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Sample records for force posture statement

  1. 2007 Posture Statement, Army Reserve: An Operational Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stultz, Jack C

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Army Reserve Posture Statement describes how the Army Reserve continues to transform from a strategic reserve to an operational force, meeting today's challenges as it better prepares for future uncertainties...

  2. Air Force Posture Statement 2008: Department of Air Force Presentation to the House Armed Services Committee, U.S. House of Representatives, Fiscal Year 2009 Air Force Posture Statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wynne, Michael W; Moseley, Michael

    2008-01-01

    ...; Taking Care of Our People; and Preparing for Tomorrow's Challenges. The Air Force's top acquisition priorities specifically begin to address our critical recapitalization and modernization needs the new Tanker (KC-X...

  3. 2012 National Guard Bureau Posture Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Illinois / Poland Indiana / Slovakia Kansas / Armenia Maine/ Montenegro Maryland / Estonia Maryland / Bosnia Michigan / Latvia Minnesota / Croatia New Jersey...alternative methods of planting to help increase crop production in the area. 2012 Posture Statement 19 Global Engagement State Partnership...horticulture ( plant cultivation), pest control, veterinary/animal husbandry techniques, civil engineering, and energy management. As a result of the

  4. Postural steadiness and ankle force variability in peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Roger J.; Feldman-Kothe, Caitlin; Trabert, Megan K.; Hitchcock, Leah N.; Reiser, Raoul F.; Tracy, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose was to determine the effect of peripheral neuropathy (PN) on motor output variability for ankle muscles of older adults, and the relation between ankle motor variability and postural stability in PN patients. Methods Older adults with (O-PN) and without PN (O), and young adults (Y) underwent assessment of standing postural stability and ankle muscle force steadiness. Results O-PN displayed impaired ankle muscle force control and postural stability compared with O and Y groups. For O-PN, the amplitude of plantarflexor force fluctuations was moderately correlated with postural stability under no-vision conditions (r = 0.54, P = 0.01). Discussion The correlation of variations in ankle force with postural stability in PN suggests a contribution of ankle muscle dyscontrol to the postural instability that impacts physical function for older adults with PN. PMID:26284897

  5. Optical Fiber Force Myography Sensor for Identification of Hand Postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Fujiwara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost optical fiber force myography sensor for noninvasive hand posture identification is proposed. The transducers are comprised of 10 mm periodicity silica multimode fiber microbending devices mounted in PVC plates, providing 0.05 N−1 sensitivity over ~20 N range. Next, the transducers were attached to the user forearm by means of straps in order to monitor the posterior proximal radial, the anterior medial ulnar, and the posterior distal radial muscles, and the acquired FMG optical signals were correlated to the performed gestures using a 5 hidden layers, 20-neuron artificial neural network classifier with backpropagation architecture, followed by a competitive layer. The overall results for 9 postures and 6 subjects indicated a 98.4% sensitivity and 99.7% average accuracy, being comparable to the electromyographic approaches. Moreover, in contrast to the current setups, the proposed methodology allows the identification of poses characterized by different configurations of fingers and wrist joint displacements with the utilization of only 3 transducers and a simple interrogation scheme, being suitable to further applications in human-computer interfaces.

  6. National Guard Posture Statement 2010. America’s Indispensable Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    remote-controlled camera to watch for illegal border crossers, smugglers, and other suspicious activity during Operation Jump Start. Did you Know... Neubauer , CA SPC Joshua M. Neusche, MO SGT Long N. Nguyen, OR SPC Paul A. Nicholas, CA SFC Scott E. Nisely, IA SGT William J. Normandy, VT PFC Francis C

  7. Pre-impact lower extremity posture and brake pedal force predict foot and ankle forces during an automobile collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, E C; Su, A; van den Bogert, A J

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a driver's foot and ankle forces during a frontal vehicle collision depend on initial lower extremity posture and brake pedal force. A 2D musculoskeletal model with seven segments and six right-side muscle groups was used. A simulation of a three-second braking task found 3647 sets of muscle activation levels that resulted in stable braking postures with realistic pedal force. These activation patterns were then used in impact simulations where vehicle deceleration was applied and driver movements and foot and ankle forces were simulated. Peak rearfoot ground reaction force (F(RF)), peak Achilles tendon force (FAT), peak calcaneal force (F(CF)) and peak ankle joint force (F(AJ)) were calculated. Peak forces during the impact simulation were 476 +/- 687 N (F(RF)), 2934 +/- 944 N (F(CF)) and 2449 +/- 918 N (F(AJ)). Many simulations resulted in force levels that could cause fractures. Multivariate quadratic regression determined that the pre-impact brake pedal force (PF), knee angle (KA) and heel distance (HD) explained 72% of the variance in peak FRF, 62% in peak F(CF) and 73% in peak F(AJ). Foot and ankle forces during a collision depend on initial posture and pedal force. Braking postures with increased knee flexion, while keeping the seat position fixed, are associated with higher foot and ankle forces during a collision.

  8. An investigation of rugby scrimmaging posture and individual maximum pushing force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Lan; Chang, Jyh-Jong; Wu, Jia-Hroung; Guo, Lan-Yuen

    2007-02-01

    Although rugby is a popular contact sport and the isokinetic muscle torque assessment has recently found widespread application in the field of sports medicine, little research has examined the factors associated with the performance of game-specific skills directly by using the isokinetic-type rugby scrimmaging machine. This study is designed to (a) measure and observe the differences in the maximum individual pushing forward force produced by scrimmaging in different body postures (3 body heights x 2 foot positions) with a self-developed rugby scrimmaging machine and (b) observe the variations in hip, knee, and ankle angles at different body postures and explore the relationship between these angle values and the individual maximum pushing force. Ten national rugby players were invited to participate in the examination. The experimental equipment included a self-developed rugby scrimmaging machine and a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Our results showed that the foot positions (parallel and nonparallel foot positions) do not affect the maximum pushing force; however, the maximum pushing force was significantly lower in posture I (36% body height) than in posture II (38%) and posture III (40%). The maximum forward force in posture III (40% body height) was also slightly greater than for the scrum in posture II (38% body height). In addition, it was determined that hip, knee, and ankle angles under parallel feet positioning are factors that are closely negatively related in terms of affecting maximum pushing force in scrimmaging. In cross-feet postures, there was a positive correlation between individual forward force and hip angle of the rear leg. From our results, we can conclude that if the player stands in an appropriate starting position at the early stage of scrimmaging, it will benefit the forward force production.

  9. Postural And Eye-Positional Effects On Human Biting Force: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay Tabancacı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle groups affected on biting force are called temporal muscle as a major and masseter muscle as a minor. According to the human posture stability, forces of these muscles vary with the force directions. In this case, experimental investigation is strictly important such that biting force under different postural and eye- positional situations is changed. In this study, seven-male and seven-female within the age-range of 17-24 are considered corresponding to having with restorated molar tooth and without that type of tooth. With the help of specially designed biting fork, different posture- and eye-positions are investigated for experimental biting force analysis. Changes in eye-positions are not indicated significant difference for all postural positions. On one hand, it is obtained that biting force of no-filling tooth in men becomes maximum if facial muscles give full effort to biting. On the other hand, effect of facial muscles for women is not clearly noticed depending on the postural differences.

  10. Secretary's annual report to Congress. Volume I. Posture statement, outlook and program review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Activities of all elements of the Department of Energy (DOE) except those of FERC are reported. Chapter I, the Posture Statement, gives an overview of the policies, programs, and strategies of DOE. It describes the national energy policy and its effects, sets out the current state of energy supply and demand in the US and around the world, describes the present assessment of future energy availability, and outlines the strategy for 1982. Additional chapters detail the major programs in the following Offices or Assistant Secretaryships: Conservation, Fossil Fuel, Nuclear Energy, Renewable Energy Resources, Electric Energy Systems and Energy Storage, Environment, Energy Supporting Research, Energy Production and Power Marketing, Energy Information, Economic Regulation, General Science, Defense, International Programs, Nuclear Non-Proliferation, Energy Contingency Planning, and Administration. Information is included in appendices on foreign direct investment in US energy sources and supplies for 1979, exports of energy resources by foreign companies, major recipients of DOE funding, DOE actions taken regarding disclosure of energy assets by DOE employees, and financial assistance programs. (MCW)

  11. Optimal arm posture control and tendon traction forces of a coupled tendon-driven manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Shugen

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the optimum arm posture of a coupled tendon-driven multijoint manipulator arm (or CT Arm) at maximum payload output was derived and the corresponding tendon traction forces were also analyzed, during management of a heavy payload by the manipulator in a gravity environment. The CT Arm is special tendon traction transmission mechanism in which a pair of tendons used to drive a joint is pulled from base actuators via pulleys mounted on the base-side joints. This mechanism enables optimal utilization of the coupled drive function of tendon traction forces and thus enables the lightweight manipulator to exhibit large payload capability. The properties of the CT Arm mechanism are elucidated by the proposed optimal posture control scheme. Computer simulation was also executed to verify the validity of the proposed control scheme. (author)

  12. Inspector General, DOD, Oversight of the Air Force Audit Agency Audit of the FY 1999 Air Force General Fund Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    2000-01-01

    ..., "Opinion on Fiscal Year 1999 Air Force Consolidated Financial Statements." Our objective was to determine the accuracy and completeness of the Air Force Audit Agency audit of the FY 1999 Air Force General Fund financial statements...

  13. America’s Army: The Strength of the Nation. 2010 Army Posture Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    that the Army Soldier is the best equipped and most re- spected combatant in the world. In order to ex- ecute Army Modernization and ensure the con...Force Traumatic Brain Injury ( TBI ) Unaccompanied Personnel Housing (UPH) Unmanned Aircraft, Raven Small System Unmanned Aircraft, Shadow System Unmanned...Services TBI Traumatic Brain Injury 30 LoyaLty | Duty | Respect | seLfLess seRvice | HonoR | integRity | peRsonaL couRage 2010 Army

  14. A Statement on the Posture of the United States Army 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-26

    Organization Defense Integrated Military Human Resourece System Deployment Cycle Support Diversity Equal Opportunity and Prevention of Sexual Harassment...Component Soldiers. “America’s ground forces have borne the brunt of underfunding in the past and the bulk of the costs–both human and material–of the...Congress and to free human and fi nancial resources for higher priority operational needs. Through the use of innovations such as Lean Six Sigma we are

  15. Measurement of action forces and posture to determine the lumbar load of healthcare workers during care activities with patient transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilmeier, Andreas; Jordan, Claus; Luttmann, Alwin; Jäger, Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Moving patients or other care activities with manual patient handling is characterized by high mechanical load on the lumbar spine of healthcare workers (HCWs). During the patient transfer activity, the caregivers exert lifting, pulling, and pushing forces varying over time with respect to amplitude and direction. Furthermore, the caregivers distinctly change their posture and frequently obtain postures asymmetrical to the median sagittal plane, including lateral bending and turning the trunk. This paper describes a procedure to determine lumbar load during patient transfer supported by measurement techniques and an exemplary application; this methodology represents the basis of a complex research project, the third 'Dortmund Lumbar Load Study (DOLLY 3)'. Lumbar load was determined by simulation calculations using a comprehensive biomechanical model ('The Dortmunder'). As the main influencing factors, the hand forces of the caregiver exerted during typical patient transfers and the posture and movements of the HCW were recorded in laboratory studies. The action forces were determined three-dimensionally with the help of a newly developed 'measuring bed', two different 'measuring chairs', a 'measuring bathtub', and a 'measuring floor'. To capture the forces during transfers in or at the bed, a common hospital bed was equipped with an additional framework, which is attached to the bedstead and connected to the bedspring frame via three-axial force sensors at the four corners. The other measuring systems were constructed similarly. Body movements were recorded using three-dimensional optoelectronic recording tools and video recordings. The posture and force data served as input data for the quantification of various lumbar-load indicators.

  16. Postural Responses to a Suddenly Released Pulling Force in Older Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Experimental Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Lee

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (CLBP, one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions in older adults, might affect balance and functional independence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the postural responses to a suddenly released pulling force in older adults with and without CLBP. Thirty community-dwelling older adults with CLBP and 26 voluntary controls without CLBP were enrolled. Participants were required to stand on a force platform while, with one hand, they pulled a string that was fastened at the other end to a 2-kg or to a 4-kg force in the opposite direction at a random order. The number of times the participants lost their balance and motions of center of pressure (COP when the string was suddenly released were recorded. The results demonstrated that although the loss of balance rates for each pulling force condition did not differ between groups, older adults with CLBP had poorer postural responses: delayed reaction, larger displacement, higher velocity, longer path length, and greater COP sway area compared to the older controls. Furthermore, both groups showed larger postural responses in the 4-kg pulling force condition. Although aging is generally believed to be associated with declining balance and postural control, these findings highlight the effect of CLBP on reactive balance when responding to an externally generated force in an older population. This study also suggests that, for older adults with CLBP, in addition to treating them for pain and disability, reactive balance evaluation and training, such as reaction and movement strategy training should be included in their interventions. Clinicians and older patients with CLBP need to be made aware of the significance of impaired reactive balance and the increased risk of falls when encountering unexpected perturbations.

  17. Screening for Syphilis Infection in Pregnancy : US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calonge, Ned; Petitti, Diana B.; DeWitt, Thomas G.; Dietrich, Allen; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Grossman, David; Isham, George; LeFevre, Michael L.; Leipzig, Rosanne; Marion, Lucy N.; Melnyk, Bernadette; Moyer, Virginia A.; Ockene, Judith K.; Sawaya, George F.; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Wilt, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Description: Update of the 2004 U. S. Preventive Services Task Force statement about screening for syphilis in pregnancy. Methods: The U. S. Preventive Services Task Force did a targeted literature search for evidence on the benefits of screening, the harms of screening, and the harms of treatment

  18. Comparative Effects of Different Balance-Training-Progression Styles on Postural Control and Ankle Force Production: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuğ, Mutlu; Duncan, Ashley; Wikstrom, Erik

    2016-02-01

    Despite the effectiveness of balance training, the exact parameters needed to maximize the benefits of such programs remain unknown. One such factor is how individuals should progress to higher levels of task difficulty within a balance-training program. Yet no investigators have directly compared different balance-training-progression styles. To compare an error-based progression (ie, advance when proficient at a task) with a repetition-based progression (ie, advance after a set amount of repetitions) style during a balance-training program in healthy individuals. Randomized controlled trial. Research laboratory. A total of 28 (16 women, 12 men) physically healthy young adults (age = 21.57 ± 3.95 years, height = 171.60 ± 11.03 cm, weight = 72.96 ± 16.18 kg, body mass index = 24.53 ± 3.7). All participants completed 12 supervised balance-training sessions over 4 weeks. Each session consisted of a combination of dynamic unstable-surface tasks that incorporated a BOSU ball and lasted about 30 minutes. Static balance from an instrumented force plate, dynamic balance as measured via the Star Excursion Balance Test, and ankle force production in all 4 cardinal planes of motion as measured with a handheld dynamometer before and after the intervention. Selected static postural-control outcomes, dynamic postural control, and ankle force production in all planes of motion improved (P .05) for any of the outcome measures. A 4-week balance-training program consisting of dynamic unstable-surface exercises on a BOSU ball improved dynamic postural control and ankle force production in healthy young adults. These results suggest that an error-based balance-training program is comparable with but not superior to a repetition-based balance-training program in improving postural control and ankle force production in healthy young adults.

  19. Thigh-calf contact parameters for six high knee flexion postures: Onset, maximum angle, total force, contact area, and center of force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, David C; Acker, Stacey M

    2018-01-23

    In high knee flexion, contact between the posterior thigh and calf is expected to decrease forces on tibiofemoral contact surfaces, therefore, thigh-calf contact needs to be thoroughly characterized to model its effect. This study measured knee angles and intersegmental contact parameters in fifty-eight young healthy participants for six common high flexion postures using motion tracking and a pressure sensor attached to the right thigh. Additionally, we introduced and assessed the reliability of a method for reducing noise in pressure sensor output. Five repetitions of two squatting, two kneeling, and two unilateral kneeling movements were completed. Interactions of posture by sex occurred for thigh-calf and heel-gluteal center of force, and thigh-calf contact area. Center of force in thigh-calf regions was farther from the knee joint center in females, compared to males, during unilateral kneeling (82 and 67 mm respectively) with an inverted relationship in the heel-gluteal region (331 and 345 mm respectively), although caution is advised when generalizing these findings from a young, relatively fit sample to a population level. Contact area was larger in females when compared to males (mean of 155.61 and 137.33 cm 2 across postures). A posture main effect was observed in contact force and sex main effects were present in onset and max angle. Males had earlier onset (121.0°) and lower max angle (147.4°) with onset and max angles having a range between movements of 8° and 3° respectively. There was a substantial total force difference of 139 N between the largest and smallest activity means. Force parameters measured in this study suggest that knee joint contact models need to incorporate activity-specific parameters when estimating loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. U.S. Air Force Annual Financial Statement 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    agencies must follow generally accepted accounting principles ( GAAP ) promulgated by the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB). The Air... depreciates all General PP&E, other than land, on a straight-line basis. When it is in the best interest of the government, the Air Force provides...capitalization threshold, Air Force records the applicable asset as though purchased, with an offsetting liability, and depreciates it. The Air Force

  1. Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for F-35 Beddown at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-26

    IFR instrument flight rules IJTS Initial Joint Training Site ILLUM Illuminating ILS Instrument Landing System IMPLAN an economic impact modeling...Final Supplemental ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT FOR F-35 BEDDOWN AT EGLIN AIR FORCE BASE, FLORIDA JANUARY 2014 Report Documentation Page Form...Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Supplemental Environmental Impact

  2. USAF Posture Statement 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    request maintains investments in the DCGS, the MQ-1 Predator, the RC-135 Rivet Joint, the RQ-4 Global Hawk Block 40, and U-2 programs, and makes internal... electromagnetic jamming. Our potential adversaries are also making advances by electronically linking their own combat capabilities, creating new military

  3. USSOCOM Posture Statement 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... This vision established a joint Special Operations headquarters, with service-like responsibilities, that could provide the organization, training, and equipment required for complex special operations...

  4. United States Air Force Annual Financial Statement 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    detection and two and three dimensional imaging which could be very useful to the warfighter. Furthermore, by keeping the data, forensic analysis can be...program completed Initial Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E). The Air Force provided the RQ-4B Global Hawk Block 30 to the Warfighter prior to the...completion of an IOT &E report because the Warfighter requested and needed that capability. Most findings identified during IOT &E were quickly

  5. Comparative Effects of Different Balance-Training–Progression Styles on Postural Control and Ankle Force Production: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuğ, Mutlu; Duncan, Ashley; Wikstrom, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Despite the effectiveness of balance training, the exact parameters needed to maximize the benefits of such programs remain unknown. One such factor is how individuals should progress to higher levels of task difficulty within a balance-training program. Yet no investigators have directly compared different balance-training–progression styles. Objective:  To compare an error-based progression (ie, advance when proficient at a task) with a repetition-based progression (ie, advance after a set amount of repetitions) style during a balance-training program in healthy individuals. Design:  Randomized controlled trial. Setting:  Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants:  A total of 28 (16 women, 12 men) physically healthy young adults (age = 21.57 ± 3.95 years, height = 171.60 ± 11.03 cm, weight = 72.96 ± 16.18 kg, body mass index = 24.53 ± 3.7). Intervention(s):  All participants completed 12 supervised balance-training sessions over 4 weeks. Each session consisted of a combination of dynamic unstable-surface tasks that incorporated a BOSU ball and lasted about 30 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Static balance from an instrumented force plate, dynamic balance as measured via the Star Excursion Balance Test, and ankle force production in all 4 cardinal planes of motion as measured with a handheld dynamometer before and after the intervention. Results:  Selected static postural-control outcomes, dynamic postural control, and ankle force production in all planes of motion improved (P .05) for any of the outcome measures. Conclusions:  A 4-week balance-training program consisting of dynamic unstable-surface exercises on a BOSU ball improved dynamic postural control and ankle force production in healthy young adults. These results suggest that an error-based balance-training program is comparable with but not superior to a repetition-based balance-training program in improving postural control and ankle force production in

  6. Photogrammetry on the identification of postural asymmetries in cadets and pilots of the Brazilian air force academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Rodrigo V; Amaral, Artur C; Shimano, Antônio C

    2012-01-01

    To identify whether flight training activities cause postural changes in cadets and pilots of the Brazilian Air Force Academy (AFA). Eighty subjects were assessed through photographic images in anterior and right side views. Four groups of cadets (n=20 per group) divided according to the year since enlistment and a fifth group of fifteen pilots from the Air Demonstration Squadron (ADS) were included. Pictures were analyzed using the Postural Analysis Program (SAPO) and angles related to head vertical alignment (HVA), head horizontal alignment (HHA), acromion horizontal alignment (AHA) and anterior-superior iliac spine horizontal alignment (HAS) were plotted. We did not find statistical significant differences in the angles: HVA, HHA and AHA. However, a significant difference was found for the HAS angle with pilots having lower values than cadets, suggesting greater postural stability for this variable in pilots. The horizontal alignment of the anterior-superior iliac spine was the only measure that showed significant difference in the comparison between pilots and cadets. The remaining alignments were not different, possibility because of the strict criteria used for admission of cadets at the AFA and the efficiency of the physical training that is performed periodically.

  7. Inspector General, DOD, Oversight of the Air Force Audit Agency Audit of the FY 1999 Working Capital Fund Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    2000-01-01

    An audit of the Air Force Working Capital Fund financial statements is required by Public Law 101-576, the "Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990," November 15, 1990, as amended by Public Law 103-356...

  8. Defense Finance and Accounting Service Work on the FY 1993 Air Force Defense Business Operations Fund Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rau, Russell

    1995-01-01

    Our original audit objective was to determine whether the Air Force Consolidated Defense Business Operations Fund financial statements, prepared by the DFAS Denver Center for FY 1993, were presented...

  9. Self-Described Differences Between Legs in Ballet Dancers: Do They Relate to Postural Stability and Ground Reaction Force Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Laura; Docherty, Carrie

    2012-12-01

    Ballet technique classes are designed to train dancers symmetrically, but they may actually create a lateral bias. It is unknown whether dancers in general are functionally asymmetrical, or how an individual dancer's perceived imbalance between legs might manifest itself. The purpose of this study was to examine ballet dancers' lateral preference by analyzing their postural stability and ground reaction forces in fifth position when landing from dance-specific jumps. Thirty university ballet majors volunteered to participate in this study. The subjects wore their own ballet technique shoes and performed fundamental ballet jumps out of fifth position on a force plate. The force plate recorded center of pressure (COP) and ground reaction force (GRF) data. Each subject completed a laterality questionnaire that determined his or her preferred landing leg for ballet jumps, self-identified stronger leg, and self-identified leg with better balance. All statistical comparisons were made between the leg indicated on the laterality questionnaire and the other leg (i.e., if the dancer's response to a question was "left," the comparison was made with the left leg as the "preferred" leg and the right leg as the "non-preferred leg"). No significant differences were identified between the limbs in any of the analyses conducted (all statistical comparisons produced p values > 0.05). The results of this study indicate that a dancer's preferential use of one limb over the other has no bearing on GRFs or balance ability after landing jumps in ballet. Similarly, dancers' opinions of their leg characteristics (such as one leg being stronger than the other) seem not to correlate with the dancers' actual ability to absorb GRFs or to balance when landing from ballet jumps.

  10. U.S. Force Posture Strategy in the Asia Pacific Region: An Independent Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    is important to note that the Philippine Senate in 1992 changed the constitution to prohibit permanent bases; U.S. forces‘ access is based on the...Expeditionary Force MILCON—Military Construction MOU—Memorandum of Understanding NAFTA —North American Free Trade Agreement NDAA—National Defense

  11. The Posture Triangle: A New Framework for U.S. Air Force Global Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    host country; and the intricacies of negotiations between sovereign nations. For host nations, changes (whether expansion or shrinkage ) in the type...place. Second, where enduring partners show a strong desire to maintain current forces, DoD should seek to maintain a concrete symbol of U.S...brigades, a USAF wing is widely recognized as a concrete symbol of U.S. commitment and capability, the USAF should expect a continuing demand for

  12. Application of Machine Learning Approaches for Classifying Sitting Posture Based on Force and Acceleration Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Zemp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational musculoskeletal disorders, particularly chronic low back pain (LBP, are ubiquitous due to prolonged static sitting or nonergonomic sitting positions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an instrumented chair with force and acceleration sensors to determine the accuracy of automatically identifying the user’s sitting position by applying five different machine learning methods (Support Vector Machines, Multinomial Regression, Boosting, Neural Networks, and Random Forest. Forty-one subjects were requested to sit four times in seven different prescribed sitting positions (total 1148 samples. Sixteen force sensor values and the backrest angle were used as the explanatory variables (features for the classification. The different classification methods were compared by means of a Leave-One-Out cross-validation approach. The best performance was achieved using the Random Forest classification algorithm, producing a mean classification accuracy of 90.9% for subjects with which the algorithm was not familiar. The classification accuracy varied between 81% and 98% for the seven different sitting positions. The present study showed the possibility of accurately classifying different sitting positions by means of the introduced instrumented office chair combined with machine learning analyses. The use of such novel approaches for the accurate assessment of chair usage could offer insights into the relationships between sitting position, sitting behaviour, and the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders.

  13. Application of Machine Learning Approaches for Classifying Sitting Posture Based on Force and Acceleration Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Roland; Tanadini, Matteo; Plüss, Stefan; Schnüriger, Karin; Singh, Navrag B; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Occupational musculoskeletal disorders, particularly chronic low back pain (LBP), are ubiquitous due to prolonged static sitting or nonergonomic sitting positions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an instrumented chair with force and acceleration sensors to determine the accuracy of automatically identifying the user's sitting position by applying five different machine learning methods (Support Vector Machines, Multinomial Regression, Boosting, Neural Networks, and Random Forest). Forty-one subjects were requested to sit four times in seven different prescribed sitting positions (total 1148 samples). Sixteen force sensor values and the backrest angle were used as the explanatory variables (features) for the classification. The different classification methods were compared by means of a Leave-One-Out cross-validation approach. The best performance was achieved using the Random Forest classification algorithm, producing a mean classification accuracy of 90.9% for subjects with which the algorithm was not familiar. The classification accuracy varied between 81% and 98% for the seven different sitting positions. The present study showed the possibility of accurately classifying different sitting positions by means of the introduced instrumented office chair combined with machine learning analyses. The use of such novel approaches for the accurate assessment of chair usage could offer insights into the relationships between sitting position, sitting behaviour, and the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders.

  14. Proposed Expansion of German Air Force Operations at Holloman AFB, New Mexico. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume III: Comment Letters and Responses to Comments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The Final Environmental Impact Statement analyzed the potential environmental consequences from the proposal to beddown 30 additional German Air Force Tornado aircraft and 640 personnel at Holloman Air Force Base (AFB) New Mexico...

  15. Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Albert L

    2016-02-16

    Update of the 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for breast cancer. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the following: effectiveness of breast cancer screening in reducing breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, as well as the incidence of advanced breast cancer and treatment-related morbidity; harms of breast cancer screening; test performance characteristics of digital breast tomosynthesis as a primary screening strategy; and adjunctive screening in women with increased breast density. In addition, the USPSTF reviewed comparative decision models on optimal starting and stopping ages and intervals for screening mammography; how breast density, breast cancer risk, and comorbidity level affect the balance of benefit and harms of screening mammography; and the number of radiation-induced breast cancer cases and deaths associated with different screening mammography strategies over the course of a woman's lifetime. This recommendation applies to asymptomatic women aged 40 years or older who do not have preexisting breast cancer or a previously diagnosed high-risk breast lesion and who are not at high risk for breast cancer because of a known underlying genetic mutation (such as a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation or other familial breast cancer syndrome) or a history of chest radiation at a young age. The USPSTF recommends biennial screening mammography for women aged 50 to 74 years. (B recommendation) The decision to start screening mammography in women prior to age 50 years should be an individual one. Women who place a higher value on the potential benefit than the potential harms may choose to begin biennial screening between the ages of 40 and 49 years. (C recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening mammography in women aged 75 years or older. (I statement) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to

  16. Postural health in women: the role of physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britnell, S J; Cole, J V; Isherwood, L; Sran, M M; Britnell, N; Burgi, S; Candido, G; Watson, L

    2005-05-01

    To advise obstetric and gynaecology care providers of the physical, psychological, and environmental factors that affect women's posture throughout their lifespan, from adolescence to menopause. To outline the physiotherapy management of obstetrics, osteoporosis, and urinary incontinence in women and to identify recommendations for referral to a physiotherapist. Knowledge of abnormal postures, contributing factors and recommendations for physiotherapy management. MEDLINE, PEDro, and Cochrane Library Search from 1992 to 2003 for English-language articles and references from current textbooks related to posture and women's health conditions that are managed by physiotherapists. The evidence collected was reviewed by the authors and quantified using the evaluation of evidence guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam. 1. Pelvic floor muscle training with a physiotherapist is recommended to prevent urinary incontinence during pregnancy and after delivery (I-A). 2. Core stability training with a physiotherapist is recommended to prevent and treat back and pelvic pain during and following pregnancy (I-B). 3. Physiotherapist-prescribed exercises are recommended for women to elicit positive changes in bone mass and to reduce fall and fracture risk (I-A). 4. Pelvic floor muscle training with a physiotherapist is recommended for women with stress urinary incontinence (I-A). The Canadian Physiotherapy Association and Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada have developed this joint policy statement regarding posture in women's health that highlights the physical, psychological, and environmental factors that affect women's posture throughout their lifespan, from adolescence to menopause. This statement outlines the role of physiotherapy in the assessment and treatment of women's posture; outlines the physiotherapy management of obstetrics, osteoporosis, and urinary incontinence; and identifies recommendations for referral to a

  17. Screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Davidson, Karina W; Epling, John W; García, Francisco A R; Herzstein, Jessica; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phillips, William R; Phipps, Maureen G; Pignone, Michael P; Silverstein, Michael; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2017-01-24

    Based on data from the 1990s, estimated prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the United States is 10% for mild OSA and 3.8% to 6.5% for moderate to severe OSA; current prevalence may be higher, given the increasing prevalence of obesity. Severe OSA is associated with increased all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular events, diabetes, cognitive impairment, decreased quality of life, and motor vehicle crashes. To issue a new US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for OSA in asymptomatic adults. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the accuracy, benefits, and potential harms of screening for OSA in asymptomatic adults seen in primary care, including those with unrecognized symptoms. The USPSTF also evaluated the evidence on the benefits and harms of treatment of OSA on intermediate and final health outcomes. The USPSTF found insufficient evidence on screening for or treatment of OSA in asymptomatic adults or adults with unrecognized symptoms. Therefore, the USPSTF was unable to determine the magnitude of the benefits or harms of screening for OSA or whether there is a net benefit or harm to screening. The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for OSA in asymptomatic adults. (I statement).

  18. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TRUNK INCLINATIONS ON BILATERAL TRUNK MUSCULAR ACTIVITIES, CENTRE OF PRESSURE AND FORCE EXERTIONS IN STATIC PUSHING POSTURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, Kadek Heri; Lee, Soomin; Sriwarno, Andar Bagus; Shimomura, Yoshihito; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2014-06-01

    In order to reconcile contradictory results from previous studies on manual pushing, a study was conducted to examine the effect of trunk inclination on muscular activities, centre of pressure (COP) and force exertion during static pushing. Ten subjects pushed at 0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30 degrees, and 45 degrees body inclinations in parallel and staggered feet stances. Wall and ground force plates measured pushing force, wall COP, vertical ground reaction force (GRF) and ground COP. Electromyogram data were recorded at 10 trunk muscle sites. Pushing force was found to increase with body inclination. GRF peaked at 15 degrees and reached its lowest level at the 45 degrees inclination. The lowest wall force plate standard deviation of COP displacement was found at the 30 degrees inclination. The lowest low back muscular activity was found at the 15 degrees and 30 degrees inclinations. Based on force exertion, muscular load, and stability, the 30 degrees body inclination was found to be the best posture for static pushing. This study also showed asymmetry in muscular activity and force exertion which has been received less attention in manual pushing studies. These findings will require further study.

  19. Accounting Entries Made in Compiling the FY 2000 Air Force General Funds Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    We performed this audit in response to the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990, as amended by the Federal Financial Management Act of 1994, which requires DoD to provide audited financial statements...

  20. Accounting Entries Made in Compiling the FY 2000 Air Force General Funds Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... to the Office of Management and Budget. This audit is one in a series of audits of accounting entries made by the Defense Finance and Accounting Service in preparing the FY 2000 financial statements for DoD...

  1. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix E: Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    surrounding states are truely in a unique position to contribute to the needs of the nation and I look forward to the outcome of the Enviromental ...to the needs of the nation and I look forward to the outcome of the Enviromental Impact Statement and subsequent Record of Decision. Thank you for

  2. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus : US preventive services task force recommendation statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calonge, Ned; Petitti, Diana B.; DeWitt, Thomas G.; Gordis, Leon; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Harris, Russell; Isham, George; LeFevre, Michael L.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Marion, Lucy N.; Moyer, Virginia A.; Ockene, Judith K.; Sawaya, George F.; Siu, Albert L.; Teutsch, Steven M.; Yawn, Barbara P.

    2008-01-01

    Description: Update of 2003 U. S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation about screening for gestational diabetes. Methods: The USPSTF weighed the evidence on maternal and neonatal benefits (reduction in preeclampsia, mortality, brachial plexus injury, clavicular fractures, admission

  3. Decrease in back strength in asymmetric trunk postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Daanen, H. A M; Meijst, W. J.; Ligteringen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The extension force against resistance was recorded in 23 postures for 12 subjects to find explanations for the decrease in back strength in asymmetric postures. A reduction in muscle force in asymmetric postures was found up to 40%, but was strongly dependent on the plane in which asymmetry

  4. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix E: Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    forbid, tobacco smoking in or around your home. • Switch to non-toXic cleaning products (such as baking soda, hydrogen peroxide and vinegar) and safer...checked false assertion that the Air Force impact study was "a boiler plate document that was not specific to our area." Several reports attributed

  5. Consensus statement of the ESICM task force on colloid volume therapy in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhart, Konrad; Perner, Anders; Sprung, Charles L

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Colloids are administered to more patients than crystalloids, although recent evidence suggests that colloids may possibly be harmful in some patients. The European Society of Intensive Care Medicine therefore assembled a task force to compile consensus recommendations based on the current...... that any new colloid should be introduced into clinical practice only after its patient-important safety parameters are established....

  6. Folic Acid for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects : US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calonge, Ned; Petitti, Diana B.; DeWitt, Thomas G.; Dietrich, Allen J.; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Grossman, David; Isham, George; LeFevre, Michael L.; Leipzig, Rosanne M.; Marion, Lucy N.; Melnyk, Bernadette; Moyer, Virginia A.; Ockene, Judith K.; Sawaya, George F.; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Wilt, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Description: In 1996, the U. S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that all women planning or capable of pregnancy take a multivitamin supplement containing folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects. This recommendation is an update of the 1996 USPSTF recommendation.

  7. Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Closure of Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    are Virginia chain-fern (Woodwardia virainica), netted chain-fern (W. aerolata), royal fern (Osmunda regalis), poison ivy (Toxicodendion radicans...Jersey A.B.D., Economics, Rutgers-the State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey Years of Experience: 21 "George H. Ledbetter , Major, U.S. Air Force...CESAD-EN-TA Pawleys Island Town Council Mr. Dennnis Calbreath Honorable Lee Brockington U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Pawleys Island Town Council South

  8. Posture Statement of General Peter Pace, USMC Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff before the 110th Congress, Senate Armed Services Committee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pace, Peter

    2007-01-01

    .... In the next section, General Pace discusses the force structure needed to sustain operations in Iraq and Afghanistan while maintaining readiness to respond to new contingencies around the globe...

  9. Serologic Screening for Genital Herpes Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Davidson, Karina W; Epling, John W; García, Francisco A R; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phillips, William R; Phipps, Maureen G; Pignone, Michael P; Silverstein, Michael; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2016-12-20

    Genital herpes is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection in the United States, occurring in almost 1 in 6 persons aged 14 to 49 years. Infection is caused by 2 subtypes of the herpes simplex virus (HSV), HSV-1 and HSV-2. Antiviral medications may provide symptomatic relief from outbreaks but do not cure HSV infection. Neonatal herpes infection, while uncommon, can result in substantial morbidity and mortality. To update the 2005 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for genital herpes. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the accuracy, benefits, and harms of serologic screening for HSV-2 infection in asymptomatic persons, including those who are pregnant, as well as the effectiveness and harms of preventive medications and behavioral counseling interventions to reduce future symptomatic episodes and transmission to others. Based on the natural history of HSV infection, its epidemiology, and the available evidence on the accuracy of serologic screening tests, the USPSTF concluded that the harms outweigh the benefits of serologic screening for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adolescents and adults, including those who are pregnant. The USPSTF recommends against routine serologic screening for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adolescents and adults, including those who are pregnant. (D recommendation).

  10. Time to redefine PD? Introductory statement of the MDS Task Force on the definition of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Daniela; Postuma, Ronald B; Bloem, Bastiaan; Chan, Piu; Dubois, Bruno; Gasser, Thomas; Goetz, Christopher G; Halliday, Glenda M; Hardy, John; Lang, Anthony E; Litvan, Irene; Marek, Kenneth; Obeso, José; Oertel, Wolfgang; Olanow, C Warren; Poewe, Werner; Stern, Matthew; Deuschl, Günther

    2014-04-01

    With advances in knowledge disease, boundaries may change. Occasionally, these changes are of such a magnitude that they require redefinition of the disease. In recognition of the profound changes in our understanding of Parkinson's disease (PD), the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society (MDS) commissioned a task force to consider a redefinition of PD. This review is a discussion article, intended as the introductory statement of the task force. Several critical issues were identified that challenge current PD definitions. First, new findings challenge the central role of the classical pathologic criteria as the arbiter of diagnosis, notably genetic cases without synuclein deposition, the high prevalence of incidental Lewy body (LB) deposition, and the nonmotor prodrome of PD. It remains unclear, however, whether these challenges merit a change in the pathologic gold standard, especially considering the limitations of alternate gold standards. Second, the increasing recognition of dementia in PD challenges the distinction between diffuse LB disease and PD. Consideration might be given to removing dementia as an exclusion criterion for PD diagnosis. Third, there is increasing recognition of disease heterogeneity, suggesting that PD subtypes should be formally identified; however, current subtype classifications may not be sufficiently robust to warrant formal delineation. Fourth, the recognition of a nonmotor prodrome of PD requires that new diagnostic criteria for early-stage and prodromal PD should be created; here, essential features of these criteria are proposed. Finally, there is a need to create new MDS diagnostic criteria that take these changes in disease definition into consideration. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Prevention of dental caries in children from birth through age 5 years: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2014-06-01

    Update of the 2004 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on prevention of dental caries in preschool-aged children. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on prevention of dental caries by primary care clinicians in children 5 years and younger, focusing on screening for caries, assessment of risk for future caries, and the effectiveness of various interventions that have possible benefits in preventing caries. This recommendation applies to children age 5 years and younger. The USPSTF recommends that primary care clinicians prescribe oral fluoride supplementation starting at age 6 months for children whose water supply is deficient in fluoride. (B recommendation) The USPSTF recommends that primary care clinicians apply fluoride varnish to the primary teeth of all infants and children starting at the age of primary tooth eruption. (B recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of routine screening examinations for dental caries performed by primary care clinicians in children from birth to age 5 years. (I Statement). Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Screening for Obesity in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Curry, Susan J; Barry, Michael J; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phipps, Maureen G; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2017-06-20

    Based on year 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, approximately 17% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years in the United States have obesity, and almost 32% of children and adolescents are overweight or have obesity. Obesity in children and adolescents is associated with morbidity such as mental health and psychological issues, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, and adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes (eg, high blood pressure, abnormal lipid levels, and insulin resistance). Children and adolescents may also experience teasing and bullying behaviors based on their weight. Obesity in childhood and adolescence may continue into adulthood and lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes or other obesity-related morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes. Although the overall rate of child and adolescent obesity has stabilized over the last decade after increasing steadily for 3 decades, obesity rates continue to increase in certain populations, such as African American girls and Hispanic boys. These racial/ethnic differences in obesity prevalence are likely a result of both genetic and nongenetic factors (eg, socioeconomic status, intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food, and having a television in the bedroom). To update the 2010 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for obesity in children 6 years and older. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on screening for obesity in children and adolescents and the benefits and harms of weight management interventions. Comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions (≥26 contact hours) in children and adolescents 6 years and older who have obesity can result in improvements in weight status for up to 12 months; there is inadequate evidence regarding the effectiveness of less intensive interventions. The harms of behavioral interventions can be bounded as small to none, and the harms of screening are minimal. Therefore, the USPSTF

  13. Interactions between posture and locomotion: motor patterns in humans walking with bent posture versus erect posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, R; Zago, M; Lacquaniti, F

    2000-01-01

    Human erect locomotion is unique among living primates. Evolution selected specific biomechanical features that make human locomotion mechanically efficient. These features are matched by the motor patterns generated in the CNS. What happens when humans walk with bent postures? Are normal motor patterns of erect locomotion maintained or completely reorganized? Five healthy volunteers walked straight and forward at different speeds in three different postures (regular, knee-flexed, and knee- and trunk-flexed) while their motion, ground reaction forces, and electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded. The three postures imply large differences in the position of the center of body mass relative to the body segments. The elevation angles of the trunk, pelvis, and lower limb segments relative to the vertical in the sagittal plane, the ground reaction forces and the rectified EMGs were analyzed over the gait cycle. The waveforms of the elevation angles along the gait cycle remained essentially unchanged irrespective of the adopted postures. The first two harmonics of these kinematic waveforms explain >95% of their variance. The phase shift but not the amplitude ratio between the first harmonic of the elevation angle waveforms of adjacent pairs was affected systematically by changes in posture. Thigh, shank, and foot angles covaried close to a plane in all conditions, but the plane orientation was systematically different in bent versus erect locomotion. This was explained by the changes in the temporal coupling among the three segments. For walking speeds >1 m s(-1), the plane orientation of bent locomotion indicates a much lower mechanical efficiency relative to erect locomotion. Ground reaction forces differed prominently in bent versus erect posture displaying characteristics intermediate between those typical of walking and those of running. Mean EMG activity was greater in bent postures for all recorded muscles independent of the functional role. The waveforms

  14. Defense Finance and Accounting Service Work on the FY 1993 Air Force Defense Business Operations Fund Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rau, Russell

    1995-01-01

    ... fairly in accordance with accepted accounting principles. The objective was revised to correspond with the incremental audit approach that DoD audit organizations were using for the Defense Business Operations Fund' 5 financial statements...

  15. The reliability and validity of the Saliba Postural Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cristiana Kahl; Johnson, Vicky Saliba; Godwin, Ellen M; Pappas, Evangelos

    2016-07-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of the Saliba Postural Classification System (SPCS). Two physical therapists classified pictures of 100 volunteer participants standing in their habitual posture for inter and intra-tester reliability. For validity, 54 participants stood on a force plate in a habitual and a corrected posture, while a vertical force was applied through the shoulders until the clinician felt a postural give. Data were extracted at the time the give was felt and at a time in the corrected posture that matched the peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) in the habitual posture. Inter-tester reliability demonstrated 75% agreement with a Kappa = 0.64 (95% CI = 0.524-0.756, SE = 0.059). Intra-tester reliability demonstrated 87% agreement with a Kappa = 0.8, (95% CI = 0.702-0.898, SE = 0.05) and 80% agreement with a Kappa = 0.706, (95% CI = 0.594-0818, SE = 0.057). The examiner applied a significantly higher (p < 0.001) peak vertical force in the corrected posture prior to a postural give when compared to the habitual posture. Within the corrected posture, the %VGRF was higher when the test was ongoing vs. when a postural give was felt (p < 0.001). The %VGRF was not different between the two postures when comparing the peaks (p = 0.214). The SPCS has substantial agreement for inter- and intra-tester reliability and is largely a valid postural classification system as determined by the larger vertical forces in the corrected postures. Further studies on the correlation between the SPCS and diagnostic classifications are indicated.

  16. Vision Screening in Children Aged 6 Months to 5 Years: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Owens, Douglas K; Barry, Michael J; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phipps, Maureen G; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2017-09-05

    One of the most important causes of vision abnormalities in children is amblyopia (also known as "lazy eye"). Amblyopia is an alteration in the visual neural pathway in a child's developing brain that can lead to permanent vision loss in the affected eye. Among children younger than 6 years, 1% to 6% have amblyopia or its risk factors (strabismus, anisometropia, or both). Early identification of vision abnormalities could prevent the development of amblyopia. Studies show that screening rates among children vary by race/ethnicity and family income. Data based on parent reports from 2009-2010 indicated identical screening rates among black non-Hispanic children and white non-Hispanic children (80.7%); however, Hispanic children were less likely than non-Hispanic children to report vision screening (69.8%). Children whose families earned 200% or more above the federal poverty level were more likely to report vision screening than families with lower incomes. To update the 2011 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for amblyopia and its risk factors in children. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the accuracy of vision screening tests and the benefits and harms of vision screening and treatment. Surgical interventions were considered to be out of scope for this review. Treatment of amblyopia is associated with moderate improvements in visual acuity in children aged 3 to 5 years, which are likely to result in permanent improvements in vision throughout life. The USPSTF concluded that the benefits are moderate because untreated amblyopia results in permanent, uncorrectable vision loss, and the benefits of screening and treatment potentially can be experienced over a child's lifetime. The USPSTF found adequate evidence to bound the potential harms of treatment (ie, higher false-positive rates in low-prevalence populations) as small. Therefore, the USPSTF concluded with moderate certainty that the overall net benefit is moderate for

  17. Determining postural stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Erez (Inventor); Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  18. U.S. nuclear policy, strategy, and force structure: insights and issues from the 1994, 2001, and 2010 nuclear posture reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Marco J.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the main decisions taken in the 1994, 2001, and 2010 Nuclear Posture Reviews regarding U.S. nuclear capabilities and declaratory strategy, and the policy debates that followed the publication of each NPR, focusing on deterrence and other objectives of U.S. national security strategy. It analyzes and compares the post–Cold War NPRs to understand how each administration attempted to shape and direct policy, and how k...

  19. The Relationship Between Postural and Movement Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G

    2016-01-01

    Postural stabilization is provided by stretch reflexes, intermuscular reflexes, and intrinsic muscle properties. Taken together, these posture-stabilizing mechanisms resist deflections from the posture at which balance of muscle and external forces is maintained. Empirical findings suggest that for each muscle, these mechanisms become functional at a specific, spatial threshold-the muscle length or respective joint angle at which motor units begin to be recruited. Empirical data suggest that spinal and supraspinal centers can shift the spatial thresholds for a group of muscles that stabilized the initial posture. As a consequence, the same stabilizing mechanisms, instead of resisting motion from the initial posture, drive the body to another stable posture. In other words by shifting spatial thresholds, the nervous system converts movement resisting to movement-producing mechanisms. It is illustrated that, contrary to conventional view, this control strategy allows the system to transfer body balance to produce locomotion and other actions without loosing stability at any point of them. It also helps orient posture and movement with the direction of gravity. It is concluded that postural and movement stability is provided by a common mechanism.

  20. Chief of Staff of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    > CSAF Posture Statement USAF Posture Statement FY18 Featured Videos &amp;amp;amp;amp ;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;!-- &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;br /& ;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp

  1. Does increased postural threat lead to more conscious control of posture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J L; Horslen, B C; Carpenter, M G; Adkin, A L

    2009-11-01

    Although it is well established that postural threat modifies postural control, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for these changes. It is possible that changes in postural control under conditions of elevated postural threat result from a shift to a more conscious control of posture. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of elevated postural threat on conscious control of posture and to determine the relationship between conscious control and postural control measures. Forty-eight healthy young adults stood on a force plate at two different surface heights: ground level (LOW) and 3.2-m above ground level (HIGH). Centre of pressure measures calculated in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction were mean position (AP-MP), root mean square (AP-RMS) and mean power frequency (AP-MPF). A modified state-specific version of the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale was used to measure conscious motor processing (CMP) and movement self-consciousness (MSC). Balance confidence, fear of falling, perceived stability, and perceived and actual anxiety indicators were also collected. A significant effect of postural threat was found for movement reinvestment as participants reported more conscious control and a greater concern about their posture at the HIGH height. Significant correlations between CMP and MSC with AP-MP were observed as participants who consciously controlled and were more concerned for their posture leaned further away from the platform edge. It is possible that changes in movement reinvestment can influence specific aspects of posture (leaning) but other aspects may be immune to these changes (amplitude and frequency).

  2. Guide to Good Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are moving or still, can prevent pain, injuries, and other health problems. What is posture? Posture is how you hold your body. There are two types: Dynamic posture is how you hold yourself when you are moving, like when you are walking, running, or bending over to pick up something. Static ...

  3. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: Centre of Pressure (CoP) measurements were tested against pain, fear of pain, and physical function. Velocity, anterior-posterior displacement, and the Romberg Ratio obtained on a portable force platform were used as measures of postural stability. RESULTS: Baseline and 12-week follow-up results of 97....... CONCLUSION: This first study of concurrent and predictive validity of postural balance in LBP patients revealed no association between CoP measures and pain, fear of pain, and physical function....

  4. Postural stability in young and old women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    at an early stage, good knowledge and sensitive measurements of postural stability are essential. In addition, in order to develop effective intervention strategies such knowledge is of major importance. However, no single postural stability parameter has effectively been able to identify individuals at risk...... of falling. Hence, there is a strong need for development and identification of sensitive postural sway parameters in various demographic groups. The aim of this study was to explore differences in postural stability between physically active old (O) and young (Y) women using newly developed sway parameters....... METHODS AND MATERIALS: Center of pressure (CoP) excursion was measured (100 Hz) by force plate (AMTI) analysis in old (72.5±6.3 years) and young (25.8±1.6 years) women during static 2-leg (bilateral) and 1-leg (unilateral) standing (15-s) with eyes opened. RESULTS: O demonstrated elevated CoP sway length...

