has been made using 7-wavelength aethalometer at Syowa Station, Antarctica since February, 2005. Mass BC concentrations were estimated from light attenuation by Weingartner's correction procedure (Weingartner et al., 2003) in this study. Detection limit was 0.2 - 0.4 ng/m3 in our measurement conditions (2-hour resolution and flow rate of ca. 10LPM). BC concentrations ranged from near detection limit to 55.7 ng/m3 at Syowa Station, Antarctica during the measurements. No trend has been observed since February, 2005. High BC concentrations were coincident with poleward flow from the mid-latitudes under the storm conditions by cyclone approach, whereas low BC concentrations were found in transport from coastal regions and the Antarctic continent. Considering that outflow from South America and Southern Africa affect remarkably air quality in the Southern Ocean of Atlantic and Indian Ocean sectors, BC at Syowa Station might be originated from biomass burning and human activity on South America and Southern Africa. Seasonal features of BC at Syowa Station shows maximum in September - October and lower in December - April. Spring maximum in September - October was obtained at the other Antarctic stations (Neumayer, Halley, South pole, and Ferraz). Although second maximum was found in January at the other stations, the maximum was not observed at Syowa Station.

  14. Ash properties and integrated uses of corncob fly ash from biomass gasification station%生物质气化站玉米芯飞灰的特性及其综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚锡文; 许开立

    2015-01-01

    present in forms of KHCO3, KAlSiO4, KAlSi2O6, KCl and K2SO4. The SEM images revealed the ash is highly agglomerated and with irregular shapes. Those shapes of ash particles were multiple and these dendritic reunion ashes had rich interspace, which easily leaded to adsorption of small particles step-by-step. A large number of weak bonding flocs adhered to the particle surface. The fracture surface of these particles was porous. Being rich in potassium was found on the surface of molten particles, which was mainly in form of KCl. The EDX data telled us that the surface of molten particles was covered with KCl. And the water soluble salt concentrate was particularly rich in KCl, which was of interest in terms of element extraction. The thermal analysis revealed the decomposition of CCA had a stepwise mechanism, which implied a total weight loss of 17.13% under nitrogen, that of 19.86% under dry air and that of 23.12% under 40% O2 in N2when heating to 1 200. This illustrated that the mass loss increases with the rise of oxygen concentration. An endothermic peak near 620℃ in nitrogen was due to melting of KCl, while the exothermic peak at around 630℃ in the aerobic environment was caused by ignition of unburned carbon and degradation of residual organic matters. The unburnt carbon in CCA has a potential to be separated and used for activated carbon or other applications. This paper provides the baseline of future work on the possible utility of the waste CCA from biomass gasification stations.%作为玉米生产加工过程的农业废弃物,玉米芯的产量巨大,生物质气化工业利用玉米芯原料制备生物质燃气的过程中将产生大量的玉米芯灰.为了全面认识这些废弃玉米芯灰的灰特性及可能的应用,通过激光粒度分析、X射线荧光(X-ray fluorescence,XRF)、X射线衍射(X-ray diffraction,XRD)、热重和差热分析(thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis,TG-DTA)、扫描电镜(scanning electron microscopy

  15. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    .g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e...... to the automotive sector in Wales. Specifically, the paper evaluates the "Accelerates" programme initiated by the Welsh Development Agency and elaborates on how and to what extent the Accelerate programme supports the development of a sustainable automotive industry cluster. The Accelerate programme was set up...

  16. Coriolis Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  17. Report of NASA Lunar Energy Enterprise Case Study Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, John J.

    1989-01-01

    The Lunar Energy Enterprise Case Study Task Force was asked to determine the economic viability and commercial potential of mining and extracting He-3 from the lunar soil, and transporting the material to Earth for use in a power-generating fusion reactor. Two other space energy projects, the Space Power Station (SPS) and the Lunar Power Station (LPS), were also reviewed because of several interrelated aspects of these projects. The specific findings of the Task Force are presented. Appendices contain related papers generated by individual Task Force Members.

  18. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  19. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  20. 47 CFR 78.69 - Station records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... notice was given. (v) Date and time notice was given to the Flight Service Station (Federal Aviation... SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.69 Station records. Each licensee of a CARS station shall... time of the beginning and end of each period of transmission of each channel; (b) For all stations,...