  5. Screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2013-08-06

    Update of the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement on screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse. The USPSTF reviewed new evidence on the effectiveness of screening for alcohol misuse for improving health outcomes, the accuracy of various screening approaches, the effectiveness of various behavioral counseling interventions for improving intermediate or long-term health outcomes, the harms of screening and behavioral counseling interventions, and influences from the health care system that promote or detract from effective screening and counseling interventions for alcohol misuse. These recommendations apply to adolescents aged 12 to 17 years and adults aged 18 years or older. These recommendations do not apply to persons who are actively seeking evaluation or treatment of alcohol misuse. The USPSTF recommends that clinicians screen adults aged 18 years or older for alcohol misuse and provide persons engaged in risky or hazardous drinking with brief behavioral counseling interventions to reduce alcohol misuse. (Grade B recommendation)The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care settings to reduce alcohol misuse in adolescents. (I statement)

  6. Vitamin, mineral, and multivitamin supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: U.S. Preventive services Task Force recommendation statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2014-04-15

    Update of the 2003 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on vitamin supplementation to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancer. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the efficacy of multivitamin or mineral supplements in the general adult population for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. This recommendation applies to healthy adults without special nutritional needs (typically aged 50 years or older). It does not apply to children, women who are pregnant or may become pregnant, or persons who are chronically ill or hospitalized or have a known nutritional deficiency. The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of multivitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer. (I statement). The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of single- or paired-nutrient supplements (except β-carotene and vitamin E) for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer. (I statement). The USPSTF recommends against β-carotene or vitamin E supplements for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer. (D recommendation).

  7. Independent Auditors Report on the Air Force General Fund FY 2015 and FY 2014 Basic Financial Statements for United States Air Force Agency Financial Report 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-09

    for leadership, and the motivation to serve as Air Force career officers. Each cadet graduates with a Bachelor of Science degree and a commission...security requirement. RDT&E Major Programs ($ in millions) FY 15 Expenditure Science and Technology $2,282 Long Range Strike-Bomber $914 KC-46 $786...6,183,517) Net Cost before Losses/(Gains) from Actuarial Assumption Changes 156,816,790 154,945,254 for Military Retirement Benefits Net Program

  8. Independent Auditors Report on the Air Force Working Capital Fund FY 2015 and FY 2014 Basic Financial Statements for United States Air Force Agency Financial Report 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-09

    and character essential for leadership, and the motivation to serve as Air Force career officers. Each cadet graduates with a Bachelor of Science ...and specific national security requirement. RDT&E Major Programs ($ in millions) FY 15 Expenditure Science and Technology $2,282 Long Range Strike...1,243,894 (Less: Earned Revenue) Net Cost before Losses/(Gains) from Actuarial Assumption Changes for Military Retirement Benefits Net Program Costs

  9. Using a Bayesian Network to Predict L5/S1 Spinal Compression Force from Posture, Hand Load, Anthropometry, and Disc Injury Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Hughes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic biomechanical modeling has become a useful tool most commonly implemented using Monte Carlo simulation, advanced mean value theorem, or Markov chain modeling. Bayesian networks are a novel method for probabilistic modeling in artificial intelligence, risk modeling, and machine learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Bayesian networks for biomechanical modeling using a static biomechanical model of spinal forces during lifting. A 20-node Bayesian network model was used to implement a well-established static two-dimensional biomechanical model for predicting L5/S1 compression and shear forces. The model was also implemented as a Monte Carlo simulation in MATLAB. Mean L5/S1 spinal compression force estimates differed by 0.8%, and shear force estimates were the same. The model was extended to incorporate evidence about disc injury, which can modify the prior probability estimates to provide posterior probability estimates of spinal compression force. An example showed that changing disc injury status from false to true increased the estimate of mean L5/S1 compression force by 14.7%. This work shows that Bayesian networks can be used to implement a whole-body biomechanical model used in occupational biomechanics and incorporate disc injury.

  10. Neural basis of postural focus effect on concurrent postural and motor tasks: phase-locked electroencephalogram responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Zhao, Chen-Guang; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2014-11-01

    Dual-task performance is strongly affected by the direction of attentional focus. This study investigated neural control of a postural-suprapostural procedure when postural focus strategy varied. Twelve adults concurrently conducted force-matching and maintained stabilometer stance with visual feedback on ankle movement (visual internal focus, VIF) and on stabilometer movement (visual external focus, VEF). Force-matching error, dynamics of ankle and stabilometer movements, and event-related potentials (ERPs) were registered. Postural control with VEF caused superior force-matching performance, more complex ankle movement, and stronger kinematic coupling between the ankle and stabilometer movements than postural control with VIF. The postural focus strategy also altered ERP temporal-spatial patterns. Postural control with VEF resulted in later N1 with less negativity around the bilateral fronto-central and contralateral sensorimotor areas, earlier P2 deflection with more positivity around the bilateral fronto-central and ipsilateral temporal areas, and late movement-related potential commencing in the left frontal-central area, as compared with postural control with VIF. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP principal component revealed phase-locked neural oscillations in the delta (1-4Hz), theta (4-7Hz), and beta (13-35Hz) rhythms. The delta and theta rhythms were more pronounced prior to the timing of P2 positive deflection, and beta rebound was greater after the completion of force-matching in VEF condition than VIF condition. This study is the first to reveal the neural correlation of postural focusing effect on a postural-suprapostural task. Postural control with VEF takes advantage of efficient task-switching to facilitate autonomous postural response, in agreement with the "constrained-action" hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Obesity impact on the attentional cost for controlling posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Mignardot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing.Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1 and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6 maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal. The two postural tasks were performed (1 alone and (2 in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT. Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials.(1 Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP, in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2 Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3 Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4 RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity.Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities.

  12. Obesity Impact on the Attentional Cost for Controlling Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Olivier, Isabelle; Promayon, Emmanuel; Nougier, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing. Methods Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1) and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6) maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal). The two postural tasks were performed (1) alone and (2) in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT). Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials. Findings (1) Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP), in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2) Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3) Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4) RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity. Interpretation Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities. PMID:21187914

  13. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling) and fast (trembling) component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA) was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p neck pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain in the Romberg position with eyes closed, but not with eyes open. Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850 PMID:21806796

  14. Pokhran II and Beyond (Emerging Indian Nuclear Posture)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mishra, Jeetendra

    2002-01-01

    .... The nuclear forces, however, are sought only to be minimum possible to credibly deter nuclear weapons use or coercion against India, Considering the imperatives of the Indian deterrence posture...

  15. The EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) Process in Relation to the Proposed Naval Task Force at Everett, Washington,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    decision before filing the EA. Also, the transfer of fuel and arms and the change in economic and social enviromental effects warranted an EIS. Facts: The...must deal with many of the same environmental, social , and economic problems that are evident. The basing of a Naval Task Force in Puget Sound stems from...which involves unresolved conflicts e. V.V..4 President OMB Cirua * NEPA of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321) CEQ/EIS Guidelines 40 CFR 1500-1508 . 7 Excuiv Ordc

  16. Comparison of a laboratory grade force platform with a Nintendo Wii balance board in measurement of postural control in single-legged stance balance tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurnink, A.; Fransz, D.P.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Training and testing of balance have potential applications in sports and medicine. Laboratory grade force plates (FP) are considered the gold standard for the measurement of balance performance. Measurements in these systems are based on the parameterization of center of pressure (CoP)

  17. U.S. Nuclear Policy, Strategy, and Force Structure: Insights and Issues from the 1994, 2001, and 2010 Nuclear Posture Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    community.”251 Senator Jeff Sessions, in the April 17, 2013 Hearing to Receive Testimony on Nuclear Forces and Policies, expressed concern that allies...Sagan’s NFU argument, Timothy Fischer , in a U.S. Army War College study from 2012, countered that the United States should retain a policy of possible...nuclear response to WMD because of the important role of ambiguity in national security policy flexibility and deterrence. Fischer recommended that the

  18. Validity of a new stabilometric force platform for postural balance evaluation. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n5p367

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Kauffmann

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to validate a new stabilometric force platform (SFP. For this, three steps have been established: a to determine the force threshold to reach an acceptable level of accuracy of the centre of pressure (CoP measurement by the application of single point load; b to determine the accuracy of the CoP measurement in the application of distributed load simulating the human feet; c to verify the concurrent validity of the SFP by comparing it with a commercial force platform (FP. The tests performed in steps “a” and “b” were conducted by applying loads on the SFP using a universal testing machine. In the application of single point load, the mean force threshold presentedby the SFP was 315.6 ± 140.5 N. The CoP measurement error in the points near the centre of the SFP was 1.04 ± 0.80 mm in medial-lateral (ML and 1.31 ± 0.99 mm in anteriorposterior (AP direction. In the points near the edges of the plate, the error was 2.03 ± 0.91mm (ML and 1.54 ± 0.96 mm (AP. In the test with distributed loads, errors of less than 1 mm were found. Additionally, no differences were found in the CoP parameters between SFP and the FP. The CoP measurement signal presented high correlation between bothequipments in AP (r = 0.997 ± 0.001 and ML (r = 0.988 ± 0.003 directions. These findings suggest that the SFP can be used in scientific investigations of balance in quiet standing.

  19. Validity of a new stabilometric force platform for postural balance evaluation. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n5p367

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ache Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to validate a new stabilometric force platform (SFP. For this, three steps have been established: a to determine the force threshold to reach an acceptable level of accuracy of the centre of pressure (CoP measurement by the application of single point load; b to determine the accuracy of the CoP measurement in the application of distributed load simulating the human feet; c to verify the concurrent validity of the SFP by comparing it with a commercial force platform (FP. The tests performed in steps “a” and “b” were conducted by applying loads on the SFP using a universal testing machine. In the application of single point load, the mean force threshold presented by the SFP was 315.6 ± 140.5 N. The CoP measurement error in the points near the centre of the SFP was 1.04 ± 0.80 mm in medial-lateral (ML and 1.31 ± 0.99 mm in anteriorposterior (AP direction. In the points near the edges of the plate, the error was 2.03 ± 0.91mm (ML and 1.54 ± 0.96 mm (AP. In the test with distributed loads, errors of less than 1mm were found. Additionally, no differences were found in the CoP parameters between SFP and the FP. The CoP measurement signal presented high correlation between both equipments in AP (r = 0.997 ± 0.001 and ML (r = 0.988 ± 0.003 directions. These findings suggest that the SFP can be used in scientific investigations of balance in quiet standing.

  20. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  1. Efficiency of physical therapy on postural imbalance after stroke: study protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugues, A; Di Marco, J; Janiaud, P; Xue, Y; Pires, J; Khademi, H; Cucherat, M; Bonan, I; Gueyffier, F; Rode, G

    2017-01-30

    Stroke frequently results in balance disorders, leading to lower levels of activity and a diminution in autonomy. Current physical therapies (PT) aiming to reduce postural imbalance have shown a large variety of effects with low levels of evidence. The objectives are to determine the efficiency of PT in recovering from postural imbalance in patients after a stroke and to assess which PT is more effective. We will search several databases from inception to October 2015. Only randomised controlled trials assessing PT to recover from poststroke postural imbalance in adults will be considered.Outcome measures will be the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke (PASS), the 'weight-bearing asymmetry' (WBA), the 'centre of pressure' (COP) and the 'limit of stability' (LOS). WBA, COP and LOS are measured by a (sitting or standing) static evaluation on force plate or another device.Two independent reviewers will screen titles, abstracts and full-text articles, evaluate the risk of bias and will perform data extraction. In addition to the outcomes, measures of independence will be analysed. This study will aim at determining the effects of PT on the function (WBA, COP, LOS), the activity (BBS, PASS) and the independence of patients. Subgroup analyses will be planned according to the location of brain lesion (hemispheric, brainstem or cerebellum), the time since stroke (early, late, chronic), the PT (type, main aim (direct effect or generalisation), overall duration), the type of approaches (top-down or bottom-up) and the methodological quality of studies. No ethical statement will be required. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. This meta-analysis aims at managing the rehabilitation after postural imbalance by PT after a stroke. Prospero CRD42016037966;Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Detached Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark McBride

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Raz has introduced an interesting class of statements —detached statements— into the philosophical lexicon. In brief, such statements are (informa- tive normative statements, yet the speaker does not, in so uttering them, express or convey acceptance of the point of view of the hearer to whom they are addressed (as contrasted with committed statements, where the speaker does express or convey such acceptance. I propose to offer a novel analysis of such statements (and to clear away some confusions about them. In brief, such statements will be analysed as wide-scope normative conditionals.

  3. Performance of the 2015 International Task Force Consensus Statement Risk Stratification Algorithm for Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgeron, Gabriela M; Te Riele, Anneline; Tichnell, Crystal; Wang, Weijia; Murray, Brittney; Bhonsale, Aditya; Judge, Daniel P; Kamel, Ihab R; Zimmerman, Stephan L; Tandri, Harikrishna; Calkins, Hugh; James, Cynthia A

    2018-02-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias are a feared complication of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. In 2015, an International Task Force Consensus Statement proposed a risk stratification algorithm for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. To evaluate performance of the algorithm, 365 arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy patients were classified as having a Class I, IIa, IIb, or III indication per the algorithm at baseline. Survival free from sustained ventricular arrhythmia (VT/VF) in follow-up was the primary outcome. Incidence of ventricular fibrillation/flutter cycle length the algorithm appropriately differentiated risk of VT/VF, incidence of VT/VF was underestimated (observed versus expected: 29.6 [95% confidence interval, 25.2-34.0] versus >10%/year Class I; 15.5 [confidence interval 11.1-21.6] versus 1% to 10%/year Class IIa). In addition, the algorithm did not differentiate survival free from ventricular fibrillation/flutter between Class I and IIa patients ( P =0.97) or for VT/VF in Class I and IIa primary prevention patients ( P =0.22). Adding Holter results (the algorithm differentiates arrhythmic risk well overall, it did not distinguish ventricular fibrillation/flutter risks of patients with Class I and IIa implantable cardioverter-defibrillator indications. Limited differentiation was seen for primary prevention cases. As these are vital uncertainties in clinical decision-making, refinements to the algorithm are suggested prior to implementation. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults: evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kenneth; Fajardo, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common, and screening for this condition in pregnant women is a well-established, evidence-based standard of current medical practice. Screening other groups of adults has not been shown to improve outcomes. To review new and substantial evidence on screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria, to support the work of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. English-language studies of adults (age >18 years) indexed in PubMed and the Cochrane Library and published from 1 January 2002 through 30 April 2007. For benefits of screening or treatment for screened populations, systematic reviews; meta-analyses; and randomized, controlled trials were included. For harms of screening, systematic reviews; meta-analyses; randomized, controlled trials; cohort studies; case-control studies; and case series of large multisite databases were included. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles, abstracts, and full articles for inclusion. Two reviewers extracted data from studies on benefits of screening and treatment (including decreases in the incidence of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, symptomatic urinary tract infections, hypertension, and renal function decline). An updated Cochrane systematic review of 14 randomized, controlled trials of treatment supports screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. A randomized, controlled trial and a prospective cohort study show that screening nonpregnant women with diabetes for asymptomatic bacteriuria is unlikely to produce benefits. No new evidence on screening men for asymptomatic bacteriuria or on harms of screening was found. The focused search strategy may have missed some smaller studies on the benefits and harms of screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria. The available evidence continues to support screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women, but not in other groups of adults.

  5. Hormone Therapy for the Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions in Postmenopausal Women: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Owens, Douglas K; Barry, Michael J; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phipps, Maureen G; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2017-12-12

    Menopause occurs at a median age of 51.3 years, and the average US woman who reaches menopause is expected to live another 30 years. The prevalence and incidence of most chronic conditions, such as coronary heart disease, dementia, stroke, fractures, and breast cancer, increase with age; however, the excess risk for these conditions that can be attributed to menopause alone is uncertain. Since the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative that hormone therapy use is associated with serious adverse health effects in postmenopausal women, use of menopausal hormone therapy has declined. To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on the use of menopausal hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of systemic (ie, oral or transdermal) hormone therapy for the prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women and whether outcomes vary among women in different subgroups or by timing of intervention after menopause. The review did not address hormone therapy for preventing or treating menopausal symptoms. Although the use of hormone therapy to prevent chronic conditions in postmenopausal women is associated with some benefits, there are also well-documented harms. The USPSTF determined that the magnitude of both the benefits and the harms of hormone therapy in postmenopausal women is small to moderate. Therefore, the USPSTF concluded with moderate certainty that combined estrogen and progestin has no net benefit for the primary prevention of chronic conditions for most postmenopausal women with an intact uterus and that estrogen alone has no net benefit for the primary prevention of chronic conditions for most postmenopausal women who have had a hysterectomy. The USPSTF recommends against the use of combined estrogen and progestin for the primary prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women. (D recommendation) The USPSTF

  6. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) patients have poorer postural control compared to healthy controls, and the importance of assessing and addressing balance is a matter of debate. In the clinic, balance is often tested by means of the one leg stand test (OLST) while research often employs center of pressure (Co......P) on a force platform. Portable force platforms might be of clinical relevance, but their reliability for LBP patients in a clinical setting has not been demonstrated. As LBP patients are more dependent on vision compared to healthy controls, the ratio of tests performed with eyes open and eyes closed (Romberg...... Ratio) might be of clinical interest. This study aimed to assess postural balance in LBP patients by analyzing intra-session reliability of CoP parameters on a portable force platform, the Romberg Ratio, and the OLST. Furthermore, we aimed to determine whether CoP parameters and OLST measure identical...

  7. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Spondylitis › Treatment Information › Exercise & Posture Print Page Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ... For First Responders For Chiropractors Research Article Archive Exercise Guidelines Having an exercise program that accomplishes your ...

  8. Vitamin D, Calcium, or Combined Supplementation for the Primary Prevention of Fractures in Community-Dwelling Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Owens, Douglas K; Barry, Michael J; Caughey, Aaron B; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kubik, Martha; Landefeld, Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2018-04-17

    Because of the aging population, osteoporotic fractures are an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Approximately 2 million osteoporotic fractures occurred in the United States in 2005, and annual incidence is projected to increase to more than 3 million fractures by 2025. Within 1 year of experiencing a hip fracture, many patients are unable to walk independently, more than half require assistance with activities of daily living, and 20% to 30% of patients will die. To update the 2013 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on vitamin D supplementation, with or without calcium, to prevent fractures. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on vitamin D, calcium, and combined supplementation for the primary prevention of fractures in community-dwelling adults (defined as not living in a nursing home or other institutional care setting). The review excluded studies conducted in populations with a known disorder related to bone metabolism (eg, osteoporosis or vitamin D deficiency), taking medications known to be associated with osteoporosis (eg, long-term steroids), or with a previous fracture. The USPSTF found inadequate evidence to estimate the benefits of vitamin D, calcium, or combined supplementation to prevent fractures in community-dwelling men and premenopausal women. The USPSTF found adequate evidence that daily supplementation with 400 IU or less of vitamin D and 1000 mg or less of calcium has no benefit for the primary prevention of fractures in community-dwelling, postmenopausal women. The USPSTF found inadequate evidence to estimate the benefits of doses greater than 400 IU of vitamin D or greater than 1000 mg of calcium to prevent fractures in community-dwelling postmenopausal women. The USPSTF found adequate evidence that supplementation with vitamin D and calcium increases the incidence of kidney stones. The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of the

  9. Comparison of a laboratory grade force platform with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board on measurement of postural control in single-leg stance balance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurnink, Arnold; Fransz, Duncan P; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2013-04-26

    Training and testing of balance have potential applications in sports and medicine. Laboratory grade force plates (FP) are considered the gold standard for the measurement of balance performance. Measurements in these systems are based on the parameterization of center of pressure (CoP) trajectories. Previous research validated the inexpensive, widely available and portable Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). The novelty of the present study is that FP and WBB are compared on CoP data that was collected simultaneously, by placing the WBB on the FP. Fourteen healthy participants performed ten sequences of single-leg stance tasks with eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC) and after a sideways hop (HOP). Within trial comparison of the two systems showed small root-mean-square differences for the CoP trajectories in the x and y direction during the three tasks (mean±SD; EO: 0.33±0.10 and 0.31±0.16 mm; EC: 0.58±0.17 and 0.63±0.19 mm; HOP: 0.74±0.34 and 0.74±0.27 mm, respectively). Additionally, during all 420 trials, comparison of FP and WBB revealed very high Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of the CoP trajectories (x: 0.999±0.002; y: 0.998±0.003). A general overestimation was found on the WBB compared to the FP for 'CoP path velocity' (EO: 5.3±1.9%; EC: 4.0±1.4%; HOP: 4.6±1.6%) and 'mean absolute CoP sway' (EO: 3.5±0.7%; EC: 3.7±0.5%; HOP: 3.6±1.0%). This overestimation was highly consistent over the 140 trials per task (r>0.996). The present findings demonstrate that WBB is sufficiently accurate in quantifying CoP trajectory, and overall amplitude and velocity during single-leg stance balance tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The State of Prescreening Discussions About Prostate-specific Antigen Testing Following Implementation of the 2012 United States Preventive Services Task Force Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turini, George A; Gjelsvik, Annie; Renzulli, Joseph F

    2017-06-01

    To determine if the quality of prescreening discussions has changed following release of the United States Preventive Services Task Force statement against prostate cancer screening. This cross-sectional study used the 2012 and 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Respondents were categorized based on the year in which they responded to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. Quality of prescreening discussion was operationalized as having discussed only advantages, only disadvantages, both advantages and disadvantages, or neither. Race/ethnicity, education level, income, insurance status, and having a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level actually drawn after prescreening counseling served as confounders in our multivariate analysis. Among 217,053 men in the analytic sample, 37% were told about only advantages of PSA screening compared to 30% of men who were advised about both advantages and disadvantages. Men who were told about neither advantages nor disadvantages were more likely to be Hispanic, not graduate high school, have low income, and not have insurance. Controlling for covariates, men in 2014 were significantly more likely to have undergone PSA testing without having discussed either advantages or disadvantages than men in 2012. Comprehensive prescreening discussions about advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing are critical to informed decision making about prostate cancer screening. Disparities not only exist with regard to the quality of prescreening discussions that patients receive from their providers prior to PSA testing across categories of race/ethnicity, education, income, and insurance status, but these disparities became more substantial between 2012 and 2014. Further investigation is warranted to elicit more specific reasons behind these variations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of postural control impairment in women with fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempere-Rubio, Núria; López-Pascual, Juan; Aguilar-Rodríguez, Marta; Cortés-Amador, Sara; Espí-López, Gemma; Villarrasa-Sapiña, Israel

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this cross-sectional study was to detect whether women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) have altered postural control and to study the sensory contribution to postural control. We also explored the possibility that self-induced anxiety and lower limb strength may be related to postural control. For this purpose, 129 women within an age range of 40 to 70 years were enrolled. Eighty of the enrolled women had FMS. Postural control variables, such as Ellipse, Root mean square (RMS) and Sample entropy (SampEn), in both directions (i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior), were calculated under five different conditions. A force plate was used to register the center of pressure shifts. Furthermore, isometric lower limb strength was recorded with a portable dynamometer and normalized by lean body mass. The results showed that women with FMS have impaired postural control compared with healthy people, as they presented a significant increase in Ellipse and RMS values (pPostural control also worsens with the gradual alteration of sensory inputs in this population (p0.05). There were no significant correlations between postural control and lower limb strength (p>0.05). Therefore, women with FMS have impaired postural control that is worse when sensory inputs are altered but is not correlated with their lower limb strength. PMID:29723223

  12. Postural stability and occlusal status among Japanese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song-Yu, Xuan; Rodis, Omar M M; Ogata, Sagiri; Can-Hu, Jin; Nishimura, Michiko; Matsumura, Seishi

    2012-06-01

    There are still no data available on the relationship between postural stability and occlusal status among the elderly. To examine relationships between postural stability and occlusal status through a cohort study among elderly Japanese. Oral examination, occlusal status, postural stability and a questionnaire were conducted and given to 87 community-dwelling Japanese at enrolment. The average occlusal pressure of the female group was statistically higher than the male group while average occlusal pressure and postural stability length were lesser in the group with more remaining teeth. Postural stability area and number of remaining teeth showed statistically significant correlations. Postural stability length was lesser in the group with strong occlusal force. Furthermore, the number of decayed teeth was fewer in the good hygiene group. This study identified a close relationship between occlusal status and postural stability of Japanese older individuals. Occlusal hypofunction was observed more in those with occlusal problems, and a decrease in their occlusal functions resulted in postural instability. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcot, Katia; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Suvà, Domizio; Armand, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated balance impairment in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Although it is currently accepted that postural control depends on multi-joint coordination, no study has previously considered this postural strategy in patients suffering from knee OA. The objectives of this study were to investigate the multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee OA and to evaluate the association with clinical outcomes. Eighty-seven patients with knee OA and twenty-five healthy elderly were recruited to the study. A motion analysis system and two force plates were used to investigate the joint kinematics (trunk and lower body segments), the lower body joint moments, the vertical ground reaction force ratio and the center of pressure (COP) during a quiet standing task. Pain, functional capacity and quality of life status were also recorded. Patients with symptomatic and severe knee OA adopt a more flexed posture at all joint levels in comparison with the control group. A significant difference in the mean ratio was found between groups, showing an asymmetric weight distribution in patients with knee OA. A significant decrease in the COP range in the anterior-posterior direction was also observed in the group of patients. Only small associations were observed between postural impairments and clinical outcomes. This study brings new insights regarding the postural behavior of patients with severe knee OA during a quiet standing task. The results confirm the multi-joint asymmetric posture adopted by this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of pain on postural control in women with neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pain on postural control in women with neck pain and the relationship with possible changes in sensory systems and posture. The neck pain group was composed of women, aged between 20 and 50years, complaining of neck pain for more than three months; the control group was composed of women without complaints of neck pain. For the characterization of the groups, we used anamnesis, neck disability index and Visual Analogue Scale. Postural balance was assessed on force platform. Postural balance with manipulation of the sensory systems was measured by Foam Laser Dynamic Posturography, exposing the individual to six sensory organization tests. Posture was assessed by the Postural Assessment Software. The normality of the variables were verified using Shapiro-Wilk test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test for comparison between groups, with a significance level of5%. Groups were homogeneous in demographic variables. We observed higher amplitude and displacement velocity of the center of pressure in the neck pain group, showing greater postural balance. There were significant diferences incraniovertebral angle, showing forward head posture in symptomatic women. In dynamics posturography, we observed a difference between the groups: the score obtainedin the six sensory conditions showed that neck pain group presented greater balance impairment. Neck pain and forward head posture have a deleterious effect on postural control in symptomatic women, both in the static posture and dynamic posture.

  15. Body posture recognition and turning recording system for the care of bed bound patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Rong-Shue; Mi, Zhenqiang; Yang, Bo-Ru; Kau, Lih-Jen; Bitew, Mekuanint Agegnehu; Li, Tzu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes body posture recognition and turning recording system for assisting the care of bed bound patients in nursing homes. The system continuously detects the patient's body posture and records the length of time for each body posture. If the patient remains in the same body posture long enough to develop pressure ulcers, the system notifies caregivers to change the patient's body posture. The objective of recording is to provide the log of body turning for querying of patients' family members. In order to accurately detect patient's body posture, we developed a novel pressure sensing pad which contains force sensing resistor sensors. Based on the proposed pressure sensing pad, we developed a bed posture recognition module which includes a bed posture recognition algorithm. The algorithm is based on fuzzy theory. The body posture recognition algorithm can detect the patient's bed posture whether it is right lateral decubitus, left lateral decubitus, or supine. The detected information of patient's body posture can be then transmitted to the server of healthcare center by the communication module to perform the functions of recording and notification. Experimental results showed that the average posture recognition accuracy for our proposed module is 92%.

  16. Accounting Entries Made in Compiling the FY 2000 Financial Statements for the Working Capital Funds of the Air Force and Other Defense Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990, as amended by the Federal Financial Management Act of 1994, requires DoD to submit to the Office of Management and Budget annual audited financial statements...

  17. Accounting Entries Made in Compiling the FY 2000 Financial Statements for the Working Capital Funds of the Air Force and Other Defense Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... This audit is one in a series of audits of department-level accounting entries made by the Defense Finance and Accounting Service in preparing the FY 2000 financial statements for DoD reporting entities...

  18. Postural ortostatisk takykardisyndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Pors, Kirsten; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous condition of dysautonomia and suspected autoimmunity characterized by abnormal increments in heart rate upon assumption of the upright posture accompanied by symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and sympathoexcitation. An increase...... in heart rate equal to or greater than 30 bpm or to levels higher than 120 bpm during a head-up tilt test is the main diagnostic criterion. Management includes both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment focusing on stress management, volume expansion and heart rate control....

  19. Body posture modulates action perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Marius; Toni, Ivan; de Lange, Floris P

    2013-04-03

    Recent studies have highlighted cognitive and neural similarities between planning and perceiving actions. Given that action planning involves a simulation of potential action plans that depends on the actor's body posture, we reasoned that perceiving actions may also be influenced by one's body posture. Here, we test whether and how this influence occurs by measuring behavioral and cerebral (fMRI) responses in human participants predicting goals of observed actions, while manipulating postural congruency between their own body posture and postures of the observed agents. Behaviorally, predicting action goals is facilitated when the body posture of the observer matches the posture achieved by the observed agent at the end of his action (action's goal posture). Cerebrally, this perceptual postural congruency effect modulates activity in a portion of the left intraparietal sulcus that has previously been shown to be involved in updating neural representations of one's own limb posture during action planning. This intraparietal area showed stronger responses when the goal posture of the observed action did not match the current body posture of the observer. These results add two novel elements to the notion that perceiving actions relies on the same predictive mechanism as planning actions. First, the predictions implemented by this mechanism are based on the current physical configuration of the body. Second, during both action planning and action observation, these predictions pertain to the goal state of the action.

  20. Nuclear Posture Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    REVIEW margin for further delay in recapitalizing the physical infrastructure needed to produce strategic materials and components for U.S. nuclear... REVIEW 2018 This page left intentionally blank REVIEW NUCLEAR POSTURE REVIEW FEBRUARY 2018...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE This page left intentionally blank REVIEW CONTENTS SECRETARY’S PREFACE

  1. Measuring postural control during mini-squat posture in men with early knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, M; Gramani-Say, K; Serrão, P R M S; Lessi, G C; Barela, J A; Carvalho, R P; Mattiello, S M

    2017-04-01

    Studies have suggested a compromised postural control in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) evidenced by larger and faster displacement of center of pressure (COP). However, quantification of postural control in the mini-squat posture performed by patients with early knee OA and its relation to muscle strength and self-reported symptoms have not been investigated. The main aim of this cross-sectional, observational, controlled study was to determine whether postural control in the mini-squat posture differs between individuals with early knee OA and a control group (CG) and verify the relation among knee extensor torque (KET) and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. Twenty four individuals with knee OA grades I and II (OAG) (mean age: 52.35±5.00) and twenty subjects without knee injuries (CG) (mean age: 51.40±8.07) participated in this study. Participants were assessed in postural control through a force plate (Bertec Mod. USA), which provided information about the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) COP displacement during the mini-squat, in isometric, concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque (KET) (90°/s) through an isokinetic dynamometer (BiodexMulti-Joint System3, Biodex Medical Incorporation, New York, NY, USA), and in self-reported symptoms through the WOMAC questionnaire. The main outcomes measured were the AP and ML COP amplitude and velocity of displacement; isometric, concentric, and eccentric KET and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. No significant differences were found between groups for postural control (p>0.05). Significant lower eccentric KET (p=0.01) and higher scores for the WOMAC subscales of pain (p=postural instability and the need to include quadriceps muscle strengthening, especially by eccentric contractions. The relationship between the self-reported symptoms and a lower and slower COP displacement suggest that the postural control strategy during tasks with a semi-flexed knee

  2. Postural control in women with breast hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The consequences of breast hypertrophy have been described based on the alteration of body mass distribution, leading to an impact on psychological and physical aspects. The principles of motor control suggest that breast hypertrophy can lead to sensorimotor alterations and the impairment of body balance due to postural misalignment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the postural control of women with breast hypertrophy under different sensory information conditions. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 14 women with breast hypertrophy and 14 without breast hypertrophy, and the mean ages of the groups were 39 ±15 years and 39±16 years, respectively. A force platform was used to assess the sensory systems that contribute to postural control: somatosensory, visual and vestibular. Four postural conditions were sequentially tested: eyes open and fixed platform, eyes closed and fixed platform, eyes open and mobile platform, and eyes closed and mobile platform. The data were processed, and variables related to the center of pressure were analyzed for each condition. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the conditions between the groups for the area of center of pressure displacement and the velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The alpha level error was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Women with breast hypertrophy presented an area that was significantly higher for three out of four conditions and a higher velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior direction under two conditions: eyes open and mobile platform and eyes closed and mobile platform. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast hypertrophy have altered postural control, which was demonstrated by the higher area and velocity of center of pressure displacement.

  3. Resonating Statements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2015-01-01

    IT projects are often complex arrangements of technological components, social actions, and organizational transformation that are difficult to manage in practice. This paper takes an analytical discourse perspective to explore the process of legitimizing IT projects. We introduce the concept...... of resonating statements to highlight how central actors navigate in various discourses over time. Particularly, the statements and actions of an IT project manager are portrayed to show how individuals can legitimize actions by connecting statements to historically produced discourses. The case study...... as part of a feedback loop to re-attach the localized IT project to the broader national discourse. The paper concludes with reflections on how to actively build on resonating statements as a strategic resource for legitimizing IT projects...

  4. Financial Statements

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Financial Statements and accompanying notes provided on .... to good governance principles. there is the risk that ...... responsibilities of the centre's internal auditor includes reviewing internal controls, including accounting and financial.

  5. POSTURAL SHOCK IN PREGNANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Ralph L.; Knauer, John; Larson, Roger K.

    1955-01-01

    Signs and symptoms of shock may be produced in some patients in late pregnancy by putting them in the dorsal recumbent posture. Change from this position will relieve the condition. The features of the supine hypotensive syndrome can be duplicated by applying pressure to the abdomen with the patient in a lateral position. The postural variations of venous pressure, blood pressure, and pulse appear to be due to obstruction of venous return from the lower portion of the body caused by the large uterus of late pregnancy compressing the vena cava. When shock is observed in a woman in late pregnancy, she should be turned to a lateral position before more active measures of treatment are begun. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14351983

  6. Decreasing Internal Focus of Attention Improves Postural Control during Quiet Standing in Young Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafati, Gilel; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate whether and how decreasing the amount of attentional focus invested in postural control could affect bipedal postural control. Twelve participants were asked to stand upright as immobile as possible on a force platform in one control condition and one cognitive condition. In the latter condition, they…

  7. Postural Analysis in Time and Frequency Domains in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Manuela; Rigoldi, Chiara; Celletti, Claudia; Mainardi, Luca; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to analyze postural control in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) participants in time and frequency domain. This study considered a pathological group composed by 22 EDS participants performing a postural test consisting in maintaining standing position over a force platform for 30 s in two conditions: open eyes (OE) and closed…

  8. Postural orientation : Age-related changes in variability and time-to-boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wegen, E. E.H.; Van Emmerik, R. E.A.; Riccio, G. E.

    2002-01-01

    The relation between age-specific postural instability and the detection of stability boundaries was examined. Balance control was investigated under different visual conditions (eyes open/closed) and postural orientations·(forward/backward lean) while standing on a force platform. Dependent

  9. THE PRESENCE OF POSTURAL DEFORMITIES OF THE YOUTH DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF PARENTS KNOWLADGE ABOUT DEFICIENT BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bogdanović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is deterimining the presence of postural deformities in sagittal view (defi cient kyphotic and lordotic body posture of the youth depanding on the level of parents knowladge about defi cient body posture. The complete content of the program was conducted in the territory of the city of Kragujevac in several elementary schools, comprising 299 students of the 5th grade and their parents. The object of this study was to determine the number of students with defi cient kyphotic and lordotic body posture, to determine the presence of dis arrangements depanding on the gender and to determine the presence of kyphotic and lordotic deformity depanding on the parents level of information about defi ciant body posture among children. Kyphotic deformity of the examiners of male population is mostly present in the group of parents who are poorly informed about body posture defi ciency. Regarding examiners of female population , the presence of deformation is equally divided on the group of parents who expressed themselves as being very well, those who are undecided and those who are poorly informed. The more signifi cant presence of kyphotic deformity is at examiners of male population than at the examiners of female population while the higher presence of lordotic deformity is at the examiners of female population. Regarding female population we can observe the highest presence of deformation in the group of parents who are undecided while the other groups are very equabal by the presence of deformation. Stated measures impose a statement that it is necessary to continuosly work on both - children education and parents education aiming to recognize posture defi ciency and physical deformation of school and preschool population and all of this with the object of reducing the deformation and on time detecting certain disarrangements and taking adaquate measures for its senctuary

  10. Holding a handle for balance during continuous postural perturbations – immediate and transitionary effects on whole body posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Camernik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When balance is exposed to perturbations, hand contacts are often used to assist postural control. We investigated the immediate and the transitionary effects of supportive hand contacts during continuous anteroposterior perturbations of stance by automated waist-pulls. Ten young adults were perturbed for five minutes and required to maintain balance by holding to a stationary, shoulder-high handle and following its removal. Centre of pressure (COP displacement, hip, knee, and ankle angles, leg and trunk muscle activity and handle contact forces were acquired. The analysis of results show that COP excursions are significantly smaller when the subjects utilize supportive hand contact and that the displacement of COP is strongly correlated to the perturbation force and significantly larger in the anterior than posterior direction. Regression analysis of hand forces revealed that subjects utilized the hand support significantly more during the posterior than anterior perturbations. Moreover, kinematical analysis showed that utilization of supportive hand contacts alters posture of the whole body and that postural readjustments after the release of the handle occur at different time scales in the hip, knee, and ankle joints. Overall, our findings show that supportive hand contacts are efficiently used for balance control during continuous postural perturbations and that utilization of a handle has significant immediate and transitionary effects on whole body posture.

  11. Meta-analysis: association between wrist posture and carpal tunnel syndrome among workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Doohee; Smith, Allan H; Rempel, David

    2014-03-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common work-related peripheral neuropathy. In addition to grip force and repetitive hand exertions, wrist posture (hyperextension and hyperflexion) may be a risk factor for CTS among workers. However, findings of studies evaluating the relationship between wrist posture and CTS are inconsistent. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a meta-analysis of existing studies to evaluate the evidence of the relationship between wrist posture at work and risk of CTS. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant studies published between 1980 and 2012. The following search terms were used: "work related", "carpal tunnel syndrome", "wrist posture", and "epidemiology". The studies defined wrist posture as the deviation of the wrist in extension or flexion from a neutral wrist posture. Relative risk (RR) of individual studies for postural risk was pooled to evaluate the overall risk of wrist posture on CTS. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. All were cross-sectional or case-control designs and relied on self-report or observer's estimates for wrist posture assessment. The pooled RR of work-related CTS increased with increasing hours of exposure to wrist deviation or extension/flexion [RR = 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.646-2.43; p Workplace interventions to prevent CTS should incorporate training and engineering interventions that reduce sustained non-neutral wrist postures.

  12. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, M Hongchul; Ting, Lena H

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., synergy force vector was reduced by ~45% when generalizability requirements were imposed. Muscles recruited in the generalizable muscle activation patterns had less sensitive torque-producing characteristics to changes in postures. We

  13. Otolith and Vertical Canal Contributions to Dynamic Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F. Owen

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine: 1) how do normal subjects adjust postural movements in response to changing or altered otolith input, for example, due to aging? and 2) how do patients adapt postural control after altered unilateral or bilateral vestibular sensory inputs such as ablative inner ear surgery or ototoxicity, respectively? The following hypotheses are under investigation: 1) selective alteration of otolith input or abnormalities of otolith receptor function will result in distinctive spatial, frequency, and temporal patterns of head movements and body postural sway dynamics. 2) subjects with reduced, altered, or absent vertical semicircular canal receptor sensitivity but normal otolith receptor function or vice versa, should show predictable alterations of body and head movement strategies essential for the control of postural sway and movement. The effect of altered postural movement control upon compensation and/or adaptation will be determined. These experiments provide data for the development of computational models of postural control in normals, vestibular deficient subjects and normal humans exposed to unusual force environments, including orbital space flight.

  14. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation improves adaptive postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, Peter; Hsieh, Billie; Cresswell, Andrew; Au, Jacky; Meinzer, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Rehabilitation interventions contribute to recovery of impaired postural control, but it remains a priority to optimize their effectiveness. A promising strategy may involve transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of brain areas involved in fine-tuning of motor adaptation. This study explored the effects of cerebellar tDCS (ctDCS) on postural recovery from disturbance by Achilles tendon vibration. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in this sham-ctDCS controlled study. Standing blindfolded on a force platform, four trials were completed: 60 s quiet standing followed by 20 min active (anodal-tDCS, 1 mA, 20 min, N = 14) or sham-ctDCS (40 s, N = 14) tDCS; three quiet standing trials with 15 s of Achilles tendon vibration and 25 s of postural recovery. Postural steadiness was quantified as displacement, standard deviation and path derived from the center of pressure (COP). Baseline demographics and quiet standing postural steadiness, and backwards displacement during vibration were comparable between groups. However, active-tDCS significantly improved postural steadiness during vibration and reduced forward displacement and variability in COP derivatives during recovery. We demonstrate that ctDCS results in short-term improvement of postural adaptation in healthy individuals. Future studies need to investigate if multisession ctDCS combined with training or rehabilitation interventions can induce prolonged improvement of postural balance. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lead effects on postural balance of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Shukla, R.; Bornschein, R.L.; Dietrich, K.N. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Keith, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The postural sway responses of 63 children with a mean age of 5.74 years were quantified with a Force Platform technique. The average maximum (max) blood lead (PbB) of these children during the first 5 years of life was 20.7 {mu}g/dL (range 9.2 to 32.5). The backward stepwise regression analysis for sway area response during the eyes-closed, no-foam test with all the covariates and confounders and the PbB parameters showed a significant relationship with peak or max PbB during the second year of life. These results are consistent with their previous study with a smaller group of children. The data have been analyzed to provide some insight into the role of various afferents for the maintenance of postural balance. The results suggests a hypothesis that if the max PbB had caused some level of impairment in the functional capacities or interconnectivity of the vestibular and/or proprioception systems at 2 years of age, then it is reasonable to assume that the redundancy in the postural afferent systems would naturally adapt to rely more on the remaining intact afferent system (in this case, vision).

  16. Fingertip touch improves postural stability in patients with peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, R; Shupert, C L; Horak, F B

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine whether fingertip touch on a stable surface could improve postural stability during stance in subjects with somatosensory loss in the feet from diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The contribution of fingertip touch to postural stability was determined by comparing postural sway in three touch conditions (light, heavy and none) in eight patients and eight healthy control subjects who stood on two surfaces (firm or foam) with eyes open or closed. In the light touch condition, fingertip touch provided only somatosensory information because subjects exerted less than 1 N of force with their fingertip to a force plate, mounted on a vertical support. In the heavy touch condition, mechanical support was available because subjects transmitted as much force to the force plate as they wished. In the no touch condition, subjects held the right forefinger above the force plate. Antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) root mean square (RMS) of center of pressure (CoP) sway and trunk velocity were larger in subjects with somatosensory loss than in control subjects, especially when standing on the foam surface. The effects of light and heavy touch were similar in the somatosensory loss and control groups. Fingertip somatosensory input through light touch attenuated both AP and ML trunk velocity as much as heavy touch. Light touch also reduced CoP sway compared to no touch, although the decrease in CoP sway was less effective than with heavy touch, particularly on the foam surface. The forces that were applied to the touch plate during light touch preceded movements of the CoP, lending support to the suggestion of a feedforward mechanism in which fingertip inputs trigger the activation of postural muscles for controlling body sway. These results have clinical implications for understanding how patients with peripheral neuropathy may benefit from a cane for postural stability in stance.

  17. The differences in postural reactions between scoliosis and scoliotic posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to demonstrate the differences in amplitudes of postural reactions in girls with scoliotic posture and idiopathic scoliosis. 28 girls aged 7-18 years old were involved in the study. Children attended to the Interschool Centre of Corrective Exercises in Starachowice. The research was conducted in June 2011. Spine research was made by Exhibeon digital radiography. Based on the size of the angle of spinal curvature there were identified: scoliotic posture: 1-9° and scoliosis: ≥10°. Postural reactions were examined by static-dynamic Tecnobody’s ST 310 Plus Stability System platform. There were 21 (75% children with scoliotic posture, and 7 (25% with idiopathic scoliosis. Student's t-test showed a significantly higher postural reactions for scoliosis in relation to scoliotic postures in case of: Average Forward-Backward Speed (OE, (p=0,05, Medium-Lateral Standard Deviation X (CE, (p=0,002, and Ellipse area (CE, (p=0,012. To verify the significant differences, demonstrating the lack of homogeneity of variance, the Mann–Whitney U-test has been used, which showed a significant differences between the scoliotic posture and scoliosis in case of: Medium-Lateral Standard Deviation X (CE, (p=0,0012, Average Forward-Backward Speed (OE, (p=0,0548, and Ellipse area (CE (p=0,0047. Together with an increase of the angle of curvature, the value of these postural reactions also grew. Most of postural reactions didn’t fit the norm.

  18. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Expansion of the Melrose Air Force Range, Curry and Roosevelt Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-18

    County’s status of meeting the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). EPA indicates that ambient concentrations of particulates and sulfur...EPA ruled on the attainment status of the national ambient air quality standards. 19 rN 0 UN Nr Nr a, -4 CL CA N o4 A r- No co 0 N Ar w -4- .- t- ai...Environmental Impacto --- N C Statement (EIS), or file a Finding Of Nto Slni Icant Impact (FONSI). In either case, docu-nenrration of the environmental analysis

  19. Effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Fabio A; Polastri, Paula F; Baptista, André M; Lirani-Silva, Ellen; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; Beretta, Victor S; Gobbi, Lilian T B

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nineteen people with PD and 11 neurologically healthy individuals performed three standing task conditions: bipedal standing, tandem and unipedal adapted standing; the individuals with PD performed the tasks in ON and OFF medication state. The participants with PD were distributed into 2 groups according to disease severity: unilateral group (n=8) and bilateral group (n=11). The two PD groups performed the evaluations both under and without the medication. Two force plates were used to analyze the posture. The symmetric index was calculated for various of center of pressure. ANOVA one-way (groups) and two-way (PD groups×medication), with repeated measures for medication, were calculated. For main effects of group, the bilateral group was more asymmetric than CG. For main effects of medication, only unipedal adapted standing presented effects of PD medication. There was PD groups×medication interaction. Under the effects of medication, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area than the bilateral group in unipedal adapted standing. In addition, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of mean velocity, RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area in unipedal standing and area in tandem adapted standing after a medication dose. Postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks was dependent on disease severity and medication state in people with PD. The bilateral group presented higher postural control asymmetry than the control and unilateral groups in challenging postural tasks. Finally, the medication dose was able to reduce postural control asymmetry in the unilateral group during challenging postural tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations between Tactile Sensory Threshold and Postural Performance and Effects of Healthy Aging and Subthreshold Vibrotactile Stimulation on Postural Outcomes in a Simple Dual Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Marius; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Specific activities that require concurrent processing of postural and cognitive tasks may increase the risk for falls in older adults. We investigated whether peripheral receptor sensitivity was associated with postural performance in a dual-task and whether an intervention in form of subthreshold vibration could affect performance. Ten younger (age: 20-35 years) and ten older adults (70-85 years) performed repeated auditory-verbal 1-back tasks while standing quietly on a force platform. Foot sole vibration was randomly added during several trials. Several postural control and performance measures were assessed and statistically analyzed (significance set to α-levels of .05). There were moderate correlations between peripheral sensitivity and several postural performance and control measures (r = .45 to .59). Several postural performance measures differed significantly between older and younger adults (p stimulation should focus on older adults whose balance is significantly affected.

  1. Rio 2016 financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    These documents include the report from independent auditors balance sheet, the statement of income, the statement of changes in equity, the statement of cash flows and the explanatory notes to the financial statements.

  2. Increased alertness, better than posture prioritization, explains dual-task performance in prosthesis users and controls under increasing postural and cognitive challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Charla L; Perry, Bonnie; Chow, John W; Wallace, Chris; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2017-11-01

    Sensorimotor impairments after limb amputation impose a threat to stability. Commonly described strategies for maintaining stability are the posture first strategy (prioritization of balance) and posture second strategy (prioritization of concurrent tasks). The existence of these strategies was examined in 13 below-knee prosthesis users and 15 controls during dual-task standing under increasing postural and cognitive challenge by evaluating path length, 95% sway area, and anterior-posterior and medial-lateral amplitudes of the center of pressure. The subjects stood on two force platforms under usual (hard surface/eyes open) and difficult (soft surface/eyes closed) conditions, first alone and while performing a cognitive task without and then with instruction on cognitive prioritization. During standing alone, sway was not significantly different between groups. After adding the cognitive task without prioritization instruction, prosthesis users increased sway more under the dual-task than single-task standing (p ≤ 0.028) during both usual and difficult conditions, favoring the posture second strategy. Controls, however, reduced dual-task sway under a greater postural challenge (p ≤ 0.017), suggesting the posture first strategy. With prioritization of the cognitive task, sway was unchanged or reduced in prosthesis users, suggesting departure from the posture second strategy, whereas controls maintained the posture first strategy. Individual analysis of dual tasking revealed that greater postural demand in controls and greater cognitive challenge in prosthesis users led to both reduced sway and improved cognitive performance, suggesting cognitive-motor facilitation. Thus, activation of additional resources through increased alertness, rather than posture prioritization, may explain dual-task performance in both prosthesis users and controls under increasing postural and cognitive challenge.

  3. POSTUR PADA WANITA HAMIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paryono .

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction: Pregnancy effects in changes on all body systems leading to a new balance women and maternal adaptation.Weight gain in pregnant women from both the uterus and breast development generally occurs at the front of the body, butwhen standing they were still able to maintain a posture that does not face. The purpose of this article is to examine thereasons why pregnant women do not fall to front and how the good attitude of the pregnant woman's body.Materials and Methods: Material of this article are literatures related to pregnancy and the pregnant woman's bodyp o s t u r e , a n d t h e y w e r e c o l l e c t e d b y l i t e r a t u r e ' s s t u d y a n d l i t e r a r y s t u d y .Discussion: Increased abdominal distension that makes tilting the pelvis forward, decreased abdominal muscle tone andincrease weight gain in late pregnancy requires a readjustment spinal curvature. Woman's center of gravity shifts forward.Lumbosakrum normal curve should be more curved and the curvature of the servikodorsal be formed to maintain balance.Assessment of anterior view, lateral and posterior body should include an understanding of the physical structures such asjoints and muscles as well as how the meridian pathways. To compensate for the anterior position of the enlarged uterus,lordosis shifting center of gravity to the back of the lower limbs. There is an increased sacroiliac joint mobility,sakrokoksigeal, and pubic joints during pregnancy, possibly due to hormonal changes. Individual assessments will berequired to determine the pattern of muscle for every person, especially for those who have musculoskeletal problems.Conclusions and Recommendations: The size of the stomach in a pregnant woman, then the gravity of the body changes.Body to be biased toward the rear, but this position makes your back hurt. Advice for pregnant women in order to maintainyour posture as follows: head upKeyword : Posture, Pregnancy, Women.

  4. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (ppostural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part from optimization of this multi-system interaction. Copyright © 2015

  5. Postural control and shoulder steadiness in F-16 pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Britt; Murray, Mike; Chreiteh, Shadi S

    2014-01-01

    to a control group (CG; N = 28) or training group (TG; N = 27). Postural control was tested in four different settings: Romberg with open and closed eyes, unilateral stance, and perturbation. Maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness was measured for shoulder elevation. RESULTS: At follow......-up, there was a significant between-group difference in the Romberg test with closed eyes only (95% confidence ellipse area; CG: 761 +/- 311 mm2; TG: 650 +/- 405 mm2). Prior to randomization, there were no significant differences in postural control and steadiness between 30 pilots who experienced neck pain within...... the previous 3 mo and 25 pilots without such pain. DISCUSSION: Impaired postural control and steadiness may only be quantifiable in individuals experiencing acute neck pain of certain intensity, and there may be a ceiling effect in the ability to improve these parameters. For individuals with highly developed...

  6. Human Posture and Movement Prediction based on Musculoskeletal Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Saeed Davoudabadi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis explores an optimization-based formulation, so-called inverse-inverse dynamics, for the prediction of human posture and motion dynamics performing various tasks. It is explained how this technique enables us to predict natural kinematic and kinetic patterns for human posture...... and motion using AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). AMS uses inverse dynamics to analyze musculoskeletal systems and is, therefore, limited by its dependency on input kinematics. We propose to alleviate this dependency by assuming that voluntary postures and movement strategies in humans are guided by a desire...... expenditure, joint forces and other physiological properties derived from the detailed musculoskeletal analysis. Several attempts have been made to uncover the principles underlying motion control strategies in the literature. In case of some movements, like human squat jumping, there is almost no doubt...

  7. Body posture and postural stability of people practicing qigong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Correct and stable posture is essential for the implementation of the majority of voluntary movements and locomotion. The study of postural stability is an element of clinical trials evaluating physical activity in order to determine the optimal therapeutic procedures. Qigong exercises are not only a form of prevention, helpful in maintaining wellbeing, but also a means of therapy in many diseases, including disorders of postural stability. Aim of the research: To analyse the association between the quality of posture and postural stability of people practicing qigong. Material and methods : The study involved 32 people. The mean age of those tested was 54 years. Posture study used optoelectronic method Diers formetric III 4D. Postural stability was tested on the platform Biodex Balance System. The studies were performed at the Posture Laboratory of the Institute of Physiotherapy at Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce. Results and conclusions : Spearman rank order correlation showed a positive correlation of relative rotation of the spine area with a general indicator of stability (p = 0.0206 at an average level (R = 0.4075 and with the index of the stability A/P (p = 0.0310, although at a lower level (R = 0.3819. With the increase in the relative rotation of the spine area the overall stability indicator and stability indicator A/P also increased. Significant positive correlations were also seen for the surface rotation (+max and a general indication of the stability and the stability index A/P. With the increase of surface rotation (+max of the spine the overall stability indicator and stability indicator A/P also increased.

  8. Evaluating the Ergonomic Benefit of a Wrist Brace on Wrist Posture, Muscle Activity, Rotational Stiffness, and Peak Shovel-Ground Impact Force During a Simulated Tree-Planting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Peter J; Cashaback, Joshua G A; Fischer, Steven L

    2017-09-01

    Background Tree planters are at a high risk for wrist injury due to awkward postures and high wrist loads experienced during each planting cycle, specifically at shovel-ground impact. Wrist joint stiffness provides a measure that integrates postural and loading information. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate wrist joint stiffness requirements at the instant of shovel-ground impact during tree planting and determine if a wrist brace could alter muscular contributions to wrist joint stiffness. Method Planters simulated tree planting with and without wearing a brace on their planting arm. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from six forearm muscles and wrist kinematics were collected and used to calculate muscular contributions to joint rotational stiffness about the wrist. Results Wrist joint stiffness increased with brace use, an unanticipated and negative consequence of wearing a brace. As a potential benefit, planters achieved a more neutrally oriented wrist angle about the flexion/extension axis, although a less neutral wrist angle about the ulnar/radial axis was observed. Muscle activity did not change between conditions. Conclusion The joint stiffness analysis, combining kinematic and sEMG information in a biologically relevant manner, revealed clear limitations with the interface between the brace grip and shovel handle that jeopardized the prophylactic benefits of the current brace design. This limitation was not as evident when considering kinematics and sEMG data independently. Application A neuromechanical model (joint rotational stiffness) enhanced our ability to evaluate the brace design relative to kinematic and sEMG parameter-based metrics alone.

  9. Effect of a Dynamic Seating Surface on Postural Control and Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Erna Rosenlund; Trew, Lisa

    Purpose: The purpose was to investigate if a seating system involving a dynamic material covering the seat back and base improves postural control, alignment and function in children with cerebral palsy and to investigate consequences of adapting The Seated Postural Control Measure to a target...... group with multifunctional disabilities. Relevance: Developing sitting systems for disabled persons is of great importance to avoid sitting problems, to increase the level of functioning and postural control which will have an impact on their daily living and activities. This project takes its starting...... Ethical Committee. Outcome measures were Seated Postural Control Measure (SPCM), which was modified to meet the children’s needs, was used to measure alignment and function. Force Sensitive Applications (FSA) on the seat surfaces was used to measure postural movements and interface pressure. All tests...

  10. The effects of foot morphology and anthropometry on unipodal postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica C. Alonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The maintenance of posture is a constant challenge for the body, as it requires rapid and accurate responses to unforeseen disturbances, which are needed to prevent falls and maintain balance. The purpose of the present study was to compare different types of plantar arch in relation to postural balance, and analyze the relationships between variations the plantar arch and anthropometric characteristics of the feet with unipedal static balance. We evaluated 100 men and women between the ages of 20 and 40 years old, to determine anthropometry and posturography with a force platform. There was a weak correlation between plantar arches and anthropometric measurements and postural balance, except for the length of the male foot, which showed a correlation between increased size and poorer static balance. We conclude that the type of plantar arch does not influence postural balance, and of the anthropometric factors, only foot length was related to postural balance.

  11. Decreasing internal focus of attention improves postural control during quiet standing in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafati, Gilel; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2011-12-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate whether and how decreasing the amount of attentional focus invested in postural control could affect bipedal postural control. Twelve participants were asked to stand upright as immobile as possible on a force platform in one control condition and one cognitive condition. In the latter condition, they performed a short-term digit-span memory task. Decreased center-of-gravity displacements and decreased center-of-foot-pressure displacements minus center-of-gravity displacements were observed in the cognitive condition relative to the control condition. These results suggest that shifting the attentional focus away from postural control by executing a concurrent attention-demanding task could increase postural performance and postural efficiency.

  12. Imaging Posture Veils Neural Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Thibault

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas modern brain imaging often demands holding body positions incongruent with everyday life, posture governs both neural activity and cognitive performance. Humans commonly perform while upright; yet, many neuroimaging methodologies require participants to remain motionless and adhere to non-ecological comportments within a confined space. This inconsistency between ecological postures and imaging constraints undermines the transferability and generalizability of many a neuroimaging assay.Here we highlight the influence of posture on brain function and behavior. Specifically, we challenge the tacit assumption that brain processes and cognitive performance are comparable across a spectrum of positions. We provide an integrative synthesis regarding the increasingly prominent influence of imaging postures on autonomic function, mental capacity, sensory thresholds, and neural activity. Arguing that neuroimagers and cognitive scientists could benefit from considering the influence posture wields on both general functioning and brain activity, we examine existing imaging technologies and the potential of portable and versatile imaging devices (e.g., functional near infrared spectroscopy. Finally, we discuss ways that accounting for posture may help unveil the complex brain processes of everyday cognition.

  13. Postural orientation and equilibrium: what do we need to know about neural control of balance to prevent falls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Fay B

    2006-09-01

    Postural control is no longer considered simply a summation of static reflexes but, rather, a complex skill based on the interaction of dynamic sensorimotor processes. The two main functional goals of postural behaviour are postural orientation and postural equilibrium. Postural orientation involves the active alignment of the trunk and head with respect to gravity, support surfaces, the visual surround and internal references. Sensory information from somatosensory, vestibular and visual systems is integrated, and the relative weights placed on each of these inputs are dependent on the goals of the movement task and the environmental context. Postural equilibrium involves the coordination of movement strategies to stabilise the centre of body mass during both self-initiated and externally triggered disturbances of stability. The specific response strategy selected depends not only on the characteristics of the external postural displacement but also on the individual's expectations, goals and prior experience. Anticipatory postural adjustments, prior to voluntary limb movement, serve to maintain postural stability by compensating for destabilising forces associated with moving a limb. The amount of cognitive processing required for postural control depends both on the complexity of the postural task and on the capability of the subject's postural control system. The control of posture involves many different underlying physiological systems that can be affected by pathology or sub-clinical constraints. Damage to any of the underlying systems will result in different, context-specific instabilities. The effective rehabilitation of balance to improve mobility and to prevent falls requires a better understanding of the multiple mechanisms underlying postural control.

  14. Robotic finger perturbation training improves finger postural steadiness and hand dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Yasuhide; Ikeda, Atsutoshi; Shinohara, Minoru

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand the effect of robotic finger perturbation training on steadiness in finger posture and hand dexterity in healthy young adults. A mobile robotic finger training system was designed to have the functions of high-speed mechanical response, two degrees of freedom, and adjustable loading amplitude and direction. Healthy young adults were assigned to one of the three groups: random perturbation training (RPT), constant force training (CFT), and control. Subjects in RPT and CFT performed steady posture training with their index finger using the robot in different modes: random force in RPT and constant force in CFT. After the 2-week intervention period, fluctuations of the index finger posture decreased only in RPT during steady position-matching tasks with an inertial load. Purdue pegboard test score improved also in RPT only. The relative change in finger postural fluctuations was negatively correlated with the relative change in the number of completed pegs in the pegboard test in RPT. The results indicate that finger posture training with random mechanical perturbations of varying amplitudes and directions of force is effective in improving finger postural steadiness and hand dexterity in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement in automatic postural coordination following alexander technique lessons in a person with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Timothy W; Horak, Fay B; Henry, Sharon M

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between abnormal postural coordination and back pain is unclear. The Alexander Technique (AT) aims to improve postural coordination by using conscious processes to alter automatic postural coordination and ongoing muscular activity, and it has been reported to reduce low back pain. This case report describes the use of the AT with a client with low back pain and the observed changes in automatic postural responses and back pain. The client was a 49-year-old woman with a 25-year history of left-sided, idiopathic, lumbrosacral back pain. Automatic postural coordination was measured using a force plate during horizontal platform translations and one-legged standing. The client was tested monthly for 4 months before AT lessons and for 3 months after lessons. Before lessons, she consistently had laterally asymmetric automatic postural responses to translations. After AT lessons, the magnitude and asymmetry of her responses and balance improved and her low back pain decreased. Further research is warranted to study whether AT lessons improve low back pain-associated abnormalities in automatic postural coordination and whether improving automatic postural coordination helps to reduce low back pain.

  16. Haptic cues for orientation and postural control in sighted and blind individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeka, J. J.; Easton, R. D.; Bentzen, B. L.; Lackner, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Haptic cues from fingertip contact with a stable surface attenuate body sway in subjects even when the contact forces are too small to provide physical support of the body. We investigated how haptic cues derived from contact of a cane with a stationary surface at low force levels aids postural control in sighted and congenitally blind individuals. Five sighted (eyes closed) and five congenitally blind subjects maintained a tandem Romberg stance in five conditions: (1) no cane; (2,3) touch contact (postural sway in all subjects, compared to the no-cane condition. A slanted cane was far more effective in reducing postural sway than was a perpendicular cane. Cane use also decreased head displacement of sighted subjects far more than that of blind subjects. These results suggest that head movement control is linked to postural control through gaze stabilization reflexes in sighted subjects; such reflexes are absent in congenitally blind individuals and may account for their higher levels of head displacement.

  17. Dynamic postural stability during advancing pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, J L; Chambers, A J; Daftary, A; Redfern, M S

    2010-08-26

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of experiencing a fall. Numerous anatomical, physiological, and hormonal alterations occur during pregnancy, but the influence of these factors on dynamic postural stability has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine dynamic postural stability in pregnant women during their second and third trimesters as well as in a group of non-pregnant control women. Eighty-one women (41 pregnant, 40 controls) participated stood on a force plate that translated anteroposteriorly at small, medium, and large magnitudes. Reaction time and center of pressure (COP) movement during the translations were analyzed. Trimester, perturbation direction, and perturbation magnitude were the independent variables in a mixed-model analysis of variance on each of the following dependent variables: reaction time, initial sway, total sway, and sway velocity. Reaction time to the perturbation was not significantly different between the groups. Initial sway, total sway, and sway velocity were significantly less during the third trimester than during the second trimester and when compared to the non-pregnant controls (Ppostural stability. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigating the Effects of Different Working Postures on Cognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Mohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study demonstrates that cognitive performance is affected by working postures. This study demonstrates that standard sitting posture is the best posture. Therefore, it is recommended that sitting posture can help in increasing cognitive performance in the workplace.

  19. Cinerama sickness and postural instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jelte E; Ledegang, Wietse D; Lubeck, Astrid J A; Stins, John F

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min after watching a 1 h 3D aviation documentary in a cinema. Sickness was significantly larger right after the movie than before, and in a lesser extent still so after 45 min. The average standard deviation of the lateral centre of pressure excursions was significantly larger only right afterwards. When low-pass filtered at 0.1 Hz, lateral and for-aft excursions were both significantly larger right after the movie, while for-aft excursions then remained larger even after 45 min. Speculating on previous findings, we predict more sickness and postural instability in 3D than in 2D movies, also suggesting a possible, but yet unknown risk for work-related activities and vehicle operation. Watching motion pictures may be sickening and posturally destabilising, but effects in a cinema are unknown. We, therefore, carried out an observational study showing that sickness then is mainly an issue during the exposure while postural instability is an issue afterwards.

  20. Statement to the Third Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Vienna, 3 September 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Third Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is being held at a time of major challenges to the nuclear arms control and disarmament regime. A verified, permanent, global ban on all types of nuclear explosive tests has been a key item on the international security agenda for nearly half a century. More than 2,000 nuclear explosive detonations have taken place since 1945, with the most recent ones in 1998. The CTBT has been characterized as the longest sought, hardest fought prize in the history of arms control. The Treaty, when implemented, will prohibit all nuclear explosions, in all environments, for all time. It will curb the development and testing of new, more advanced and more dangerous nuclear weapons, and will limit the possibilities for further nuclear proliferation. The Treaty will lead to the establishment of a comprehensive International Monitoring System to provide independent, impartial verification of compliance. The CTBT, along with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and a future Treaty Banning the Production of Fissile Material for Nuclear Weapons and Other Nuclear Explosive Devices (FMCT), forms an essential element of a network of negotiated, global treaties that will strengthen international efforts to prevent the further spread of nuclear weapons and to promote nuclear disarmament leading in time hopefully to a world without nuclear weapons. In the meantime, with the early entry into force of the CTBT, it would indeed be a significant achievement if this new century were to remain free of any nuclear test explosions. In this context, I encourage all signatory States to ratify the CTBT, and all those States that have yet to sign to do so and to ratify the Treaty, as soon as possible - so that another crucial pillar can be raised to support the edifice of global nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament norms. (IAEA)

  1. iPosture: The Size of Electronic Consumer Devices Affects our Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Maarten W.; Cuddy, Amy J. C.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether incidental body posture, prompted by working on electronic devices of different sizes, affects power-related behaviors. Grounded in research showing that adopting expansive body postures increases psychological power, we hypothesized that working on larger devices, which forces people to physically expand, causes users to behave more assertively. Participants were randomly assigned to interact with one of four electronic devices that varied in size: an iPod Touch, an iPad,...

  2. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Lam, Jennifer; Schultz, Rachel; Davis, Melissa

    2018-01-05

    Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl ( Pavo cristatus ) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl (Pavo cristatus and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior.

  4. Unliquidated Obligations for Air Force-Funded Projects Administered by The Naval Facilities Engineering Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... consolidated financial statements. The Air Force Audit Agency requested us to assist in its review of the Statement of Budgetary Resources for the Air Force General Fund by reviewing unliquidated obligations for Air Force-funded...

  5. Body posture and pulmonary function in mouth and nose breathing children: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana de Moura Milanesi

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Mouth breathing can lead to changes in body posture and pulmonary function. However, the consequences are still inconclusive and a number of studies are controversial. Objective: Evaluate and correlate spirometric parameters and postural measures in mouth breathing children, and compare them to nose breathers. Methods: two groups of 6 to 12 year-old children were evaluated: mouth breathers (MB, n = 55 and nose breathers (NB, n = 45. Spirometry and body posture analysis using photogrammetry (SAPo 0.68® v were carried out. The following spirometric measures were evaluated: peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio (% and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF 25-75%. Biophotogrammetric measures analyzed were: horizontal alignment of acromions (HAA and anterior superior iliac spine (HAASIS, Charpy angle, horizontal alignment of the head (HAH, cervical lordosis (CL, thoracic kyphosis (TK, lumbar lordosis (LL, cervical distance (CD and lumbar distance (LD. Results: There were no intergroup differences in spirometric and postural variables. Positive and moderate correlations were found between CL and CD measures with PEF, FEV1, FVC and FEF 25-75%, while weak correlations were observed between lumbar lordosis and PEF, FEV1 and FVC. Conclusion: The breathing mode had no influence on postural and respiratory measures. However, greater forward head posture, with smaller cervical lordosis, was related to higher lung volumes and flows in both groups.

  6. A global perspective on irritable bowel syndrome: a consensus statement of the World Gastroenterology Organisation Summit Task Force on irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2012-08-15

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common in western Europe and North America, and many aspects of its epidemiology, risk factors, and natural history have been described in these regions. Recent data suggest, however, that IBS is also common in the rest of the world and there has been some evidence to suggest some differences in demographics and presenting features between IBS in the west and as it is experienced elsewhere. The World Gastroenterology Organization, therefore, established a Task Force comprising experts on the topic from all parts of the world to examine IBS from a global perspective. IBS does, indeed, seem to be common worldwide though with some significant variations in prevalence rates between regions and countries and there may well be some potentially interesting variations in presenting symptoms and sex distribution. The global map of IBS is far from complete; community-based prevalence data is not available from many areas. Furthermore, while some general trends are evident in terms of IBS impact and demographics, international comparisons are hampered by differences in diagnostic criteria, study location and methodology; several important unanswered questions have been identified that should form the basis for future collaborative research and have the potential to shed light on this challenging disorder.

  7. Deficits in Lower Limb Muscle Reflex Contraction Latency and Peak Force Are Associated With Impairments in Postural Control and Gross Motor Skills of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Guo, X; Wang, Yuling; Chung, Raymond C K; Stat, Grad; Ki, W Y; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to compare neuromuscular performance, balance and motor skills proficiencies of typically developing children and those with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and to determine associations of these neuromuscular factors with balance and motor skills performances in children with DCD.One hundred thirty children with DCD and 117 typically developing children participated in the study. Medial hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies in response to an unexpected posterior-to-anterior trunk perturbation were assessed by electromyography and accelerometer. Hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle peak force and time to peak force were quantified by dynamometer, and balance and motor skills performances were evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC).Independent t tests revealed that children with DCD had longer hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies (P  0.025), than the controls. Multiple regression analysis accounting for basic demographics showed that gastrocnemius peak force was independently associated with the MABC balance subscore and ball skills subscore, accounting for 5.7% (P = 0.003) and 8.5% (P = 0.001) of the variance, respectively. Gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latency also explained 11.4% (P skills subscore.Children with DCD had delayed leg muscle activation onset times and lower isometric peak forces. Gastrocnemius peak force was associated with balance and ball skills performances, whereas timing of gastrocnemius muscle activation was a determinant of ball skill performance in the DCD population.

  8. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Chen, Janini; Freitag, Fernanda; Valente, Debora; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Voos, Mariana Callil; Chien, Hsin Fen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do n...

  9. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L. Yorzinski; Jennifer Lam; Rachel Schultz; Melissa Davis

    2018-01-01

    Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The h...

  10. Postural ortostatisk takykardi-syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Pors, Kirsten; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous condition of dysautonomia and suspected autoimmunity characterized by abnormal increments in heart rate upon assumption of the upright posture accompanied by symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and sympathoexcitation. An increase...... in heart rate equal to or greater than 30 bpm or to levels higher than 120 bpm during a head-up tilt test is the main diagnostic criterion. Management includes both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment focusing on stress management, volume expansion and heart rate control....

  11. Measuring postural sway in sitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Hansen, Lisbeth; Luun, Malene

    2015-01-01

    group appeared to result from an equally stable trunk supported on a less stable pelvis. Mediolateral marker sway and intersegmental angular sway showed a clearer age dependency. Trunk postural control does not appear to differ between children older and younger than 10 years old, but sagittal plane...... and younger than 10 years old, participated in this study. The children sat unsupported for 30 s while their posture and sway were quantified using stereophotogrammetry. The tendency in both age groups was to sit with a backward tilted pelvis and a kyphotic trunk. The sitting position was most varied...

  12. Postural stability and ankle sprain history in athletes compared to uninjured controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurnink, Arnold; Fransz, Duncan P; Kingma, Idsart; Verhagen, Evert A L M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2014-02-01

    Diminished postural stability is a risk factor for ankle sprain occurrence and ankle sprains result in impaired postural stability. To date, ankle sprain history has not been taken into account as a determinant of postural stability, while it could possibly specify subgroups of interest. Postural stability was compared between 18 field hockey athletes who had recovered from an ankle sprain (mean (SD); 3.6 (1.5) months post-injury), and 16 uninjured controls. Force plate and kinematics parameters were calculated during single-leg standing: mean center of pressure speed, mean absolute horizontal ground reaction force, mean absolute ankle angular velocity, and mean absolute hip angular velocity. Additionally, cluster analysis was applied to the 'injured' participants, and the cluster with diminished postural stability was compared to the other participants with respect to ankle sprain history. MANCOVA showed no significant difference between groups in postural stability (P = 0.68). A self-reported history of an (partial) ankle ligament rupture was typically present in the cluster with diminished postural stability. Subsequently, a 'preceding rupture' was added as a factor in the MANCOVA, which showed a significant association between diminished postural stability and a 'preceding rupture' (P = 0.01), for all four individual parameters (P: 0.001-0.029; Cohen's d: 0.96-2.23). Diminished postural stability is not apparent in all previously injured athletes. However, our analysis suggests that an (mild) ankle sprain with a preceding severe ankle sprain is associated with impaired balance ability. Therefore, sensorimotor training may be emphasized in this particular group and caution is warranted in return to play decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of anxiety and external attentional focus on postural control in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaeri, Seyede Zohreh; Azad, Akram; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Habibi, Seyed Amirhassan; Mandehgary Najafabadi, Mahbubeh; Saberi, Zakieh Sadat; Rahimzadegan, Hawre; Moradi, Saeed; Behzadipour, Saeed; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Khalaf, Kinda

    2018-01-01

    Background Although anxiety is a common non-motor outcome of Parkinson's disease (PD) affecting 40% of patients, little attention has been paid so far to its effects on balance impairment and postural control. Improvement of postural control through focusing on the environment (i.e. external focus) has been reported, but the role of anxiety, as a confounding variable, remains unclear. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety and attentional focus instruction on the standing postural control of PD patients. Methods Thirty-four patients with PD (17 with high anxiety (HA-PD) and 17 with low anxiety (LA-PD)), as well as 17 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects (HC) participated in the study. Postural control was evaluated using a combination of two levels of postural difficulty (standing on a rigid force plate surface with open eyes (RO) and standing on a foam surface with open eyes (FO)), as well as three attentional focus instructions (internal, external and no focus). Results Only the HA-PD group demonstrated significant postural control impairment as compared to the control, as indicated by significantly greater postural sway measures. Moreover, external focus significantly reduced postural sway in all participants especially during the FO condition. Conclusion The results of the current study provide evidence that anxiety influences balance control and postural stability in patients with PD, particularly those with high levels of anxiety. The results also confirmed that external focus is a potential strategy that significantly improves the postural control of these patients. Further investigation of clinical applicability is warranted towards developing effective therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment plans. PMID:29390029

  14. The effects of anxiety and external attentional focus on postural control in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaeri, Seyede Zohreh; Azad, Akram; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Habibi, Seyed Amirhassan; Mandehgary Najafabadi, Mahbubeh; Saberi, Zakieh Sadat; Rahimzadegan, Hawre; Moradi, Saeed; Behzadipour, Saeed; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Khalaf, Kinda

    2018-01-01

    Although anxiety is a common non-motor outcome of Parkinson's disease (PD) affecting 40% of patients, little attention has been paid so far to its effects on balance impairment and postural control. Improvement of postural control through focusing on the environment (i.e. external focus) has been reported, but the role of anxiety, as a confounding variable, remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety and attentional focus instruction on the standing postural control of PD patients. Thirty-four patients with PD (17 with high anxiety (HA-PD) and 17 with low anxiety (LA-PD)), as well as 17 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects (HC) participated in the study. Postural control was evaluated using a combination of two levels of postural difficulty (standing on a rigid force plate surface with open eyes (RO) and standing on a foam surface with open eyes (FO)), as well as three attentional focus instructions (internal, external and no focus). Only the HA-PD group demonstrated significant postural control impairment as compared to the control, as indicated by significantly greater postural sway measures. Moreover, external focus significantly reduced postural sway in all participants especially during the FO condition. The results of the current study provide evidence that anxiety influences balance control and postural stability in patients with PD, particularly those with high levels of anxiety. The results also confirmed that external focus is a potential strategy that significantly improves the postural control of these patients. Further investigation of clinical applicability is warranted towards developing effective therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment plans.

  15. Postural performance and strategy in the unipedal stance of soccer players at different levels of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric; Rivière, Terence; Marion, Vincent; Montoya, Richard; Dupui, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Sport training enhances the ability to use somatosensory and otolithic information, which improves postural capabilities. Postural changes are different according to the sport practiced, but few authors have analyzed subjects' postural performances to discriminate the expertise level among highly skilled athletes within a specific discipline. To compare the postural performance and the postural strategy between soccer players at different levels of competition (national and regional). Repeated measures with 1 between-groups factor (level of competition: national or regional) and 1 within-groups factor (vision: eyes open or eyes closed). Dependent variables were center-of-pressure surface area and velocity; total spectral energy; and percentage of low-, medium-, and high-frequency band. Sports performance laboratory. Fifteen national male soccer players (age = 24 +/- 3 years, height = 179 +/- 5 cm, mass = 72 +/- 3 kg) and 15 regional male soccer players (age = 23 +/- 3 years, height = 174 +/- 4 cm, mass = 68 +/- 5 kg) participated in the study. The subjects performed posturographic tests with eyes open and closed. While subjects performed static and dynamic posturographic tests, we measured the center of foot pressure on a force platform. Spatiotemporal center-of-pressure measurements were used to evaluate the postural performance, and a frequency analysis of the center-of-pressure excursions (fast Fourier transform) was conducted to estimate the postural strategy. Within a laboratory task, national soccer players produced better postural performances than regional players and had a different postural strategy. The national players were more stable than the regional players and used proprioception and vision information differently. In the test conditions specific to playing soccer, level of playing experience influenced postural control performance measures and strategies.

  16. Diabetes mellitus in older people: position statement on behalf of the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG), the European Diabetes Working Party for Older People (EDWPOP), and the International Task Force of Experts in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Alan; Morley, John E; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leo; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Bayer, Tony; Zeyfang, Andrej; Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Vischer, Ulrich; Woo, Jean; Chapman, Ian; Dunning, Trisha; Meneilly, Graydon; Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel; Gutierrez Robledo, Luis Miguel; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gadsby, Roger; Schernthaner, Guntram; Lorig, Kate

    2012-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent metabolic condition in ageing societies associated with high levels of morbidity, multiple therapies, and functional deterioration that challenges even the best of health care systems to deliver high-quality, individualized care. Most international clinical guidelines have ignored the often-unique issues of frailty, functional limitation, changes in mental health, and increasing dependency that characterize many aged patients with diabetes. A collaborative Expert Group of the IAGG and EDWPOP and an International Task Force have explored the key issues that affect diabetes in older people using a robust method comprising a Delphi process and an evidence-based review of the literature. Eight domains of interest were initially agreed and discussed: hypoglycemia, therapy, care home diabetes, influence of comorbidities, glucose targets, family/carer perspectives, diabetes education, and patient safety. A set of "consensus" statements was produced in each domain of interest. These form a foundation for future policy development in this area and should influence the clinical behavior and approach of all health professionals engaged in delivering diabetes care to older people. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Postural Control in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen-Raz, Reuven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Postural control was evaluated in 91 autistic, 166 normal, and 18 mentally retarded children using a computerized posturographic procedure. In comparison to normal children, the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance, and postures were more variable and less stable. (Author/JDD)

  18. Automated Assessment of Postural Stability (AAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    performed a battery of standard clinical tests of dynamic posture, whereas the fourth subject performed the stereotyped postures (e.g. movements restricted...Processing & Control [2] Napoli A, Ward C, Glass S, Tucker C, Obeid I (2016) “Automated Assessment of Postural Stability System,” IEEE Engineering in

  19. Comparison of postural stability between injured and uninjured ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, I-Jung; Liao, Jung-Hsien; Wu, Hong-Wen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2011-06-01

    Ballet movements require a limited base of support; thus, ballet dancers require a high level of postural control. However, postural stability in ballet dancers is still unclear and needs to be understood. To evaluate ballet dancers' postural stability in performing single-leg standing, the en pointe task, and the first and fifth positions and to determine differences in task performance among healthy nondancers, healthy dancers, and dancers with ankle sprains. Controlled laboratory study. Injured dancers, uninjured dancers, and nondancers were recruited for this study (N = 33 age-matched participants; n= 11 per group). The tasks tested were single-leg standing with eyes open and closed, first position, fifth position, and en pointe. Center of pressure parameters were calculated from the ground-reaction force collected with 1 force plate. Analysis of variance was used to assess the differences of center of pressure parameters among 3 groups in single-leg standing; independent t test was used to examine the differences of center of pressure parameters between injured and uninjured dancers. During single-leg standing, injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and total trajectory of center of pressure, compared with the uninjured dancers and nondancers. During the first and fifth positions, the injured dancers demonstrated significantly greater standard deviation of center of pressure position in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, compared with the uninjured dancers. During en pointe, the injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and the anterior-posterior direction, compared with the uninjured dancers. The injured and uninjured dancers demonstrated differences in postural stability in the medial-lateral direction during single-leg standing and the ballet postures. Although the injured dancers received ballet training, their postural stability

  20. Closed loop kinesthetic feedback for postural control rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vérité, Fabien; Bachta, Wael; Morel, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Postural control rehabilitation may benefit from the use of smart devices providing biofeedback. This approach consists of increasing the patients perception of their postural state. Namely, postural state is monitored and fed back in real time to the patients through one or more sensory channels. This allows implementing rehabilitation exercises where the patients control their posture with the help of additional sensory inputs. In this paper, a closed loop control of the Center-Of-Pressure (CoP) based on kinesthetic feedback is proposed as a new form of biofeedback. The motion of a one Degree of Freedom (DoF) translational device, lightly touched by the patient's forefinger, is servoed to the patient's CoP position extracted from the measurements of a force plate on which he/she stands. As a result, the patient's CoP can be controllably displaced. A first set of experiments is used to prove the feasibility of this closed-loop control under ideal conditions favoring the perception of the kinesthetic feedback, while the subject is totally unaware of the context. A second set of experiments is then proposed to evaluate the robustness of this approach under experimental conditions that are more realistic with regards to the clinical context of a rehabilitation program involving biofeedback-based exercises.

  1. Comparing postural balance among older adults and Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Andrelino de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare postural balance among healthy older adults and Parkinson's disease (PD patients during one-legged stance balance. We recruited 36 individuals of both sexes and divided them into two groups: healthy older adults (HG, and individuals with PD (PG. All the participants were assessed through a single-leg balance test, with eyes open, during 30 seconds (30 seconds of rest across trials on a force platform. Balance parameters were computed from mean across trials to quantify postural control: center of pressure (COP area and mean velocity in both directions of movement, anterior-posterior and medial-lateral. Significant differences between-group were reported for area of COP (P=0.002 and mean velocity in anterior-posterior direction (P=0.037, where poor postural control was related to PD patients rather than to healthy individuals. One-legged stance balance was a sensitive task used to discriminate poor postural control in Parkinson individuals.

  2. Effects of changes in skiing posture on the kinetics of the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Maki; Shino, Konsei; Yoshimoto, Yoji; Inoue, Satoru; Sato, Mutsumi; Nakata, Ken

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of changes in the skiing posture on mechanical stress across the knee joint. The aim of the present study was to establish a safer form of skiing for the prevention of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee (ACL). Ten healthy volunteers were placed on a force plate on an artificial slope, and assumed forward and backward bending postures with a single leg by changing their centre of gravity. The knee flexion angles were limited to approximately 30 degrees by orthotics in each posture. Joint moments of the lower extremity were analyzed using a motion analysis system, and the muscle activities of the lower extremity were recorded by EMG and digitised to integrated EMG in each posture. In addition, extrusion of the lower leg by the boot was measured using a force sensor sheet inserted behind the calf. We found that the extension moment of the hip and ankle joints, and muscular activity of the hamstrings were increased in forward bending, whereas the extension moment of the knee and muscular activity of the quadriceps were decreased. Conversely, the muscular activity of the quadriceps, the flexion moment of the hip, extension moment of the knee joint, and pressure of the boot were increased in backward bending, whereas muscular activity of the hamstrings was decreased. The dependency on the hamstrings increased in forward bending in a skiing posture on a slope with slight knee flexion. Therefore, forward bending seemed to be an advantageous posture for the prevention of ACL injury. Conversely, in a backward bending skiing posture, the extension moment of the knee joint produced by muscle contraction of the quadriceps also increased imbalance in the hamstrings. The results of this study suggest that the internal force exerted by the quadriceps, in addition to the passive factor of extrusion of the lower leg by the boot, may contribute to non-contact ACL injury in a backward bending posture while skiing.

  3. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD. Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do not improve gait and posture in PD.

  4. Visual Vection does not Perturb Squatting Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Gilles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vision contributes fundamentally to the control of the standing posture. The illusion of self motion falsely perceived (vection increases postural sway while standing. In this paper we examine the effect of vection on both standing and deep squatting with the hypothesis that the squatting posture should not be disturbed by the conflict of sensory information due to vection. The results show that standing posture only was affected by the visual stimuli. The widespread use of squatting for work as well as rest could be due in part to this lack of effect of sensory perturbation on postural stability.

  5. Dynamic postural control and associated attentional demands in contemporary dancers versus non-dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois-Leclerc, Geneviève; Remaud, Anthony; Bilodeau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Postural control is not a fully automatic process, but requires a certain level of attention, particularly as the difficulty of the postural task increases. This study aimed at testing whether experienced contemporary dancers, because of their specialized training involving the control of posture/balance, would present with a dual-task performance suggesting lesser attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control compared with non-dancers. Twenty dancers and 16 non-dancers performed a dynamic postural tracking task in both antero-posterior and side-to-side directions, while standing on a force platform. The postural task was performed, in turn, 1) as a stand-alone task, and concurrently with both 2) a simple reaction time task and 3) a choice reaction time task. Postural control performance was estimated through variables calculated from centre of pressure movements. Although no overall group difference was found in reaction time values, we found a better ability to control the side to side movements of the centre of pressure during the tracking task in dancers compared with non-dancers, which was dependent on the secondary task. This suggests that such increased ability is influenced by available attentional resources.

  6. Dynamic postural control and associated attentional demands in contemporary dancers versus non-dancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Sirois-Leclerc

    Full Text Available Postural control is not a fully automatic process, but requires a certain level of attention, particularly as the difficulty of the postural task increases. This study aimed at testing whether experienced contemporary dancers, because of their specialized training involving the control of posture/balance, would present with a dual-task performance suggesting lesser attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control compared with non-dancers. Twenty dancers and 16 non-dancers performed a dynamic postural tracking task in both antero-posterior and side-to-side directions, while standing on a force platform. The postural task was performed, in turn, 1 as a stand-alone task, and concurrently with both 2 a simple reaction time task and 3 a choice reaction time task. Postural control performance was estimated through variables calculated from centre of pressure movements. Although no overall group difference was found in reaction time values, we found a better ability to control the side to side movements of the centre of pressure during the tracking task in dancers compared with non-dancers, which was dependent on the secondary task. This suggests that such increased ability is influenced by available attentional resources.

  7. Effect of higher muscle coactivation on standing postural response to perturbation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Koutatsu; Okita, Yusuke; Ogaya, Shinya; Tsuboyama, Tadao

    2017-04-01

    Although several studies have reported that muscle coactivation during postural control increases with age, the effect of higher muscle coactivation on standing postural response to perturbation is unknown. To investigate whether higher muscle coactivation affects standing postural response to perturbation in older adults. Thirty-four community-dwelling older participants were randomly assigned either to the coactivation group (CG), where muscle coactivation was increased intentionally, or to the non-coactivation group (NCG). The participants were instructed to stand on a force plate that moved forward or backward. Electromyography data were collected from the lower leg muscles. We requested the participants in the CG to increase the activity of their tibialis anterior, and to maintain this posture during the tasks. We moved the force plate with a constant amplitude and velocity, and measured kinematic data with a camera during the tasks. During forward transfer, the knee extension and hip flexion decreased in the CG after perturbation compared to NCG, and the trunk extension angle increased. The center of pressure (COP) displacement decreased around the peak of the movement in the CG compared to NCG. During backward transfer, ankle dorsal and knee flexion changed after perturbation in the CG compared to NCG. Our study found that higher muscle coactivation inhibits lower limb and COP movement as well as increases trunk tilt and the risk for falls during forward perturbations. Postural control with higher coactivation appears to be inefficient for maintaining balance during the backward sway of posture.

  8. The contribution of postural balance analysis in older adult fallers: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzigalli, L; Micheletti Cremasco, M; Mulasso, A; Rainoldi, A

    2016-04-01

    Falls are a serious health problem for older adults. Several studies have identified the decline of postural balance as one of the main risk factors for falls. Contrary to what may be believed, the capability of force platform measurements to predict falls remains uncertain. The focus of this narrative review is the identification of postural characteristics of older adults at risk of falling using both static and dynamic postural balance assessments. The literature analysis was conducted on Medline/PubMed. The search ended in May 2015. Centre of pressure (CoP) path length, CoP velocity and sway in medial lateral and anterior-posterior are the variables that distinguish older adult fallers from non-fallers. Recommendations to medical personnel on how to provide efficient balance training for older adults are offered, discussing the relevance and limitations of postural stability on static and dynamic board in falling risk prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of knee and ankle muscle fatigue on postural control in the unipedal stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizid, Riadh; Margnes, Eric; François, Yrieix; Jully, Jean Louis; Gonzalez, Gerard; Dupui, Philippe; Paillard, Thierry

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute muscle fatigue of the ankle and knee musculature on postural control by immediate measures after performing fatiguing tasks (POST condition). One group of subjects (n = 8) performed a fatiguing task by voluntary contractions of the triceps surae (group TRI) and the other (n = 9) performed a fatiguing task by voluntary contractions of the quadriceps femoris (group QUA). Each muscle group was exercised until the loss of maximal voluntary contraction torque reached 50% (isokinetic dynamometer). Posture was assessed by measuring the centre of foot pressure (COP) with a force platform during a test of unipedal quiet standing posture with eyes closed. Initially (in PRE condition), the mean COP velocity was not significantly different between group TRI and group QUA. In POST condition, the mean COP velocity increased more in group QUA than in group TRI. The postural control was more impaired by knee muscle fatigue than by ankle muscle fatigue.

  10. INFLUENCE OF INJURY ON DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL IN RUNNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meardon, Stacey; Klusendorf, Anna; Kernozek, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Injury has been linked with altered postural control in active populations. The association between running injury and dynamic postural control has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to examine dynamic postural control in injured and uninjured runners using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Time to Stabilization (TTS) of ground reaction forces following a single-leg landing, and postural stability indices reflecting the fluctuations in GRFs during single-leg landing and stabilization tasks (forward and lateral hop). It was hypothesized that dynamic postural control differences would exist between runners with a history of injury that interrupted training for ≥7 days (INJ) when compared to runners without injury (CON). Case-control study. Twenty-two INJ (14 F, 8 M; 23.7 ± 2.1 y; 22.3 ± 2.8 kg/m2; 29.5 ± 16.3 mi/wk) currently running > 50% pre-injury mileage without pain were compared with twenty-two matched CON (14F, 8M; 22.7 ± 1.2 y; 22.7 ± 2.7 kg/m2; 31.2 ± 19.6 mi/wk). INJ group was stratified by site of injury into two groups (Hip/Thigh/Knee and Lower Leg/Ankle/Foot) for secondary analysis. Leg length-normalized anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial reach distances on the SEBT, medial/lateral and anterior/posterior ground reaction force TTS, directional postural stability indices, and a composite dynamic postural stability index (DPSI), were assessed using mixed model ANOVA (α=0.05) and effect sizes (d). No group X direction interaction or group differences were observed for the SEBT (p=0.51, 0.71) or TTS (p=0.83, 0.72) measures. A group X direction interaction was found for postural stability indices during the forward landing task (ppostural stability index (VPSI) (p=0.01 for both, d=0.80, 0.95) and DPSI (p=0.01, 0.02, d=0.75, 0.93) when compared to CON suggesting impaired balance control. A group X direction interaction was also found for postural stability indices during the lateral landing

  11. Spinal lordosis optimizes the requirements for a stable erect posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Liebetrau, Anne; Schinowski, David; Wulf, Thomas; de Lussanet, Marc H E

    2012-04-16

    Lordosis is the bending of the lumbar spine that gives the vertebral column of humans its characteristic ventrally convex curvature. Infants develop lordosis around the time when they acquire bipedal locomotion. Even macaques develop a lordosis when they are trained to walk bipedally. The aim of this study was to investigate why humans and some animals develop a lumbar lordosis while learning to walk bipedally. We developed a musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine, that includes an asymmetric, dorsally shifted location of the spinal column in the body, realistic moment arms, and physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA) of the muscles as well as realistic force-length and force-velocity relationships. The model was used to analyze the stability of an upright body posture. According to our results, lordosis reduces the local joint torques necessary for an equilibrium of the vertebral column during an erect posture. At the same time lordosis increases the demands on the global muscles to provide stability. We conclude that the development of a spinal lordosis is a compromise between the stability requirements of an erect posture and the necessity of torque equilibria at each spinal segment.

  12. Spinal lordosis optimizes the requirements for a stable erect posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Heiko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lordosis is the bending of the lumbar spine that gives the vertebral column of humans its characteristic ventrally convex curvature. Infants develop lordosis around the time when they acquire bipedal locomotion. Even macaques develop a lordosis when they are trained to walk bipedally. The aim of this study was to investigate why humans and some animals develop a lumbar lordosis while learning to walk bipedally. Results We developed a musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine, that includes an asymmetric, dorsally shifted location of the spinal column in the body, realistic moment arms, and physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA of the muscles as well as realistic force-length and force-velocity relationships. The model was used to analyze the stability of an upright body posture. According to our results, lordosis reduces the local joint torques necessary for an equilibrium of the vertebral column during an erect posture. At the same time lordosis increases the demands on the global muscles to provide stability. Conclusions We conclude that the development of a spinal lordosis is a compromise between the stability requirements of an erect posture and the necessity of torque equilibria at each spinal segment.

  13. Opening statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordenfelt, J.

    1992-01-01

    A brief survey of recent political events and international relations shows the significance of strengthening the efforts in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation in Asia and Pacific region. On the nuclear side there is a general agreement on the need of strengthening the IAEA safeguards system. Efforts are also under way to strengthen other existing regimes, for example, the Missile Technology Control regime and the Australia Group. There have been recent developments in important improvement and normalization of relations between the states involved in the region of Asia-Pacific. The United States and the former Soviet Union began to adjust their force structures in the region to reflect the emerging post-cold-war realities. In the wake of these changes, proposals have been made for various more formal mechanisms to be established to deal with arms control and other issues affecting regional peace and security. This shows the importance of regional meetings on the cited subjects

  14. Postural risk assessment of mechanised firewood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Aminti, Giovanni; De Francesco, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    The study assessed the postural risk of mechanised firewood processing with eight machines, representing the main technology solutions available on the market. Assessment was conducted with the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS) on 1000 still frames randomly extracted from videotaped work samples. The postural risk associated with firewood processing was variable and associated with technology type. Simple, manually operated new machines incurred a higher postural risk compared with semi- or fully automatic machines. In contrast, new semi-automatic and automatic machines were generally free from postural risk. In all cases, attention should be paid to postural risk that may occur during blockage resolution. The study did not cover the postural risk of firewood processing sites as a whole. The study provided useful information for selecting firewood processing machinery and for improving firewood machinery design, as part of a more articulate strategy aimed at enhancing the safety of firewood processing work sites. Practitioner Summary: The postural risk associated with mechanised firewood processing (eg cutting and splitting) depends on the type of equipment. Postural risk is highest (OWAS Action Category 2) with new in-line machines, designed for operation by a single worker. Fully automatic machines present minimum postural risk, except during blockage resolution.

  15. Postural stability is compromised by fatiguing overhead work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Maury A

    2003-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, 16 participants performed a repetitive overhead tapping task for 3 hours or until self-terminated due to substantial shoulder discomfort. Several measures of postural sway and stability were obtained using a force plate, both during quiet standing and during performance of the tapping task. Sway area and peak sway velocity showed consistent increases with time, whereas changes in average velocity and peak whole-body center-of-mass acceleration were either small or nonsignificant. Although relatively insensitive to several task variables, changes in sway areas and peak velocities were substantially larger in trials terminated by the participants. It is argued that fatigue plays a more important role than simple task duration in causing the observed increases in sway, and hence decreases in postural stability. Potential whole-body consequences of localized musculoskeletal stresses appear supported by the results, and implications for safety, risks of falls, and work scheduling are discussed.

  16. Postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes

    2011-12-01

    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  17. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  18. Transfer of lumbosacral load to iliac bones and legs Part 2: Loading of the sacroiliac joints when lifting in a stooped posture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Snijders (Chris); A. Vleeming (Andry); R. Stoeckart (Rob)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractWe developed a biomechanical model of load transfer by the sacroiliac joints in relation to posture. A description is given of two ways in which the transfer of lumbar load to the pelvis in a stooped posture can take place. One way concerns ligament and muscle forces that act on the

  19. Detecting altered postural control after cerebral concussion in athletes with normal postural stability

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanaugh, J; Guskiewicz, K; Giuliani, C; Marshall, S; Mercer, V; Stergiou, N

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if approximate entropy (ApEn), a regularity statistic from non-linear dynamics, could detect changes in postural control during quiet standing in athletes with normal postural stability after cerebral concussion.

  20. Common postural defects among music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Financial Statements Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on analyzing of a consolidated financial statements of a hypothetically SME. The interpretation of the financial position and performances is based on the more than 40 financial key ratios computed by using financial data from consolidated income statement, consolidated financial position and cash flow. However additional data from notes to financial statements are provided.

  2. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E.; Gadd, Nichole E.; Caldwell, Erin E.; Peters, Brian T.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Oddsson, Lars I. E.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory—visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orie...

  3. Education and the Prevention of Postural Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olchowska-Kotala Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine: whether and at what stage of education is proper body posture learned, the intention of young adults to participate in activities teaching proper posture, and the effects of factors related with the said intention. Methods. The study involved 430 university students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric data was collected. Participants completed questionnaires assessing physical activity level (IPAQ and their intention to participate in extracurricular activities teaching proper posture while sitting or walking, proper running technique, corrective gymnastics, or weight loss exercises. A self-assessment of posture, physical fitness, attractiveness, and body satisfaction was also completed. Results. Lower back pain was experienced by 41% of the respondents. Most were taught proper posture-related habits in primary school, followed by secondary school, and then at university. Many students expressed their intention to participate in the extracurricular activities. None of the questionnaire variables were associated with the intention to learn proper walking posture or proper running technique. The intention to participate in classes teaching proper sitting posture was associated with lower back pain in women and low physical activity level in men. In women, a relationship was found between the intention to participate in weight loss exercises and body dissatisfaction, high BMI, and poor self-evaluations of posture and attractiveness. In men, this activity was associated with body dissatisfaction. Conclusions. There is a need for further education on the development of proper postural habits at the university level.

  4. The dentist's operating posture - ergonomic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-06-15

    The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist's physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture.

  5. Combination of BTrackS and Geri-Fit as a targeted approach for assessing and reducing the postural sway of older adults with high fall risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goble DJ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Goble, Mason C Hearn, Harsimran S Baweja School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, College of Health and Human Services, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Atypically high postural sway measured by a force plate is a known risk factor for falls in older adults. Further, it has been shown that small, but significant, reductions in postural sway are possible with various balance exercise interventions. In the present study, a new low-cost force-plate technology called the Balance Tracking System (BTrackS was utilized to assess postural sway of older adults before and after 90 days of a well-established exercise program called Geri-Fit. Results showed an overall reduction in postural sway across all participants from pre- to post-intervention. However, the magnitude of effects was significantly influenced by the amount of postural sway demonstrated by individuals prior to Geri-Fit training. Specifically, more participants with atypically high postural sway pre-intervention experienced an overall postural sway reduction. These reductions experienced were typically greater than the minimum detectable change statistic for the BTrackS Balance Test. Taken together, these findings suggest that BTrackS is an effective means of identifying older adults with elevated postural sway, who are likely to benefit from Geri-Fit training to mitigate fall risk. Keywords: aging, balance, BTrackS, Geri-Fit, postural sway, fall risk

  6. Effects of Shift Work on the Postural and Psychomotor Performance of Night Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Barela, José A; Aguiar, Stefane A; Carvalho, Adriana N S; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds) and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes) were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (pwork system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents.