  1. Railway Station Role in Composing Urban Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conticelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite railway infrastructure was the structural framework on which modern European States were developed, contributing to unify territories and to the establishment of Nations, right from the beginning, the relationship between railway and city has been characterized by physical, functional and social conflicts, mainly because of a lack of integration between infrastructural and urban policies, which have been produced strong conflicts during decades. These critical situations have concentrated on the railway stations surrounding areas, which have started symbolizing the main conflicts that are taking place inside the cities.Similarly to what happened in the XIX century, today railway is a strategic infrastructure for the European territory development, thanks to the introduction of high speed transport systems and the promotion of rail transport as a more sustainable transportation system, which can quickly connect metropolitan central areas, more and more impenetrable by private vehicles, and key functions centres for the contemporary urban systems.In this framework, railway stations are becoming public places representing a complex society which is more and more dedicated to motion; thus they offer an unmissable chance not only to carry out urban development and spatial cohesion policies, but also to compose old tensions caused by the sharing of physical space, which is more and more scarce and valuable, and by ghettoization phenomena which have been produced at local scale, between rail infrastructure and the surrounding urban context. Today, such conflicts are growing and they are involving many actors who express a lot of different interests, needs and expectations, relating to the station areas’ destiny.Starting from the analysis of some conflicting situations between rail stations and the surrounding areas which have took place until today, this paper investigates some recent renewal interventions on Italian and European main railway

  2. BEARING FORCES OF EMERGENCY GATE DURING SHUTOFF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    For an emergency gate in a surge tank, forces acting on the gate were systematically tested and analyzed, including pulling forces resulted from water hammer because of the sudden rejection of all loads in turbine units under different gate levels, and forces during the process of gate shutoff under the conditions of different number of running turbine units. Besides, for the pulling force on the top of gate, their variation processes with time and extent of gate opening were also tested. It is shown that the calculated value of gate pulling force agrees on the whole with the tested one. The results indicate that the emergency gate in the extraordinary large surge tank of WWS hydropower station is safe under the above testing conditions. The related data in the present paper are helpful for the study on an emergency in a sure tank.

  3. 中国饭店需要刚柔并济的中国式管理实践%Chinese-Style Management for Catering Businesses:Integrating Force with Mercy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马开良; 高志斌

    2014-01-01

    中国旅游饭店管理轨迹分析说明,古老的饭店业在中国管理却很年轻,正在深化管理的进程中,又搭上了“人本管理”的快车。因此,针对当代员工特质,区别管理方向和层面,设计、推行以规范、激励等不同策略相结合的刚柔并济式管理是完善中国饭店管理的重要而有效的措施。%An analysis of the management trails of tourism catering businesses in China reveal that the age -old catering industry in China has little experience in management .It has also met with human-oriented manage-ment while it is furthering its modern management .Therefore,the industry should design and promote an effi-cient management system that combines force with mercy .The system should be staff-oriented ,layered ,integra-ting punishment with rewards .

  4. Business earth stations for telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Walter L.; Rouffet, Denis

    The current status of technology for small commercial satellite-communication earth stations is reviewed on the basis of an application study undertaken in the U.S. and Europe. Chapters are devoted to an overview of satellite communication networks, microterminal design and hardware implementation, microterminal applications, the advantages of microterminals, typical users, services provided, the U.S. market for small earth stations, network operators, and the economics of satellite and terrestrial communication services. Consideration is given to the operation of a microterminal network, standards and regulations, technological factors, space-segment requirements, and insurance aspects. Diagrams, graphs, tables of numerical data, and a glossary of terms are provided.