  7. Influence of dental occlusion on postural control and plantar pressure distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnweber, Benjamin; Adjami, Frederic; Schuster, Gabriele; Kopp, Stefan; Natrup, Jörg; Erbe, Christina; Ohlendorf, Daniela

    2017-11-01

    The number of studies investigating correlations between the temporomandibular system and body posture, postural control or plantar pressure distribution is continuously increasing. If a connection can be found, it is often of minor influence or for only a single parameter. However, small subject groups are critical. This study was conducted to define correlations between dental parameters, postural control and plantar pressure distribution in healthy males. In this study, 87 male subjects with an average age of 25.23 ± 3.5 years (ranging from 18 to 35 years) were examined. Dental casts of the subjects were analyzed. Postural control and plantar pressure distribution were recorded by a force platform. Possible orthodontic and orthopedic factors of influence were determined by either an anamnesis or a questionnaire. All tests performed were randomized and repeated three times each for intercuspal position (ICP) and blocked occlusion (BO). For a statistical analysis of the results, non-parametric tests (Wilcoxon-Matched-Pairs-Test, Kruskall-Wallis-Test) were used. A revision of the results via Bonferroni-Holm correction was considered. ICP increases body sway in the frontal (p ≤ 0.01) and sagittal planes (p ≤ 0.03) compared to BO, whereas all other 29 correlations were independent of the occlusion position. For both of the ICP or BO cases, Angle-class, midline-displacement, crossbite, or orthodontic therapy were found to have no influence on postural control or plantar pressure distribution (p > 0.05). However, the contact time of the left foot decreased (p ≤ 0.001) while detecting the plantar pressure distribution in each position. Persistent dental parameters have no effect on postural sway. In addition, postural control and plantar pressure distribution have been found to be independent postural criteria.

  8. Fatiguing exercise intensity influences the relationship between parameters reflecting neuromuscular function and postural control variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Boyas

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fatiguing exercise intensity on the nature and extent of fatigue-induced changes in neuromuscular function and postural stability in quiet standing. We also explored the contribution of selected neuromuscular mechanisms involved in force production to postural stability impairment observed following fatigue using an approach based on multivariate regressions. Eighteen young subjects performed 30-s postural trials on one leg with their eyes closed. Postural trials were performed before and after fatiguing exercises of different intensities: 25, 50 and 75% of maximal isometric plantarflexor torque. Fatiguing exercises consisted of sustaining a plantarflexor isometric contraction at the target intensity until task failure. Maximal isometric plantarflexor torque, electromyographic activity of plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscles, activation level (twitch interpolation technique and twitch contractile properties of plantarflexors were used to characterize neuromuscular function. The 25% exercise was associated with greater central fatigue whereas the 50 and 75% exercises involved mostly peripheral fatigue. However, all fatiguing exercises induced similar alterations in postural stability, which was unexpected considering previous literature. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that fatigue-related changes in selected parameters related to neuromuscular function could explain more than half (0.51≤R(2≤0.82 of the changes in postural variables for the 25% exercise. On the other hand, regression models were less predictive (0.17≤R(2≤0.73 for the 50 and 75% exercises. This study suggests that fatiguing exercise intensity does not influence the extent of postural stability impairment, but does influence the type of fatigue induced and the neuromuscular function predictors explaining changes in postural variables.

  9. Influence of the visual environment on the postural stability in healthy older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke-Wavell, K; Perrett, L K; Howarth, P A; Haslam, R A

    2002-01-01

    A poor postural stability in older people is associated with an increased risk of falling. It is recognized that visual environment factors (such as poor lighting and repeating patterns on escalators) may contribute to falls, but little is known about the effects of the visual environment on postural stability in the elderly. To determine whether the postural stability of older women (using body sway as a measure) differed under five different visual environment conditions. Subjects were 33 healthy women aged 65-76 years. Body sway was measured using an electronic force platform which identified the location of their centre of gravity every 0.05 s. Maximal lateral sway and anteroposterior sway were determined and the sway velocity calculated over 1-min trial periods. Body sway was measured under each of the following conditions: (1) normal laboratory lighting (186 lx); (2) moderate lighting (10 lx); (3) dim lighting (1 lx); (4) eyes closed, and (5) repeating pattern projected onto a wall. Each measure of the postural stability was significantly poorer in condition 4 (eyes closed) than in all other conditions. Anteroposterior sway was greater in condition 3 than in conditions 1 and 2, whilst the sway velocity was greater in condition 3 than in condition 2. Lateral sway did not differ significantly between different lighting levels (conditions 1-3). A projected repeating pattern (condition 5) did not significantly influence the postural stability relative to condition 1. The substantially greater body sway with eyes closed than with eyes open confirms the importance of vision in maintaining the postural stability. At the lowest light level, the body sway was significantly increased as compared with the other light levels, but was still substantially smaller than on closing the eyes. A projected repeating pattern did not influence the postural stability. Dim lighting levels and removing visual input appear to be associated with a poorer postural stability in older

  10. Aging worsens the effects of sleep deprivation on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Falls increase with age and cause significant injuries in the elderly. This study aimed to determine whether age modulates the interactions between sleep deprivation and postural control and to evaluate how attention influences these interactions in the elderly. Fifteen young (24±2.7 y.o.) and 15 older adults (64±3.2 y.o.) stood still on a force plate after a night of sleep and after total sleep deprivation. Center of pressure range and velocity were measured with eyes open and with eyes closed while participants performed an interference task, a control task, and no cognitive task. Sleep deprivation increased the antero-posterior range of center of pressure in both age groups and center of pressure speed in older participants only. In elderly participants, the destabilizing effects of sleep deprivation were more pronounced with eyes closed. The interference task did not alter postural control beyond the destabilization induced by sleep loss in older subjects. It was concluded that sleep loss has greater destabilizing effects on postural control in older than in younger participants, and may therefore increase the risk of falls in the elderly.

  11. Aging Worsens the Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Falls increase with age and cause significant injuries in the elderly. This study aimed to determine whether age modulates the interactions between sleep deprivation and postural control and to evaluate how attention influences these interactions in the elderly. Fifteen young (24±2.7 y.o.) and 15 older adults (64±3.2 y.o.) stood still on a force plate after a night of sleep and after total sleep deprivation. Center of pressure range and velocity were measured with eyes open and with eyes closed while participants performed an interference task, a control task, and no cognitive task. Sleep deprivation increased the antero-posterior range of center of pressure in both age groups and center of pressure speed in older participants only. In elderly participants, the destabilizing effects of sleep deprivation were more pronounced with eyes closed. The interference task did not alter postural control beyond the destabilization induced by sleep loss in older subjects. It was concluded that sleep loss has greater destabilizing effects on postural control in older than in younger participants, and may therefore increase the risk of falls in the elderly. PMID:22163330

  12. Dual task and postural control in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pires de Andrade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with neurodegenerative diseases are required to use cognitive resources while maintaining postural control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a frontal cognitive task on postural control in patients with Alzheimer, Parkinson and controls. Thirty-eight participants were instructed to stand upright on a force platform in two experimental conditions: single and dual task. Participants with Parkinson's disease presented an increase in the coefficient of variation greater than 100% in the dual task as compared to the single task for center of pressure (COP area and COP path. In addition, patients with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease had a higher number of errors during the execution of the cognitive task when compared to the group of elderly without neurodegenerative diseases. The motor cortex, which is engaged in postural control, does not seem to compete with frontal brain regions in the performance of the cognitive task. However, patients with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease presented worsened performance in cognitive task.

  13. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck...... pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded...... to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p balance, measured as CEA (p

  14. Associations between Tactile Sensory Threshold and Postural Performance and Effects of Healthy Aging and Subthreshold Vibrotactile Stimulation on Postural Outcomes in a Simple Dual Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Marius; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Specific activities that require concurrent processing of postural and cognitive tasks may increase the risk for falls in older adults. We investigated whether peripheral receptor sensitivity was associated with postural performance in a dual-task and whether an intervention in form of subthreshold vibration could affect performance. Ten younger (age: 20–35 years) and ten older adults (70–85 years) performed repeated auditory-verbal 1-back tasks while standing quietly on a force platform. Foot sole vibration was randomly added during several trials. Several postural control and performance measures were assessed and statistically analyzed (significance set to α-levels of .05). There were moderate correlations between peripheral sensitivity and several postural performance and control measures (r = .45 to .59). Several postural performance measures differed significantly between older and younger adults (p older adults' performance in dual-tasks, and peripheral sensitivity may be a contributor to the observed differences. A vibration intervention may only be useful when there are more severe impairments of the sensorimotor system. Hence, future research regarding the efficacy of sensorimotor interventions in the form of vibrotactile stimulation should focus on older adults whose balance is significantly affected. PMID:27143967

  15. Associations between Tactile Sensory Threshold and Postural Performance and Effects of Healthy Aging and Subthreshold Vibrotactile Stimulation on Postural Outcomes in a Simple Dual Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dettmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific activities that require concurrent processing of postural and cognitive tasks may increase the risk for falls in older adults. We investigated whether peripheral receptor sensitivity was associated with postural performance in a dual-task and whether an intervention in form of subthreshold vibration could affect performance. Ten younger (age: 20–35 years and ten older adults (70–85 years performed repeated auditory-verbal 1-back tasks while standing quietly on a force platform. Foot sole vibration was randomly added during several trials. Several postural control and performance measures were assessed and statistically analyzed (significance set to α-levels of .05. There were moderate correlations between peripheral sensitivity and several postural performance and control measures (r=.45 to .59. Several postural performance measures differed significantly between older and younger adults (p<0.05; addition of vibration did not affect outcome measures. Aging affects healthy older adults’ performance in dual-tasks, and peripheral sensitivity may be a contributor to the observed differences. A vibration intervention may only be useful when there are more severe impairments of the sensorimotor system. Hence, future research regarding the efficacy of sensorimotor interventions in the form of vibrotactile stimulation should focus on older adults whose balance is significantly affected.

  16. Lower regulatory frequency for postural control in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Omid; Vasseljen, Ottar; Fors, Egil A; Lorås, Håvard W; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin

    2018-01-01

    As many similar symptoms are reported in fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), underlying defcits may potentially also be similar. Postural disequilibrium reported in both conditions may thus be explained by similar deviations in postural control strategies. 75 females (25/group FM, CFS and control, age 19-49 years) performed 60 s of quiet standing on a force platform in each of three conditions: 1) firm surface with vision, 2) firm surface without vision and, 3) compliant surface with vision. Migration of center of pressure was decomposed into a slow and a fast component denoting postural sway and lateral forces controlling postural sway, analyzed in the time and frequency domains. Main effects of group for the antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions showed that patients displayed larger amplitudes (AP, p = 0.002; ML, p = 0.021) and lower frequencies (AP, p controls. Post hoc analyses showed no significant differences between patient groups. In conclusion, both the CFS- and the FM-group differed from the control group. Larger postural sway and insufficient control was found in patients compared to controls, with no significant differences between the two patient groups.

  17. Postural control in restless legs syndrome with medication intervention using pramipexole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgrén-Rimpiläinen, Aulikki; Lauerma, Hannu; Kähkönen, Seppo; Aalto, Heikki; Tuisku, Katinka; Holi, Matti; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Rimpiläinen, Ilpo

    2014-02-01

    Central dopamine regulation is involved in postural control and in the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Postural control abnormalities have been detected in PD, but there are no earlier studies with regard to RLS and postural control. Computerized force platform posturography was applied to measure the shift and the velocity (CPFV) of center point of forces (CPF) with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) in controls (n = 12) and prior and after a single day intervention with pramipexole in RLS subjects (n = 12). CPFV (EO) was significantly lower in the RLS group (p < 0.05) than in controls. After pramipexole intake, the difference disappeared and the subjective symptom severity diminished. Pramipexole did not significantly influence CPFV (EC) or CPF shift direction. Subjects with RLS used extensively visual mechanisms to control vestibule-spinal reflexes to improve or compensate the postural stability. Further research is needed to clarify altered feedback in the central nervous system and involvement of dopamine and vision in the postural control in RLS.

  18. Measurement instruments to assess posture, gait, and balance in Parkinson's disease: Critique and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, B.R.; Marinus, J.; Almeida, Q.; Dibble, L.; Nieuwboer, A.; Post, B.; Ruzicka, E.; Goetz, C.; Stebbins, G.; Martinez-Martin, P.; Schrag, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disorders of posture, gait, and balance in Parkinson's disease (PD) are common and debilitating. This MDS-commissioned task force assessed clinimetric properties of existing rating scales, questionnaires, and timed tests that assess these features in PD. METHODS: A literature review was

  19. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Takakusaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture- gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture- gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.

  20. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.

  1. Compromising Postural Balance in the Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, Jaap; de Bruin, Eling D.; Uebelhart, Daniel; Mulder, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Additional tasks that are assumed to disturb standing postural control can be divided in added motor or added cognitive tasks. It is unknown which type of task causes the most disturbances of postural control in elderly. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether the dual

  2. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  3. Lung function and postural changes during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørregaard, O; Schultz, P; Ostergaard, A; Dahl, R

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of postural changes on lung function in pregnant women during the first, second, third trimester and post partum. A significant decrease in FRC, PEF and FEV1 was observed as a result of the postural changes. Arterial oxygenation, MVV and DLCO remained largely the same.

  4. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...

  5. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  6. Postural control is altered in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Martin E; O'Shea, Finbar D; Inman, Robert D; Gage, William H

    2012-05-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can lead to increased axial and peripheral joint stiffness, impairing joint mobility. Impaired axial mobility due to vertebral ankylosis may result in changes in standing postural control. Little research has addressed changes in standing postural control in the ankylosing spondylitis population, nor how these issues might affect clinical understanding and treatment. Sixteen ankylosing spondylitis patients, and 17 healthy controls participated. Each individual completed two 120-second quiet standing trials with eyes open and eyes closed, while standing upon two force platforms. Net center of pressure displacement and mean power frequency in the frontal and sagittal planes were calculated. A Spearman's rank correlation analysis was performed between net center of pressure measures and several clinical measures of disease activity. Frontal plane net center of pressure displacement and frequency content, and sagittal plane net center of pressure displacement were significantly greater within the ankylosing spondylitis patient group. Ankylosing spondylitis patients demonstrated a significant increase in frontal plane net center of pressure displacement in the eyes-closed condition. Net center of pressure displacement and frequency were significantly correlated to the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, and individual components of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index. Quiet standing postural control was altered particularly so in the frontal plane in patients with ankylosing spondylitis, which may be associated with increased fall risk. Posturographic measures of postural control may serve as valuable clinical tools for the monitoring of disease progression and disease status in ankylosing spondylitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. NATO Defence Planning Process. Implications for defence posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Fleischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP is the most important element affecting the Alliance's defence posture. Under the process states commit themselves to provide capabilities and forces required to fulfil NATO missions, defined in the NATO Strategic Concept. The NDPP directly affects national defence plans by harmonizing them with identified security and defence objectives as well by influencing development of the novel national defence capabilities. The emergence of new threats in the NATO environment, demands modifications in the defense planning process and establishing new goals for the Alliance. Enhancement of the NDPP should be priority during the time of unrest.

  8. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  9. Postural coordination during socio-motor improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gueugnon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation. Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively. Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and anti-phase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability. Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  10. Elderly individuals with increased risk of falls show postural balance impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Márcio Rogério de; Inokuti, Thiago Tadashi; Bispo, Nuno Noronha da Costa; Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida Pires; Oliveira, Rodrigo Franco de; Silva Jr., Rubens Alexandre da

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Falls are a serious public health problem. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether elderly individuals with increased risk of falls have a postural balance deficit, evaluated using a force platform during a one-leg stance. Materials and methods The sample consisted of 94 physically independent elderly individuals from the EELO project. The instruments used were the Downton scale, in order to assess the risk as well as the history of falls, and the force platf...

  11. Financial Statement Math

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    game tool Game Tool Interactive Media Element The purpose of this interactive exercise is to help you understand the math in the income statement and balance sheet., Give the proper mathematical computations in order to correctly prepare the income statement and the balance sheet.The exercise is divided into 3 parts: The income Statement, The Balance Sheet - Assets, The Balance Sheet - Liabilities, GB3050 Financial Reporting and Analysis

  12. Combination of BTrackS and Geri-Fit as a targeted approach for assessing and reducing the postural sway of older adults with high fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Daniel J; Hearn, Mason C; Baweja, Harsimran S

    2017-01-01

    Atypically high postural sway measured by a force plate is a known risk factor for falls in older adults. Further, it has been shown that small, but significant, reductions in postural sway are possible with various balance exercise interventions. In the present study, a new low-cost force-plate technology called the Balance Tracking System (BTrackS) was utilized to assess postural sway of older adults before and after 90 days of a well-established exercise program called Geri-Fit. Results showed an overall reduction in postural sway across all participants from pre- to post-intervention. However, the magnitude of effects was significantly influenced by the amount of postural sway demonstrated by individuals prior to Geri-Fit training. Specifically, more participants with atypically high postural sway pre-intervention experienced an overall postural sway reduction. These reductions experienced were typically greater than the minimum detectable change statistic for the BTrackS Balance Test. Taken together, these findings suggest that BTrackS is an effective means of identifying older adults with elevated postural sway, who are likely to benefit from Geri-Fit training to mitigate fall risk.

  13. The Association between Seasonal Variation in Vitamin D, Postural Sway, and Falls Risk: An Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Bird

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Low serum vitamin D levels are associated with increased postural sway. Vitamin D varies seasonally. This study investigates whether postural sway varies seasonally and is associated with serum vitamin D and falls. Methods. In a longitudinal observational study, eighty-eight independently mobile community-dwelling older adults (69.7 ± 7.6 years were evaluated on five occasions over one year, measuring postural sway (force platform, vitamin D levels, fall incidence, and causes and adverse outcomes. Mixed-methods Poisson regression was used to determine associations between measures. Results. Postural sway did not vary over the year. Vitamin D levels varied seasonally (P<0.001, peaking in summer. Incidence of falls (P=0.01 and injurious falls (P=0.02 were lower in spring, with the highest fall rate at the end of autumn. Postural sway was not related to vitamin D (P=0.87 or fall rates, but it was associated with fall injuries (IRR 1.59 (CI 1.14 to 2.24, P=0.007. Conclusions. Postural sway remained stable across the year while vitamin D varied seasonally. Participants with high values for postural sway demonstrated higher rates of injurious falls. This study provides important evidence for clinicians and researchers providing interventions measuring balance outcomes across seasons.

  14. [Voluntary postural control learning with a use of visual bio-feedback in patients with spinocerebellar degenerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinova, K I; Ioffe, M E; Chernikova, L A; Kulikov, M A; Illarioshkin, S N; Markova, E D

    2004-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluation of possibility and features of voluntary postural control learning using biofeedback from a force platform in patients with spinocerebellar ataxias. Thirty-seven patients with different forms of spinocerebellar degenerations and 13 age-matched healthy subjects were trained to shift the center of pressure (CP) during several stabilographic computer games which tested an ability to learn 2 different types of voluntary postural control: general strategy and precise coordination of CP shifting. Despite the disturbances of static posture and ability for voluntary control of CP position, patients with spinocerebellar degenerations can learn to control a vertical posture using biofeedback on stabilogram. In contrast to healthy subjects, improvement of coordination in the training process does not exert a significant influence on the static posture characteristics, in particular on lateral CP oscillations. The results obtained suggest involvement of the cerebellum in both types of postural control that distinguishes them from pathology caused by motor cortex and nigro-striatal system involved only in one type of postural control.

  15. Human posture experiments under water: ways of applying the findings to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlich, Thomas

    differences between underwater and real microgravity environment were analyzed in greater detail: external forces (buoyancy and grav-ity), required fixation, postural changes by breathing and subject orientation to gravitational vector. Goal of this analysis was to understand the respective effects of each environmental influence on subjects posture observed. Each of the different influences was then quantified and the postural change induced by it calculated. These were then combined using a specially programmed multi-body-simulation tool, making it possible to recompute 3D posture data dy-namically to the environmental influences. The simulation is based on the volumetric 3D model of each subject, specific anthropometric data, such as body-fat or muscle ratio, combined with external forces such as gravity and buoyancy. The recomputed data can then be compared independent from the environmental influences. The recomputed 3D posture data can then be re-evaluated focussing again on possible inter-personal neutral posture archetypes in the subject group. Some examples of recomputed data and inter-personal findings will be given.

  16. Analysis of postural sway in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus: effects of shunt implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerwosz L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor postural balance is one of the major risk factors for falling in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH. Postural instability in the clinic is commonly assessed based upon force platform posturography. In this study we focused on the identification of changes in sway characteristics while standing quiet in patients with NPH before and after shunt implantation. Postural sway area and sway radius were analyzed in a group of 9 patients and 46 controls of both genders. Subject's spontaneous sway was recorded while standing quiet on a force platform for 30-60 s, with eyes open and then closed. Both analyzed sway descriptors identified between-group differences and also an effect of shunt implantation in the NPH group. Sway radius and sway area in patients exhibited very high values compared with those in the control group. Importantly, the effect of eyesight in patients was not observed before shunt implantation and reappeared after the surgical treatment. The study documents that static force platform posturography may be a reliable measure of postural control improvement due to shunt surgery.

  17. An investigation into essential aspects of posture in primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postures of the subjects were analysed by means of photographic images using the pro forma of Barlow (1956, 1990). The majority of the executives had malposture with 2.3%, 23.3%, 58.1% and 16.3% and 6.3% of the subjects being categorised with slight postural defects, severe postural defects, very severe postural ...

  18. Strategic Joint Staff Force Posture and Readiness Process Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    this project. Other DND information systems that could provide data to FP&R are Defence Resource Management Information System (DRMIS- SAP ), the Human...requirements. One of the outstanding requirements and currently under development is to develop the business intelligence capability for all DND ERP system

  19. Two stages and three components of the postural preparation to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vennila; Aruin, Alexander S; Latash, Mark L

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies of postural preparation to action/perturbation have primarily focused on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), the changes in muscle activation levels resulting in the production of net forces and moments of force. We hypothesized that postural preparation to action consists of two stages: (1) Early postural adjustments (EPAs), seen a few hundred ms prior to an expected external perturbation and (2) APAs seen about 100 ms prior to the perturbation. We also hypothesized that each stage consists of three components, anticipatory synergy adjustments seen as changes in covariation of the magnitudes of commands to muscle groups (M-modes), changes in averaged across trials levels of muscle activation, and mechanical effects such as shifts of the center of pressure. Nine healthy participants were subjected to external perturbations created by a swinging pendulum while standing in a semi-squatting posture. Electrical activity of twelve trunk and leg muscles and displacements of the center of pressure were recorded and analyzed. Principal component analysis was used to identify four M-modes within the space of muscle activations using indices of integrated muscle activation. This analysis was performed twice, over two phases, 400-700 ms prior to the perturbation and over 200 ms just prior to the perturbation. Similar robust results were obtained using the data from both phases. An index of a multi-M-mode synergy stabilizing the center of pressure displacement was computed using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. The results showed high synergy indices during quiet stance. Each of the two stages started with a drop in the synergy index followed by a change in the averaged across trials activation levels in postural muscles. There was a very long electromechanical delay during the early postural adjustments and a much shorter delay during the APAs. Overall, the results support our main hypothesis on the two stages and three components

  20. Influence of fear of falling on anticipatory postural control of medio-lateral stability during rapid leg flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiou, E; Deroche, T; Do, M C; Woodman, T

    2011-04-01

    During leg flexion from erect posture, postural stability is organized in advance during "anticipatory postural adjustments" (APA). During these APA, inertial forces are generated that propel the centre of gravity (CoG) laterally towards stance leg side. This study examined how fear of falling (FoF) may influence this anticipatory postural control of medio-lateral (ML) stability. Ten young healthy participants performed a series of leg flexions at maximal velocity from low and high surface heights (6 and 66 cm above ground, respectively). In this latter condition with increased FoF, stance foot was placed at the lateral edge of the support surface to induce maximal postural threat. Results showed that the amplitude of ML inertial forces generated during APA decreased with FoF; this decrease was compensated by an increase in APA duration so that the CoG position at time of swing foot-off was located further towards stance leg side. With these changes in ML APA, the CoG was propelled in the same final (unipodal) position above stance foot as in condition with low FoF. These results contrast with those obtained in the literature during quiet standing which showed that FoF did not have any influence on the ML component of postural control. It is proposed that ML APA are modified with increased FoF, in such a way that the risk of a sideway fall induced by the large CoG motion is attenuated.

  1. Beyond deficit or compensation: new insights on postural control after long-term total visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Maitê M; Lemos, Thiago; Imbiriba, Luís A; Ribeiro, Nathalia L; Vargas, Claudia D

    2017-02-01

    Loss of vision is well known to affect postural control in blind subjects. This effect has classically been framed in terms of deficit or compensation depending on whether body sway increases or decreases in comparison with that of sighted subjects with the eyes open. However, studies have shown that postural responses can be modulated by the context and that changes in postural sway may not necessarily mean a worsened or improved postural control. The goal of our study was to test whether balance is affected by the context in blind subjects. Additional to the quantification of center of pressure (COP) displacement, measurements of body motion (COG) and the correspondent net neuromuscular response (COP-COG) were evaluated in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Thirty-eight completely blind and thirty-two sighted subjects participated of this study. The volunteers were asked to stand barefoot on a force platform for 60 s in two different conditions: feet apart and feet together. Sighted participants performed the tests with both the eyes open and eyes closed. Results showed that the COP-COG displacements in the blind group were greater than those of the sighted group with eyes open in almost all conditions tested, but not in eyes closed condition. However, the COP and COG results confirmed that the postural responses were context dependent. Together these results suggest that total visual loss does not just lead to a balance deficit or compensation, but to a specific postural signature that might imply in enhancing COP, COG and/or COP-COG in specific postural conditions.

  2. Stability of vertical posture explored with unexpected mechanical perturbations: synergy indices and motor equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Momoko; Falaki, Ali; Latash, Mark L

    2018-03-21

    We explored the relations between indices of mechanical stability of vertical posture and synergy indices under unexpected perturbations. The main hypotheses predicted higher posture-stabilizing synergy indices and higher mechanical indices of center of pressure stability during perturbations perceived by subjects as less challenging. Healthy subjects stood on a force platform and held in fully extended arms a bar attached to two loads acting downward and upward. One of the loads was unexpectedly released by the experimenter causing a postural perturbations. In different series, subjects either knew or did not know which of the two loads would be released. Forward perturbations were perceived as more challenging and accompanied by co-activation patterns among the main agonist-antagonist pairs. Backward perturbation led to reciprocal muscle activation patterns and was accompanied by indices of mechanical stability and of posture-stabilizing synergy which indicated higher stability. Changes in synergy indices were observed as early as 50-100 ms following the perturbation reflecting involuntary mechanisms. In contrast, predictability of perturbation direction had weak or no effect on mechanical and synergy indices of stability. These observations are interpreted within a hierarchical scheme of synergic control of motor tasks and a hypothesis on the control of movements with shifts of referent coordinates. The findings show direct correspondence between stability indices based on mechanics and on the analysis of multi-muscle synergies. They suggest that involuntary posture-stabilizing mechanisms show synergic organization. They also show that predictability of perturbation direction has strong effects on anticipatory postural adjustment but not corrective adjustments. We offer an interpretation of co-activation patterns that questions their contribution to postural stability.

  3. Postural stability in the elderly during sensory perturbations and dual tasking: the influence of refractive blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2003-07-01

    To determine the influence of refractive blur on postural stability during somatosensory and vestibular system perturbation and dual tasking. Fifteen healthy, elderly subjects (mean age, 71 +/- 5 years), who had no history of falls and had normal vision, were recruited. Postural stability during standing was assessed using a force platform, and was determined as the root mean square (RMS) of the center of pressure (COP) signal in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral directions collected over a 30-second period. Data were collected under normal standing conditions and with somatosensory and vestibular system perturbations. Measurements were repeated with an additional physical and/or cognitive task. Postural stability was measured under conditions of binocular refractive blur of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 D and with eyes closed. The data were analyzed with a population-averaged linear model. The greatest increases in postural instability were due to disruptions of the somatosensory and vestibular systems. Increasing refractive blur caused increasing postural instability, and its effect was greater when the input from the other sensory systems was disrupted. Performing an additional cognitive and physical task increased A-P RMS COP further. All these detrimental effects on postural stability were cumulative. The findings highlight the multifactorial nature of postural stability and indicate why the elderly, many of whom have poor vision and musculoskeletal and central nervous system degeneration, are at greater risk of falling. The findings also highlight that standing instability in both normal and perturbed conditions was significantly increased with refractive blur. Correcting visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive error could be a useful intervention strategy to help prevent falls and fall-related injuries in the elderly.

  4. Effect of Symmetry Improvement in Weight Bearing on Postural Stability of Hemiparetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Asghar-Hosseini

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Impaired postural control has been known as the main cause of fall in hemiparesis after stroke. Is Asymmetry of weight bearing on lower limb is one of the prominent characteristics of postural imbalance in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of symmetry improvement in weight bearing through therapeutic interventions on postural stability in hemiparetic patients. Materials & Methods: In this quasi – experimental study which 27 hemiparetic patients were selected through sample of convenience by simple method from men and women who were referred to neurology clinic of Hazrat-e-Rasool hospital. For postural assessment patients stood quietly with open eyes and close eyes on force plates. Primary assessments included evaluation of asymmetry index (AI, RMS COP displacement (Root Mean Square of Center of Pressure and RMS COP velocity in both frontal and sagital planes. Then a 10mm lift was inserted under the unaffected limb and primary assessments were repeated. Data were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA test. Results: Simple main effect of lift on asymmetry index was significant (P<0/0001. There was no significant interaction between vision and lift. Simple main effect of lift on postural stability variables was also non significant (for RMS COP displacement in frontal and sagital planes P=0.186 and P=0.245, respectively and for RMS COP velocity P=0.259 and P=0.342 respectively. Conclusion: Inserting a lift can improve symmetry by shifting center of gravity to midline. Since symmetry improvement did not decrease postural instability, asymmetric weight bearing can not be the primary cause of postural instability and may not be the principal target of rehabilitation programs aiming at restoring standing balance after stroke.

  5. Reconstructed phase spaces of intrinsic mode functions. Application to postural stability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoussi, Hichem; Amoud, Hassan; Doussot, Michel; Hewson, David; Duchêne, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, we propose an efficient nonlinear analysis method characterizing postural steadiness. The analyzed signal is the displacement of the centre of pressure (COP) collected from a force plate used for measuring postural sway. The proposed method consists of analyzing the nonlinear dynamics of the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) of the COP signal. The nonlinear properties are assessed through the reconstructed phase spaces of the different IMFs. This study shows some specific geometries of the attractors of some intrinsic modes. Moreover, the volume spanned by the geometric attractors in the reconstructed phase space represents an efficient indicator of the postural stability of the subject. Experiments results corroborate the effectiveness of the method to blindly discriminate young subjects, elderly subjects and subjects presenting a risk of falling.

  6. Postural control during one-leg stance in active and sedentary older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo George Victorio Victor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity and aging are functional disability factors for older individuals, causing loss of balance and increasing the risk of falls. The purpose of this study was to compare the balance of physically independent older individuals, both participants and non-participants in a regular exercise program. Fifty six physically independent older participants were divided into G1ACTIVE = 28 individuals who participate in a regular exercise program and G2SEDENTARY = 28 individuals who did not participate in any physical exercise program. All participants underwent an eyes-open during one-leg balance test on a force platform. The postural oscillation parameters included center of pressure (COP; sway mean velocity and frequency of COP oscillations. G2 SEDENTARY showed higher postural instability than G1ACTIVE. Significant differences were observed for the main balance parameters. The results of this study support the concept that participation in regular physical activity is beneficial for postural balance of older individuals.

  7. Teaching Philosophy Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the rationale for my teaching philosophy. Using a personal perspective, I explain my objectives, mission, and vision in writing my philosophy of teaching statements. This article also creates a road map and reference points for educators who want to write their own teaching philosophy statements to help them make informed…

  8. Cardio-postural interactions and short-arm centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, Andrew; Goswami, Nandu; Xu, Da; Laurin, Alexendre

    INTRODUCTION: We are interested in mechanisms associated with orthostatic tolerance. In previous studies we have shown that postural muscles in the calf contribute to both posture and blood pressure regulation during orthostatic stress. In this study we investigated the relationship between cardiovascular and postural muscle control before, during and after short arm human centrifuge (SAHC) up to 2.2 G. METHODS: Eleven healthy young subjects (6 m, 5 f), with no history of cardiovascular disease, falls or orthostatic hypotension, participated. All were familiarized with the SAHC with 10 minutes at 1-G at the feet. Each subject was instrumented in the supine position on the SAHC for beat-to-beat ECG and blood pressure (Portapres derived SBP). Bilateral lower leg EMG was collected from four leg postural muscles: tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, and medial soleus. Transdermal differential recording of signals was performed using an 8-channel EMG system, (Myosystem 1200, Noraxon Inc., Arizona, USA). Postural sway data of the body COP was computed from the force and moment data collected with a force platform (Accusway, AMTI, MA, USA). Before and after SAHC, the subject stood on a force platform with their gaze fixed on a point at eye level, closed their eyes and stood quietly for 5 min. A final stand was conducted 30 min after centrifugation with supine rest in between. During clockwise centrifugation (10-min 1g and 10-min 2.2g at the foot) the subjects’ head was hooded and in the dark. The subject’s body was restrained into the rotation arm with a parachute harness and given additional body support with a foot-plate. ECG, EMG and BP data were collected throughout and centre of pressure trajectory (COP) collected during the stand test. Subjects were requested to relax and not to voluntarily contract the leg muscles; however, they were not to suppress contractions as they occurred involuntarily or by reflex. A Continuous Wavelet

  9. Relationship between Postural Deformities and Frontal Function in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ninomiya, Satoko; Morita, Akihiko; Teramoto, Hiroko; Akimoto, Takayoshi; Shiota, Hiroshi; Kamei, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Postural deformities and executive dysfunction (ED) are common symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD remains unclear. This study assessed the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD. Sixty-five patients with sporadic PD were assessed for the severity of postural deformities and executive function. The severity of postural deformities was scored using the United Parkinson's Disease Ra...

  10. [Head posture in orthodontics: physiopathology and clinical aspects 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltabiano, M; Verzi, P; Scire Scappuzzo, G

    1989-01-01

    The Authors review in orthodontic respects present knowledges about head posture involvement in craniofacial morphogenesis and pathology. Relationships between craniofacial morphology, craniocervical posture, craniomandibular posture, cervical spine curvature, hyoid bone position and posture of whole body in space are shown, in attempt to explain conditions such as "forward head posture", mouth breathing and some occlusal disorders. Main methods to evaluate craniocervical relations on lateral skull radiographs are analysed. Pathogenesis of pain syndromes associated with abnormal craniocervical and craniomandibular mechanics are also briefly treated.

  11. Postural orientation and equilibrium processes associated with increased postural sway in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Hallac, Rami R; Conroy, Kaitlin C; White, Stormi P; Kane, Alex A; Collinsworth, Amy L; Sweeney, John A; Mosconi, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Increased postural sway has been repeatedly documented in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Characterizing the control processes underlying this deficit, including postural orientation and equilibrium, may provide key insights into neurophysiological mechanisms associated with ASD. Postural orientation refers to children's ability to actively align their trunk and head with respect to their base of support, while postural equilibrium is an active process whereby children coordinate ankle dorsi-/plantar-flexion and hip abduction/adduction movements to stabilize their upper body. Dynamic engagement of each of these control processes is important for maintaining postural stability, though neither postural orientation nor equilibrium has been studied in ASD. Twenty-two children with ASD and 21 age and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) controls completed three standing tests. During static stance, participants were instructed to stand as still as possible. During dynamic stances, participants swayed at a comfortable speed and magnitude in either anterior-posterior (AP) or mediolateral (ML) directions. The center of pressure (COP) standard deviation and trajectory length were examined to determine if children with ASD showed increased postural sway. Postural orientation was assessed using a novel virtual time-to-contact (VTC) approach that characterized spatiotemporal dimensions of children's postural sway (i.e., body alignment) relative to their postural limitation boundary, defined as the maximum extent to which each child could sway in each direction. Postural equilibrium was quantified by evaluating the amount of shared or mutual information of COP time series measured along the AP and ML directions. Consistent with prior studies, children with ASD showed increased postural sway during both static and dynamic stances relative to TD children. In regard to postural orientation processes, children with ASD demonstrated reduced spatial

  12. Postural adjustments associated with voluntary contraction of leg muscles in standing man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, A; Schieppati, M

    1988-01-01

    The postural adjustments associated with a voluntary contraction of the postural muscles themselves have been studied in the legs of normal standing men. We focussed on the following questions. Do postural adjustments precede the focal movement as in the case of movements of the upper limb? Which muscle(s) are involved in the task of stabilizing posture? Can the same postural muscle be activated in postural stabilization and in voluntary movement at the same time, in spite of the opposite changes in activity possibly required by these conditions? Six subjects standing on a dynamometric platform were asked to rise onto the tips their toes by contracting their soleus muscles, or to rock on their heels by contracting their tibialis anterior muscles. The tasks were made in a reaction time (RT) situation or in a self-paced mode, standing either freely or holding onto a stable structure. Surface EMGs of leg and thigh muscles, and the foot-floor reaction forces were recorded. The following results were obtained in the RT mode, standing freely. 1. Rising onto toe tips: a striking silent period in soleus preceded its voluntary activation; during this silent period, a tibialis anterior burst could be observed in three subjects; these anticipatory activities induced a forward sway, as monitored by a change in the force exerted along the x axis of the platform. 2. Rocking on heels: an enhancement in tonic EMG of soleus was observed before tibialis anterior voluntary burst, at a mean latency from the go-signal similar to that of the silent period; this anticipatory activity induced a backward body sway. 3. Choice RT conditions showed that the above anticipatory patterns in muscle activity were pre-programmed, specific for the intended tasks, and closely associated with the focal movement. When both tasks were performed in a self-paced mode, all the above EMG and mechanical features were more pronounced and unfolded in time. If the subjects held onto the frame, the early

  13. Effects of Shift Work on the Postural and Psychomotor Performance of Night Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Veruska Narciso

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (p<0.001, postural control variables increased by 9% (p = 0.048, and 14% (p = 0.006. Mean reaction time, and the number of lapses of attention increased by 13% (p = 0.006 and 425% (p = 0.015, respectively, but the mean reciprocal reaction time decreased by 7%. In addition, there were correlations between sleepiness and postural control variables with opened eyes (r = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.361-0.815; r = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.280-0.748 and closed eyes (r = 0.557; 95% CI = 0.304-0.764, r = 0497; 95% CI = 0.325-0.715 and a pronounced effect of sleepiness on postural sway (R2 = 0.393; 95% CI = 0.001-0.03. Therefore, 12-h night work system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents.

  14. Effects of visual motion consistent or inconsistent with gravity on postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrucci, Priscilla; Daprati, Elena; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Maffei, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    Vision plays an important role in postural control, and visual perception of the gravity-defined vertical helps maintaining upright stance. In addition, the influence of the gravity field on objects' motion is known to provide a reference for motor and non-motor behavior. However, the role of dynamic visual cues related to gravity in the control of postural balance has been little investigated. In order to understand whether visual cues about gravitational acceleration are relevant for postural control, we assessed the relation between postural sway and visual motion congruent or incongruent with gravity acceleration. Postural sway of 44 healthy volunteers was recorded by means of force platforms while they watched virtual targets moving in different directions and with different accelerations. Small but significant differences emerged in sway parameters with respect to the characteristics of target motion. Namely, for vertically accelerated targets, gravitational motion (GM) was associated with smaller oscillations of the center of pressure than anti-GM. The present findings support the hypothesis that not only static, but also dynamic visual cues about direction and magnitude of the gravitational field are relevant for balance control during upright stance.

  15. Cognitive tasks promote automatization of postural control in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin-Desrochers, Alexandra; Richer, Natalie; Lajoie, Yves

    2017-09-01

    Researchers looking at the effects of performing a concurrent cognitive task on postural control in young and older adults using traditional center-of-pressure measures and complexity measures found discordant results. Results of experiments showing improvements of stability have suggested the use of strategies such as automatization of postural control or stiffening strategy. This experiment aimed to confirm in healthy young and older adults that performing a cognitive task while standing leads to improvements that are due to automaticity of sway by using sample entropy. Twenty-one young adults and twenty-five older adults were asked to stand on a force platform while performing a cognitive task. There were four cognitive tasks: simple reaction time, go/no-go reaction time, equation and occurrence of a digit in a number sequence. Results demonstrated decreased sway area and variability as well as increased sample entropy for both groups when performing a cognitive task. Results suggest that performing a concurrent cognitive task promotes the adoption of an automatic postural control in young and older adults as evidenced by an increased postural stability and postural sway complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Time course of the acute effects of core stabilisation exercise on seated postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jordan B; Brown, Stephen H M

    2017-09-20

    Core stabilisation exercises are often promoted for purposes ranging from general fitness to high-performance athletics, and the prevention and rehabilitation of back troubles. These exercises, when performed properly, may have the potential to enhance torso postural awareness and control, yet the potential for achieving immediate gains has not been completely studied. Fourteen healthy young participants performed a single bout of non-fatiguing core stabilisation exercise that consisted of repeated sets of 2 isometric exercises, the side bridge and the four-point contralateral arm-and-leg extension. Seated postural control, using an unstable balance platform on top of a force plate, was assessed before and after exercise, including multiple time points within a 20-minute follow-up period. Nine standard postural control variables were calculated at each time point, including sway displacement and velocity ranges, root mean squares and cumulative path length. Statistical analysis showed that none of the postural control variables were significantly different at any time point following completion of core stabilisation exercise. Thus, we conclude that a single bout of acute core stabilisation exercise is insufficient to immediately improve seated trunk postural control in young healthy individuals.

  17. The Effects of Multisensory Balance Training on Postural Control in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoosh Shams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It has been found that older adults fall or sway significantly more than younger ones under sensory conflict conditions. Considering the prospects of future increases in the elderly population size of Iran and the lack of proper postural control and the high costs of its probable consequences, this study investigated the effects of multi balance training on postural control. Methods & Materials: In this semi-experimental study, 34 elderly women participated in two training and control groups with the mean ages of 72.4 and 72.9 respectively. Before and after training, to investigate the functional balance and postural control, the Berg Balance Scale and a force plate were used. The training group participated in multisensory balance training sessions of 1 hour classes held three days per week for five weeks. Data was analyzed using an independent sample and a paired t-test. Results: The analysis showed significant differences between the training group and the control after balance training in the measured parameters of postural control consisting of path length and mean velocity in the eyes open (P=0.001 and eyes closed (P=0.0001 conditions and the Berg Balance Scale (P=0.002. Conclusion: Results indicate that multisensory balance training can improve the parameters of postural control even in short term.

  18. Postural equilibrium during pregnancy: decreased stability with an increased reliance on visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erin E; Colón, Iris; Druzin, Maurice L; Rose, Jessica

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are changes in postural equilibrium during pregnancy and to examine whether the incidence of falls increases during pregnancy. Static postural balance measures were collected from 12 pregnant women at 11 to 14, 19 to 22, and 36 to 39 weeks gestation and at 6 to 8 weeks after delivery and from 12 nulligravid control subjects who were matched for age, height, weight, and body mass index. Subjects were asked to stand quietly on a stable force platform for 30 seconds with eyes open and closed. Path length and average radial displacement were computed on the basis of the average of 3 trials for each condition. The women were asked at each session if they had sustained a fall in the previous 3 months. Postural stability remained relatively stable during the first trimester; however, second and third trimester and postpartum values for path length and average radial displacement with eyes open and closed were increased significantly compared with the control subjects, which indicates diminished postural balance. The difference between the eyes open and closed values of path length increased as pregnancy progressed. Although 25% of pregnant women sustained falls, none of the control subjects had fallen in the past year. These data suggest that postural stability declines during pregnancy and remains diminished at 6 to 8 weeks after delivery. The study also indicates that there is an increased reliance on visual cues to maintain balance during pregnancy.

  19. Postural effects when cycling in late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen E; Cooper, Karen A; Boyce, E Stewart; Hunyor, Stephen N

    2006-12-01

    This study assessed if upright cycling is preferable to semi-recumbent cycling during pregnancy. Healthy women with low risk singleton pregnancies were tested at 34-38 weeks gestation. They cycled for 12 min, either semi-recumbent (45 degrees, n = 27) or upright (n = 23), at 135-145 beats min(-1). When semi-recumbent, minute ventilation was greater (pposture-independent. All increased with exercise (p0.05). Small post-exercise fetal heart rate increases (by 8 beats min(-1), ppostures (n = 11 in each sub-group), with no adverse changes. Fetal heart rate accelerations and uterine activity (n = 11 in each sub-group) were not influenced by posture or exercise. (1) Neither posture had a distinct advantage. (2) Both postures were safe for short duration cycling. (3) The same target maternal heart rates are suitable for both postures because they resulted in similar oxygen consumptions and fetal heart rates.

  20. Impaired postural stability after laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, K Z; Staehr-Rye, A K; Rasmussen, L S

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: We included 25 women undergoing outpatient gynaecological laparoscopic surgery in the study. Patients received standardised anaesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. Postural stability was assessed preoperatively, at 30 min after tracheal extubation, and at discharge from the post...

  1. Opening statements and general statements by delegation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    23 delegations have submitted general reports and statements on the situation and evolution of the nuclear fuel cycle. Each report reflects the particular interests of the country that submitted it. All in all, these reports provide general background information on the subject of the conference

  2. Forcing absoluteness and regularity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2010-01-01

    For a large natural class of forcing notions, we prove general equivalence theorems between forcing absoluteness statements, regularity properties, and transcendence properties over L and the core model K. We use our results to answer open questions from set theory of the reals.

  3. Effect of absence of vision on posture

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the ...

  4. Posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Page 1 of 8 25th International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future Conference, 13-16 July 2010, Pretoria, South Africa A POSTURE ESTIMATION SYSTEM FOR UNDERGROUND MINE VEHICLES Khonzumusa Hlophe1, Gideon Ferreira2... and the transmitter. The main difference between the three systems is their implementation. This paper describes an implementation of a posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, a brief...

  5. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E; Gadd, Nichole E; Caldwell, Erin E; Peters, Brian T; Reschke, Millard F; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Oddsson, Lars I E; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory-visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed. Postural control in this test paradigm was hypothesized to utilize predominantly contributions of somatosensory information from the feet and ankle joint, with minimal vestibular input. Fourteen healthy subjects "stood" supine on their dominant leg while strapped to a backpack frame that was freely moving on air-bearings, to remove available otolith tilt cues with respect to gravity that influences postural control when standing upright. The backpack was attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provided a gravity-like load. Subjects performed three trials each with Eyes-open (EO) and Eyes-closed (EC) while loaded with 60% body weight. There was no difference in unipedal stance time (UST) across the two conditions with EC condition challenging the postural control system greater than the EO condition. Stabilogram-diffusion analysis (SDA) indicated that the critical mean square displacement was significantly different between the two conditions. Vestibular cues, both in terms of magnitude and the duration for which relevant information was available for postural control in this test paradigm, were minimized. These results support our hypothesis that maintaining unipedal stance in supine orientation without vision, minimizes vestibular contribution and thus predominantly utilizes somatosensory information for postural control.

  6. Effect of a trunk-targeted intervention using vibration on posture and gait in children with spastic type cerebral palsy: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Marianne; Jelsma, Jennifer; Stark, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether strengthening trunk muscles using vibration can improve posture and gait in children with spastic-type cerebral palsy (STCP). A total of 27 children (6-13 years) participated in a single-blinded pre-post crossover experimental trial. The 1-Minute Walk Test, 2D-posturography, ultrasound imaging and sit-ups in one minute were used to assess effect on gait, posture, resting abdominal muscle thickness and functional strength. Significant increase in distance walked (p posture, an increase in sit-ups executed (p posture were maintained at 4-weeks post-intervention. A trunk-targeted intervention using vibration can improve posture and gait in children with STCP without any known side effects. It is recommended that vibration and specific trunk strengthening is included in training or rehabilitation programmes. Effects of vibration on force generation and spasticity need further investigation.

  7. Wavelet Transform Analysis of the Power Spectrum of Centre of Pressure Signals to Detect the Critical Point Interval of Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Snoussi, Hichem; Hewson, David; Duchêne, Jacques

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to detecting the critical point interval (CPI) when sensory feedback is used as part of a closed-loop postural control strategy. Postural balance was evaluated using centre of pressure (COP) displacements from a force plate for 17 control and 10 elderly subjects under eyes open, eyes closed, and vibration conditions. A modified local-maximum-modulus wavelet transform analysis using the power spectrum of COP signals was used to calculate CPI. Lower CPI values indicate increased closed-loop postural control with a quicker response to sensory input. Such a strategy requires greater energy expenditure due to the repeated muscular interventions to remain stable. The CPI for elderly occurred significantly quicker than for controls, indicating tighter control of posture. Similar results were observed for eyes closed and vibration conditions. The CPI parameter can be used to detect differences in postural control due to ageing.

  8. Dose postural control improve following application of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in diabetic peripheral neuropathic patients? A randomized placebo control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Z; Rojhani-Shirazi, Z; Abbasi, L

    2017-12-01

    peripheral neuropathy is the most common problem of diabetes. Neuropathy leads to lower extremity somatosensory deficits and postural instability in these patients. However, there are not sufficient evidences for improving postural control in these patients. To investigate the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on postural control in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Twenty eighth patients with diabetic neuropathy (40-55 Y/O) participated in this RCT study. Fourteen patients in case group received TENS and sham TENS was used for control group. Force plate platform was used to extract sway velocity and COP displacement parameters for postural control evaluation. The mean sway velocity and center of pressure displacement along the mediolateral and anteroposterior axes were not significantly different between two groups after TENS application (p>0.05). Application of 5min high frequency TENS on the knee joint could not improve postural control in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Relationship between craniomandibular disorders and poor posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolakis, P; Nicolakis, M; Piehslinger, E; Ebenbichler, G; Vachuda, M; Kirtley, C; Fialka-Moser, V

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to show that a relationship between craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and postural abnormalities has been repeatedly postulated, but still remains unproven. This study was intended to test this hypothesis. Twenty-five CMD patients (mean age 28.2 years) were compared with 25 gender and age matched controls (mean age 28.3 years) in a controlled, investigator-blinded trial. Twelve postural and ten muscle function parameters were examined. Measurements were separated into three subgroups, consisting of those variables associated with the cervical region, the trunk in the frontal plane, and the trunk in the sagittal plane. Within these subgroups, there was significantly more dysfunction in the patients, compared to control subjects (Mann-Whitney U test p Postural and muscle function abnormalities appeared to be more common in the CMD group. Since there is evidence of the mutual influence of posture and the craniomandibular system, control of body posture in CMD patients is recommended, especially if they do not respond to splint therapy. Whether poor posture is the reason or the result of CMD cannot be distinguished by the data presented here.

  10. The effects of breath alcohol concentration on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Dary D

    2018-05-19

    Two of the 3 standardized field sobriety tests that U.S. law enforcement uses at roadside checks have a postural equilibrium component to them. Those tests have been validated to detect impairment caused by blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.08 g/dL or above. Many medical and traffic safety associations support a lower limit, and one state, Utah, has passed a law to lower the limit to 0.05 g/dL. Many studies have examined the effects of alcohol on postural control (of which postural equilibrium is a component), with a consensus emerging that impairment is usually found at BACs greater than 0.06 g/dL. Most of these studies, however, had a relatively small number of subjects, usually between 10 and 30. The current study collected data from a much larger sample. The objective of this study was to provide additional evidence that posture control is negatively affected at BACs greater than 0.06 g/dL or breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) of 0.06 g/210 L. This was a between-subjects study, with BrAC group as the independent variable (5 levels: 0.00, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/210 L); 4 measures of postural control as the dependent variables; and age, height, and weight as the covariates. Posture control was measured with a force-sensing platform connected to a computer. The feet's center of pressure (CoP) on the platform was recorded and the corresponding movement of the body in the anterior-posterior and lateral planes was derived. Participants (N = 96) were randomly assigned to one of the BrAC groups. Positive BrAC groups were compared to the zero BrAC group. Data were examined with hierarchical multiple regression. Adjusted for age, height, and weight, the main effect of lateral CoP with eyes open was not statistically significant. There was a statistically significant main effect of alcohol on anterior-posterior CoP excursion with eyes open and with eyes closed and lateral CoP excursion with eyes closed. For all 3 of those variables, only BrACs of 0

  11. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreysa, Helene; Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins"). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze.

  12. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Kreysa

    Full Text Available A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins". Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze.

  13. Equilíbrio postural de atletas remadores Equilibrio postural de atletas remadores Postural balance in rowing athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taian de Mello Martins Vieira

    2006-06-01

    movimientos laterales y antero-posterior, y el área elíptica del movimiento del centro de presión en el plano de la plataforma. El grupo de atletas no presentó diferencias significativas en los parámetros durante toda la prueba. El grupo de control presentó valores significativamente mas elevados en el área elíptica y la velocidad media a partir de la mitad del test. Los atletas presentaron valores significativamente menores para la escala de Borg, representando mayor resistencia a la incomodidad generada por la actividad. Con base en los resultados, se sugiere que las alteraciones estabilométricas presentadas por el grupo de no atletas sean provenientes de procesos fisiológicos periféricos y que el condicionamiento físico parece ser un factor importante en la manutención del equilibrio estático durante períodos prolongados.The influence of fitness on long-term postural balance is not clear yet. This study aims to compare stabilometric parameters in long-term balance tests performed by rowing athletes and by a control group of non-athletes healthy subjects, who stood upright on a force plate for 31 minutes. At every five minutes of test, a modified Borg scale was shown to the subjects to score the discomfort. The parameters studied were: standard deviation, average velocity and average frequency of the lateral and anterior-posterior centre of pressure displacements, and the elliptical area of the displacement on the level of the force plate. The athletes did not show significant differences in parameters during the entire test. The control group presented significant higher values in the elliptical area and in average velocity from the middle to the end of test. The athletes presented significant lower values in Borg's scale, showing a greater resistance to discomfort. It is suggested that stabilometric alterations showed by the non-athletes occurred in response to peripheral physiological processes, and that physical fitness seems to be an important factor for

  14. Can vibratory feedback be used to improve postural stability in persons with transtibial limb loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusaw, David; Hagberg, Kerstin; Nolan, Lee; Ramstrand, Nerrolyn

    2012-01-01

    The use of vibration as a feedback modality to convey motion of the body has been shown to improve measures of postural stability in some groups of patients. Because individuals using transtibial prostheses lack sensation distal to the amputation, vibratory feedback could possibly be used to improve their postural stability. The current investigation provided transtibial prosthesis users (n = 24, mean age 48 yr) with vibratory feedback proportional to the signal received from force transducers located under the prosthetic foot. Postural stability was evaluated by measuring center of pressure (CoP) movement, limits of stability, and rhythmic weight shift while participants stood on a force platform capable of rotations in the pitch plane (toes up/toes down). The results showed that the vibratory feedback increased the mediolateral displacement amplitude of CoP in standing balance and reduced the response time to rapid voluntary movements of the center of gravity. The results suggest that the use of vibratory feedback in an experimental setting leads to improvements in fast open-loop mechanisms of postural control in transtibial prosthesis users.

  15. Anatomy and histochemistry of hindlimb flight posture in birds. I. The extended hindlimb posture of shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Joshua C; Meyers, Ron A

    2008-08-01

    Birds utilize one of two hindlimb postures during flight: an extended posture (with the hip and knee joints flexed, while the ankle joint is extended caudally) or a flexed posture (with the hip, knee, and ankle joints flexed beneath the body). American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) extend their legs caudally during flight and support them for extended periods. Slow tonic and slow twitch muscle fibers are typically found in muscles functioning in postural support due to the fatigue resistance of these fibers. We hypothesized that a set of small muscles composed of high percentages of slow fibers and thus dedicated to postural support would function in securing the legs in the extended posture during flight. This study examined the anatomy and histochemical profile of eleven hindlimb muscles to gain insight into their functional roles during flight. Contrary to our hypothesis, all muscles possessed both fast twitch and slow twitch or slow tonic fibers. We believe this finding is due to the versatility of dynamic and postural functions the leg muscles must facilitate, including standing, walking, running, swimming, and hindlimb support during flight. Whether birds use an extended or flexed hindlimb flight posture may be related to the aerodynamic effect of leg position or may reflect evolutionary history. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beek Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that pictures with negative valence have a greater impact on postural control than neutral or positive ones. Thirty-four healthy subjects passively viewed a series of emotion eliciting images, while standing either in a bipedal or unipedal stance on a force plate. The images were adopted from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. We analysed mean and variability of the COP and the length of the associated sway path as a function of emotion. Results The mean position of the COP was unaffected by emotion, but unipedal stance resulted in overall greater body sway than bipedal stance. We found a modest effect of emotion on COP: viewing pictures of mutilation resulted in a smaller sway path, but only in unipedal stance. We obtained valence and arousal ratings of the images with an independent sample of viewers. These subjects rated the unpleasant images as significantly less pleasant than neutral images, and the pleasant images as significantly more pleasant than neutral images. However, the subjects rated the images as overall less pleasant and less arousing than viewers in a closely comparable American study, pointing to unknown differences in viewer characteristics. Conclusion Overall, viewing emotion eliciting images had little effect on body sway. Our finding of a reduction in sway path length when viewing pictures of mutilation was indicative of a freezing strategy, i.e. fear bradycardia. The results are consistent with current knowledge about the

  17. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stins, John F; Beek, Peter J

    2007-10-04

    Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP) trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that pictures with negative valence have a greater impact on postural control than neutral or positive ones. Thirty-four healthy subjects passively viewed a series of emotion eliciting images, while standing either in a bipedal or unipedal stance on a force plate. The images were adopted from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). We analysed mean and variability of the COP and the length of the associated sway path as a function of emotion. The mean position of the COP was unaffected by emotion, but unipedal stance resulted in overall greater body sway than bipedal stance. We found a modest effect of emotion on COP: viewing pictures of mutilation resulted in a smaller sway path, but only in unipedal stance. We obtained valence and arousal ratings of the images with an independent sample of viewers. These subjects rated the unpleasant images as significantly less pleasant than neutral images, and the pleasant images as significantly more pleasant than neutral images. However, the subjects rated the images as overall less pleasant and less arousing than viewers in a closely comparable American study, pointing to unknown differences in viewer characteristics. Overall, viewing emotion eliciting images had little effect on body sway. Our finding of a reduction in sway path length when viewing pictures of mutilation was indicative of a freezing strategy, i.e. fear bradycardia. The results are consistent with current knowledge about the neuroanatomical organization of the emotion system and

  18. Phase-dependent organization of postural adjustments associated with arm movements while walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashner, L M; Forssberg, H

    1986-06-01

    This study examines the interactions between anteroposterior postural responses and the control of walking in human subjects. In the experimental paradigm, subjects walked upon a treadmill, gripping a rigid handle with one hand. Postural responses at different phases of stepping were elicited by rapid arm pulls or pushes against the handle. During arm movements, EMG's recorded the activity of representative arm, ankle, and thigh segment muscles. Strain gauges in the handle measured the force of the arm movement. A Selspot II system measured kinematics of the stepping movements. The duration of support and swing phases were marked by heel and toe switches in the soles of the subjects' shoes. In the first experiment, subjects were instructed to pull on the handle at their own pace. In these trials all subjects preferred to initiate pulls near heel strikes. Next, when instructed to pull as rapidly as possible in response to tone stimuli, reaction times were similar for all phases of the step cycle. Leg muscle responses associated with arm pulls and pushes, referred to as "postural activations," were directionally specific and preceded arm muscle activity. The temporal order and spatial distribution of postural activations in the muscles of the support leg were similar when arm pull movements occurred while the subject was standing in place and after heel strike while walking. Activations began in the ankle and radiated proximally to the thigh and then the arm. Activations of swing leg muscles were also directionally specific and involved flexion and forward or backward thrust of the limb. When arm movements were initiated during transitions from support by one leg to the other, patterns of postural activations were altered. Alterations usually occurred 10-20 ms before hell strikes and involved changes in the timing and sometimes the spatial structure of postural activations. Postural activation patterns are similar during in-place standing and during the support phase

  19. Evaluation of Postural Control in Patients with Glaucoma Using a Virtual Reality Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Boer, Erwin R; Gracitelli, Carolina P B; Abe, Ricardo Y; van Driel, Nienke; Yang, Zhiyong; Medeiros, Felipe A

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate postural control using a dynamic virtual reality environment and the relationship between postural metrics and history of falls in patients with glaucoma. Cross-sectional study. The study involved 42 patients with glaucoma with repeatable visual field defects on standard automated perimetry (SAP) and 38 control healthy subjects. Patients underwent evaluation of postural stability by a force platform during presentation of static and dynamic visual stimuli on stereoscopic head-mounted goggles. The dynamic visual stimuli presented rotational and translational ecologically valid peripheral background perturbations. Postural stability was also tested in a completely dark field to assess somatosensory and vestibular contributions to postural control. History of falls was evaluated by a standard questionnaire. Torque moments around the center of foot pressure on the force platform were measured, and the standard deviations of the torque moments (STD) were calculated as a measurement of postural stability and reported in Newton meters (Nm). The association with history of falls was investigated using Poisson regression models. Age, gender, body mass index, severity of visual field defect, best-corrected visual acuity, and STD on dark field condition were included as confounding factors. Patients with glaucoma had larger overall STD than controls during both translational (5.12 ± 2.39 Nm vs. 3.85 ± 1.82 Nm, respectively; P = 0.005) and rotational stimuli (5.60 ± 3.82 Nm vs. 3.93 ± 2.07 Nm, respectively; P = 0.022). Postural metrics obtained during dynamic visual stimuli performed better in explaining history of falls compared with those obtained in static and dark field condition. In the multivariable model, STD values in the mediolateral direction during translational stimulus were significantly associated with a history of falls in patients with glaucoma (incidence rate ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.63; P = 0.001). The study presented and

  20. Head movements and postures as pain behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2018-01-01

    Pain assessment can benefit from observation of pain behaviors, such as guarding or facial expression, and observational pain scales are widely used in clinical practice with nonverbal patients. However, little is known about head movements and postures in the context of pain. In this regard, we analyze videos of three publically available datasets. The BioVid dataset was recorded with healthy participants subjected to painful heat stimuli. In the BP4D dataset, healthy participants performed a cold-pressor test and several other tasks (meant to elicit emotion). The UNBC dataset videos show shoulder pain patients during range-of-motion tests to their affected and unaffected limbs. In all videos, participants were sitting in an upright position. We studied head movements and postures that occurred during the painful and control trials by measuring head orientation from video over time, followed by analyzing posture and movement summary statistics and occurrence frequencies of typical postures and movements. We found significant differences between pain and control trials with analyses of variance and binomial tests. In BioVid and BP4D, pain was accompanied by head movements and postures that tend to be oriented downwards or towards the pain site. We also found differences in movement range and speed in all three datasets. The results suggest that head movements and postures should be considered for pain assessment and research. As additional pain indicators, they possibly might improve pain management whenever behavior is assessed, especially in nonverbal individuals such as infants or patients with dementia. However, in advance more research is needed to identify specific head movements and postures in pain patients. PMID:29444153

  1. Postural Response Signal Characteristics Identified by Method of Developed Statokinesigram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbolyas Boris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human postural system is taken as complex biological system with specific input and output time characteristics, in this study. Evaluation of measured output characteristics is useful in medical diagnostics or in describing postural system disorders. System theory principle provide suitable basis for postural signals analysis. Participating volunteers were instructed to maintain quiet upright stance posture on firm support surface of stabilometric platform for 60s. Postural system actuation was realized by vibration stimuli applied bilaterally on Achilles tendons for 20s. Postural reaction signal, its time profile and static and dynamic characteristics were evaluated by Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST.

  2. Differential effects of a visuospatial attention task on measures of postural control in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jeffrey J; Keenan, Kevin G

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a visuospatial attention task on three measures of postural control in young and older adults. 20 young (19-36  years) and 20 older (67-91 years) adults performed a choice stepping response time (CSRT) task, a submaximal dorsiflexion force steadiness task, and quiet standing in 3 bilateral stances. All tasks were performed with and without a visuospatial (VS) attention task that involved visualizing a star moving within a 2 × 2 grid. CSRT increased with the addition of the VS task in both groups (p   .084). The findings suggest that visuospatial attention differentially affects postural control in young and older adults and the effect is task-specific. These findings suggest the need to include stepping and force control tasks to further determine what role visuospatial attention plays in postural control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effect of hormone therapy on postural balance in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Barral, Ana Beatriz Cesar; Nahas, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; Cangussu, Luciana Mendes; Buttros, Davi de Araujo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on postural balance in postmenopausal women and its association with risk of falls. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 225 Brazilian postmenopausal women aged 45 to 75 years were included and divided into two groups: HT users (n = 102) and nonusers (n = 123). HT users were women who had continuously taken HT throughout the preceding 6 months, whereas nonusers received no such therapy during the same period. Women with amenorrhea for more than 12 months and aged 45 years or older were included. Those with neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, vestibulopathies, uncorrected visual deficit, or drug use that could affect balance were excluded. Histories of falls (previous 24 mo) as well as clinical and anthropometric characteristics were analyzed. Postural balance was assessed through stabilometry (computerized force platform), Romberg test, and crouching test. Statistical analysis included the median test, χ test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and logistic regression method (odds ratio). Women users of HT were younger (53.0 vs 57.0 y) and with a shorter time since menopause (5.5 vs 10.0 y) than nonusers (P Romberg test and fall rate (P > 0.05). In the crouching test, 47.1% of the participants showed an adequate level of muscle strength in lower limbs without differences between the groups (P > 0.05). Postmenopausal women using HT showed lower frequency of falls and a better performance in stabilometric parameters than did nonusers.

  4. Effect of absence of vision on posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words "body", "posture", "blind" and "absence of vision". References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished.

  5. Warm-up Optimizes Postural Control but Requires Some Minutes of Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry; Kadri, Mohamed Abdelhafid; Nouar, Merbouha Boulahbel; Noé, Frederic

    2018-05-02

    Paillard, T, Kadri, MA, Nouar, MB, and Noé, F. Warm-up optimizes postural control but requires some minutes of recovery. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aim was to compare monopedal postural control between the dominant leg (D-Leg) and the nondominant leg (ND-Leg) in pre- and post-warm-up conditions. Thirty healthy male sports science students were evaluated before and after a warm-up exercise (12 minutes of pedaling with an incremental effort on a cycle ergometer with a controlled workload). Monopodal postural control was assessed for the D- and ND-Legs before and immediately, 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes after the warm-up exercise, using a force platform and calculating the displacement velocity of the center of foot pressure on the mediolateral (COPML velocity) and anteroposterior (COPAP velocity) axes. No significant difference was observed between the D-Leg and ND-Leg for both COPML and COPAP velocity in all the periods. In comparison with pre-warm-up, COPML decreased after 15-minute and 10-minute recovery periods for the D-Leg and the ND-Leg, respectively (p warm-up optimized monopedal postural control but did not make it possible to distinguish a difference between the D-Leg and the ND-Leg. Some minutes of recovery are required between the end of the whole-body warm-up exercise and the beginning of the postural test to optimize postural control. The optimal duration of recovery turns out to be about 10-15 minutes.

  6. Postural control during the Stroop test in dyslexic and non dyslexic teenagers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoï Kapoula

    Full Text Available Postural control in quiet stance although simple still requires some cognitive resources; dual cognitive tasks influence further postural control. The present study examines whether or not dyslexic teenagers experience postural instability when performing a Stroop dual task for which their performances are known to be poor. Fifteen dyslexics and twelve non-dyslexics (14 to 17 years old were recruited from the same school. They were asked to perform three tasks: (1 fixate a target, (2 perform an interference Stroop test (naming the colour or the word rather than reading the word, (3 performing flexibility Stroop task: the subject performed the interference task as in (2 except when the word was in a box, in which case he had to read the word. Postural performances were measured with a force platform. The results showed a main task effect on the variance of speed of body sway only: such variance was higher in the flexibility task than for the other two tasks. No group effect was found for any of the parameters of posture (surface, mediolateral and anteroposterior sway, variance of speed. Further wavelet analysis in the time-frequency domain revealed an increase in the spectral power of the medium frequency range believed to be related to cerebellum control; an accompanying increase in the cancellation time of the high frequency band related to reflexive loops occurred for non-dyslexics only. These effects occurred for the flexibility task and could be due to its high cognitive difficulty. Dyslexics displayed shorter cancellation time for the medium frequency band for all tasks, suggesting less efficient cerebellar control, perhaps of eye fixation and attention influencing body sway. We conclude that there is no evidence for a primary posture deficit in 15 year old teenagers who come from the general population and who were recruited in schools.

  7. Kinematics of the human mandible for different head postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C M; Huddleston Slater, J J; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2000-04-01

    The influence of head posture on movement paths of the incisal point (IP) and of the mandibular condyles during free open-close movements was studied. Ten persons, without craniomandibular or cervical spine disorders, participated in the study. Open close mandibular movements were recorded with the head in five postures, viz., natural head posture, forward head posture, military posture, and lateroflexion to the right and to the left side, using the Oral Kinesiologic Analysis System (OKAS-3D). This study showed that in a military head posture, the opening movement path of the incisal point is shifted anteriorly relative to the path in a natural head posture. In a forward head posture, the movement path is shifted posteriorly whereas during lateroflexion, it deviates to the side the head has moved to. Moreover, the intra-articular distance in the temporomandibular joint during closing is smaller with the head in military posture and greater in forward head posture, as compared to the natural head posture. During lateroflexion, the intra-articular distance on the ipsilateral side is smaller. The influence of head posture upon the kinematics of the mandible is probably a manifestation of differences in mandibular loading in the different head postures.

  8. The association of foot arch posture and prior history of shoulder or elbow surgery in elite-level baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Luis A; Roach, Kathryn E; Kaplan, Lee D; Lesniak, Bryson; Cunningham, Sean

    2013-11-01

    Case-control. The specific aim of this study was to examine the association between abnormal foot arch postures and a history of shoulder or elbow surgery in baseball pitchers. Pitching a baseball generates forces throughout the musculoskeletal structures of the upper and lower limbs. Structures such as the longitudinal arch of the foot are adaptable to stresses over time. Repeated pitching-related stresses may contribute to acquiring abnormal foot arch postures. Inversely, congenitally abnormal foot arch posture may lead to altered stresses of the upper limb during pitching. A convenience sample of 77 pitchers was recruited from a Division I university team and a professional baseball franchise. Subjects who had a history of shoulder or elbow surgery to the pitching arm were classified as cases. Subjects who met the criteria for classification of pes planus or pes cavus based on longitudinal arch angle were classified as having abnormal foot arch posture. Odds ratios were calculated to examine the association between abnormal foot arch posture and pitching-arm injury requiring surgery. Twenty-three subjects were classified as cases. The odds of being a case were 3.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 9.6; P = .02) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot arch posture and 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 8.1; P = .04) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot posture on the lunge leg. Abnormal foot arch posture and a surgical history in the pitching shoulder or elbow may be associated. Because the foot and its arches are adaptable and change over time, the pathomechanics of this association should be further explored.

  9. Is postural control affected by expertise in alpine skiing?

    OpenAIRE

    Noe, F; Paillard, T

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the postural performance of two groups of male skiers competing at different levels and the consequences on postural control of the suppression of visual afferences by eye closure.

  10. Classification of Posture in Poststroke Upper Limb Spasticity: A Potential Decision Tool for Botulinum Toxin A Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefter, Harald; Jost, Wolfgang H.; Reissig, Andrea; Zakine, Benjamin; Bakheit, Abdel Magid; Wissel, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    A significant percentage of patients suffering from a stroke involving motor-relevant central nervous system regions will develop a spastic movement disorder. Hyperactivity of different muscle combinations forces the limbs affected into abnormal postures or movement patterns. As muscular hyperactivity can effectively and safely be treated with…

  11. Classifying Transition Behaviour in Postural Activity Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James BRUSEY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A few accelerometers positioned on different parts of the body can be used to accurately classify steady state behaviour, such as walking, running, or sitting. Such systems are usually built using supervised learning approaches. Transitions between postures are, however, difficult to deal with using posture classification systems proposed to date, since there is no label set for intermediary postures and also the exact point at which the transition occurs can sometimes be hard to pinpoint. The usual bypass when using supervised learning to train such systems is to discard a section of the dataset around each transition. This leads to poorer classification performance when the systems are deployed out of the laboratory and used on-line, particularly if the regimes monitored involve fast paced activity changes. Time-based filtering that takes advantage of sequential patterns is a potential mechanism to improve posture classification accuracy in such real-life applications. Also, such filtering should reduce the number of event messages needed to be sent across a wireless network to track posture remotely, hence extending the system’s life. To support time-based filtering, understanding transitions, which are the major event generators in a classification system, is a key. This work examines three approaches to post-process the output of a posture classifier using time-based filtering: a naïve voting scheme, an exponentially weighted voting scheme, and a Bayes filter. Best performance is obtained from the exponentially weighted voting scheme although it is suspected that a more sophisticated treatment of the Bayes filter might yield better results.

  12. Maintaining balance in elderly fallers: novel aspects of postural balance measures in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Swanenburg, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    At first in this thesis, an intervention programme was tested for the effect on the risk of falling in a population of elderly. The aim of the study was to investigate if exercise, combined with protein intake and calcium/vitamin D supplementation would have a larger effect on the risk of falling and postural balance outcomes than calcium/vitamin D supplementation only. An observational performance test (risk of falling) and performance measurements (force platform) were used as outcome measu...

  13. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed....... METHODS: Review of controlled, clinical trials evaluating postoperative pulmonary function in patients positioned in the supine vs. the sitting or standing position and patients positioned in the supine vs. the lateral position. Data were obtained from a search in the Medline and Cochrane databases (1966...

  14. A passerine spreads its tail to facilitate a rapid recovery of its body posture during hovering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian-Yuan; Ting, Shang-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Hung; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2012-07-07

    We demonstrate experimentally that a passerine exploits tail spreading to intercept the downward flow induced by its wings to facilitate the recovery of its posture. The periodic spreading of its tail by the White-eye bird exhibits a phase correlation with both wingstroke motion and body oscillation during hovering flight. During a downstroke, a White-eye's body undergoes a remarkable pitch-down motion, with the tail undergoing an upward swing. This pitch-down motion becomes appropriately suppressed at the end of the downstroke; the bird's body posture then recovers gradually to its original status. Employing digital particle-image velocimetry, we show that the strong downward flow induced by downstroking the wings serves as an external jet flow impinging upon the tail, providing a depressing force on the tail to counteract the pitch-down motion of the bird's body. Spreading of the tail enhances a rapid recovery of the body posture because increased forces are experienced. The maximum force experienced by a spread tail is approximately 2.6 times that of a non-spread tail.

  15. Development of the Coordination between Posture and Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Keen, Rachel; Berthier, Neil E.; Riccio, Gary E.; Hamill, Joseph; Van Emmerik, Richard E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested that proper postural control is essential for the development of reaching. However, little research has examined the development of the coordination between posture and manual control throughout childhood. We investigated the coordination between posture and manual control in children (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults during…

  16. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  17. Auditing nuclear materials statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1973-01-01

    A standard that may be used as a guide for persons making independent examinations of nuclear materials statements or reports regarding inventory quantities on hand, receipts, production, shipment, losses, etc. is presented. The objective of the examination of nuclear materials statements by the independent auditor is the expression of an opinion on the fairness with which the statements present the nuclear materials position of a nuclear materials facility and the movement of such inventory materials for the period under review. The opinion is based upon an examination made in accordance with auditing criteria, including an evaluation of internal control, a test of recorded transactions, and a review of measured discards and materials unaccounted for (MUF). The standard draws heavily upon financial auditing standards and procedures published by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

  18. The effects of hippotherapy on postural balance and functional ability in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Andréa Gomes; Copetti, Fernando; Angelo, Vera Regina; Chiavoloni, Luana Leonardo; David, Ana Cristina

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of hippotherapy on seated postural balance, dynamic balance, and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy and compared the effects of 12 and 24 sessions on seated postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 15 children with cerebral palsy aged between 5 and 10 years. A hippotherapy protocol was performed for 30 minutes, twice a week, for 12 weeks. Postural balance in a sitting position was measured using an AMTI AccuSway Plus force platform 1 week before initiating the hippotherapy program and after 12 and 24 weeks. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) were used before and after 24 sessions. [Results] Significant differences were observed for center of pressure (COP) variables, including medio-lateral (COPml), anteroposterior displacement (COPap), and velocity of displacement (VelCOP), particularly after 24 sessions. There were also significant differences in BBS scores and PEDI score increases associated with functional skills (self-care, social function, and mobility), caregiver assistance (self-care), social function, and mobility. [Conclusion] Hippotherapy resulted in improvement in postural balance in the sitting position, dynamic balance, and functionality in children with cerebral palsy, an effect particularly significant after 24 hippotherapy sessions.

  19. Protocol to assess the neurophysiology associated with multi-segmental postural coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomond, Karen V; Henry, Sharon M; Jacobs, Jesse V; Hitt, Juvena R; Horak, Fay B; Cohen, Rajal G; Schwartz, Daniel; Dumas, Julie A; Naylor, Magdalena R; Watts, Richard; DeSarno, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) stabilize potential disturbances to posture caused by movement. Impaired APAs are common with disease and injury. Brain functions associated with generating APAs remain uncertain due to a lack of paired tasks that require similar limb motion from similar postural orientations, but differ in eliciting an APA while also being compatible with brain imaging techniques (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI). This study developed fMRI-compatible tasks differentiated by the presence or absence of APAs during leg movement. Eighteen healthy subjects performed two leg movement tasks, supported leg raise (SLR) and unsupported leg raise (ULR), to elicit isolated limb motion (no APA) versus multi-segmental coordination patterns (including APA), respectively. Ground reaction forces under the feet and electromyographic activation amplitudes were assessed to determine the coordination strategy elicited for each task. Results demonstrated that the ULR task elicited a multi-segmental coordination that was either minimized or absent in the SLR task, indicating that it would serve as an adequate control task for fMRI protocols. A pilot study with a single subject performing each task in an MRI scanner demonstrated minimal head movement in both tasks and brain activation patterns consistent with an isolated limb movement for the SLR task versus multi-segmental postural coordination for the ULR task. (note)

  20. Body Posture Asymmetry Differences between Children with Mild Scoliosis and Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP often have impaired movement coordination, reduced between-limb synchronization, and less weight bearing on the affected side, which can affect the maintenance of an upright weight-bearing position and gait. This study evaluated whether the different postural patterns of children with unilateral CP could be statistically recognized using cluster analysis. Forty-five outpatients with unilateral CP (mean age, 9 years and 5 months and 51 able-bodied children with mild scoliosis (mean age, 9 years and 2 months were included. One observer performed moiré topography (MT examinations using a CQ Electronic System (Poland device. A weight distribution analysis on the base of support (BOS between the body sides was performed simultaneously. A force plate dynamographic platform (PDM, ZEBRIS (Germany, with FootPrint software was used for these measurements. Cluster analysis revealed three groups: Cluster 1 (, 73.96%, Cluster 2 (, 8.33%, and Cluster 3 (, 17.71%. Based on the MT parameters (extracted using a data reduction technique, three typical asymmetrical postural patterns were described: (1 the postural pattern of children with mild scoliosis (SCOL, (2 the progravitational postural pattern (PGPP, and (3 the antigravitational pattern. Patterns two and three were identified in children with unilateral CP.

  1. Postural analysis in time and frequency domains in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Manuela; Rigoldi, Chiara; Celletti, Claudia; Mainardi, Luca; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to analyze postural control in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) participants in time and frequency domain. This study considered a pathological group composed by 22 EDS participants performing a postural test consisting in maintaining standing position over a force platform for 30s in two conditions: open eyes (OE) and closed eyes (CE). In order to compare pathological group we acquired in the same conditions a control group composed by 20 healthy participants. The obtained center of pressure (COP) signal was analyzed in time and frequency domain using an AR model. Results revealed differences between pathological and control group: EDS participants pointed out difficulties in controlling COP displacements trying to keep it inside the BOS in AP direction and for this reason increased the use of ML mechanism in order to avoid the risk of fall. Also in CE conditions they demonstrated more difficulties in maintaining posture revealing the proprioceptive system is impaired, due to ligament laxity that characterized EDS participants. Frequency domain analysis showed no differences between the two groups, affirming that the changes in time domain reflected really the impairment to the postural control mechanism and not a different strategy assumed by EDS participants. These data could help in decision-making process to establish a correct rehabilitation approach, based on the reinforcing of muscle tone to supply the ligament laxity in order to prevent risks of falls and its consequences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by acute postural change in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-12-01

    Thermal sensation represents the primary stimulus for behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation. We assessed whether the sensation of skin and core temperatures for the driving force of behavioral thermoregulation was modified by postural change from the supine (Sup) to sitting (Sit) during mild hyperthermia. Seventeen healthy young men underwent measurements of noticeable increase and decrease (±0.1 °C/s) of skin temperature (thresholds of warm and cold sensation on the skin, 6.25 cm 2 of area) at the forearm and chest and of the whole-body warm sensation in the Sup and Sit during normothermia (NT; esophageal temperature (T es ), ∼36.6 °C) and mild hyperthermia (HT; T es , ∼37.2 °C; lower legs immersion in 42 °C of water). The threshold for cold sensation on the skin at chest was lower during HT than NT in the Sit (P sensation on the skin at both sites remained unchanged with changes in body posture or temperature. The whole-body warm sensation was higher during HT than NT in both postures and higher in the Sit than Sup during both NT and HT (all, P sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by postural change from supine to sitting to sense lesser cold on the skin and more whole-body warmth.

  3. Effects of experimental occlusal interference on body posture: an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, I; Gatto, M R; Bartolucci, M L; Bortolotti, F; Alessandri Bonetti, G; Michelotti, A

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the relationship between dental occlusion and body posture both among people and in scientific literature. The aim of the present longitudinal study is to investigate the effects of an experimental occlusal interference on body posture by means of a force platform and an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis. An occlusal interference of a 0- to 2-mm-thick glass composite was prepared to disturb the intercuspal position while not creating interference during lateral or protrusive mandibular excursions. Frontal and sagittal kinematic parameters, dynamic gait measurements and superficial electromyographic (SEMG) activity of head and neck muscles were performed on 12 healthy subjects. Measurements were taken 10 days before the application of the occlusal interference, and then immediately before the application, the day after it, and at a distance of 7 and 14 days under four different exteroceptive conditions. The outcomes of this study show that an occlusal interference does not modify significantly over time static and dynamic parameters of body posture under different exteroceptive conditions. It has a minimal influence only on the frontal kinematic parameters related to mandibular position, and it induces a transient increase of the activity of masticatory muscles. In this study, the experimental occlusal interference did not significantly influence the body posture during a 14-day follow-up period. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. THE STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS USING FINANCIAL STATEMENT EQUATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Harold Fletcher; Thomas Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses one of the more difficult topics in teaching MBA level financial management, the statement of cash flows. By employing financial statement equations in preparing the statement of cash flows, students: (1) are employing tools that they are more familiar and comfortable with which mitigates their anxiety and enhances their understanding, (2) are better able to understand the logic of the statement of cash flows and the relationships that exist between it and the income stat...

  5. HOW TO DESIGN NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTION TRIALS TO SLOW COGNITIVE DECLINE IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY POPULATIONS AND APPLY FOR EFFICACY CLAIMS: A STATEMENT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY ON NUTRITION AND AGING TASK FORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, M.; Coley, N.; Andrieu, S.; Bonhomme, C.; Caubere, J.P.; Cesari, M.; Gautry, J.; Garcia Sanchez, I.; Hugonot, L.; Mansuy, L.; Pahor, M.; Pariente, J.; Ritz, P.; Salva, A.; Sijben, J.; Wieggers, R.; Ythier-Moury, P.; Zaim, M.; Zetlaoui, J.; Vellas, B.

    2015-01-01

    Interventions are crucial as they offer simple and inexpensive public health solutions that will be useful over the long term use. A Task Force on designing trials of nutritional interventions to slow cognitive decline in older adults was held in Toulouse in September 2012. The aim of the Task Force was to bring together leading experts from academia, the food industry and regulatory agencies to determine the best trial designs that would enable us to reach our goal of maintaining or improving cognitive function in apparently healthy aging people. An associated challenge for this Task Force was to determine the type of trials required by the Public Food Agencies for assessing the impact of nutritional compounds in comparison to well established requirements for drug trials. Although the required quality of the study design, rationale and statistical analysis remains the same, the studies designed to show reduction of cognitive decline require a long duration and the objectives of this task force was to determine best design for these trials. Two specific needs were identified to support trials of nutritional interventions: 1- Risk- reduction strategies are needed to tackle the growing burden of cognitive decline that may lead to dementia, 2- Innovative study designs are needed to improve the quality of these studies. PMID:23933873

  6. Postural Determinants in the Blind. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Irwin M.; Murphy, Thomas J.

    The problem of malposture in the blind and its affect on orientation and travel skills was explored. A group of 45 students were enrolled in a standard 3-month mobility training program. Each student suffered a postural problem, some compounded by severe orthopedic and/or neurological deficit. All subjects were given complete orthopedic and…

  7. Smart rehabilitation garment for posture monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Q.; Chen, W.; Timmermans, A.A.A.; Karachristos, C.; Martens, J.B.O.S.; Markopoulos, P.

    Posture monitoring and correction technologies can support prevention and treatment of spinal pain or can help detect and avoid compensatory movements during the neurological rehabilitation of upper extremities, which can be very important to ensure their effectiveness. We describe the design and

  8. Robust balance shift control with posture optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavafoglu, Z.; Kavafoglu, Ersan; Egges, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a control framework which creates robust and natural balance shifting behaviours during standing. Given high-level features such as the position of the center of mass projection and the foot configurations, a kinematic posture satisfying these features is synthesized using

  9. Can smartwatches replace smartphones for posture tracking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-10-22

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch's ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches' ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed.

  10. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Collin S; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  11. Public and Private Posture : Zadie Smith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynders, Odile

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will focus on Smith’s posture, and in particular on how her public position and literary work negotiate issues such as identification, celebrity, style and authenticity. First, the paradox of the ‘celebrity authority’ will be examined, followed by a Derrida-inspired analysis of Smith’s

  12. Evaluation of body posture in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Fernandes Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To investigate the body posture of nursing students before and after clinical practice. METHOD The study was developed in two stages. Initially the body posture of students of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th periods were assessed through photogrammetry. All images were analyzed in a random and masked manner with CorporisPro® 3.1.3 software. Three evaluations were performed for each angle and then the mean value was calculated. Two years later, when the 4th period students had developed their clinical internships, their body posture was again evaluated. RESULTS The total sample consisted of 112 students. Comparison of their posture with the normality pattern showed that all the angles presented significant differences (p< 0.00, except for the angle of the Thales triangle. Reassessment of these students evidenced significant differences in the angles of the acromioclavicular joint (p=0.03, knee flexion (p< 0.00 and in the tibiotarsal angle (p< 0.00. CONCLUSION All the students presented alterations when compared to the normality values. The segments that presented significant differences between before and after practice were the acromioclavicular angle, knee flexion, and tibiotarsal angle; the latter two were in the rolling position.

  13. Influence of musical groove on postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jessica M; Warlaumont, Anne S; Abney, Drew H; Rigoli, Lillian M; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Timescales of postural fluctuation reflect underlying neuromuscular processes in balance control that are influenced by sensory information and the performance of concurrent cognitive and motor tasks. An open question is how postural fluctuations entrain to complex environmental rhythms, such as in music, which also vary on multiple timescales. Musical groove describes the property of music that encourages auditory-motor synchronization and is used to study voluntary motor entrainment to rhythmic sounds. The influence of groove on balance control mechanisms remains unexplored. We recorded fluctuations in center of pressure (CoP) of standing participants (N = 40) listening to low and high groove music and during quiet stance. We found an effect of musical groove on radial sway variability, with the least amount of variability in the high groove condition. In addition, we observed that groove influenced postural sway entrainment at various temporal scales. For example, with increasing levels of groove, we observed more entrainment to shorter, local timescale rhythmic musical occurrences. In contrast, we observed more entrainment to longer, global timescale features of the music, such as periodicity, with decreasing levels of groove. Finally, musical experience influenced the amount of postural variability and entrainment at local and global timescales. We conclude that groove in music and musical experience can influence the neural mechanisms that govern balance control, and discuss implications of our findings in terms of multiscale sensorimotor coupling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Posture changes and subfoveal choroidal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Antonio; Geiser, Martial H; Riva, Charles E

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of posture change on subfoveal choroidal blood flow (ChBF) in normal volunteers. The pulsatile, nonpulsatile, and mean ChBF were measured with laser Doppler flowmetry in 11 healthy volunteers with a mean age of 32 +/- 13 (SD) years. The posture of the subjects was changed from standing (90 degrees ), to supine (-8 degrees ), and back to standing, with a mechanically driven table. During the whole experimental procedure, ChBF and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded. After 30 seconds in standing position, the subjects were tilted to supine during approximately 30 seconds. They remained in this position for approximately 2 minutes, after which they were tilted back to the standing position (recovery), where they remained for another approximately 2 minutes. Systemic brachial artery blood pressure (BP) was measured in the baseline, supine, and recovery positions. This procedure was repeated to measure the intraocular pressure (IOP) at the different postures. Mean BP did not change significantly throughout the experimental procedure. As the body was tilted from standing to supine, HR decreased by 16% (P blood velocity. Based on previously reported experimental data that indicate that the ocular perfusion pressure increases less than predicted by purely hydrostatic considerations when the body is tilted from the standing to the supine position, the observed increase in ChBF suggests a passive response of the choroidal circulation to the posture change.

  15. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin S VanBuren

    Full Text Available Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination. Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  16. Temperature Management After Cardiac Arrest: An Advisory Statement by the Advanced Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnino, Michael W; Andersen, Lars W; Berg, Katherine M; Reynolds, Joshua C; Nolan, Jerry P; Morley, Peter T; Lang, Eddy; Cocchi, Michael N; Xanthos, Theodoros; Callaway, Clifton W; Soar, Jasmeet

    2016-01-01

    For more than a decade, mild induced hypothermia (32 °C-34 °C) has been standard of care for patients remaining comatose after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, and this has been extrapolated to survivors of cardiac arrest with initially nonshockable rhythms and to patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Two randomized trials published in 2002 reported a survival and neurological benefit with mild induced hypothermia. One recent randomized trial reported similar outcomes in patients treated with targeted temperature management at either 33 °C or 36 °C. In response to these new data, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Advanced Life Support Task Force performed a systematic review to evaluate 3 key questions: (1) Should mild induced hypothermia (or some form of targeted temperature management) be used in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients? (2) If used, what is the ideal timing of the intervention? (3) If used, what is the ideal duration of the intervention? The task force used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess and summarize the evidence and to provide a consensus on science statement and treatment recommendations. The task force recommends targeted temperature management for adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm at a constant temperature between 32 °C and 36 °C for at least 24 hours. Similar suggestions are made for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a nonshockable rhythm and in-hospital cardiac arrest. The task force recommends against prehospital cooling with rapid infusion of large volumes of cold intravenous fluid. Additional and specific recommendations are provided in the document. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Be Vigilant on Financial Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, DeBow

    2002-01-01

    Highlights areas on university's financial statements that warrant careful review by trustees and suggests ways they can check to see whether an institution's financial statements are clear and valid indicators of its financial status. (EV)

  18. Corporate Information Management Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The audit objective was to determine whether the OASD(C31) methods for preparing FY 1996 CIM, general purpose financial statements will result in auditable and complete general purpose financial statements...

  19. The Slippery Slope of Air Force Downsizing: A Strategy Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    reductions. 1 Introduction The military is required to manage its force posture based on resources, threats, and objectives defined by the...Defense Task Force on DoD Nuclear Weapons Mangement , 2008. 54. Grever, “AF officials reestablish squadron commander support staffs,” 2012. 55

  20. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Retno Nurwulan

    Full Text Available Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1 texting impaired postural stability, (2 the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3 performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.

  1. Should Ballet Dancers Vary Postures and Underfoot Surfaces When Practicing Postural Balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Karin, Janet; Tirosh, Oren

    2018-01-01

    Postural balance (PB) is an important component skill for professional dancers. However, the effects of different types of postures and different underfoot surfaces on PB have not adequately been addressed. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different conditions of footwear, surfaces, and standing positions on static and dynamic PB ability of young ballet dancers. A total of 36 male and female young professional ballet dancers (aged 14-19 years) completed static and dynamic balance testing, measured by head and lumbar accelerometers, while standing on one leg in the turnout position, under six different conditions: (1) "relaxed" posture; (2) "ballet" posture; (3) barefoot; (4) ballet shoes with textured insoles; (5) barefoot on a textured mat; and (6) barefoot on a spiky mat. A condition effect was found for static and dynamic PB. Static PB was reduced when dancers stood in the ballet posture compared with standing in the relaxed posture and when standing on a textured mat and on a spiky mat (p ballet shoes with textured insoles and when standing on a spiky mat compared with all other conditions (p ballet aligned position, including dance practice on different types of floors and on different types of textured/spiky materials may result in skill transfer to practice on normal floor surfaces, and both static and dynamic PB exercises should be assessed and generalized into practical dance routines.

  2. Understanding financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, D P

    2001-01-01

    In his premier column for The Physician Executive, David Tarantino takes a look at those critical "financials" that can make or break a business. If you're considering a career move, you need to know the financial condition of future employers. Learn how to read the statements and glean valuable information from the numbers.

  3. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate…

  4. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  5. Statement on Plagiarism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Statement on Plagiarism. S Mahadevan N Mukunda. Editorial Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 403-404. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/05/0403-0404. Author Affiliations.

  6. Consolidating Financial Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marcia R.

    This publication is designed to be a desktop reference and assist financial officers in both public and independent institutions of higher education in the preparation of consolidated financial statements. Chapter 1 covers generally accepted accounting principles and other accounting literature, and summarizes reporting rules of the Financial…

  7. Consolidated financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    This work provides basic information about consolidation and consolidated financial statements. In the beginning there are definisions of the members of the group under discussion and their relationship. Hereafter concepts of consolidation, accounting methods and methods of consolidation are discussed. It also compares approach of different accounting systems to consolidation.

  8. CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS UNDER IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor; Calotă Traian-Ovidiu

    2013-01-01

    This article is focuses on accounting consolidation techniques and the preparation of consolidation worksheets for the components of financial statements (statement of comprehensive income, statement of changes in equity, and financial position). The presented group includes parent company, two subsidiaries (only one fully controlled by the parent company) and a jointly controlled entity. The financial statements are presented under the following standards IFRS 3 Business Combination, IAS 27 ...

  9. Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Marcello; D'Auria, Enza; Caffarelli, Carlo; Verduci, Elvira; Barberi, Salvatore; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Iacono, Iride Dello; Martelli, Alberto; Riva, Enrica; Bernardini, Roberto

    2014-01-03

    Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject's nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern.

  10. Fundamentals of Financial Statements Audit

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. The objective of an audit of financial statements is to enable an auditor to express an opinion as to whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards or another identified financial reporting fr...

  11. OCAW statement of principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goss, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    The principal concern of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Union is that the health impact that the mining of uranium has on our members. The US Public Health Service has determined through mortality studies that the number one cause of death among uranium miners is lung cancer. It was also determined that exposure to radon daughters and mine dust correlates with the lung cancer experience of uranium miners. Data from the US Mine Safety and Health Administration has also shown that not only uranium underground miners, but all underground miners, are exposed to radon daughters - especially underground miners in the Rocky Mountain region. Our Union has maintained a consistent posture in relation to carcinogens in the workplace - that is, exposure to cancer-causing agents should be limited to the lowest feasible level. OCAW has interpreted lowest feasible level as the lower limit of detection of the collection and analytical method used to detect the carcinogen. Our posture is based on the available scientific information on carcinogenesis

  12. The effects of arm crank ergometry, cycle ergometry and treadmill walking on postural sway in healthy older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M W; Oxford, S W; Duncan, M J; Price, M J

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are increasingly being encouraged to exercise but this may lead to muscle fatigue, which can adversely affect postural stability. Few studies have investigated the effects of upper body exercise on postural sway in groups at risk of falling, such as the elderly. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects arm crank ergometry (ACE), cycle ergometry (CE) and treadmill walking (TM) on postural sway in healthy older females. In addition, this study sought to determine the time necessary to recover postural control after exercise. A total of nine healthy older females participated in this study. Participants stood on a force platform to assess postural sway which was measured by displacement of the centre of pressure before and after six separate exercise trials. Each participant completed three incremental exercise tests to 85% of individual's theoretical maximal heart rate (HRMAX) for ACE, CE and TM. Subsequent tests involved 20-min of ACE, CE and TM exercise at a relative workload corresponding to 50% of each individual's predetermined heart rate reserve (HRE). Post fatigue effects and postural control recovery were measured at different times after exercise (1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 30-min). None of the participants exhibited impaired postural stability after ACE. In contrast, CE and TM elicited significant post exercise balance impairments, which lasted for ∼ 10 min post exercise. We provide evidence of an exercise mode which does not elicit post exercise balance impairments. Older adults should exercise caution immediately following exercise engaging the lower limbs to avoid fall risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Muscle function and postural balance in lifelong trained male footballers compared with sedentary elderly men and youngsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether elderly subjects exposed to lifelong football training have better rapid muscle force characteristics, body composition and postural stability in comparison with untrained elderly. Ten elderly men exposed to lifelong football training (FTE; 69.6 ± 1.4 years....../s), higher total lean body mass (56.9 ± 0.8 vs 52.7 ± 2.2 kg) and better postural stability (Flamingo test: 15 ± 1 vs 33 ± 2 falls) compared with UE (P... in UE (Ppostural stability were consistently higher in elderly subjects exposed to lifelong football training, providing an enhanced ability to counteract unexpected perturbations in postural balance. The superior RFD and balance in elderly footballers were...

  14. Relationship between Muscle Function, Muscle Typology and Postural Performance According to Different Postural Conditions in Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Although motor output of the postural function clearly influences postural performance in young and older subjects, no relationship has been formally established between them. However, the relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength/power and postural performance is often pointed out, especially in older subjects. In fact, the influence of motor output may vary according to the postural condition considered (e.g., static, dynamic, challenging, disturbing). In static postural condition, there may be a relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength and postural performance when the value of muscle strength is below a certain threshold in older subjects. Above this threshold of muscle strength, this relationship may disappear. In dynamic postural condition, lower-extremity muscle power could facilitate compensatory postural actions, limiting induced body imbalance likely to generate falls in older subjects. In young subjects, there could be a relationship between very early rapid torque of the leg extensor muscles and postural performance. In the case of postural reaction to (external) perturbations, a high percentage of type II muscle fibers could be associated with the ability to react quickly to postural perturbations in young subjects, while it may enable a reduction in the risk of falls in older subjects. In practice, in older subjects, muscle strength and/or power training contributes to reducing the risk of falls, as well as slowing down the involution of muscle typology regarding type II muscle fibers.

  15. New evaluation index for the retainability of a swimmer's horizontal posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Watanabe

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of changes in buoyancy when a swimmer respires in a horizontal posture. We attempted to evaluate the levelness of swimmers' streamline posture by simultaneously measuring the lung capacity and buoyancy under water. The buoyancy was measured based on the changes in the vertical loads of the upper and lower limbs on the subjects' streamline posture under water. The horizontal x-axis as lung ventilation and the vertical y-axis as buoyancy forms a linear equation y = ax + b. The relation between hand (upper-limb buoyancy and lung ventilation is defined as y = a1x + b1 and that between foot (lower-limb buoyancy and lung ventilation as y = a2x + b2. Horizontal levelness was calculated as a ratio by dividing a2 by a1 using the inclination (a values from these formulas for an underwater streamline posture. We defined this ratio as the breathing-balance (BB ratio. Although the performance levels in the present study did not show any difference in the absolute quantity of air that humans can inhale in a streamline posture, the BB ratio was higher in a statistically significant manner in junior swimmers competing at international levels compared with the other groups of subjects (P < 0.001. This statistical difference in horizontal levelness, despite the absence of a noticeable difference in the absolute quantity of inhaled air, may be attributable to the way in which each person inhales and exhales air. Top-level junior swimmers that exhibited a high BB ratio might have inhaled in a way that would counteract the sinking of the lower limbs, for example, through abdominal respiration. When exhaling, on the other hand, they might have let out air gradually to mitigate the acceleration force involved in submerging the lower limbs.