  5. 基子集成商视角韵复桑产品系统创新驱动力研究%Research on the Innovation Driving Forces of Complex Products and Systems based on the Perspective of Integrators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏敬勤; 刘静

    2012-01-01

    本文采用单案例研究方法,从系统集成商的视角对DJ公司进行了探索性案例研究,运用内容分析法归纳提炼出13个影响DJ公司产品创新的观测变量,形成实证研究量表,并通过问卷调查收集了118个样本数据,运用探索性因子分析的方法对影响因素进行了提取,得出影响复杂产品系统创新的三个主成分因子,即市场控制力、核心技术控制力和动态能力,构成复杂产品系统创新的驱动力主成分。%Complex Products and Systems(COPS) industries play important roles in the economic prosperity of China. CoPS show peculiar features in terms of product characteristics and innovation process. They are custom ized, costly, and technologyintensive products, systems, services, and infrastructure manufactured in single or small batches. During the CoPS innovation process, a system integrator's capabilities directly affect the quality and efficiency of CoPS projects. However, system integrators will not be productive unless they can identify the key fac tors which affect the process of CoPS projects. Because of those different features compared with ordinary masspro duced products theories about product innovation can not available to explain what key factors affect the innovation efficiency of COPS. Therefore, this study highlights the different dimensions of key factors and effects on product in novation in complex product systems innovation and aims to explore drivinz forces (kev factors) of CoPS innovation. In this paper, we used two methods to explore main elements of driving forces (key iactors)of CoPS innova tion. Firstly, the single exploratory case study method is adopted. DL was chose as our case, since the foundation of the People's Republic of China, the Company has successively experienced six large scale technology transforma tions and step by step turned into a modern enterprise being able to design and manufacture highlevel diesel

  6. Exobiology experiment concepts for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Lynn D.; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    The exobiology discipline uses ground based and space flight resources to conduct a multidiscipline research effort dedicated to understanding fundamental questions about the origin, evolution, and distribution of life and life related molecules throughout the universe. Achievement of this understanding requires a methodical research strategy which traces the history of the biogenic elements from their origins in stellar formation processes through the chemical evolution of molecules essential for life to the origin and evolution of primitive and, ultimately, complex living species. Implementation of this strategy requires the collection and integration of data from solar system exploration spacecraft and ground based and orbiting observatories and laboratories. The Science Lab Module (SLM) of the Space Station orbiting complex may provide an ideal setting in which to perform certain classes of experiments which form the cornerstone of exobiology research. These experiments could demonstrate the pathways and processes by which biomolecules are synthesized under conditions that stimulate the primitive earth, planetary atmospheres, cometary ices, and interstellar dust grains. Exobiology experiments proposed for the Space Station generally fall into four classes: interactions among gases and grains (nucleation, accretion, gas-grain reactions), high energy chemistry for the production of biomolecules, physical and chemical processes occurring on an artificial comet, and tests of the theory of panspermia.

  7. Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior to all other approaches for achieving a fast, smart, safe, versatile, and growable electrical power system that will meet a wide range of mission options. To meet the cost and operability goals of future aerospace missions that require significantly higher electrical power and longer durations, we must learn to integrate multiple technologies in ways that enhance overall system synergisms. The way NASA is doing business in space electric power is challenged and some approaches for evolving large space vehicles and platforms in well constructed steps to provide safe, ground testable, growable, smart systems that provide simple, replicative logic structures, which enable hardware and software verification, validation, and implementation are proposed. Viewgraphs are included.

  8. The Integrated Hazard Analysis Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. Terry; Massie, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Hazard analysis addresses hazards that arise in the design, development, manufacturing, construction, facilities, transportation, operations and disposal activities associated with hardware, software, maintenance, operations and environments. An integrated hazard is an event or condition that is caused by or controlled by multiple systems, elements, or subsystems. Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is especially daunting and ambitious for large, complex systems such as NASA s Constellation program which incorporates program, systems and element components that impact others (International Space Station, public, International Partners, etc.). An appropriate IHA should identify all hazards, causes, controls and verifications used to mitigate the risk of catastrophic loss of crew, vehicle and/or mission. Unfortunately, in the current age of increased technology dependence, there is the tendency to sometimes overlook the necessary and sufficient qualifications of the integrator, that is, the person/team that identifies the parts, analyzes the architectural structure, aligns the analysis with the program plan and then communicates/coordinates with large and small components, each contributing necessary hardware, software and/or information to prevent catastrophic loss. As viewed from both Challenger and Columbia accidents, lack of appropriate communication, management errors and lack of resources dedicated to safety were cited as major contributors to these fatalities. From the accident reports, it would appear that the organizational impact of managers, integrators and safety personnel contributes more significantly to mission success and mission failure than purely technological components. If this is so, then organizations who sincerely desire mission success must put as much effort in selecting managers and integrators as they do when designing the hardware, writing the software code and analyzing competitive proposals. This paper will discuss the necessary and