  16. Altered postural control variability in older-aged individuals with a history of lateral ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masafumi; Kosik, Kyle; Johnson, Nathan; Gribble, Phillip

    2018-02-01

    The current study aimed to examine postural control performance during a single-leg balance task in elderly individuals with and without a previous history of lateral ankle sprain (LAS). Eighteen adults with a previous history of LAS (mean age = 66 years old) and 12 healthy controls (mean age = 65 years old) were included in the study. Participants performed three trials of a single-leg balance task during an eyes-opened condition for 20-s. Center of pressure (COP) trajectories in the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions were collected with a force plate. The following postural control measures were calculated in the AP and ML directions: 1) Sample Entropy (SampEn); 2) Approximate Entropy (ApEn); 3) mean of Time-to-Boundary minima (mean TTB); and 4) COP velocity (COPV). Older-age participants with a history LAS exhibited lower ApEn-AP, SampEn-AP, and SampEn-ML values compared to healthy controls (p postural control patterns, less adaptability, and more difficulty maintaining COP during a single-leg balance task in adults with a previous history of LAS. Our data suggest that there is a need to consider history of musculoskeletal injury when evaluating factors for postural control and fall risk in the elderly. Future investigations are needed to assess the effect of LAS on age-related declines in postural control and discern associations between potential risk factors of fall-related injuries and LAS in an elderly population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Ramadan Gasting on Postural Balance and Attentional Capacities in Elderly People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatar, R; Borji, R; Baccouch, R; Zahaf, F; Rebai, H; Sahli, S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on postural balance and attentional capacities in older adults. the Neurophysiology department of a University Hospital. Fifteen males aged between 65 and 80 years were asked to perform a postural balance protocol and a simple reaction time (SRT) test in four testing phases: one week before Ramadan (BR), during the second (SWR) and the fourth week of Ramadan (FWR) and 3 weeks after Ramadan (AR). Postural balance measurements were recorded in the bipedal stance in four different conditions: firm surface/eyes open (EO), firm surface/eyes closed (EC), foam surface/EO and foam surface/EC using a force platform. Results of the present study demonstrated that center of pressure (CoP) mean velocity (CoPVm), medio-lateral length (CoPLX) and antero-posterior length (CoPLY) were significantly higher during the SWR than BR. Likewise, values of CoPVm and CoPLX increased significantly during the FWR compared to BR. The CoPLX decreased significantly in the FWR compared to the SWR. Values of CoPVm and CoPLX were significantly higher AR in comparison with BR. In addition, SRT values increased significantly during the SWR and the FWR than BR. Ramadan fasting affects postural balance and attentional capacities in the elderly mainly in the SWR and it may, therefore, increase the risk of fall and fall-related injuries. More than three weeks are needed for older adults to recover postural balance impairment due to Ramadan fasting.

  18. Does postural sway change in association with manual therapeutic interventions? A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhe Alexander

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design Literature Review Objectives The objective of this literature review was to determine if postural sway changes in association with manual therapeutic interventions and to investigate whether any changes occur in healthy individuals or in association with pain intensity. Summary of Background data Improving postural stability has been proposed as a goal of manual therapeutic interventions. So far, no literature review has addressed whether there is supportive evidence for this and if so, what factors may be associated or causative for observed sway alterations. Search methods Seven online databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, ScienceDirect and the Cochrane library were systematically searched followed by a manual search of the retrieved papers. Selection criteria Studies comparing postural sway derived from bipedal force plate measurements in association with a manual therapeutic intervention, ideally compared to a control group. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for relevance, conducted the data extraction and the risk of bias assessment which was conducted using the RTI item bank. A descriptive analysis was conducted as the heterogeneous study designs prevented pooling of data. Results Nine studies of varying methodological quality met the inclusion criteria. No direct comparison of data across the studies was possible. There was no evidence that manual interventions lead to a change in postural sway in healthy individuals regardless of the body regions addressed by the intervention. There was some indication that postural sway may change at follow-up measurements in pain sufferers; however, this may be due to variations in pain intensity rather than resulting from the intervention itself. Conclusions There is no conclusive scientific evidence that manual therapeutic interventions may exhibit any immediate or long-term effect on COP excursions. Any

  19. The Comparison of Postural Control Ability in Children with/without Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Arghiani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In some reviewed studies on children with dyslexia it is observed that there is a significant relationship between the ability of postural control and dyslexia. In this study, by controlling the interfering factors, we have reviewed this relation by comparing postural control and balance ability in normal and dyslexic children. Materials & Methods: This case-control study is done on 19 boys with dyslexia (112.90±13.78 and 19 Normal boys (118.42±15.62. Normal children and children with dyslexia were matched in age, height and weight. Positioning duties included standing with adjacent feet on firm surface with open and closed eyes, and with close eyes on the foam and with internal perturbation on firm surface. Duration of each assignment was 35 seconds and the force plate device was used to evaluate the condition performance. Balances component of Bruininks Oseretsky test were take from all of the samples and correlation between functional and laboratory test were examined. Results: The results showed that the area on firm surface with open eyes, internal perturbation dependency rate in the standard deviations of the lateral body sways (SDX and of the antero-posterior body sways (SDY and the surface area, there were significant differences between normal and dyslexic children, but there was not any significant difference between the two groups in path length and mean velocity in different postural control modes (foam, firm surface, open and close eyes and visual dependence in all parameters (path length, velocity and surface area. We did not find significant correlation between Center of Pressure (COP and the balance part of Bruininks Oseretsky test in children with dyslexia. Conclusion: In spite of differences in some postural control parameters between normal group and children with dyslexia, it was not found significant relationship between postural control and dyslexia.

  20. Somatic features and body posture in children with scoliosis and scoliotic posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between somatic features and body posture in children with scoliosis and scoliotic posture. The study included 28 girls aged 7-18 with scoliosis and scoliotic posture. The selection of the subjects was deliberate. Height measurements were conducted with an anthropometer and weight measurements were done with an electronic scale. Body posture tests were performed using Exhibeon 3D digital photogrammetry and digital radiographs. The significant Spearman correlations between postural variables for the sagittal plane and the somatic variables regarded: trunk inclination angle and BMI (R= 0,4553, p= p=0,015, Abs of the trunk inclination angle and BMI (R = 0.5522, p = 0.002, length of thoracic kyphosis and BMI (R=0,4147, p=0.028, lumbar lordosis and BMI (R=0,4509, p=0,016. The significant Spearman correlations between scoliotic posture variables and the somatic variables concerned: length of primary lordosis and body height (R =0,4923, p=0.008, the length of the primary lordosis and body mass (R = 0.3932, p = 0.038, the length of the primary lordosis and BMI (R=0,4923, p=0.008. Variation analysis regarding postural (Exhibeon and somatic variables showed significant correlations between the direction of the primary curvature and body mass (p=0,0432, body height and primary angle location (p=0,0290 and between the height of the body and the location of the secondary angle (p = 0,0278.

  1. The Posture of Putting One's Palms Together Modulates Visual Motion Event Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Godai; Gyoba, Jiro

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the effect of an observer's hand postures on visual motion perception using the stream/bounce display. When two identical visual objects move across collinear horizontal trajectories toward each other in a two-dimensional display, observers perceive them as either streaming or bouncing. In our previous study, we found that when observers put their palms together just below the coincidence point of the two objects, the percentage of bouncing responses increased, mainly depending on the proprioceptive information from their own hands. However, it remains unclear if the tactile or haptic (force) information produced by the postures mostly influences the stream/bounce perception. We solved this problem by changing the tactile and haptic information on the palms of the hands. Experiment 1 showed that the promotion of bouncing perception was observed only when the posture of directly putting one's palms together was used, while there was no effect when a brick was sandwiched between the participant's palms. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the strength of force used when putting the palms together had no effect on increasing bounce perception. Our findings indicate that the hands-induced bounce effect derives from the tactile information produced by the direct contact between both palms.

  2. Elderly individuals with increased risk of falls show postural balance impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Rogério de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction Falls are a serious public health problem. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether elderly individuals with increased risk of falls have a postural balance deficit, evaluated using a force platform during a one-leg stance. Materials and methods The sample consisted of 94 physically independent elderly individuals from the EELO project. The instruments used were the Downton scale, in order to assess the risk as well as the history of falls, and the force platform to measure postural balance through parameters from the center of pressure (COP. Results Elderly individuals were split into two groups according to the score observed with the Downton scale: G1 — low fall risk (score ≤ 2 — and G2 — high fall risk (score > 2. No differences were observed between the groups concerning gender (P > 0.05, Chi Square test. On the other hand, individuals from G2 showed postural instability when compared to individuals from G1, and individuals from G2 showed higher values in all COP parameters analysed (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.05. Conclusion It can be concluded that the Downton scale has sensitivity for identifying individuals with balance impairment as well as a risk of falls. Therefore, it may be suggested that this scale may be useful in primary health care for detecting falls in the elderly.

  3. 38 CFR Appendix C to Part 200 - Actions Requiring Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement C Appendix C to Part 200 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 200, App. C Appendix C to Part 200—Actions Requiring Environmental Impact Statement The following actions are considered to be major Federal...

  4. Altered postural control strategies in quiet standing more than 20 years after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Tengman, Eva; Häger, Charlotte

    2016-05-01

    To explore long-term consequences of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture on postural sway and control strategies during bilateral quiet standing, in subjects treated with or without reconstructive surgery compared to uninjured controls. 70 individuals who had unilateral ACL rupture 23±2.4 years ago (33 received ACL reconstructive surgery, ACLR, and 37 had physiotherapy only, ACLPT) and 33 uninjured matched controls (CTRL) (mean age 46±5.3) stood quietly with eyes closed for 3min on a firm and on a compliant surface, respectively. Center of pressure (CoP) was registered with a force plate and postural sway was calculated from center of mass (CoM) derived from 3D kinematics. Sway density (SD) analyses of CoP assessed distance and duration of stable phases. The torque controlling postural sway was estimated from CoP-CoM. Comparisons across conditions to CTRL revealed larger CoP-CoM-area in ACLR (p=0.017, CI: 10.95, 143.10), but not in ACLPT. Mean distance between SD-peaks was greater for ACLR (ppostural control efforts than CTRL but without significant differences in postural sway. Control efforts were thus not directly associated with sway and further research should be focused on variance in postural control strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Postural stability is altered by the stimulation of pain but not warm receptors in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbeil Philippe

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now recognized that large diameter myelinated afferents provide the primary source of lower limb proprioceptive information for maintaining an upright standing position. Small diameter afferents transmitting noxious stimuli, however, can also influence motor behaviors. Despite the possible influence of pain on motor behaviors, the effects of pain on the postural control system have not been well documented. Methods Two cutaneous heat stimulations (experiment 1: non-noxious 40 degrees C; experiment 2: noxious 45 degrees C were applied bilaterally on the calves of the subject with two thermal grills to stimulate A delta and C warm receptors and nociceptors in order to examine their effects on postural stability. The non-noxious stimulation induced a gentle sensation of warmth and the noxious stimulation induced a perception of heat pain (visual analogue scores of 0 and 46 mm, respectively. For both experiments, ten healthy young adults were tested with and without heat stimulations of the lower limbs while standing upright on a force platform with eyes open, eyes closed and eyes closed with tendon co-vibration of tibialis anterior and triceps surae muscles. The center of pressure displacements were analyzed to examine how both stimulations affected the regulation of quiet standing and if the effects were exacerbated when vision was removed or ankle proprioception perturbed. Results The stimulation of the warm receptors (40 degrees C did not induce any postural deterioration. With pain (45 degrees C, subjects showed a significant increase in standard deviation, range and mean velocity of postural oscillations as well as standard deviation of the center of pressure velocity. The effects of heat pain were exacerbated when subjects had both their eyes closed and ankle tendons vibrated (increased standard deviation of the center of pressure velocity and mean velocity of the center of pressure. Conclusions A non

  6. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: Impact of Somatosensory Orthoses on Postural Control (A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma G. Dupuy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Elhers-Danlos syndrome (EDS is the clinical manifestation of connective tissue disorders, and comprises several clinical forms with no specific symptoms and selective medical examinations which result in a delay in diagnosis of about 10 years. The EDS hypermobility type (hEDS is characterized by generalized joint hypermobility, variable skin hyperextensibility and impaired proprioception. Since somatosensory processing and multisensory integration are crucial for both perception and action, we put forth the hypothesis that somatosensory deficits in hEDS patients may lead, among other clinical symptoms, to misperception of verticality and postural instability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: (i to assess the impact of somatosensory deficit on subjective visual vertical (SVV and postural stability; and (ii to quantify the effect of wearing somatosensory orthoses (i.e., compressive garments and insoles on postural stability. Six hEDS patients and six age- and gender-matched controls underwent a SVV (sitting, standing, lying on the right side evaluation and a postural control evaluation on a force platform (Synapsys, with or without visual information (eyes open (EO/eyes closed (EC. These two latter conditions performed either without orthoses, or with compression garments (CG, or insoles, or both. Results showed that patients did not exhibit a substantial perceived tilt of the visual vertical in the direction of the body tilt (Aubert effect as did the control subjects. Interestingly, such differential effects were only apparent when the rod was initially positioned to the left of the vertical axis (opposite the longitudinal body axis. In addition, patients showed greater postural instability (sway area than the controls. The removal of vision exacerbated this instability, especially in the mediolateral (ML direction. The wearing of orthoses improved postural stability, especially in the eyes-closed condition, with a particularly

  7. Postural stability is altered by the stimulation of pain but not warm receptors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Corbeil, Philippe; Teasdale, Normand

    2003-10-17

    It is now recognized that large diameter myelinated afferents provide the primary source of lower limb proprioceptive information for maintaining an upright standing position. Small diameter afferents transmitting noxious stimuli, however, can also influence motor behaviors. Despite the possible influence of pain on motor behaviors, the effects of pain on the postural control system have not been well documented. Two cutaneous heat stimulations (experiment 1: non-noxious 40 degrees C; experiment 2: noxious 45 degrees C) were applied bilaterally on the calves of the subject with two thermal grills to stimulate A delta and C warm receptors and nociceptors in order to examine their effects on postural stability. The non-noxious stimulation induced a gentle sensation of warmth and the noxious stimulation induced a perception of heat pain (visual analogue scores of 0 and 46 mm, respectively). For both experiments, ten healthy young adults were tested with and without heat stimulations of the lower limbs while standing upright on a force platform with eyes open, eyes closed and eyes closed with tendon co-vibration of tibialis anterior and triceps surae muscles. The center of pressure displacements were analyzed to examine how both stimulations affected the regulation of quiet standing and if the effects were exacerbated when vision was removed or ankle proprioception perturbed. The stimulation of the warm receptors (40 degrees C) did not induce any postural deterioration. With pain (45 degrees C), subjects showed a significant increase in standard deviation, range and mean velocity of postural oscillations as well as standard deviation of the center of pressure velocity. The effects of heat pain were exacerbated when subjects had both their eyes closed and ankle tendons vibrated (increased standard deviation of the center of pressure velocity and mean velocity of the center of pressure). A non-noxious stimulation (40 degrees C) of the small diameter afferents is not a

  8. Posture Control—Human-Inspired Approaches for Humanoid Robot Benchmarking: Conceptualizing Tests, Protocols and Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mergner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Posture control is indispensable for both humans and humanoid robots, which becomes especially evident when performing sensorimotor tasks such as moving on compliant terrain or interacting with the environment. Posture control is therefore targeted in recent proposals of robot benchmarking in order to advance their development. This Methods article suggests corresponding robot tests of standing balance, drawing inspirations from the human sensorimotor system and presenting examples from robot experiments. To account for a considerable technical and algorithmic diversity among robots, we focus in our tests on basic posture control mechanisms, which provide humans with an impressive postural versatility and robustness. Specifically, we focus on the mechanically challenging balancing of the whole body above the feet in the sagittal plane around the ankle joints in concert with the upper body balancing around the hip joints. The suggested tests target three key issues of human balancing, which appear equally relevant for humanoid bipeds: (1 four basic physical disturbances (support surface (SS tilt and translation, field and contact forces may affect the balancing in any given degree of freedom (DoF. Targeting these disturbances allows us to abstract from the manifold of possible behavioral tasks. (2 Posture control interacts in a conflict-free way with the control of voluntary movements for undisturbed movement execution, both with “reactive” balancing of external disturbances and “proactive” balancing of self-produced disturbances from the voluntary movements. Our proposals therefore target both types of disturbances and their superposition. (3 Relevant for both versatility and robustness of the control, linkages between the posture control mechanisms across DoFs provide their functional cooperation and coordination at will and on functional demands. The suggested tests therefore include ankle-hip coordination. Suggested benchmarking

  9. Branding Icarus: The Construction of Identity and Diversity at The United States Air Force Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    in the RAAF, Australia’s Sex Discrimina- tion Commissioner Elizabeth Broderick provided further insight into the construction of these five critical...Weber. 60 Unpublished statement by Elizabeth Broderick at Chief of Air Force New Horizon Call, RAAF... Broderick , Elizabeth. Unpublished Statement at Chief of Air Force New Horizon Call, Royal Australian Air Force Base Glenbrook, August 2013

  10. Ergonomic strategies to improve radiographers' posture during mammography activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernean, Nicolai; Serranheira, Florentino; Gonçalves, Pedro; Sá Dos Reis, Cláudia

    2017-08-01

    To identify alternatives for radiographers' postures while performing mammography that can contribute to reduce the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). Radiographers' postures to positioning craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated without any intervention for three scenarios: radiographer/patient with similar statures, radiographer smaller than patient and radiographer taller than patient. Actions were taken to modify the postures: seated radiographer; patient on a step; seated patient; radiographer on a step. All the postures were analysed using kinovea 0.8.15 software and the angles were measured twice and classified according to European standard EN1005-4: 2005. The non-acceptable angles were measured mainly during MLO positioning when radiographer was taller than the patient: 139° and 120° for arm-flexion and abduction, 72° for trunk and -24° for head/neck-flexion. The introduction of alternative postures (radiographer seated), allowed improvements in posture (60° and 99° for arm flexion and abduction, 14° for trunk and 0° for head/neck flexion), being classified as acceptable. The alternative postures simulated have the potential to reduce the risk of developing WRMSDs when radiographers and patients have different statures. • Radiographers' postures in mammography can contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorders • Non-acceptable posture was identified for MLO breast positioning (radiographer taller than patient) • Adapting posture to patient biotype reduces the WRMSD risk for radiographers.

  11. Translation of Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Dalthan Simas; Otavio De Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    This paper has the purpose of surveying and critically analyzing the effects of accounting procedures which are closely related to groups of companies operating multinationally. These are the methods for translation of financial statements, e.g. the Temporal and the Closing- rate Methods, as far as those methods are embodied in accounting standards which have been either recommended or adopted by countries such as the UK and US. We conclude that with regard to changing prices, General Price L...

  12. Python Switch Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Python programming language does not have a built in switch/case control structure as found in many other high level programming languages. It is thought by some that this is a deficiency in the language, and the control structure should be added. This paper demonstrates that not only is the control structure not needed, but that the methods available in Python are more expressive than built in case statements in other high level languages.

  13. Hollow Force, Hollow Metaphor: Assessing The Current Defense Drawdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    better prioritized. Army Readiness Secretary of the Army John McHugh and Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA), General Raymond Odierno, assessed in...forming the Army’s readiness narrative— Army leaders see the cuts as inconsistent with an uncertain and volatile strategic environment. McHugh and...John M. McHugh and Raymond T. Odierno, statement made on the Posture of the United States Army, on March 18, 2015, to the Senate Armed Services

  14. Operationality Improvement Control of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair by Fuzzy Algorithm Considering Posture Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroki; Seki, Hirokazu; Minakata, Hideaki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel operationality improvement control for electric power assisted wheelchairs. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people, however, the performance of the straight and circular road driving must be further improved because the two wheels drive independently. This paper proposes a novel operationality improvement control by fuzzy algorithm to realize the stable driving on straight and circular roads. The suitable assisted torque of the right and left wheels is determined by fuzzy algorithm based on the posture angular velocity, the posture angle of the wheelchair, the human input torque proportion and the total human torque of the right and left wheels. Some experiments on the practical roads show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  15. The effects of vestibular stimulation and fatigue on postural control in classical ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Diana M; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Newnham, Prudence J; Edwards, Dylan J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of ballet-specific vestibular stimulation and fatigue on static postural control in ballet dancers and to establish whether these effects differ across varying levels of ballet training. Dancers were divided into three groups: professional, pre-professional, and recreational. Static postural control of 23 dancers was measured on a force platform at baseline and then immediately, 30 seconds, and 60 seconds after vestibular stimulation (pirouettes) and induction of fatigue (repetitive jumps). The professional dancers' balance was unaffected by both the vestibular stimulation and the fatigue task. The pre-professional and recreational dancers' static sway increased following both perturbations. It is concluded that professional dancers are able to compensate for vestibular and fatiguing perturbations due to a higher level of skill-specific motor training.

  16. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter......Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts......, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit...

  17. Research of Human Postural Balance Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Griškevičius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In present article postural balance between subjects with stroke and healthy subjects, is being investigated with eyes opened and eyes closed. In the research participated 30 healthy subjects and 15 subjects with stroke. At the same time two experimental measurements were performed – postural balance was measured using balance platform and oscillations of the centre of mass were observed using two-axial accelerometer. It was noted, that amplitudes of subjects with stroke were larger almost two times than control group’s of healthy subjects. It was find out, that ratios of pressure distribution on both left and right legs are in range from 1 to 0.9 for healthy subjects, and ratios below 0.9 are common for subjects with stroke. When subjects were standing with eyes closed, sway amplitudes were higher and the ratios of load distribution on left and right legs were lower.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Human Posture Identification Using a MIMO Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Sasakawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The elderly are constantly in danger of falling and injuring themselves without anyone realizing it. A safety-monitoring system based on microwaves can ease these concerns. The authors have proposed safety-monitoring systems that use multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar to localize persons by capturing their biological activities such as respiration. However, our studies to date have focused on localization, which is easier to achieve than an estimation of human postures. This paper proposes a human posture identification scheme based on height and a Doppler radar cross section (RCS as estimated by a MIMO array. This scheme allows smart home applications to dispense with contact and wearable devices. Experiments demonstrate that this method can identify the supine position (i.e., after a fall with 100% accuracy, and the average identification rate is 95.0%.

  19. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    effect on postoperative pulmonary function in the sitting or standing position compared with the supine. Thus, avoidance of the supine position may improve postoperative pulmonary function. Three of six studies showed a positive effect on postoperative pulmonary function of the lateral side compared......BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...... with the supine. Thus, the lateral position has limited effects on pulmonary function. CONCLUSION: Changes of postoperative position from supine to sitting or standing are of major importance in the interpretation of postoperative pulmonary outcome studies and in future strategies to improve pulmonary outcome....

  20. 76 FR 6455 - Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Growth, Realignment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... alternative, the Army would retain its aviation force structure at its current levels, configurations, and.... The primary environmental issues evaluated include impacts to air quality, soil, airspace, cultural... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...

  1. Evaluation of body posture in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marília Fernandes; Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; Miguel, Michele Rita Oliveira; Simão, Talita Prado; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2017-08-28

    To investigate the body posture of nursing students before and after clinical practice. The study was developed in two stages. Initially the body posture of students of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th periods were assessed through photogrammetry. All images were analyzed in a random and masked manner with CorporisPro® 3.1.3 software. Three evaluations were performed for each angle and then the mean value was calculated. Two years later, when the 4th period students had developed their clinical internships, their body posture was again evaluated. The total sample consisted of 112 students. Comparison of their posture with the normality pattern showed that all the angles presented significant differences (pcomposta por 112 estudantes. Comparando-se os estudantes com o padrão de normalidade, todos os ângulos apresentaram diferença significativa (p< 0,00), com exceção do ângulo triângulo de Tales. Reavaliando os mesmos estudantes, houve diferença significativa nos ângulos da articulação acromioclavicular (p=0,03), da flexão de joelhos (p< 0,00) e no ângulo tibiotársico (p< 0,00). Todos os estudantes apresentaram alterações, comparadas aos valores de normalidade. Os segmentos com diferença significativa, comparando-se antes e após a prática, foram o ângulo acromioclavicular, flexo de joelho e ângulo tibiotársico, sendo os dois últimos na posição de rolamento.

  2. Human Posture Identification Using a MIMO Array

    OpenAIRE

    Dai Sasakawa; Naoki Honma; Takeshi Nakayama; Shoichi Iizuka

    2018-01-01

    The elderly are constantly in danger of falling and injuring themselves without anyone realizing it. A safety-monitoring system based on microwaves can ease these concerns. The authors have proposed safety-monitoring systems that use multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar to localize persons by capturing their biological activities such as respiration. However, our studies to date have focused on localization, which is easier to achieve than an estimation of human postures. This paper pr...

  3. A postural `stressed` cerebral HMPAO case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.C.; Jost, G.M.; Bolitho, L.; Grantham, M. [Wangaratta District Hospital, VIC (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Full text: This case study represents an example of the utility of postural hypoperfusion stressed HMPAO SPECT. An elderly woman of 78 with a long history of giddiness was referred to our laboratory for examination of possible cerebral ischaemia. She had recurrent dizzy episodes, sometimes posture related, over the past few years and had suffered several falls. Cerebral DSA revealed minimal disease. CT scans were reported as normal. Carotid duplex Doppler studies revealed bilateral plaque disease in the carotid bulbs extending to the origins of the ICAs which were not significant stenoses. Postural symptoms were induced by standing the patient up rapidly and HMPAO was administered at the same time. A SPECT scan of the brain was performed. Quantitative analysis showed a left to right decrease of 10.8% in the temporo-occipital area, 5.6% in the temporo-parietal area and 2.5% in the cerebellar and parietal areas. Images revealed moderately reduced tracer concentration in the left half of the cerebellum and the left occipital region extending as far forward as the temporo-parietal region A repeat HMPAO SPECT scan without stress was normal. This would appear to indicate reversible ischaemia in the left posterior region, and is consistent with the reported symptoms. This case illustrates the usefulness of HMPAO in the diagnosis of reversible cerebral ischaemia.

  4. Ice skating promotes postural control in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M; Röttger, K; Taube, W

    2014-12-01

    High fall rates causing injury and enormous financial costs are reported for children. However, only few studies investigated the effects of balance training in children and these studies did not find enhanced balance performance in postural (transfer) tests. Consequently, it was previously speculated that classical balance training might not be stimulating enough for children to adequately perform these exercises. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of ice skating as an alternative form of balance training. Volunteers of an intervention (n = 17; INT: 13.1 ± 0.4 years) and a control group (n = 13; CON: 13.2 ± 0.3 years) were tested before and after training in static and dynamic postural transfer tests. INT participated in eight sessions of ice skating during education lessons, whereas CON participated in normal physical education. Enhanced balance performance was observed in INT but not in CON when tested on an unstable free-swinging platform (P skating in children. More importantly, participating children improved static and dynamic balance control in postural tasks that were not part of the training. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A postural 'stressed' cerebral HMPAO case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.C.; Jost, G.M.; Bolitho, L.; Grantham, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This case study represents an example of the utility of postural hypoperfusion stressed HMPAO SPECT. An elderly woman of 78 with a long history of giddiness was referred to our laboratory for examination of possible cerebral ischaemia. She had recurrent dizzy episodes, sometimes posture related, over the past few years and had suffered several falls. Cerebral DSA revealed minimal disease. CT scans were reported as normal. Carotid duplex Doppler studies revealed bilateral plaque disease in the carotid bulbs extending to the origins of the ICAs which were not significant stenoses. Postural symptoms were induced by standing the patient up rapidly and HMPAO was administered at the same time. A SPECT scan of the brain was performed. Quantitative analysis showed a left to right decrease of 10.8% in the temporo-occipital area, 5.6% in the temporo-parietal area and 2.5% in the cerebellar and parietal areas. Images revealed moderately reduced tracer concentration in the left half of the cerebellum and the left occipital region extending as far forward as the temporo-parietal region A repeat HMPAO SPECT scan without stress was normal. This would appear to indicate reversible ischaemia in the left posterior region, and is consistent with the reported symptoms. This case illustrates the usefulness of HMPAO in the diagnosis of reversible cerebral ischaemia

  6. Effects of fatiguing isometric and isokinetic ankle exercises on postural control while standing on firm and compliant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Etienne J; Remaud, Anthony; Boyas, Sébastien; Lajoie, Yves; Bilodeau, Martin

    2012-06-14

    Fatiguing exercises used across studies to induce alterations in postural control are diverse and may explain the different findings reported. This study aimed to compare the effects of two types of fatiguing plantarflexion exercises on postural control on a firm and a compliant surface. Ten healthy young men (29 ± 4 years) were asked to stand as steadily as possible for 30 s, blindfolded with feet together, on a firm and a compliant surface before and immediately after an isometric and an isokinetic fatiguing exercise. Maximal force reduction due to fatigue was found significant but similar between exercises. No significant difference was found between the fatiguing exercises on all Center of Pressure (CoP) parameters. Both fatiguing exercises induced increases in CoP excursion area, CoP variability and CoP velocity in both planes (antero-posterior, mediolateral) on the compliant surface. On the firm surface, both fatiguing exercises only induced increases in CoP variability and CoP velocity in the fatigued plane (antero-posterior). Isometric and isokinetic fatiguing exercises, when producing a similar level of force reduction, induce similar decreases in postural control. The effects of fatigue on postural control in healthy young men are more pronounced when standing on a compliant surface, i.e. when proprioceptive information at the ankle is altered.

  7. The effects of brief swaying on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagé, Sara; Maheu, Maxime; Landry, Simon P; Champoux, François

    2017-12-06

    Postural control can be improved with balance training. However, the nature and duration of the training required to enhance posture remains unclear. We studied the effects of 5 min of a self-initiated balance exercise along a single axis on postural control in healthy individuals. Postural control was measured before and after a 5-min period where members of the experimental group were asked to lean their entire body forward and backward and members of the control group were asked to remain seated. A significant improvement for sway velocity, a postural control variable significantly associated with an increased risk of falls, was found in the experimental group following the body sway exercise. These data suggest that a basic exercise can rapidly improve postural control and reduce the risk of falls.

  8. Inactivity periods and postural change speed can explain atypical postural change patterns of Caenorhabditis elegans mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-19

    With rapid advances in genome sequencing and editing technologies, systematic and quantitative analysis of animal behavior is expected to be another key to facilitating data-driven behavioral genetics. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism in this field. Several video-tracking systems are available for automatically recording behavioral data for the nematode, but computational methods for analyzing these data are still under development. In this study, we applied the Gaussian mixture model-based binning method to time-series postural data for 322 C. elegans strains. We revealed that the occurrence patterns of the postural states and the transition patterns among these states have a relationship as expected, and such a relationship must be taken into account to identify strains with atypical behaviors that are different from those of wild type. Based on this observation, we identified several strains that exhibit atypical transition patterns that cannot be fully explained by their occurrence patterns of postural states. Surprisingly, we found that two simple factors-overall acceleration of postural movement and elimination of inactivity periods-explained the behavioral characteristics of strains with very atypical transition patterns; therefore, computational analysis of animal behavior must be accompanied by evaluation of the effects of these simple factors. Finally, we found that the npr-1 and npr-3 mutants have similar behavioral patterns that were not predictable by sequence homology, proving that our data-driven approach can reveal the functions of genes that have not yet been characterized. We propose that elimination of inactivity periods and overall acceleration of postural change speed can explain behavioral phenotypes of strains with very atypical postural transition patterns. Our methods and results constitute guidelines for effectively finding strains that show "truly" interesting behaviors and systematically uncovering novel gene

  9. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Maartje H; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C; van Campen, Jos P C M; Lems, Willem F; Beijnen, Jos H; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2014-02-01

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine postural control during walking in elderly patients with FP, and to investigate the relationship with geriatric phenomena that may cause FP, such as increased TK, VFs, frailty, polypharmacy and cognitive impairments. Fifty-six elderly patients (aged 80 ± 5.2 years; 70% female) walked 160 m at self-selected speed while trunk accelerations were recorded. Walking speed, mean stride time and coefficient of variation (CV) of stride time were recorded. In addition, postural control during walking was quantified by time-dependent variability measures derived from the theory of stochastic dynamics, indicating smoothness, degree of predictability, and local stability of trunk acceleration patterns. Twenty-five patients (45%) had FP and demonstrated a more variable and less structured gait pattern, and a more irregular trunk acceleration pattern than patients with normal posture. FP was significantly associated with an increased TK, but not with other geriatric phenomena. An increased TK may bring the body's centre of mass forward, which requires correcting responses, and reduces the ability to respond on perturbation, which was reflected by higher variation in the gait pattern in FP-patients. Impairments in postural control during walking are a major risk factor for falling: the results indicate that patients with FP have impaired postural control during walking and might therefore be at increased risk of falling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Time-of-day influences postural balance in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, M G; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Laessoe, U

    2012-01-01

    Postural balance assessments are performed in both clinical and basic research settings on a daily basis. During a 24-h time span our physiology and physical performance undergo radical changes as we are influenced by the circadian rhythm. The time-of-day interaction on postural balance is unknow...... in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the time-of-day effect on postural balance in older adults....

  11. The study of postural workload in assembly of furniture upholstery

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Lasota Andrzej; Hankiewicz Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs) which common cause of health problems, sick leave and it can result in decreased quality of work and increased absenteeism. The objective of this study is to evaluate and investigate the postural workload of sewing machine operators in the assembly of upholstery in furniture factory by using the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS) with sampling. The results indicated that posture code ...

  12. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O.

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. Accordi...

  13. Additional Haptic Information Provided by Anchors Reduces Postural Sway in Young Adults Less Than Does Light Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Moraes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of adding haptic information to the control of posture, as well as comparing the effect of both the “light touch” (LT and “anchor system” (AS paradigms on postural sway. Additionally, it compared the effect of location and number of points of contact to the control of posture in young adults. The location consisted of using the anchors tied to the finger and held by the hands, and, for LT, the fingertip. For the number of points of contact, participants used two hands, and then separately the dominant hand, and the non-dominant hand, for both anchor and LT paradigms. Participants stood upright with feet-together and in tandem position while performing tasks that combined the use of anchors and LT, points of contact (hand grip and finger, and number of points of contact (two hands and one hand. In this study, the anchors consist of holding in each hand a flexible cable with the other end attached to the ground. The LT consists of slightly touching a rigid surface with the tip of the index finger. The results showed, first, that the anchors improved postural control less than did the LT. Second, they revealed that holding the anchors with the hands or with them tied to the fingertip resulted in a similar reduction in postural sway only in the tandem position. For the feet-together position, the anchors tied to the fingertip were ineffective. Similarly, the use of one or two hands did not affect the contribution of the anchors. However, using two hands in the LT condition was more effective than was one hand. Third, our results showed the presence of a temporal delay between force and center-of-pressure (COP for the anchors, only in the AP direction with feet-together. In conclusion, overall, the anchors were less effective in reducing postural sway than was the LT. The anchors attached to fingertips were as effective as the hand-held anchors in the tandem position, yet ineffective during foot

  14. United States Coast Guard 2010 Posture Statement: With 2011 Budget in Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Stop unauthorized ocean dumping and regulate the discharge of oil, hazardous substances, and other shipboard wastes...Sheriff’s Department during a joint agency hoist training exercise Oct. 14, 2009, on Lake Pontchartrain near New Orleans. During the exercise, the...of the go-to people for all engineering issues she is extremely knowledgeable about the mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic systems aboard

  15. U.S. Coast Guard Posture Statement With 2009 Budget in Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    projects, new Response Boat- Medium vessels, and improvements to our command, control, communications, and National Distress and Response System. It...to the Guardian Ethos cultivated over 217 years, the Coast Guard responded to over 27,000 Search and Rescue cases and saved over 5,000 lives in 2007...Transportation Security Administration ( TSA ) Visual Intermodal Protection and Response (VIPR) Teams, the Coast Guard’s newly- formed Deployable Operations Group

  16. Postural adjustments are modulated by manual task complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Augusto Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily life activities of humans are characterized by dual tasks, in which a manual task is performed concomitantly with a postural task. Based on the assumption that both manual and postural tasks require attentional resources, no consensus exists as to how the central nervous system modulates postural adjustments in dual tasks. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a manual task requiring attentional resources on shoulder and ankle adjustments as a function of the direction and predictability of postural perturbation. The participants (n=6 were evaluated during the performance of a simple and a complex manual task, while the base of support was moved backward or forward. Latency of activation of the tibialis anterior and gastroc-nemius muscles and angular acceleration of the shoulder were analyzed. The results showed that execution of the complex manual task delayed postural adjustment. Moreover, this delay occurred differently depending on the direction of postural perturbation. The delay in postural adjustment occurred proximally in the case of anterior displacement of the platform, and distally in the case of posterior displacement. Postural adjustments were more affected by the attentional task than by the predictability of platform displacement. These results are consistent with the concept of an integrated control between manual actions and the maintenance of static posture.

  17. The dentist’s operating posture – ergonomic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist’s physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture. PMID:25184007

  18. Anticipatory Postural Control of Stability during Gait Initiation Over Obstacles of Different Height and Distance Made Under Reaction-Time and Self-Initiated Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiou, Eric; Artico, Romain; Teyssedre, Claudine A; Labaune, Ombeline; Fourcade, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Despite the abundant literature on obstacle crossing in humans, the question of how the central nervous system (CNS) controls postural stability during gait initiation with the goal to clear an obstacle remains unclear. Stabilizing features of gait initiation include anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and lateral swing foot placement. To answer the above question, 14 participants initiated gait as fast as possible in three conditions of obstacle height, three conditions of obstacle distance and one obstacle-free (control) condition. Each of these conditions was performed with two levels of temporal pressure: reaction-time (high-pressure) and self-initiated (low-pressure) movements. A mechanical model of the body falling laterally under the influence of gravity and submitted to an elastic restoring force is proposed to assess the effect of initial (foot-off) center-of-mass position and velocity (or "initial center-of-mass set") on the stability at foot-contact. Results showed that the anticipatory peak of mediolateral (ML) center-of-pressure shift, the initial ML center-of-mass velocity and the duration of the swing phase, of gait initiation increased with obstacle height, but not with obstacle distance. These results suggest that ML APAs are scaled with swing duration in order to maintain an equivalent stability across experimental conditions. This statement is strengthened by the results obtained with the mechanical model, which showed how stability would be degraded if there was no adaptation of the initial center-of-mass set to swing duration. The anteroposterior (AP) component of APAs varied also according to obstacle height and distance, but in an opposite way to the ML component. Indeed, results showed that the anticipatory peak of backward center-of-pressure shift and the initial forward center-of-mass set decreased with obstacle height, probably in order to limit the risk to trip over the obstacle, while the forward center-of-mass velocity at foot

  19. ANTICIPATORY POSTURAL CONTROL OF STABILITY DURING GAIT INITIATION OVER OBSTACLES OF DIFFERENT HEIGHT AND DISTANCE MADE UNDER REACTION-TIME AND SELF-INITIATED INSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Yiou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant literature on obstacle crossing in humans, the question of how the central nervous system (CNS controls postural stability during gait initiation with the goal to clear an obstacle remains unclear. Stabilizing features of gait initiation include anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs and lateral swing foot placement. To answer the above question, fourteen participants initiated gait as fast as possible in three conditions of obstacle height, three conditions of obstacle distance, and one obstacle-free (control condition. Each of these conditions was performed with two levels of temporal pressure: reaction-time (high-pressure and self-initiated (low-pressure movements. A mechanical model of the body falling laterally under the influence of gravity and submitted to an elastic restoring force is proposed to assess the effect of initial (foot-off center-of-mass position and velocity (or initial center-of-mass set on stability at foot-contact. Results showed that the anticipatory peak of mediolateral center-of-pressure shif, the initial mediolateral center-of-mass velocity and the duration of the swing phase of gait initiation increased with obstacle height, but not with obstacle distance. These results suggest that mediolateral APAs are scaled with swing duration in order to maintain an equivalent stability across experimental conditions. This statement is strengthened by the results obtained with the mechanical model, which showed how stability would be degraded if there was no adaptation of the initial center-of-mass set to swing duration. The anteroposterior component of APAs varied also according to obstacle height and distance, but in an opposite way to the mediolateral component. Indeed, results showed that the anticipatory peak of backward center-of-pressure shift and the initial forward center-of-mass set decreased with obstacle height, probably in order to limit the risk to trip over the obstacle, while the forward

  20. Multisensory training for postural sway control in non-injured elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multisensory training for postural sway control in non-injured elderly females. ... Elderly adults demonstrate increased postural sway, which may ultimately lead to falls. ... Keywords: multisensory training, postural sway control, balance ability, ...

  1. 7 CFR 1212.51 - Financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial statements. 1212.51 Section 1212.51... statements. (a) The Board shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Department on a periodic basis. Each such financial statement shall include, but not be limited to, a balance sheet, income statement...

  2. 7 CFR 3052.310 - Financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial statements. 3052.310 Section 3052.310....310 Financial statements. (a) Financial statements. The auditee shall prepare financial statements... appropriate, cash flows for the fiscal year audited. The financial statements shall be for the same...

  3. PREHAB vs. REHAB - presurgical treatment in vestibular schwannoma surgery enhances recovery of postural control better than postoperative rehabilitation: Retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjernström, Fredrik; Fransson, Per-Anders; Kahlon, Babar; Karlberg, Mikael; Lindberg, Sven; Siesjö, Peter; Magnusson, Måns

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate post-surgical postural stability when treating patients with remaining vestibular function with intratympanic gentamicin (PREHAB) prior to schwannoma surgery. 44 consecutive patients with some form remaining vestibular function scheduled for vestibular schwannoma surgery. 20 were medically deafferented with intratympanic gentamicin before surgery and 24 were not. Both groups were of the same age, had the same tumor size, same type of surgery, and same perioperative sensory rehabilitation (training exercises), and no surgical complications. Postural stability measured as energy expenditure while standing on a force platform during vibratory stimulation of the calf muscles, performed prior to surgery (or gentamicin treatment) and 6 months after surgery. Patients pretreated with gentamicin had significantly better postural stability at the time for follow-up (p postural challenge (p control their stability (p postural control system benefited from a better short-term (adaptation) and long-term (habituation) recovery, when experiencing a postural challenge or resolving a sensory conflict. The benefits could be attributed to; active and continuous motor learning as the vestibular function slowly attenuates; no concomitant central nervous dysfunction due to effects from neurosurgery, thus allowing time for a separate unimpeded recovery process with more limited challenges and objectives; and the initiation and certain progression of sensory reweighting processes allowed prior to surgery. In contrast, worse compensation could be due to; immobilization from nausea after surgery, harmful amount of stress and cognitive dysfunction from the combination of surgical and sensory trauma and an abrupt vestibular deafferentation and its consequences on sensory reweighting.

  4. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Maeda, Yukio Urabe, Shogo Tsutsumi, Shuhei Numano, Miho Morita, Takuya Takeuchi, Shou Iwata, Toshiki Kobayashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB and semi-rigid (SRB ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB, SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s and the enveloped area (mm·s-2 surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index, and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability.

  5. On the functional integration between postural and supra-postural tasks on the basis of contextual cues and task constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Andrea Cristina; de Azevedo Neto, Raymundo Machado; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2010-10-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of uncertainty about direction of mechanical perturbation and supra-postural task constraint on postural control, young adults had their upright stance perturbed while holding a tray in a horizontal position. Stance was perturbed by moving forward or backward a supporting platform, contrasting situations of certainty versus uncertainty of direction of displacement. Increased constraint on postural stability was imposed by a supra-postural task of equilibrating a cylinder on the tray. Performance was assessed through EMG of anterior leg muscles, angular displacement of the main joints involved in the postural reactions and displacement of the tray. Results showed that both certainty on the direction of perturbation and increased supra-postural task constraint led to decreased angular displacement of the knee and the hip. Furthermore, combination of certainty and high supra-postural task constraint produced shorter latency of muscular activation. Such postural responses were paralleled by decreased displacement of the tray. These results suggest a functional integration between the tasks, with central set priming reactive postural responses from contextual cues and increased stability demand. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Presentation of Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows under IAS 7, Statement of Cash Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Calota Traian-Ovidiu; Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2013-01-01

    The consolidated financial statements must includ a specific statement, regarding cash flows from all activities of the entity, called „consolidated statement of cash flow”. Information for preparing cash flow statements can be found in all other components of the financial statements, such as financial position, statement of comprehensive income and statement of changes in equity. The cash flow statement shall report cash flows during the period classified by operating, investing and financi...

  7. EU Universities’ Mission Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Arcimaviciene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years, a highly productive space of metaphor analysis has been established in the discourse studies of media, politics, business, and education. In the theoretical framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis, the restored metaphorical patterns are especially valued for their implied ideological value as realized both conceptually and linguistically. By using the analytical framework of Critical Metaphor Analysis and procedurally employing Pragglejaz Group’s Metaphor Identification Procedure, this study aims at analyzing the implied value of the evoked metaphors in the mission statements of the first 20 European Universities, according to the Webometrics ranking. In this article, it is proposed that Universities’ mission statements are based on the positive evaluation of the COMMERCE metaphor, which does not fully correlate with the ideological framework of sustainability education but is rather oriented toward consumerism in both education and society. Despite this overall trend, there are some traceable features of the conceptualization reflecting the sustainability approach to higher education, as related to freedom of speech, tolerance, and environmental concerns. Nonetheless, these are suppressed by the metaphoric usages evoking traditional dogmas of the conservative ideology grounded in the concepts of the transactional approach to relationship, competitiveness for superiority, the importance of self-interest and strength, and quantifiable quality.

  8. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Maartje H.; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lems, Willem F.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current

  9. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.H.; van der Jagt-Willems, H.; van Campen, J.P.C.M.; Lems, W.F.; Beijnen, J.H.; Lamoth, C.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current

  10. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Celebi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk. Materials and Methods: A sample of 51 adolescent patients was randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, which consisted of 28 patients (15 females and 13 males, RME was performed as a part of routine orthodontic treatment. The remaining 23 individuals (12 females and 11 males served as the control group. Lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in natural head position, postural stability, and fall risk scores were obtained during the first visit. They were repeated on average 3.8 months and 3.5 months later for the study and control groups, respectively. The changes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, paired samples t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and independent samples t-test. Results: As a result of RME, a statistically significant decrease was detected in the fall risk score (P < 0.05 in the study group, while the head position and postural stability remained unchanged. For the control group, no significant changes were observed in all measurements. Conclusions: The result of the present study suggests that RME has a capacity of improving fall risk.

  11. Clinical evaluation of postural posture of patients with previous stroke subjected to early rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sagan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impairment disorders are often found in patients with stroke and impairment of motor and cognitive functions. This is a very serious complication because, by imposing a motor impairment, it aggravates the condition of disability and makes it difficult to conduct physical rehabilitation.The resulting neurological deficits due to stroke determine functional disorders. The possibility of locomotion is usually compromised, therefore the risk of falls increases significantly. The aim of the work is to present Postural Assesment Scale for Strock PASS with the postural stroke assessment scale, the impact of early rehabilitation of patients staying in the neurology ward.Material and methods: Postural examination was carried out among 17 people, of which 8 were women, and 9 were male. The study was divided into two stages. The first stage occurred immediately after the stroke and the second one before the patient was discharged from the ward. Research was carried out at the Biegański Specialist Hospital in Grudziądz in the Department of Neurology and Clinical Neuroimmunology and Impact Department.Conclusions: The results of the postural studies carried out in people with previous stroke subjected to early physiotherapy have a beneficial effect of the conducted therapy. There are positive changes between the first and the final examination of the patients.

  12. Cardiovascular function in pregnancy: effects of posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bene, R; Barletta, G; Mello, G; Lazzeri, C; Mecacci, F; Parretti, E; Martini, E; Vecchiarino, S; Franchi, F; La Villa, G

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular response to active postural changes in pregnancy. Prospective study. Outpatient Clinic, Fetal Maternity Unit. Sixteen healthy women referred prior to pregnancy. Heart rate, arterial pressure, echocardiographic end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes (Teichholz' s formula) were measured in the three months before pregnancy, at the end of the first and second trimester, at mid third trimester, and six months after delivery in the supine and standing position, in thirteen women (mean age 33, range 25-38 years). Cardiac output (supine position) significantly increased (28%): it reached its maximum at the second trimester, remained steadily elevated in the mid third trimester, and returned to baseline after delivery. Cardiac output increased during pregnancy also in the active orthostatic position, the percentage increase being greater (70%) since the standing pre-conception value was lower. The postural stress induced similar changes in heart rate, arterial pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction before, during and after pregnancy. However, the reduction in cardiac output associated with early standing attenuated significantly at the second trimester and it was absent at mid third trimester (F = 3.13, P = 0.021). This was due to the interplay between the significantly lesser increase in systemic vascular resistance, occurring since the first trimester, and the significantly lesser decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic volume which was observed in the mid third trimester. These data indicate that the elevated cardiac output is adequately maintained in pregnancy during the postural challenge, due to optimisation of the responses of preload and afterload.

  13. Postural Hand Synergies during Environmental Constraint Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Della Santina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who were asked to grasp objects from a flat surface. We quantitatively characterized hand posture behavior from a kinematic perspective, i.e., the hand joint angles, in both pre-shaping and during the interaction with the environment. To determine the role of tactile feedback, we repeated the same experiments but with subjects wearing a rigid shell on the fingertips to reduce cutaneous afferent inputs. Results show the persistence of at least two postural synergies in all the considered experimental conditions and phases. Tactile impairment does not alter significantly the first two synergies, and contact with the environment generates a change only for higher order Principal Components. A good match also arises between the first synergy found in our analysis and the first synergy of grasping as quantified by previous work. The present study is motivated by the interest of learning from the human example, extracting lessons that can be applied in robot design and control. Thus, we conclude with a discussion on implications for robotics of our findings.

  14. Subatomic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.

    1989-01-01

    Inside the atom, particles interact through two forces which are never felt in the everyday world. But they may hold the key to the Universe. These ideas on subatomic forces are discussed with respect to the strong force, the electromagnetic force and the electroweak force. (author)

  15. TENS to the Lateral Aspect of the Knees During Stance Attenuates Postural Sway in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yocheved Laufer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatosensory input is known to be essential for postural control. The present study examined the effects on postural sway of sensory input delivered via transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS applied to the knees during stance. Electrodes from a dual-channel portable TENS unit were adhered to the skin overlying the lateral and medial aspect of both knees of 20 young healthy volunteers (mean age 24.0 years, standard deviation 4.0. Postural sway parameters were obtained during static bipedal stance with an AMTI force platform. Four stimulation conditions were tested with eyes open and with eyes closed: no TENS; TENS applied bilaterally; and TENS applied to either the right or the left knee. Participants underwent two eight-trial blocks, with each trial lasting 30 seconds. The order of conditions was randomized for each participant. Stimulation consisted of a biphasic symmetrical stimulus delivered at the sensory detection level, with a pulse duration of 200μsec and a pulse frequency of 100Hz. The application of TENS induced significant reductions in mean sway velocity and in the medio-lateral dispersion of the center of pressure, with no corresponding effect on the anterior-posterior dispersion. These findings suggest that electrical stimulation delivered at the sensory detection level to the lateral aspects of the knees may be effective in improving balance control, and that this effect may be directionally specific.

  16. Immediate effects of plantar inputs on the upper half muscles and upright posture: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffolo, Fabio; Ferritto, Anna L; Muratore, Filippo; Tecco, Simona; Testa, Mauro; D'Attilio, Michele; Festa, Felice

    2006-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of plantar inputs on both the upper half muscle activity (anterior temporal, masseter, digastric, sternocleidomastoid, upper and lower trapezius, cervical) and the body posture, by means of electromyography (EMG) and vertical force platform, respectively. Twenty four (24) healthy adults, between the ages of 24 and 31 years (25.3 +/- 1.9), with no history of craniomandibular disorder or systemic musculoskeletal dysfunction, were randomly divided into two groups: test group (fourteen subjects) and control group (ten subjects). A first recording session (TO) measured the baseline EMG and postural patterns of both groups. After this session, the test group wore test shoes with insoles that stimulated the plantar surfaces, while the control group wore placebo shoes. After one hour, a second set of measurements (T1) were performed. Significant differences between the groups at baseline were observed in the left anterior temporal, left cervical, and left upper trapezius, as well as at T1 in the left anterior temporal and right upper trapezius (p postural blindness in the test group compared to the control group was observed. Further studies are warranted to investigate the short and long-term effects of this type of insole, in patients with both craniomandibular-cervical and lower extremity disorders.

  17. Dynamical Properties of Postural Control in Obese Community-Dwelling Older Adults †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frames, Christopher W; Soangra, Rahul; Lockhart, Thurmon E; Lach, John; Ha, Dong Sam; Roberto, Karen A; Lieberman, Abraham

    2018-05-24

    Postural control is a key aspect in preventing falls. The aim of this study was to determine if obesity affected balance in community-dwelling older adults and serve as an indicator of fall risk. The participants were randomly assigned to receive a comprehensive geriatric assessment followed by a longitudinal assessment of their fall history. The standing postural balance was measured for 98 participants with a Body Mass Index (BMI) ranging from 18 to 63 kg/m², using a force plate and an inertial measurement unit affixed at the sternum. Participants' fall history was recorded over 2 years and participants with at least one fall in the prior year were classified as fallers. The results suggest that body weight/BMI is an additional risk factor for falling in elderly persons and may be an important marker for fall risk. The linear variables of postural analysis suggest that the obese fallers have significantly higher sway area and sway ranges, along with higher root mean square and standard deviation of time series. Additionally, it was found that obese fallers have lower complexity of anterior-posterior center of pressure time series. Future studies should examine more closely the combined effect of aging and obesity on dynamic balance.

  18. Relations between postural stability, gait and falls in elderly persons--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczkowicz, Dawid; Szczegielniak, Jan; Proszkowiec, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Balance control in elderly patients is the area of interest of many researchers. The results of their studies suggest that the measurement of shifts in the centre of foot pressure on the support base (COP) can be used as a tool for identification of fall-prone persons. It is interesting whether there are any relations between functional status, gait, posture stability and the risk of falling. The aim of this study was to find the answer to this question. The study involved 20 patients (mean age 78.1+/-11.6). The functional status of the patients was evaluated according to the Barthel Index. Postural stability was assessed with the use of a Neurocom Balance Master platform. Three measurements were taken with visual feedback (eyes open-EO) and three without visual feedback (eyes closed-EC). Balance control was also evaluated with the Berg test and on the basis of the history of episodes of falling in the preceding six months. Gait was evaluated with the six-minute walking test. The parameters recorded by the force platform showed a significant relation to the values obtained in the Berg test (r=-0.60; pfalls showed a significant relation only to the EO test (r=0.4; pfalls was connected with increased body sway. 3. The functional status of the patient and the balance control evaluation according to the Berg test failed to determine the risk of falling. 4. A relation was observed between postural stability, functional status and gait.

  19. The effect of extended wake on postural control in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Simon S; Cheng, Tiffany; Kerr, Graham K

    2012-09-01

    The sleep-wake cycle is a major determinant of locomotor activity in humans, and the neural and physiological processes necessary for optimum postural control may be impaired by an extension of the wake period into habitual sleep time. There is growing evidence for such a contribution from sleep-related factors, but great inconsistency in the methods used to assess this contribution, particularly in control for circadian phase position. Postural control was assessed at hourly intervals across 14 h of extended wake in nine young adult participants. Force plate parameters of medio-lateral and anterior-posterior sway, centre of pressure (CoP) trace length, area, and velocity were assessed with eyes open and eyes closed over 3-min periods. A standard measure of psychomotor vigilance was assessed concurrently under constant routine conditions. After controlling for individual differences in circadian phase position, a significant effect of extended wake was found for anterior-posterior sway and for psychomotor vigilance. These data suggest that extended wake may increase the risk of a fall or other consequences of impaired postural control.

  20. Thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by acute postural change in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-12-01

    Thermal sensation represents the primary stimulus for behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation. We assessed whether the sensation of skin and core temperatures for the driving force of behavioral thermoregulation was modified by postural change from the supine (Sup) to sitting (Sit) during mild hyperthermia. Seventeen healthy young men underwent measurements of noticeable increase and decrease (±0.1 °C/s) of skin temperature (thresholds of warm and cold sensation on the skin, 6.25 cm2 of area) at the forearm and chest and of the whole-body warm sensation in the Sup and Sit during normothermia (NT; esophageal temperature (Tes), ˜36.6 °C) and mild hyperthermia (HT; Tes, ˜37.2 °C; lower legs immersion in 42 °C of water). The threshold for cold sensation on the skin at chest was lower during HT than NT in the Sit ( P body posture or temperature. The whole-body warm sensation was higher during HT than NT in both postures and higher in the Sit than Sup during both NT and HT (all, P cold on the skin and more whole-body warmth.

  1. Dynamical Properties of Postural Control in Obese Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Frames

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Postural control is a key aspect in preventing falls. The aim of this study was to determine if obesity affected balance in community-dwelling older adults and serve as an indicator of fall risk. The participants were randomly assigned to receive a comprehensive geriatric assessment followed by a longitudinal assessment of their fall history. The standing postural balance was measured for 98 participants with a Body Mass Index (BMI ranging from 18 to 63 kg/m2, using a force plate and an inertial measurement unit affixed at the sternum. Participants’ fall history was recorded over 2 years and participants with at least one fall in the prior year were classified as fallers. The results suggest that body weight/BMI is an additional risk factor for falling in elderly persons and may be an important marker for fall risk. The linear variables of postural analysis suggest that the obese fallers have significantly higher sway area and sway ranges, along with higher root mean square and standard deviation of time series. Additionally, it was found that obese fallers have lower complexity of anterior-posterior center of pressure time series. Future studies should examine more closely the combined effect of aging and obesity on dynamic balance.

  2. Comprehensive Group Therapy of Obesity and Its Impact on Selected Anthropometric and Postural Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horák, Stanislav; Sovová, Eliška; Pastucha, Dalibor; Konečný, Petr; Radová, Lenka; Calabová, Naděžda; Janoutová, Jana; Janout, Vladimír

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease. This non-infectious epidemic has reached pandemic proportions in the 21 century. Posture is a dynamic process referring to an active maintenance of body movement segments against the action of external forces. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of comprehensive group therapy for obese persons on selected anthropometric and postural parameters. The study comprised 53 females with a mean age of 44.5 years (range 29–65 years, standard deviation 9.42 years, median 44 years), who completed a controlled weight loss programme. At the beginning and at the end of the programme, anthropometric parameters (Body Mass Index (BMI), weight and waist circumference) were measured and the posturography tests Limits of Stability (LOS) and Motor Control Test (MCT) were performed using the NeuroCom's SMART EquiTest system. The data were statistically analyzed using R software at a level of significance of 0.05. There were positive changes after the controlled weight loss programme in anthropometric parameters (BMI reduction, with pobesity in terms of reductions in waist circumference, body weight and BMI, and thus the overall reduction of both cardiovascular and metabolic risks, as well as improved postural skills (activity and reactions). Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  3. Safeguards technology: present posture and future impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    With widespread and growing concern over the issues of nuclear safeguards, international nuclear trade and nuclear weapons proliferation, the full development of the world's nuclear energy potential could well depend on how effectively the strategic nuclear materials that fuel nuclear power are controlled and safeguarded. The broad U.S. program in nuclear safeguards and security is directed toward a balanced safeguards system incorporating the two major components of physical security and materials control. The current posture of modern safeguards technology, its impact on plant operations, and the key role it must play in the implementation of stringent cost-effective safeguards systems in facilities throughout the nuclear fuel cycle are outlined

  4. Artificial Intelligence Software for Assessing Postural Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Erez; Forth, Katharine; Paloski, William

    2013-01-01

    A software package reads and analyzes pressure distributions from sensors mounted under a person's feet. Pressure data from sensors mounted in shoes, or in a platform, can be used to provide a description of postural stability (assessing competence to deficiency) and enables the determination of the person's present activity (running, walking, squatting, falling). This package has three parts: a preprocessing algorithm for reading input from pressure sensors; a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which is used to determine the person's present activity and level of sensing-motor competence; and a suite of graphical algorithms, which allows visual representation of the person's activity and vestibular function over time.

  5. Peripheral, functional and postural asymmetries related to the preferred chewing side in adults with natural dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Lastra, B; Flores-Orozco, E I; Ayuso-Montero, R; Peraire, M; Martinez-Gomis, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the preferred chewing side and whether chewing side preference is related to peripheral, functional or postural lateral preferences. One hundred and forty-six adults with natural dentition performed three masticatory assays, each consisting of five trials of chewing three pieces of silicon placed into a latex bag for 20 cycles, either freestyle or unilaterally on the right- or left-hand side. Occlusal contact area in the intercuspal position, maximum bite force, masticatory performance and cycle duration were measured and the lateral asymmetry of these variables was calculated. Laterality tests were performed to determine handedness, footedness, earedness and eyedness as functional preferences, and hand-clasping, arm-folding and leg-crossing as postural lateral preferences. The preferred chewing side was determined using three different methods: assessment of the first chewing cycle for each trial, calculation of the asymmetry index from all cycles and application of a visual analogue scale. Bivariate relationship and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Among unilateral chewers, 77% of them preferred the right side for chewing. The factors most closely related to the preferred chewing side were asymmetry of bite force, asymmetry of masticatory performance and earedness, which explained up to 16% of the variance. Although several functional or postural lateral preferences seem to be related to the preferred chewing side, peripheral factors such as asymmetry of bite force and of masticatory performance are the most closely related to the preferred chewing side in adults with natural dentition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Use of Mobile Device Accelerometry to Enhance Evaluation of Postural Instability in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozinga, Sarah J; Linder, Susan M; Alberts, Jay L

    2017-04-01

    To determine the accuracy of inertial measurement unit data from a mobile device using the mobile device relative to posturography to quantify postural stability in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). Criterion standard. Motor control laboratory at a clinic. A sample (N=28) of individuals with mild to moderate PD (n=14) and age-matched community-dwelling individuals without PD (n=14) completed the study. Not applicable. Center of mass (COM) acceleration measures were compared between the mobile device and the NeuroCom force platform to determine the accuracy of mobile device measurements during performance of the Sensory Organization Test (SOT). Analyses examined test-retest reliability of both systems and sensitivity of (1) the equilibrium score from the SOT and (2) COM acceleration measures from the force platform and mobile device to quantify postural stability across populations. Metrics of COM acceleration from inertial measurement unit data and the NeuroCom force platform were significantly correlated across balance conditions and groups (Pearson r range, .35 to .97). The SOT equilibrium scores failed to discriminate individuals with and without PD. However, the multiplanar measures of COM acceleration from the mobile device exhibited good to excellent reliability across SOT conditions and were able to discriminate individuals with and without PD in conditions with the greatest balance demands. Metrics employing medial-lateral movement produce a more sensitive outcome than the equilibrium score in identifying postural instability associated with PD. Overall, the output from the mobile device provides an accurate and reliable method of rapidly quantifying balance in individuals with PD. The portable and affordable nature of a mobile device with the application makes it ideally suited to use biomechanical data to aid in clinical decision making. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reading and understanding financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph P

    2005-01-01

    Feeling comfortable reading and understanding financial statements is critical to the success of healthcare executives and physicians involved in management. Businesses use three primary financial statements: a balance sheet represents the equation, Assets = Liabilities + Equity; an income statement represents the equation, Revenues - Expenses = Net Income; a statement of cash flows reports all sources and uses of cash during the represented period. The balance sheet expresses financial indicators at one particular moment in time, whereas the income statement and the statement of cash flows show activity that occurred over a stretch of time. Additional information is disclosed in attached footnotes and other supplementary materials. There are two ways to prepare financial statements. Cash-basis accounting recognizes revenue when it is received and expenses when they are paid. Accrual-basis accounting recognizes revenue when it is earned and expenses when they are incurred. Although cash-basis is acceptable, periodically using the accrual method reveals important information about receivables and liabilities that could otherwise remain hidden. Become more engaged with your financial statements by spending time reading them, tracking key performance indicators, and asking accountants and financial advisors questions. This will help you better understand your business and build a successful future.

  8. Influence of Functional Head Postures on the Dynamic Functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The dentist utilizes supine position during therapeutic procedures, while the patients assumes extended head posture during mastication. It is critical for the restorative dentist to evaluate and understand the possible effect of change in head posture on occlusal contacts. An understanding of the possible effect ...

  9. Effects of Dyslexia on Postural Control in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M.; Magnusson, M.; Lush, D.; Gomez, S.; Fransson, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia has been shown to affect postural control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in postural stability measured as torque variance in an adult dyslexic group (n=14, determined using the Adult Dyslexia Checklist (ADCL) and nonsense word repetition test) and an adult non-dyslexic group (n=39) on a firm surface and…

  10. Thoracic posture, shoulder muscle activation patterns and isokinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor posture, scapular dyskinesia, altered scapular muscle recruitment patterns and ... postural deviation and incorrect shoulder kinematics.[5]. Knowledge of the .... the contra-lateral hand was placed as far down the spinal column as possible, and the ... produced by muscle contraction for rotation around a joint.[12] During.

  11. The final common pathway in postural control - Developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernell, D

    A brief review is given concerning postural specialisations among mammalian muscle fibres and motor units. Most skeletal muscles contain a mixture of fibres with different characteristics, and their slow-twitch (S) units are well-known to possess properties suitable for postural tasks: they are

  12. Effect of magnification loupes on dental hygiene student posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, J Peggy; Millar, A Michele; Burke, Jillian M; Maillet, Michelle A; Maillet, Wayne A; Neish, Nancy R

    2008-01-01

    The chair-side work posture of dental hygienists has long been a concern because of health-related problems potentially caused or exacerbated by poor posture. The purpose of this study was to investigate if using magnification loupes improved dental hygiene students' posture during provision of treatment. The treatment chosen was hand-scaling, and the effect of the timing of introduction of the loupes to students was also examined. Thirty-five novice dental hygiene students took part in the study. Each student was assessed providing dental hygiene care with and without loupes, thus controlling for innate differences in natural posture. Students were randomized into two groups. Group one used loupes in the first session and did not use them for the second session. Group two reversed this sequence. At the end of each session, all students were videotaped while performing scaling procedures. Their posture was assessed using an adapted version of Branson et al.'s Posture Assessment Instrument (PAI). Four raters assessed students at three time periods for nine posture components on the PAI. A paired t-test compared scores with and without loupes for each student. Scores showed a significant improvement in posture when using loupes (ppostural benefit is realized by requiring students to master the use of magnification loupes as early as possible within the curriculum.

  13. Problems of display postures in the Charadrii (Aves: Charadriiformes)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of displays in the Charadrii (= waders or shorebirds) show that the same posture in different species, even quite closely related, may have a different function in a given context. As a corollary to this, two species even in the same genus may have quite different display postures to convey the same message.

  14. Differences in body composition and prevalence for postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence rate for postural deviations and body composition status among two racial groups in South Africa. The sample (n = 216) consisted of 89 African girls and 127 Caucasian girls. Anthropometric (BMI and percentage body fat) and body posture measurements were performed.

  15. Posture and isokinetic shoulder strength in female water polo players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Being overhead athletes, water polo players can present with muscular imbalances of the shoulder, between the internal rotators (IR) and external rotators (ER), leading to changes in posture and an increased risk of injury. Objectives: To assess posture and isokinetic shoulder strength of female club-level ...

  16. Prism adaptation improves postural imbalance in neglect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Olthoff, Liselot; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M a

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found a negative relation between neglect and postural imbalance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of a single session of prism adaptation on balance [i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior center of pressure (CoP)] and postural sway (i.e. mean

  17. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  18. Velocity dependence of vestibular information for postural control on tilting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluzik, JoAnn; Hlavacka, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular information is known to be important for postural stability on tilting surfaces, but the relative importance of vestibular information across a wide range of surface tilt velocities is less clear. We compared how tilt velocity influences postural orientation and stability in nine subjects with bilateral vestibular loss and nine age-matched, control subjects. Subjects stood on a force platform that tilted 6 deg, toes-up at eight velocities (0.25 to 32 deg/s), with and without vision. Results showed that visual information effectively compensated for lack of vestibular information at all tilt velocities. However, with eyes closed, subjects with vestibular loss were most unstable within a critical tilt velocity range of 2 to 8 deg/s. Subjects with vestibular deficiency lost their balance in more than 90% of trials during the 4 deg/s condition, but never fell during slower tilts (0.25–1 deg/s) and fell only very rarely during faster tilts (16–32 deg/s). At the critical velocity range in which falls occurred, the body center of mass stayed aligned with respect to the surface, onset of ankle dorsiflexion was delayed, and there was delayed or absent gastrocnemius inhibition, suggesting that subjects were attempting to actively align their upper bodies with respect to the moving surface instead of to gravity. Vestibular information may be critical for stability at velocities of 2 to 8 deg/s because postural sway above 2 deg/s may be too fast to elicit stabilizing responses through the graviceptive somatosensory system, and postural sway below 8 deg/s may be too slow for somatosensory-triggered responses or passive stabilization from trunk inertia. PMID:27486101

  19. The Effect of Visual Stimuli on Stability and Complexity of Postural Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haizhen Luo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual input could benefit balance control or increase postural sway, and it is far from fully understanding the effect of visual stimuli on postural stability and its underlying mechanism. In this study, the effect of different visual inputs on stability and complexity of postural control was examined by analyzing the mean velocity (MV, SD, and fuzzy approximate entropy (fApEn of the center of pressure (COP signal during quiet upright standing. We designed five visual exposure conditions: eyes-closed, eyes-open (EO, and three virtual reality (VR scenes (VR1–VR3. The VR scenes were a limited field view of an optokinetic drum rotating around yaw (VR1, pitch (VR2, and roll (VR3 axes, respectively. Sixteen healthy subjects were involved in the experiment, and their COP trajectories were assessed from the force plate data. MV, SD, and fApEn of the COP in anterior–posterior (AP, medial–lateral (ML directions were calculated. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was conducted to test the statistical significance. We found that all the three parameters obtained the lowest values in the EO condition, and highest in the VR3 condition. We also found that the active neuromuscular intervention, indicated by fApEn, in response to changing the visual exposure conditions were more adaptive in AP direction, and the stability, indicated by SD, in ML direction reflected the changes of visual scenes. MV was found to capture both instability and active neuromuscular control dynamics. It seemed that the three parameters provided compensatory information about the postural control in the immersive virtual environment.

  20. A Comparison of Balance and Postural Stability Assessment Tools: BESS Versus NeuroCom Balance Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Joliffe, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Postural stability assessment tools are one of the many ways concussions can be assessed and return to play decisions can be made; two of which are the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) and force plate technology. OBJECTIVE: Validate the modified BESS used by Utah State University by comparing it to equivalent tests on the NeuroCom Balance Manager System. METHODS: 114 current or previous Utah State football players ranging in age from 18-24. Each athlete conducted a baseline BESS test durin...

  1. Robust hopping based on virtual pendulum posture control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharbafi, Maziar A; Ahmadabadi, Majid Nili; Yazdanpanah, Mohammad J; Maufroy, Christophe; Seyfarth, Andre

    2013-01-01

    A new control approach to achieve robust hopping against perturbations in the sagittal plane is presented in this paper. In perturbed hopping, vertical body alignment has a significant role for stability. Our approach is based on the virtual pendulum concept, recently proposed, based on experimental findings in human and animal locomotion. In this concept, the ground reaction forces are pointed to a virtual support point, named virtual pivot point (VPP), during motion. This concept is employed in designing the controller to balance the trunk during the stance phase. New strategies for leg angle and length adjustment besides the virtual pendulum posture control are proposed as a unified controller. This method is investigated by applying it on an extension of the spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model. Trunk, leg mass and damping are added to the SLIP model in order to make the model more realistic. The stability is analyzed by Poincaré map analysis. With fixed VPP position, stability, disturbance rejection and moderate robustness are achieved, but with a low convergence speed. To improve the performance and attain higher robustness, an event-based control of the VPP position is introduced, using feedback of the system states at apexes. Discrete linear quartic regulator is used to design the feedback controller. Considerable enhancements with respect to stability, convergence speed and robustness against perturbations and parameter changes are achieved. (paper)

  2. Perceptual Aspects of Postural Control: Does Pure Proprioceptive Training Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Edit; Posa, Gabriella; Finta, Regina; Szilagyi, Levente; Sziver, Edit

    2018-06-01

    As proprioceptive training is popular for injury prevention and rehabilitation, we evaluated its effect on balance parameters and assessed the frequency spectra of postural sway linked with the various sensory channels. We recorded the Center of Mass displacement of 30 healthy student research participants (mean age = 21.63; SD = 1.29 years) with a single force plate under eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) positions while standing on either a firm or foam surface, both before and after an 8-week balance training intervention on a foam surface with EC. We subjected the data to frequency power spectral analysis to find any differences between the frequency bands, linked with various sensory data. On the foam surface in the EC condition, the sway path decreased significantly after proprioceptive training, but, on the firm surface in the EC condition, there was no change. On the foam surface in the EC condition, there was also a significant decrease in frequency power postproprioceptive training in the medium-to-low frequency band. While our data indicate better posttraining balance skills, improvements were task specific to the trained condition, with no transfer of the acquired skill, even to a similar, easier condition. As training improved the middle-low frequency band, linked with vestibular signals, this intervention is better described as balance than "proprioceptive" training.

  3. Relationship between posterior crossbite and postural alterations in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaqueline de Matos Lopes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the posture of individuals with functional posterior crossbite, malocclusion is one of the most in need of orthodontic treatment. Methods: This work presents an analysis of postural among children 6 to 12 years who present functional posterior cross bite of both genders who are in mixed dentition or no intervention prior orthodontic and orthopedic. Was obtained images in the plans: front and back where it was analyzed the asymmetry or symmetry of the individual in the image and in the lateral, anterior, a posterior or normality. Results: 100% had some kind of postural change, and the asymmetry between the scapulae (shoulder found the greatest change, as one of extreme importance in this age group represents a growing skeletal muscle. Conclusion: analyzes all of the children showed postural abnormalities and malocclusion are also of great importance not only to be treating the problem orally, but the postural problem with the help of a multidisciplinary team.

  4. Clinical working postures of bachelor of oral health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, S J; Johnstone, C L; Hutchinson, C M W; Taylor, P A; Wade, K J

    2011-09-01

    To observe and describe the clinical working postures of final-year Bachelor of Oral Health (BOH) students. Pilot observational study. The University of Otago Faculty of Dentistry and School of Physiotherapy. Eight final-year BOH students voluntarily participated in this study, where postural data were collected using a digital video camera during a standard clinical treatment session. The postural data were analysed using 3D Match biomechanical software. Final-year BOH students who work in the seated position are exposed to neck flexion of greater than 35 degrees, together with trunk flexion greater than 20 degrees and bilateral elbow flexion greater than 90 degrees. The findings of this study agree with the findings of previous postural studies of dental professionals. Dental hygiene students, together with their clinical supervisors, need to be aware of the importance of good working posture early in their careers, and pay particular attention to the degree of neck flexion occurring for prolonged periods.

  5. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Tickle

    Full Text Available Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  6. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  7. Usage of internal statements in making consolidated financial statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Herman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the consolidated financial statements is the result of integration processes in the businesses that lead to pooling of different companies. As consolidated financial statements present an aggregated look at the financial position of a parent and its subsidiaries, they let you gauge the overall health of an entire group of companies as opposed to one company’s standalone position. Consolidation of financial statements requires from the participants of joining elaborating their individual statements. The article describes the general scheme of consolidation process and defines the key trends of consolidation adjustments, in particular, financial investments, internal operations, goodwill and exchange rate differences. It is found out that to get information about internal operations and financial investments such data have to be synthesized from internal statements. This approach allows using the same accounting methods to parent and subsidiary entities. The objects, the users and the subject domain of internal statements are determined in order to make consolidation of financial statements of joining.

  8. The influence of a protocol of aquatic exercises in postural control of obese elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Avelar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a protocol of aquatic exercises in postural control of elderly subjects with overweight and the influence of body mass and body mass index in variables of the center of pressure. Method: Each participant was positioned on the force platform, without shoes, feet apart on the same alignment of the upper limbs along the body. For the collection, the subjects were instructed to stay on in bipedal support on the force platform with eyes fixed on the bright spot for 60 s. Results: Results indicated a notable difference in the variables root mean square-mediolateral and COP area after aquatic exercise practice. However, visual condition analyzed indicates significant differences in the variables root mean square-anteroposterior and speed anteroposterior. Conclusion: Aquatic exercise had positive effects when analyzing the sensory condition suggesting maintenance of postural control. However, when analyzed post aquatic exercise in closed eyes condition and the interaction effects of visual condition did not improve postural stability. In obese elderly, body mass index resulted in a functional adaptation in control of upright stance, suggesting that the balance was preserved in the population studied. Resumen: Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos de un protocolo de ejercicios acuáticos en el control postural de sujetos de edad avanzada con exceso de peso y la influencia de masa corporal y el índice de masa corporal en las variables del centro de presiones. Método: Cada participante se posicionó en la plataforma de fuerza sin zapatos, los pies separados con la misma alineación de las extremidades superiores a lo largo del cuerpo. Para el análisis, los sujetos fueron instruidos para permanecer en apoyo bípedo sobre la plataforma de fuerza con los ojos fijos en un punto brillante durante 60 segundos. Resultados: Los resultados indicaron una diferencia

  9. Sensory modulation of movement, posture and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saradjian, A H

    2015-11-01

    During voluntary movement, there exists a well known functional sensory attenuation of afferent inputs, which allows us to discriminate between information related to our own movements and those arising from the external environment. This attenuation or 'gating' prevents some signals from interfering with movement elaboration and production. However, there are situations in which certain task-relevant sensory inputs may not be gated. This review begins by identifying the prevalent findings in the literature with specific regard to the somatosensory modality, and reviews the many cases of classical sensory gating phenomenon accompanying voluntary movement and their neural basis. This review also focuses on the newer axes of research that demonstrate that task-specific sensory information may be disinhibited or even facilitated during engagement in voluntary actions. Finally, a particular emphasis will be placed on postural and/or locomotor tasks involving strong somatosensory demands, especially for the setting of the anticipatory postural adjustments observed prior the initiation of locomotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Posture of the head and pharyngeal swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.

    1986-01-01

    Closure of the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing is important for protection of the airways. The present investigation included 53 patients with dysphagia examined cineradiographically with the head held in resting posture, flexion and extension. The ability to protect the airways by the downward movement of the epiglottis and by obliteration of the laryngeal vestibule was studied in different postures of the head. Of 35 patients with normal laryngeal obliteration with the head in resting position 10 showed a defective closure at swallowing in extension. In 18 patients with defective closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position 9 were improved on flexion and two on extension of the head. In one patient with defectie closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position swallowing in flexion showed an aggravated dysfunction. In our other patients the defective closure became more marked on extension. Four patients had less effective downward movement of the epiglottis with the head in extension. Of 10 patients with defective epiglottic movement with the head in resting position two were improved on tilting the head forwards. The results show that the position of the head influences the closure of the airways during swallowing. Patients with defective protection of the laryngeal vestibule should be instructed to swallow with the head tilted forwards. (orig.)

  11. Self versus environment motion in postural control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Dokka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To stabilize our position in space we use visual information as well as non-visual physical motion cues. However, visual cues can be ambiguous: visually perceived motion may be caused by self-movement, movement of the environment, or both. The nervous system must combine the ambiguous visual cues with noisy physical motion cues to resolve this ambiguity and control our body posture. Here we have developed a Bayesian model that formalizes how the nervous system could solve this problem. In this model, the nervous system combines the sensory cues to estimate the movement of the body. We analytically demonstrate that, as long as visual stimulation is fast in comparison to the uncertainty in our perception of body movement, the optimal strategy is to weight visually perceived movement velocities proportional to a power law. We find that this model accounts for the nonlinear influence of experimentally induced visual motion on human postural behavior both in our data and in previously published results.

  12. Emotion expression in body action and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dael, Nele; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    Emotion communication research strongly focuses on the face and voice as expressive modalities, leaving the rest of the body relatively understudied. Contrary to the early assumption that body movement only indicates emotional intensity, recent studies have shown that body movement and posture also conveys emotion specific information. However, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by a lack of production studies informed by a theoretical framework. In this research we adopted the Body Action and Posture (BAP) coding system to examine the types and patterns of body movement that are employed by 10 professional actors to portray a set of 12 emotions. We investigated to what extent these expression patterns support explicit or implicit predictions from basic emotion theory, bidimensional theory, and componential appraisal theory. The overall results showed partial support for the different theoretical approaches. They revealed that several patterns of body movement systematically occur in portrayals of specific emotions, allowing emotion differentiation. Although a few emotions were prototypically expressed by one particular pattern, most emotions were variably expressed by multiple patterns, many of which can be explained as reflecting functional components of emotion such as modes of appraisal and action readiness. It is concluded that further work in this largely underdeveloped area should be guided by an appropriate theoretical framework to allow a more systematic design of experiments and clear hypothesis testing.

  13. [Maternal posture and its influence on birthweight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takito, Monica Yuri; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    To analyze the relationship between maternal posture/physical activity and inadequate birthweight. Prospective cohort study involving 152 pregnant women from a public low-risk antenatal care facility. Three interviews evaluating the frequency of physical activity were administered to each pregnant woman during gestation. Birthweight (inadequate when or =3,000 g) was the dependent variable and the frequency of physical activity the independent variable. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic univariate analysis and multiple regression controlling for schooling, smoking, living with spouse, and baseline nutritional status. The practice of walking for at least 50 minutes during the first period of pregnancy was identified as a protective factor against inadequate birthweight (adjusted OR=0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.98). Standing for 2.5 hours or longer during the second semester of pregnancy was associated with increased risk (adjusted OR=3.23; 95% CI: 1.30-7.99). Dose-response relationships were identified for washing clothing by hand and cooking (p-value for linear trend clothing during the second trimester of gestation remained statistically significant. Our results show the importance of medical orientation regarding posture and physical activity during antenatal care, aiming at the reduction of inadequate birthweight.

  14. Statement on virginity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Virginity testing (virginity examination) is a gynecological examination that is intended to correlate the status and appearance of the hymen with previous sexual contact to determine whether a female has had or is habituated to sexual intercourse. Virginity examinations are practiced in many countries, often forcibly, including in detention places; on women who allege rape or are accused of prostitution; and as part of public or social policies to control sexuality. The Independent Forensic Expert Group (IFEG) - thirty-five preeminent independent forensic experts from eighteen countries specialized in evaluating and documenting the physical and psychological effects of torture and ill-treatment - released a statement on the practice in December 2014. In its statement, the IFEG outlines the physical and psychological effects of forcibly conducting virginity examinations on females based on its collective experience. The Group assesses whether, based on the effects, forcibly conducted virginity examinations constitute cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or torture. Finally, the IFEG addresses the medical interpretation, relevance, and ethical implications of such examinations. The IFEG concludes that virginity examinations are medically unreliable and have no clinical or scientific value. These examinations are inherently discriminatory and, in almost all instances, when conducted forcibly, result in significant physical and mental pain and suffering, thereby constituting cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or torture. When virginity examinations are forcibly conducted and involve vaginal penetration, the examination should be considered as sexual assault and rape. Involvement of health professionals in these examinations violates the basic standards and ethics of the professions. Copyright © 2015 Torture. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening initial entry training trainees for postural faults and low back or hip pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John R

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of postural faults and postural awareness in military trainees has not been assessed. Five hundred Soldiers entering Advanced Individual Training were screened for standing posture and completed an anonymous questionnaire during inprocessing. Postural faults were identified in 202 subjects. Chi square analysis demonstrated a relationship between posture observed and posture reported: 87% of subjects with postural faults were unaware of postural faults; 12% with proper posture reported having poor posture. Subjects reported comparable frequencies of back pain and hip pain with postural faults (33.2%, 21.2%) and without faults (28.5%, 14.7%). Anonymous reporting was higher than formal reporting and requests for care during the same period (37% vs 3.4%).

  16. Posture Detection Based on Smart Cushion for Wheelchair Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The postures of wheelchair users can reveal their sitting habit, mood, and even predict health risks such as pressure ulcers or lower back pain. Mining the hidden information of the postures can reveal their wellness and general health conditions. In this paper, a cushion-based posture recognition system is used to process pressure sensor signals for the detection of user’s posture in the wheelchair. The proposed posture detection method is composed of three main steps: data level classification for posture detection, backward selection of sensor configuration, and recognition results compared with previous literature. Five supervised classification techniques—Decision Tree (J48, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP, Naive Bayes, and k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN—are compared in terms of classification accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. Results indicate that the J48 classifier provides the highest accuracy compared to other techniques. The backward selection method was used to determine the best sensor deployment configuration of the wheelchair. Several kinds of pressure sensor deployments are compared and our new method of deployment is shown to better detect postures of the wheelchair users. Performance analysis also took into account the Body Mass Index (BMI, useful for evaluating the robustness of the method across individual physical differences. Results show that our proposed sensor deployment is effective, achieving 99.47% posture recognition accuracy. Our proposed method is very competitive for posture recognition and robust in comparison with other former research. Accurate posture detection represents a fundamental basic block to develop several applications, including fatigue estimation and activity level assessment.

  17. Acute Effects of Posture Shirts on Rounded-Shoulder and Forward-Head Posture in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, John; Hibberd, Elizabeth; Petschauer, Meredith; Myers, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    Rounded-shoulder and forward-head posture can be contributing factors to shoulder pain. Corrective techniques such as manual therapy and exercise have been shown to improve these altered postures, but there is little evidence that corrective garments such as posture shirts can alter posture. To determine the acute effects of corrective postureshirt use on rounded-shoulder and forward-head posture in asymptomatic college students. Repeated-measures intervention study with counterbalanced conditions. Research laboratory. 24 members of the general student body of a university, 18-25 y old, with a forward shoulder angle (FSA) >52° and no history of upper-extremity surgery, scoliosis, active shoulder pain, or shoulder pain in the previous 3 mo that restricted participation for 3 consecutive days. Photographic posture assessment under a control condition, under a sham or treatment condition (counterbalanced), under another control condition, and treatment or sham. FSA and forward head angle (FHA) calculated from a lateral photograph. FSA decreased relative to the control condition while participants wore the sham shirt (P = .029) but not the corrective posture shirt (P = 1.00). FHA was unchanged between groups (P = .371). Application of a corrective posture shirt did not acutely alter FSA or FHA, while application of a sham shirt may decrease FSA at rest.

  18. Individuals with chronic ankle instability exhibit dynamic postural stability deficits and altered unilateral landing biomechanics: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jeffrey D; Stewart, Ethan M; Macias, David M; Chander, Harish; Knight, Adam C

    2018-06-13

    To evaluate the literature regarding unilateral landing biomechanics and dynamic postural stability in individuals with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI). Four online databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and SportDiscus) were searched from the earliest records to 31 January 2018, as well as reference sections of related journal articles, to complete the systematic search. Studies investigating the influence of CAI on unilateral landing biomechanics and dynamic postural stability were systematically reviewed and evaluated. Twenty articles met the criteria and were included in the systematic review. Individuals with CAI were found to have deficits in dynamic postural stability on the affected limb with medium to large effect sizes and altered lower extremity kinematics, most notably in the ankle and knee, with medium to large effect sizes. Additionally, greater loading rates and peak ground reaction forces, in addition to reductions in ankle muscle activity were also found in individuals with CAI during unilateral jump-landing tasks. Individuals with CAI demonstrate dynamic postural stability deficits, lower extremity kinematic alterations, and reduced neuromuscular control during unilateral jump-landings. These are likely factors that contribute recurrent lateral ankle sprain injuries during dynamic activity in individuals with CAI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Association Between Body Adiposity Measures, Postural Balance, Fear of Falling, and Fall Risk in Older Community-Dwelling Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Silvia Gonçalves Ricci; Gadelha, André Bonadias; de David, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Aparecido Pimentel; Safons, Marisete Peralta; Tiedemann, Anne; Lima, Ricardo M

    2017-12-07

    Recent investigations demonstrate an association between obesity and the propensity of older adults to fall. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body adiposity measures, postural balance, fear of falling, and risk of falls in older women. One hundred forty-seven volunteers took part in this cross-sectional study. Participants underwent body composition assessment using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and had body mass index, waist circumference (WC), and body adiposity index measured. Postural balance was assessed using a force platform, while fear of falling and risk of falls were, respectively, evaluated by the Falls Efficacy Scale-International and the QuickScreen Clinical Falls Risk Assessment. All adiposity measures were correlated to at least 1 postural stability parameter and to fear of falling (ρ= 0.163, P risk of falls (ρ= 0.325; P falling (28.04 vs 24.59; P = .002) and had a higher proportion of individuals with increased fall risk (72% vs 35%; P risk of falls in older women, which might be mediated by reduced postural balance and increased fear of falling. Among these indices, WC, an easy and low-cost assessment, demonstrated the strongest association with falls-related outcomes.

  20. The influence of an auditory-memory attention-demanding task on postural control in blind persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Itshak; Damry, Elad; Landau, Anat; Yagev, Ronit

    2011-05-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of an auditory-memory attention-demanding task on balance control, nine blind adults were compared to nine age-gender-matched sighted controls. This issue is particularly relevant for the blind population in which functional assessment of postural control has to be revealed through "real life" motor and cognitive function. The study aimed to explore whether an auditory-memory attention-demanding cognitive task would influence postural control in blind persons and compare this with blindfolded sighted persons. Subjects were instructed to minimize body sway during narrow base upright standing on a single force platform under two conditions: 1) standing still (single task); 2) as in 1) while performing an auditory-memory attention-demanding cognitive task (dual task). Subjects in both groups were required to stand blindfolded with their eyes closed. Center of Pressure displacement data were collected and analyzed using summary statistics and stabilogram-diffusion analysis. Blind and sighted subjects had similar postural sway in eyes closed condition. However, for dual compared to single task, sighted subjects show significant decrease in postural sway while blind subjects did not. The auditory-memory attention-demanding cognitive task had no interference effect on balance control on blind subjects. It seems that sighted individuals used auditory cues to compensate for momentary loss of vision, whereas blind subjects did not. This may suggest that blind and sighted people use different sensorimotor strategies to achieve stability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protein O-Mannosyltransferases Affect Sensory Axon Wiring and Dynamic Chirality of Body Posture in the Drosophila Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ryan; Nakamura, Naosuke; Chandel, Ishita; Howell, Brooke; Lyalin, Dmitry; Panin, Vladislav M

    2018-02-14

    Genetic defects in protein O-mannosyltransferase 1 (POMT1) and POMT2 underlie severe muscular dystrophies. POMT genes are evolutionarily conserved in metazoan organisms. In Drosophila , both male and female POMT mutants show a clockwise rotation of adult abdominal segments, suggesting a chirality of underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Here we described and analyzed a similar phenotype in POMT mutant embryos that shows left-handed body torsion. Our experiments demonstrated that coordinated muscle contraction waves are associated with asymmetric embryo rolling, unveiling a new chirality marker in Drosophila development. Using genetic and live-imaging approaches, we revealed that the torsion phenotype results from differential rolling and aberrant patterning of peristaltic waves of muscle contractions. Our results demonstrated that peripheral sensory neurons are required for normal contractions that prevent the accumulation of torsion. We found that POMT mutants show abnormal axonal connections of sensory neurons. POMT transgenic expression limited to sensory neurons significantly rescued the torsion phenotype, axonal connectivity defects, and abnormal contractions in POMT mutant embryos. Together, our data suggested that protein O-mannosylation is required for normal sensory feedback to control coordinated muscle contractions and body posture. This mechanism may shed light on analogous functions of POMT genes in mammals and help to elucidate the etiology of neurological defects in muscular dystrophies. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Protein O-mannosyltransferases (POMTs) are evolutionarily conserved in metazoans. Mutations in POMTs cause severe muscular dystrophies associated with pronounced neurological defects. However, neurological functions of POMTs remain poorly understood. We demonstrated that POMT mutations in Drosophila result in abnormal muscle contractions and cause embryo torsion. Our experiments uncovered a chirality of embryo movements and a unique POMT -dependent

  2. Relationships among head posture, pain intensity, disability and deep cervical flexor muscle performance in subjects with postural neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun V. Subbarayalu, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Information Technology (IT professionals working with computers gradually develop forward head posture and, as a result, these professionals are susceptible to several neck disorders. This study intended to reveal the relationships between pain intensity, disability, head posture and deep cervical flexor (DCF muscle performance in patients with postural neck pain. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 IT professionals who were diagnosed with postural neck pain. The participants were recruited with a random sampling approach. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ, the Modified Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (MHPSCI, and the Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback Unit were used to measure neck pain intensity, neck disability, head posture, and DCF muscle performance, respectively. Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significantly strong positive relationship between the VAS and the NPQ (r = 0.734. The cranio-vertebral (CV angle was found to have a significantly negative correlation with the VAS (r = −0.536 and a weak negative correlation with the NPQ (r = −0.389. Conclusion: This study concluded that a smaller CV angle corresponded to greater neck pain intensity and disability. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between CV angle and DCF muscle performance, indicating that head posture re-education through postural correction exercises would not completely correct the motor control deficits in DCF muscles. In addition, a suitable exercise regimen that exclusively targets the deep cervical flexor muscle to improve its endurance is warranted. Keywords: Craniovertebral angle, Disability deep cervical flexors muscle performance, Head posture, Postural neck pain

  3. Working Posture Analysis Methods and the Effects of Working Posture on Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Esen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs which cause great health problems and social resource consumption are common problems which commonly influence working population. MSDs which is at the top of the list in the sense of health problems, expenses made for these disorders and which has negative influences in the sense of employee labor efficiency, quality of life, physical and social functions results from poor working postures. Observation, analysis of working postures with scientific methods, and making necessary recoveries and arrangements bring important contributions for control of working performance and decrease of MSDs. In this study, risk factors which cause the emergence of MSDs, types and symptoms of disorders are summarized, basic principles to be used in preventing these disorders are presented and scientific methods used in determination of risk factors are classified and presented.

  4. Relationship between foot sensibility and postural control in the young and elderly. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n1p215

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Suemi Ueda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in the foot sensitivity in the elderly cause changes in locomotion and postural control that may increase fall risk. Understanding the use of foot afference in the elderly may help preventing loss of mobility and fall. However, there are few studies addressing the relation between the sensitivity of different foot regions and postural control. To investigating this lack in literature, the objective of our study was to assess the relationship between foot sensibility and postural control in young and elderly. Forty-two subjects volunteered to this study; they were assigned to a group according to their age (young or elderly. The participants were assessed regarding anthropometry, foot sensibility (using monofilaments and postural control (using a force plate. The indexes of foot sensibility and postural control were correlated and compared between the groups. Elderly had worst foot sensibility and postural control than young. Center of pressure are and amplitude in antero-posterior direction were correlated with the general foot sensibility, but not with a specific point of the foot in the elderly. For young, the sensitivity in the forefoot region was related to improved postural control.

  5. PENINGKATAN STABILITAS POSTURAL PADA LANSIA MELALUI BALANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnanto .

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stabilitas postural adalah masalah yang umum pada lansia. Balance exercise dapat dijadikan alternative latihan bagi lansia. Latihan ini meliputi 5 gerakan (plantar flexion, hip flexion, hip flexion, knee flexion dan side leg raise. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa efek dari balance exercise terhadap peningkatan stabilitas postural pada lansia. Penelitian ini menggunakan design pre eksperimen. Populasi yang digunakan adalah lansia di Panti Wreda Bangkalan. Total sampel adalah 11 responden, yang diambil berdasarkan kriteria inklusi. Variabel dependen adalah balance exercise dan variabel independen adalah stabilitas postural. Stabilitas postural diukur menggunakan 2 tes, yaitu tes Tinetti dan TUGT (Time Up and Go Test. Data dianalisa menggunakan paired t test dengan level signifikan 0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa balance exercise secara signifikan dapat meningkatkan stabilitas postural. Pada tes Tinetti (p=0,000 dan di TUGT (p=0,001. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat hasil yang signifikan antara balance exercise dengan peningkatan stabilitas postural pada lansia. Hal ini disebabkan Karena balance exercise dapat membuat otot lansia menjadi hipertrofi. Hipertrofi dapat meningkatkan kekuatan otot sehingga stabilitas postural lansia dapat meningkat. Penelitian yang akan datang diharapkan melibatkan lebih banyak responden dengan waktu penelitian yang lebih lama dan pengukuran yang lebih baik untuk memastikan hasil yang lebih akurat.

  6. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  7. Spatial and temporal analysis of postural control in dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouleme, Nathalie; Gerard, Christophe Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine postural control of dyslexic children using both spatial and temporal analysis. Thirty dyslexic (mean age 9.7±0.3years) and thirty non-dyslexic age-matched children participated in the study. Postural stability was evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral®. Posture was recorded in the following conditions: eyes open fixating a target (EO) and eyes closed (EC) on stable (-S-) and unstable (-U-) platforms. The findings of this study showed poor postural stability in dyslexic children with respect to the non-dyslexic children group, as demonstrated by both spatial and temporal analysis. In both groups of children postural control depends on the condition, and improves when the eyes are open on a stable platform. Dyslexic children have spectral power indices that are higher than in non-dyslexic children and they showed a shorter cancelling time. Poor postural control in dyslexic children could be due to a deficit in using sensory information most likely caused by impairment in cerebellar activity. The reliability of brain activation patterns, namely in using sensory input and cerebellar activity may explain the deficit in postural control in dyslexic children. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Postural activity monitoring for increasing safety in bomb disposal missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusey, James; Rednic, Ramona; Gaura, Elena I; Kemp, John; Poole, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    In enclosed suits, such as those worn by explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) experts, evaporative cooling through perspiration is less effective and, particularly in hot environments, uncompensable heat stress (UHS) may occur. Although some suits have cooling systems, their effectiveness during missions is dependent on the operative's posture. In order to properly assess thermal state, temperature-based assessment systems need to take posture into account. This paper builds on previous work for instrumenting EOD suits with regard to temperature monitoring and proposes to also monitor operative posture with MEMS accelerometers. Posture is a key factor in predicting how body temperature will change and is therefore important in providing local or remote warning of the onset of UHS. In this work, the C4.5 decision tree algorithm is used to produce an on-line classifier that can differentiate between nine key postures from current acceleration readings. Additional features that summarize how acceleration is changing over time are used to improve average classification accuracy to around 97.2%. Without such temporal feature extraction, dynamic postures are difficult to classify accurately. Experimental results show that training over a variety of subjects, and in particular, mixing gender, improves results on unseen subjects. The main advantages of the on-line posture classification system described here are that it is accurate, does not require integration of acceleration over time, and is computationally lightweight, allowing it to be easily supported on wearable microprocessors

  9. Assessment of postural instability in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, J W; Orawiec, R; Duda-Kłodowska, D; Opala, G

    2007-10-01

    Postural instability is one of the most disabling features of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we focused on postural instability as the main factor predisposing parkinsonians to falls. For this purpose, changes in sway characteristics during quiet stance due to visual feedback exclusion were studied. We searched for postural sway measures that could be potential discriminators for an increased fall risk. A group of 110 subjects: 55 parkinsonians (Hoehn and Yahr: 1-3), and 55 age-matched healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. Their spontaneous sway characteristics while standing quiet with eyes open and eyes closed were analyzed. We found that an increased mediolateral sway and sway area while standing with eyes closed are characteristic of parkinsonian postural instability and may serve to quantify well a tendency to fall. These sway indices significantly correlated with disease severity rated both by the Hoehn and Yahr scale as well as by the Motor Section of the UPDRS. A forward shift of a mean COP position in parkinsonians which reflects their flexed posture was also significantly greater to compare with the elderly subjects and exhibited a high sensitivity to visual conditions. Both groups of postural sway abnormalities identified here may be used as accessible and reliable measures which allow for quantitative assessment of postural instability in Parkinson's disease.

  10. USE OF SOFTWARES FOR POSTURE ASSESSMENT: INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyla Maria Porto de Freitas Camelo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To carry out an integrative literature review on the postural analysis softwares available today. It is an integrative-narrative review of qualitative and methodological nature performed during April-July 2014. As inclusion criteria, the articles should be bibliographical or original research and available with full access. At first, we proceeded to the identification of the keywords for the softwares related to postural assessment commonly used in the health field, in such case "posture", "software", and "postural assessment". The search was narrowed by publication date from 2002 to 2014. Through the information acquired from the articles and from the software developers, information on 12 programs that assist the postural evaluation were obtained - Alcimage, All Body Scan 3D, Aplob, APPID, Biotonix, Corporis Pro, Fisimetrix, Fisiometer Posturograma, Physical Fisio, Physio Easy, Posture Print and SAPO. However, only one tool has more information and studies, namely SAPO. There are many postural analysis softwares available on the internet today, however, these are quite disparate in relation to possible answers and are still poorly widespread as research tools.

  11. Postural habits of young adults and possibilities of modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Czupryna, Krzysztof; Bąk, Krzysztof; Wróblewska, Ewa; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess postural habits in young, healthy people, identify correlations between postural errors and pain and attempt to modify bad habits. 144 people, aged 18-23 were enrolled. The intervention consisted of 4 stages: Stage 1 - identification of postural habits, description of responses to stress, back pain frequency and intensity (Jackson & Moskowitz); Stage 2 - correction of habitual position with the help of a physiotherapist, briefing about ergonomic everyday behaviours and consequences of continued non-ergonomic behaviours, Stage 3 - follow-up examination: self-assessment of changes, evaluation of the effects of modifications, determination of causes for discontinuing the behaviour modification programme, where applicable; and Stage 4 - final examination, assessment of results. Correlations were sought between inappropriate postural behaviour in various positions and between non-ergonomic postural behaviour and pain location and response to stress. Statistical analysis was carried out with Excel and Statistica v. 7.1. A non-parametric χ(2) test was used at phabit. 3. An attempt to modify non-ergonomic postural behaviours usually results in pain, which may act as a demotivating factor. 4. Discomfort associated with the modification of habitual postural behaviours is reduced after 3-4 months of regular training.