  9. Single-Station Sigma for the Iranian Strong Motion Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarani, H.; Soghrat, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    In development of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), the residuals are assumed to have a log-normal distribution with a zero mean and a standard deviation, designated as sigma. Sigma has significant effect on evaluation of seismic hazard for designing important infrastructures such as nuclear power plants and dams. Both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are involved in the sigma parameter. However, ground-motion observations over long time periods are not available at specific sites and the GMPEs have been derived using observed data from multiple sites for a small number of well-recorded earthquakes. Therefore, sigma is dominantly related to the statistics of the spatial variability of ground motion instead of temporal variability at a single point (ergodic assumption). The main purpose of this study is to reduce the variability of the residuals so as to handle it as epistemic uncertainty. In this regard, it is tried to partially apply the non-ergodic assumption by removing repeatable site effects from total variability of six GMPEs driven from the local, Europe-Middle East and worldwide data. For this purpose, we used 1837 acceleration time histories from 374 shallow earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from M w 4.0 to 7.3 recorded at 370 stations with at least two recordings per station. According to estimated single-station sigma for the Iranian strong motion stations, the ratio of event-corrected single-station standard deviation (Φ ss) to within-event standard deviation (Φ) is about 0.75. In other words, removing the ergodic assumption on site response resulted in 25% reduction of the within-event standard deviation that reduced the total standard deviation by about 15%.

  10. FM 100-11 Force Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Army Master Priority List DODAAC: Department of Defense Activity Address Code EDSS : Equipment Distribution Sequence System ERC: Equipment Readiness...Analysis Center EAD echelons above division E-date effective date EDI Electronic Data Interchange EDSS Equipment Distribution Sequence System EIS

  11. Integrated Health Management Definitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee's Integrated Health Management panel was started about 6 years ago to help foster...

  12. Networked simulation for team training of Space Station astronauts, ground controllers, and scientists - A training and development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, Ankur R.; Wick, Daniel T.; Bovenzi, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe plans for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) which has been designed to meet the envisioned training needs for Space Station Freedom. To meet these needs, the SSTF will integrate networked simulators with real-world systems in five training modes: Stand-Alone, Combined, Joint-Combined, Integrated, and Joint-Integrated. This paper describes the five training modes within the context of three training scenaries. In addition, this paper describes an authoring system which will support the rapid integration of new real-world system changes in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  13. Radiation force and balance of electromagnetic momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, I.; Jiménez, J. L.; Roa-Neri, J. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Some force densities can be expressed as a divergence of a stress tensor, as is the case with the electromagnetic force density. We have shown elsewhere that from the Maxwell equations several balance equations of electromagnetic momentum can be derived, depending on the form these equations are expressed in terms of fields E, D, B, H, and polarisations P and M. These balance equations imply different force densities and different stress tensors, providing a great flexibility to solve particular problems. Among these force densities we have found some proposed in the past with plausibility arguments, like the Einstein-Laub force density, while other proposed force densities appear as particular or limit cases of these general force densities, like the Helmholtz force density. We calculate the radiation force of an electromagnetic wave incident on a semi-infinite negligibly absorbing material using these balance equations, corroborating in this way that the surface integration of the stress tensor gives the same result that the calculation made through a volume integration of the force density, as done by Bohren. As is usual in applications of Gauss’s theorem, the surface on which the surface integral is to be performed must be chosen judiciously, and due care of discontinuities on the boundary conditions must be taken. Advanced undergraduates and graduate students will find a different approach to new aspects of the interaction of radiation with matter.

  14. Nutritional Requirements for Space Station Freedom Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Rice, Barbara L.; Wogan, Christine F. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to set preliminary nutritional requirements for crewmembers flying from 90 to 180 day missions on Space Station Freedom. Specific recommendations included providing crewmembers with in flight feedback on nutritional intake, weight and strength, and incorporating issues of energy intake, body weight, body composition, strength, and protein intake in the flight medicine program. Exercise must be considered an integral part of any plan to maintain nutritional status, especially those modes that stress the skeleton and maintain body weight. Nutrient intake, amount of exercise, and drugs ingested must be recorded daily; high priority should be given to development of fully automated record systems that minimize astronauts' effort. A system of nutritional supplements should be developed to provide a method for reducing intake deficits that become apparent. Finally, post flight monitoring should include bone density, muscle mass and function, and iron status at three and six months after landing.

  15. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Requirements for Space Station Accommodations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, D. A.; Clayton, M. J.; Runge, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    Top level requirements for assembly and integration of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Observatory at the Space Station are examined. Concepts are currently under study for LDR which will provide a sequel to the Infrared Astronomy Satellite and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. LDR will provide a spectacular capability over a very broad spectral range. The Space Station will provide an essential facility for the initial assembly and check out of LDR, as well as a necessary base for refurbishment, repair and modification. By providing a manned platform, the Space Station will remove the time constraint on assembly associated with use of the Shuttle alone. Personnel safety during necessary EVA is enhanced by the presence of the manned facility.

  16. An evaluation of oxygen-hydrogen propulsion systems for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetson, R. W.; Garrison, P. W.; Hannum, N. P.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for O2/H2 chemical and resistojet propulsion systems for the space station was developed and evaluated. The evolution of propulsion requirements was considered as the space station configuration and its utilization as a space transportation node change over the first decade of operation. The characteristics of candidate O2/H2 auxiliary propulsion systems are determined, and opportunities for integration with the OTV tank farm and the space station life support, power and thermal control subsystems are investigated. OTV tank farm boiloff can provide a major portion of the growth station impulse requirements and CO2 from the life support system can be a significant propellant resource, provided it is not denied by closure of that subsystem. Waste heat from the thermal control system is sufficient for many propellant conditioning requirements. It is concluded that the optimum level of subsystem integration must be based on higher level space station studies.

  17. An evaluation of oxygen/hydrogen propulsion systems for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetson, R. W.; Garrison, P. W.; Hannum, N. P.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for O2/H2 chemical and resistojet propulsion systems for the Space Station was developed and evaluated. The evolution of propulsion requirements was considered as the Space Station configuration and its utilization as a space transportation node change over the first decade of operation. The characteristics of candidate O2/H2 auxiliary propulsion systems are determined, and opportunities for integration with the OTV tank farm and the Space Station life support, power and thermal control subsystems are investigated. OTV tank farm boiloff can provide a major portion of the growth station impulse requirements and CO2 from the life support system can be a significant propellant resource, provided it is not denied by closure of that subsystem. Waste heat from the thermal control system is sufficient for many propellant conditioning requirements. It is concluded that the optimum level of subsystem integration must be based on higher level Space Station studies.

  18. The Medicina Station Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  19. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  20. 77 FR 16175 - Station Blackout

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency ac power system). Station blackout does not... plant achieves safe shutdown by relying on components that are not ac powered, such as turbine- or..., or seismic activity and that preexisting licensing requirements specified sufficient...

  1. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  2. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  3. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  4. Barrow Meteoroloigcal Station (BMET) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2004-11-01

    The Barrow meteorology station (BMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors mounted at four different heights on a 40 m tower to obtain profiles of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, and humidity. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data.

  5. OMV Deployed From Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    In this 1986 artist's concept, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), at right, prepares to reboost the Hubble Space Telescope after being deployed from an early Space Station configuration (left). As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  6. "Artificial intelligence" at streamgaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Two types of problems are related to collecting hydrologic data at stream gaging stations. One includes the technical/logistical questions associated with measuring and transferring data for processing. Effort spent on these problems ranges from improving devices for sensing data to using electronic data loggers.

  7. Application of Risk-Based Inspection method for gas compressor station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liang, Wei; Qiu, Zeyang; Lin, Yang

    2017-05-01

    According to the complex process and lots of equipment, there are risks in gas compressor station. At present, research on integrity management of gas compressor station is insufficient. In this paper, the basic principle of Risk Based Inspection (RBI) and the RBI methodology are studied; the process of RBI in the gas compressor station is developed. The corrosion loop and logistics loop of the gas compressor station are determined through the study of corrosion mechanism and process of the gas compressor station. The probability of failure is calculated by using the modified coefficient, and the consequence of failure is calculated by the quantitative method. In particular, we addressed the application of a RBI methodology in a gas compressor station. The risk ranking is helpful to find the best preventive plan for inspection in the case study.

  8. Cargo transshipment stations as logistic mediators for the fertilizer industry/Estacao de transbordo de cargas como mediador da logistica de fertilizantes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moori, Roberto Giro; Riquetti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    ... logistics management absolutely necessary. Accordingly, this article verifies the importance of cargo transshipment stations as mediating variables between integrated logistics management and logistics performance in Brazilian companies that...

  9. Aberrant Force Processing in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Cristina; Rigoli, Francesco; Shergill, Sukhwinder S

    2016-07-06

    Initially considered as mere side effects of antipsychotic medication, there is now evidence that motor and somatosensory disturbances precede the onset of the illness and can be found in drug-naive patients. However, research on the topic is scarce. Here, we were interested in assessing the accuracy of the neural signal in detecting parametric variations of force linked to a voluntary motor act and a received tactile sensation, either self-generated or externally generated. Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while asked to press, or abstain from pressing, a lever in order to match a visual target force. Forces, exerted and received, varied on 10 levels from 0.5 N to 5 N in 0.5 N increments. Healthy participants revealed a positive correlation between force and activity in contralateral primary somatosensory area (S1) when performing a movement as well as when receiving a tactile sensation but only when this was externally, and not self-, generated. Patients showed evidence of altered force signaling in both motor and tactile conditions, as well as increased correlation with force when tactile sensation was self-generated. Findings are interpreted in line with accounts of predictive and sensory integration mechanisms and point toward alterations in the encoding of parametric forces in the motor and somatosensory domain in patients affected by schizophrenia.

  10. Ultrasonic Force Microscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Oleg; Briggs, Andrew

    Ultrasonic Force Microscopy, or UFM, allows combination of two apparently mutually exclusive requirements for the nanomechanical probe—high stiffness for the efficient indentation and high mechanical compliance that brings force sensitivity. Somewhat inventively, UFM allows to combine these two virtues in the same cantilever by using indention of the sample at high frequency, when cantilever is very rigid, but detecting the result of this indention at much lower frequency. That is made possible due to the extreme nonlinearity of the nanoscale tip-surface junction force-distance dependence, that acts as "mechanical diode" detecting ultrasound in AFM. After introducing UFM principles, we discuss features of experimental UFM implementation, and the theory of contrast in this mode, progressing to quantitative measurements of contact stiffness. A variety of UFM applications ranging from semiconductor quantum nanostructures, graphene, very large scale integrated circuits, and reinforced ceramics to polymer composites and biological materials is presented via comprehensive imaging gallery accompanied by the guidance for the optimal UFM measurements of these materials. We also address effects of adhesion and topography on the elasticity imaging and the approaches for reducing artifacts connected with these effects. This is complemented by another extremely useful feature of UFM—ultrasound induced superlubricity that allows damage free imaging of materials ranging from stiff solid state devices and graphene to biological materials. Finally, we proceed to the exploration of time-resolved nanoscale phenomena using nonlinear mixing of multiple vibration frequencies in ultrasonic AFM—Heterodyne Force Microscopy, or HFM, that also include mixing of ultrasonic vibration with other periodic physical excitations, eg. electrical, photothermal, etc. Significant section of the chapter analyzes the ability of UFM and HFM to detect subsurface mechanical inhomogeneities, as well as

  11. Multi-Use Seismic Stations for Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T.; Townsend, B.; Moores, A. O.; Bainbridge, G. S.; Easton, D.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning network performance improves with the number and density of sensing stations, quality of the sites, quality of strong-motion instrumentation, degree of coverage near at-risk populated areas and potential fault zones, and minimizing latency of signal processing and transmission. Seismic research tends to emphasize competing requirements: low-noise sites, high-performance broadband seismic instrumentation, and high-quality signal processing without regard for latency. Recent advances in instrumentation and processing techniques have made feasible the concept of a multi-use seismic station in which strong-motion and weak-motion seismometry are both cost-effectively served without compromising the performance demands of either. We present a concept for a multi-use seismic station that cost-effectively meets the needs of both earthquake early warning and high-quality seismic research. One significant enabler is a 6-channel dual-sensor instrument that combines a 120s broadband seismometer and a class A accelerometer in a single ultra-compact sonde suitable for direct burial. Combining two sensors into one effectively adds broadband capability to a station without increasing the already optimized site footprint, preparation and management costs associated with shallow direct-burial installations. The combined sensors also complement each other, simplifying and speeding installation (for example, the accelerometer provides real-time tilt readings useful to leveling the seismometer). Integration simplifies alignment to North, as there is only one instrument to orient. A dual-use 6-channel digitizer simultaneously provides two sets of independently processed streams from both sensors, one set optimized for low-latency earthquake warning, and the other set for high quality seismic research purposes. Such a dual-use seismic station can serve both seismic research and civil warning infrastructure objectives without adding significantly to the cost of a

  12. Sustainable and reliable groundwater cooling Manitoba Hydro Dorsey converter station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, R.D. [KGS Group, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Jhinger, H. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Three high voltage direct current (HVDC) converter stations are operated by Manitoba Hydro in conjunction with the northern generating stations on the Nelson River near Gillam, Manitoba. The Dorsey Converter Station, located approximately 900 kilometres (km) south of Gillam and 13 km northwest of Winnipeg, is an integral and critical component of Manitoba's HVDC system. The Dorsey Converter Station represents the southern terminus, where the power originating from Gillam is converted back to alternating current (AC) from DC for further distribution in southern Manitoba and for export. The current space cooling requirements for the converter station buildings are based on chiller systems scheduled to be replaced. There have been some success stories near Winnipeg with groundwater cooling, and field testing confirmed that the high permeability of the aquifer would be an asset for groundwater based cooling. The system which has been selected for installation, includes 5 pumping wells and 10 recharge wells to handle the total cooling load. Thermal interference between wells is expected to be such that winter thermal balancing would be required for sustainability, as demonstrated in digital simulations of aquifer heat transport. The assessment program and the major design considerations for this system were presented in this paper. 10 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  13. Stochastic Forcing for Ocean Uncertainty Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    shallow water waves governed by Korteweg-de Vries ( KdV ) dynamics with stochastic forcing. Uncertain Boundary Conditions and DO Equations: A...schemes to time-integrate shallow water surface waves governed by KdV equations with external stochastic forcing. We find that the DO scheme is

  14. Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  15. A Bridge-type Piezoelectric Microgripper with Integrated Position/Force Sensors%集成位置/力传感器的桥式压电微夹持器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨依领; 傅雷; 田埂; 娄军强; 魏燕定

    2015-01-01

    针对微操作和微装配任务中起着至关重要作用的微夹持器的设计问题,考虑其对大行程、平动夹持和集成位置/夹持力检测的要求,采用桥式放大机构和平形四边形机构,设计了一种柔顺压电微夹持器.根据机械原理和柔顺机构学,推导了微夹持器的理论放大倍数、固有频率和输出耦合比.然后通过ANSYS软件,对微夹持器的放大倍数、固有频率和输出耦合比进行了仿真,最后建立了实验测控系统来验证该微夹持器的性能.实验结果表明:该微夹持器的夹持范围为0.345 μm~328.2 μm,放大倍数为16.4,固有频率为157.5 Hz,ANSYS仿真与实验测得的放大倍数和固有频率的相对误差分别为17.7%和12.9%,实验结果验证了理论模型和有限元仿真的正确性,实现了大行程、平动夹持和集成位置/力传感器的设计目标.%Microgrippers play an important role in micromanipulation and microassembly tasks. Based on the bridge-type mechanisms and parallelogram mechanisms, a compliant piezo-driven microgripper is designed in consideration of its demand for large gripping ranges, parallel movements and integrated position/force sensors. According to mechanical principles and compliant mechanism theory, the theoretical amplification ratio, natural frequency and output coupling ratio of the microgripper are derived. Then, the ANSYS software is used to simulate the amplification ratio, natural frequency and output coupling ratio of the microgripper. Finally, an experimental system is set up to verify the performances of the microgripper. The experimental results demonstrate that the microgripper has a gripping range of 0.345 μm~328.2 μm, an amplification ratio of 16.4 and a natural frequency of 157.5 Hz. The relative errors of the amplification ratio and the natural frequency between ANSYS simulations and experimental results are 17.7%and 12.9%respectively. The validity of theoretical models and ANSYS simulations

  16. 一体化压水堆强迫循环转自然循环过渡过程特性分析%Research on Transition Process From Forced Circulation to Natural Circulation of Integrated Pressurized Water Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守相; 于雷; 鄢炳火

    2012-01-01

    针对一体化压水堆核动力装置,以核动力装置瞬态最佳估算程序RELAP5/MOD3为基础,采用两群三维时空中子动力学模型替代点堆模型,并建立三维空间内中子物理与热工水力的耦合模型,研制相应的计算程序.对一体化核动力装置强迫循环向自然循环转换过程进行仿真模拟.在过渡过程中,一体化压水堆核动力装置反应堆功率变化幅度较大,冷却剂流量的变化对一回路温度影响较大.%The analysis code for an integrated pressurized water reactor was developed on the basis of best-estimate transient analysis code RELAP5/MOD3 for nuclear power plan. The point reactor kinetics model in the original code was replaced by the two-group, 3-D spatial and temporal neutron kinetic model. The coupling model for three-dimensional physics and thermal hydraulic was established. The transition process from forced circulation (FC) to natural circulation (NC) was simulated with this code. During the transition from FC to NC, the variation of reactor power is significant, while the coolant temperature is greatly affected by the coolant flow rate.

  17. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk from Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water at Beale Air Force Base in California:Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T

    2001-05-24

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability within a systematic probabilistic framework to integrate the joint effects on risk of distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such a framework was used to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub G}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA{sub c} based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and 10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and 10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely to occur due to any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The systematic probabilistic framework illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

  18. Integrated management model. Methodology and software-enabled tood designed to assist a utility in developing a station-wide optimization; Modelo de gestion integrada del activo. Una Metodologia para la Optimizacion Economica de la Gestion del Envejecimiento y la Fiabilidad de los Equipos de la Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llovet, R.; Ibanez, R.; Woodcock, J.

    2005-07-01

    A key concern for utilities today is optimizing station aging and realibility management activities in a manner that maximizes the value of those activities withing an affordable budget. The Westinghouse Proactive Asset Management Model is a methodology and software-enabled tood designed to assist a utility in developing a station-wide optimization of those activities. The process and tool support the development of an optimized, station-wide plan for inspection, testing, maintenance, repaor and replacement of aging components. The optimization identifies the benefit and optimal timing of those activities based on minimizing unplanned outage costs (avoided costs) and maximizing station Net Present Value. (Author)

  19. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-07-01

    During the period April 1, 2003--June 30, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) proceeded with demonstration operations at the Willow Island Generating Station and improvements to the Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. The demonstration operations at Willow Island were designed to document integration of biomass cofiring into commercial operations. The Albright improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  20. Tracing Utopia in 'Utopia Station'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    Art (Publication due in 2012)). But it seems to differ noticeable from the ideologically driven concept(s) of the 20th century avant-garde. The paper will suggest that we in experiments with openness and structure, with an ambivalent engagement in popular culture and everyday life, and complex double......This paper will discuss how avant-garde rhetoric and working methods are used to rethink exhibition-making in the wake of the ‘relational aesthetics’ and visual art of the 90s. With Utopia Station curated by Molly Nesbit, Hans Ulrich Obrist, and Rirkrit Tiravanija as key example, we will look...... carries the same meaning and function in a contemporary culture. Utopia Station unfolded over a long period of time, starting with different gatherings in 2002, continuing with diverse ‘stations’ at the Venice Biennial (2003), Haus der Kunst in Munich (2004), and the World Social Forum in Porte Alegre...