  12. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianne Furtado

    Full Text Available The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep. Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high. The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor and static (clinical test of sensory integration. The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  13. Postural sway and gaze can track the complex motion of a visual target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilia Hatzitaki

    Full Text Available Variability is an inherent and important feature of human movement. This variability has form exhibiting a chaotic structure. Visual feedback training using regular predictive visual target motions does not take into account this essential characteristic of the human movement, and may result in task specific learning and loss of visuo-motor adaptability. In this study, we asked how well healthy young adults can track visual target cues of varying degree of complexity during whole-body swaying in the Anterior-Posterior (AP and Medio-Lateral (ML direction. Participants were asked to track three visual target motions: a complex (Lorenz attractor, a noise (brown and a periodic (sine moving target while receiving online visual feedback about their performance. Postural sway, gaze and target motion were synchronously recorded and the degree of force-target and gaze-target coupling was quantified using spectral coherence and Cross-Approximate entropy. Analysis revealed that both force-target and gaze-target coupling was sensitive to the complexity of the visual stimuli motions. Postural sway showed a higher degree of coherence with the Lorenz attractor than the brown noise or sinusoidal stimulus motion. Similarly, gaze was more synchronous with the Lorenz attractor than the brown noise and sinusoidal stimulus motion. These results were similar regardless of whether tracking was performed in the AP or ML direction. Based on the theoretical model of optimal movement variability tracking of a complex signal may provide a better stimulus to improve visuo-motor adaptation and learning in postural control.

  14. Gait and posture analysis in patients with maxillary transverse discrepancy, before and after RPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Martina; Spolaor, Fabiola; Guiotto, Annamaria; De Stefani, Alberto; Gracco, Antonio; Sawacha, Zimi

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the rapid palatal expansion (RPE) on posture and gait analysis in subjects with maxillary transverse discrepancies. Forty-one patients between 6 and 12 years were divided into 3 groups: 10 control subjects (Cs), 16 patients with unilateral posterior crossbite (CbMono), 15 patients with maxillary transverse discrepancy and no crossbite (Nocb). Every subject underwent gait analysis and posturographic examination in order to evaluate the presence of balance alterations before (T0) and after (T4) RPE application. The examinations were performed through a six-cameras stereophotogrammetric system (60-120Hz, BTS S.p.A.) synchronized with two force plates (FP4060, Bertec Corp.). Romberg test was performed on a force plate, and the statokinesiogram and joint kinematics were evaluated. One-way Anova was performed among the variables after evidence of normal distribution (Levene's test for equality of variances) and Kruskal-Wallis test (Ptest was performed, or Kruskal-Wallis test, instead when comparing pre- and post-RPE application within the same group of subjects (P<0.05). Tamane T2 or Bonferroni correction was applied where needed. The posturographic analysis reveal significant differences across the 3 population: 95% power frequency in medio-lateral and antero-posterior direction in T0, median frequency in medio-lateral direction in T0, mean power frequency in medio-lateral direction in T0. Significant differences were also registered in the three-dimensional joints kinematics variables, mainly between Cs and Cbmono in T0 and T4 and between Cbmono and Nocb in T4. A detectable correlation between dental occlusion and body posture is shown in this study that confirms another benefit of the RPE. This was mainly revealed in the dynamic posture where modifications at the mandibular level affect the whole body. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. The Comparison of the Role of Vision on Static Postural Stability in Athletes and Nonathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Meshkati

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of the present study was to compare the role of vision on static postural stability between athletes and nonathletes. Methods: Participants included two groups of 25 persons, men Karatekas who were selected in Isfahan (age 20.6±2.8 years, 66.24±10.34 kg of weight, height 1.76±0.07 m and healthy young men in Isfahan (age 21.6±2.33 years, 66.8±11.34 kg of weight, height 1.74±0.08 m. The sampling was conducted on the basis of nonprobability sampling method. All participants performed the static balance test on the force plate. Postural stability was measured and assessed during 35 seconds in a state of constant standing with paired feet in the center of the force plate in the two positions of eyes open and closed (3 trials in each positions with random sequences. The rest between trials was 25 seconds. Parameters of mean velosity, standard deviation of velosity and standard deviation of amplitude in both anterior-posterior and medio-lateral plans from the center of foot pressure were recorded by the device. Two-way ANOVA was used for data analysis. Results: The test results showed that the interaction between vision and group did not exist. Closing the eyes led to a significant increase in postural sway in all parameters. Two parameters of mean velocity and standard deviation of velosity in medio-lateral plan were significantly greater in athletes than nonathletes. Discussion: The findings can be considered for the design of exercises in karate and rehabilitation after sports injuries.

  16. Cutaneous mechanisms of isometric ankle force control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Leukel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The sense of force is critical in the control of movement and posture. Multiple factors influence our perception of exerted force, including inputs from cutaneous afferents, muscle afferents and central commands. Here, we studied the influence of cutaneous feedback on the control of ankle force...... of transient stimulation on force error were greater when compared to continuous stimulation and lidocaine injection. Position-matching performance was unaffected by peroneal nerve or plantar nerve stimulation. Our results show that cutaneous feedback plays a role in the control of force output at the ankle...... joint. Understanding how the nervous system normally uses cutaneous feedback in motor control will help us identify which functional aspects are impaired in aging and neurological diseases....

  17. ERS statement on protracted bacterial bronchitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Ahmad; Chang, Anne B; Shields, Mike D; Marchant, Julie M; Grimwood, Keith; Grigg, Jonathan; Priftis, Kostas N; Cutrera, Renato; Midulla, Fabio; Brand, Paul L P; Everard, Mark L

    2017-08-01

    This European Respiratory Society statement provides a comprehensive overview on protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) in children. A task force of experts, consisting of clinicians from Europe and Australia who manage children with PBB determined the overall scope of this statement through consensus. Systematic reviews addressing key questions were undertaken, diagrams in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement constructed and findings of relevant studies summarised. The final content of this statement was agreed upon by all members.The current knowledge regarding PBB is presented, including the definition, microbiology data, known pathobiology, bronchoalveolar lavage findings and treatment strategies to manage these children. Evidence for the definition of PBB was sought specifically and presented. In addition, the task force identified several major clinical areas in PBB requiring further research, including collecting more prospective data to better identify the disease burden within the community, determining its natural history, a better understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and how to optimise its treatment, with a particular requirement for randomised controlled trials to be conducted in primary care. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  18. A Methodology for Investigating Adaptive Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, P. V.; Riccio, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    Our research on postural control and human-environment interactions provides an appropriate scientific foundation for understanding the skill of mass handling by astronauts in weightless conditions (e.g., extravehicular activity or EVA). We conducted an investigation of such skills in NASA's principal mass-handling simulator, the Precision Air-Bearing Floor, at the Johnson Space Center. We have studied skilled movement-body within a multidisciplinary context that draws on concepts and methods from biological and behavioral sciences (e.g., psychology, kinesiology and neurophysiology) as well as bioengineering. Our multidisciplinary research has led to the development of measures, for manual interactions between individuals and the substantial environment, that plausibly are observable by human sensory systems. We consider these methods to be the most important general contribution of our EVA investigation. We describe our perspective as control theoretic because it draws more on fundamental concepts about control systems in engineering than it does on working constructs from the subdisciplines of biomechanics and motor control in the bio-behavioral sciences. At the same time, we have attempted to identify the theoretical underpinnings of control-systems engineering that are most relevant to control by human beings. We believe that these underpinnings are implicit in the assumptions that cut across diverse methods in control-systems engineering, especially the various methods associated with "nonlinear control", "fuzzy control," and "adaptive control" in engineering. Our methods are based on these theoretical foundations rather than on the mathematical formalisms that are associated with particular methods in control-systems engineering. The most important aspects of the human-environment interaction in our investigation of mass handling are the functional consequences that body configuration and stability have for the pick up of information or the achievement of

  19. A review of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carew, Sheila

    2012-01-31

    A 21-year-old female reports an 18-month history of light-headedness on standing. This is often associated with palpitations and a feeling of intense anxiety. She has had two black-outs in the past 12 months. She is not taking any regular medications. Her supine blood pressure was 126\\/84 mmHg with a heart rate of 76 bpm, and her upright blood pressure was 122\\/80 mmHg with a heart rate of 114 bpm. A full system examination was otherwise normal. She had a 12-lead electrocardiogram performed which was unremarkable. She was referred for head-up tilt testing. She was symptomatic during the test and lost consciousness at 16 min. Figure 1 summarizes her blood pressure and heart rate response to tilting. A diagnosis of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome with overlapping vasovagal syncope was made.

  20. Using data from the Microsoft Kinect 2 to determine postural stability in healthy subjects: A feasibility trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdad Dehbandi

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether kinematic data collected by the Microsoft Kinect 2 (MK2 could be used to quantify postural stability in healthy subjects. Twelve subjects were recruited for the project, and were instructed to perform a sequence of simple postural stability tasks. The movement sequence was performed as subjects were seated on top of a force platform, and the MK2 was positioned in front of them. This sequence of tasks was performed by each subject under three different postural conditions: "both feet on the ground" (1, "One foot off the ground" (2, and "both feet off the ground" (3. We compared force platform and MK2 data to quantify the degree to which the MK2 was returning reliable data across subjects. We then applied a novel machine-learning paradigm to the MK2 data in order to determine the extent to which data from the MK2 could be used to reliably classify different postural conditions. Our initial comparison of force plate and MK2 data showed a strong agreement between the two devices, with strong Pearson correlations between the trunk centroids "Spine_Mid" (0.85 ± 0.06, "Neck" (0.86 ± 0.07 and "Head" (0.87 ± 0.07, and the center of pressure centroid inferred by the force platform. Mean accuracy for the machine learning classifier from MK2 was 97.0%, with a specific classification accuracy breakdown of 90.9%, 100%, and 100% for conditions 1 through 3, respectively. Mean accuracy for the machine learning classifier derived from the force platform data was lower at 84.4%. We conclude that data from the MK2 has sufficient information content to allow us to classify sequences of tasks being performed under different levels of postural stability. Future studies will focus on validating this protocol on large populations of individuals with actual balance impairments in order to create a toolkit that is clinically validated and available to the medical community.

  1. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, E F; Castro, A A M; Schmidt, V G S; Rabelo, H M; Kümpel, C; Nascimento, O A; Jardim, J R

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control. Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using "balance", "postural control", and "COPD" as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers. A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the "balance in COPD or postural control in COPD" keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study examiners found only seven studies that had a PEDro score higher than five points. The examiners' interrater agreement was 76.4%. Six of those studies were accomplished with a control group and one study used their patients as their own controls. The studies were published between 2004 and 2013. Patients with COPD present postural control impairment when compared with age-matched healthy controls. Associated factors contributing to impaired postural control were

  2. 78 FR 4134 - Notice of Intent To Prepare An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) On the Proposal To Relocate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Proposal To Relocate the 18th Aggressor Squadron From Eielson Air Force Base (EAFB), Alaska to Joint Base... Eielson AFB, AK AGENCY: Pacific Air Forces, United States Air Force, DOD. ACTION: Notice of Intent... Statement (EIS) considering a proposal to relocate the 18th Aggressor Squadron from Eielson AFB to Joint...

  3. Childhood obesity case statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Consolidated Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Kolářová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá problematikou konsolidace účetní závěrky. Práce je členěna na dvě části. První část je zaměřena na sestavení konsolidované účetní závěrky za českou část skupiny podniků. Druhá část se zabývá analýzou výkonnosti sestavené konsolidované účetní závěrky a jednotlivých společností finančními ukazateli. Práce rovněž obsahuje návrhy na zlepšení ekonomické situace holdingu či jednotlivých společností. Master's thesis deals with the consolidation of the financial statement...

  5. 3 CFR - Presidential Signing Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... basis of policy disagreements. At the same time, such signing statements serve a legitimate function in... United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other...

  6. Basic statements of relativity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Muschik

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some basic statements of relativity theory, starting out with geometry and observers up to Einstein's field equations, are collected in a systematical order without any proof, to serve as a short survey of tools and results.

  7. Environmental Impact Statement Filing Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how to submit an environmental impact statement through the e-NEPA electronic submission system. Describes how EPA submits a notice of availability in to the Federal Register and how the comment time period if set forth.

  8. 38 CFR 41.310 - Financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial statements. 41...) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditees § 41.310 Financial statements. (a) Financial statements. The auditee shall prepare financial statements that reflect its financial...

  9. 7 CFR 1218.51 - Financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial statements. 1218.51 Section 1218.51... § 1218.51 Financial statements. (a) As requested by the Secretary, the Council shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Secretary on a periodic basis. Each such financial statement shall include, but...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.41 - Financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial statements. 1206.41 Section 1206.41... Financial statements. (a) As requested by the Department, the Board shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Department on a periodic basis. Each such financial statement shall include, but not be...

  11. GASB Statement No. 3 Guides Deposits, Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Linda A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses an April 1986 Governmental Accounting Standards Board statement concerning disclosures of repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements. The statement tries to help financial statement users assess the risks a goverment entity takes when investing public funds. It is effective for financial statement periods ending after December 15,…

  12. Stereotypes and prejudice affect the recognition of emotional body postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J

    2018-03-26

    Most research on emotion recognition focuses on facial expressions. However, people communicate emotional information through bodily cues as well. Prior research on facial expressions has demonstrated that emotion recognition is modulated by top-down processes. Here, we tested whether this top-down modulation generalizes to the recognition of emotions from body postures. We report three studies demonstrating that stereotypes and prejudice about men and women may affect how fast people classify various emotional body postures. Our results suggest that gender cues activate gender associations, which affect the recognition of emotions from body postures in a top-down fashion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of ...

  14. Dynamic stability control in forward falls: postural corrections after muscle fatigue in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mademli, Lida; Arampatzis, Adamantios; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2008-06-01

    Many studies report that muscle strength loss may alter the human system's capacity to generate rapid force for balance corrections after perturbations, leading to deficient recovery behaviours. Yet little is known regarding the effect of modifications in the neuromuscular system induced by fatigue on dynamic stability control during postural perturbations. This study investigates the effect of muscle strength decline induced by fatiguing contractions on the dynamic stability control of young and older adults during forward falls. Eleven young and eleven older male adults had to regain balance after sudden falls before and after submaximal fatiguing knee extension-flexion contractions. Young subjects had a higher margin of stability than older ones before and after the fatiguing task. This reflects their enhanced ability in using mechanisms for maintaining dynamic stability (i.e. a greater base of support). The margin of stability, the boundary of the base of support and the position of the extrapolated centre of mass, remained unaffected by the reduction in muscle strength induced by the fatiguing contractions, indicating an appropriate adjustment of the motor commands to compensate the deficit in muscle strength. Both young and older adults were able to counteract the decreased horizontal ground reaction forces after the fatiguing task by flexing their knee to a greater extent, leading to similar decreases in the horizontal velocity of centre of mass as in the pre fatigue condition. The results demonstrate the ability of the central nervous system to rapidly modify the execution of postural corrections including mechanisms for maintaining dynamic stability.

  15. Control of vertical posture while standing on a sliding board and pushing an object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Chen, Bing; Liang, Jing-Nong; Aruin, Alexander S

    2018-03-01

    Voluntary pushing or translation perturbation of the support surface each induces a body perturbation that affects postural control. The objective of the study was to investigate anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments when pushing an object (that induces self-initiated perturbation) and standing on a sliding board (that induces translational perturbation). Thirteen healthy young participants were instructed to push a handle with both hands while standing on a sliding board that was either free to move in the anterior-posterior direction or stationary. Electromyographic activity (EMG) of trunk and lower extremity muscles, center of pressure (COP) displacements, and the forces exerted by the hand were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases. When the sliding board was free to move during pushing (translation perturbation), onsets of activity of ventral leg muscles and COP displacement were delayed as compared to pushing when standing on a stationary board. Moreover, magnitudes of shank muscle activity and the COP displacement were decreased. When pushing heavier weight, magnitudes of muscle activity, COP displacement, and pushing force increased. The magnitude of activity of the shank muscles during the APA and CPA phases in conditions with translational perturbation varied with the magnitude of the pushing weight. The outcome of the study suggests that the central nervous system prioritizes the pushing task while attenuates the source of additional perturbation induced by translation perturbation. These results could be used in the development of balance re-training paradigms involving pushing weight while standing on a sliding surface.

  16. Postural stability when walking and exposed to lateral oscillatory motion: benefits from hand supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayık, Hatice Müjde; Griffin, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    While walking on a treadmill, 20 subjects experienced lateral oscillations: frequencies from 0.5 to 2 Hz and velocities from 0.05 to 0.16 m s(- 1) rms. Postural stability was indicated by ratings of 'discomfort or difficulty in walking', the movement of the centre of pressure beneath the feet and lateral forces applied to a hand support. Hand support improved postural stability with all frequencies and all velocities of oscillatory motion: the lateral velocity of the centre of pressure reduced by 30-50% when using support throughout motion, by 20-30% when instructed to use the support only when required and by 15% during normal walking without oscillation. Improvements in stability, and the forces applied to the hand support, were independent of support height when used continuously throughout motion. When support was used only when required, subjects preferred to hold it 118-134 cm above the surface supporting the feet.

  17. Relationship between postural alignment in sitting by photogrammetry and seated postural control in post-stroke subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Y R; Vijayakumar, K; Abraham, J M; Misri, Z K; Suresh, B V; Unnikrishnan, B

    2014-01-01

    This study was executed to find out correlation between postural alignment in sitting measured through photogrammetry and postural control in sitting following stroke. A cross-sectional study with convenient sampling consisting of 45 subjects with acute and sub-acute stroke. Postural alignment in sitting was measured through photogrammetry and relevant angles were obtained through software MB Ruler (version 5.0). Seated postural control was measured through Function in Sitting Test (FIST). Correlation was obtained using Spearman's Rank Correlation co-efficient in SPSS software (version 17.0). Moderate positive correlation (r = 0.385; p < 0.01) was found between angle of lordosis and angle between acromion, lateral epicondyle and point between radius and ulna. Strong negative correlation (r = -0.435; p < 0.01) was found between cranio-vertebral angle and kyphosis. FIST showed moderate positive correlation (r = 0.3446; p < 0.05) with cranio-vertebral angle and strong positive correlation (r = 0.4336; p < 0.01) with Brunnstrom's stage of recovery in upper extremity. Degree of forward head posture in sitting correlates directly with seated postural control and inversely with degree of kyphosis in sitting post-stroke. Postural control in sitting post-stroke is directly related with Brunnstrom's stage of recovery in affected upper extremity in sitting.

  18. Vibrotactile Feedback Alters Dynamics Of Static Postural Control In Persons With Parkinson's Disease But Not Older Adults At High Fall Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, Carleigh M; McHugh, Hannah F; Mills, Stephen C; Amano, Shinichi; Freund, Jane E; Vallabhajosula, Srikant

    2018-06-01

    Aging and Parkinson's disease are often associated with impaired postural control. Providing extrinsic feedback via vibrotactile sensation could supplement intrinsic feedback to maintain postural control. We investigated the postural control response to vibrotactile feedback provided at the trunk during challenging stance conditions in older adults at high fall risk and individuals with Parkinson's disease compared to healthy older adults. Nine older adults at high fall risk, 9 persons with Parkinson's disease and 10 healthy older adults performed 30s quiet standing on a force platform under five challenging stance conditions with eyes open/closed and standing on firm/foam surface with feet together, each with and without vibrotactile feedback. During vibrotactile feedback trials, feedback was provided when participants swayed >10% over the center of their base of support. Participants were instructed vibrations would be in response to their movement. Magnitude of postural sway was estimated using center of pressure path length, velocity, and sway area. Dynamics of individuals' postural control was evaluated using detrended fluctuation analysis. Results showed that vibrotactile feedback induced a change in postural control dynamics among persons with Parkinson's disease when standing with intact intrinsic visual input and altered intrinsic somatosensory input, but there was no change in sway magnitude. However, use of vibrotactile feedback did not significantly alter dynamics of postural control in older adults with high risk of falling or reduce the magnitude of sway. Considering the effects of vibrotactile feedback were dependent on the population and stance condition, designing an optimal therapeutic regimen for balance training should be carefully considered and be specific to a target population. Furthermore, our results suggest that explicit instructions on how to respond to the vibrotactile feedback could affect training outcome. Copyright © 2018 The

  19. Scaling of lifting forces in relation to object size in whole body lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.; Toussaint, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Subjects prepare for a whole body lifting movement by adjusting their posture and scaling their lifting forces to the expected object weight. The expectancy is based on visual and haptic size cues. This study aimed to find out whether lifting force overshoots related to object size cues disappear or

  20. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Teng

    Full Text Available Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99; controls (76.53±7.47; t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory

  1. Dual task interference on postural sway, postural transitions and gait in people with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Fortaleza, Ana Claudia; Mancini, Martina; Carlson-Kuhta, Patty; King, Laurie A; Nutt, John G; Chagas, Eliane Ferrari; Freitas, Ismael Forte; Horak, Fay B

    2017-07-01

    Freezing of gait (FoG) is associated with less automatic gait and more impaired cognition, balance and postural transitions compared to people with PD who do not have FoG. However, it is unknown whether dual-task cost during postural sway, postural transitions (such as gait initiation and turning), and gait are more in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have freezing of gait (FoG+) compared to those who do not have FoG (FoG-). Here, we hypothesized that the effects of a cognitive dual task on postural sway, postural transitions and gait would be larger in FoG+ than FoG-. Thirty FoG- and 24 FoG+ performed an Instrumented Stand and Walk test in OFF medication state, with and without a secondary cognitive task (serial subtraction by 3s). Measures of postural sway, gait initiation, turning, and walking were extracted using body-worn inertial sensors. FoG+ showed significantly larger dual task cost than FoG- for several gait metrics, but not during postural sway or postural transitions. During walking, FoG+ exhibited a larger dual task cost than FoG- resulting in shorter stride length and slower stride velocity. During standing, FoG+ showed a larger postural sway compared to FoG- and during gait initiation, FoG+, but not FoG-, showed a longer first step duration during the dual-task condition compared to single-task condition (interaction effect, p=0.04). During turning, both groups showed a slower turn peak speed in the dual-task condition compared to single task condition. These findings partly support our hypothesis that dual task cost on walking is greater in FoG+ than FoG-. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. DOD Financial Management: Improved Documentation Needed to Support the Air Force’s Military Payroll and Meet Audit Readiness Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    balances to match Treasury balances. 19The financial reporting system collects and consolidates information for financial statement presentation...2The financial reporting system collects and consolidates information for financial statement presentation. 3Subsistence...efforts to achieve auditability of its financial statements , the Air Force in July 2014 asserted audit readiness for its Schedule of Budgetary

  3. Postural control of typical developing boys during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Peerlinck, Kathelijne; Van Geet, Kristel; Hermans, Cedric; Lobet, Sebastien

    2017-02-01

    Literature is lacking information about postural control performance of typically developing children during a transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. The purpose of the present study was therefore to evaluate the clinical feasibility of a transition task in typical developing age groups as well as to study the correlation between associated balance measures and age.Thirty-three typically developing boys aged 6-20 years performed a standard transition task from DLS to SLS with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Balance features derived from the center of pressure displacement captured by a single force platform were correlated with age on the one hand and considered for differences in the perspective of limb dominance on the other hand.All TDB (typically developing boys) were able to perform the transition task with EO. With respect to EC condition, all TDB from the age group 6-7 years and the youngest of the age group 8-12 years (N = 4) were unable to perform the task. No significant differences were observed between the balance measures of the dominant and non-dominant limbs.With respect to EO condition, correlation analyses indicated that time to new stability point (TNSP) as well as the sway measure after this TNSP were correlated with age (p postural balance of typically developing children during walking, running, sit-to-stand, and bipodal and unipodal stance has been well documented in the literature. • These reference data provided not only insight into the maturation process of the postural control system, but also served in diagnosing and managing functional repercussions of neurological and orthopedic pathologies. What is New: • Objective data regarding postural balance of typical developing children during a transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. • Insight into the role of maturation on the postural control system.

  4. The effect of backpack weight on the standing posture and balance of schoolgirls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Daniel H K; Kwok, Monica L Y; Cheng, Jack C Y; Lao, Miko L M; Holmes, Andrew D; Au-Yang, Alexander; Yao, Fiona Y D; Wong, M S

    2006-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the effect of carrying a backpack on adolescent posture and balance, but the effect of backpack loading combined with other factors affecting balance, such as adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), has not been determined. This study examines the effects of backpack load on the posture and balance of schoolgirls with AIS and normal controls. The standing posture of 26 schoolgirls with mild AIS (mean age 13, Cobb angle 10-25 degrees ) and 20 age-matched normal schoolgirls were recorded without a backpack and while carrying a standard dual-strap backpack loaded at 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% of the subject's bodyweight (BW). Kinematics of the pelvis, trunk and head were recorded using a motion analysis system and centre of pressure (COP) data were recorded using a force platform. Reliable COP data could only be derived for 13 of the subjects with AIS. Increasing backpack load causes a significantly increased flexion of the trunk in relation to the pelvis and extension of the head in relation to the trunk, as well as increased antero-posterior range of COP motion. While backpack load appears to affect balance predominantly in the antero-posterior direction, differences between groups were more evident in the medio-lateral direction, with AIS subjects showing poor balance in this direction. Overall, carrying a backpack causes similar sagittal plane changes in posture and balance in both normal and AIS groups. Load size or subject group did not influence balance, but the additive effect of backpack carrying and AIS on postural control alters the risk of fall in this population. Therefore, load limit recommendations based on normal subjects should not be applicable to subjects with AIS.

  5. Pelvic morphology, body posture and standing balance characteristics of adolescent able-bodied and idiopathic scoliosis girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianides, Georgios A; Dalleau, Georges; Begon, Mickaël; Rivard, Charles-Hilaire; Allard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how pelvic morphology, body posture, and standing balance variables of scoliotic girls differ from those of able-bodied girls, and to classify neuro-biomechanical variables in terms of a lower number of unobserved variables. Twenty-eight scoliotic and twenty-five non-scoliotic able-bodied girls participated in this study. 3D coordinates of ten anatomic body landmarks were used to describe pelvic morphology and trunk posture using a Flock of Birds system. Standing balance was measured using a force plate to identify the center of pressure (COP), and its anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) displacements. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed to determine differences between the two groups. A factor analysis was used to identify factors that best describe both groups. Statistical differences were identified between the groups for each of the parameter types. While spatial orientation of the pelvis was similar in both groups, five of the eight trunk postural variables of the scoliotic group were significantly different that the able-bodied group. Also, five out of the seven standing balance variables were higher in the scoliotic girls. Approximately 60% of the variation is supported by 4 factors that can be associated with a set of variables; standing balance variables (factor 1), body posture variables (factor 2), and pelvic morphology variables (factors 3 and 4). Pelvic distortion, body posture asymmetry, and standing imbalance are more pronounced in scoliotic girls, when compared to able-bodied girls. These findings may be beneficial when addressing balance and ankle proprioception exercises for the scoliotic population.

  6. Posture does not matter! Paw usage and grasping paw preference in a small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Marine; Scheumann, Marina; Zimmermann, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Recent results in birds, marsupials, rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that phylogeny and ecological factors such as body size, diet and postural habit of a species influence limb usage and the direction and strength of limb laterality. To examine to which extent these findings can be generalised to small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammals, we studied trees shrews (Tupaia belangeri). We established a behavioural test battery for examining paw usage comparable to small-bodied primates and tested 36 Tupaia belangeri. We studied paw usage in a natural foraging situation (simple food grasping task) and measured the influence of varying postural demands (triped, biped, cling, sit) on paw preferences by applying a forced-food grasping task similar to other small-bodied primates. Our findings suggest that rooting tree shrews prefer mouth over paw usage to catch food in a natural foraging situation. Moreover, we demonstrated that despite differences in postural demand, tree shrews show a strong and consistent individual paw preference for grasping across different tasks, but no paw preference at a population level. Tree shrews showed less paw usage than small-bodied quadrupedal and arboreal primates, but the same paw preference. Our results confirm that individual paw preferences remain constant irrespective of postural demand in some small-bodied quadrupedal non primate and primate mammals which do not require fine motoric control for manipulating food items. Our findings suggest that the lack of paw/hand preference for grasping food at a population level is a universal pattern among those species and that the influence of postural demand on manual lateralisation in quadrupeds may have evolved in large-bodied species specialised in fine manipulations of food items.

  7. Pelvic morphology, body posture and standing balance characteristics of adolescent able-bodied and idiopathic scoliosis girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios A Stylianides

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how pelvic morphology, body posture, and standing balance variables of scoliotic girls differ from those of able-bodied girls, and to classify neuro-biomechanical variables in terms of a lower number of unobserved variables. Twenty-eight scoliotic and twenty-five non-scoliotic able-bodied girls participated in this study. 3D coordinates of ten anatomic body landmarks were used to describe pelvic morphology and trunk posture using a Flock of Birds system. Standing balance was measured using a force plate to identify the center of pressure (COP, and its anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML displacements. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was performed to determine differences between the two groups. A factor analysis was used to identify factors that best describe both groups. Statistical differences were identified between the groups for each of the parameter types. While spatial orientation of the pelvis was similar in both groups, five of the eight trunk postural variables of the scoliotic group were significantly different that the able-bodied group. Also, five out of the seven standing balance variables were higher in the scoliotic girls. Approximately 60% of the variation is supported by 4 factors that can be associated with a set of variables; standing balance variables (factor 1, body posture variables (factor 2, and pelvic morphology variables (factors 3 and 4. Pelvic distortion, body posture asymmetry, and standing imbalance are more pronounced in scoliotic girls, when compared to able-bodied girls. These findings may be beneficial when addressing balance and ankle proprioception exercises for the scoliotic population.

  8. Posture does not matter! Paw usage and grasping paw preference in a small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Joly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent results in birds, marsupials, rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that phylogeny and ecological factors such as body size, diet and postural habit of a species influence limb usage and the direction and strength of limb laterality. To examine to which extent these findings can be generalised to small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammals, we studied trees shrews (Tupaia belangeri. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established a behavioural test battery for examining paw usage comparable to small-bodied primates and tested 36 Tupaia belangeri. We studied paw usage in a natural foraging situation (simple food grasping task and measured the influence of varying postural demands (triped, biped, cling, sit on paw preferences by applying a forced-food grasping task similar to other small-bodied primates. Our findings suggest that rooting tree shrews prefer mouth over paw usage to catch food in a natural foraging situation. Moreover, we demonstrated that despite differences in postural demand, tree shrews show a strong and consistent individual paw preference for grasping across different tasks, but no paw preference at a population level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tree shrews showed less paw usage than small-bodied quadrupedal and arboreal primates, but the same paw preference. Our results confirm that individual paw preferences remain constant irrespective of postural demand in some small-bodied quadrupedal non primate and primate mammals which do not require fine motoric control for manipulating food items. Our findings suggest that the lack of paw/hand preference for grasping food at a population level is a universal pattern among those species and that the influence of postural demand on manual lateralisation in quadrupeds may have evolved in large-bodied species specialised in fine manipulations of food items.

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Waterside Security Alternatives for Force Protection of Navy Ships and Installations Using X3D Graphics and Agent-Based Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    The individuals charged with the task of planning, developing and implementing force protection measures both at the unit and installation level must consider numerous factors in formulating the best defensive posture...

  10. Mechanisms of postural control in alcoholic men and women: biomechanical analysis of musculoskeletal coordination during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Edith V; Rose, Jessica; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2010-03-01

    Excessive sway during quiet standing is a common sequela of chronic alcoholism even with prolonged sobriety. Whether alcoholic men and women who have remained abstinent from alcohol for weeks to months differ from each other in the degree of residual postural instability and biomechanical control mechanisms has not been directly tested. We used a force platform to characterize center-of-pressure biomechanical features of postural sway, with and without stabilizing conditions from touch, vision, and stance, in 34 alcoholic men, 15 alcoholic women, 22 control men, and 29 control women. Groups were matched in age (49.4 years), general intelligence, socioeconomic status, and handedness. Each alcoholic group was sober for an average of 75 days. Analysis of postural sway when using all 3 stabilizing conditions versus none revealed diagnosis and sex differences in ability to balance. Alcoholics had significantly longer sway paths, especially in the anterior-posterior direction, than controls when maintaining erect posture without balance aids. With stabilizing conditions the sway paths of all groups shortened significantly, especially those of alcoholic men, who demonstrated a 3.1-fold improvement in sway path difference between the easiest and most challenging conditions; the remaining 3 groups, each showed a approximately 2.4-fold improvement. Application of a mechanical model to partition sway paths into open-loop and closed-loop postural control systems revealed that the sway paths of the alcoholic men but not alcoholic women were characterized by greater short-term (open-loop) diffusion coefficients without aids, often associated with muscle stiffening response. With stabilizing factors, all 4 groups showed similar long-term (closed loop) postural control. Correlations between cognitive abilities and closed-loop sway indices were more robust in alcoholic men than alcoholic women. Reduction in sway and closed-loop activity during quiet standing with stabilizing

  11. Effects of hippotherapy on posture in individuals with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Espindula

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS have alterations that affect the musculoskeletal system, causing abnormal patterns, and alter the morphological anatomical and mechanical axes that provide intrinsic stability to the skeleton, and can trigger misalignments and orthopedic disorders in adulthood. Objective: The objective of student to evaluate posture and postural alignment before and after the hippotherapyin individuals with DS. Methods: Posture of five individuals with DS was evaluated by the software SAPO before and after 27 sessions the hippotherapy. Data were subjected to qualitative descriptive analysis using cluster and statistical analysis with the aid of the software Sigma Stat 2.0, considering differences as statistically significant at p-value < 5%. Results: Improvements were achieved for the alignment of shoulder, head, hip, and lower limbs, in addition to decrease in kyphosis and head protrusion. Conclusion: Patients with DS demonstrated satisfactory changes in motor behavior reflected in improved static posture after treatment with hippotherapy.

  12. Design of strategies to assess lumbar posture during work.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdorf, A.; Riel, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of postural load on the back should describe exposure patterns among workers and factors affecting these exposure patterns. This article presents general guidelines for designing appropriate measurement strategies; how to obtain detailed data with an applicable

  13. Analysis of Postural Control Adaptation During Galvanic and Vibratory Stimulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fransson, P

    2001-01-01

    The objective for this study was to investigate whether the postural control adaptation during galvanic stimulation of the vestibular nerve were similar to that found during vibration stimulation to the calf muscles...

  14. Assessment of striatal & postural deformities in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that striatal and postural deformities were common and present in about half of the patients with PD. These deformities we more common in patients with advanced stage of PD.

  15. Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mona Mokhtar El Bardawil

    2013-04-18

    Apr 18, 2013 ... Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 .... with a high power 90 mm circular coil, capable of generating. 2 T maximum field ..... advanced glycation end products, oxidative damage and microvascular ...

  16. Postural hypotension in type 1 diabetes: The influence of glycemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-04

    saharan ... Key words: Diabetes mellitus, duration, glycemic control, postural hypotension. Date of ... or older) provided informed consent before enrolment in the study. .... asymptomatic despite significant falls in blood pressure.[26].

  17. The US Strategic Posture Review: Issues for the New Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunn, M

    2001-01-01

    .... The forthcoming Strategic Posture Review (SPR) needs to fundamentally reassess the purposes of nuclear weapons, missile defenses, and the requirements of deterrence and stability in the new security environment...

  18. Differences in body composition and occurrence of postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences in body composition and occurrence of postural deviations in boys from two ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... procedures of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK).

  19. Posture and isokinetic shoulder strength in female water polo players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    pathological injuries, such as rotator cuff tendinitis, shoulder instability and shoulder ... and specific postural characteristics, which will be useful in future studies. ... concentric and eccentric IR and ER shoulder muscle strength in 15 club-level ...

  20. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Beek, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of

  1. Optimising experimental research in respiratory diseases: an ERS statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonniaud, Philippe; Fabre, Aurélie; Frossard, Nelly; Guignabert, Christophe; Inman, Mark; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Maes, Tania; Shi, Wei; Stampfli, Martin; Uhlig, Stefan; White, Eric; Witzenrath, Martin; Bellaye, Pierre-Simon; Crestani, Bruno; Eickelberg, Oliver; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Guenther, Andreas; Jenkins, Gisli; Joos, Guy; Magnan, Antoine; Maitre, Bernard; Maus, Ulrich A; Reinhold, Petra; Vernooy, Juanita H J; Richeldi, Luca; Kolb, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Experimental models are critical for the understanding of lung health and disease and are indispensable for drug development. However, the pathogenetic and clinical relevance of the models is often unclear. Further, the use of animals in biomedical research is controversial from an ethical perspective.The objective of this task force was to issue a statement with research recommendations about lung disease models by facilitating in-depth discussions between respiratory scientists, and to provide an overview of the literature on the available models. Focus was put on their specific benefits and limitations. This will result in more efficient use of resources and greater reduction in the numbers of animals employed, thereby enhancing the ethical standards and translational capacity of experimental research.The task force statement addresses general issues of experimental research (ethics, species, sex, age, ex vivo and in vitro models, gene editing). The statement also includes research recommendations on modelling asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung infections, acute lung injury and pulmonary hypertension.The task force stressed the importance of using multiple models to strengthen validity of results, the need to increase the availability of human tissues and the importance of standard operating procedures and data quality. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  2. Effect of posture on the aerodynamic characteristics during take-off in ski jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keizo; Tsubokura, Makoto; Ikeda, Jun; Onishi, Keiji; Baleriola, Sophie

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posture of a ski jumper on aerodynamic characteristics during the take-off using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD method adopted for this study was based on Large-Eddy Simulation. Body surface data were obtained by 3-D laser scanning of an active ski jumper. Based on video analysis of the actual take-off movement, two sets of motion data were generated (world-class jumper A and less-experienced jumper B). The inlet flow velocity that corresponds to the in-run velocity in actual ski jumping was set to 23.23m/s in the CFD. The aerodynamic force, flow velocity, and vortexes for each model were compared between models. The total drag force acting upon jumper A was lower than that acting upon jumper B through the whole movement. Regarding the total lift force, although jumper A׳s total lift force was less in the in-run posture, it became greater than that of jumper B at the end of the movement. In the latter half of the movement, low air-speed domain expansion was observed at the model׳s back. This domain of jumper B was larger. There were two symmetric vortexes in the wake of jumper A, but the disordered vortexes were observed behind the jumper B. In the case of jumper A, these two distinct vortexes generated by the arms produced a downwash flow in the wake. It is considered that the positioning of the arms in a very low position strongly influences the flow structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto EF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available EF Porto,1,2 AAM Castro,1,3 VGS Schmidt,4 HM Rabelo,4 C Kümpel,2 OA Nascimento,5 JR Jardim5 1Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo, 2Adventist University, São Paulo, 3Federal University of Pampa, Rio Grande do Sul, 4Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Adventist University, 5Respiratory Diseases, Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control.Methods: Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using “balance”, “postural control”, and “COPD” as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers.Results: A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the “balance in COPD or postural control in COPD” keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study

  4. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  5. Practice of Contemporary Dance Promotes Stochastic Postural Control in Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrufino, Lena; Bril, Blandine; Dietrich, Gilles; Nonaka, Tetsushi; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2011-01-01

    As society ages and the frequency of falls increases, counteracting gait and posture decline is a challenging issue for countries of the developed world. Previous studies have shown that exercise and hazard management help to improve balance and/or decrease the risks for falling in normal aging. Motor activity based on motor-skill learning, particularly dance, can also benefit balance and decreases falls with age. Recent studies have suggested that older dancers have better balance, posture, ...

  6. Development of anticipatory postural adjustments during locomotion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, H; Forssberg, H

    1992-08-01

    1. Anticipatory postural adjustments were studied in children (6-14 yr of age) walking on a treadmill while pulling a handle. Electromyographs (EMGs) and movements were recorded from the left arm and leg. 2. Postural activity in the leg muscles preceded voluntary arm muscle activity in all age groups, including the youngest children (6 yr of age). The latency to both leg and arm muscle activity, from a triggering audio signal, decreased with age. 3. In older children the latency to both voluntary and postural activity was influenced by the phase of the step cycle. The shortest latency to the first activated postural muscle occurred during single support phase in combination with a long latency to arm muscle activity. 4. In the youngest children, there was no phase-dependent modulation of the latency to the activation of the postural muscles. The voluntary activity was delayed during the beginning of the support phase resulting in a long delay between leg and arm muscle activity. 5. The postural muscle activation pattern was modified in a phase-dependent manner in all children. Lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and hamstring muscles (HAM) were activated during the early support phase, whereas tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (Q) muscles were activated during the late support phase and during the swing phase. However, in the 6-yr-old children, LG was also activated in the swing phase. LG was activated before the HAM activity in the youngest children but after HAM in 14-yr-old children and adults. 6. The occurrence of LG activity in postural responses before heel strike suggests an immature (nonplantigrade) gating of postural activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Advantages and disadvantages of stiffness instructions when studying postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T

    2016-05-01

    To understand the maintenance of upright stance, researchers try to discover the fundamental mechanisms and attentional resources devoted to postural control and eventually to the performance of other tasks (e.g., counting in the head). During their studies, some researchers require participants to stand as steady as possible and other simply ask participants to stand naturally. Surprisingly, a clear and direct explanation of the usefulness of the steadiness requirement seems to be lacking, both in experimental and methodological discussions. Hence, the objective of the present note was to provide advantages and disadvantages of this steadiness requirement in studies of postural control. The advantages may be to study fundamental postural control, to eliminate useless postural variability, to control spurious body motions and to control the participants' thoughts. As disadvantages, this steadiness requirement only leads to study postural control in unnatural upright stance, it changes the focus of attention (internal vs. external) and the nature of postural control (unconscious vs. conscious), it increases the difficulty of a supposedly easy control task and it eliminates or reduces the opportunity to record exploratory behaviors. When looking carefully at the four advantages of the steadiness requirement, one can believe that they are, in fact, more disadvantageous than advantageous. Overall therefore, this requirement seems illegitimate and it is proposed that researchers should not use it in the study of postural control. They may use this requirement only if they search to know the limit until which participants can consciously reduce their postural sway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Postural stability in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    6 Abstract Title: Postural stability in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Objectives: The aim of this thesis was to find out if the postural stability is differed in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury and in the control group after the "4 steps - one leg stance" test had been performed. Methods: This study compared a group with anterior cruciate ligament injury and a control group on the basis of the "4 steps - one leg stance" test. Methods of comparison and analys...

  9. Increased dynamic regulation of postural tone through Alexander Technique training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, T W; Gurfinkel, V S; Horak, F B; Cordo, P J; Ames, K E

    2011-02-01

    Gurfinkel and colleagues (2006) recently found that healthy adults dynamically modulate postural muscle tone in the body axis during anti-gravity postural maintenance and that this modulation is inversely correlated with axial stiffness. Our objective in the present study was to investigate whether dynamic modulation of axial postural tone can change through training. We examined whether teachers of the Alexander Technique (AT), who undergo "long-term" (3-year) training, have greater modulation of axial postural tone than matched control subjects. In addition, we performed a longitudinal study on the effect of "short-term" (10-week) AT training on the axial postural tone of individuals with low back pain (LBP), since short term AT training has previously been shown to reduce LBP. Axial postural tone was quantified by measuring the resistance of the neck, trunk and hips to small (±10°), slow (1°/s) torsional rotation during stance. Modulation of tone was determined by the torsional resistance to rotation (peak-to-peak, phase-advance, and variability of torque) and axial muscle activity (EMG). Peak-to-peak torque was lower (∼50%), while phase-advance and cycle-to-cycle variability were enhanced for AT teachers compared to matched control subjects at all levels of the axis. In addition, LBP subjects decreased trunk and hip stiffness following short-term AT training compared to a control intervention. While changes in static levels of postural tone may have contributed to the reduced stiffness observed with the AT, our results suggest that dynamic modulation of postural tone can be enhanced through long-term training in the AT, which may constitute an important direction for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between temporomandibular disorders and abnormal head postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Francisco FAULIN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possible correlation between the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and different head postures in the frontal and sagittal planes using photographs of undergraduate students in the School of Dentistry at the Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brazil. In this nonrandomized, cross-sectional study, the diagnoses of TMD were made with the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD axis I. The craniovertebral angle was used to evaluate forward head posture in the sagittal plane, and the interpupillary line was used to measure head tilt in the frontal plane. The measurements to evaluate head posture were made using the Software for the Assessment of Posture (SAPO. Students were divided into two study groups, based on the presence or absence of TMD. The study group comprised 46 students and the control group comprised 80 students. Data about head posture and TMD were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 13. Most cases of TMD were classified as degenerative processes (group III, followed by disk displacement (group II and muscle disorders (group I. There was no sex predominance for the type of disorder. No association was found between prevalence rates for head postures in the frontal plane and the occurrence of TMD. The same result was found for the association of TMD diagnosis with craniovertebral angle among men and women, and the group that contained both men and women. Abnormal head postures were common among individuals both with and without TMD. No association was found between head posture evaluated in the frontal and sagittal planes and TMD diagnosis with the use of RDC/TMD.

  11. Postural Balance in Women with Osteoporosis and Effective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Ünlüsoy; Ece Aydoğ; İhsan Ünlüsoy

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The most common cause of mortality and morbidity among osteoporotic individuals is bone fracture which in many cases is a direct result of falls. Individual factors contributing to the risk of fall are poor postural balance and lack of muscle strength. Our aims were to assess postural dynamic balance in osteoporotic women and to describe the effective factors on the balance performance. Methods: Twenty osteoporotic women with kyphosis, 50 osteoporotic women without kyph...

  12. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. The effect of exercise on the cardio-postural relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Bruner, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Syncope is common in individuals who experience orthostatic hypotension which is often associated with cardiovascular conditions, brain injuries, and ageing. A bi-directional link between the cardiovascular and postural control systems was recently identified, and may provide insight into syncope and orthostatic hypotension. This thesis examined the inter-dependent relationship between cardiovascular and postural controls before and after light exercise to induce mild orthostatic stress. It w...

  14. Barnacle Geese Achieve Significant Energetic Savings by Changing Posture

    OpenAIRE

    Tickle, Peter G.; Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy con...

  15. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control

    OpenAIRE

    Stins, John F; Beek, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP) trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis t...

  16. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration improves postural control in health care professionals: a worksite randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Schade, Volker; Stoecklin, Lukas; Baur, Simone; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2014-05-01

    Slip, trip, and fall injuries are frequent among health care workers. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training was tested to improve postural control. Participants included 124 employees of a Swiss university hospital. The randomized controlled trial included an experimental group given 8 weeks of training and a control group with no intervention. In both groups, postural control was assessed as mediolateral sway on a force plate before and after the 8-week trial. Mediolateral sway was significantly decreased by stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training in the experimental group but not in the control group that received no training (p < .05). Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training is an option in the primary prevention of balance-related injury at work. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. FATIGUE AND FAULTY POSTURE CONNECTION AMONG CHILDREN, DIAGNOSED WITH DYSARTHRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejeva Julija

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To analyze spastic dysarthria form in children population dependency of fatigue and faulty posture relationship. Methods: Research performed with the permission of the bioethics committee (RE-BK-063. The Dutch Fatigue Scale (DUFS. Posture in standing was assessed by Hoeger and Kendall. Research subjects n=40. n=20 children diagnosed with spastic dysarthria and n=20 of children without dysarthria. Their age was 10±2.1years. Boys were n=20 and girls - n=20.Results were statistically significant at p<0.05. Microsoft Office 2013, Excel package were used to count a research results. Results: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is more significant that for children without dysarthria; results were statistically significant, p<0.05. Posture disorder for children with dysarthria was statistically significant higher than among children without dysarthria, p<0.05. Conclusions: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is higher than for healthy children, thus for the girls fatigue level is higher than for the boys. Spastic form dysarthria has an impact to a child posture, by creating a direct dependency between posture deformation and skeletal muscle system disease, which decreases muscle power and increasing fatigue for a child. To correct faulty posture thus to decrease fatigue the tight collaboration needed between rehabilitation team members.

  18. Fatigue and faulty posture connection among children, diagnosed with dysarthria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Andrejeva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To analyze spastic dysarthria form in children population dependency of fatigue and faulty posture relationship. Methods: Research performed with the permission of the bioethics committee (RE-BK-063. The Dutch Fatigue Scale (DUFS. Posture in standing was assessed by Hoeger and Kendall. Research subjects n=40. n=20 children diagnosed with spastic dysarthria and n=20 of children without dysarthria. Their age was 10±2.1years. Boys were n=20 and girls - n=20.Results were statistically significant at p<0.05. Microsoft Office 2013, Excel package were used to count a research results. Results: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is more significant that for children without dysarthria; results were statistically significant, p<0.05. Posture disorder for children with dysarthria was statistically significant higher than among children without dysarthria, p<0.05. Conclusions: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is higher than for healthy children, thus for the girls fatigue level is higher than for the boys. Spastic form dysarthria has an impact to a child posture, by creating a direct dependency between posture deformation and skeletal muscle system disease, which decreases muscle power and increasing fatigue for a child. To correct faulty posture thus to decrease fatigue the tight collaboration needed between rehabilitation team members.

  19. Is there a relationship between head posture and craniomandibular pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C M; De Boer, W; Lobbezoo, F; Habets, L L M H; Naeije, M

    2002-11-01

    An often-suggested factor in the aetiology of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) is an anteroposition of the head. However, the results of clinical studies to the relationship between CMD and head posture are contradictory. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to determine differences in head posture between well-defined CMD pain patients with or without a painful cervical spine disorder and healthy controls. The second aim was to determine differences in head posture between myogenous and arthrogenous CMD pain patients and controls. Two hundred and fifty persons entered the study. From each person, a standardized oral history was taken and blind physical examinations of the masticatory system and of the neck were performed. The participants were only included into one of the subgroups when the presence or absence of their symptoms was confirmed by the results of the physical examination. Head posture was quantified using lateral photographs and a lateral radiograph of the head and the cervical spine. After correction for age and gender effects, no difference in head posture was found between any of the patient and non-patient groups (P > 0.27). Therefore, this study does not support the suggestion that painful craniomandibular disorders, with or without a painful cervical spine disorder, are related to head posture.

  20. The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cuccia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing, oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system's proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus. If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss.