WorldWideScience

Sample records for force base california

  1. Final Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    rooted , mesophylic plant species that Chapter 3. Affected Environment Final Environmental Assessment - California Space Center, Vandenberg Air...Chapter 3. Affected Environment 3-12 Final Environmental Assessment - California Space Center, Vandenberg Air Force Base the root and debris zone of the...protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e. insects

  2. Environmental Assessment for the Air Force Research Laboratory Security Fence Project, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    Pleistocene/Early-Holocene Prehistory (12,000 to 7,000 BP). The Lake Mojave Period in the southwestern Great Basin comprises a regional manifestation...adaptive patterns with focal exploitation of such habitats (Tetra Tech 2010). Middle-Holocene Prehistory (8,000 to 4,000 BP). Succeeding Lake Mojave in the...Security Fence at Edwards Air Force Base, California Late Holocene Prehistory (4,000 to Contact). With return to more “favorable” environmental

  3. History of wildland fires on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Diana E.

    1988-01-01

    The fire history of the past 50 years for Vandenberg AFB, California was determined using aerial photography, field investigation, and historical and current written records. This constitutes a record of the vegetation age classes for the entire base. The location, cause, and fuel type for sixty fires from this time period were determined. The fires were mapped and entered into a geographic infomation system (GIS) for Vandenberg. Fire history maps derived from this GIS were printed at 1:9600 scale and are on deposit at the Vandenberg Environmental Task Force Office. Although some ecologically significant plant communities on Vandenberg are adapted to fire, no natural fire frequency could be determined, since only one fire possibly caused by lightning occurred in the area now within the base since 1937. Observations made during this study suggest that burning may encourage the invasion of exotic species into chaparral, in particular Burton Mesa or sandhill chaparral, an unusual and geographically limited form of chaparral found on the base.

  4. Vegetation studies on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hickson, Diana E.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1988-01-01

    Vandenburg Air Force Base, located in coastal central California with an area of 98,400 ac, contains resources of considerable biological significance. Available information on the vegetation and flora of Vandenburg is summarized and new data collected in this project are presented. A bibliography of 621 references dealing with vegetation and related topics related to Vanderburg was compiled from computer and manual literature searches and a review of past studies of the base. A preliminary floristic list of 642 taxa representing 311 genera and 80 families was compiled from past studies and plants identified in the vegetation sampling conducted in this project. Fifty-two special interest plant species are known to occur or were suggested to occur. Vegetation was sampled using permanent plots and transects in all major plant communities including chaparral, Bishop pine forest, tanbark oak forest, annual grassland, oak woodland, coastal sage scrub, purple sage scrub, coastal dune scrub, coastal dunes, box elder riparian woodland, will riparian woodland, freshwater marsh, salt marsh, and seasonal wetlands. Comparison of the new vegetation data to the compostie San Diego State University data does not indicate major changes in most communities since the original study. Recommendations are made for additional studies needed to maintain and extend the environmental data base and for management actions to improve resource protection.

  5. San Antonio Creek Restoration, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-27

    Vandenberg Air Force Base Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name Sambucus mexicana Blue elderberry Sonchus oleraceus * Common sow... Sonchus oleraceus Common sow-thistle exotic NI Spergularia bocconii Sand-spurry exotic FAC Spergularia marina Sand-spurry native FACW...border the existing roads within the project area. Both weedy non-native species adapted to frequent disturbance, such as sow thistle ( Sonchus

  6. Analysis of vector wind change with respect to time for Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the temporal variability of wind vectors at 1 km altitude intervals from 0 to 27 km altitude taken from a 10-year data sample of twice-daily rawinsode wind measurements over Vandenberg Air Force Base, California is presented.

  7. Environmental Assessment for Landfill Drainage Improvements Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    became increasingly important, corresponding to development of the tomol (a plank canoe), single-piece shell fishhooks, and harpoons (Glassow 1996...Chumash had a culture that "was as elaborate as that of any hunter-gatherer society on earth" (Moratto 1984: 118). Leadership was hereditary and chiefs...Improvements Vandenberg Air Force Base, California I I I I I I I Erlandson, Jon M., and Kevin Bartoy 1995 Cabrillo, the Chumash, and Old

  8. Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    shallow- rooted , mesophylic plant species that Chapter 3. Affected Environment Final Draft Environmental Assessment - California Space Center...buckwheat flowers and buds where the larvae feed until maturation. Upon maturation larvae burrow into the soil and pupate, usually within the root and...terrain, sharp or protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle

  9. Finding of No Significant Impact Construction of a New Water Pipeline, Travis Air Force Base, Solano County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-03

    Soun:e: California State Automobile Association, Bay and Maunt.Ul Secllon 1999 North Gate Road Pipeline Project Travis Air Force Base, California J... HRm ·----~----~-------~~-,~··--------~---- TrlnomlaJ , , , , r. Page_i_of~ *Resource Name or# (Assigned by recorder) -.:N

  10. Supplemental Environmental Assessment Anti-Terrorism/Force Protection Upgrades at Beale Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    anatum) • California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus) • Greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) • Bank swallow ( Riparia ... riparia ) The Swainson’s hawk prefers to nest in riparian areas with isolated trees bordered by open foraging habitat (grasslands, agricultural lands...Fault Zones . The projects will not be located on soils that are unstable or expansive, and will not cause seismic activities or landslides. The

  11. Environmental Assessment: Military Family Housing Revitalization Travis Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    area that, with the San Joaquin Valley to the south, forms the Great Central Valley of California. The Coast Ranges bound the valley to the west. In...Endangered Species Common Name Scientific Name Federal Status State Status Plants Colusa grass Neostapfia colusana T E Contra Costa goldfields...federally listed species, Contra Costa goldfields, vernal pool fairy shrimp, California tiger salamander, and alkali milk-vetch (Astragalus tener var. tener

  12. Proposed Closure of Los Angeles Air Force Base, California and Relocation of Space Systems Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    rendered temporarily out of service in accordance with state and federal regulations. Aboveground ground tanks associated with Building 130 would...Lowell, and Charles R. Smith 1978 Gabrielino. In Handbook of North American Indians-California, edited by Robert F.3 Heizer . Smithsonian Institution...8, California, edited3 by R.F. Heizer , p. 575-587. Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC. Bean, L.J. and F. Shipek 1978 Luiseno. In The Handbook of

  13. Ground-water data, 1969-77, Vandenberg Air Force Base area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    The water supply for Vandenberg Air Force Base is obtained from wells in the Lompoc Plain, San Antonio Valley, and Lompoc Terrace groundwater basins. Metered pumpage during the period 1969-77 from the Lompoc Plain decreased from a high of 3,670 acre-feet in 1969 to a low of 2,441 acre-feet in 1977, while pumpage from the San Antonio Valley increased from a low of 1 ,020 acre-feet in 1969 to a high of 1,829 acre-feet in 1977. Pumpage from the Lompoc Terrace has remained relatively constant and was 187 acre-feet in 1977. In the Barka Slough area of the San Antonio Valley, water levels in four shallow wells declined during 1976 and 1977. Water levels in observation wells in the two aquifers of the Lompoc Terrace ground-water basin fluctuated during the period, but show no long term trends. Chemical analyses or field determinations of temperature and specific conductance were made of 219 water samples collected from 53 wells. In the Lompoc Plain the dissolved-solids concentration in all water samples was more than 625 milligrams per liter, and in most was more than 1,000 milligrams per liter. The manganese concentration in analyzed samples equaled or exceeded the recommended limit of 50 micrograms per liter for public water supplies. Dissolved-solids concentrations increased with time in water samples from two wells east of the Air Force Base in San Antonio Valley. In the base well-field area, concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 290 to 566 milligrams per liter. Eight analyses show manganese at or above the recommended limit of 50 milligrams per liter. In the Lompoc Terrace area dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 470 to 824 milligrams per liter. Five new supply wells, nine observation wells, and two exploratory/observation wells were drilled on the base during the period 1972-77. (USGS)

  14. Environmental Assessment: Western Snowy Plover Habitat Restoration, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    during low tide periods, and then allow it to wash out into the ocean with the ensuing high tide. Salt water may render seeds and vegetation...Archaeological Society Occasional Paper No. 7. Greenwood, R.S. 1978. Obispeño and Purisimeño Chumash. In California, edited by Robert F. Heizer , pp. 520–523

  15. Final Environmental Assessment: Western Range Command Transmit Site Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-20

    between the U.S. and Canada, Japan, Mexico and the former Soviet Union for the protection of migratory birds. Under the Act, taking, killing or...Song sparrow I Northern mockingbird I Brown-headed cowbird I Fox sparrow !Lazuli bunting !California towhee !Spotted towhee IBushtit !Black

  16. Soil erosion and causative factors at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Joel B.

    1988-01-01

    Areas of significant soil erosion and unvegetated road cuts were identified and mapped for Vandenberg Air Force Base. One hundred forty-two eroded areas (most greater than 1.2 ha) and 51 road cuts were identified from recent color infrared aerial photography and ground truthed to determine the severity and causes of erosion. Comparison of the present eroded condition of soils (as shown in the 1986 photography) with that in historical aerial photography indicates that most erosion on the base took place prior to 1928. However, at several sites accelerated rates of erosion and sedimentation may be occurring as soils and parent materials are eroded vertically. The most conspicuous erosion is in the northern part of the base, where severe gully, sheet, and mass movement erosion have occurred in soils and in various sedimentary rocks. Past cultivation practices, compounded by highly erodible soils prone to subsurface piping, are probably the main causes. Improper range management practices following cultivation may have also increased runoff and erosion. Aerial photography from 1986 shows that no appreciable headward erosion or gully sidewall collapse have occurred in this area since 1928.

  17. Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Castle Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    rendering infectious waste noninfectious and disposable as nonhazardous waste 3-74 Castle AFB Disposal and Reuse FEIS * Discharge to the sewage system if...American Indians Volume 8: California, Robert F. Heizer , ed., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Wedel, W.R., 1941. Arrha 3ological Investigations at...Undeswrable substances rendering something unfit for use Continental Control Area The arspace of the 48 contiguous states, the District of Columb.ia and

  18. Environmental Assessment: 13th Street Bridge Emergency Repair and Retrofit Vandenberg Air Force Base California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-23

    project site. • Biological hazards, including vegetation (i.e., poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e., insects , spiders, and snakes), and 4-18...channel, and in dryer areas of the site. Herbaceous species in the understory include stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), California blackberry (Rubus...Nightshade FAC/FACU Poison oak Nightshade FAC/FACU Stinging nettle FACW Cockle-bur FAC+ COMMENTS Likely C. Canadensis Most E/eocharis spp

  19. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Avian Interactions at Four Proposed Wind Energy Facilities on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-08-01

    The United States Air Force (USAF) is investigating whether to install wind turbines to provide a supplemental source of electricity at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) near Lompoc, California. As part of that investigation, VAFB sought assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide a preliminary characterization of the potential risk to wildlife resources (mainly birds and bats) from wind turbine installations. With wind power development expanding throughout North America and Europe, concerns have surfaced over the number of bird fatalities associated with wind turbines. Guidelines developed for the wind industry by the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC) recommend assessing potential impacts to birds, bats, and other potentially sensitive resources before construction. The primary purpose of an assessment is to identify potential conflicts with sensitive resources, to assist developers with identifying their permitting needs, and to develop strategies to avoid impacts or to mitigate their effects. This report provides a preliminary (Phase I) biological assessment of potential impacts to birds and bats that might result from construction and operation of the proposed wind energy facilities on VAFB.

  20. Species biology and potential for controlling four exotic plants (Ammophila arenaria, Carpobrotus edulis, Cortaderia jubata and Gasoul crystallinum) on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Invasive exotic plants can displace native flora and modify community and ecosystem structure and function. Ammophila arenaria, Corpobrotus edulis, Cortaderia jubata, and Gasoul crystallinum are invasive plants present on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, designated for study by the Environmental Task Force because of the perceived threat they represent to the native flora. Each plant's native habitat, how they came to be at Vandenberg, their propagation, and how they can be controlled is discussed.

  1. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Law, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels-black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)-generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  2. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Construction of a Base Civil Engineer Complex at Travis Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-26

    2 Ellis Drive Dix o n A v e Rags dale Stree t Bioremedial Site Base Civil Engineering ComplexEnvironmental AssessmentTravis Air Force Base...CNPS List 1B species. This species is an annual herb in the sunflower tribe (Heliantheae) of the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Individual plants...range from approximately 10 to 40 centimeters (cm) tall. Being in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), the characteristic yellow flower of this plant

  3. Supplemental Environmental Assessment:VTRS Fiber Optic Cable Installation on South Base Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-08

    increasingly important, corresponding to development of the tomol (a plank canoe), single-piece shell fishhooks, and harpoons (Glassow 1996; King 1990). The...Moratto 1984:118). Leadership was hereditary and chiefs exercised control over more than one village, reflecting a simple chiefdom social organization...Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles. Erlandson, Jon M., and Kevin Bartoy 1995 Cabrillo, the Chumash, and Old World Diseases. Journal

  4. Data recovery program to mitigate the effects of the construction of space transportation system facilities on seven archaeological sites on Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassow, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    A plan is proposed for the recovery of data from three prehistoric habitation sites, 4-SBa-539, 670, and 931, which will be adversely affected by the Space Transportation System Project, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Phase II testing suggests that SBa-539 and 670, fall within the Late Period, AD 1000 to European contact, with a possible Middle-Period component at 670, while SBa-931, radiocarbon-dated to BC 6000, represents the Early Period, or Millingstone Horizon, of Southern California prehistory. Excavation will utilize conventional fine scale techniques and specialized sample collection. Data analysis will provide information on prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns, inter-regional trade, and functions of distinctive artifact types. Cultural change will be identified and comparisons made between cultural developments of Vandenberg and neighboring regions

  5. Environmental Assessment to Construct a Perimeter Fence at Georgetown Military Family Housing Travis Air Force Base, Fairfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    Herpetology 28(2): 159-164. California Department ofFish and Game. 2011. RAREFIND. Natural Heritage Division, Sacramento, California. Feaver, P. E...California tiger salamander. Journal of Herpetology 30(2): 282-285. Morey, S. R. 1998. Pool duration influences age and body mass at metamorphosis in the...V.J. 1998. Natural History Notes: Ambystoma ca/iforniense (Central California tiger salamander). Survey technique. Herpetological Review 29:96

  6. Aircraft accident report: NASA 712, Convair 990, N712NA, March Air Force Base, California, July 17, 1985, facts and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batthauer, Byron E.; Mccarthy, G. T.; Hannah, Michael; Hogan, Robert J.; Marlow, Frank J.; Reynard, William D.; Stoklosa, Janis H.; Yager, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    On July 17, l985, at 1810 P.d.t., NASA 712, a Convair 990 aircraft, was destroyed by fire at March Air Force Base, California. The fire started during the rollout after the pilot rejected the takeoff on runway 32. The rejected takeoff was initiated during the takeoff roll because of blown tires on the right landing gear. During the rollout, fragments of either the blown tires or the wheel/brake assemblies penetrated a right-wing fuel tank forward of the right main landing gear. Leaking fuel ignited while the aircraft was rolling, and fire engulfed the right wing and the fuselage after the aircraft was stopped on the runway. The 4-man flightcrew and the 15 scientists and technicians seated in the cabin evacuated the aircraft without serious injury. The fire was not extinguished by crash/rescue efforts and the aircraft was destroyed.

  7. Finding of No Significant Impact: Environmental Assessment for Military Family Housing Privatization Initiative, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Turdus migratorius American robin Selasphorus sasin Allen’s hummingbird Mimus polyglottos Northern mockingbird Columba livia Rock pigeon Toxostoma...when the soil is wet is likely to kill tarplant seeds as weU as young seedlings. Overall, the Air Force has adversely affected approximately 0.50

  8. Operation of the PAVE PAWS Radar System at Beale Air Force Base, California. Part 2. Public Comment & AF Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Kentwood Moblie Homes 2635 Esplanade Chico, CA. 95926 Boeger Br~thers Helena Chemical Co. P.O. Box 367 1630 E. Shaw Ave.-STE. 130 Grioley, CA. 95948...DEIS action for pacemaker owners is not sufficient. The 07 AF should advertise the existence of the problem in the local newspapers. and replace old...does not believe that there is a problem to be advertised . Neither does the Air Force suggest that any present pacemaker owners be subjected to the

  9. Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the 2011-2015 Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Tetra Tech, Inc.,301 Mentor Drive, Suite A,Santa Barbara,CA,93111 8. PERFORMING ...Vandenberg AFB may not be known, base-wide surveys would be performed to document new populations.  Because rare species populations are dynamic and their...football/baseball/ softball fields, tennis courts, running tracks, picnic areas, and bicycle paths. Additional information regarding the outdoor

  10. Hanscom Air Force Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MIT Lincoln Laboratory occupies 75 acres (20 acres of which are MIT property) on the eastern perimeter of Hanscom Air Force Base, which is at the nexus of Lexington,...

  11. Final Bioventing Pilot Test Work Plan for Base Exchange Service Station Underground Storage Tank Area, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Part I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    This pilot test work plan presents the scope of an in situ enhanced biological degradation, or "bioventing", pilot test for treatment of gasoline- contaminated soils at the Base Exchange Service Station (BXSS...

  12. Archaeological Investigations of the San Antonio Terrace, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, in Connection with MX Facilities Construction. Appendix I. Ethnohistoric Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    is necessary to reveal a sufficient number of words possessing identical roots to render their common parentage obvious [ Heizer 1955:861. Fages did not...placenames. On file, National Archives, Smithsonian Institution. Washington D.C. Heizer , Robert F. (Ed.) 1955 California Indian Linguistic Records: The

  13. Environmental Assessment for Conversion of the Existing Aero Club Runway to Emergency Helipad for David Grant Medical Center Travis Air Force Base, Fairfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    FT Potential Ambystoma californiense California tiger salamander FT Known Branchinecta conservatio Conservancy fairy shrimp FE Potential Elaphrus...elderberry longhorn beetle FT Potential Branchinecta lynchi Vernal pool fairy shrimp FT Known Lepidurus packardi Vernal pool tadpole shrimp FE...Area. During 2008 vernal pool invertebrate monitoring, CTS larvae were discovered in the northeastern part of Travis AFB, in the Castle Terrace

  14. Environmental Assessment for Repairs and Replacement of Overhead Electrical Line, Feeders N1, N3, and N6 Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    along almost the entire coast of California. Shallow- rooted , mesophyllic plant species that are often drought-deciduous and summer-dormant... root and debris zone of the host plant (Mattoni 1992). Pupae remain in diapause until at least the following flight season. The number of adult...Maschner et al. 1991; Snethkamp and Munns 1991; Lebow 2001; Nettles and Hamilton 2008. 1149/H Location/ lithic scatter/ historic ranch N1, N3 Unevaluated

  15. MILITARY BASE CLOSURES: Questions Concerning the Proposed Sale of Housing at Mather Air Force Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    This report responds to your request that we review the proposed negotiated sale of 1,271 surplus family housing units at Mather Air Force Base, California, to the Sacramento Housing and Redevelopment Agency (SHRA...

  16. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk From Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water Beale Air Force Base in California: Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.

    1999-01-01

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability after applying a unified probabilistic approach to the distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such an approach was applied to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA(sub g)) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA(sub c)) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA(sub G) based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA, based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were and lt;10(sup -6) and and lt;10(sup -4), respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were and gt;10(sup -5) and and gt;10(sup -4), respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely occur due any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The unified approach illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Subsidence Interest Group conference, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, November 18-19, 1992; abstracts and summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Keith R.; Galloway, Devin L.; Leake, Stanley A.

    1995-01-01

    with this unprecedented increase in pumpage, substantial amounts of land subsidence were observed in several areas of the United States, most notably in Arizona, California, and Texas. Beginning in 1955, under the direction of Joseph Poland, the Geological Survey began the "Mechanics of Aquifers Project," which focused largely on the processes that resulted in land subsidence due to the withdrawal of ground water. This research team gained international renown as they advanced the scientific understanding of aquifer mechanics and land-subsidence theory. The results of field studies by members of this research group not only verified the validity of the application of Terzaghi's consolidation theory to compressible aquifers, but they also provided definitions, methods of quantification, and confirmation of the interrelation among hydraulic head declines, aquifer-system compaction, and land subsidence. In addition to conducting pioneering research, this group also formed a "center of expertise," providing a focal point within the Geological Survey for the dissemination of technology and scientific understanding in aquifer mechanics. However, when the "Mechanics of Aquifers Project" was phased out in 1984, the focal point for technology transfer no longer existed. Interest among various state and local agencies in land subsidence has persisted, and the Geological Survey has continued to participate in a broad spectrum of cooperative and Federally funded projects in aquifer mechanics and land subsidence. These projects are designed to identify and monitor areas with the potential for land subsidence, to conduct basic research in the processes that control land subsidence and the development of earth fissures, as well as to develop new quantitative tools to predict aquifer-system deformation. In 1989 an ad hoc "Aquifer Mechanics and Subsidence Interest Group" (referred to herein as the "Subsidence Interest Group") was formed

  18. Supplemental Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Vernal Pool Restoration Project in Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan EA, Volume 2 Beale Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    jamaicensis coturniculus)  Greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida)  Bank swallow ( Riparia riparia ) The Swainson’s hawk prefers to nest in...EQD) Safety Zones . These zones are established to minimize risk and exposure to individuals from explosives and explosive storage facilities...There are numerous EQD Safety Zones on the northern and southern parts of the base. The land encompassing Beale AFB was originally part of Camp Beale

  19. US Air Force Base Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations taken by U.S. Air Force personnel at bases in the United States and around the world. Foreign observations concentrated in the Middle East and...

  20. Bases tratadas con cemento, en California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available El uso de bases tratadas con cemento para autopistas se inició en el Estado de California en 1938, empleándose para carreteras con determinadas condiciones de tráfico. Inicialmente, se especificó el uso obligatorio de plantas mezcladoras para asegurar el debido control de las proporciones adecuadas.

  1. Air Force Smart Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-19

    initiates notification to all personnel on the base, the giant voice announces a lock down, everyone’s smart device shows an alarm requesting...location of the detected sound, they easily find a hunter and send his picture back to the IOC, where the hunter’s identity is verified through facial...computer goes into sleep mode, the thermostat goes back to unoccupied mode and his door locks as he walks through. Meanwhile over in the IOC

  2. Environmental Assessment, Finding of No Significant Impact/Finding of No Practicable Alternative for Replacement of Overhead Electrical Line, Feeders K1 and K7, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    Obispeño and Purisimeño Chumash. In California, edited by Robert F. Heizer , pp. 520–523. Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 8, William C...populations have higher probabilities of extinction than larger populations because their low abundance renders them susceptible to inbreeding, loss

  3. Vandenberg Air Force Base Pressure Gradient Wind Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Warning category winds can adversely impact day-to-day space lift operations at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. NASA's Launch Services Program and other programs at VAFB use wind forecasts issued by the 30 Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) to determine if they need to limit activities or protect property such as a launch vehicle. The 30 OSSWF tasked the AMU to develop an automated Excel graphical user interface that includes pressure gradient thresholds between specific observing stations under different synoptic regimes to aid forecasters when issuing wind warnings. This required the AMU to determine if relationships between the variables existed.

  4. Basing the US Air Force Special Operations Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    Headquarters Military Airlift Command (Hq MAC/XONP), Scott AFB, IL, July 8, 1986. 2. Daskin , Mark S. " A Maximum Expected Covering Location Model: Formulation...7942 m~ I SAIR F ORME S ECI L PE DO S CHOOL’ 1 OF EMNIEERINO A E KCRAUS DEC 66 RFIT/OOLOS/MN-6 IUCLRS SIFIE F.’G1F/OI L Ehhmhmmhhhhhhl smomhmhmhhum...Ap a . %Ř ~ ,~, ~~%9~ q%%~ * % . i %%~ . ~* - out; ’-ILE Copy / AFIT/GOR/OS/86D-6 II BASING THE US AIR FORCE SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES THESIS Mark E

  5. Force Protection Basing: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-29

    manpower. The effort in FY17 included Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership , Personnel, and Facilities (DOTMLPF) integration and...base with modular reusable protection available for relocation. Technologies from this STO-D allowed improved planning, troop-to-task management , and...in an operationally feasible timeframe. 1D. Why should Army leadership care about this: During full spectrum operations, to negate a threat’s

  6. A force-based protein biochip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, K.; Mai, T.; Gilbert, I.; Schiffmann, S.; Rankl, J.; Zivin, R.; Tackney, C.; Nicolaus, T.; Spinnler, K.; Oesterhelt, F.; Benoit, M.; Clausen-Schaumann, H.; Gaub, H. E.

    2003-09-01

    A parallel assay for the quantification of single-molecule binding forces was developed based on differential unbinding force measurements where ligand-receptor interactions are compared with the unzipping forces of DNA hybrids. Using the DNA zippers as molecular force sensors, the efficient discrimination between specific and nonspecific interactions was demonstrated for small molecules binding to specific receptors, as well as for protein-protein interactions on protein arrays. Finally, an antibody sandwich assay with different capture antibodies on one chip surface and with the detection antibodies linked to a congruent surface via the DNA zippers was used to capture and quantify a recombinant hepatitis C antigen from solution. In this case, the DNA zippers enable not only discrimination between specific and nonspecific binding, but also allow for the local application of detection antibodies, thereby eliminating false-positive results caused by cross-reactive antibodies and nonspecific binding.

  7. Data Driven, Force Based Interaction for Quadrotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Christopher D.

    Quadrotors are small and agile, and are becoming more capable for their compact size. They are expected perform a wide variety of tasks including inspection, physical interaction, and formation flight. In all of these tasks, the quadrotors can come into close proximity with infrastructure or other quadrotors, and may experience significant external forces and torques. Reacting properly in each case is essential to completing the task safely and effectively. In this thesis, we develop an algorithm, based on the Unscented Kalman Filter, to estimate such forces and torques without making assumptions about the source of the forces and torques. We then show in experiment how the proposed estimation algorithm can be used in conjunction with controls and machine learning to choose the appropriate actions in a wide variety of tasks including detecting downwash, tracking the wind induced by a fan, and detecting proximity to the wall.

  8. Improvements to Air Force Strategic Basing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    24th Air Force need to have locations in Silicon 36 Valley or Northern Virginia to draw on the existing cyber industrial bases. Similarly, an issue...cross valuation . Cross valuation results in a simpler model than if GBM were allowed to run until it achieved a perfect fit. In ten-fold cross... valuation , the dataset is randomly split into ten mutually exclusive subsets. The model is fit on nine-tenths of the data, and that model is used to 62

  9. Installation Development Environmental Assessment Travis Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    species are: Name Status Lasthenia conjungens Federally listed as endangered Contra Costa Goldfields Gratiola heterosepala State-listed as...Contra Costa , Main, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, and Sonoma counties. The portion of the county which includes Travis AFB is designated...kilometers) north to south, its northern half referred to as the Sacramento Valley and its southern half as the San Joaquin Valley. This area is

  10. A test of the California competency-based differentiated role model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Sarah B; Rutledge, Dana N; Sargent, Arlene; Walker, Polly

    2003-01-01

    To address the incongruence between the expectations of nursing service and education in California, the Education Industry Interface Task Force of the California Strategic Planning Committee for Nursing developed descriptions to assist employers and educators in clearly differentiating practice and educational competencies. The completion of the Competency-Based Role Differentiation Model resulted in the need to test the model for its utility in the service setting, in education, and for career planning for nurses. Three alpha demonstration sites were selected based on representative geographical regions of California. The sites were composed of tri-partnerships consisting of a medical center, an associate degree in nursing program, and a baccalaureate nursing program. Observers rated senior students and new graduates in medical-surgical units on their behaviors in teacher and leadership care provider and care coordinator roles. The alpha demonstration study results were as expected. That is, senior students practice predominantly at a novice level in teacher and management/leadership care provider functions and new graduates practice predominately at the competent level. New graduates are more likely to take on novice and competent care coordinator roles. The CBRDM may be useful for practice and education settings to evaluate student and nurse performance, to define role expectations, and to identify the preparation necessary for the roles. It is useful for all of nursing as it continues to define its levels of practice and their relationship to on-the-job performance, curriculum development, and carrier planning.

  11. Assessing the geologic and climatic forcing of biodiversity and evolution surrounding the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolby, Greer; Bennett, Scott E. K.; Lira-Noriega, Andres; Wilder, Benjamin T.; Munguia-Vega, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    For almost a century the Baja California peninsula (Peninsula), Gulf of California (Gulf), and broader Sonoran Desert region (figure 1) have drawn geologists and biologists alike to study its unique physical and evolutionary processes (e.g., Wittich 1920; Darton 1921; Nelson 1921; Johnston 1924; Beal 1948; Durham and Allison 1960). The challenge remains to untangle the long, intricate, and at times enigmatic geological and climatological histories that have shaped the high levels of endemism and biodiversity observed in the region today (Van Devender 1990; Grismer 2000; Riddle et al. 2000).

  12. Environmental Assessment. Proposed Air Force Space Division Housing Project, White Point, Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    render any potential impactsnegligible. 5 E. Diking, Dredging and Shoreline Structures The project would have no effect on these areas of concern; see3...San Juan Capistrano Indians of Southern California [1812-1826]") and Hugo Reid’s letters I printed in the Los Angeles Star in the 1800’s ( Heizer 1968...California5 n.d. A Brief History of Fort MacArthur. Heizer , R. F. (ed.) 1968 The Indians of Los Angeles County: Hugo Reid’s Letters of 1852

  13. Review of Ecologically-Based Pest Management in California Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Houston; Daane, Kent M

    2017-10-11

    Grape growers in California utilize a variety of biological, cultural, and chemical approaches for the management of insect and mite pests in vineyards. This combination of strategies falls within the integrated pest management (IPM) framework, which is considered to be the dominant pest management paradigm in vineyards. While the adoption of IPM has led to notable and significant reductions in the environmental impacts of grape production, some growers are becoming interested in the use of an explicitly non-pesticide approach to pest management that is broadly referred to as ecologically-based pest management (EBPM). Essentially a subset of IPM strategies, EBPM places strong emphasis on practices such as habitat management, natural enemy augmentation and conservation, and animal integration. Here, we summarize the range and known efficacy of EBPM practices utilized in California vineyards, followed by a discussion of research needs and future policy directions. EBPM should in no way be seen in opposition, or as an alternative to the IPM framework. Rather, the further development of more reliable EBPM practices could contribute to the robustness of IPM strategies available to grape growers.

  14. Atomic Force Microscopy Based Cell Shape Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adia-Nimuwa, Usienemfon; Mujdat Tiryaki, Volkan; Hartz, Steven; Xie, Kan; Ayres, Virginia

    2013-03-01

    Stellation is a measure of cell physiology and pathology for several cell groups including neural, liver and pancreatic cells. In the present work, we compare the results of a conventional two-dimensional shape index study of both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescent microscopy images with the results obtained using a new three-dimensional AFM-based shape index similar to sphericity index. The stellation of astrocytes is investigated on nanofibrillar scaffolds composed of electrospun polyamide nanofibers that has demonstrated promise for central nervous system (CNS) repair. Recent work by our group has given us the ability to clearly segment the cells from nanofibrillar scaffolds in AFM images. The clear-featured AFM images indicated that the astrocyte processes were longer than previously identified at 24h. It was furthermore shown that cell spreading could vary significantly as a function of environmental parameters, and that AFM images could record these variations. The new three-dimensional AFM-based shape index incorporates the new information: longer stellate processes and cell spreading. The support of NSF PHY-095776 is acknowledged.

  15. Web-Based Tools for Modelling and Analysis of Multivariate Data: California Ozone Pollution Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo D.; Christou, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a hands-on web-based activity motivated by the relation between human health and ozone pollution in California. This case study is based on multivariate data collected monthly at 20 locations in California between 1980 and 2006. Several strategies and tools for data interrogation and exploratory data analysis, model fitting…

  16. Command Relationships of Active and National Guard Forces During Domestic Disaster Response in California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabe, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    ... and responding to different authorities. How authorities establish command relationships and form new organizations between these forces contributes to unity of effort during Defense Support to Civil Authorities operations...

  17. Jobs and the resource curse in the sun: The effects of oil production on female labor force participation in California counties from 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Gabriel

    This study aims to evaluate the relationship between oil income and the female labor force participation rate in California for the years of 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 using panel linear regression models. This study also aims to visualize the spatial patterns of both variables in California through Hot Spot analysis at the county level for the same years. The regression found no sign of a relationship between oil income and female labor force participation rate but did find evidence of a positive relationship between two income control variables and the female labor force participation rate. The hot spot analysis also found that female labor force participation cold spots are not spatially correlated with oil production hot spots. These findings contribute new methodologies at a finer scale to the very nuanced discussion of the resource curse in the United States.

  18. Home page of Arnold Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logo Military Medicine Appreciation Toolkit The amount of women's health care resour... Facebook Logo School stadium. (U.S. Air Force photos/Jacqueline Cowan) Franklin Co High School participants march in

  19. Holocene Planktonic Foraminiferal Assemblage Shifts on the California Margin; Environmental Forcing of Medieval Chumash Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisler, J. A.; Hendy, I.

    2005-12-01

    The contribution of D. Kennett and J.P. Kennett to recent literature on native Chumash cultural evolution has linked societal changes between 500 and 1300 A.D. with a rapidly-changing environment. As large-amplitude fluctuations in surface water and climate conditions at the California Margin would have had severe implications for local flora and fauna, high resolution paleooceanographic records from ODP Site 893 should record these environmental changes. The planktonic foraminifera of Santa Barbara Basin are known to be sensitive to climate change over glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial time scales. Here we present a Holocene record of planktonic foraminiferal assemblage change that demonstrates this sensitivity continued through what is generally considered to be a warm stable climatic interval. Absolute numbers of planktonic foraminifera specimens decreased through the Holocene, from a peak of over 30,000 specimens/cm3 at 9 kyr BP to several thousand in the last millennia. Eurythermal, high nutrient species G. bulloides and G. quinqueloba show opposite abundance trends throughout deglaciation, with significant decreases in G. bulloides abundance during the Late Holocene while G. quinqueloba increases in abundance. Significant assemblage shifts occurring at 2 kyr BP are particularly pronounced in N. pachyderma dextral/sinistral ratios. Large fluctuations in the dextral/sinistral ratio occur during this interval, varying between 50 and 95%. The most recent decrease in the ratio occurs 800 yrs BP before returning to modern values at 500 yr BP. Assemblage data suggest more dramatic environmental change than indicated by planktonic oxygen isotope records. While N. pachyderma dextral/sinistral ratios generally follow oxygen isotopes throughout the Holocene, the records decouple at 2 kyr BP when the first substantial decrease in the ratio occurs. Salinity may, in part, explain this observation. ODP Site 893 is located at the confluence of the cool

  20. Exploring car manufacturers' responses to technology-forcing regulation : The case of California's ZEV mandate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, Joeri; Farla, J. C M; Hekkert, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of firms to influence environmental regulation has largely been overlooked in transition studies. We study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation. We apply a conceptual framework on

  1. Athermalization in atomic force microscope based force spectroscopy using matched microstructure coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, H; Finkler, O; Degertekin, F L

    2009-07-01

    The authors describe a method for athermalization in atomic force microscope (AFM) based force spectroscopy applications using microstructures that thermomechanically match the AFM probes. The method uses a setup where the AFM probe is coupled with the matched structure and the displacements of both structures are read out simultaneously. The matched structure displaces with the AFM probe as temperature changes, thus the force applied to the sample can be kept constant without the need for a separate feedback loop for thermal drift compensation, and the differential signal can be used to cancel the shift in zero-force level of the AFM.

  2. ON ESTIMATING FORCE-FREENESS BASED ON OBSERVED MAGNETOGRAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X. M.; Zhang, M.; Su, J. T.

    2017-01-01

    It is a common practice in the solar physics community to test whether or not measured photospheric or chromospheric vector magnetograms are force-free, using the Maxwell stress as a measure. Some previous studies have suggested that magnetic fields of active regions in the solar chromosphere are close to being force-free whereas there is no consistency among previous studies on whether magnetic fields of active regions in the solar photosphere are force-free or not. Here we use three kinds of representative magnetic fields (analytical force-free solutions, modeled solar-like force-free fields, and observed non-force-free fields) to discuss how measurement issues such as limited field of view (FOV), instrument sensitivity, and measurement error could affect the estimation of force-freeness based on observed magnetograms. Unlike previous studies that focus on discussing the effect of limited FOV or instrument sensitivity, our calculation shows that just measurement error alone can significantly influence the results of estimates of force-freeness, due to the fact that measurement errors in horizontal magnetic fields are usually ten times larger than those in vertical fields. This property of measurement errors, interacting with the particular form of a formula for estimating force-freeness, would result in wrong judgments of the force-freeness: a truly force-free field may be mistakenly estimated as being non-force-free and a truly non-force-free field may be estimated as being force-free. Our analysis calls for caution when interpreting estimates of force-freeness based on measured magnetograms, and also suggests that the true photospheric magnetic field may be further away from being force-free than it currently appears to be.

  3. Circuit Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Based Micro Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensors are commonly used in industrial production and mechanical system. However, resistance strain, piezoresistive sensor, and ceramic capacitive pressure sensors possess limitations, especially in micro force measurement. A surface acoustic wave (SAW based micro force sensor is designed in this paper, which is based on the theories of wavelet transform, SAW detection, and pierce oscillator circuits. Using lithium niobate as the basal material, a mathematical model is established to analyze the frequency, and a peripheral circuit is designed to measure the micro force. The SAW based micro force sensor is tested to show the reasonable design of detection circuit and the stability of frequency and amplitude.

  4. An Optimization-Based Impedance Approach for Robot Force Regulation with Prescribed Force Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. de J. Portillo-Vélez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization based approach for the regulation of excessive or insufficient forces at the end-effector level is introduced. The objective is to minimize the interaction force error at the robot end effector, while constraining undesired interaction forces. To that end, a dynamic optimization problem (DOP is formulated considering a dynamic robot impedance model. Penalty functions are considered in the DOP to handle the constraints on the interaction force. The optimization problem is online solved through the gradient flow approach. Convergence properties are presented and the stability is drawn when the force limits are considered in the analysis. The effectiveness of our proposal is validated via experimental results for a robotic grasping task.

  5. Information-based physics, influence, and forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, James Lyons; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent works, Knuth and Bahreyni have demonstrated that the concepts of space and time are emergent in a coarse-grained model of direct particle-particle influence. In addition, Knuth demonstrated that observer-made inferences regarding the free particle, which is defined as a particle that influences others, but is not itself influenced, result in a situation identical to the Feynman checkerboard model of the Dirac equation. This suggests that the same theoretical framework that gives rise to an emergent spacetime is consistent with quantum mechanics. In this paper, we begin to explore the effect of influence on the emergent properties of a particle. This initial study suggests that when a particle is influenced, it is interpreted as accelerating in a manner consistent with special relativity implying that, at least in this situation, influence can be conceived of as a force

  6. Optical force rectifiers based on PT-symmetric metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaee, Rasoul; Gurlek, Burak; Christensen, Johan; Kadic, Muamer

    2018-05-01

    We introduce here the concept of optical force rectifier based on parity-time symmetric metasurfaces. Directly linked to the properties of non-Hermitian systems engineered by balanced loss and gain constituents, we show that light can exert asymmetric pulling or pushing forces on metasurfaces depending on the direction of the impinging light. This generates a complete force rectification in the vicinity of the exceptional point. Our findings have the potential to spark the design of applications in optical manipulation where the forces, strictly speaking, act unidirectionally.

  7. Vandenberg Air Force Base Upper Level Wind Launch Weather Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman III ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The maximum wind speed and 1000-ft shear values for each sounding in each subseason were determined. To accurately calculate the PoV, the AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum shear datasets. Ultimately it was discovered that the maximum wind speeds follow a Gaussian distribution while the maximum shear values follow a lognormal distribution. These results were applied when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition to the requirements outlined in the original task plan, the AMU also included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on day of launch. The interactive graphical user interface (GUI) for this project was developed in

  8. Induced Polarization Influences the Fundamental Forces in DNA Base Flipping

    OpenAIRE

    Lemkul, Justin A.; Savelyev, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    Base flipping in DNA is an important process involved in genomic repair and epigenetic control of gene expression. The driving forces for these processes are not fully understood, especially in the context of the underlying dynamics of the DNA and solvent effects. We studied double-stranded DNA oligomers that have been previously characterized by imino proton exchange NMR using both additive and polarizable force fields. Our results highlight the importance of induced polarization on the base...

  9. External Force Estimation for Teleoperation Based on Proprioceptive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique del Sol

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes an approach to external force estimation for telerobotic control in radioactive environments by the use of an identified manipulator model and pressure sensors, without employing a force/torque sensor. The advantages of - and need for - force feedback have been well-established in the field of telerobotics, where electrical and back-drivable manipulators have traditionally been used. This research proposes a methodology employing hydraulic robots for telerobotics tasks based on a model identification scheme. Comparative results of a force sensor and the proposed approach using a hydraulic telemanipulator are presented under different conditions. This approach not only presents a cost effective solution but also a methodology for force estimation in radioactive environments, where the dose rates limit the use of electronic devices such as sensing equipment.

  10. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  11. The analysis of cable forces based on natural frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suangga, Made; Hidayat, Irpan; Juliastuti; Bontan, Darwin Julius

    2017-12-01

    A cable is a flexible structural member that is effective at resisting tensile forces. Cables are used in a variety of structures that employ their unique characteristics to create efficient design tension members. The condition of the cable forces in the cable supported structure is an important indication of judging whether the structure is in good condition. Several methods have been developed to measure on site cable forces. Vibration technique using correlation between natural frequency and cable forces is a simple method to determine in situ cable forces, however the method need accurate information on the boundary condition, cable mass, and cable length. The natural frequency of the cable is determined using FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) Technique to the acceleration record of the cable. Based on the natural frequency obtained, the cable forces then can be determine by analytical or by finite element program. This research is focus on the vibration techniques to determine the cable forces, to understand the physical parameter effect of the cable and also modelling techniques to the natural frequency and cable forces.

  12. Forced Ignition Study Based On Wavelet Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, E.; Valorani, M.; Paolucci, S.; Zikoski, Z.

    2011-05-01

    The control of ignition in a rocket engine is a critical problem for combustion chamber design. Therefore it is essential to fully understand the mechanism of ignition during its earliest stages. In this paper the characteristics of flame kernel formation and initial propagation in a hydrogen-argon-oxygen mixing layer are studied using 2D direct numerical simulations with detailed chemistry and transport properties. The flame kernel is initiated by adding an energy deposition source term in the energy equation. The effect of unsteady strain rate is studied by imposing a 2D turbulence velocity field, which is initialized by means of a synthetic field. An adaptive wavelet method, based on interpolating wavelets is used in this study to solve the compressible reactive Navier- Stokes equations. This method provides an alternative means to refine the computational grid points according to local demands of the physical solution. The present simulations show that in the very early instants the kernel perturbed by the turbulent field is characterized by an increased burning area and a slightly increased rad- ical formation. In addition, the calculations show that the wavelet technique yields a significant reduction in the number of degrees of freedom necessary to achieve a pre- scribed solution accuracy.

  13. Going Vertical To Improve the Accuracy of Atomic Force Microscopy Based Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Robert; Van Patten, William J; Adhikari, Ayush; Perkins, Thomas T

    2018-01-23

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) is a powerful technique to characterize the energy landscape of individual proteins, the mechanical properties of nucleic acids, and the strength of receptor-ligand interactions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based SMFS benefits from ongoing progress in improving the precision and stability of cantilevers and the AFM itself. Underappreciated is that the accuracy of such AFM studies remains hindered by inadvertently stretching molecules at an angle while measuring only the vertical component of the force and extension, degrading both measurements. This inaccuracy is particularly problematic in AFM studies using double-stranded DNA and RNA due to their large persistence length (p ≈ 50 nm), often limiting such studies to other SMFS platforms (e.g., custom-built optical and magnetic tweezers). Here, we developed an automated algorithm that aligns the AFM tip above the DNA's attachment point to a coverslip. Importantly, this algorithm was performed at low force (10-20 pN) and relatively fast (15-25 s), preserving the connection between the tip and the target molecule. Our data revealed large uncorrected lateral offsets for 100 and 650 nm DNA molecules [24 ± 18 nm (mean ± standard deviation) and 180 ± 110 nm, respectively]. Correcting this offset yielded a 3-fold improvement in accuracy and precision when characterizing DNA's overstretching transition. We also demonstrated high throughput by acquiring 88 geometrically corrected force-extension curves of a single individual 100 nm DNA molecule in ∼40 min and versatility by aligning polyprotein- and PEG-based protein-ligand assays. Importantly, our software-based algorithm was implemented on a commercial AFM, so it can be broadly adopted. More generally, this work illustrates how to enhance AFM-based SMFS by developing more sophisticated data-acquisition protocols.

  14. Longitudinal tire force estimation based on sliding mode observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hadri, A.; Cadiou, J.C.; M' Sirdi, N.K. [Versailles Univ., Paris (France). Lab. de Robotique; Beurier, G.; Delanne, Y. [Lab. Central des Ponts, Centre de Nantes (France)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an estimation method for vehicle longitudinal dynamics, particularly the tractive/braking force. The estimation can be used to detect a critical driving situation to improve security. It can be used also in several vehicle control systems. The main characteristics of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics were taken into account in the model used to design an observer and computer simulations. The state variables are the angular wheel velocity, vehicle velocity and the longitudinal tire force. The proposed differential equation of the tractive/braking force is derived using the concept of relaxation length. The observer designed is based on the sliding mode approach using only the angular wheel velocity measurement. The proposed method of estimation is verified through a one-wheel simulation model with a ''Magic formula'' tire model. Simulations results show an excellent reconstruction of the tire force. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of the interannual variability of tropical cyclones striking the California coast based on statistical downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, F. J.; Rueda, A.; Barnard, P.; Mori, N.; Nakajo, S.; Espejo, A.; del Jesus, M.; Diez Sierra, J.; Cofino, A. S.; Camus, P.

    2016-02-01

    Hurricanes hitting California have a very low ocurrence probability due to typically cool ocean temperature and westward tracks. However, damages associated to these improbable events would be dramatic in Southern California and understanding the oceanographic and atmospheric drivers is of paramount importance for coastal risk management for present and future climates. A statistical analysis of the historical events is very difficult due to the limited resolution of atmospheric and oceanographic forcing data available. In this work, we propose a combination of: (a) statistical downscaling methods (Espejo et al, 2015); and (b) a synthetic stochastic tropical cyclone (TC) model (Nakajo et al, 2014). To build the statistical downscaling model, Y=f(X), we apply a combination of principal component analysis and the k-means classification algorithm to find representative patterns from a potential TC index derived from large-scale SST fields in Eastern Central Pacific (predictor X) and the associated tropical cyclone ocurrence (predictand Y). SST data comes from NOAA Extended Reconstructed SST V3b providing information from 1854 to 2013 on a 2.0 degree x 2.0 degree global grid. As data for the historical occurrence and paths of tropical cycloneas are scarce, we apply a stochastic TC model which is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the joint distribution of track, minimum sea level pressure and translation speed of the historical events in the Eastern Central Pacific Ocean. Results will show the ability of the approach to explain seasonal-to-interannual variability of the predictor X, which is clearly related to El Niño Southern Oscillation. References Espejo, A., Méndez, F.J., Diez, J., Medina, R., Al-Yahyai, S. (2015) Seasonal probabilistic forecasting of tropical cyclone activity in the North Indian Ocean, Journal of Flood Risk Management, DOI: 10.1111/jfr3.12197 Nakajo, S., N. Mori, T. Yasuda, and H. Mase (2014) Global Stochastic Tropical Cyclone Model Based on

  16. A resonant force sensor based on ionic polymer metal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, Claudia; Fortuna, Luigi; Giannone, Pietro; Graziani, Salvatore; Strazzeri, Salvatore

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a novel force sensor, based on ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs), is presented. The system has DC sensing capabilities and is able to work in the range of a few millinewtons. IPMCs are emerging materials used to realize motion actuators and sensors. An IPMC strip is activated in a beam fixed/simply-supported configuration. The beam is tightened at the simply-supported end by a force. This influences the natural resonant frequency of the beam; the value of the resonant frequency is used in the proposed system to estimate the force applied in the axial direction. The performance of the system based on the IPMC material has proved to be comparable with that of sensors based on other sensing mechanisms. This suggests the possibility of using this class of polymeric devices to realize PMEMS (plastic micro electrical mechanical systems) sensors

  17. A resonant force sensor based on ionic polymer metal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Claudia; Fortuna, Luigi; Giannone, Pietro; Graziani, Salvatore; Strazzeri, Salvatore

    2008-02-01

    In this paper a novel force sensor, based on ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs), is presented. The system has DC sensing capabilities and is able to work in the range of a few millinewtons. IPMCs are emerging materials used to realize motion actuators and sensors. An IPMC strip is activated in a beam fixed/simply-supported configuration. The beam is tightened at the simply-supported end by a force. This influences the natural resonant frequency of the beam; the value of the resonant frequency is used in the proposed system to estimate the force applied in the axial direction. The performance of the system based on the IPMC material has proved to be comparable with that of sensors based on other sensing mechanisms. This suggests the possibility of using this class of polymeric devices to realize PMEMS (plastic micro electrical mechanical systems) sensors.

  18. Accurate fluid force measurement based on control surface integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David

    2018-01-01

    Nonintrusive 3D fluid force measurements are still challenging to conduct accurately for freely moving animals, vehicles, and deforming objects. Two techniques, 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) and a new technique, the aerodynamic force platform (AFP), address this. Both rely on the control volume integral for momentum; whereas PIV requires numerical integration of flow fields, the AFP performs the integration mechanically based on rigid walls that form the control surface. The accuracy of both PIV and AFP measurements based on the control surface integration is thought to hinge on determining the unsteady body force associated with the acceleration of the volume of displaced fluid. Here, I introduce a set of non-dimensional error ratios to show which fluid and body parameters make the error negligible. The unsteady body force is insignificant in all conditions where the average density of the body is much greater than the density of the fluid, e.g., in gas. Whenever a strongly deforming body experiences significant buoyancy and acceleration, the error is significant. Remarkably, this error can be entirely corrected for with an exact factor provided that the body has a sufficiently homogenous density or acceleration distribution, which is common in liquids. The correction factor for omitting the unsteady body force, {{{ {ρ f}} {1 - {ρ f} ( {{ρ b}+{ρ f}} )}.{( {{{{ρ }}b}+{ρ f}} )}}} , depends only on the fluid, {ρ f}, and body, {{ρ }}b, density. Whereas these straightforward solutions work even at the liquid-gas interface in a significant number of cases, they do not work for generalized bodies undergoing buoyancy in combination with appreciable body density inhomogeneity, volume change (PIV), or volume rate-of-change (PIV and AFP). In these less common cases, the 3D body shape needs to be measured and resolved in time and space to estimate the unsteady body force. The analysis shows that accounting for the unsteady body force is straightforward to non

  19. PC-based digital feedback control for scanning force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2002-01-01

    In the past, most digital feedback implementation for scanned-probe microscope were based on a digital signal processor (DSP). At present DSP plug-in card with the input-output interface module is still expensive compared to a fast pentium PC motherboard. For a magnetic force microscope (MFM) digital feedback has an advantage where the magnetic signal can be easily separated from the topographic signal. In this paper, a simple low-cost PC-based digital feedback and imaging system for Scanning Force Microscope (SFM) is presented. (Author)

  20. Reptiles and Amphibians of Fairchild Air Force Base, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Reptiles and Amphibians of Fairchild Air Force Base, WA C on st ru ct io n E n gi n ee ri n g R es ea rc...online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/CERL TR-13-5 May 2013 Reptiles and Amphibians of Fairchild Air Force Base, WA...Washington, DC 20314-1000 ERDC/CERL TR-13-5 ii Abstract Many reptile and amphibian (collectively termed “herpetofauna”) populations are declining at

  1. System of gait analysis based on ground reaction force assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Vaverka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomechanical analysis of gait employs various methods used in kinematic and kinetic analysis, EMG, and others. One of the most frequently used methods is kinetic analysis based on the assessment of the ground reaction forces (GRF recorded on two force plates. Objective: The aim of the study was to present a method of gait analysis based on the assessment of the GRF recorded during the stance phase of two steps. Methods: The GRF recorded with a force plate on one leg during stance phase has three components acting in directions: Fx - mediolateral, Fy - anteroposterior, and Fz - vertical. A custom-written MATLAB script was used for gait analysis in this study. This software displays instantaneous force data for both legs as Fx(t, Fy(t and Fz(t curves, automatically determines the extremes of functions and sets the visual markers defining the individual points of interest. Positions of these markers can be easily adjusted by the rater, which may be necessary if the GRF has an atypical pattern. The analysis is fully automated and analyzing one trial takes only 1-2 minutes. Results: The method allows quantification of temporal variables of the extremes of the Fx(t, Fy(t, Fz(t functions, durations of the braking and propulsive phase, duration of the double support phase, the magnitudes of reaction forces in extremes of measured functions, impulses of force, and indices of symmetry. The analysis results in a standardized set of 78 variables (temporal, force, indices of symmetry which can serve as a basis for further research and diagnostics. Conclusions: The resulting set of variable offers a wide choice for selecting a specific group of variables with consideration to a particular research topic. The advantage of this method is the standardization of the GRF analysis, low time requirements allowing rapid analysis of a large number of trials in a short time, and comparability of the variables obtained during different research measurements.

  2. 77 FR 106 - California Ridge Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-645-000] California Ridge Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... California Ridge Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  3. Recent Findings Based on Airborne Measurements at the Interface of Coastal California Clouds and Clear Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, A.; Crosbie, E.; Wang, Z.; Chuang, P. Y.; Craven, J. S.; Coggon, M. M.; Brunke, M.; Zeng, X.; Jonsson, H.; Woods, R. K.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent aircraft field experiments with the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter have targeted interfaces between clear and cloudy areas along the California coast. These campaigns, based out of Marina, California in the July-August time frame, include the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE, 2011), Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE, 2013), and the Biological Ocean Atmospheric Study (BOAS, 2015). Results will be presented related to (i) aqueous processing of natural and anthropogenic emissions, (ii) vertical re-distribution of ocean micronutrients, and (iii) stratocumulus cloud clearings and notable thermodynamic and aerosol contrasts across the clear-cloudy interface. The results have implications for modeling and observational studies of marine boundary layer clouds, especially in relation to aerosol-cloud interactions.

  4. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  5. Geothermal-resource verification for Air Force bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, P.R. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    This report summarizes the various types of geothermal energy reviews some legal uncertainties of the resource and then describes a methodology to evaluate geothermal resources for applications to US Air Force bases. Estimates suggest that exploration costs will be $50,000 to $300,000, which, if favorable, would lead to drilling a $500,000 exploration well. Successful identification and development of a geothermal resource could provide all base, fixed system needs with an inexpensive, renewable energy source.

  6. A terrain-based site characterization map of California with implications for the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Alan K.; Hough, Susan E.; Iwahashi, Junko; Braverman, Amy

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach based on geomorphometry to predict material properties and characterize site conditions using the VS30 parameter (time‐averaged shear‐wave velocity to a depth of 30 m). Our framework consists of an automated terrain classification scheme based on taxonomic criteria (slope gradient, local convexity, and surface texture) that systematically identifies 16 terrain types from 1‐km spatial resolution (30 arcsec) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation models (SRTM DEMs). Using 853 VS30 values from California, we apply a simulation‐based statistical method to determine the mean VS30 for each terrain type in California. We then compare the VS30 values with models based on individual proxies, such as mapped surface geology and topographic slope, and show that our systematic terrain‐based approach consistently performs better than semiempirical estimates based on individual proxies. To further evaluate our model, we apply our California‐based estimates to terrains of the contiguous United States. Comparisons of our estimates with 325 VS30 measurements outside of California, as well as estimates based on the topographic slope model, indicate our method to be statistically robust and more accurate. Our approach thus provides an objective and robust method for extending estimates of VS30 for regions where in situ measurements are sparse or not readily available.

  7. Research on the comparison of performance-based concept and force-based concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zeyu; Wang, Dongwei

    2011-03-01

    There are two ideologies about structure design: force-based concept and performance-based concept. Generally, if the structure operates during elastic stage, the two philosophies usually attain the same results. But beyond that stage, the shortage of force-based method is exposed, and the merit of performance-based is displayed. Pros and cons of each strategy are listed herein, and then which structure is best suitable to each method analyzed. At last, a real structure is evaluated by adaptive pushover method to verify that performance-based method is better than force-based method.

  8. Land-Based Dlischarge Environmental Assessment at Beale Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    additional piping, new pumps, etc., as well potential or likely costs that would arise due to necessary compensation for impacts to special status shrimp ...species. 2) The site must avoid direct impacts to wetlands, which include potential habitat for special status shrimp species. 3) The site must...invertebrates. The high densities of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates (i.e., ostracods, copepods, flatworms, and mosquito larvae ) in wetland habitats

  9. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  10. Vortex network community based reduced-order force model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan Meena, Muralikrishnan; Nair, Aditya; Taira, Kunihiko

    2017-11-01

    We characterize the vortical wake interactions by utilizing network theory and cluster-based approaches, and develop a data-inspired unsteady force model. In the present work, the vortical interaction network is defined by nodes representing vortical elements and the edges quantified by induced velocity measures amongst the vortices. The full vorticity field is reduced to a finite number of vortical clusters based on network community detection algorithm, which serves as a basis for a skeleton network that captures the essence of the wake dynamics. We use this reduced representation of the wake to develop a data-inspired reduced-order force model that can predict unsteady fluid forces on the body. The overall formulation is demonstrated for laminar flows around canonical bluff body wake and stalled flow over an airfoil. We also show the robustness of the present network-based model against noisy data, which motivates applications towards turbulent flows and experimental measurements. Supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant 1632003).

  11. Defense Infrastructure: Realignment of Air Force Special Operations Command Units to Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lepore, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    .... As a result, Cannon Air Force Base will remain open. While DOD has satisfied the intent of the recommendation by finding a new mission for the base, this BRAC recommendation was unusual because it contained a contingency clause...

  12. Quantifying the Forcing Factors Responsible for the Tectono-Geomorphological Evolution of Neogene Rift Basins, Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sobky, H. F.; Dorobek, S. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Gulf of California and its surrounding land areas provide a classic example of recently rifted continental lithosphere, where back-arc stretching of a continental volcanic arc has culminated in the ongoing seafloor spreading that characterizes the present-day axis of the gulf. The recent tectonic history of eastern Baja California, which includes most of the land area eastward of the main drainage divide that extends north-south along the length of the peninsula, has been dominated by oblique rifting that began at about 5 Ma. Thus, extensional tectonics, bedrock lithology, long-term climatic changes, and evolving surface processes have controlled the tectono-geomorphological evolution of the eastern part of the peninsula since 5 Ma. No previous studies, however, examined the effect of these combined factors on the current tectono-geomorphological characteristics of eastern Baja California. We assume that although long-term climate may have changed along the peninsula over the last several million years, precipitation amounts are likely to have changed in a similar way along the entire length of the peninsula, regardless of the long-term climatic trend. This suggests that climatic variation can be largely ruled out as an explanation for the geomorphologic variability between basins. In an attempt to quantify the factors that affected the geomorphologic development along the eastern side of Baja California, thirty-four drainage basins were extracted from a 15-m-resolution absolute digital elevation model (DEM). The stacked-vector method was applied to utilize the different terrain attributes (e.g., hillshaded relief, aspect, slope, etc.) for supervised classification of bedrock lithologies using object-oriented techniques. Stream-length gradient indices were then measured for the main stream in each of the basins. Bedrock lithologies and alluvium were plotted along the stream profiles to identify any relationship between lithology, structure, and stream gradient

  13. Base Closure and Realignment Act (BRAC) Cleanup Plan, Sacramento Army Depot, Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Treatment System. April 5. Levy, R. 1978. Eastern Miwok. In Handbook of North American Indians. Volume 8: California, (R.F. Heizer , ed.) pp. 398-413... Heizer , pp. 389-387. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Wirth Environmental Services. 1983. An archaeological overview and management plan for the...water quality which, if reached, are expected to render a body of water suitable for its designated use. The criteria are based on specific levels of

  14. Integrating Ecosystem-Based Management Principles of Adaptive Management and Stakeholder Engagement in California Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, A.; Martone, R. G.; Hazen, L.; Mease, L.; Gourlie, D.; Le Cornu, E.; Ourens, R.; Micheli, F.

    2016-12-01

    California's fisheries management law, the Marine Life Management Act (MLMA) of 1998, signaled a transformative shift from traditional single-species management to an ecosystem-based approach. In response, the fisheries management community in California is striving to integrate new science and management innovations while maximizing its limited capacity. However, data gaps, high compliance costs, capacity constraints, and limited access to the best available data and technologies persist. Here we present two decision support tools being developed to aid California fisheries managers as they continue to implement ecosystem-based management (EBM). First, to practice adaptive management, a key principle of EBM, managers must know whether and how their decisions are meeting their management objectives over time. Based on a cross-walk of MLMA goals with metrics and indicators from sustainable fishery certification programs, we present a flexible and practical tool for tracking fishery management performance in California. We showcase a draft series of decision trees and questionnaires managers can use to quantitatively or qualitatively measure both ecological and social outcomes, helping them to prioritize management options and limited resources. Second, state fisheries managers acknowledge the need for more effective stakeholder engagement to facilitate and inform decision-making and long-term outcomes, another key principle of EBM. Here, we present a pilot version of a decision-support tool to aid managers in choosing the most appropriate stakeholder engagement strategies in various types of decision contexts. This online tool will help staff identify their engagement goals, when they can strategically engage stakeholders based on their needs, and the fishery characteristics that will inform how engagement strategies are tailored to specific contexts. We also share opportunities to expand these EBM tools to other resource management contexts and scales.

  15. Environmental Assessment: General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Laughlin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    BASED ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS LAUGHLIN AIR FORCE BASE, TEXAS AGENCY: 47th Flying Training Wing (FTW), Laughlin Air Force Base (AFB), Texas...m3 micrograms per cubic meter US United States USACE United States Army Corp of Engineers USC United States Code USCB United States Census Bureau...effects and annoyance in that very few flight operations and ground engine runs occur between 2200 hours and 0700 hours. BMPs include restricting the

  16. Grip Force and 3D Push-Pull Force Estimation Based on sEMG and GRNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changcheng Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the grip force and the 3D push-pull force (push and pull force in the three dimension space from the electromyogram (EMG signal is of great importance in the dexterous control of the EMG prosthetic hand. In this paper, an action force estimation method which is based on the eight channels of the surface EMG (sEMG and the Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN is proposed to meet the requirements of the force control of the intelligent EMG prosthetic hand. Firstly, the experimental platform, the acquisition of the sEMG, the feature extraction of the sEMG and the construction of GRNN are described. Then, the multi-channels of the sEMG when the hand is moving are captured by the EMG sensors attached on eight different positions of the arm skin surface. Meanwhile, a grip force sensor and a three dimension force sensor are adopted to measure the output force of the human's hand. The characteristic matrix of the sEMG and the force signals are used to construct the GRNN. The mean absolute value and the root mean square of the estimation errors, the correlation coefficients between the actual force and the estimated force are employed to assess the accuracy of the estimation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is also employed to test the difference of the force estimation. The experiments are implemented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method and the results show that the output force of the human's hand can be correctly estimated by using sEMG and GRNN method.

  17. Robins Air Force Base Solar Cogeneration Facility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, B.L.; Bodenschatz, C.A.

    1982-06-01

    A conceptual design and a cost estimate have been developed for a Solar Cogeneration Facility at Robins Air Force Base. This demonstration solar facility was designed to generate and deliver electrical power and process steam to the existing base distribution systems. The facility was to have the potential for construction and operation by 1986 and make use of existing technology. Specific objectives during the DOE funded conceptual design program were to: prepare a Solar Cogeneration Facility (overall System) Specification, select a preferred configuration and develop a conceptual design, establish the performance and economic characteristics of the facility, and prepare a development plan for the demonstration program. The Westinghouse team, comprised of the Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems Division, Heery and Heery, Inc., and Foster Wheeler Solar Development Corporation, in conjunction with the U.S. Air Force Logistics Command and Georgia Power Company, has selected a conceptual design for the facility that will utilize the latest DOE central receiver technology, effectively utilize the energy collected in the application, operate base-loaded every sunny day of the year, and be applicable to a large number of military and industrial facilities throughout the country. The design of the facility incorporates the use of a Collector System, a Receiver System, an Electrical Power Generating System, a Balance of Facility - Steam and Feedwater System, and a Master Control System.

  18. Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions from California based on 2010 CalNex Airborne Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, B.; Miller, S.; Kort, E. A.; Santoni, G. W.; Daube, B.; Commane, R.; Angevine, W. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Andrews, A. E.; Nehrkorn, T.; Tian, H.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important gas for climate and for stratospheric chemistry, with an atmospheric lifetime exceeding 100 years. Global concentrations have increased steadily since the 18th century, apparently due to human-associated emissions, principally from application of nitrogen fertilizers. However, quantitative studies of agricultural emissions at large spatial scales are lacking, inhibited by the difficulty of measuring small enhancements of atmospheric concentrations. Here we derive regional emission rates for N2O in the Central Valley of California, based on analysis of in-situ airborne atmospheric observations collected using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer. The data were obtained on board the NOAA P-3 research aircraft during the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) program in May and June, 2010. We coupled WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model to STILT (Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport) to link our in-situ observations to surface emissions, and then used a variety of statistical methods to identify source areas and to extract optimized emission rates from the inversion. Our results support the view that fertilizer application is the largest source of N2O in the Central Valley. But the spatial distribution of derived surface emissions, based on California land use and activity maps, was very different than indicated in the leading emissions inventory (EDGAR 4.0), and our estimated total emission flux of N2O for California during the study period was 3 - 4 times larger than EDGAR and other inventories.

  19. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, M.T.; Jarvis, T.T.; Van Houten, N.C.; Lewis, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report

  20. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  1. Sorting Out the Health Risk in California's State-Based Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindman, Andrew B; Hulett, Denis; Gilmer, Todd P; Bertko, John

    2016-02-01

    To characterize the health risk of enrollees in California's state-based insurance marketplace (Covered California) by metal tier, region, month of enrollment, and plan. 2014 Open-enrollment data from Covered California linked with 2012 hospitalization and emergency department (ED) visit records from statewide all-payer administrative databases. Chronic Illness and Disability Payment System (CDPS) health risk scores derived from an individual's age and sex from the enrollment file and the diagnoses captured in the hospitalization and ED records. CDPS scores were standardized by setting the average to 1.00. Among the 1,286,089 enrollees, 120,573 (9.4 percent) had at least one ED visit and/or a hospitalization in 2012. Higher risk enrollees chose plans with greater actuarial value. The standardized CDPS health risk score was 11 percent higher in the first month of enrollment (1.08; 99 percent CI: 1.07-1.09) than the last month (0.97; 99 percent CI: 0.97-0.97). Four of the 12 plans enrolled 91 percent of individuals; their average health risk scores were each within 3 percent of the marketplace's statewide average. Providing health plans with a means to assess the health risk of their year 1 enrollees allowed them to anticipate whether they would receive or contribute payments to a risk-adjustment pool. After receiving these findings as a part of their negotiations with Covered California, health plans covering the majority of enrollees decreased their initially proposed 2015 rates, saving consumers tens of millions of dollars in potential premiums. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  2. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Security Forces Operations Facility, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, Elizabeth; Myklebust, Jessica; Denier, James; Christner, Jennifer; Fontaine, Kathyrn

    2006-01-01

    The United States Air Force (USAF) has prepared this EA in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act to evaluate the potential environmental and social impacts from the construction and operation of the proposed SFOF...

  3. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Dittmer, A.L.; Elliott, D.B.; Halverson, M.A.; Hickman, B.J.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command (SPACECOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the SPACECOM VAFB facility located approximately 50 miles northwest of Santa Barbara, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analysis of EROs are presented in ten common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). In addition, a case study of process loads at Space Launch Complex-4 (SLC-4) is included. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O and M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and value index (VI) of each ERO. Finally, an appendix includes a summary of an economic analysis case study of the South Vandenberg Power Plant (SVPP) operating scenarios.

  4. Environmental Assessment for the General Plan and Maintenance of Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    considered viable. P A F B G e n e r a l P l a n E A 2 Environmental Effects The General Plan EA evaluated the environmental impacts of...year cycle. The potential environmental effects were assessed for the following environmental resource areas: air quality, water quality, geology...ADP Area Development Plan AF Air Force AFB Air Force Base AFETR Air Force Eastern Test Range AFI Air Force Instruction AFMAN Air Force Manual

  5. Sitewide feasibility study Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Lanigan, D.C.; Josephson, G.B.; Bagaasen, L.M.

    1995-09-01

    The Sitewide Feasibility Study (FS) is required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for Eielson Air Force Base (AFB). It is based on findings presented in the Sitewide Remedial Investigation (RI) Report (USAF 1995a), and the Sitewide Baseline Risk Assessment (BLRA) Report (USAF 1995b). Under the FFA, 64 potential source areas were placed in one of six operable units, based on similar contaminant and environmental characteristics, or were included for evaluation under a Source Evaluation Report (SER). The sitewide RI was directed at contamination that was not confined to an operable unit (OU) or SER source area. The objectives of the sitewide RI were to: Provide information about site characteristics to support individual OU RI/FS efforts and the sitewide RI/FS, including site hydrogeology and determination of background soil and groundwater characteristics; identify and characterize contamination that is not confined or attributable to a specific source area through sitewide monitoring of groundwater and surface water; evaluate cumulative risks to human health and the environment from contamination on a sitewide basis; and provide a mechanism for continued cohesive sitewide monitoring.

  6. Conditional Probabilities of Large Earthquake Sequences in California from the Physics-based Rupture Simulator RSQSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, J. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, B. E.; Milner, K. R.; Richards-Dinger, K. B.; Dieterich, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Within the SCEC Collaboratory for Interseismic Simulation and Modeling (CISM), we are developing physics-based forecasting models for earthquake ruptures in California. We employ the 3D boundary element code RSQSim (Rate-State Earthquake Simulator of Dieterich & Richards-Dinger, 2010) to generate synthetic catalogs with tens of millions of events that span up to a million years each. This code models rupture nucleation by rate- and state-dependent friction and Coulomb stress transfer in complex, fully interacting fault systems. The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast Version 3 (UCERF3) fault and deformation models are used to specify the fault geometry and long-term slip rates. We have employed the Blue Waters supercomputer to generate long catalogs of simulated California seismicity from which we calculate the forecasting statistics for large events. We have performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis with RSQSim catalogs that were calibrated with system-wide parameters and found a remarkably good agreement with UCERF3 (Milner et al., this meeting). We build on this analysis, comparing the conditional probabilities of sequences of large events from RSQSim and UCERF3. In making these comparisons, we consider the epistemic uncertainties associated with the RSQSim parameters (e.g., rate- and state-frictional parameters), as well as the effects of model-tuning (e.g., adjusting the RSQSim parameters to match UCERF3 recurrence rates). The comparisons illustrate how physics-based rupture simulators might assist forecasters in understanding the short-term hazards of large aftershocks and multi-event sequences associated with complex, multi-fault ruptures.

  7. Environmental Assessment, United States Air Force Proposed Lease Replacement for Scandia Elementary School, Travis Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    brown, and light gray loam 19-inches thick. The subsoil is mottled, light yellowish brown, yellowish brown, and pale brown clay 41-inches thick...areas of Solano loam and Pescadero clay loam. The Antioch soil has slightly concave slopes, and the San Ysidro soil has slightly convex slopes (Web...Infrastructure and utilities include transportation, water supply, sanitary sewage/wastewater natural gas, electrical, communications, and liquid fuels

  8. Improving the Recreational Fishery on Malmstrom Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Botrychium lineare C meadows in conifer forests; Glacier and moonwort Lake counties Yellow-billed cuckoo Coccyzus americanus C riparian...Potential: Neither ingredient was mutagenic when tested. Reproductive Hazard Potential: Neither ingredient had reproductive effects when tested Chronic...product does not contain any chemical which is known to the State of California to cause cancer or birth defects or other reproductive harm. CERCLA

  9. Impact of thermal frequency drift on highest precision force microscopy using quartz-based force sensors at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Pielmeier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM the stability of the eigenfrequency of the force sensor is of key importance for highest precision force measurements. Here, we study the influence of temperature changes on the resonance frequency of force sensors made of quartz, in a temperature range from 4.8–48 K. The sensors are based on the qPlus and length extensional principle. The frequency variation with temperature T for all sensors is negative up to 30 K and on the order of 1 ppm/K, up to 13 K, where a distinct kink appears, it is linear. Furthermore, we characterize a new type of miniaturized qPlus sensor and confirm the theoretically predicted reduction in detector noise.

  10. Magnetoelectric force microscopy based on magnetic force microscopy with modulated electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yanan; Wu, Weida

    2014-05-01

    We present the realization of a mesoscopic imaging technique, namely, the Magnetoelectric Force Microscopy (MeFM), for visualization of local magnetoelectric effect. The basic principle of MeFM is the lock-in detection of local magnetoelectric response, i.e., the electric field-induced magnetization, using magnetic force microscopy. We demonstrate MeFM capability by visualizing magnetoelectric domains on single crystals of multiferroic hexagonal manganites. Results of several control experiments exclude artifacts or extrinsic origins of the MeFM signal. The parameters are tuned to optimize the signal to noise ratio.

  11. Reducing detrimental electrostatic effects in Casimir-force measurements and Casimir-force-based microdevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.; Mohideen, U.

    2018-03-01

    It is well known that residual electrostatic forces create significant difficulties in precise measurements of the Casimir force and the wide use of Casimir-operated microdevices. We experimentally demonstrate that, with the help of Ar-ion cleaning of the surfaces, it is possible to make electrostatic effects negligibly small compared to the Casimir interaction. Our experimental setup consists of a dynamic atomic force microscope supplemented with an Ar-ion gun and argon reservoir. The residual potential difference between the Au-coated surfaces of a sphere and those of a plate was measured both before and after in situ Ar-ion cleaning. It is shown that this cleaning decreases the magnitude of the residual potential by up to an order of magnitude and makes it almost independent of the separation. The gradient of the Casimir force was measured using ordinary samples subjected to Ar-ion cleaning. The obtained results are shown to be in good agreement both with previous precision measurements using specially selected samples and with theoretical predictions of the Lifshitz theory. The conclusion is made that the suggested method of in situ Ar-ion cleaning is effective in reducing the electrostatic effects and therefore is a great resource for experiments on measuring the Casimir interaction and for Casimir-operated microdevices.

  12. Risk-based analyses in support of California hazardous site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringland, J.T.

    1995-08-01

    The California Environmental Enterprise (CEE) is a joint program of the Department of Energy (DOE), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. Its goal is to make DOE laboratory expertise accessible to hazardous site cleanups in the state This support might involve working directly with parties responsible for individual cleanups or it might involve working with the California Environmental Protection Agency to develop tools that would be applicable across a broad range of sites. As part of its initial year's activities, the CEE supported a review to examine where laboratory risk and risk-based systems analysis capabilities might be most effectively applied. To this end, this study draws the following observations. The labs have a clear role in analyses supporting the demonstration and transfer of laboratory characterization or remediation technologies. The labs may have opportunities in developing broadly applicable analysis tools and computer codes for problems such as site characterization or efficient management of resources. Analysis at individual sites, separate from supporting lab technologies or prototyping general tools, may be appropriate only in limited circumstances. In any of these roles, the labs' capabilities extend beyond health risk assessment to the broader areas of risk management and risk-based systems analysis

  13. Final Environmental Assessment Travis Air Force Base Burke Property Housing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ... (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and Air Force Instruction 32-7061, the U.S. Air Force conducted an assessment of the potential environmental consequences of the construction of up to 281 military family housing units at Travis AFB...

  14. Bite force measurement based on fiber Bragg grating sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, Srivani; Umesh, Sharath; Asokan, Sundarrajan; Srinivas, Talabattula

    2017-10-01

    The maximum level of voluntary bite force, which results from the combined action of muscle of mastication, joints, and teeth, i.e., craniomandibular structure, is considered as one of the major indicators for the functional state of the masticatory system. Measurement of voluntary bite force provides useful data for the jaw muscle function and activity along with assessment of prosthetics. This study proposes an in vivo methodology for the dynamic measurement of bite force employing a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor known as bite force measurement device (BFMD). The BFMD developed is a noninvasive intraoral device, which transduces the bite force exerted at the occlusal surface into strain variations on a metal plate. These strain variations are acquired by the FBG sensor bonded over it. The BFMD developed facilitates adjustment of the distance between the biting platform, which is essential to capture the maximum voluntary bite force at three different positions of teeth, namely incisor, premolar, and molar sites. The clinically relevant bite forces are measured at incisor, molar, and premolar position and have been compared against each other. Furthermore, the bite forces measured with all subjects are segregated according to gender and also compared against each other.

  15. Environmental Assessment for the National Museum of the United States Air Force Addition, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) United States Air Force 88th...Air Base Wing Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...visitors nationwide and from foreign countries. Softball and soccer fields are located adjacent to the Museum grounds and are operated by the 88 Air

  16. Numerical analysis of the in-well vapor-stripping system demonstration at Edwards Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.D.; Gilmore, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    Numerical simulations, with the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator, were applied to the field demonstration of an in-well vapor-stripping system at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), near Mojave, California. The demonstration field site on the Edwards AFB was previously contaminated from traversing groundwater that was contained a varied composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which primarily includes trichloroethylene (TCE). Contaminant TCE originated from surface basin that had been used to collect runoff during the cleaning of experimental rocket powered planes in the 1960s and 1970s. This report documents those simulations and associated numerical analyses. A companion report documents the in- well vapor-stripping demonstration from a field perspective

  17. Determination of electrostatic force and its characteristics based on phase difference by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kesheng; Cheng, Jia; Yao, Shiji; Lu, Yijia; Ji, Linhong; Xu, Dengfeng

    2016-12-01

    Electrostatic force measurement at the micro/nano scale is of great significance in science and engineering. In this paper, a reasonable way of applying voltage is put forward by taking an electrostatic chuck in a real integrated circuit manufacturing process as a sample, applying voltage in the probe and the sample electrode, respectively, and comparing the measurement effect of the probe oscillation phase difference by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy. Based on the phase difference obtained from the experiment, the quantitative dependence of the absolute magnitude of the electrostatic force on the tip-sample distance and applied voltage is established by means of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The results show that the varying characteristics of the electrostatic force with the distance and voltage at the micro/nano scale are similar to those at the macroscopic scale. Electrostatic force gradually decays with increasing distance. Electrostatic force is basically proportional to the square of applied voltage. Meanwhile, the applicable conditions of the above laws are discussed. In addition, a comparison of the results in this paper with the results of the energy dissipation method shows the two are consistent in general. The error decreases with increasing distance, and the effect of voltage on the error is small.

  18. Enhancement of force patterns classification based on Gaussian distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertelt, Thomas; Solomonovs, Ilja; Gronwald, Thomas

    2018-01-23

    Description of the patterns of ground reaction force is a standard method in areas such as medicine, biomechanics and robotics. The fundamental parameter is the time course of the force, which is classified visually in particular in the field of clinical diagnostics. Here, the knowledge and experience of the diagnostician is relevant for its assessment. For an objective and valid discrimination of the ground reaction force pattern, a generic method, especially in the medical field, is absolutely necessary to describe the qualities of the time-course. The aim of the presented method was to combine the approaches of two existing procedures from the fields of machine learning and the Gauss approximation in order to take advantages of both methods for the classification of ground reaction force patterns. The current limitations of both methods could be eliminated by an overarching method. Twenty-nine male athletes from different sports were examined. Each participant was given the task of performing a one-legged stopping maneuver on a force plate from the maximum possible starting speed. The individual time course of the ground reaction force of each subject was registered and approximated on the basis of eight Gaussian distributions. The descriptive coefficients were then classified using Bayesian regulated neural networks. The different sports served as the distinguishing feature. Although the athletes were all given the same task, all sports referred to a different quality in the time course of ground reaction force. Meanwhile within each sport, the athletes were homogeneous. With an overall prediction (R = 0.938) all subjects/sports were classified correctly with 94.29% accuracy. The combination of the two methods: the mathematical description of the time course of ground reaction forces on the basis of Gaussian distributions and their classification by means of Bayesian regulated neural networks, seems an adequate and promising method to discriminate the

  19. Development of Tuning Fork Based Probes for Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Romaneh; Yazdanpanah, Mehdi M.; Torrez, Neil; Alizadeh, Amirali; Askari, Davood

    2014-03-01

    This article reports on the development of tuning fork-based AFM/STM probes in NaugaNeedles LLC for use in atomic force microscopy. These probes can be mounted on different carriers per customers' request. (e.g., RHK carrier, Omicron carrier, and tuning fork on a Sapphire disk). We are able to design and engineer tuning forks on any type of carrier used in the market. We can attach three types of tips on the edge of a tuning fork prong (i.e., growing Ag2Ga nanoneedles at any arbitrary angle, cantilever of AFM tip, and tungsten wire) with lengths from 100-500 μm. The nanoneedle is located vertical to the fork. Using a suitable insulation and metallic coating, we can make QPlus sensors that can detect tunneling current during the AFM scan. To make Qplus sensors, the entire quartz fork will be coated with an insulating material, before attaching the nanoneedle. Then, the top edge of one prong is coated with a thin layer of conductive metal and the nanoneedle is attached to the fork end of the metal coated prong. The metal coating provides electrical connection to the tip for tunneling current readout and to the electrodes and used to read the QPlus current. Since the amount of mass added to the fork is minimal, the resonance frequency spectrum does not change and still remains around 32.6 KHz and the Q factor is around 1,200 in ambient condition. These probes can enhance the performance of tuning fork based atomic microscopy.

  20. Cantilever-based optical interfacial force microscope in liquid using an optical-fiber tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung I. Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel cantilever-based optical interfacial force microscope (COIFM to study molecular interaction in liquid environments. The force sensor was created by attaching a chemically etched optical-fiber tip to the force sensor with UV epoxy, and characterized by imaging on a calibration grid. The performance of the COIFM was then demonstrated by measuring the force between two oxidized silicon surfaces in 1 mM KCl as a function of distance. The result was consistent with previously reported electrical double layer forces, suggesting that a COIFM using an optical-fiber tip is capable of measuring force in a liquid environment.

  1. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Utility Corridors at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    communication, natural gas , liquid fuel or water lines. The analysis provided in this EA is qualitative and at a programmatic level and, as such, is intended...installation, the height of the gas pipes above the ground has been reduced to less than 18 inches, the pipelines will either be raised or the...mitigations would be necessary. 4.4 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND HAZARDOUS WASTE 4.4.1 Methodology The thresholds applicable to the analysis of potential

  2. Environmental Assessment:Security and Safety Upgrades to Entry Control Facilities Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-08

    vegetation (i.e., poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e., insects, spiders, and snakes), and disease vectors (i.e., ticks, rodents), exist...processing pulpy roots or tubers (Glassow 1997). Along the Santa Barbara Channel coastline, use of shellfish declined as other animal foods became more...for temporary camps where they gathered grasses, roots , tubers, and bulbs. Hunting marine mammals became important during times when seals and sea

  3. Deactivation of the SR-71 Program at Beale Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    110 Rock Band Jet, F vover at 1000 Feet -- 100 Inside Subway Tran iNew York) Gas Lawn Mower at 3 Feet - •90 Dieses Truck at 50 Feet Food Blender...at 3 Feet Noisy Urban Daytime - - 80 Garbage Dsciosai at 3 Feet Shouting at 3 Feet Gas Lawn Mower at 100 Feet - 70 Vacuum Cleaner at 10 Peet Commercial

  4. Potential Exploration, Development, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    was a cold experience. Ice all along the roadside. We were cold and stiff when we oot In I wn for srhnol]. In w uter the road was very bad and the big...chalkrock grade on the Santa Rosa Road was very slippery, ,nd the mud, in other narts, was deep. My father, in bad weather, would ride on horseback...of the San Francisco office (415) 393-2000, Chris Berka of the Washington, D.C. office (202) 628-4900, or Daniel J. Curtin, Jr. or David A. Gold of

  5. Environmental Assessment for the Space Complex-5 SCOUT Launcher Relocation, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Agreement (L,nderJ) ;ng PA) stipu atmg thaI Cold War propertIes significant for their distir.c:ivc physical characteristics and ~hclr historic function...launch complex th t dir Iy upported ooerational missions 0 the exceptionally imp rtant Cold War program. n You l1ave aiso submi tea a map that outlines

  6. Environmental Assessment for Implementation of the Installation Development Plan at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Operational noise could come from additional trips but would not be significant. Socioeconomics. The regional economy would benefit from increased...number of persons or to the public; endanger the comfort, repose, health or safety of any such persons or the public; or cause or have a natural tendency...ranges and military training ranges found there. Other functions found in these districts include outdoor recreation and historic preservation

  7. Ecological Assessment of Vandenburg Air Force Base, California. Volume 2. Biological Inventory 1974/75

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    Conium maculatum 15 15 ə-100 Urtica holcserioea 15 < 1 - 1 - 5 Z-jvphularia atvata 15 •1 di ichus bullata 35 <. 1 ə turn tclmateia 15 < 1 1 - 5...33.0 Pteridium aquilir.um 22.0 Horkelia auneata 19.0 Staohys rigida 19-0 Conium maculatum 19-0 Viola queroetonon 16.5 Pterostegia dvymarioides l6...Apiastrwn angustifolium Baaaharis ep. B. Douglaaii Bras sioa sp. Caulanthup oalifomiaua Chenopodiim sp. Conium maoulatum Eriophyllum

  8. Environmental Assessment for the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-13

    uses (e.g., sports arenas, golf courses, amusement parks, etc.) are generally considered compatible with yearly DNL ranges between 70 and 75 dB, if...natural resources and the environment. Global warming is projected to have detrimental effects on industries, including agriculture and tourism ...course, riding stables, Rod and Gun Program (CAR), Oasis Aquatic Center, Tickets and Tours, Family Camp, Sports and Fitness Center, Aerobics Center

  9. Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Mather Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    15.2fiy .o pesetiee my %" hweate Intri Lkaa ebhAhe. ThesId Lm ct t~ te tie the POrOL %et "tOei feaipg pteemdted ewheotatiaLIn iistat ikea Thist eIedIe...cultural history , and cultural processes through the interpretation of material remains. Artifact. Anything that owes its shape, form, or placement to...for interpreting history that groups information about historic properties that share a common theme, common geographical area, and a common time

  10. Environmental Assessment for Increasing Routine Flightline Activities, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    wire lettuce (Stephanomeria pauciflora), desert buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum ssp. polifolium), Indian rice grass (Achnatherum hymenoides...in the area are dormant with no record of seismic activity or surface displacement in recent geologic history . 4.8.1.1 Fill Material Fill

  11. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Norton Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    auditory threshold shift of an individual’s hearing in an ear. Auditr -v threshold refers to the minimum acoustic signal that evokes an auditory sk...U I 1: 7 z c I I - ’ r b ACCA 04 W CO# II 00 0 0 00 I ~~3 1 - 7 K-7 \\ ~ ! I I U 0 IC a i| &l i lia U l - •I 00 a i°(AIM K -8 o b E,cg *’’S I I K-8 I

  12. Environmental Assessment: Military Housing Privatization Initiative, Los Angeles Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    carrion , and other invertebrates. Breeding occurs in March to May. Although this species was not observed during a 1999 survey, the loggerhead...asbestosis (a lung disease ). Asbestos is a designated hazardous air pollutant under the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants under...trees at Fort MacArthur for pink rot disease (Sohn 2006). It is possible that residents may have stored and used household quantities of non

  13. Installation Restoration Program. Phase I. Records Search. Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    acidity or alkalinity POL Petroleum, oils, and lubricants PVC Polyvinyl chloride plastic RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RP-1 Rocket propellant...multiplter: Subscore 3 K ?hvsical State ulriptier Waste Caracteristics Subscore 50 X 1 50 11-1. CS-I HAZARD ASSESSMENT RATING METHODOLOGY FORM (Continued

  14. Environmental Assessment Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS) Operations Facility, Beale Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    corner of 10th and B Streets. The new building would be connected to existing electrical, communication, natural gas, water, and sanitary sewer...would be connected to existing electrical, communication, natural gas, water, and sanitary sewer systems and lines on the project site. The areas of... clay loam starting at approximately 6 inches, to clay at 19 inches, to a duripan from 20 to 40 inches. The Redding soils are moderately deep to

  15. Socioeconomic Impact Analysis Study. Disposal and Reuse of George Air Force Base, California, Draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Va.. eCommerc ~~~~~~~~~~~...... .... I Reieta ,00 670 1.10 Pplto opa~dllona 0 800 069 066 40.000W Ak ,200 3.0 5.0 h-’ee 2 ~ Victor Valley CamndalAWW

  16. Environmental Assessment: Combat Information Transport System Upgrade Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-21

    impacted by general construction hazards. Biological hazards, including vegetation (i.e., poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e., insects ...or protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and unstable ground. Bi?logical hazards such as animals ( insects , spiders, and snakes), and disease...Region Interagency Archeological Services Branch, San Francisco. Hamilton, M. Colleen, Wendy Nettles , and Clayton G. Lebow 2004 SLC-4 to SLC-6

  17. Environmental Assessment: San Antonio Creek Restoration at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-08

    biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e. insects , spiders, and snakes), and disease vectors (i.e...acre. Native grasses and herbs such as giant wild rye (Leymus condensatus), and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) dominate this vegetation type...mud, and unstable ground. Biological hazards such as animals ( insects , spiders, and snakes), and disease vectors (ticks and rodents). 3.6.3

  18. Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of George Air Force Base, California. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    the SST Commission designated a consortium headed by the Bechtel Corporation to be the franchisee (subject to a franchise agreement) to build and...Noise Levels 110 Rock Band Jet Flyover at 1000 ft 100 Inside Subway Train (New York) Gas Lawnmower at 3 ft 90 Food Blender at 3 ft Noisy Urban Daytime...on-site and Indirect jobs (e.g., retallcommercial, recreational, food services, etc.) In San Bernardino and Riverside counties (ROI). Approximately

  19. Environmental Assessment for Installation of a New Jet Engine Test Cell, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    suspended in the runoff waters around the lakebeds, sealing lakebed surface cracks and filling fissures. Shallow flooding along with consistent winds are...of the recorded specimens consist of isolated fragments of tooth enamel or bone that are not securely dated. Irvingtonian fossil localities have...require frequent repair as well. Concrete floors are cracking throughout all four test cells. Entry doors sag and drag on buckled floors. One-half

  20. Environmental Assessment for East Housing Area Solar Energy Project, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    May. Gevirtz, Elihu, 2014. Email communication with Craig Woodman dated 20 May, 2014. Glassow, Michael A. 1996. Purisimeño Chumash Prehistory ...William C. Sturtevant, general editor. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 1972. 9000 Years of Prehistory at Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo

  1. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing New Construction and Demolition at Beale Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    architecture, or prehistory , and includes both publicly and privately owned properties. The NRHP list is administered by the National Park Service...Warning System (PAVE PAWS) facility (Beale AFB 2011c). The immediate area’s early prehistory is not well known. By roughly 500 A.D., the region was

  2. Final Environmental Assessment, Reeds Creek Restoration at Beale Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus)  Greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida)  Bank swallow ( Riparia riparia )  Bogg’s Lake hedge-hyssop...Orange barrier fences or pink flags will designate exclusion zones where construction activities cannot take place. A qualified biologist from Beale AFB

  3. Spring 1995 wildlife and vegetation survey, Norton Air Force Base, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-18

    The objectives of the 1994 and 1995 wildlife and vegetation surveys were to gather data to be used for various applications including: (1) basewide Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) Work Plan (Scoping Document), (2) the completion of the basewide ERA, (3) determining remedial activities, and (4) determining the distribution of state and federal list plant and animal species on Norton AFB. Data gathering included an inventory of plant and animal species present, the identification of potential ecological receptors, mapping of habitats, and constructing the ecological food web present on or near the IRP sites of concern.

  4. Results of Soil Vapor Sampling at SA 6, McClellan Air Force Base, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination in site soil. The soil vapor sampling event was performed in accordance with the Final Sampling and Analysis Plan to Support Recommendation for No Further Investigation at SA 6 (Parsons ES, 1998...

  5. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for McClellan Air Force Base, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    lakes and Dursban insecticide in standing waters. Adult mosquito control is accomplished by dispersion of malathion insecticide from Ultra-Low Volume...Solanum nigrum Typhaceae Cattail family Common cattail Typha latifolia L F9 Family Common Name Scientific Name Urticaceae Creek nettle Urtica...USED AT McCLELLAN AFB 1. Insecticides Diazionon 4E 47.5% Conc. Emulsion Diazinon 0.5% Oil Solution Malathion 57% Conc. Emulsion Malathion 95% Tech

  6. Theater Ballistic Missile Targets Programmatic Environmental Assessment Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    S UNK Lichnanthe albopilosa White sand dune scarab beetle – S UNK Myotis ciliolabrum Small-footed myotis – S UNK Myotis evotis Long-eared myotis...many seabirds, including western gull and rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata). Regionally rare and declining species observed in the area

  7. Final A Street Pond Expansion Environmental Assessment at Beale Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    as-needed basis to minimize health risks from release of asbestos fibers during normal activities, maintenance, renovation, or demolition. Beale AFB...where the species has been found include Northern Hardpan, Northern Claypan, Northern Volcanic Mud Flow, and Northern Basalt Flow vernal pools formed on

  8. Environmental Assessment for a Taxiway M Bypass Road at Travis Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    is land that has a combination of physical and chemical characteristics that make it good for food, feed, forage, fiber , and oilseed crops. Farmland...swales, or basalt flow depression pools in unplowed grasslands. The fairy shrimp has been collected from early December to early May. It can mature...types where the species has been found include Northern Hardpan, Northern Claypan, Northern Volcanic Mud Flow, and Northern Basalt Flow vernal pools

  9. Selecting the optimum plot size for a California design-based stream and wetland mapping program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Leila G; Stein, Eric D

    2014-04-01

    Accurate estimates of the extent and distribution of wetlands and streams are the foundation of wetland monitoring, management, restoration, and regulatory programs. Traditionally, these estimates have relied on comprehensive mapping. However, this approach is prohibitively resource-intensive over large areas, making it both impractical and statistically unreliable. Probabilistic (design-based) approaches to evaluating status and trends provide a more cost-effective alternative because, compared with comprehensive mapping, overall extent is inferred from mapping a statistically representative, randomly selected subset of the target area. In this type of design, the size of sample plots has a significant impact on program costs and on statistical precision and accuracy; however, no consensus exists on the appropriate plot size for remote monitoring of stream and wetland extent. This study utilized simulated sampling to assess the performance of four plot sizes (1, 4, 9, and 16 km(2)) for three geographic regions of California. Simulation results showed smaller plot sizes (1 and 4 km(2)) were most efficient for achieving desired levels of statistical accuracy and precision. However, larger plot sizes were more likely to contain rare and spatially limited wetland subtypes. Balancing these considerations led to selection of 4 km(2) for the California status and trends program.

  10. Urbanization Causes Increased Cloud Base Height and Decreased Fog in Coastal Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. Park; Schwartz, Rachel E.; Iacobellis, Sam; Seager, Richard; Cook, Benjamin I.; Still, Christopher J.; Husak, Gregory; Michaelsen, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Subtropical marine stratus clouds regulate coastal and global climate, but future trends in these clouds are uncertain. In coastal Southern California (CSCA), interannual variations in summer stratus cloud occurrence are spatially coherent across 24 airfields and dictated by positive relationships with stability above the marine boundary layer (MBL) and MBL height. Trends, however, have been spatially variable since records began in the mid-1900s due to differences in nighttime warming. Among CSCA airfields, differences in nighttime warming, but not daytime warming, are strongly and positively related to fraction of nearby urban cover, consistent with an urban heat island effect. Nighttime warming raises the near-surface dew point depression, which lifts the altitude of condensation and cloud base height, thereby reducing fog frequency. Continued urban warming, rising cloud base heights, and associated effects on energy and water balance would profoundly impact ecological and human systems in highly populated and ecologically diverse CSCA.

  11. Pollutant exposures from unvented gas cooking burners: A Simulation-based Assessment for Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group and Residential Building Systems Group; Klepeis, Neil E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; San Diego Univ., CA (United States). Center for Behavioral Epidemiology and Community Health; Lobscheid, Agnes B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group; Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group and Residential Building Systems Group

    2014-01-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants, and they are typically used without venting range hoods. In this study, LBNL researchers quantified pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes.The simulation model estimated that—in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods -- 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO2, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3,000, and 20 ppb for NO2, CO, and HCHO, respectively. The study recommends that reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards.

  12. Final Environmental Assessment: To Relocate Air Force Explosive Ordnance Disposal Administrative Complex at Eglin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE = .012 * Trips NOxE = .013 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE...Air Force Base, Florida To convert from pounds per day to tons per year: VOC (tons/yr) = VOCE * DPYII/2000 NOx (tons/yr) = NOxE * DPYII/2000

  13. Enhancing Optical Forces in InP-Based Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee; Semenova, Elizaveta; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Cantilever sensors are among the most important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which are usually actuated by electrostatic forces or piezoelectric elements. Although well-developed microfabrication technology has made silicon the prevailing material for MEMS, unique properties of other...... materials are overlooked in this context. Here we investigate optically induced forces exerted upon a semi-insulating InP waveguide suspended above a highly doped InP: Si substrate, in three different regimes: the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ), with excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and phonons...... excitation. An order of magnitude amplification of the force is observed when light is coupled to SPPs, and three orders of magnitude amplification is achieved in the phonon excitation regime. In the ENZ regime, the force is found to be repulsive and higher than that in a waveguide suspended above...

  14. Capital Improvement Program Environmental Assessment, Dyess Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Counsel • Air Force Office of Special Investigations • Air Force Audit Agency • Boeing Aerospace Operations Inc . • Defense Security Service...this corresponds to a factor of 10 in relative sound energy (Bolt, Beranek, and Meuman, Inc . 1973). Table 4-1 shows the dBA scale of commons...configuration for the B-47. Intact -Interior shop upgraded for Nike Hercules in 1961. 5020 Field Maintenance Hangar Large Aircraft Maintenance Dock

  15. Intercomparison of Meteorological Forcing Data from Empirical and Mesoscale Model Sources in the N.F. American River Basin in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayand, N. E.; Hamlet, A. F.; Hughes, M. R.; Feld, S.; Lundquist, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The data required to drive distributed hydrological models is significantly limited within mountainous terrain due to a scarcity of observations. This study evaluated three common configurations of forcing data: a) one low-elevation station, combined with empirical techniques, b) gridded output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and c) a combination of the two. Each configuration was evaluated within the heavily-instrumented North Fork American River Basin in northern California, during October-June 2000-2010. Simulations of streamflow and snowpack using the Distributed Hydrology Soil and Vegetation Model (DHSVM) highlighted precipitation and radiation as variables whose sources resulted in significant differences. The best source of precipitation data varied between years. On average, the performance of WRF and the single station distributed using the Parameter Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), were not significantly different. The average percent biases in simulated streamflow were 3.4% and 0.9%, for configurations a) and b) respectively, even though precipitation compared directly with gauge measurements was biased high by 6% and 17%, suggesting that gauge undercatch may explain part of the bias. Simulations of snowpack using empirically-estimated long-wave irradiance resulted in melt rates lower than those observed at high-elevation sites, while at lower-elevations the same forcing caused significant mid-winter melt that was not observed (Figure 1). These results highlight the complexity of how forcing data sources impact hydrology over different areas (high vs. low elevation snow) and different time-periods. Overall, results support the use of output from the WRF model over empirical techniques in regions with limited station data. FIG. 1. (a,b) Simulated SWE from DHSVM compared to observations at the Sierra Snow Lab (2100m) and Blue Canyon (1609m) during 2008 - 2009. Modeled (c,d) internal pack temperature, (e,f) downward

  16. Hybrid Force Control Based on ICMAC for an Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Lixun Zhang; Yupeng Zou; Lan Wang; Xinping Pei

    2012-01-01

    A novel Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot (ART) based on a cable‐driven mechanism is represented in this paper. ART, a typical passive force servo system, can help astronauts to bench press in a microgravity environment. The purpose of this paper is to design controllers to eliminate the surplus force caused by an astronaut’s active movements. Based on the dynamics modelling of the cable‐driven unit, a hybrid force controller based on improved credit assignment CMAC (ICMAC) is presented...

  17. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) Initial Defensive Operations Capability (IDOC) at Vandenberg Air Force Base Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-28

    Zielinski , EDAW, Inc., concerning utilities supply and demand for Vandenberg Air Force Base, 1 August. Rush, P., 2002. Personal communication between...Pernell W. Rush, Technical Sergeant, Water Utilities/Water Treatment NCO, USAF 30th CES/CEOIU, Vandenberg Air Force Base, and James E. Zielinski ... Dave Savinsky, Environmental Consultant, 30 CES/CEVC, Vandenberg Air Force Base, on the Preliminary Draft Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD

  18. B-spline tight frame based force matching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianbin; Zhu, Guanhua; Tong, Dudu; Lu, Lanyuan; Shen, Zuowei

    2018-06-01

    In molecular dynamics simulations, compared with popular all-atom force field approaches, coarse-grained (CG) methods are frequently used for the rapid investigations of long time- and length-scale processes in many important biological and soft matter studies. The typical task in coarse-graining is to derive interaction force functions between different CG site types in terms of their distance, bond angle or dihedral angle. In this paper, an ℓ1-regularized least squares model is applied to form the force functions, which makes additional use of the B-spline wavelet frame transform in order to preserve the important features of force functions. The B-spline tight frames system has a simple explicit expression which is useful for representing our force functions. Moreover, the redundancy of the system offers more resilience to the effects of noise and is useful in the case of lossy data. Numerical results for molecular systems involving pairwise non-bonded, three and four-body bonded interactions are obtained to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  19. 76 FR 75453 - Restricted Areas and Danger Zones at Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... and Danger Zones at Eglin Air Force Base, FL AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Department of... within the Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) facilities and along the Eglin AFB facility shoreline in Florida... have the permission of the Commander, 96 Air Base Wing, Eglin AFB or his/her authorized representative...

  20. Earthquake prediction in California using regression algorithms and cloud-based big data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencio-Cortés, G.; Morales-Esteban, A.; Shang, X.; Martínez-Álvarez, F.

    2018-06-01

    Earthquake magnitude prediction is a challenging problem that has been widely studied during the last decades. Statistical, geophysical and machine learning approaches can be found in literature, with no particularly satisfactory results. In recent years, powerful computational techniques to analyze big data have emerged, making possible the analysis of massive datasets. These new methods make use of physical resources like cloud based architectures. California is known for being one of the regions with highest seismic activity in the world and many data are available. In this work, the use of several regression algorithms combined with ensemble learning is explored in the context of big data (1 GB catalog is used), in order to predict earthquakes magnitude within the next seven days. Apache Spark framework, H2 O library in R language and Amazon cloud infrastructure were been used, reporting very promising results.

  1. Bimanual elbow exoskeleton: Force based protocol and rehabilitation quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, N; Herrnstadt, G; Randhawa, B K; Boyd, L A; Menon, C

    2015-08-01

    An aging population, along with the increase in cardiovascular disease incidence that accompanies this demographic shift, is likely to increase both the economic and medical burden associated with stroke in western societies. Rehabilitation, the standard treatment for stroke, can be expanded and augmented with state of the art technologies, such as robotic therapy. This paper expands upon a recent work involving a force-feedback master-slave bimanual exoskeleton for elbow rehabilitation, named a Bimanual Wearable Robotic Device (BWRD). Elbow force data acquired during the execution of custom tasks is analyzed to demonstrate the feasibility of tracking patient progress. Two training tasks that focus on applied forces are examined. The first is called "slave arm follow", which uses the absolute angular impulse as a metric; the second is called "conditional arm static", which uses the rise time to target as a metric, both presented here. The outcomes of these metrics are observed over three days.

  2. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-06-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants and they are typically used without venting. The objective of this study is to quantify pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. A mass balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes and the "exposure concentrations" experienced by individual occupants. The model was applied to estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for one week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs, NO{sub 2} and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of CO and NO{sub 2} were obtained from available databases. Ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use were inferred from household characteristics. Proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods were also explored. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying less than 10%. The simulation model estimates that in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods, 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3000, and 20 ppb for NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based

  3. California Bioregions

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  4. Rasch model based analysis of the Force Concept Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Planinic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Force Concept Inventory (FCI is an important diagnostic instrument which is widely used in the field of physics education research. It is therefore very important to evaluate and monitor its functioning using different tools for statistical analysis. One of such tools is the stochastic Rasch model, which enables construction of linear measures for persons and items from raw test scores and which can provide important insight in the structure and functioning of the test (how item difficulties are distributed within the test, how well the items fit the model, and how well the items work together to define the underlying construct. The data for the Rasch analysis come from the large-scale research conducted in 2006-07, which investigated Croatian high school students’ conceptual understanding of mechanics on a representative sample of 1676 students (age 17–18 years. The instrument used in research was the FCI. The average FCI score for the whole sample was found to be (27.7±0.4%, indicating that most of the students were still non-Newtonians at the end of high school, despite the fact that physics is a compulsory subject in Croatian schools. The large set of obtained data was analyzed with the Rasch measurement computer software WINSTEPS 3.66. Since the FCI is routinely used as pretest and post-test on two very different types of population (non-Newtonian and predominantly Newtonian, an additional predominantly Newtonian sample (N=141, average FCI score of 64.5% of first year students enrolled in introductory physics course at University of Zagreb was also analyzed. The Rasch model based analysis suggests that the FCI has succeeded in defining a sufficiently unidimensional construct for each population. The analysis of fit of data to the model found no grossly misfitting items which would degrade measurement. Some items with larger misfit and items with significantly different difficulties in the two samples of students do require further

  5. 78 FR 29131 - Solar Star California XX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1442-000] Solar Star California XX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Solar Star...

  6. 78 FR 29130 - Solar Star California XIX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1441-000] Solar Star California XIX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Solar Star...

  7. Sustainable California: Getting the word out through a web-based TV channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, R. C.; Bernacchi, L.; Conklin, M. H.; Safeeq, M.; Viers, J. H.; Gilmore, M.

    2017-12-01

    If a picture is worth a thousand words, then 30 frames per second in short video offers a science-policy link in a fraction of time. We have adapted our work on forest and watershed restoration, on water information and management in California, on food-water security, and other topics for a lay public and decision-maker audiences. We have worked with University of California Television (UCTV) to develop short (3-60 sec), solution-based, sustainability videos for education and outreach. UCTV reaches a massive audience through a proprietary web interface in addition to subscriptions, YouTube, iTunes, and public broadcasting. Work is amplified through social media and a network of sustainability organizations with UC. We build stories and curriculum to accompany a video that "grabs" the audience. For example, in the inaugural video for our Sustainable California channel (http://www.uctv.tv/sustainable-cal/), "Water in the Balance," initially received thousands of views on Facebook and over 750 views on YouTube in addition to website subscriptions. Developed through our UC Water Security and Sustainability Initiative (http://ucwater.org/), it succinctly tells the story of water sustainability in the state relying on three changing and interconnected stores of water: snow, reservoirs and groundwater. By introducing the viewer to hydrology, climate science, and geospatial analysis, the value of geosciences is linked to one of our most critical resources: water is in the news every day. A second video covers the connections between forests and water resources, arguing for integrated management, and introducing viewers to the geosciences through the layers of the biosphere to lithosphere, where life meets rock. It highlights research from our Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (https://criticalzone.org/sierra/). Water is the actor, flowing through the whole system. We link the forest story with implications for downstream water users. Video resources invite the

  8. Research on Evacuation Based on Social Force Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Deng, Z.; Li, W.; Lin, J.

    2017-09-01

    Crowded centers always cause personnel casualties in evacuation operations. Stampede events often occur by hit, squeeze and crush due to panic. It is of vital important to alleviate such situation. With the deepening of personnel evacuation research, more and more researchers are committed to study individual behaviors and self-organization phenomenon in evacuation process. The study mainly includes: 1, enrich the social force model from different facets such as visual, psychological, external force to descript more realistic evacuation; 2, research on causes and effects of self - organization phenomenon. In this paper, we focus on disorder motion that occurs in the crowded indoor publics, especially the narrow channel and safety exits and other special arteries. We put forward the improved social force model to depict pedestrians' behaviors, an orderly speed-stratification evacuation method to solve disorder problem, and shape-changed export to alleviate congestion. The result of this work shows an improvement of evacuation efficiency by 19.5 %. Guiding pedestrians' direction to slow down the influence of social forces has a guidance function in improving the efficiency of indoor emergency evacuation.

  9. Enhancing Optical Forces in InP-Based Waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryaee Panah, Mohammad Esmail; Semenova, Elizaveta S; Lavrinenko, Andrei V

    2017-06-08

    Cantilever sensors are among the most important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which are usually actuated by electrostatic forces or piezoelectric elements. Although well-developed microfabrication technology has made silicon the prevailing material for MEMS, unique properties of other materials are overlooked in this context. Here we investigate optically induced forces exerted upon a semi-insulating InP waveguide suspended above a highly doped InP:Si substrate, in three different regimes: the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ), with excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and phonons excitation. An order of magnitude amplification of the force is observed when light is coupled to SPPs, and three orders of magnitude amplification is achieved in the phonon excitation regime. In the ENZ regime, the force is found to be repulsive and higher than that in a waveguide suspended above a dielectric substrate. Low losses in InP:Si result in a big propagation length. The induced deflection can be detected by measuring the phase change of the light when passing through the waveguide, which enables all-optical functioning, and paves the way towards integration and miniaturization of micro-cantilevers. In addition, tunability of the ENZ and the SPP excitation wavelength ranges, via adjusting the carrier concentration, provides an extra degree of freedom for designing MEMS devices.

  10. Final Nellis Air Force Base Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    pathology, radiology, dietetic and nutritional medicine, medical benefits and information. The 99th Security Forces Squadron provides flight-line...parking lots RKMF070024 Construct Soccer Field Parking Lot Roads/parking lots RKMF110155 Construct Solar Lighting At Hospital Track Recreation

  11. Forest inventory-based estimation of carbon stocks and flux in California forests in 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Fried; Xiaoping. Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of forest carbon stores and flux for California circa 1990 were modeled from forest inventory data in support of California’s legislatively mandated greenhouse gas inventory. Reliable estimates of live-tree carbon stores and flux on timberlands outside of national forest could be calculated from periodic inventory data collected in the 1980s and 1990s;...

  12. The Process of Adoption of Evidence-based Tobacco Use Prevention Programs in California Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise Ann

    2014-01-01

    Although there are a number of research-validated substance use prevention programs available for wide-scale dissemination, very little is known about the factors that influence adoption of evidence-based prevention programs in schools. We tested a model of the mechanisms of program adoption in schools that was guided by diffusion of innovations and social ecological theories. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of school district and county office of education tobacco use prevention education coordinators throughout California. Structural equation modeling was used to test the effects of community- and organizational variables on the adoption of prevention programs via school administrators’ beliefs and the organization’s receipt of funding for the program. Results supported the hypothesis that the process of adoption begins with forming beliefs about the program, leading to adoption through the receipt of funding. In addition, we found direct effects of various community- and organizational-level factors on beliefs, receipt of funding, and adoption. These results are likely to inform policies that affect school districts’ use of evidence-based substance use prevention programming, which should ultimately lead to reductions in negative health outcomes among adolescents. Specifically, this study identifies various factors that could be targeted for improvement to enhance evidence-based program adoption. To our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically elucidate the process of adoption of evidence-based tobacco prevention programs in schools. PMID:24398826

  13. Comparison of measurement- and proxy-based Vs30 values in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Alan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study was prompted by the recent availability of a significant amount of openly accessible measured VS30 values and the desire to investigate the trend of using proxy-based models to predict VS30 in the absence of measurements. Comparisons between measured and model-based values were performed. The measured data included 503 VS30 values collected from various projects for 482 seismographic station sites in California. Six proxy-based models—employing geologic mapping, topographic slope, and terrain classification—were also considered. Included was a new terrain class model based on the Yong et al. (2012) approach but recalibrated with updated measured VS30 values. Using the measured VS30 data as the metric for performance, the predictive capabilities of the six models were determined to be statistically indistinguishable. This study also found three models that tend to underpredict VS30 at lower velocities (NEHRP Site Classes D–E) and overpredict at higher velocities (Site Classes B–C).

  14. CyberShake: A Physics-Based Seismic Hazard Model for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R.; Jordan, T.H.; Callaghan, S.; Deelman, E.; Field, E.; Juve, G.; Kesselman, C.; Maechling, P.; Mehta, G.; Milner, K.; Okaya, D.; Small, P.; Vahi, K.

    2011-01-01

    CyberShake, as part of the Southern California Earthquake Center's (SCEC) Community Modeling Environment, is developing a methodology that explicitly incorporates deterministic source and wave propagation effects within seismic hazard calculations through the use of physics-based 3D ground motion simulations. To calculate a waveform-based seismic hazard estimate for a site of interest, we begin with Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2.0 (UCERF2.0) and identify all ruptures within 200 km of the site of interest. We convert the UCERF2.0 rupture definition into multiple rupture variations with differing hypocenter locations and slip distributions, resulting in about 415,000 rupture variations per site. Strain Green Tensors are calculated for the site of interest using the SCEC Community Velocity Model, Version 4 (CVM4), and then, using reciprocity, we calculate synthetic seismograms for each rupture variation. Peak intensity measures are then extracted from these synthetics and combined with the original rupture probabilities to produce probabilistic seismic hazard curves for the site. Being explicitly site-based, CyberShake directly samples the ground motion variability at that site over many earthquake cycles (i. e., rupture scenarios) and alleviates the need for the ergodic assumption that is implicitly included in traditional empirically based calculations. Thus far, we have simulated ruptures at over 200 sites in the Los Angeles region for ground shaking periods of 2 s and longer, providing the basis for the first generation CyberShake hazard maps. Our results indicate that the combination of rupture directivity and basin response effects can lead to an increase in the hazard level for some sites, relative to that given by a conventional Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE). Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, we find that the physics-based hazard results are much more sensitive to the assumed magnitude-area relations and

  15. Novel nonlinear knowledge-based mean force potentials based on machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiwen; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2011-01-01

    The prediction of 3D structures of proteins from amino acid sequences is one of the most challenging problems in molecular biology. An essential task for solving this problem with coarse-grained models is to deduce effective interaction potentials. The development and evaluation of new energy functions is critical to accurately modeling the properties of biological macromolecules. Knowledge-based mean force potentials are derived from statistical analysis of proteins of known structures. Current knowledge-based potentials are almost in the form of weighted linear sum of interaction pairs. In this study, a class of novel nonlinear knowledge-based mean force potentials is presented. The potential parameters are obtained by nonlinear classifiers, instead of relative frequencies of interaction pairs against a reference state or linear classifiers. The support vector machine is used to derive the potential parameters on data sets that contain both native structures and decoy structures. Five knowledge-based mean force Boltzmann-based or linear potentials are introduced and their corresponding nonlinear potentials are implemented. They are the DIH potential (single-body residue-level Boltzmann-based potential), the DFIRE-SCM potential (two-body residue-level Boltzmann-based potential), the FS potential (two-body atom-level Boltzmann-based potential), the HR potential (two-body residue-level linear potential), and the T32S3 potential (two-body atom-level linear potential). Experiments are performed on well-established decoy sets, including the LKF data set, the CASP7 data set, and the Decoys “R”Us data set. The evaluation metrics include the energy Z score and the ability of each potential to discriminate native structures from a set of decoy structures. Experimental results show that all nonlinear potentials significantly outperform the corresponding Boltzmann-based or linear potentials, and the proposed discriminative framework is effective in developing knowledge-based

  16. Formations of Robotic Swarm: An Artificial Force Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samitha W. Ekanayake

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative control of multiple mobile robots is an attractive and challenging problem which has drawn considerable attention in the recent past. This paper introduces a scalable decentralized control algorithm to navigate a group of mobile robots (swarm into a predefined shape in 2D space. The proposed architecture uses artificial forces to control mobile agents into the shape and spread them inside the shape while avoiding inter-member collisions. The theoretical analysis of the swarm behavior describes the motion of the complete swarm and individual members in relevant situations. We use computer simulated case studies to verify the theoretical assertions and to demonstrate the robustness of the swarm under external disturbances such as death of agents, change of shape etc. Also the performance of the proposed distributed swarm control architecture was investigated in the presence of realistic implementation issues such as localization errors, communication range limitations, boundedness of forces etc.

  17. Formations of Robotic Swarm: An Artificial Force Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samitha W. Ekanayake

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative control of multiple mobile robots is an attractive and challenging problem which has drawn considerable attention in the recent past. This paper introduces a scalable decentralized control algorithm to navigate a group of mobile robots (swarm into a predefined shape in 2D space. The proposed architecture uses artificial forces to control mobile agents into the shape and spread them inside the shape while avoiding inter-member collisions. The theoretical analysis of the swarm behavior describes the motion of the complete swarm and individual members in relevant situations. We use computer simulated case studies to verify the theoretical assertions and to demonstrate the robustness of the swarm under external disturbances such as death of agents, change of shape etc. Also the performance of the proposed distributed swarm control architecture was investigated in the presence of realistic implementation issues such as localization errors, communication range limitations, boundedness of forces etc.

  18. Formations of Robotic Swarm: An Artificial Force Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samitha W. Ekanayake

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative control of multiple mobile robots is an attractive and challenging problem which has drawn considerable attention in the recent past. This paper introduces a scalable decentralized control algorithm to navigate a group of mobile robots (swarm into a predefined shape in 2D space. The proposed architecture uses artificial forces to control mobile agents into the shape and spread them inside the shape while avoiding inter- member collisions. The theoretical analysis of the swarm behavior describes the motion of the complete swarm and individual members in relevant situations. We use computer simulated case studies to verify the theoretical assertions and to demonstrate the robustness of the swarm under external disturbances such as death of agents, change of shape etc. Also the performance of the proposed distributed swarm control architecture was investigated in the presence of realistic implementation issues such as localization errors, communication range limitations, boundedness of forces etc.

  19. Formations of Robotic Swarm: An Artificial Force Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samitha W. Ekanayake

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative control of multiple mobile robots is an attractive and challenging problem which has drawn considerable attention in the recent past. This paper introduces a scalable decentralized control algorithm to navigate a group of mobile robots (swarm into a predefined shape in 2D space. The proposed architecture uses artificial forces to control mobile agents into the shape and spread them inside the shape while avoiding inter- member collisions. The theoretical analysis of the swarm behavior describes the motion of the complete swarm and individual members in relevant situations. We use computer simulated case studies to verify the theoretical assertions and to demonstrate the robustness of the swarm under external disturbances such as death of agents, change of shape etc. Also the performance of the proposed distributed swarm control architecture was investigated in the presence of realistic implementation issues such as localization errors, communication range limitations, boundedness of forces etc.

  20. Rigorous force field optimization principles based on statistical distance minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlcek, Lukas, E-mail: vlcekl1@ornl.gov [Chemical Sciences Division, Geochemistry & Interfacial Sciences Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (United States); Joint Institute for Computational Sciences, University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6173 (United States); Chialvo, Ariel A. [Chemical Sciences Division, Geochemistry & Interfacial Sciences Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (United States)

    2015-10-14

    We use the concept of statistical distance to define a measure of distinguishability between a pair of statistical mechanical systems, i.e., a model and its target, and show that its minimization leads to general convergence of the model’s static measurable properties to those of the target. We exploit this feature to define a rigorous basis for the development of accurate and robust effective molecular force fields that are inherently compatible with coarse-grained experimental data. The new model optimization principles and their efficient implementation are illustrated through selected examples, whose outcome demonstrates the higher robustness and predictive accuracy of the approach compared to other currently used methods, such as force matching and relative entropy minimization. We also discuss relations between the newly developed principles and established thermodynamic concepts, which include the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality and the thermodynamic length.

  1. A Knowledge base representing Porter's Five Forces Model

    OpenAIRE

    Swaan Arons, H.; Waalewijn, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    textabstractStrategic Analysis and Planning is a field in which expertise and experience are key factors. In order to decide on strategic matters such as the competitive position of a company experts heavily lean on their ability to reason with uncertain or incomplete knowledge, or in other words on their experience and expertise. An important aspect is to assess a company's profit potential in the industry for which Porter's Competitive Forces Model is by far the most widely used framework. ...

  2. Habitat-Based Density Models for Three Cetacean Species off Southern California Illustrate Pronounced Seasonal Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Becker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Managing marine species effectively requires spatially and temporally explicit knowledge of their density and distribution. Habitat-based density models, a type of species distribution model (SDM that uses habitat covariates to estimate species density and distribution patterns, are increasingly used for marine management and conservation because they provide a tool for assessing potential impacts (e.g., from fishery bycatch, ship strikes, anthropogenic sound over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The abundance and distribution of many pelagic species exhibit substantial seasonal variability, highlighting the importance of predicting density specific to the season of interest. This is particularly true in dynamic regions like the California Current, where significant seasonal shifts in cetacean distribution have been documented at coarse scales. Finer scale (10 km habitat-based density models were previously developed for many cetacean species occurring in this region, but most models were limited to summer/fall. The objectives of our study were two-fold: (1 develop spatially-explicit density estimates for winter/spring to support management applications, and (2 compare model-predicted density and distribution patterns to previously developed summer/fall model results in the context of species ecology. We used a well-established Generalized Additive Modeling framework to develop cetacean SDMs based on 20 California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI shipboard surveys conducted during winter and spring between 2005 and 2015. Models were fit for short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis delphis, Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli, and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae. Model performance was evaluated based on a variety of established metrics, including the percentage of explained deviance, ratios of observed to predicted density, and visual inspection of predicted and observed distributions. Final models were

  3. 75 FR 30689 - Modification of Class C Airspace; Beale Air Force Base, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Base, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies the legal description of the Beale Air Force Base (AFB), CA, Class C airspace area by allowing the...

  4. Estimation of Handgrip Force from SEMG Based on Wavelet Scale Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xianmin; Ota, Jun; Huang, Yanjiang

    2018-02-24

    This paper proposes a nonlinear correlation-based wavelet scale selection technology to select the effective wavelet scales for the estimation of handgrip force from surface electromyograms (SEMG). The SEMG signal corresponding to gripping force was collected from extensor and flexor forearm muscles during the force-varying analysis task. We performed a computational sensitivity analysis on the initial nonlinear SEMG-handgrip force model. To explore the nonlinear correlation between ten wavelet scales and handgrip force, a large-scale iteration based on the Monte Carlo simulation was conducted. To choose a suitable combination of scales, we proposed a rule to combine wavelet scales based on the sensitivity of each scale and selected the appropriate combination of wavelet scales based on sequence combination analysis (SCA). The results of SCA indicated that the scale combination VI is suitable for estimating force from the extensors and the combination V is suitable for the flexors. The proposed method was compared to two former methods through prolonged static and force-varying contraction tasks. The experiment results showed that the root mean square errors derived by the proposed method for both static and force-varying contraction tasks were less than 20%. The accuracy and robustness of the handgrip force derived by the proposed method is better than that obtained by the former methods.

  5. Supplemental Environmental Assessment for the Mid-Bay Bridge Connector Phases 2 and 3, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    D. Rodriigue;c 96 CEGICEVS PEPARTMENT OF THE AWR FORCE HEADQUARTERS 96TH AIR &ASE WING (AFMC) EGUN AJR FORCE BASE, FLORIDA 501 Deleon Stteet...Supplemental Environmental Assessment Maria D. Rodriguez 96CEG/CEVS DEPARTMENT OF THE AiR FORCE HEADQUARTERS 96Tit AIR BASE WING (I’ fMC) EGUN AIR FORCE...BASE WING (AFMC) EGUN AIR fORCE BASE, FLORIDA Historic Preservation Specialist Old Post Office Building 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite 803

  6. Research of a Novel Three-dimensional Force Flexible Tactile Sensor Based on Conductive Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel three-dimensional force flexible tactile sensor using conductive rubber with "overall injection molding" technique is presented. The sensor is based on conductive rubber’s force-sensitive property. The sensor is flexible and can measure 3-D force. The rubber’s characteristics, the sensor’s structure and its principle are described. The results of simulation will be also presented.

  7. Enviromental Assessment: Security Forces Regional Training Center at Little Rock Air Force Base Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-14

    OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 14 JUL 2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enviromental ...civil engineers , services, fliers, maintenance, etc.). The numbers of personnel and types of associated equipment vary based on the functional group...streams or wetlands. Section 404 regulates development in streams and wetlands and requires a permit from the United States Army Corps of Engineers

  8. Final Environmental Assessment for the First Air Force Air Operations Center, First Air Force Headquarters/Air Force Forces Center, and Highway 98 Overpass at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    no comments regarding the Draft Environmental Assessment for the First Air Force Operations Center, First Air Force Headquarters/Air Force Forces...COUNCIL ] No Comment BAY - BAY COUNTY No Final Comments Received ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY UNIT - OFFICE OF POLICY AND BUDGET, ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY UNIT NO ...CONSERVATION COMMISSION [ NO COMMENT BY BRIAN BARNETT ON 4/12/04. [STATE - FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE [ No Comment [TRANSPORTATION - FLORIDA DEPARTMENT

  9. Moving force identification based on modified preconditioned conjugate gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Nguyen, Andy

    2018-06-01

    This paper develops a modified preconditioned conjugate gradient (M-PCG) method for moving force identification (MFI) by improving the conjugate gradient (CG) and preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) methods with a modified Gram-Schmidt algorithm. The method aims to obtain more accurate and more efficient identification results from the responses of bridge deck caused by vehicles passing by, which are known to be sensitive to ill-posed problems that exist in the inverse problem. A simply supported beam model with biaxial time-varying forces is used to generate numerical simulations with various analysis scenarios to assess the effectiveness of the method. Evaluation results show that regularization matrix L and number of iterations j are very important influence factors to identification accuracy and noise immunity of M-PCG. Compared with the conventional counterpart SVD embedded in the time domain method (TDM) and the standard form of CG, the M-PCG with proper regularization matrix has many advantages such as better adaptability and more robust to ill-posed problems. More importantly, it is shown that the average optimal numbers of iterations of M-PCG can be reduced by more than 70% compared with PCG and this apparently makes M-PCG a preferred choice for field MFI applications.

  10. A Case Study of Array-based Early Warning System for Tsunami Offshore Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Meng, L.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme scenarios of M 7.5+ earthquakes on the Red Mountain and Pitas Point faults can potentially generate significant local tsunamis in southern California. The maximum water elevation could be as large as 10 m in the nearshore region of Oxnard and Santa Barbara. Recent development in seismic array processing enables rapid tsunami prediction and early warning based on the back-projection approach (BP). The idea is to estimate the rupture size by back-tracing the seismic body waves recorded by stations at local and regional distances. A simplified source model of uniform slip is constructed and used as an input for tsunami simulations that predict the tsunami wave height and arrival time. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in southern California by implementing it in a simulated real-time environment and applying to a hypothetical M 7.7 Dip-slip earthquake scenario on the Pitas Point fault. Synthetic seismograms are produced using the SCEC broadband platform based on the 3D SoCal community velocity model. We use S-wave instead of P-wave to avoid S-minus-P travel times shorter than rupture duration. Two clusters of strong-motion stations near Bakersfield and Palmdale are selected to determine the back-azimuth of the strongest high-frequency radiations (0.5-1 Hz). The back-azimuths of the two clusters are then intersected to locate the source positions. The rupture area is then approximated by enclosing these BP radiators with an ellipse or a polygon. Our preliminary results show that the extent of 1294 square kilometers rupture area and magnitude of 7.6 obtained by this approach is reasonably close to the 1849 square kilometers and 7.7 of the input model. The average slip of 7.3 m is then estimated according to the scaling relation between slip and rupture area, which is close to the actual average dislocation amount, 8.3 m. Finally, a tsunami simulation is conducted to assess the wave height and arrival time. The errors of -3 to +9 s in arrival time

  11. Linear-hall sensor based force detecting unit for lower limb exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwu; Zhu, Yanhe; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Tianshuo; Zhang, Zongwei

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a knee-joint human-machine interaction force sensor for lower-limb force-assistance exoskeleton. The structure is designed based on hall sensor and series elastic actuator (SEA) structure. The work we have done includes the structure design, the parameter determination and dynamic simulation. By converting the force signal into macro displacement and output voltage, we completed the measurement of man-machine interaction force. And it is proved by experiments that the design is simple, stable and low-cost.

  12. Pollen-based evidence of extreme drought during the last Glacial (32.6-9.0 ka) in coastal southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Linda E.; Kirby, Matthew E.; Nichols, Jonathan E.

    2015-10-01

    High resolution pollen analyses of sediment core LEDC10-1 from Lake Elsinore yield the first well-dated, terrestrial record of sub-centennial-scale ecologic change in coastal southern California between ˜32 and 9 ka. In the Lake Elsinore watershed, the initial, mesic montane conifer forests dominated by Pinus, and Cupressaceae with trace amounts of Abies and Picea were replaced by a sequence of multiple, extended severe mega-droughts between ˜27.5 and ˜25.5 ka, in which halophytic and xerophytic herbs and shrubs occupied an ephemeral lake. This prolonged and extended dry interval, which corresponds with warm waters offshore, imply strengthening of the North Pacific High and persistent below-average winter precipitation. The subsequent, contrasting monotonic occurrence of montane conifers reflects little variation in cold, mesic climate until ˜15 ka. Postglacial development of Quercus woodland and chaparral mark the return to more xeric, warmer conditions at this time. A brief reversal at ˜13.1-˜12.1 ka, as reflected by an expansion of Pinus, is correlative with the Younger Dryas and interrupts development of warm, postglacial climate. Subsequent gradual expansion of xeric vegetation post - Younger Dryas denotes the establishment of a winter hydroclimate regime in coastal southern California that is more similar to modern conditions. Pollen-based reconstructions of temperature and precipitation at Lake Elsinore are generally correlative with pollen-based paleoclimatic reconstructions and foraminifera-based sea surface temperatures from Santa Barbara Basin in marine core ODP 893. The conspicuous absence of the ˜27.5-˜25.5 ka glacial "mega-drought" in the Santa Barbara Basin pollen record highlights the sensitivity of Lake Elsinore to hydroclimate change, and thus, the importance of this new record that indicates that mega-drought can occur during the full glacial when climatic boundary conditions and forcings differed substantially from the present.

  13. Hybrid Force Control Based on ICMAC for an Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixun Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot (ART based on a cable-driven mechanism is represented in this paper. ART, a typical passive force servo system, can help astronauts to bench press in a microgravity environment. The purpose of this paper is to design controllers to eliminate the surplus force caused by an astronaut's active movements. Based on the dynamics modelling of the cable-driven unit, a hybrid force controller based on improved credit assignment CMAC (ICMAC is presented. A planning method for the cable tension is proposed so that the dynamic load produced by the ART can realistically simulate the gravity and inertial force of the barbell in a gravity environment. Finally, MATLAB simulation results of the man-machine cooperation system are provided in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. The simulation results show that the hybrid control method based on the structure invariance principle can inhibit the surplus force and that ICMAC can improve the dynamic performance of the passive force servo system. Furthermore, the hybrid force controller based on ICMAC can ensure the stability of the system.

  14. From Drought to Recovery: a GRACE-Based Assessment of Groundwater Storage Variations in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, A.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Liu, P. W.; Reager, J. T., II

    2017-12-01

    The 2011-2015 drought in California was the most severe on record and significantly depleted state water reserves. However, after the consecutive wet winters of 2015-16 and 2016-17, water storage in reservoirs, soil, snowpack, and aquifers began recovering and the state government lifted the drought emergency for all California counties except four. But is the drought really "over"? Quantifiable metrics of groundwater storage are necessary to provide such evidence, yet in situ measurements are sparse at best. Here we holistically test whether California state water resources have fully recovered in the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Tulare Lake basins of California, using remote sensing satellite observations, in situ measurements, and numerical models. Specifically, we partition water storage into four components of the terrestrial water cycle: soil moisture, snow water equivalent, surface water, and groundwater. We derive soil moisture and snow water equivalent from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and we use the California Data Exchange Center (CDEC) network to measure in situ reservoir storage. To estimate changes in groundwater storage, we subtract these three components from the total water storage derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite. Preliminary results show that the groundwater storage plummeted to a record low during the 2011-2015 drought. The results also show a rapid recovery in total water storage from 2015-2017. Moreover, we find that groundwater accounts for, on average, 60% of the total water storage variations in the study basins. Our results hold social significance when placed in the context of arid California: Did the groundwater recover? Is this the largest recovery that California can expect? Finally, our results have implications for the utility of remote sensing to inform water resource management decisions.

  15. A radial distribution function-based open boundary force model for multi-centered molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp; Eckhardt, Wolfgang; Bungartz, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We derive an expression for radial distribution function (RDF)-based open boundary forcing for molecules with multiple interaction sites. Due to the high-dimensionality of the molecule configuration space and missing rotational invariance, a

  16. 2008 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) Lidar: Eglin Air Force Base, Walton County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the summer of 2008, the Northwest Florida Water Management District collected lidar data over a portion of Walton County, FL (Eglin Air force Base) to support...

  17. Maritime Pre-Positioning Force-Future: Bill Payer or Sea Basing Enabler?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grotewold, William R

    2008-01-01

    .... The Maritime Prepositioning Force-Future (MPF-F) program, envisioned as a key enabler of sea basing, may be funded through further cuts in amphibious ships or fall victim to an untenable Navy ship building plan...

  18. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  19. Initial Remedial Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System BX Service Station, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    This initial remedial action plan presents the scope for an expanded bioventing system for in situ treatment of fuel-contaminated soils at the BX Service Station at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB), Florida...

  20. Corrective Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System Site FT-03, Charleston Air Force Base, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ... (former Fire Protection Training Area No. 3), Charleston Air Force Base (AFB), South Carolina. A one-year bioventing pilot study previously conducted at this site had successful results in reducing fuel hydrocarbons in soils...

  1. Remedial Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System Buildings 2034/2035, Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    This remedial action plan (RAP) presents the scope for an expanded bioventing system for in situ treatment of fuel-contaminated soils in the vicinity of Buildings 2034 and 2035 at Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB), Washington...

  2. Atomic force microscopy-based repeated machining theory for nanochannels on silicon oxide surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.Q., E-mail: wangzhiqian@sia.cn [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, CAS, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiao, N.D. [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, CAS, Shenyang 110016 (China); Tung, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Dong, Z.L. [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, CAS, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2011-02-01

    The atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based repeated nanomachining of nanochannels on silicon oxide surfaces is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The relationships of the initial nanochannel depth vs. final nanochannel depth at a normal force are systematically studied. Using the derived theory and simulation results, the final nanochannel depth can be predicted easily. Meanwhile, if a nanochannel with an expected depth needs to be machined, a right normal force can be selected simply and easily in order to decrease the wear of the AFM tip. The theoretical analysis and simulation results can be effectively used for AFM-based fabrication of nanochannels.

  3. An evaluation of approximations of acute hazard indices based on chronic hazard indices for California fossil-fuel power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratt, L.B.; Levin, L.

    1998-01-01

    The measures for evaluating risk under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are yet to be defined. Many risk assessments have used only chronic risk measures (lifetime cancer probability and chronic hazard index) based on yearly averages of long-term dispersion of substances into ambient air. In California, many facilities prepared risk assessments using hourly meteorological data and short-term emission rates, allowing the calculation of an acute hazard index. These risk assessments are more costly and labor-intensive than those using the annualized meteorological data. A simple scheme to estimate the acute hazard index from the chronic index is proposed. This scheme is evaluated for four electric power stations in Southern California. The simple scheme was found lacking due to the inability to reasonably estimate both the hourly emission rates from annual averages and hourly concentrations from annual concentrations. The need for the acute risk measure for stack emission can be questioned based on the more detailed risk assessments performed in California

  4. The Great California ShakeOut: Science-Based Preparedness Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthien, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Great Southern California ShakeOut in November 2008 was the largest earthquake drill in U.S. history, involving over 5 million southern Californians through a broad-based outreach program, media partnerships, and public advocacy by hundreds of partners. The basis of the drill was a comprehensive scenario for a magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault, which would cause broad devastation. In early 2009 the decision was made to hold the drill statewide on the third Thursday of October each year (October 15 in 2009). Results of the 2008 and 2009 drills will be shared in this session. In addition, prospects of early warning systems will be described, that will one day provide the needed seconds before strong shaking arrives in which critical systems and be shut down, and people can do what they've been practicing in the ShakeOut drills: drop, cover, and hold on. A key aspect of the ShakeOut is the integration of a comprehensive earthquake scenario (incorporating earth science, engineering, policy, economics, public health, and other disciplines) and the lessons learned from decades of social science research about why people get prepared. The result is a “teachable moment” on par with having an actual earthquake (often followed by increased interest in getting ready for earthquakes). ShakeOut creates the sense of urgency that is needed for people, organizations, and communities to get prepared, to practice what to do to be safe, and to learn what plans need to be improved.

  5. Environmental Assessment: Multiple Projects at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-17

    Publico sobre el La Evaluation de lmpacto Ambiental de MUltiples Proyectos en Ia Base de Ia Fuerza Aerea Laughlin De acuerdo con el Acta Nacional de 1...which emphasizes frequencies in the middle of the audible spectrum and de -emphasizes low and high frequencies in a manner corresponding to the way the...feet from the source. Assuming that noise from the heavy equipment radiates equally in all directions, the sound intensity diminishes inversely as the

  6. Environmental Assessment for Demolition and Disposal of Base Buildings and Facilities on Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-26

    shallow bedrock or several hundred feet of ancient sand, silt and clay lakebed deposits. Soil refers to the uppermost layers of surficial geologic...Some soils have a silt or clay component especially around the lakebeds where clay predominates. All soils at Edwards AFB have low organic carbon...Not Completed Completed 3-Jun-11 Initial survey completed. Confirmatory survey required. FY14 14 (A4) Sanitary Latrine (1965

  7. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing from Both Production-based and Consumption-based View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol radiative forcing (RF) is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. This problem becomes more complicated when taking into account the role of international trade, which means reallocated aerosol RF due to separation of regions producing goods and emissions and regions consuming those goods. Here we analyze major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA) and black carbon (BC), extending the work of Lin et al. (2016, Nature Geoscience). We contrast five factors determining production-based (RFp, due to a region's production of goods) and consumption-based (RFc, due to a region's consumption) forcing by 11 major regions, including population size, per capita output, emission intensity (emission per output), chemical efficiency (mass per unit emission) and radiative efficiency (RF per unit mass). Comparing across the 11 regions, East Asia produces the strongest RFp and RFc of SIOA and BC and the second largest RFp and RFc of POA primarily due to its high emission intensity. Although Middle East and North Africa has low emissions, its RFp is strengthened by its largest chemical efficiency for POA and BC and second largest chemical efficiency for SIOA. However, RFp of South-East Asia and Pacific is greatly weakened by its lowest chemical efficiency. Economic trade means that net importers (Western Europe, North America and Pacific OECD) have higher RFc than RFp by 50-100%. And such forcing difference is mainly due to the high emission intensity of the exporters supplying these regions. For North America, SIOA's RFc is 50% stronger than RFp, for that emission intensity of SIOA is 5.2 times in East Asia and 2.5 times in Latin America and Caribbean compared with that in North America, and the chemical efficiency in the top four exporters are

  8. Prestress Force Identification for Externally Prestressed Concrete Beam Based on Frequency Equation and Measured Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luning Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A prestress force identification method for externally prestressed concrete uniform beam based on the frequency equation and the measured frequencies is developed. For the purpose of the prestress force identification accuracy, we first look for the appropriate method to solve the free vibration equation of externally prestressed concrete beam and then combine the measured frequencies with frequency equation to identify the prestress force. To obtain the exact solution of the free vibration equation of multispan externally prestressed concrete beam, an analytical model of externally prestressed concrete beam is set up based on the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory and the function relation between prestress variation and vibration displacement is built. The multispan externally prestressed concrete beam is taken as the multiple single-span beams which must meet the bending moment and rotation angle boundary conditions, the free vibration equation is solved using sublevel simultaneous method and the semi-analytical solution of the free vibration equation which considered the influence of prestress on section rigidity and beam length is obtained. Taking simply supported concrete beam and two-span concrete beam with external tendons as examples, frequency function curves are obtained with the measured frequencies into it and the prestress force can be identified using the abscissa of the crosspoint of frequency functions. Identification value of the prestress force is in good agreement with the test results. The method can accurately identify prestress force of externally prestressed concrete beam and trace the trend of effective prestress force.

  9. Extended neural network-based scheme for real-time force tracking with magnetorheological dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Felix; Bhowmik, Subrata; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2014-01-01

    This paper validates numerically and experimentally a new neural network-based real-time force tracking scheme for magnetorheological (MR) dampers on a five-storey shear frame with MR damper. The inverse model is trained with absolute values of measured velocity and force because the targeted...... the pre-yield to the post-yield region. A control-oriented approach is presented to compensate for these drawbacks. The resulting control force tracking scheme is validated for the emulation of viscous damping, clipped viscous damping with negative stiffness, and friction damping with negative stiffness...

  10. Sliding mode-based lateral vehicle dynamics control using tyre force measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnappillil Madhusudhanan, Anil; Corno, Matteo; Holweg, Edward

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a lateral vehicle dynamics control based on tyre force measurements is proposed. Most of the lateral vehicle dynamics control schemes are based on yaw rate whereas tyre forces are the most important variables in vehicle dynamics as tyres are the only contact points between the vehicle and road. In the proposed method, active front steering is employed to uniformly distribute the required lateral force among the front left and right tyres. The force distribution is quantified through the tyre utilisation coefficients. In order to address the nonlinearities and uncertainties of the vehicle model, a gain scheduling sliding-mode control technique is used. In addition to stabilising the lateral dynamics, the proposed controller is able to maintain maximum lateral acceleration. The proposed method is tested and validated on a multi-body vehicle simulator.

  11. Hysteresis Compensation of Piezoresistive Carbon Nanotube/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite-Based Force Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sik Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a preliminary study on the hysteresis compensation of a piezoresistive silicon-based polymer composite, poly(dimethylsiloxane dispersed with carbon nanotubes (CNTs, to demonstrate its feasibility as a conductive composite (i.e., a force-sensitive resistor for force sensors. In this study, the potential use of the nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane (CNT/PDMS as a force sensor is evaluated for the first time. The experimental results show that the electrical resistance of the CNT/PDMS composite changes in response to sinusoidal loading and static compressive load. The compensated output based on the Duhem hysteresis model shows a linear relationship. This simple hysteresis model can compensate for the nonlinear frequency-dependent hysteresis phenomenon when a dynamic sinusoidal force input is applied.

  12. Atomic-resolution single-spin magnetic resonance detection concept based on tunneling force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, A.; Ambal, K.; Boehme, C.; Williams, C. C.

    2015-05-01

    A study of a force detected single-spin magnetic resonance measurement concept with atomic spatial resolution is presented. The method is based upon electrostatic force detection of spin-selection rule controlled single-electron tunneling between two electrically isolated paramagnetic states. Single-spin magnetic resonance detection is possible by measuring the force detected tunneling charge noise on and off spin resonance. Simulation results of this charge noise, based upon physical models of the tunneling and spin physics, are directly compared to measured atomic force microscopy system noise. The results show that the approach could provide single-spin measurement of electrically isolated qubit states with atomic spatial resolution at room temperature.

  13. Environmental Assessment: Improvements to Silver Flag Training Area at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Command ACM asbestos-containing materials AICUZ Air Installation Compatible Use Zone AFB Air Force Base AFI Air Force Instruction APZ Accident...T E G2/S2 Wet prairies, wet flatwoods, ditches, seepage slopes, cypress swamps White-flowered wild petunia Ruellia noctiflora E G2/S2 Wet...Procedures (SOPs) 4 or 5 of the Tyndall AFB ICRMP are required to be implemented in the event that cultural materials are discovered during

  14. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  15. A Vision-Based Approach for Estimating Contact Forces: Applications to Robot-Assisted Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Kennedy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to provide force feedback to the user using vision-based techniques. The approach presented in this paper can be used to provide force feedback to the surgeon for robot-assisted procedures. As proof of concept, we have developed a linear elastic finite element model (FEM of a rubber membrane whereby the nodal displacements of the membrane points are measured using vision. These nodal displacements are the input into our finite element model. In the first experiment, we track the deformation of the membrane in real-time through stereovision and compare it with the actual deformation computed through forward kinematics of the robot arm. On the basis of accurate deformation estimation through vision, we test the physical model of a membrane developed through finite element techniques. The FEM model accurately reflects the interaction forces on the user console when the interaction forces of the robot arm with the membrane are compared with those experienced by the surgeon on the console through the force feedback device. In the second experiment, the PHANToM haptic interface device is used to control the Mitsubishi PA-10 robot arm and interact with the membrane in real-time. Image data obtained through vision of the deformation of the membrane is used as the displacement input for the FEM model to compute the local interaction forces which are then displayed on the user console for providing force feedback and hence closing the loop.

  16. Prediction of bubble detachment diameter in flow boiling based on force analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqi; Pan Liangming; Ren Song

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► All the forces acting on the growing bubbles are taken into account in the model. ► The bubble contact diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. ► Bubble growth force and surface tension are more significant in narrow channel. ► A good agreement between the predicted and the measured results is achieved. - Abstract: Bubble detachment diameter is one of the key parameters in the study of bubble dynamics and boiling heat transfer, and it is hard to be measured in a boiling system. In order to predict the bubble detachment diameter, a theoretical model is proposed based on forces analysis in this paper. All the forces acting on a bubble are taken into account to establish a model for different flow boiling configurations, including narrow and conventional channels, upward, downward and horizontal flows. A correlation of bubble contact circle diameter is adopted in this study, and it is found that the bubble contact circle diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. A new correlation taking the bubble contact circle diameter into account for the evaluation of bubble growth force is proposed in this study, and it is found that the bubble growth force and surface tension force are more significant in narrow channel when comparing with that in conventional channel. A visual experiment was carried out in order to verify present model; and the experimental data from published literature are used also. A good agreement between predicted and measured results is achieved.

  17. 77 FR 5781 - Record of Decision for the Air Space Training Initiative Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Record of Decision for the Air Space Training Initiative Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina Final Environmental Impact Statement ACTION: Notice of... signed the ROD for the Airspace Training Initiative Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina Final...

  18. Final Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Environmental Assessment for Realignment of Nellis Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    weapons systems in support of potential technological improvements in hardware, software , tactics, and training. In recent years, the total amount of...communities in southeastern California, southern Nevada, western and southern Arizona, southwestern Utah, and through Sonora and northern Sinaloa, Mexico ...Publ ic Utilities Commi ssion Pete Konesky , Stat e Energy Of f i ce Rebecca Pa l me r , State Historic Preservation Office Alisa Huckle, ONR Libr a

  19. Measuring crown dynamics of longleaf pine in the sandhills of Eglin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Anderson; Greg L. Somers; W. Rick Smith; Mickey Freeland; Donna Ruth

    1998-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service SRS, in cooperation with Auburn University, is developing an individual tree, spatially explicit, and btoiogicaily based growth model for natural iongieaf pine sands at Eglin Air Force Base in Florida. The goal of the growth model is to provide a tool for the land managers to compare silvicultural practices effects on the light and water...

  20. Developing evidence-based prescriptive ventilation rate standards for commercial buildings in California: a proposed framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Fisk, William J.

    2014-02-01

    Background - The goal of this project, with a focus on commercial buildings in California, was to develop a new framework for evidence-based minimum ventilation rate (MVR) standards that protect occupants in buildings while also considering energy use and cost. This was motivated by research findings suggesting that current prescriptive MVRs in commercial buildings do not provide occupants with fully safe and satisfactory indoor environments. Methods - The project began with a broad review in several areas ? the diverse strategies now used for standards or guidelines for MVRs or for environmental contaminant exposures, current knowledge about adverse human effects associated with VRs, and current knowledge about contaminants in commercial buildings, including their their presence, their adverse human effects, and their relationships with VRs. Based on a synthesis of the reviewed information, new principles and approaches are proposed for setting evidence-based VRs standards for commercial buildings, considering a range of human effects including health, performance, and acceptability of air. Results ? A review and evaluation is first presented of current approaches to setting prescriptive building ventilation standards and setting acceptable limits for human contaminant exposures in outdoor air and occupational settings. Recent research on approaches to setting acceptable levels of environmental exposures in evidence-based MVR standards is also described. From a synthesis and critique of these materials, a set of principles for setting MVRs is presented, along with an example approach based on these principles. The approach combines two sequential strategies. In a first step, an acceptable threshold is set for each adverse outcome that has a demonstrated relationship to VRs, as an increase from a (low) outcome level at a high reference ventilation rate (RVR, the VR needed to attain the best achievable levels of the adverse outcome); MVRs required to meet each

  1. Efficient crop type mapping based on remote sensing in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng

    Most agricultural systems in California's Central Valley are purposely flexible and intentionally designed to meet the demands of dynamic markets. Agricultural land use is also impacted by climate change and urban development. As a result, crops change annually and semiannually, which makes estimating agricultural water use difficult, especially given the existing method by which agricultural land use is identified and mapped. A minor portion of agricultural land is surveyed annually for land-use type, and every 5 to 8 years the entire valley is completely evaluated. So far no effort has been made to effectively and efficiently identify specific crop types on an annual basis in this area. The potential of satellite imagery to map agricultural land cover and estimate water usage in the Central Valley is explored. Efforts are made to minimize the cost and reduce the time of production during the mapping process. The land use change analysis shows that a remote sensing based mapping method is the only means to map the frequent change of major crop types. The traditional maximum likelihood classification approach is first utilized to map crop types to test the classification capacity of existing algorithms. High accuracy is achieved with sufficient ground truth data for training, and crop maps of moderate quality can be timely produced to facilitate a near-real-time water use estimate. However, the large set of ground truth data required by this method results in high costs in data collection. It is difficult to reduce the cost because a trained classification algorithm is not transferable between different years or different regions. A phenology based classification (PBC) approach is developed which extracts phenological metrics from annual vegetation index profiles and identifies crop types based on these metrics using decision trees. According to the comparison with traditional maximum likelihood classification, this phenology-based approach shows great advantages

  2. TGF-alpha genotypes, oral clefts, and environmental risk factors: A population-based California study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R. [CA Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lammer, E.J. [Stanford Univ., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Several studies have shown a relation between genetic variation at the TGF-alpha locus and oral clefts. These studies had limited sample sizes and also lacked data on additional factors potentially related to clefting. We investigated the influence on clefting from risk factors, such as maternal smoking, dependent on TFG-alpha genotype. This was accomplished using a large population-bases case-control study of fetuses and liveborn infants with oral clefts among a 1987-89 cohort of California births (N=548,844). To obtain data on potential risk factors, telephone interviews were conducted with mothers of 731 (84.5% of eligible) cleft cases, and 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed controls. DNA was obtained from newborn screening bloodspots and genotyped by using SSCP designed to detect the Taq1 RFLP. Among mothers who completed an interview, genotyping results were available for 571 (78.1%) cases and 640 (87.2%) controls. Compared to controls, the risk estimate for TGF-alpha polymorphism as measured by the odds ratio was: 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.64, 1.5) for isolated cleft lip {plus_minus}palate; 0.88 (0.33, 2.2) for nonisolated cleft lip {plus_minus}palate; 1.6 (0.94, 2.8) for isolated cleft palate; 1.9 (0.82, 4.3) for nonisolated cleft palate; and 2.2 (0.99, 5.0) for clefts with known etiology. This dataset also revealed 1.4 to 2-fold increased risks for maternal cigarette smoking > 19 cigs/day in early pregnancy. Among these heavy smokers, risk of clefting was even more increased for infants with the TGF-alpha polymorphism. Our data suggest an association between the TGF-alpha uncommon allele and some phenotypic subgroups as well as provide evidence for a genetic-environment interaction between maternal smoking and the variant in the etiology of clefting. The fraction of cases possibly attributed to this interaction, however, was small.

  3. Final Environmental Assessment for the Runway Extension and New Parking Apron at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    The Air Force prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) of the potential environmental consequences of constructing a new heavy parking apron and runway extension at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), Florida...

  4. Development of a quartz tuning-fork-based force sensor for measurements in the tens of nanoNewton force range during nanomanipulation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oiko, V. T. A., E-mail: oiko@ifi.unicamp.br; Rodrigues, V.; Ugarte, D. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Univ. Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas 13083-859 (Brazil); Martins, B. V. C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); Silva, P. C. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, CNPEM, Campinas 13083-970 (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Understanding the mechanical properties of nanoscale systems requires new experimental and theoretical tools. In particular, force sensors compatible with nanomechanical testing experiments and with sensitivity in the nN range are required. Here, we report the development and testing of a tuning-fork-based force sensor for in situ nanomanipulation experiments inside a scanning electron microscope. The sensor uses a very simple design for the electronics and it allows the direct and quantitative force measurement in the 1–100 nN force range. The sensor response is initially calibrated against a nN range force standard, as, for example, a calibrated Atomic Force Microscopy cantilever; subsequently, applied force values can be directly derived using only the electric signals generated by the tuning fork. Using a homemade nanomanipulator, the quantitative force sensor has been used to analyze the mechanical deformation of multi-walled carbon nanotube bundles, where we analyzed forces in the 5–40 nN range, measured with an error bar of a few nN.

  5. A computed torque method based attitude control with optimal force distribution for articulated body mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Edwardo F.; Hirose, Shigeo

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces an attitude control scheme based in optimal force distribution using quadratic programming which minimizes joint energy consumption. This method shares similarities with force distribution for multifingered hands, multiple coordinated manipulators and legged walking robots. In particular, an attitude control scheme was introduced inside the force distribution problem, and successfully implemented for control of the articulated body mobile robot KR-II. This is an actual mobile robot composed of cylindrical segments linked in series by prismatic joints and has a long snake-like appearance. These prismatic joints are force controlled so that each segment's vertical motion can automatically follow the terrain irregularities. An attitude control is necessary because this system acts like a system of wheeled inverted pendulum carts connected in series, being unstable by nature. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by computer simulation and experiments with the robot KR-II. (author)

  6. Reciprocity-based experimental determination of dynamic forces and moments: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver, Istvan L.; Howe, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    BBN Systems and Technologies has been tasked by the Georgia Tech Research Center to carry Task Assignment No. 7 for the NASA Langley Research Center to explore the feasibility of 'In-Situ Experimental Evaluation of the Source Strength of Complex Vibration Sources Utilizing Reciprocity.' The task was carried out under NASA Contract No. NAS1-19061. In flight it is not feasible to connect the vibration sources to their mounting points on the fuselage through force gauges to measure dynamic forces and moments directly. However, it is possible to measure the interior sound field or vibration response caused by these structureborne sound sources at many locations and invoke principle of reciprocity to predict the dynamic forces and moments. The work carried out in the framework of Task 7 was directed to explore the feasibility of reciprocity-based measurements of vibration forces and moments.

  7. Phase-resolved fluid dynamic forces of a flapping foil energy harvester based on PIV measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liburdy, James

    2017-11-01

    Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements are performed in a wind tunnel to evaluate the spatial and temporal fluid dynamic forces acting on a flapping foil operating in the energy harvesting regime. Experiments are conducted at reduced frequencies (k = fc/U) of 0.05 - 0.2, pitching angle of, and heaving amplitude of A / c = 0.6. The phase-averaged pressure field is obtained by integrating the pressure Poisson equation. Fluid dynamic forces are then obtained through the integral momentum equation. Results are compared with a simple force model based on the concept of flow impulse. These results help to show the detailed force distributions, their transient nature and aide in understanding the impact of the fluid flow structures that contribute to the power production.

  8. Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Cleanup Plan, Ford Ord, Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-25

    2,036.39 1 10 Maria Antonia Field 563.19 1 11 Stephen Joseph Field 1,018.02 1 April 1944 Key: I = Undocumented o45.sj Fort Ord, California - 25 March 1994...geophysical anomalies Further investigation of canal containoc .etroleum hydrocarbons discharge area which depending on and vanous organic compounds...detected at various areas. Concentration below TPH cleanup standard. Canal discharge area soil contained Pb, Sb, and Cr at concentration of concern. For

  9. Constant Cutting Force Control for CNC Machining Using Dynamic Characteristic-Based Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengli Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic characteristic-based fuzzy adaptive control algorithm (DCbFACA to avoid the influence of cutting force changing rapidly on the machining stability and precision. The cutting force is indirectly obtained in real time by monitoring and extraction of the motorized spindle current, the feed speed is fuzzy adjusted online, and the current was used as a feedback to control cutting force and maintain the machining process stable. Different from the traditional fuzzy control methods using the experience-based control rules, and according to the complex nonlinear characteristics of CNC machining, the power bond graph method is implemented to describe the dynamic characteristics of process, and then the appropriate variation relations are achieved between current and feed speed, and the control rules are optimized and established based on it. The numerical results indicated that DCbFACA can make the CNC machining process more stable and improve the machining precision.

  10. Long Term Ground Based Precipitation Data Analysis in California's 7 Climate Divisions: Spatial and Temporal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; El-Askary, H. M.; Rakovski, C.; Allai, M.

    2015-12-01

    California is an area of diverse topography and has what many scientists call a Mediterranean climate. Various precipitation patterns exist due to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) which can cause abnormal precipitation or droughts. As temperature increases mainly due to the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere, it is rapidly changing the climate of not only California but the world. An increase in temperature is leading to droughts in certain areas as other areas are experiencing heavy rainfall/flooding. Droughts in return are providing a foundation for fires harming the ecosystem and nearby population. Various natural hazards can be induced due to the coupling effects from inconsistent precipitation patterns and vice versa. Using wavelets and ARIMA modeling, we were able to identify anomalies of high precipitation and droughts within California's 7 climate divisions using NOAA's hourly precipitation data from rain gauges and compared the results with modeled data, SOI, PDO, and AMO. The identification of anomalies can be used to compare and correct remote sensing measurements of precipitation and droughts.

  11. A radial distribution function-based open boundary force model for multi-centered molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2014-06-01

    We derive an expression for radial distribution function (RDF)-based open boundary forcing for molecules with multiple interaction sites. Due to the high-dimensionality of the molecule configuration space and missing rotational invariance, a computationally cheap, 1D approximation of the arising integral expressions as in the single-centered case is not possible anymore. We propose a simple, yet accurate model invoking standard molecule- and site-based RDFs to approximate the respective integral equation. The new open boundary force model is validated for ethane in different scenarios and shows very good agreement with data from periodic simulations. © World Scientific Publishing Company.

  12. Determining the Probability of Violating Upper-Level Wind Constraints for the Launch of Minuteman Ill Ballistic Missiles At Vandenberg Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Brock, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman Ill ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) analyze VAFB sounding data to determine the probability of violating (PoV) upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a graphical user interface (GUI) that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. The AMU suggested also including forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh (RAP) model. This would provide further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast on launch day.

  13. Shear force bond analysis between acrylic resin bases and retention framework (open- and mesh-type)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royhan, A.; Indrasari, M.; Masulili, C.

    2017-08-01

    Occlusions between teeth and the activity of the muscles around an artificial tooth during mastication create a force on dentures. This force causes friction between acrylic resin bases and retention frameworks that can lead to the complete loss of the acrylic resin base from the framework. The purpose of this study was to analyze the design of retention frameworks and determine which ones have a better resistance to shear forces in order to prevent the loss of heat cured acrylic resin base (HCARB). Six samples each of open-and mesh-type retention frameworks, both types made of Co-Cr material, and HCARB, were shear tested by means of a universal testing machine. The average shear force required to release the HCARB for mesh-type retention frameworks was 28.84 kgf, and the average for the open-type was 26.52 kgf. There was no significant difference between the shear forces required to remove HCARB from open- and mesh-type retention frameworks.

  14. Integrating an agent-based model into a large-scale hydrological model for evaluating drought management in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J.; He, X.; Wada, Y.; Burek, P.; Kahil, M.; Wood, E. F.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2017-12-01

    California has endured record-breaking drought since winter 2011 and will likely experience more severe and persistent drought in the coming decades under changing climate. At the same time, human water management practices can also affect drought frequency and intensity, which underscores the importance of human behaviour in effective drought adaptation and mitigation. Currently, although a few large-scale hydrological and water resources models (e.g., PCR-GLOBWB) consider human water use and management practices (e.g., irrigation, reservoir operation, groundwater pumping), none of them includes the dynamic feedback between local human behaviors/decisions and the natural hydrological system. It is, therefore, vital to integrate social and behavioral dimensions into current hydrological modeling frameworks. This study applies the agent-based modeling (ABM) approach and couples it with a large-scale hydrological model (i.e., Community Water Model, CWatM) in order to have a balanced representation of social, environmental and economic factors and a more realistic representation of the bi-directional interactions and feedbacks in coupled human and natural systems. In this study, we focus on drought management in California and considers two types of agents, which are (groups of) farmers and state management authorities, and assumed that their corresponding objectives are to maximize the net crop profit and to maintain sufficient water supply, respectively. Farmers' behaviors are linked with local agricultural practices such as cropping patterns and deficit irrigation. More precisely, farmers' decisions are incorporated into CWatM across different time scales in terms of daily irrigation amount, seasonal/annual decisions on crop types and irrigated area as well as the long-term investment of irrigation infrastructure. This simulation-based optimization framework is further applied by performing different sets of scenarios to investigate and evaluate the effectiveness

  15. Radial electromagnetic force calculation of induction motor based on multi-loop theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Haibo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] In order to study the vibration and noise of induction motors, a method of radial electromagnetic force calculation is established on the basis of the multi-loop model.[Methods] Based on the method of calculating air-gap magneto motive force according to stator and rotor fundamental wave current, the analytic formulas are deduced for calculating the air-gap magneto motive force and radial electromagnetic force generated in accordance with any stator winding and rotor conducting bar current. The multi-loop theory and calculation method for the electromagnetic parameters of a motor are introduced, and a dynamic simulation model of an induction motor built to achieve the current of the stator winding and rotor conducting bars, and obtain the calculation formula of radial electromagnetic force. The radial electromagnetic force and vibration are then estimated.[Results] The experimental results indicate that the vibration acceleration frequency and amplitude of the motor are consistent with the experimental results.[Conclusions] The results and calculation method can support the low noise design of converters.

  16. Effectiveness of growth regulators, based on the heterylcarbon acid, on forcing of Tulips (Tulips HD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derevianko Natalia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main factor in growing flowers for forcing is their rate of growth, on account of the fact that in short period of time it is necessary to grow quickly a large number of flowers and to cut them simultaneously. The influence of growth regulators (GR based on heterylcarbon acid on the forcing of tulips in greenhouse conditions (winter period was studied. It was determined that the application of GR1 of the basic within tulip’s forcing period reduces in average to 5 days (from all period of forcing. In case of application GR2 the tulip’s forcing period also reduces to 3 days (from all period of forcing compared with a control group of tulips. The ability of the plant growth regulators under research to accelerate growing properties of flowers is associated with the presence of heterylcarbon acid and potassium ions in their structure of substances. These growth regulators relate to non-toxic compounds and possess antioxidant properties.

  17. Mechanical Systems based on Dry Friction Force used for Building Isolation against Seismic Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel Dorel Şcheaua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Today there are multiple solutions intended to avoid the earthquake damaging effects on building structures. There are methods based on the use of special mechanical systems attached directly to the structure's resistance frames, by means of which an improved building behavior is achieved during the earthquake. The systems used work on the principle of structure base isolation based on the dry friction force (Coulomb friction. Some constructive types of these isolation systems patterns are described in this paper

  18. Moving force identification based on redundant concatenated dictionary and weighted l1-norm regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chu-Dong; Yu, Ling; Liu, Huan-Lin; Chen, Ze-Peng; Luo, Wen-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Moving force identification (MFI) is an important inverse problem in the field of bridge structural health monitoring (SHM). Reasonable signal structures of moving forces are rarely considered in the existing MFI methods. Interaction forces are complex because they contain both slowly-varying harmonic and impact signals due to bridge vibration and bumps on a bridge deck, respectively. Therefore, the interaction forces are usually hard to be expressed completely and sparsely by using a single basis function set. Based on the redundant concatenated dictionary and weighted l1-norm regularization method, a hybrid method is proposed for MFI in this study. The redundant dictionary consists of both trigonometric functions and rectangular functions used for matching the harmonic and impact signal features of unknown moving forces. The weighted l1-norm regularization method is introduced for formulation of MFI equation, so that the signal features of moving forces can be accurately extracted. The fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) is used for solving the MFI problem. The optimal regularization parameter is appropriately chosen by the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) method. In order to assess the accuracy and the feasibility of the proposed method, a simply-supported beam bridge subjected to a moving force is taken as an example for numerical simulations. Finally, a series of experimental studies on MFI of a steel beam are performed in laboratory. Both numerical and experimental results show that the proposed method can accurately identify the moving forces with a strong robustness, and it has a better performance than the Tikhonov regularization method. Some related issues are discussed as well.

  19. A Modernized UDM-600 Dynamometer-Based Setup for the Cutting Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. I. Shuliak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers development of a modernized UDM-600 dynamometer-based setup for measuring the cutting force components. Modernization of existing equipment to improve the method of recording the cutting force components in the automated mode is of relevance. The measuring setup allows recording the cutting force components in turning and milling, as well as the axial force and the torque in the drilling and milling operations.The article presents a block diagram and a schematic diagram of the setup to measure the cutting force components, and describes a basic principle of measuring units within the modernized setup. The developed setup uses a half-bridge strain gauge measuring circuit to record the cutting forces. To enhance the measuring circuit output voltage is used a 16-channel amplifier of LA-UN16 model with a discretely adjustable gain. To record and process electrical signals is used a data acquisition device of NI USB-6009 model, which enables transmitting the received data to a PC via USB-interface. The data acquisition device has a built-in stabilized DC power supply that is used to power the strain gauge bridges. A developed schematic diagram of the measuring setup allows us to realize this measuring device and implement its modernization.Final processing of recorded data is provided through the software developed in visual programming environment LabVIEW 9.0. The program allows us to show the real-time measuring values of the cutting force components graphically and to record the taken data to a text file.The measuring setup modernization enabled increasing measurement accuracy and reducing time for processing and analysis of experimental data obtained when measuring the cutting force components. The MT2 Department of BMSTU uses it in education and research activities and in experimental efforts and laboratory classes.

  20. Creep force modelling for rail traction vehicles based on the Fastsim algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiryagin, Maksym; Polach, Oldrich; Cole, Colin

    2013-11-01

    The evaluation of creep forces is a complex task and their calculation is a time-consuming process for multibody simulation (MBS). A methodology of creep forces modelling at large traction creepages has been proposed by Polach [Creep forces in simulations of traction vehicles running on adhesion limit. Wear. 2005;258:992-1000; Influence of locomotive tractive effort on the forces between wheel and rail. Veh Syst Dyn. 2001(Suppl);35:7-22] adapting his previously published algorithm [Polach O. A fast wheel-rail forces calculation computer code. Veh Syst Dyn. 1999(Suppl);33:728-739]. The most common method for creep force modelling used by software packages for MBS of running dynamics is the Fastsim algorithm by Kalker [A fast algorithm for the simplified theory of rolling contact. Veh Syst Dyn. 1982;11:1-13]. However, the Fastsim code has some limitations which do not allow modelling the creep force - creep characteristic in agreement with measurements for locomotives and other high-power traction vehicles, mainly for large traction creep at low-adhesion conditions. This paper describes a newly developed methodology based on a variable contact flexibility increasing with the ratio of the slip area to the area of adhesion. This variable contact flexibility is introduced in a modification of Kalker's code Fastsim by replacing the constant Kalker's reduction factor, widely used in MBS, by a variable reduction factor together with a slip-velocity-dependent friction coefficient decreasing with increasing global creepage. The proposed methodology is presented in this work and compared with measurements for different locomotives. The modification allows use of the well recognised Fastsim code for simulation of creep forces at large creepages in agreement with measurements without modifying the proven modelling methodology at small creepages.

  1. Assessment of DoD-Provided Healthcare for Members of the United States Armed Forces Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-08

    Force Base, Texas • Air National Guard Combat Readiness Training Center, Alpena, Michigan • 113th Air Support Operations Squadron, Terre Haute...Wing, Terre Haute, Indiana • 185th Air Refueling Wing, Sioux City, Iowa • 349 Air Mobility Wing, Travis Air Force Base, California • 434 Air

  2. Information driving force and its application in agent-based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Ting; Zheng, Bo; Li, Yan; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2018-04-01

    Exploring the scientific impact of online big-data has attracted much attention of researchers from different fields in recent years. Complex financial systems are typical open systems profoundly influenced by the external information. Based on the large-scale data in the public media and stock markets, we first define an information driving force, and analyze how it affects the complex financial system. The information driving force is observed to be asymmetric in the bull and bear market states. As an application, we then propose an agent-based model driven by the information driving force. Especially, all the key parameters are determined from the empirical analysis rather than from statistical fitting of the simulation results. With our model, both the stationary properties and non-stationary dynamic behaviors are simulated. Considering the mean-field effect of the external information, we also propose a few-body model to simulate the financial market in the laboratory.

  3. Design of a new torque standard machine based on a torque generation method using electromagnetic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Atsuhiro; Ueda, Kazunaga; Fujii, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    To allow the application of torque standards in various industries, we have been developing torque standard machines based on a lever deadweight system, i.e. a torque generation method using gravity. However, this method is not suitable for expanding the low end of the torque range, because of the limitations to the sizes of the weights and moment arms. In this study, the working principle of the torque generation method using an electromagnetic force was investigated by referring to watt balance experiments used for the redefinition of the kilogram. Applying this principle to a rotating coordinate system, an electromagnetic force type torque standard machine was designed and prototyped. It was experimentally demonstrated that SI-traceable torque could be generated by converting electrical power to mechanical power. Thus, for the first time, SI-traceable torque was successfully realized using a method other than that based on the force of gravity. (paper)

  4. AFM-based force spectroscopy measurements of mature amyloid fibrils of the peptide glucagon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, M. D.; Hovgaard, M. B.; Mamdouh, W.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the mechanical characterization of individual mature amyloid fibrils by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and AFM-based single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). These self-assembling materials, formed from the 29-residue amphiphatic peptide hormone glucagon, were found to display...... a reversible elastic behaviour. Based on AFM morphology and SMFS studies, we suggest that the observed elasticity is due to a force-induced conformational transition which is reversible due to the beta-helical conformation of protofibrils, allowing a high degree of extension. The elastic properties...... of such mature fibrils contribute to their high stability, suggesting that the internal hydrophobic interactions of amyloid fibrils are likely to be of fundamental importance in the assembly of amyloid fibrils and therefore for the understanding of the progression of their associated pathogenic disorders...

  5. A pairwise residue contact area-based mean force potential for discrimination of native protein structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezeshk Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering energy function to detect a correct protein fold from incorrect ones is very important for protein structure prediction and protein folding. Knowledge-based mean force potentials are certainly the most popular type of interaction function for protein threading. They are derived from statistical analyses of interacting groups in experimentally determined protein structures. These potentials are developed at the atom or the amino acid level. Based on orientation dependent contact area, a new type of knowledge-based mean force potential has been developed. Results We developed a new approach to calculate a knowledge-based potential of mean-force, using pairwise residue contact area. To test the performance of our approach, we performed it on several decoy sets to measure its ability to discriminate native structure from decoys. This potential has been able to distinguish native structures from the decoys in the most cases. Further, the calculated Z-scores were quite high for all protein datasets. Conclusions This knowledge-based potential of mean force can be used in protein structure prediction, fold recognition, comparative modelling and molecular recognition. The program is available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ac.ir/softwares/surfield

  6. A School-Based Multilevel Study of Adolescent Suicide Ideation in California High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron Avi; Roziner, Ilan

    2018-05-01

    To assess the between-school variation in suicide ideation and to estimate the contribution of school-level attributes, student-level characteristics, and 2 cross-level interactions (school by student) to student suicide ideation. A secondary analysis of the California Healthy Kids Survey in 2 large and representative samples of California high schools and students: 2009-2011 and 2011-2013. This is a population sample of all public high school students (grades 9 and 11) in California. Analyses were first conducted on surveys administered in the 2011-2013 academic years to 790 schools with 345 203 students and replicated on surveys administered in 2009-2011 to 860 schools with 406 313 students. School-level suicide ideation rates ranged between 4% and 67%, with a median of 19.3% and mean of 20.0% (SD, 5.7%). Student suicide ideation was explained by student-level characteristics (R 2  = .20) and to a larger extent by school-level attributes (R 2  = .55). Student-level characteristics predictive of suicide ideation included, sex, ethnic and racial affiliation, victimization, and perceptions of school climate. In both samples, school size and average level of academic achievement were not associated with rates of school suicide ideation. Schools with a larger number of girls and higher levels of victimization had higher rates of suicide ideation in both samples. The hypotheses regarding cross-level interactions were not confirmed. Differences among schools in student suicide ideation are meaningful. The findings suggest an emphasis on the role of schools in prevention programs, public health campaigns to reduce suicide, multilevel research, and theory development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lift vs. drag based mechanisms for vertical force production in the smallest flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S K; Laurenza, R; Hedrick, T L; Griffith, B E; Miller, L A

    2015-11-07

    We used computational fluid dynamics to determine whether lift- or drag-based mechanisms generate the most vertical force in the flight of the smallest insects. These insects fly at Re on the order of 4-60 where viscous effects are significant. Detailed quantitative data on the wing kinematics of the smallest insects is not available, and as a result both drag- and lift-based strategies have been suggested as the mechanisms by which these insects stay aloft. We used the immersed boundary method to solve the fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction problem of a flexible wing immersed in a two-dimensional viscous fluid to compare three idealized hovering kinematics: a drag-based stroke in the vertical plane, a lift-based stroke in the horizontal plane, and a hybrid stroke on a tilted plane. Our results suggest that at higher Re, a lift-based strategy produces more vertical force than a drag-based strategy. At the Re pertinent to small insect hovering, however, there is little difference in performance between the two strategies. A drag-based mechanism of flight could produce more vertical force than a lift-based mechanism for insects at Re<5; however, we are unaware of active fliers at this scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The potential of standards-based agriculture biology as an alternative to traditional biology in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellu, George Sahr

    schools. Thoron & Meyer (2011) suggested that research into the contribution of integrated science courses toward higher test scores yielded mixed results. This finding may have been due in part to the fact that integrated science courses only incorporate select topics into agriculture education courses. In California, however, agriculture educators have developed standards-based courses such as Agriculture Biology (AgBio) that cover the same content standards as core traditional courses such as traditional biology. Students in both AgBio and traditional biology take the same standardized biology test. This is the first time there has been an opportunity for a fair comparison and a uniform metric for an agriscience course such as AgBio to be directly compared to traditional biology. This study will examine whether there are differences between AgBio and traditional biology with regard to standardized test scores in biology. Furthermore, the study examines differences in perception between teachers and students regarding teaching and learning activities associated with higher achievement in science. The findings of the study could provide a basis for presenting AgBio as a potential alternative to traditional biology. The findings of this study suggest that there are no differences between AgBio and traditional biology students with regard to standardized biology test scores. Additionally, the findings indicate that co-curricular activities in AgBio could contribute higher student achievement in biology. However, further research is required to identify specific activities in AgBio that contribute to higher achievement in science.

  9. Retooling CalEnviroScreen: Cumulative Pollution Burden and Race-Based Environmental Health Vulnerabilities in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The California Community Environmental Health Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen) advances research and policy pertaining to environmental health vulnerability. However, CalEnviroScreen departs from its historical foundations and comparable screening tools by no longer considering racial status as an indicator of environmental health vulnerability and predictor of cumulative pollution burden. This study used conceptual frameworks and analytical techniques from environmental health and inequality literature to address the limitations of CalEnviroScreen, especially its inattention to race-based environmental health vulnerabilities. It developed an adjusted measure of cumulative pollution burden from the CalEnviroScreen 2.0 data that facilitates multivariate analyses of the effect of neighborhood racial composition on cumulative pollution burden, net of other indicators of population vulnerability, traffic density, industrial zoning, and local and regional clustering of pollution burden. Principal component analyses produced three new measures of population vulnerability, including Latina/o cumulative disadvantage that represents the spatial concentration of Latinas/os, economic disadvantage, limited English-speaking ability, and health vulnerability. Spatial error regression analyses demonstrated that concentrations of Latinas/os, followed by Latina/o cumulative disadvantage, are the strongest demographic determinants of adjusted cumulative pollution burden. Findings have implications for research and policy pertaining to cumulative impacts and race-based environmental health vulnerabilities within and beyond California. PMID:29659481

  10. Retooling CalEnviroScreen: Cumulative Pollution Burden and Race-Based Environmental Health Vulnerabilities in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul S. Liévanos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The California Community Environmental Health Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen advances research and policy pertaining to environmental health vulnerability. However, CalEnviroScreen departs from its historical foundations and comparable screening tools by no longer considering racial status as an indicator of environmental health vulnerability and predictor of cumulative pollution burden. This study used conceptual frameworks and analytical techniques from environmental health and inequality literature to address the limitations of CalEnviroScreen, especially its inattention to race-based environmental health vulnerabilities. It developed an adjusted measure of cumulative pollution burden from the CalEnviroScreen 2.0 data that facilitates multivariate analyses of the effect of neighborhood racial composition on cumulative pollution burden, net of other indicators of population vulnerability, traffic density, industrial zoning, and local and regional clustering of pollution burden. Principal component analyses produced three new measures of population vulnerability, including Latina/o cumulative disadvantage that represents the spatial concentration of Latinas/os, economic disadvantage, limited English-speaking ability, and health vulnerability. Spatial error regression analyses demonstrated that concentrations of Latinas/os, followed by Latina/o cumulative disadvantage, are the strongest demographic determinants of adjusted cumulative pollution burden. Findings have implications for research and policy pertaining to cumulative impacts and race-based environmental health vulnerabilities within and beyond California.

  11. Retooling CalEnviroScreen: Cumulative Pollution Burden and Race-Based Environmental Health Vulnerabilities in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévanos, Raoul S

    2018-04-16

    The California Community Environmental Health Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen) advances research and policy pertaining to environmental health vulnerability. However, CalEnviroScreen departs from its historical foundations and comparable screening tools by no longer considering racial status as an indicator of environmental health vulnerability and predictor of cumulative pollution burden. This study used conceptual frameworks and analytical techniques from environmental health and inequality literature to address the limitations of CalEnviroScreen, especially its inattention to race-based environmental health vulnerabilities. It developed an adjusted measure of cumulative pollution burden from the CalEnviroScreen 2.0 data that facilitates multivariate analyses of the effect of neighborhood racial composition on cumulative pollution burden, net of other indicators of population vulnerability, traffic density, industrial zoning, and local and regional clustering of pollution burden. Principal component analyses produced three new measures of population vulnerability, including Latina/o cumulative disadvantage that represents the spatial concentration of Latinas/os, economic disadvantage, limited English-speaking ability, and health vulnerability. Spatial error regression analyses demonstrated that concentrations of Latinas/os, followed by Latina/o cumulative disadvantage, are the strongest demographic determinants of adjusted cumulative pollution burden. Findings have implications for research and policy pertaining to cumulative impacts and race-based environmental health vulnerabilities within and beyond California.

  12. An Evaluation of Wind Turbine Technology at Peterson Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    by the wind speed. Darrieus turbines are ordinarily inexpensive and are used for electricity generation and irrigation. One advantage to a...AN EVALUATION OF WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY...02 AN EVALUATION OF WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY AT PETERSON AIR FORCE BASE THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of

  13. Modelling Inter-Particle Forces and Resulting Agglomerate Sizes in Cement-Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Ane Mette; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2005-01-01

    The theory of inter-particle forces versus external shear in cement-based materials is reviewed. On this basis, calculations on maximum agglomerate size present after the combined action of superplasticizers and shear are carried out. Qualitative experimental results indicate that external shear ...

  14. CloudSat Preps for Launch at Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The CloudSat spacecraft sits encapsulated within its Boeing Delta launch vehicle dual payload attach fitting at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. CloudSat will share its ride to orbit late next month with NASA's CALIPSO spacecraft. The two spacecraft are designed to reveal the secrets of clouds and aerosols.

  15. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  16. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560 Banana...

  17. Environmental Assessment for the Construction of a Photovoltaic Solar Array at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Softball Field FAMCamp Golf Course Club House Tennis Court GENERAL PLAN Update | Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas 4-9 CoMPonEnT PLAns Legend[ FIGuRE 4-3...Golf Course, FAMCamp RV Park, several baseball/ softball fields, a paintball field, an outdoor skeet shooting range, a multi-sport track and field

  18. Derivation of energy-based base shear force coefficient considering hysteretic behavior and P-delta effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Taner; Merter, Onur

    2018-01-01

    A modified energy-balance equation accounting for P-delta effects and hysteretic behavior of reinforced concrete members is derived. Reduced hysteretic properties of structural components due to combined stiffness and strength degradation and pinching effects, and hysteretic damping are taken into account in a simple manner by utilizing plastic energy and seismic input energy modification factors. Having a pre-selected yield mechanism, energy balance of structure in inelastic range is considered. P-delta effects are included in derived equation by adding the external work of gravity loads to the work of equivalent inertia forces and equating the total external work to the modified plastic energy. Earthquake energy input to multi degree of freedom (MDOF) system is approximated by using the modal energy-decomposition. Energy-based base shear coefficients are verified by means of both pushover analysis and nonlinear time history (NLTH) analysis of several RC frames having different number of stories. NLTH analyses of frames are performed by using the time histories of ten scaled ground motions compatible with elastic design acceleration spectrum and fulfilling duration/amplitude related requirements of Turkish Seismic Design Code. The observed correlation between energy-based base shear force coefficients and the average base shear force coefficients of NLTH analyses provides a reasonable confidence in estimation of nonlinear base shear force capacity of frames by using the derived equation.

  19. California teachers' perceptions of standards-based reform in middle school science: A mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Allison Gail Wilson

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 presented one of the most significant and comprehensive literacy reforms in many years (McDonnell, 2005; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). The era of school accountability and standards based reform has brought many challenges and changes to public schools. Increasingly, public officials and educational administrators are asked to use standards based assessments to make high-stakes decisions, such as whether a student will move on to the next grade level or receive a diploma (American Psychological Association, 2005). It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' perceptions and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement standards-based reform. This mixed-methods study was designed to assess teachers' perceptions of changes related to standards-based reform as supported by Fullan's (2001) change theory and transformational leadership theory. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated standards-based reform and began focusing on preparing students for the California Standards Test in Science (CSTS). Using descriptive statistical analysis and in-depth interviews, results show favorable insight towards standards-based reform. The survey was distributed to 30 middle school science teachers from 10 low-performing schools in Los Angeles, California. Results were analyzed using Spearman rank-ordered correlations. Interviews were conducted on middle school teachers represented by each grade level. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the CSTS as measured in this study. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

  20. Estimation of Muscle Force Based on Neural Drive in a Hemispheric Stroke Survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chenyun; Zheng, Yang; Hu, Xiaogang

    2018-01-01

    Robotic assistant-based therapy holds great promise to improve the functional recovery of stroke survivors. Numerous neural-machine interface techniques have been used to decode the intended movement to control robotic systems for rehabilitation therapies. In this case report, we tested the feasibility of estimating finger extensor muscle forces of a stroke survivor, based on the decoded descending neural drive through population motoneuron discharge timings. Motoneuron discharge events were obtained by decomposing high-density surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals of the finger extensor muscle. The neural drive was extracted from the normalized frequency of the composite discharge of the motoneuron pool. The neural-drive-based estimation was also compared with the classic myoelectric-based estimation. Our results showed that the neural-drive-based approach can better predict the force output, quantified by lower estimation errors and higher correlations with the muscle force, compared with the myoelectric-based estimation. Our findings suggest that the neural-drive-based approach can potentially be used as a more robust interface signal for robotic therapies during the stroke rehabilitation.

  1. Superhydrophobic Zr-based metallic glass surface with high adhesive force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Xia, Ting; Heng, Liping; Liu, Lin

    2013-06-01

    Micro/nano hierarchical structures were constructed on Zr35Ti30Be26.75Cu8.25 metallic glass surface by silicon moulding and subsequently chemical etching. The as-formed surface exhibited both superhydrophobicity and high adhesive force towards water. The superhydrophobicity is rationalized based on the modified Cassie-Baxter model [A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546 (1944)]. The origin of the robust adhesion is described in terms of intermolecular capillary forces. The present results not only provide a method to fabricate superhydrophobic metallic glasses surface but also explore an important industrial application as dry adhesives and transport of liquid microdroplets.

  2. Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Geothermal Resource Assessment and Future Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base in early 2011 near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home Air Force Base. In conclusion, Recommendation for follow-up efforts include the following:

  3. SWFSC/MMTD/CCE: California Harbor Porpoise Survey (CAHPS) 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A ship-based marine mammal survey in California from Point Conception, California to the California-Oregon border, with the survey extent limited to waters from the...

  4. Laser apparatus for surgery and force therapy based on high-power semiconductor and fibre lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minaev, V P

    2005-01-01

    High-power semiconductor lasers and diode-pumped lasers are considered whose development qualitatively improved the characteristics of laser apparatus for surgery and force therapy, extended the scope of their applications in clinical practice, and enhanced the efficiency of medical treatment based on the use of these lasers. The characteristics of domestic apparatus are presented and their properties related to the laser emission wavelength used in them are discussed. Examples of modern medical technologies based on these lasers are considered. (invited paper)

  5. Eutectic composite NiAl-Cr properties modeling based on interatomic interaction forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badamshin, I. Kh

    2018-03-01

    For new materials, information on the elasticity and strength characteristics necessary for calculating the stress-strain state of the turbine blades is limited. In these conditions, there is a need for theoretical methods for calculating the elastic and strength characteristics. The proposed theoretical methods are based on forces of interatomic interaction calculation. The classical methods based on the hypothesis of continuity do not allow calculating the material strength and thermophysical properties.

  6. Basing Strategies for Air Refueling Forces in Anti-access/Area-Denial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    likely, increase manpower allocations to provide specialist technician coverage at all locations. Connecting subunits by air or surface lift could re...at disaggregated bases also may be overwhelmed by local challenges ranging from base security breaches and supply shortages to the presence of...supported units offers some opportunity to protect tanker forces. But the requirement to establish supply warehouses , access agreements, and the like

  7. High-global warming potential F-gas emissions in California: comparison of ambient-based versus inventory-based emission estimates, and implications of refined estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Glenn; Zhan, Tao; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Gupta, Pamela; Pederson, James; Croes, Bart; Blake, Donald R; Barletta, Barbara; Meinardi, Simone; Ashford, Paul; Vetter, Arnie; Saba, Sabine; Slim, Rayan; Palandre, Lionel; Clodic, Denis; Mathis, Pamela; Wagner, Mark; Forgie, Julia; Dwyer, Harry; Wolf, Katy

    2014-01-21

    To provide information for greenhouse gas reduction policies, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventories annual emissions of high-global-warming potential (GWP) fluorinated gases, the fastest growing sector of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. Baseline 2008 F-gas emissions estimates for selected chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-12), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC-22), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-134a) made with an inventory-based methodology were compared to emissions estimates made by ambient-based measurements. Significant discrepancies were found, with the inventory-based emissions methodology resulting in a systematic 42% under-estimation of CFC-12 emissions from older refrigeration equipment and older vehicles, and a systematic 114% overestimation of emissions for HFC-134a, a refrigerant substitute for phased-out CFCs. Initial, inventory-based estimates for all F-gas emissions had assumed that equipment is no longer in service once it reaches its average lifetime of use. Revised emission estimates using improved models for equipment age at end-of-life, inventories, and leak rates specific to California resulted in F-gas emissions estimates in closer agreement to ambient-based measurements. The discrepancies between inventory-based estimates and ambient-based measurements were reduced from -42% to -6% for CFC-12, and from +114% to +9% for HFC-134a.

  8. Force control of a magnetorheological damper using an elementary hysteresis model-based feedforward neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekkachai, Kittipong; Nilkhamhang, Itthisek; Tungpimolrut, Kanokvate

    2013-01-01

    An inverse controller is proposed for a magnetorheological (MR) damper that consists of a hysteresis model and a voltage controller. The force characteristics of the MR damper caused by excitation signals are represented by a feedforward neural network (FNN) with an elementary hysteresis model (EHM). The voltage controller is constructed using another FNN to calculate a suitable input signal that will allow the MR damper to produce the desired damping force. The performance of the proposed EHM-based FNN controller is experimentally compared to existing control methodologies, such as clipped-optimal control, signum function control, conventional FNN, and recurrent neural network with displacement or velocity inputs. The results show that the proposed controller, which does not require force feedback to implement, provides excellent accuracy, fast response time, and lower energy consumption. (paper)

  9. VEDA: a web-based virtual environment for dynamic atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John; Hu, Shuiqing; Raman, Arvind

    2008-06-01

    We describe here the theory and applications of virtual environment dynamic atomic force microscopy (VEDA), a suite of state-of-the-art simulation tools deployed on nanoHUB (www.nanohub.org) for the accurate simulation of tip motion in dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) over organic and inorganic samples. VEDA takes advantage of nanoHUB's cyberinfrastructure to run high-fidelity dAFM tip dynamics computations on local clusters and the teragrid. Consequently, these tools are freely accessible and the dAFM simulations are run using standard web-based browsers without requiring additional software. A wide range of issues in dAFM ranging from optimal probe choice, probe stability, and tip-sample interaction forces, power dissipation, to material property extraction and scanning dynamics over hetereogeneous samples can be addressed.

  10. Invited Article: VEDA: A web-based virtual environment for dynamic atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John; Hu, Shuiqing; Raman, Arvind

    2008-06-01

    We describe here the theory and applications of virtual environment dynamic atomic force microscopy (VEDA), a suite of state-of-the-art simulation tools deployed on nanoHUB (www.nanohub.org) for the accurate simulation of tip motion in dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) over organic and inorganic samples. VEDA takes advantage of nanoHUB's cyberinfrastructure to run high-fidelity dAFM tip dynamics computations on local clusters and the teragrid. Consequently, these tools are freely accessible and the dAFM simulations are run using standard web-based browsers without requiring additional software. A wide range of issues in dAFM ranging from optimal probe choice, probe stability, and tip-sample interaction forces, power dissipation, to material property extraction and scanning dynamics over hetereogeneous samples can be addressed.

  11. State and force observers based on multibody models and the indirect Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjurjo, Emilio; Dopico, Daniel; Luaces, Alberto; Naya, Miguel Ángel

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this work is to present two new methods to provide state observers by combining multibody simulations with indirect extended Kalman filters. One of the methods presented provides also input force estimation. The observers have been applied to two mechanism with four different sensor configurations, and compared to other multibody-based observers found in the literature to evaluate their behavior, namely, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), and the indirect extended Kalman filter with simplified Jacobians (errorEKF). The new methods have some more computational cost than the errorEKF, but still much less than the UKF. Regarding their accuracy, both are better than the errorEKF. The method with input force estimation outperforms also the UKF, while the method without force estimation achieves results almost identical to those of the UKF. All the methods have been implemented as a reusable MATLAB® toolkit which has been released as Open Source in https://github.com/MBDS/mbde-matlab.

  12. Determination of Quantum Chemistry Based Force Fields for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Aromatic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations for model molecules can be used to parameterize force fields for molecular dynamics simulations of polymers. Emphasis in our research group is on using quantum chemistry-based force fields for molecular dynamics simulations of organic polymers in the melt and glassy states, but the methodology is applicable to simulations of small molecules, multicomponent systems and solutions. Special attention is paid to deriving reliable descriptions of the non-bonded and electrostatic interactions. Several procedures have been developed for deriving and calibrating these parameters. Our force fields for aromatic polyimide simulations will be described. In this application, the intermolecular interactions are the critical factor in determining many properties of the polymer (including its color).

  13. Atomic Force Microscopy Based Nanorobotics Modelling, Simulation, Setup Building and Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Hui; Régnier, Stéphane; Sitti, Metin

    2012-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has been successfully used to perform nanorobotic manipulation operations on nanoscale entities such as particles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanocrystals, and DNA since 1990s. There have been many progress on modeling, imaging, teleoperated or automated control, human-machine interfacing, instrumentation, and applications of AFM based nanorobotic manipulation systems in literature. This book aims to include all of such state-of-the-art progress in an organized, structured, and detailed manner as a reference book and also potentially a textbook in nanorobotics and any other nanoscale dynamics, systems and controls related research and education. Clearly written and well-organized, this text introduces designs and prototypes of the nanorobotic systems in detail with innovative principles of three-dimensional manipulation force microscopy and parallel imaging/manipulation force microscopy.

  14. PAEA Accreditation Task Force Briefing Paper: Moving Toward Profession-Defined, Outcomes-Based Accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, Mary Jo; Fletcher, Sara; Lane, Steven

    2017-12-01

    In anticipation of a revision to the Standards for Accreditation, the Phyisician Assistant Education Association (PAEA) charged a small task force to develop a strategy for engaging its members in the revision process. Rather than focusing on the current Standards, the task force members recommend a backward design approach to determine the desired outcomes of a successful revision to the Standards. Ultimately, the group believes that shifting to a profession-defined, outcomes-based model for accreditation will allow for greater innovation in physician assistant education and reduce the strain on programs facing resource limitations, particularly clinical site shortages. Task force members value accreditation and urge a paradigm shift in the Standards revision process to focus on meaningful educational outcomes that lead to enhanced program quality and patient safety.

  15. Fractal based complexity measure and variation in force during sustained isometric muscle contraction: effect of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K; Bastos, Teodiano

    2012-01-01

    This study has investigated the effect of age on the fractal based complexity measure of muscle activity and variance in the force of isometric muscle contraction. Surface electromyogram (sEMG) and force of muscle contraction were recorded from 40 healthy subjects categorized into: Group 1: Young - age range 20-30; 10 Males and 10 Females, Group 2: Old - age range 55-70; 10 Males and 10 Females during isometric exercise at Maximum Voluntary contraction (MVC). The results show that there is a reduction in the complexity of surface electromyogram (sEMG) associated with aging. The results demonstrate that there is an increase in the coefficient of variance (CoV) of the force of muscle contraction and a decrease in complexity of sEMG for the Old age group when compared with the Young age group.

  16. 3D force control for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery based on viscoelastic tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Moreira, Pedro; Zemiti, Nabil; Poignet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Current cardiac surgery faces the challenging problem of heart beating motion even with the help of mechanical stabilizer which makes delicate operation on the heart surface difficult. Motion compensation methods for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery have been proposed recently in literature, but research on force control for such kind of surgery has hardly been reported. Moreover, the viscoelasticity property of the interaction between organ tissue and robotic instrument further complicates the force control design which is much easier in other applications by assuming the interaction model to be elastic (industry, stiff object manipulation, etc.). In this work, we present a three-dimensional force control method for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery taking into consideration of the viscoelastic interaction property. Performance studies based on our D2M2 robot and 3D heart beating motion information obtained through Da Vinci™ system are provided.

  17. Impedance-Based Cable Force Monitoring in Tendon-Anchorage Using Portable PZT-Interface Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Canh Huynh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a portable PZT interface for tension force monitoring in the cable-anchorage subsystem is developed. Firstly, the theoretical background of the impedance-based method is presented. A few damage evaluation approaches are outlined to quantify the variation of impedance signatures. Secondly, a portable PZT interface is designed to monitor impedance signatures from the cable-anchorage subsystem. One degree-of-freedom analytical model of the PZT interface is established to explain how to represent the loss of cable force from the change in the electromechanical impedance of the PZT interface as well as reducing the sensitive frequency band by implementing the interface device. Finally, the applicability of the proposed PZT-interface technique is experimentally evaluated for cable force-loss monitoring in a lab-scaled test structure.

  18. Compliant actuation based on dielectric elastomers for a force-feedback device: modeling and experimental evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vertechy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to their large power densities, low costs and shock-insensitivity, Dielectric Elastomers (DE seem to be a promising technology for the implementation of light and compact force-feedback devices such as, for instance, haptic interfaces. Nonetheless, the development of these kinds of DE-based systems is not trivial owing to the relevant dissipative phenomena that affect the DE when subjected to rapidly changing deformations. In this context, the present paper addresses the development of a force feedback controller for an agonist-antagonist linear actuator composed of a couple of conically-shaped DE films and a compliant mechanism behaving as a negative-rate bias spring. The actuator is firstly modeled accounting for the visco-hyperelastic nature of the DE material. The model is then linearized and employed for the design of a force controller. The controller employs a position sensor, which determines the actuator configuration, and a force sensor, which measures the interaction force that the actuator exchanges with the environment. In addition, an optimum full-state observer is also implemented, which enables both accurate estimation of the time-dependent behavior of the elastomeric material and adequate suppression of the sensor measurement noise. Preliminary experimental results are provided to validate the proposed actuator-controller architecture.

  19. A Wearable Gait Phase Detection System Based on Force Myography Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianta Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Quantitative evaluation of gait parameters can provide useful information for constructing individuals’ gait profile, diagnosing gait abnormalities, and better planning of rehabilitation schemes to restore normal gait pattern. Objective determination of gait phases in a gait cycle is a key requirement in gait analysis applications; (2 Methods: In this study, the feasibility of using a force myography-based technique for a wearable gait phase detection system is explored. In this regard, a force myography band is developed and tested with nine participants walking on a treadmill. The collected force myography data are first examined sample-by-sample and classified into four phases using Linear Discriminant Analysis. The gait phase events are then detected from these classified samples using a set of supervisory rules; (3 Results: The results show that the force myography band can correctly detect more than 99.9% of gait phases with zero insertions and only four deletions over 12,965 gait phase segments. The average temporal error of gait phase detection is 55.2 ms, which translates into 2.1% error with respect to the corresponding labelled stride duration; (4 Conclusions: This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of force myography techniques as viable solutions in developing wearable gait phase detection systems.

  20. [Comparison of cell elasticity analysis methods based on atomic force microscopy indentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Hao, Fengtao; Chen, Xiaohu; Yang, Zhouqi; Ding, Chong; Shang, Peng

    2014-10-01

    In order to investigate in greater detail the two methods based on Hertz model for analyzing force-distance curve obtained by atomic force microscopy, we acquired the force-distance curves of Hela and MCF-7 cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation in this study. After the determination of contact point, Young's modulus in different indentation depth were calculated with two analysis methods of "two point" and "slope fitting". The results showed that the Young's modulus of Hela cell was higher than that of MCF-7 cell,which is in accordance with the F-actin distribution of the two types of cell. We found that the Young's modulus of the cells was decreased with increasing indentation depth and the curve trends by "slope fitting". This indicated that the "slope fitting" method could reduce the error caused by the miscalculation of contact point. The purpose of this study was to provide a guidance for researcher to choose an appropriate method for analyzing AFM indentation force-distance curve.

  1. All-Atom Polarizable Force Field for DNA Based on the Classical Drude Oscillator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    Presented is a first generation atomistic force field for DNA in which electronic polarization is modeled based on the classical Drude oscillator formalism. The DNA model is based on parameters for small molecules representative of nucleic acids, including alkanes, ethers, dimethylphosphate, and the nucleic acid bases and empirical adjustment of key dihedral parameters associated with the phosphodiester backbone, glycosidic linkages and sugar moiety of DNA. Our optimization strategy is based on achieving a compromise between satisfying the properties of the underlying model compounds in the gas phase targeting QM data and reproducing a number of experimental properties of DNA duplexes in the condensed phase. The resulting Drude force field yields stable DNA duplexes on the 100 ns time scale and satisfactorily reproduces (1) the equilibrium between A and B forms of DNA and (2) transitions between the BI and BII sub-states of B form DNA. Consistency with the gas phase QM data for the model compounds is significantly better for the Drude model as compared to the CHARMM36 additive force field, which is suggested to be due to the improved response of the model to changes in the environment associated with the explicit inclusion of polarizability. Analysis of dipole moments associated with the nucleic acid bases shows the Drude model to have significantly larger values than those present in CHARMM36, with the dipoles of individual bases undergoing significant variations during the MD simulations. Additionally, the dipole moment of water was observed to be perturbed in the grooves of DNA. PMID:24752978

  2. Efficiency and precision for estimating timber and non-timber attributes using Landsat-based stratification methods in two-phase sampling in northwest California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antti T. Kaartinen; Jeremy S. Fried; Paul A. Dunham

    2002-01-01

    Three Landsat TM-based GIS layers were evaluated as alternatives to conventional, photointerpretation-based stratification of FIA field plots. Estimates for timberland area, timber volume, and volume of down wood were calculated for California's North Coast Survey Unit of 2.5 million hectares. The estimates were compared on the basis of standard errors,...

  3. Vibration based monitoring of stay cable force using wireless piezoelectric based strain sensor nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a method to monitor cable force using wireless sensor nodes and piezoelectric sensors. The following approaches are carried out to achieve the objective. Firstly, the principle of piezoelectric materials (e.g., PZT) as strain sensors is reviewed. A cable force estimation method using dynamic features of cables measured by piezoelectric materials is presented. Secondly, the design of an automated cable force monitoring system using the data acquisition sensor node Imote2/SHM DAQ is described. The sensor node is originally developed by University of Illinois at Urbana champaign and is adopted in this study to monitor strain induced voltage from PZT sensors. The advantages of the system are cheap, and eligible for wireless communication and automated operation. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed monitoring system is evaluated on a lab scaled cable

  4. Exercise, diet, health behaviors, and risk factors among persons with epilepsy based on the California Health Interview Survey, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John O; Lu, Bo; Moore, J Layne; McAuley, James W; Long, Lucretia

    2008-08-01

    Based on the 2005 California Health Interview Survey, persons with a history of epilepsy report lower educational attainment, lower annual income, and poorer health status, similar to other state-based epidemiological surveys. Previous studies have found persons with epilepsy exercise less and smoke more than the nonepilepsy population. The medical literature has also shown that antiepileptic drugs may cause nutritional deficiencies. Persons with a history of epilepsy in the 2005 CHIS report they walk more for transportation, drink more soda, and eat less salad than the nonepilepsy population. Exercise and dietary behaviors at recommended levels have been found to reduce mortality from many comorbid conditions such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, depression, anxiety, and osteoporosis for which persons with epilepsy are at increased risk. Health professionals in the epilepsy field should step up their efforts to engage patients in health promotion, especially in the areas of exercise, diet, and smoking cessation.

  5. Building leadership among laboratory-based and clinical and translational researchers: the University of California, San Francisco experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wides, Cynthia; Mertz, Elizabeth; Lindstaedt, Bill; Brown, Jeanette

    2014-02-01

    In 2005 the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) implemented the Scientific Leadership and Management (SLM) course, a 2-day leadership training program to assist laboratory-based postdoctoral scholars in their transition to independent researchers managing their own research programs. In 2011, the course was expanded to clinical and translational junior faculty and fellows. The course enrollment was increased from approximate 100 to 123 participants at the same time. Based on course evaluations, the number and percent of women participants appears to have increased over time from 40% (n = 33) in 2007 to 53% (n = 58) in 2011. Course evaluations also indicated that participants found the course to be relevant and valuable in their transition to academic leadership. This paper describes the background, structure, and content of the SLM and reports on participant evaluations of the course offerings from 2007 through 2011. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Impact of Asian Aerosols on Precipitation Over California: An Observational and Model Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeger, Aaron R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Creamean, Jessie M.

    2015-01-01

    Dust and pollution emissions from Asia are often transported across the Pacific Ocean to over the western United States. Therefore, it is essential to fully understand the impact of these aerosols on clouds and precipitation forming over the eastern Pacific and western United States, especially during atmospheric river events that account for up to half of California's annual precipitation and can lead to widespread flooding. In order for numerical modeling simulations to accurately represent the present and future regional climate of the western United States, we must account for the aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions associated with Asian dust and pollution aerosols. Therefore, we have constructed a detailed study utilizing multi-sensor satellite observations, NOAA-led field campaign measurements, and targeted numerical modeling studies where Asian aerosols interacted with cloud and precipitation processes over the western United States. In particular, we utilize aerosol optical depth retrievals from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-11), and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) to effectively detect and monitor the trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust and pollution. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals are used in assimilating the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) in order to provide the model with an accurate representation of the aerosol spatial distribution across the Pacific. We conduct WRF-Chem model simulations of several cold-season atmospheric river events that interacted with Asian aerosols and brought significant precipitation over California during February-March 2011 when the NOAA CalWater field campaign was ongoing. The CalWater field campaign consisted of aircraft and surface measurements of aerosol and precipitation processes that help extensively validate our WRF

  7. Robust Operation of Tendon-Driven Robot Fingers Using Force and Position-Based Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E (Inventor); Platt, Jr., Robert J. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a tendon-driven finger and a control system. The system controls the finger via a force-based control law when a tension sensor is available, and via a position-based control law when a sensor is not available. Multiple tendons may each have a corresponding sensor. The system selectively injects a compliance value into the position-based control law when only some sensors are available. A control system includes a host machine and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having a control process, which is executed by the host machine to control the finger via the force- or position-based control law. A method for controlling the finger includes determining the availability of a tension sensor(s), and selectively controlling the finger, using the control system, via the force or position-based control law. The position control law allows the control system to resist disturbances while nominally maintaining the initial state of internal tendon tensions.

  8. A droplet-based passive force sensor for remote tactile sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Baoqing; Yao, Ting; Zhang, Yiqiu; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xinjian

    2018-01-01

    A droplet-based flexible wireless force sensor has been developed for remote tactile-sensing applications. By integration of a droplet-based capacitive sensing unit and two circular planar coils, this inductor-capacitor (LC) passive sensor offers a platform for the mechanical force detection in a wireless transmitting mode. Under external loads, the membrane surface of the sensor deforms the underlying elastic droplet uniformly, introducing a capacitance response in tens of picofarads. The LC circuit transduces the applied force into corresponding variations of its resonance frequency, which is detected by an external electromagnetic coupling coil. Specifically, the liquid droplet features a mechanosensitive plasticity, which results in an increased device sensitivity as high as 2.72 MHz N-1. The high dielectric property of the droplet endows our sensor with high tolerance for noise and large capacitance values (20-40 pF), the highest value in the literature for the LC passive devices in comparable dimensions. It achieves excellent reproducibility under periodical loads ranging from 0 to 1.56 N and temperature fluctuations ranging from 10 °C to 55 °C. As an interesting conceptual demonstration, the flexible device has been configured into a fingertip-amounted setting in a highly compact package (of 11 mm × 11 mm × 0.25 mm) for remote contact force sensing in the table tennis game.

  9. A multi-axis MEMS sensor with integrated carbon nanotube-based piezoresistors for nanonewton level force metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinan, Michael A; Panas, Robert M; Culpepper, Martin L

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of a multi-axis microelectromechanical system (MEMS) force sensor with integrated carbon nanotube (CNT)-based piezoresistive sensors. Through the use of proper CNT selection and sensor fabrication techniques, the performance of the CNT-based MEMS force sensor was increased by approximately two orders of magnitude as compared to current CNT-based sensor systems. The range and resolution of the force sensor were determined as 84 μN and 5.6 nN, respectively. The accuracy of the force sensor was measured to be better than 1% over the device’s full range. (paper)

  10. Vehicle Dynamics Control of In-wheel Electric Motor Drive Vehicles Based on Averaging of Tire Force Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nobuo; Iwano, Haruo; Kamada, Takayoshi; Nagai, Masao

    For in-wheel electric motor drive vehicles, a new vehicle dynamics control which is based on the tire force usage rate is proposed. The new controller adopts non-linear optimal control could manage the interference between direct yaw-moment control and the tire force usage rate. The new control is considered total longitudinal and transverse tire force. Therefore the controller can prevent tire force saturation near tire force limit during cornering. Simulations and test runs by the custom made four wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicle show that higher driving stability performance compared to the performance of the same vehicle without control.

  11. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  12. Environmental Assessment for the Beddown of C-17 Aircraft at March Air Reserve Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    chickens up to ten weeks were not affected by exposure to various sound intensities of reproduced jet aircraft noise (Manci et al. 1988). Pregnancy ...training areas proposed fo.r C-l7 aircraft uti lization include tbe Air Force Plant No. 42 (Palmdale) and Desert Center Zoue, which are located near

  13. Atomic force microscopy imaging to measure precipitate volume fraction in nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourhettar, A.; Troyon, M.; Hazotte, A.

    1995-01-01

    In nickel-based superalloys, quantitative analysis of scanning electron microscopy images fails in providing accurate microstructural data, whereas more efficient techniques are very time-consuming. As an alternative approach, the authors propose to perform quantitative analysis of atomic force microscopy images of polished/etched surfaces (quantitative microprofilometry). This permits the measurement of microstructural parameters and the depth of etching, which is the main source of measurement bias. Thus, nonbiased estimations can be obtained by extrapolation of the measurements up to zero etching depth. In this article, the authors used this approach to estimate the volume fraction of γ' precipitates in a nickel-based superalloy single crystal. Atomic force microscopy images of samples etched for different times show definition, homogeneity, and contrast high enough to perform image analysis. The result after extrapolation is in very good agreement with volume fraction values available from published reports

  14. Multidirectional flexible force sensors based on confined, self-adjusting carbon nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-I.; Pyo, Soonjae; Kim, Min-Ook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive force sensor based on self-adjusting carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. Aligned CNT arrays are directly synthesized on silicon microstructures by a space-confined growth technique which enables a facile self-adjusting contact. To afford flexibility and softness, the patterned microstructures with the integrated CNTs are embedded in polydimethylsiloxane structures. The sensing mechanism is based on variations in the contact resistance between the facing CNT arrays under the applied force. By finite element analysis, proper dimensions and positions for each component are determined. Further, high sensitivities up to 15.05%/mN of the proposed sensors were confirmed experimentally. Multidirectional sensing capability could also be achieved by designing multiple sets of sensing elements in a single sensor. The sensors show long-term operational stability, owing to the unique properties of the constituent CNTs, such as outstanding mechanical durability and elasticity.

  15. Radioactive waste disposal sites: Two successful closures at Tinker Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, G.; Mohatt, J.V.; Kowall, S.J.; Jarvis, M.F.

    1993-06-01

    This article describes remediation and closure of two radioactive waste disposal sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma, making them exemption regulatory control. The approach consisted of careful exhumation and assessment of soils in sites expected to be contaminated based on historical documentation, word of mouth, and geophysical surveys; removal of buried objects that had gamma radiation exposure levels above background; and confirmation that the soil containing residual radium-226 was below an activity level equal to no more than a 10 mrem/yr annual dose equivalent. In addition, 4464 kg of chemically contaminated excavated soils were removed for disposal. After remediation, the sites met standards for unrestricted use. These sites were two of the first three Air Force radioactive disposal sites to be closed and were the first to be closed under Draft NUREG/CR-5512

  16. California Contradictions: Creating Your Own Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    California state policies and regulations that force teacher education programs to limit enrollment because of insufficient resources, and discourage immigration of out-of-state teachers contribute to California's critical shortage of teachers. In addition, the quality of elementary instruction is jeopardized by regulations that diminish…

  17. Solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on magnetic resonance force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G. P.; Doolen, G. D.; Hammel, P. C.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a nuclear-spin quantum computer based on magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). It is shown that an MRFM single-electron spin measurement provides three essential requirements for quantum computation in solids: (a) preparation of the ground state, (b) one- and two-qubit quantum logic gates, and (c) a measurement of the final state. The proposed quantum computer can operate at temperatures up to 1 K. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  18. Exploration and Resource Assessment at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Using an Integrated Team Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home AFB.

  19. Final Environmental Assessment for Shared Use Paths (SUP), Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    social effects...Use Path (SUP)Environmental AssesmentEglin Air Force Base, Florida "/ "/ "/ "/ "/ "/ "/ "/ "/ "/ "/ Eighth StEglin Blvd Memoria l Dr Griffin Way...StEglin Blvd Memoria l Dr Griffin Way Nomad Way Eglin B lvd FL HW Y 8 5 Chinquapin Dr Perimeter Rd VALPARISO Park Tunn el Taxiw ay PT A rea Com miss

  20. Santa Rosa Island Final Range Environmental Assessment, Revision 1. Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    west coast; 3) Dry Tortugas , Florida, Subpopulation; 4) Florida Panhandle Subpopulation occurring at Eglin AFB and the beaches near Panama City; and... Tortugas , florida, Subpopulation, (4) Northwest florida Subpopulation occurring at Eglin Ai r Force Base and the beaches near Panama City; and (5...annually from 1995 and 2005 (FWC/FWRI sea turtle nesting database and unpublished data). A nearly complete census of the Dry Tortugas Subpopulation

  1. Environmental Assessment for Airfield Safety and Drainage Improvements at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    of Cocoa Beach, and covers approximately 2,000 acres bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east and the Banana River on the west. The PAFB airfield...significance for greenhouse gas emissions, but the Federal government recognizes the need to reduce energy consumption and shift to renewable and...Historical and Architectural Documentation Reports of Patrick Air Force Base, Cocoa Beach, Florida. U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research

  2. Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for F-35 Beddown at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-26

    IFR instrument flight rules IJTS Initial Joint Training Site ILLUM Illuminating ILS Instrument Landing System IMPLAN an economic impact modeling...Final Supplemental ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT FOR F-35 BEDDOWN AT EGLIN AIR FORCE BASE, FLORIDA JANUARY 2014 Report Documentation Page Form...Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Supplemental Environmental Impact

  3. General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process Environmental Assessment, Altus Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Level Lmax Maximum Sound Level LOP Letter of Procedure LTM Long-term monitoring MACA Mid-Air Collision Avoidance MFH Military Family Housing mgd...users. Additionally, the Air Force proactively engages in a program of public outreach to aviators, publishing Mid-Air Collision Avoidance ( MACA ...operating under VFR. The MACA contains information on preferred flight tracks, operational characteristics of high-performance military aircraft, and

  4. Novel Door-opening Method for Six-legged Robots Based on Only Force Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Feng; Pan, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Current door-opening methods are mainly developed on tracked, wheeled and biped robots by applying multi-DOF manipulators and vision systems. However, door-opening methods for six-legged robots are seldom studied, especially using 0-DOF tools to operate and only force sensing to detect. A novel door-opening method for six-legged robots is developed and implemented to the six-parallel-legged robot. The kinematic model of the six-parallel-legged robot is established and the model of measuring the positional relationship between the robot and the door is proposed. The measurement model is completely based on only force sensing. The real-time trajectory planning method and the control strategy are designed. The trajectory planning method allows the maximum angle between the sagittal axis of the robot body and the normal line of the door plane to be 45º. A 0-DOF tool mounted to the robot body is applied to operate. By integrating with the body, the tool has 6 DOFs and enough workspace to operate. The loose grasp achieved by the tool helps release the inner force in the tool. Experiments are carried out to validate the method. The results show that the method is effective and robust in opening doors wider than 1 m. This paper proposes a novel door-opening method for six-legged robots, which notably uses a 0-DOF tool and only force sensing to detect and open the door.

  5. A force-based, parallel assay for the quantification of protein-DNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Katja; Pippig, Diana A; Aschenbrenner, Daniela; Gaub, Hermann E

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of transcription factor binding to DNA sequences is of utmost importance to understand the intricate regulatory mechanisms that underlie gene expression. Several techniques exist that quantify DNA-protein affinity, but they are either very time-consuming or suffer from possible misinterpretation due to complicated algorithms or approximations like many high-throughput techniques. We present a more direct method to quantify DNA-protein interaction in a force-based assay. In contrast to single-molecule force spectroscopy, our technique, the Molecular Force Assay (MFA), parallelizes force measurements so that it can test one or multiple proteins against several DNA sequences in a single experiment. The interaction strength is quantified by comparison to the well-defined rupture stability of different DNA duplexes. As a proof-of-principle, we measured the interaction of the zinc finger construct Zif268/NRE against six different DNA constructs. We could show the specificity of our approach and quantify the strength of the protein-DNA interaction.

  6. A force-based, parallel assay for the quantification of protein-DNA interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Limmer

    Full Text Available Analysis of transcription factor binding to DNA sequences is of utmost importance to understand the intricate regulatory mechanisms that underlie gene expression. Several techniques exist that quantify DNA-protein affinity, but they are either very time-consuming or suffer from possible misinterpretation due to complicated algorithms or approximations like many high-throughput techniques. We present a more direct method to quantify DNA-protein interaction in a force-based assay. In contrast to single-molecule force spectroscopy, our technique, the Molecular Force Assay (MFA, parallelizes force measurements so that it can test one or multiple proteins against several DNA sequences in a single experiment. The interaction strength is quantified by comparison to the well-defined rupture stability of different DNA duplexes. As a proof-of-principle, we measured the interaction of the zinc finger construct Zif268/NRE against six different DNA constructs. We could show the specificity of our approach and quantify the strength of the protein-DNA interaction.

  7. Template model inspired leg force feedback based control can assist human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping; Sharbafi, Maziar; Vlutters, Mark; van Asseldonk, Edwin; Seyfarth, Andre

    2017-07-01

    We present a novel control approach for assistive lower-extremity exoskeletons. In particular, we implement a virtual pivot point (VPP) template model inspired leg force feedback based controller on a lower-extremity powered exoskeleton (LOPES II) and demonstrate that it can effectively assist humans during walking. It has been shown that the VPP template model is capable of stabilizing the trunk and reproduce a human-like hip torque during the stance phase of walking. With leg force and joint angle feedback inspired by the VPP template model, our controller provides hip and knee torque assistance during the stance phase. A pilot experiment was conducted with four healthy subjects. Joint kinematics, leg muscle electromyography (EMG), and metabolic cost were measured during walking with and without assistance. Results show that, for 0.6 m/s walking, our controller can reduce leg muscle activations, especially for the medial gastrocnemius (about 16.0%), while hip and knee joint kinematics remain similar to the condition without the controller. Besides, the controller also reduces 10% of the net metabolic cost during walking. This paper demonstrates walking assistance benefits of the VPP template model for the first time. The support of human walking is achieved by a force feedback of leg force applied to the control of hip and knee joints. It can help us to provide a framework for investigating walking assistance control in the future.

  8. Resource selection by the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus relative to terrestrial-based habitats and meteorological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Rivers

    Full Text Available Condors and vultures are distinct from most other terrestrial birds because they use extensive soaring flight for their daily movements. Therefore, assessing resource selection by these avian scavengers requires quantifying the availability of terrestrial-based habitats, as well as meteorological variables that influence atmospheric conditions necessary for soaring. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative assessment of habitat- and meteorological-based resource selection in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus within its California range and across the annual cycle. We found that condor use of terrestrial areas did not change markedly within the annual cycle, and that condor use was greatest for habitats where food resources and potential predators could be detected and where terrain was amenable for taking off from the ground in flight (e.g., sparse habitats, coastal areas. Condors originating from different release sites differed in their use of habitat, but this was likely due in part to variation in habitats surrounding release sites. Meteorological conditions were linked to condor use of ecological subregions, with thermal height, thermal velocity, and wind speed having both positive (selection and negative (avoidance effects on condor use in different areas. We found little evidence of systematic effects between individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, breeding status or components of the species management program (i.e., release site, rearing method relative to meteorological conditions. Our findings indicate that habitat type and meteorological conditions can interact in complex ways to influence condor resource selection across landscapes, which is noteworthy given the extent of anthropogenic stressors that may impact condor populations (e.g., lead poisoning, wind energy development. Additional studies will be valuable to assess small-scale condor movements in light of these stressors to help minimize

  9. Evaluating a Radar-Based, Non Contact Streamflow Measurement System in the San Joaquin River at Vernalis, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Costa, John E.; Plant, William J.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Haeni, F. Peter; Melcher, Nick B.; Keller, William C.; Hayes, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Accurate measurement of flow in the San Joaquin River at Vernalis, California, is vital to a wide range of Federal and State agencies, environmental interests, and water contractors. The U.S. Geological Survey uses a conventional stage-discharge rating technique to determine flows at Vernalis. Since the flood of January 1997, the channel has scoured and filled as much as 20 feet in some sections near the measurement site resulting in an unstable stage-discharge rating. In response to recent advances in measurement techniques and the need for more accurate measurement methods, the Geological Survey has undertaken a technology demonstration project to develop and deploy a radar-based streamflow measuring system on the bank of the San Joaquin River at Vernalis, California. The proposed flow-measurement system consists of a ground-penetrating radar system for mapping channel geometries, a microwave radar system for measuring surface velocities, and other necessary infrastructure. Cross-section information derived from ground penetrating radar provided depths similar to those measured by other instruments during the study. Likewise, surface-velocity patterns and magnitudes measured by the pulsed Doppler radar system are consistent with near surface current measurements derived from acoustic velocity instruments. Since the ratio of surface velocity to mean velocity falls to within a small range of theoretical value, using surface velocity as an index velocity to compute river discharge is feasable. Ultimately, the non-contact radar system may be used to make continuous, near-real-time flow measurements during high and medium flows. This report documents the data collected between April 14, 2002 and May 17, 2002 for the purposes of testing this radar based system. Further analyses of the data collected during this field effort will lead to further development and improvement of the system.

  10. Integral force feedback control with input shaping: Application to piezo-based scanning systems in ECDLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Zhu, Yu; Bu, Mingfan; Hong, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a hybrid control system is developed by integrating the closed-loop force feedback and input shaping method to overcome the problem of the hysteresis and dynamic behavior in piezo-based scanning systems and increase the scanning speed of tunable external cavity diode lasers. The flexible hinge and piezoelectric actuators are analyzed, and a dynamic model of the scanning systems is established. A force sensor and an integral controller are utilized in integral force feedback (IFF) to directly augment the damping of the piezoelectric scanning systems. Hysteresis has been effectively eliminated, but the mechanical resonance is still evident. Noticeable residual vibration occurred after the inflection points and then gradually disappeared. For the further control of mechanical resonance, based on the theory of minimum-acceleration trajectory planning, the time-domain input shaping method was developed. The turning sections of a scanning trajectory are replaced by smooth curves, while the linear sections are retained. The IFF method is combined with the input shaping method to control the non-linearity and mechanical resonance in high-speed piezo-based scanning systems. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  11. Integral force feedback control with input shaping: Application to piezo-based scanning systems in ECDLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Zhu, Yu; Bu, Mingfan; Hong, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a hybrid control system is developed by integrating the closed-loop force feedback and input shaping method to overcome the problem of the hysteresis and dynamic behavior in piezo-based scanning systems and increase the scanning speed of tunable external cavity diode lasers. The flexible hinge and piezoelectric actuators are analyzed, and a dynamic model of the scanning systems is established. A force sensor and an integral controller are utilized in integral force feedback (IFF) to directly augment the damping of the piezoelectric scanning systems. Hysteresis has been effectively eliminated, but the mechanical resonance is still evident. Noticeable residual vibration occurred after the inflection points and then gradually disappeared. For the further control of mechanical resonance, based on the theory of minimum-acceleration trajectory planning, the time-domain input shaping method was developed. The turning sections of a scanning trajectory are replaced by smooth curves, while the linear sections are retained. The IFF method is combined with the input shaping method to control the non-linearity and mechanical resonance in high-speed piezo-based scanning systems. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  12. Hypothesis-based research on the causes of sick building symptoms: A design for Phases 2 and 3 of the California Healthy Building Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Hodgson, A.T.; Daisey, J.M.; Faulkner, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Macher, J.M. [California Dept. of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (United States). Air and Industrial Hygiene Lab.; Mendell, M.J. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Industrywide Studies Branch

    1992-07-01

    The California Healthy Building Study (CHBS) is a multidisciplinary research based in 12 office buildings within California. The overall goal the CHBS is to elucidate relationships between occurrences of office worker health symptoms and characteristics of the workers` buildings, ventilation systems, work spaces, jobs, and indoor environments. A Phase-1 study was completed during 1990. The California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), through its Exploratory Research Program, supported the design of research plans for two future phases of the CHBS. The intent of the CIEE-supported effort was to design research to be conducted in the Phase-1 buildings that capitalizes on the Phase-1 research findings and also on recently-published results of research from other institutions. This report describes the research plans developed with CIEE support and presents the rationale for these research plans.

  13. Hypothesis-based research on the causes of sick building symptoms: A design for Phases 2 and 3 of the California Healthy Building Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Hodgson, A.T.; Daisey, J.M.; Faulkner, D. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Macher, J.M. (California Dept. of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (United States). Air and Industrial Hygiene Lab.); Mendell, M.J. (National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Industrywide Studies Branch)

    1992-07-01

    The California Healthy Building Study (CHBS) is a multidisciplinary research based in 12 office buildings within California. The overall goal the CHBS is to elucidate relationships between occurrences of office worker health symptoms and characteristics of the workers' buildings, ventilation systems, work spaces, jobs, and indoor environments. A Phase-1 study was completed during 1990. The California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), through its Exploratory Research Program, supported the design of research plans for two future phases of the CHBS. The intent of the CIEE-supported effort was to design research to be conducted in the Phase-1 buildings that capitalizes on the Phase-1 research findings and also on recently-published results of research from other institutions. This report describes the research plans developed with CIEE support and presents the rationale for these research plans.

  14. District Allocation of Human Resources Utilizing the Evidence Based Model: A Study of One High Achieving School District in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Amber Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the Gap Analysis Framework to understand the gaps that exist in human resource allocation of one Southern California school district. Once identified, gaps are closed with the reallocation of human resources, according to the Evidenced Based Model, requiring the re-purposing of core classroom teachers, specialists, special…

  15. Creating a Culturally Appropriate Web-Based Behavioral Intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native Women in Southern California: The Healthy Women Healthy Native Nation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…

  16. 3-D Velocity Model of the Coachella Valley, Southern California Based on Explosive Shots from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Hole, J. A.; Goldman, M.; Scheirer, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    We have analyzed explosive shot data from the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) across a 2-D seismic array and 5 profiles in the Coachella Valley to produce a 3-D P-wave velocity model that will be used in calculations of strong ground shaking. Accurate maps of seismicity and active faults rely both on detailed geological field mapping and a suitable velocity model to accurately locate earthquakes. Adjoint tomography of an older version of the SCEC 3-D velocity model shows that crustal heterogeneities strongly influence seismic wave propagation from moderate earthquakes (Tape et al., 2010). These authors improve the crustal model and subsequently simulate the details of ground motion at periods of 2 s and longer for hundreds of ray paths. Even with improvements such as the above, the current SCEC velocity model for the Salton Trough does not provide a match of the timing or waveforms of the horizontal S-wave motions, which Wei et al. (2013) interpret as caused by inaccuracies in the shallow velocity structure. They effectively demonstrate that the inclusion of shallow basin structure improves the fit in both travel times and waveforms. Our velocity model benefits from the inclusion of known location and times of a subset of 126 shots detonated over a 3-week period during the SSIP. This results in an improved velocity model particularly in the shallow crust. In addition, one of the main challenges in developing 3-D velocity models is an uneven stations-source distribution. To better overcome this challenge, we also include the first arrival times of the SSIP shots at the more widely spaced Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) in our inversion, since the layout of the SSIP is complementary to the SCSN. References: Tape, C., et al., 2010, Seismic tomography of the Southern California crust based on spectral-element and adjoint methods: Geophysical Journal International, v. 180, no. 1, p. 433-462. Wei, S., et al., 2013, Complementary slip distributions

  17. Reaching High-Need Youth Populations With Evidence-Based Sexual Health Education in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Mary I; Leff, Sarah Z; Tufts, Margaret

    2018-02-01

    To explore the programmatic reach and experience of high-need adolescents who received sexual health education in 3 distinct implementation settings (targeted-prevention settings, traditional schools, and alternative schools) through a statewide sexual health education program. Data are from youth surveys collected between September 2013 and December 2014 in the California Personal Responsibility Education Program. A sample of high-need participants (n = 747) provided data to examine the impact of implementation setting on reach and program experience. Implementation in targeted-prevention settings was equal to or more effective at providing a positive program experience for high-need participants. More than 5 times as many high-need participants were served in targeted-prevention settings compared with traditional schools. Reaching the same number of high-need participants served in targeted-prevention settings over 15 months would take nearly 7 years of programming in traditional schools. To maximize the reach and experience of high-need youth populations receiving sexual health education, state and local agencies should consider the importance of implementation setting. Targeted resources and efforts should be directed toward high-need young people by expanding beyond traditional school settings.

  18. MEMS based Low Cost Piezoresistive Microcantilever Force Sensor and Sensor Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, H J; Kim, Hyun Tae; Roy, Rajarshi; Desai, Jaydev P

    2014-03-01

    In the present work, we report fabrication and characterization of a low-cost MEMS based piezoresistive micro-force sensor with SU-8 tip using laboratory made silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. To prepare SOI wafer, silicon film (0.8 µm thick) was deposited on an oxidized silicon wafer using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The films were deposited in Argon (Ar) ambient without external substrate heating. The material characteristics of the sputtered deposited silicon film and silicon film annealed at different temperatures (400-1050°C) were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The residual stress of the films was measured as a function of annealing temperature. The stress of the as-deposited films was observed to be compressive and annealing the film above 1050°C resulted in a tensile stress. The stress of the film decreased gradually with increase in annealing temperature. The fabricated cantilevers were 130 µm in length, 40 µm wide and 1.0 µm thick. A series of force-displacement curves were obtained using fabricated microcantilever with commercial AFM setup and the data were analyzed to get the spring constant and the sensitivity of the fabricated microcantilever. The measured spring constant and sensitivity of the sensor was 0.1488N/m and 2.7mV/N. The microcantilever force sensor was integrated with an electronic module that detects the change in resistance of the sensor with respect to the applied force and displays it on the computer screen.

  19. Investigating the binding behaviour of two avidin-based testosterone binders using molecular recognition force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangl, Martina; Leitner, Michael; Riihimäki, Tiina; Lehtonen, Soili; Hytönen, Vesa P; Gruber, Hermann J; Kulomaa, Markku; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Ebner, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Molecular recognition force spectroscopy, a biosensing atomic force microscopy technique allows to characterise the dissociation of ligand-receptor complexes at the molecular level. Here, we used molecular recognition force spectroscopy to study the binding capability of recently developed testosterone binders. The two avidin-based proteins called sbAvd-1 and sbAvd-2 are expected to bind both testosterone and biotin but differ in their binding behaviour towards these ligands. To explore the ligand binding and dissociation energy landscape of these proteins, we tethered biotin or testosterone to the atomic force microscopy probe while the testosterone-binding protein was immobilized on the surface. Repeated formation and rupture of the ligand-receptor complex at different pulling velocities allowed determination of the loading rate dependence of the complex-rupturing force. In this way, we obtained the molecular dissociation rate (k(off)) and energy landscape distances (x(β)) of the four possible complexes: sbAvd-1-biotin, sbAvd-1-testosterone, sbAvd-2-biotin and sbAvd-2-testosterone. It was found that the kinetic off-rates for both proteins and both ligands are similar. In contrast, the x(β) values, as well as the probability of complex formations, varied considerably. In addition, competitive binding experiments with biotin and testosterone in solution differ significantly for the two testosterone-binding proteins, implying a decreased cross-reactivity of sbAvd-2. Unravelling the binding behaviour of the investigated testosterone-binding proteins is expected to improve their usability for possible sensing applications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Measurement correction method for force sensor used in dynamic pressure calibration based on artificial neural network optimized by genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tingwei; Kong, Deren; Shang, Fei; Chen, Jing

    2017-12-01

    We present an optimization algorithm to obtain low-uncertainty dynamic pressure measurements from a force-transducer-based device. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the methods that are commonly used to measure the propellant powder gas pressure, the applicable scope of dynamic pressure calibration devices, and the shortcomings of the traditional comparison calibration method based on the drop-weight device are firstly analysed in detail. Then, a dynamic calibration method for measuring pressure using a force sensor based on a drop-weight device is introduced. This method can effectively save time when many pressure sensors are calibrated simultaneously and extend the life of expensive reference sensors. However, the force sensor is installed between the drop-weight and the hammerhead by transition pieces through the connection mode of bolt fastening, which causes adverse effects such as additional pretightening and inertia forces. To solve these effects, the influence mechanisms of the pretightening force, the inertia force and other influence factors on the force measurement are theoretically analysed. Then a measurement correction method for the force measurement is proposed based on an artificial neural network optimized by a genetic algorithm. The training and testing data sets are obtained from calibration tests, and the selection criteria for the key parameters of the correction model is discussed. The evaluation results for the test data show that the correction model can effectively improve the force measurement accuracy of the force sensor. Compared with the traditional high-accuracy comparison calibration method, the percentage difference of the impact-force-based measurement is less than 0.6% and the relative uncertainty of the corrected force value is 1.95%, which can meet the requirements of engineering applications.

  1. Examination of biogenic selenium-containing nanosystems based on polyelectrolyte complexes by atomic force, Kelvin probe force and electron microscopy methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanova, T. E., E-mail: tat-sukhanova@mail.ru; Vylegzhanina, M. E.; Valueva, S. V.; Volkov, A. Ya.; Kutin, A. A. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds RAS, 199004 Bolshoy Pr., 31, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Temiryazeva, M. P.; Temiryazev, A. G. [Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) Russian Academy of Sciences, Fryazino, Moscow region, 141190 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    The morphology and electrical properties of biogenic selenium-containing nanosystems based on polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) were examined using AFM, Kelvin Probe Force and electron microscopy methods. It has been found, that prepared nanostructures significantly differed in their morphological types and parameters. In particular, multilayers capsules can be produced via varying synthesis conditions, especially, the selenium–PEC mass ratio ν. At the “special point” (ν = 0.1), filled and hollow nano- and microcapsules are formed in the system. The multilayer character of the capsules walls is visible in the phase images. Kelvin Probe Force images showed the inhomogeneity of potential distribution in capsules and outside them.

  2. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  3. [The motive force of evolution based on the principle of organismal adjustment evolution.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia-Shu

    2010-08-01

    From the analysis of the existing problems of the prevalent theories of evolution, this paper discussed the motive force of evolution based on the knowledge of the principle of organismal adjustment evolution to get a new understanding of the evolution mechanism. In the guide of Schrodinger's theory - "life feeds on negative entropy", the author proposed that "negative entropy flow" actually includes material flow, energy flow and information flow, and the "negative entropy flow" is the motive force for living and development. By modifying my own theory of principle of organismal adjustment evolution (not adaptation evolution), a new theory of "regulation system of organismal adjustment evolution involved in DNA, RNA and protein interacting with environment" is proposed. According to the view that phylogenetic development is the "integral" of individual development, the difference of negative entropy flow between organisms and environment is considered to be a motive force for evolution, which is a new understanding of the mechanism of evolution. Based on such understanding, evolution is regarded as "a changing process that one subsystem passes all or part of its genetic information to the next generation in a larger system, and during the adaptation process produces some new elements, stops some old ones, and thereby lasts in the larger system". Some other controversial questions related to evolution are also discussed.

  4. Ab initio protein structure assembly using continuous structure fragments and optimized knowledge-based force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yang

    2012-07-01

    Ab initio protein folding is one of the major unsolved problems in computational biology owing to the difficulties in force field design and conformational search. We developed a novel program, QUARK, for template-free protein structure prediction. Query sequences are first broken into fragments of 1-20 residues where multiple fragment structures are retrieved at each position from unrelated experimental structures. Full-length structure models are then assembled from fragments using replica-exchange Monte Carlo simulations, which are guided by a composite knowledge-based force field. A number of novel energy terms and Monte Carlo movements are introduced and the particular contributions to enhancing the efficiency of both force field and search engine are analyzed in detail. QUARK prediction procedure is depicted and tested on the structure modeling of 145 nonhomologous proteins. Although no global templates are used and all fragments from experimental structures with template modeling score >0.5 are excluded, QUARK can successfully construct 3D models of correct folds in one-third cases of short proteins up to 100 residues. In the ninth community-wide Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction experiment, QUARK server outperformed the second and third best servers by 18 and 47% based on the cumulative Z-score of global distance test-total scores in the FM category. Although ab initio protein folding remains a significant challenge, these data demonstrate new progress toward the solution of the most important problem in the field. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Scoping Summary Report, Los Angeles AFB, California. Air Force Base Closure and Realignment Environmental Impact Analysis Process Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Mexico 87123 Dayton, Ohio 45402 * Richard A. Lampson Butch Maki Hydro Conduit Corp. Congressman Bill Richardson - 4801 Yucatan N.E. 548 Agua Fria...some chile con queso; however, that would be too much, and I think that might be considered a bribe. The Mayor asked me to convey his regrets. He’s tied...that God sends you here. Also, the small momento that Loretta is giving you, which is our state symbol, has a chile on it; and that’s to remind you

  6. Environmental Assessment for the Routine and Recurring Realignment of Units and Personnel at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    atmosphere. The following gases are considered the major greenhouse gases of concern: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated gases...create a lead hazard. The U.S. EPA has established that paint, varnish , shellac, or other coatings on surfaces that contain more than 5,000 ppm of lead

  7. Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment: Falcon I Launch Vehicle Program from SLC-4W Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-06

    affected surface water, 3) adversely affected groundwater quantity or quality, or 4) caused a need that exceeded the existing potable supply or...goby is from Tillas Slough (mouth of the Smith River) in Del Norte County, south to Colonel Louis D. Van Mullem, Jr. (1-8-96-F/C-29) 5 Agua Hedionda

  8. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of George Air Force Base, California. Volume 2. Public Comments and Responses, Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    mbemehim ~du feildes Twoa 9.9 93~ Imposes GaO meji amy Imo eaudepoGa eaadeeedaus of ,eadaed at ueme G mu gdauw asadarnasimn hi Gam0’ Tbe I* bkt iddea...Southwest Gas Corporation The Nature Conservancy The Sun D-12 George AFO Disposal and Reuse FEIS Unlversky o Callornim Los Angels (uCLA) URS Consultads Vector

  9. Environmental Assessment for Routine and Recurring Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Operations at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Kern County. The giant kangaroo rat and Tipton kangaroo rat are both state and 8 federally listed as endangered species. The giant kangaroo rat occurs...on or just outside the western limits 9 of the R-2508 Complex in Kern County. The Tipton kangaroo rat once ranged throughout much of the 10 southern...overflight of the desert tortoise resulted in a 12 “slight freeze” response with no long term ill effects or changes in metabolic rates. No adverse

  10. Installation Restoration Program Stage 2-1 Remedial Investigation. Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. Volume 3. Appendix B - K

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-29

    I0IYOiHPI1 ISenu n!W .46 ,.II I J LIo Yg I 0 lf I IJliGn I r IM,I I.E_ I IVAna di mjdIIi ~ LaIIII j~inc zo- 20 III IT _______ di ~ ’n F-256 / ____CHZN...VJ is the lijit of detecticq fcr ’thit cvicmud. ba~ ern 1flutic-1. irdicates in estisated trice a lh ANAL Y ST :________________ OrRF.OED BY

  11. Finding of No Significant Impact: SLC-4 to SLC-6 Replacement Waterline Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-28

    marianum). stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum ). poison oak and introduced grasses dominate the understory. This site is...thistle * Coni cos a pugioniformis Slender leaved iceplant * * C ’onium maculatum Poison hemlock * Coreopsis gigantean Giant coreopsis * * C ’ortaderia

  12. Final Environmental Assessment (EA), Long-Term Integrated Management of Mission-Generated Solid Waste, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-28

    surrounding communities within the Antelope Valley. Major industries in the area include agriculture, mining, and tourism , in addition to aerospace...festivals, sports , and other leisure pursuits, plus the attractions of the nearby Los Angeles metropolitan area make Edwards AFB a great jumping-off

  13. Operation of the PAVE PAWS Radar System at Beale Air Force Base, California. Part 1. Basic EIS & Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Trypanosoma equiperdum. Finally, long-term exposure of mice to 9.27 GHz RF1, 100,000 microwatts/cm 2 , 4.5 min/day (Prausnitz, 1962, also cited in...on heart race in turtles and frogs . Turtles exposed to 960 MUz radi- ation at 100 to 10,000 microwatts/cm 2 showed no effect on heart rate (Flanigan...1977). Frogs exposed to 5 microsecond pulses of 1.25 Hz RFR chat were timed by electronic feedback to coincide with the rise of the R-wave of the

  14. Stationing a U.S. Army Reserve Black Hawk Helicopter Company at Joint Forces Training Base Los Alamitos, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    include the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglotos), black phoebe (Saynoris nigricans), house finch (Carpodacus...cumulative impacts. Any wildlife killed during aviation activities is reported to the JFTB Los Alamitos Environmental Office for proper identification

  15. US Highway 395 Widen Median and Shoulder and Install Rumble Strips Project Environmental Assessment, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-16

    Topography of the area varies from rugged rocky mountaintops, surrounded by gravel-laden alluvial fans and aprons, to sand and clay deposits in flat valley...disposal practices resulted in releases or disposal of organic solvents that have affected groundwater. A sanitary landfill is also located in this...Great Basin scrub, Sonoran Desert scrub and desert dunes with sandy flats, dunes and sandy areas around clay slicks with Sarcobatus (greasewood

  16. Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Closure of Los Angeles Air Force Base, California and Relocation of Space Systems Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    1. The slender- horned spine flower is a federally-listed endangered species. Because of the highly disturbed nature of the proposed sites, none of...deposit include deer, antelope, gazelle, horse, pig, camel, elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, rabbit, beaver, mole, shrew, ground sloth, hedgehog

  17. Environmental Assessment Supplement for C-17Southwest Landing Zone Articulated Concrete Block Shoulders Travis Air Force Base, Fairfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    considered in this opinion: or ( 4) a ncv . spt:cies is listed or criticCJI habitat designated that may be affected by the action. I r ym1 have...these <>ddresses in ycur web browse.- *"’ -track gH~’ ~ ~!g~u~~:*"’( ~e ’f~~ * f~:~~~~s;’ :~U~9Sh i~.!:~* 5 ~5"’~i"* I 0 il) SHIPME>NT QUESTIONS

  18. Bioventing Pilot Test Work Plan for Site ST200 (SA38), McClellan Air Force Base, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    This Bioventing Pilot Test Work Plan presents the scope of an in situ bioventing pilot test and installation of a bioventing system for treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at Site...

  19. Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment: Demolition and Abandonment of Atlas and Titan Facilities Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-13

    compliance with Federal Insecticide , Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and 40 CFR 159-189 Pesticide Programs. AFI 32-7020 The Environmental...oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e., insects, spiders, and snakes), and disease vectors (i.e., ticks, rodents), exist at and around the...Francisco. Hamilton, M. Colleen, Wendy Nettles , and Clayton G. Lebow 2004 SLC-4 to SLC-6 Waterline Replacement Project, CA-SBA-1145/H Treatment Plan

  20. Preliminarily measurement and analysis of sawing forces in fresh cadaver mandible using reciprocating saw for reality-based haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yua, Dedong; Zhengb, Xiaohu; Chenc, Ming; Shend, Steve G F

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to preliminarily measure and analyze the cutting forces in fresh Chinese cadaver mandible using a clinically widely used reciprocating saw for reality-based haptic feedback. Eight mandibles were taken from fresh Chinese cadavers, 4 females and 4 males, aged between 59 and 95 years. A set of sawing experiments, using a surgery Stryker micro-reciprocating saw and Kistler piezoelectric dynamometer, was carried out by a CNC machining center. Under different vibration frequencies of saw and feeding rates measured from orthognathic surgery, sawing forces were recorded by a signal acquisition system. Remarkably different sawing forces were measured from different cadavers. Feed and vibration frequency of the reciprocating saw could determine the cutting forces only on 1 body. To reduce the impact of bone thickness changes on the cutting force measurements, all the cutting force data should be converted to the force of unit cutting length. The vibration frequency of haptic feedback system is determined by main cutting forces. Fast Fourier transform method can be used to calculate the frequency of this system. To simulate surgery in higher fidelity, all the sawing forces from the experiment should be amended by experienced surgeons before use in virtual reality surgery simulator. Sawing force signals of different ages for force feedback were measured successfully, and more factors related to the bone mechanical properties, such as bone density, should be concerned in the future.

  1. Characterizing the surface forces between two individual nanowires using optical microscopy based nanomanipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongtao; Mead, James L.; Wang, Shiliang; Fatikow, Sergej; Huang, Han

    2018-06-01

    The adhesion and friction between two Al2O3 nanowires (NWs) was characterized by the use of optical microscopy based nanomanipulation, with which peeling, shearing and sliding was performed. The elastically deformed shape of the NWs during peeling and shearing was used to calculate the adhesion and frictional forces; force sensing was not required. The obtained adhesion stress between two Al2O3 NWs varied from 0.14 to 0.25 MPa, lower than that observed for carbon nanotube junctions, and was attributed to van der Waals attraction. Stick-slip was observed during the shearing and sliding of two NWs, and was the consequence of discrete contact between surface asperities. The obtained static and kinetic frictional stresses varied from 0.7 to 1.3 MPa and 0.4 to 0.8 MPa, respectively; significantly greater than the obtained adhesion stress.

  2. Centrifugal Force Based Magnetic Micro-Pump Driven by Rotating Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S H; Hashi, S; Ishiyama, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a centrifugal force based magnetic micro-pump for the pumping of blood. Most blood pumps are driven by an electrical motor with wired control. To develop a wireless and battery-free blood pump, the proposed pump is controlled by external rotating magnetic fields with a synchronized impeller. Synchronization occurs because the rotor is divided into multi-stage impeller parts and NdFeB permanent magnet. Finally, liquid is discharged by the centrifugal force of multi-stage impeller. The proposed pump length is 30 mm long and 19 mm in diameter which much smaller than currently pumps; however, its pumping ability satisfies the requirement for a blood pump. The maximum pressure is 120 mmHg and the maximum flow rate is 5000ml/min at 100 Hz. The advantage of the proposed pump is that the general mechanical problems of a normal blood pump are eliminated by the proposed driving mechanism.

  3. Centrifugal Force Based Magnetic Micro-Pump Driven by Rotating Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Hashi, S.; Ishiyama, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a centrifugal force based magnetic micro-pump for the pumping of blood. Most blood pumps are driven by an electrical motor with wired control. To develop a wireless and battery-free blood pump, the proposed pump is controlled by external rotating magnetic fields with a synchronized impeller. Synchronization occurs because the rotor is divided into multi-stage impeller parts and NdFeB permanent magnet. Finally, liquid is discharged by the centrifugal force of multi-stage impeller. The proposed pump length is 30 mm long and19 mm in diameter which much smaller than currently pumps; however, its pumping ability satisfies the requirement for a blood pump. The maximum pressure is 120 mmHg and the maximum flow rate is 5000ml/min at 100 Hz. The advantage of the proposed pump is that the general mechanical problems of a normal blood pump are eliminated by the proposed driving mechanism.

  4. Optical switching based on the manipulation of microparticles in a colloidal liquid using strong scattering force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jin; Liu Zheng-Qi; Feng Tian-Hua; Dai Qiao-Feng; Wu Li-Jun; Lan Sheng

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the realization of an optical switch by optically manipulating a large number of polystyrene spheres contained in a capillary. The strong scattering force exerted on polystyrene spheres with a large diameter of 4.3 μm is employed to realize the switching operation. A transparent window is opened for the signal light when the polystyrene spheres originally located at the beam centre are driven out of the beam region by the strong scattering force induced by the control light. The switching dynamics under different incident powers is investigated and compared with that observed in the optical switch based on the formation of optical matter. It is found that a large extinction ratio of ∼ 30 dB and fast switching-on and switching-off times can be achieved in this type of switch. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  5. High-force NdFeB-based magnetic tweezers device optimized for microrheology experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Valentine, Megan T

    2012-05-01

    We present the design, calibration, and testing of a magnetic tweezers device that employs two pairs of permanent neodymium iron boron magnets surrounded by low-carbon steel focusing tips to apply large forces to soft materials for microrheology experiments. Our design enables the application of forces in the range of 1-1800 pN to ∼4.5 μm paramagnetic beads using magnet-bead separations in the range of 0.3-20 mm. This allows the use of standard coverslips and sample geometries. A high speed camera, custom LED-based illumination scheme, and mechanically stabilized measurement platform are employed to enable the measurement of materials with viscoelastic moduli as high as ∼1 kPa.

  6. High-force NdFeB-based magnetic tweezers device optimized for microrheology experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Biomolecular Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Valentine, Megan T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    We present the design, calibration, and testing of a magnetic tweezers device that employs two pairs of permanent neodymium iron boron magnets surrounded by low-carbon steel focusing tips to apply large forces to soft materials for microrheology experiments. Our design enables the application of forces in the range of 1-1800 pN to {approx}4.5 {mu}m paramagnetic beads using magnet-bead separations in the range of 0.3-20 mm. This allows the use of standard coverslips and sample geometries. A high speed camera, custom LED-based illumination scheme, and mechanically stabilized measurement platform are employed to enable the measurement of materials with viscoelastic moduli as high as {approx}1 kPa.

  7. Passive microrheology of soft materials with atomic force microscopy: A wavelet-based spectral analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Torres, C.; Streppa, L. [CNRS, UMR5672, Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, Université de Lyon, 69007 Lyon (France); Arneodo, A.; Argoul, F. [CNRS, UMR5672, Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, Université de Lyon, 69007 Lyon (France); CNRS, UMR5798, Laboratoire Ondes et Matière d' Aquitaine, Université de Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); Argoul, P. [Université Paris-Est, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, SDOA, MAST, IFSTTAR, 14-20 Bd Newton, Cité Descartes, 77420 Champs sur Marne (France)

    2016-01-18

    Compared to active microrheology where a known force or modulation is periodically imposed to a soft material, passive microrheology relies on the spectral analysis of the spontaneous motion of tracers inherent or external to the material. Passive microrheology studies of soft or living materials with atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever tips are rather rare because, in the spectral densities, the rheological response of the materials is hardly distinguishable from other sources of random or periodic perturbations. To circumvent this difficulty, we propose here a wavelet-based decomposition of AFM cantilever tip fluctuations and we show that when applying this multi-scale method to soft polymer layers and to living myoblasts, the structural damping exponents of these soft materials can be retrieved.

  8. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Liu; W. Wu; M. P. Jensen; T. Toto

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surfaced-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fractio...

  9. Influences of nuclear containment radius on the aircraft impact force based on the Riera function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Wu, H., E-mail: abrahamhao@126.com; Fang, Q.; Gong, Z.M.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • A fine aircraft model of A320 was built and verified by available limited prototype impacting tests. • The influences of aircraft longitudinal crushing strength on the impact process were analyzed. • The influences of NPP containment radius on the impact force were numerically studied. • The Riera function was modified by considering the radius effect of NPP containment. - Abstract: The aircraft impact force directly influences the local failure and global response of the nuclear power plant (NPP) containment, while the existing theoretical models and the field tests were almost based on the flat target. In order to analyze the radius effect of the circular sectional containment on the impact force, a fine FE model of the commercial aircraft A320 was established and validated by the available limited full-scale F-4 Phantom impact experiment. In order to determine the force to crush the A320 FE model, the influences of aircraft longitudinal crushing strength on the impact process were analyzed based on the Riera function. Considering the containment decaying effect to aircraft impact velocity, the impact impulse was theoretically calculated, while the influences of the losses of mass and energy were not included. The numerical simulations of A320 aircrafts impacting on simplified NPP containments with different radii were conducted, which could well reproduce the airframe crushing and debris scattering. By comparison of the simulated impact impulses and the calculation values by the Riera function, the coefficients corresponding to different containment radii are derived and a fitting formula is obtained. Finally, an improved Riera function dependent on the dimensionless ratio of nuclear containment radius and aircraft wingspan is proposed.

  10. Development of District-Based Mineral-Hazards Maps for Highways in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C. T.; Churchill, R. K.; Fonseca, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    The California Geological Survey (CGS) currently is developing a series of unpublished maps for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that shows potential for mineral hazards within each of the twelve highway districts administered by that agency. Where present along or near highway corridors, such hazards may pose problems for human health and safety or the environment. Prepared at a scale of 1:250,000, the maps are designed as initial screening tools for Caltrans staff to use to improve planning of activities that involve new construction projects, routine maintenance of highways, and emergency removal of debris deposited on roads by natural processes. Although the basic presentation of each type of thematic map in the series is the same, some customization and focus are allowed for each district because each has unique issues concerning potential for mineral hazards. The maps display many natural and man-made features that may be potential sources of mineral hazards within each district. Features compiled and evaluated under our definition of "mineral hazards" are: 1) naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA); 2) natural occurrences of various regulated metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se) as well as other pertinent metals, such as Mn and U; 3) faults, which can be sites of increased potential for certain types of mineralization, such as NOA; 4) mines and prospects, which can be sources of anomalous concentrations of metals as well as ore-processing chemicals; 5) natural petroleum features, such as oil and natural-gas seeps; 6) natural geothermal features, such as thermal springs and fumaroles; and 7) oil, natural-gas, and geothermal wells. Because of their greater potential as sources of mineral hazards, localities designated on the maps as "areas of potential mineralogical concern" are of particular interest to Caltrans. Examples include significant mining districts, such as New Almaden (Hg) near

  11. Defense Base Realignment and Closure Budget Data for the Closure of Gentile Air Force Station, Dayton, Ohio, and Realignment of Defense Logistics Agency Components to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... This report provides the results of the audit of two projects, valued at $5.5 million, for the closure of Gentile Air Force Station, Dayton, Ohio, and realignment to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, of two Defense Logistics Agency components...

  12. Environmental Assessment Preparation for Air Force Test Mission in the 21st Century: Upgrade and Improve the Test Capability at the Edwards Air Force Base California Test Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    National Ambient Air Quality Standards NAGPRA Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act NDMA N-Nitrosodimethylamine NEPA National...parts of OUs 1, 2, 5/10, 6, and 8. Groundwater contamination in the form of solvent, perchlorate, petroleum, nitrate, and N- Nitrosodimethylamine ( NDMA

  13. Environmental Assessment: Western Range Instrumentation Modernization Program Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, and Pillar Point Air Force Station, San Mateo County California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-03

    Biological hazards, including vegetation (i.e., poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e., insects , spiders, and snakes), and disease vectors (i.e...such as animals ( insects , spiders, and snakes), and disease vectors (ticks and rodents). The Noise Control Act (NCA; 42 U.S.C. 4901 et seq

  14. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; King, D.A.; Parker, S.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-08-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption on the base. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Patrick AFB. It is a comparison report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profile information to be used to improve the characterization of energy use on the base. The characteristics of electricity, natural gas, and No. 2 fuel oil are analyzed for on-base facilities and housing. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Patrick AFB facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985-1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the north and south substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  15. Micromachined diffraction based optical microphones and intensity probes with electrostatic force feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicen, Baris

    Measuring acoustic pressure gradients is critical in many applications such as directional microphones for hearing aids and sound intensity probes. This measurement is especially challenging with decreasing microphone size, which reduces the sensitivity due to small spacing between the pressure ports. Novel, micromachined biomimetic microphone diaphragms are shown to provide high sensitivity to pressure gradients on one side of the diaphragm with low thermal mechanical noise. These structures have a dominant mode shape with see-saw like motion in the audio band, responding to pressure gradients as well as spurious higher order modes sensitive to pressure. In this dissertation, integration of a diffraction based optical detection method with these novel diaphragm structures to implement a low noise optical pressure gradient microphone is described and experimental characterization results are presented, showing 36 dBA noise level with 1mm port spacing, nearly an order of magnitude better than the current gradient microphones. The optical detection scheme also provides electrostatic actuation capability from both sides of the diaphragm separately which can be used for active force feedback. A 4-port electromechanical equivalent circuit model of this microphone with optical readout is developed to predict the overall response of the device to different acoustic and electrostatic excitations. The model includes the damping due to complex motion of air around the microphone diaphragm, and it calculates the detected optical signal on each side of the diaphragm as a combination of two separate dominant vibration modes. This equivalent circuit model is verified by experiments and used to predict the microphone response with different force feedback schemes. Single sided force feedback is used for active damping to improve the linearity and the frequency response of the microphone. Furthermore, it is shown that using two sided force feedback one can significantly suppress

  16. The Development of a Scientific Evaluation System of Force-on-Force (FOF) Exercise for Performance-based Regulation in Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Moonsung; Jung, Myungtak

    2015-01-01

    A terrorist attack or sabotage at a nuclear facility could lead result in a great amount of loss of life and social chaos, in addition to serious radiological damage. As threats have been evolved more intelligent, divergent, advanced, the international societies including IAEA encourage for all member states to establish the performance-based regulation using Forceon- Force (FOF) exercise, computer simulation. Consequently, the performance evaluation for physical protection at nuclear facilities should focus on properly reacting to threat scenarios. Physical protection should also include detecting, blocking, delaying, interrupting including the human and technical factors the adversary having malicious intention of the realistic main threat element before he accomplishes the goal based on Design Basis Threat (DBT). After the completion of the FOF evaluation system, KINAC will evaluate, and later strengthen its overall security program in response to changes in the threat environment, technological advancements, and lessons learned. As a result, substantial improvements to a nuclear facility security can be predicted. These improvements will focus on a plant security force, physical barriers, intrusion detection systems, surveillance systems, and access controls. Through the building a Force-on-Force scientific evaluation system, KINAC will establish an efficient physical protection implementation system for nuclear energy facilities

  17. The Development of a Scientific Evaluation System of Force-on-Force (FOF) Exercise for Performance-based Regulation in Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Moonsung; Jung, Myungtak [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A terrorist attack or sabotage at a nuclear facility could lead result in a great amount of loss of life and social chaos, in addition to serious radiological damage. As threats have been evolved more intelligent, divergent, advanced, the international societies including IAEA encourage for all member states to establish the performance-based regulation using Forceon- Force (FOF) exercise, computer simulation. Consequently, the performance evaluation for physical protection at nuclear facilities should focus on properly reacting to threat scenarios. Physical protection should also include detecting, blocking, delaying, interrupting including the human and technical factors the adversary having malicious intention of the realistic main threat element before he accomplishes the goal based on Design Basis Threat (DBT). After the completion of the FOF evaluation system, KINAC will evaluate, and later strengthen its overall security program in response to changes in the threat environment, technological advancements, and lessons learned. As a result, substantial improvements to a nuclear facility security can be predicted. These improvements will focus on a plant security force, physical barriers, intrusion detection systems, surveillance systems, and access controls. Through the building a Force-on-Force scientific evaluation system, KINAC will establish an efficient physical protection implementation system for nuclear energy facilities.

  18. Distribution of base rock depth estimated from Rayleigh wave measurement by forced vibration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Hibino; Toshiro Maeda; Chiaki Yoshimura; Yasuo Uchiyama

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows an application of Rayleigh wave methods to a real site, which was performed to determine spatial distribution of base rock depth from the ground surface. At a certain site in Sagami Plain in Japan, the base rock depth from surface is assumed to be distributed up to 10 m according to boring investigation. Possible accuracy of the base rock depth distribution has been needed for the pile design and construction. In order to measure Rayleigh wave phase velocity, forced vibration tests were conducted with a 500 N vertical shaker and linear arrays of three vertical sensors situated at several points in two zones around the edges of the site. Then, inversion analysis was carried out for soil profile by genetic algorithm, simulating measured Rayleigh wave phase velocity with the computed counterpart. Distribution of the base rock depth inverted from the analysis was consistent with the roughly estimated inclination of the base rock obtained from the boring tests, that is, the base rock is shallow around edge of the site and gradually inclines towards the center of the site. By the inversion analysis, the depth of base rock was determined as from 5 m to 6 m in the edge of the site, 10 m in the center of the site. The determined distribution of the base rock depth by this method showed good agreement on most of the points where boring investigation were performed. As a result, it was confirmed that the forced vibration tests on the ground by Rayleigh wave methods can be useful as the practical technique for estimating surface soil profiles to a depth of up to 10 m. (authors)

  19. Electromagnetic-based force sensor for Structural Health Monitoring(SHM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Man Yong; Park, Hae Won; Park, Jeong Hak; Sam, R.

    2002-01-01

    The demand for maintenance of structural health and safety to acceptable standards poses challenges for research and development of effective technologies for monitoring and measurement of parameters governing safety and health of structures. In this work, an electromagnetic based sensor has been investigated and developed for measuring force in pre-stressed steel cables and tendons. The change in magnetic permeability of a material caused by mechanical stress is exploited to measure force in the material. The sensor consists of a pair of sensing coils and a pair of reference coils. The sensing coils are wound around a stressed material while the reference pair are wound on a dummy specimen of same material as that under stress. When sensing and reference primary coils are excited by same current simultaneously, both the stressed and dummy materials are equally magnetized by the magnetic field generated by the current, and voltage is induced in the sensing and reference secondary coils. The induced voltage in each secondary coil is dependent on a number of factors including the magnetic permeability of its core which is a function of the core magnetizing current, temperature and stress/load. By suitably arranging the sensing and reference coils electro-magnetically, the effects of temperature and magnetizing current on the permeability of a stressed material can be eliminated in the output voltage of the sensor. The output voltage is a function of only the mechanical load in the stressed material, and can be calibrated for determination of force in pre-stressed materials

  20. Measuring protein isoelectric points by AFM-based force spectroscopy using trace amounts of sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoying; Jańczewski, Dominik; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; He, Tao; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Vancso, G. Julius

    2016-09-01

    Protein charge at various pH and isoelectric point (pI) values is important in understanding protein function. However, often only trace amounts of unknown proteins are available and pI measurements cannot be obtained using conventional methods. Here, we show a method based on the atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine pI using minute quantities of proteins. The protein of interest is immobilized on AFM colloidal probes and the adhesion force of the protein is measured against a positively and a negatively charged substrate made by layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolytes. From the AFM force-distance curves, pI values with an estimated accuracy of ±0.25 were obtained for bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, fibrinogen and ribonuclease A over a range of 4.7-9.8. Using this method, we show that the pI of the ‘footprint’ of the temporary adhesive proteins secreted by the barnacle cyprid larvae of Amphibalanus amphitrite is in the range 9.6-9.7.

  1. Magnetic Field Equivalent Current Analysis-Based Radial Force Control for Bearingless Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huangqiu Zhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bearingless permanent magnet synchronous motors (BPMSMs, with all advantages of permanent magnet motors (PMSMs and magnetic bearings, have become an important research direction in the bearingless motor field. To realize a stable suspension for the BPMSM, accurate decoupling control between the electromagnetic torque and radial suspension force is indispensable. In this paper, a concise and reliable analysis method based on a magnetic field equivalent current is presented. By this analysis method, the operation principle is analyzed theoretically, and the necessary conditions to produce a stable radial suspension force are confirmed. In addition, mathematical models of the torque and radial suspension force are established which is verified by the finite element analysis (FEA software ANSYS. Finally, an experimental prototype of a 2-4 poles surface-mounted BPMSM is tested with the customized control strategy. The simulation and experimental results have shown that the motor has good rotation and suspension performance, and validated the accuracy of the proposed analysis method and the feasibility of the control strategy.

  2. Physics-based modeling of live wildland fuel ignition experiments in the Forced Ignition and Flame Spread Test apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Anand; B. Shotorban; S. Mahalingam; S. McAllister; D. R. Weise

    2017-01-01

    A computational study was performed to improve our understanding of the ignition of live fuel in the forced ignition and flame spread test apparatus, a setup where the impact of the heating mode is investigated by subjecting the fuel to forced convection and radiation. An improvement was first made in the physics-based model WFDS where the fuel is treated as fixed...

  3. 2017 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The 2017 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base has been prepared in accordance with the “Letter of Agreement Between Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Sandia Field Office (DOE/NNSA/SFO) and 377th Air Base Wing (ABW), Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) for Terrestrial Sampling” (signed January 2017), Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The Letter of Agreement requires submittal of an annual terrestrial sampling plan.

  4. 2018 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The 2018 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base has been prepared in accordance with the “Letter of Agreement Between Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Sandia Field Office (DOE/NNSA/SFO) and 377th Air Base Wing (ABW), Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) for Terrestrial Sampling” (signed January 2017), Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The Letter of Agreement requires submittal of an annual terrestrial sampling plan.

  5. Research on micromanipulator’s clamping force sensing based on static wirerope tension of a surgical robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Yu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The micromanipulator’s force feedback is one of the key research contents of minimally invasive surgical robotic system. Because the micromanipulator is a kind of compact construction which is suitable for valve installation with small space in surgery, especially for the influence of disinfection method, there are major difficulties and limitations to integrate compact sensors in the end of micromanipulator. This article focuses on the 3-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator’s clamping force sensing, and these three joints are actuated by wirerope driving. A clamping force sensing method is proposed based on static tension of wirerope driving, and a static model between the clamping force and wirerope’s static tension is established considering the influence of real friction resistance in the mechanical system. Finally, an equivalent experimental test platform for 3-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator’s clamping force sensing is set up, and then a series of experiments of the clamping force are studied. The frictional resistances of wirerope between the guide plate and guide pulley mechanism are tested, and a calibration and correction method of the experimental clamping force is proposed. The final experiment results show that the total average accuracy of experimental clamping force is about 78.3%, and it can be the basic measurement force to realize micromanipulator’s clamping force feedback of a minimally invasive surgical robot.

  6. The influence of physical and physiological cues on atomic force microscopy-based cell stiffness assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Chiou

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy provides a novel technique for differentiating the mechanical properties of various cell types. Cell elasticity is abundantly used to represent the structural strength of cells in different conditions. In this study, we are interested in whether physical or physiological cues affect cell elasticity in Atomic force microscopy (AFM-based assessments. The physical cues include the geometry of the AFM tips, the indenting force and the operating temperature of the AFM. All of these cues show a significant influence on the cell elasticity assessment. Sharp AFM tips create a two-fold increase in the value of the effective Young's modulus (E(eff relative to that of the blunt tips. Higher indenting force at the same loading rate generates higher estimated cell elasticity. Increasing the operation temperature of the AFM leads to decreases in the cell stiffness because the structure of actin filaments becomes disorganized. The physiological cues include the presence of fetal bovine serum or extracellular matrix-coated surfaces, the culture passage number, and the culture density. Both fetal bovine serum and the extracellular matrix are critical for cells to maintain the integrity of actin filaments and consequently exhibit higher elasticity. Unlike primary cells, mouse kidney progenitor cells can be passaged and maintain their morphology and elasticity for a very long period without a senescence phenotype. Finally, cell elasticity increases with increasing culture density only in MDCK epithelial cells. In summary, for researchers who use AFM to assess cell elasticity, our results provide basic and significant information about the suitable selection of physical and physiological cues.

  7. The influence of physical and physiological cues on atomic force microscopy-based cell stiffness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Yu-Wei; Lin, Hsiu-Kuan; Tang, Ming-Jer; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2013-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy provides a novel technique for differentiating the mechanical properties of various cell types. Cell elasticity is abundantly used to represent the structural strength of cells in different conditions. In this study, we are interested in whether physical or physiological cues affect cell elasticity in Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based assessments. The physical cues include the geometry of the AFM tips, the indenting force and the operating temperature of the AFM. All of these cues show a significant influence on the cell elasticity assessment. Sharp AFM tips create a two-fold increase in the value of the effective Young's modulus (E(eff)) relative to that of the blunt tips. Higher indenting force at the same loading rate generates higher estimated cell elasticity. Increasing the operation temperature of the AFM leads to decreases in the cell stiffness because the structure of actin filaments becomes disorganized. The physiological cues include the presence of fetal bovine serum or extracellular matrix-coated surfaces, the culture passage number, and the culture density. Both fetal bovine serum and the extracellular matrix are critical for cells to maintain the integrity of actin filaments and consequently exhibit higher elasticity. Unlike primary cells, mouse kidney progenitor cells can be passaged and maintain their morphology and elasticity for a very long period without a senescence phenotype. Finally, cell elasticity increases with increasing culture density only in MDCK epithelial cells. In summary, for researchers who use AFM to assess cell elasticity, our results provide basic and significant information about the suitable selection of physical and physiological cues.

  8. Physical driving force of actomyosin motility based on the hydration effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Mogami, George; Ohsugi, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2017-12-01

    We propose a driving force hypothesis based on previous thermodynamics, kinetics and structural data as well as additional experiments and calculations presented here on water-related phenomena in the actomyosin systems. Although Szent-Györgyi pointed out the importance of water in muscle contraction in 1951, few studies have focused on the water science of muscle because of the difficulty of analyzing hydration properties of the muscle proteins, actin, and myosin. The thermodynamics and energetics of muscle contraction are linked to the water-mediated regulation of protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions along with structural changes in protein molecules. In this study, we assume the following two points: (1) the periodic electric field distribution along an actin filament (F-actin) is unidirectionally modified upon binding of myosin subfragment 1 (M or myosin S1) with ADP and inorganic phosphate Pi (M.ADP.Pi complex) and (2) the solvation free energy of myosin S1 depends on the external electric field strength and the solvation free energy of myosin S1 in close proximity to F-actin can become the potential force to drive myosin S1 along F-actin. The first assumption is supported by integration of experimental reports. The second assumption is supported by model calculations utilizing molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to determine solvation free energies of a small organic molecule and two small proteins. MD simulations utilize the energy representation method (ER) and the roughly proportional relationship between the solvation free energy and the solvent-accessible surface area (SASA) of the protein. The estimated driving force acting on myosin S1 is as high as several piconewtons (pN), which is consistent with the experimentally observed force. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Potentiometric surfaces of the Arnold Engineering Development Complex Area, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, May and September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, Connor J.; Robinson, John A.

    2016-01-29

    Arnold Air Force Base occupies about 40,000 acres in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. The primary mission of Arnold Air Force Base is to provide risk-reduction information in the development of aerospace products through test and evaluation. This mission is achieved in part through test facilities at Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC), which occupies about 4,000 acres in the center of Arnold Air Force Base. Arnold Air Force Base is underlain by gravel and limestone aquifers, the most productive of which is the Manchester aquifer. Several volatile organic compounds, primarily chlorinated solvents, have been identified in the groundwater at Arnold Air Force Base. In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Arnold Air Force Base, completed a study of groundwater flow focused on the Arnold Engineering Development Complex area. The Arnold Engineering Development Complex area is of particular concern because within this area (1) chlorinated solvents have been identified in the groundwater, (2) the aquifers are dewatered around below-grade test facilities, and (3) there is a regional groundwater divide.

  10. Force Sensitive Handles and Capacitive Touch Sensor for Driving a Flexible Haptic-Based Immersive System

    OpenAIRE

    Covarrubias, Mario; Bordegoni, Monica; Cugini, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH) and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS) to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object...

  11. Analysis of weighing cells based on the principle of electromagnetic force compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marangoni, Rafael R; Rahneberg, Ilko; Fröhlich, Thomas; Hilbrunner, Falko; Theska, René

    2017-01-01

    An analytical model that considers the static behaviour of weighing cells based on the principle of electromagnetic force compensation (EMFC) is presented. With this model, adjustment strategies for the stiffness and tilt sensitivity of EMFC weighing cells are derived. These parameters are known as limiting factors for the achievable sensitivity and measurement uncertainty respectively. In order to obtain the analytical equations of the system, linear and rigid-body behaviour is assumed. The results obtained with the model are compared with results from multi-body simulations. It is shown that, for the considered model, an optimum design that eliminates the tilt sensitivity of the weighing cell while minimizing its stiffness exists. (paper)

  12. The scaled-charge additive force field for amino acid based ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fileti, E. E.; Chaban, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) constitute an emerging research field. New ILs involve more and more organic and inorganic ions. Amino acid based ILs (AAILs) represent a specific interest due to their evolutional connection to proteins. We report a new non-polarizable force field (FF) for the eight AAILs...... comprising 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and amino acid anions. The anions were obtained via deprotonation of carboxyl group. Specific cation-anion non-covalent interactions were taken into account by computing electrostatic potential for ion pairs. The van der Waals interactions were adopted from...

  13. Silicon Nano fabrication by Atomic Force Microscopy-Based Mechanical Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sh.; Wang, M.; Kim, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews silicon nano fabrication processes using atomic force microscopy (AFM). In particular, it summarizes recent results obtained in our research group regarding AFM-based silicon nano fabrication through mechanochemical local oxidation by diamond tip sliding, as well as mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical processing using an electrically conductive diamond tip. Microscopic three-dimensional manufacturing mainly relies on etching, deposition, and lithography. Therefore, a special emphasis was placed on nano mechanical processes, mechanochemical reaction by potassium hydroxide solution etching, and mechanical and electrical approaches. Several important surface characterization techniques consisting of scanning tunneling microscopy and related techniques, such as scanning probe microscopy and AFM, were also discussed.

  14. Implementation of RLS-based Adaptive Filterson nVIDIA GeForce Graphics Processing Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Akihiro; Nakayama, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents efficient implementa- tion of RLS-based adaptive filters with a large number of taps on nVIDIA GeForce graphics processing unit (GPU) and CUDA software development environment. Modification of the order and the combination of calcu- lations reduces the number of accesses to slow off-chip memory. Assigning tasks into multiple threads also takes memory access order into account. For a 4096-tap case, a GPU program is almost three times faster than a CPU program.

  15. Note: Design of FPGA based system identification module with application to atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Sayan; Pradhan, Sourav; Salapaka, Murti

    2018-05-01

    The science of system identification is widely utilized in modeling input-output relationships of diverse systems. In this article, we report field programmable gate array (FPGA) based implementation of a real-time system identification algorithm which employs forgetting factors and bias compensation techniques. The FPGA module is employed to estimate the mechanical properties of surfaces of materials at the nano-scale with an atomic force microscope (AFM). The FPGA module is user friendly which can be interfaced with commercially available AFMs. Extensive simulation and experimental results validate the design.

  16. Operable Unit 1 remedial investigation report, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, T.J.; Fruland, R.M.; Liikala, T.L.

    1994-06-01

    This remedial investigation report for operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Eielson Air Force Base presents data, calculations, and conclusions as to the nature and extent of surface and subsurface contamination at the eight source areas that make up OU-1. The information is based on the 1993 field investigation result and previous investigations. This report is the first in a set of three for OU-1. The other reports are the baseline risk assessment and feasibility study. The information in these reports will lead to a Record of Decision that will guide and conclude the environmental restoration effort for OU-1 at Eielson Air Force Base. The primary contaminants of concern include fuels and fuel-related contaminants (diesel; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; total petroleum hydrocarbon; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), maintenance-related solvents and cleaners (volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroothylene), polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The origins of contaminants of concern include leaks from storage tanks, drums and piping, and spills. Ongoing operations and past sitewide practices also contribute to contaminants of concern at OU-1 source areas. These include spraying mixed oil and solvent wastes on unpaved roads and aerial spraying of DDT

  17. Force fields for silicas and aluminophosphates based on ab initio calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beest, van B.W.H.; Kramer, G.J.; Santen, van R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Authors address the problem of finding interat. force fields for silicas from ab initio calcns. on small clusters. The force field cannot be detd. from cluster data alone; incorporation of bulk-system information into the force field remains essential. Bearing this in mind, authors derive a force

  18. Cell force mapping using a double-sided micropillar array based on the moiré fringe method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Anderson, S.; Zheng, X.; Roberts, E.; Qiu, Y.; Liao, R.; Zhang, X.

    2014-07-01

    The mapping of traction forces is crucial to understanding the means by which cells regulate their behavior and physiological function to adapt to and communicate with their local microenvironment. To this end, polymeric micropillar arrays have been used for measuring cell traction force. However, the small scale of the micropillar deflections induced by cell traction forces results in highly inefficient force analyses using conventional optical approaches; in many cases, cell forces may be below the limits of detection achieved using conventional microscopy. To address these limitations, the moiré phenomenon has been leveraged as a visualization tool for cell force mapping due to its inherent magnification effect and capacity for whole-field force measurements. This Letter reports an optomechanical cell force sensor, namely, a double-sided micropillar array (DMPA) made of poly(dimethylsiloxane), on which one side is employed to support cultured living cells while the opposing side serves as a reference pattern for generating moiré patterns. The distance between the two sides, which is a crucial parameter influencing moiré pattern contrast, is predetermined during fabrication using theoretical calculations based on the Talbot effect that aim to optimize contrast. Herein, double-sided micropillar arrays were validated by mapping mouse embryo fibroblast contraction forces and the resulting force maps compared to conventional microscopy image analyses as the reference standard. The DMPA-based approach precludes the requirement for aligning two independent periodic substrates, improves moiré contrast, and enables efficient moiré pattern generation. Furthermore, the double-sided structure readily allows for the integration of moiré-based cell force mapping into microfabricated cell culture environments or lab-on-a-chip devices.

  19. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test forced-choice recognition task: Base-rate data and norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreh, Amir; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Korobkova, Irina; Levin, Jennifer B; Dines, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes a novel Forced-Choice Response (FCR) index for detecting poor effort on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). This retrospective study analyzes the performance of 4 groups on the new index: clinically referred patients with suspected dementia, forensic patients identified as not exhibiting adequate effort on other measures of response bias, students who simulated poor effort, and a large normative sample collected in the Gulf State of Oman. Using sensitivity and specificity analyses, the study shows that much like the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition FCR index, the RAVLT FCR index misses a proportion of individuals with inadequate effort (low sensitivity), but those who fail this measure are highly likely to be exhibiting poor effort (high specificity). The limitations and benefits of utilizing the RAVLT FCR index in clinical practice are discussed.

  20. U.S. Air Force Environmental Assessment: Repair by Replacement JP-8 Fuel Transfer Line Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Midwest City, 8143 E.~;,~!,’: ~vallable_at the Metropolitan Should you have any comments on the DEAs • homa City, OK 73110-7589. • written comments may...IEADQUARTERS 720 A IR BASE WING (ArM C) TINKER AIR rORCE BASE. OKLAI IOMA MEMORANDUM FOR A IT ACHED DISTRIBUTION LIST FROM: 72 ABW/CE 7535 fifth

  1. Climate responses to SATIRE and SIM-based spectral solar forcing in a 3D atmosphere-ocean coupled GCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Guoyong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply two reconstructed spectral solar forcing scenarios, one SIM (Spectral Irradiance Monitor based, the other the SATIRE (Spectral And Total Irradiance REconstruction modeled, as inputs to the GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCMAM (Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model to examine climate responses on decadal to centennial time scales, focusing on quantifying the difference of climate response between the two solar forcing scenarios. We run the GCMAM for about 400 years with present day trace gas and aerosol for the two solar forcing inputs. We find that the SIM-based solar forcing induces much larger long-term response and 11-year variation in global averaged stratospheric temperature and column ozone. We find significant decreasing trends of planetary albedo for both forcing scenarios in the 400-year model runs. However the mechanisms for the decrease are very different. For SATIRE solar forcing, the decreasing trend of planetary albedo is associated with changes in cloud cover. For SIM-based solar forcing, without significant change in cloud cover on centennial and longer time scales, the apparent decreasing trend of planetary albedo is mainly due to out-of-phase variation in shortwave radiative forcing proxy (downwelling flux for wavelength >330 nm and total solar irradiance (TSI. From the Maunder Minimum to present, global averaged annual mean surface air temperature has a response of ~0.1 °C to SATIRE solar forcing compared to ~0.04 °C to SIM-based solar forcing. For 11-year solar cycle, the global surface air temperature response has 3-year lagged response to either forcing scenario. The global surface air 11-year temperature response to SATIRE forcing is about 0.12 °C, similar to recent multi-model estimates, and comparable to the observational-based evidence. However, the global surface air temperature response to 11-year SIM-based solar forcing is insignificant and inconsistent with observation-based evidence.

  2. Environmental Assessment - Construct a Ground-to-Air Transmitter and Receiver (GATR) Facility at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    ...) facility on Grand Forks Air Force Base (AFB), North Dakota. The Communication Squadron is preparing to install new GATR communication antennas and systems, for tactical aircraft control and commercial air traffic control...

  3. Injury Reduction Effectiveness of Prescribing Running Shoes Based on Foot Shape in Air Force Basic Military Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knapik, Joseph J; Brosch, Lorie C; Venuto, Margaret; Swedler, David I; Bullock, Steven H; Gaines, Lorraine S; Murphy, Ryan J; Canada, Sara E; Hoedebecke, Edward L; Tobler, Steven K

    2008-01-01

    In response to a request from the Military Training Task Force of the Defense Safety Oversight Council this study examined whether prescribing running shoes based on the shape of the plantar surface...

  4. The role of the California Base Closure Environmental Committee's (CBCEC) Radioactive and Mixed Waste Process Action Team (RMWPAT) in expediting site restoration and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudon, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Base Realignment and Closure Act (BRAC) mandated the closing and transfer of Department of Defense (DoD) properties within specific timeframes. Due to requirements of federal and state laws, closing bases must be environmentally remediated to alleviate threats to human health and the environment upon transfer. Certain barriers such as legislative, regulatory, administrative, and technical issues, have been identified which threaten the timely restoration and transfer of these BRAC properties. The state of California, faced with the scheduled closure or realignment of 26 military bases, recognized the need to establish a base closure environmental committee to address issues affecting the timely cleanup and reuse of DoD properties and promote accelerated restoration. Accordingly, the California Base Closure Environmental Committee (CBCEC) was formed by executive order of Governor Pete Wilson. One of the barriers identified by the CBCEC is the potential contamination of DoD facilities with radioactive materials. As a result of the difficulties encountered in assessing the nature and extent of radioactive contamination at DoD sites in California, the CBCEC formed the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Process Action Team (RMWPAT). The RMWPAT was tasked with ''demystifying'' and working to address issues associated with radioactive contamination

  5. An exergame system based on force platforms and body key-point detection for balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavarda, Marcos D; de Borba, Pedro A; Oliveira, Matheus R; Borba, Gustavo B; de Souza, Mauren A; Gamba, Humberto R

    2016-08-01

    Postural instability affects a large number of people and can compromise even simple activities of the daily routine. Therapies for balance training can strongly benefit from auxiliary devices specially designed for this purpose. In this paper, we present a system for balance training that uses the metaphor of a game, what contributes to the motivation and engagement of the patients during a treatment. Such approach is usually named exergame, in which input devices for posturographic assessment and a visual output perform the interaction with the subject. The proposed system uses two force platforms, one positioned under the feet and the other under the hip of the subject. The force platforms employ regular load cells and a microcontroller-based signal acquisition module to capture and transmit the samples to a computer. Moreover, a computer vision module performs body key-point detection, based on real time segmentation of markers attached to the subject. For the validation of the system, we conducted experiments with 20 neurologically intact volunteers during two tests: comparison of the stabilometric parameters obtained from the system with those obtained from a commercial baropodometer and the practice of several exergames. Results show that the proposed system is completely functional and can be used as a versatile tool for balance training.

  6. Hypersonic force measurements using internal balance based on optical micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huacheng; Min, Fu; Zhong, Shaolong; Song, Xin; Yang, Yanguang

    2018-03-01

    Force measurements using wind tunnel balance are necessary for determining a variety of aerodynamic performance parameters, while the harsh environment in hypersonic flows requires that the measurement instrument should be reliable and robust, in against strong electromagnetic interference, high vacuum, or metal (oxide) dusts. In this paper, we demonstrated a three-component internal balance for hypersonic aerodynamic force measurements, using novel optical micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) strain gauges as sensing elements. The FPI gauges were fabricated using Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) surface and bulk fabrication techniques. High-reflectivity coatings are used to form a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, which benefits a high resolution. Antireflective and passivation coatings are used to reduce unwanted interferences. The FPI strain gauge based balance has been calibrated and evaluated in a Mach 5 hypersonic flow. The results are compared with the traditional technique using the foil resistive strain gauge balance, indicating that the proposed balance based on the MOEMS FPI strain gauge is reliable and robust and is potentially suitable for the hypersonic wind tunnel harsh environment.

  7. Feature Selection and Predictors of Falls with Foot Force Sensors Using KNN-Based Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyun Liang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aging process may lead to the degradation of lower extremity function in the elderly population, which can restrict their daily quality of life and gradually increase the fall risk. We aimed to determine whether objective measures of physical function could predict subsequent falls. Ground reaction force (GRF data, which was quantified by sample entropy, was collected by foot force sensors. Thirty eight subjects (23 fallers and 15 non-fallers participated in functional movement tests, including walking and sit-to-stand (STS. A feature selection algorithm was used to select relevant features to classify the elderly into two groups: at risk and not at risk of falling down, for three KNN-based classifiers: local mean-based k-nearest neighbor (LMKNN, pseudo nearest neighbor (PNN, local mean pseudo nearest neighbor (LMPNN classification. We compared classification performances, and achieved the best results with LMPNN, with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy all 100%. Moreover, a subset of GRFs was significantly different between the two groups via Wilcoxon rank sum test, which is compatible with the classification results. This method could potentially be used by non-experts to monitor balance and the risk of falling down in the elderly population.

  8. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Brooks City Base Project, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Maitland Road and the east base boundary (Goliad Road). The CoSA Fire Department Training Academy may be included within this area. The Fire Department...replacement of the gas lines in the 1100s area (the area containing Facilities 1162 through 1193 bounded by Welch, Chennault, Hawks, and Maitland roads...3 Ian Smith, P.E., REM, Brooks City Base Program Office, 311 HSW/CDB M.S., 1990, Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska B.C.E., 1978, Civil

  9. Tip-surface interactions at redox responsive poly(ferrocenylsilane) (PFS) interface by AFM-based force spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung Hongjing; Song Jing; Vancso, G. Julius

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ferrocenylsilanes) (PFS) belong to the class of redox responsive organometallic polymers. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) was used earlier to study single chain PFS response and redox energy driven single chain PFS molecular motors. Here we present further AFM investigations of force interactions between tip and a grafted PFS surface under potential control in electrochemical redox cycles. Typical tip-Au interaction is considered as reference in the force measurements. First the electrostatic component in the diffused double layer (DL) in NaClO 4 electrolyte environment was considered for a 'grafted to' PFS, which dominated the interplay between the tip and sample surface. The DL forces can also hinder the physisorption of PFS chain onto the tip when the voltage was applied at -0.1 V. On the other hand, if the tip contacted the PFS surface prior to the electrochemical process, physisorption of PFS chains governed the overall interaction regardless of subsequently applied surface potential. In addition, prolonged contact time, t c , may also contribute to the stability of tip-PFS bridging and detection of electrostatic forces between the tip-PFS interface. The results showed that tip-substrate interaction forces without PFS grafts have negligibly small force contributions under similar, electrochemically controlled, conditions used in single PFS chain based molecular motors.

  10. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater

  11. Design and Synthesis of Distillation Systems using a Driving Force Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Pedersen, Erik; Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    A new integrated framework for synthesis, design and operation of distillation-based separation schemes is presented here. This framework is based on the driving force approach, which provides a measure of the differences in chemical/physical properties between two co-existing phases...... in a separation unit. A set of algorithms has been developed within this framework for design of simple as well as complex distillation columns, for the sequencing of distillation trains, for the determination of appropriate conditions of operation and for retrofit of distillation columns. The main feature of all...... these algorithms is that they provide a simple "visual" method to obtain near-optimal solutions in terms of energy consumption without rigorous simulation and/or optimisation. Several illustrative examples highlighting the application of the integrated approach are also presented. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V....

  12. Electrical tomography using atomic force microscopy and its application towards carbon nanotube-based interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, A; Hantschel, T; Dathe, A; Eyben, P; Vandervorst, W; Ke, X

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication and integration of low-resistance carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for interconnects in future integrated circuits requires characterization techniques providing structural and electrical information at the nanometer scale. In this paper we present a slice-and-view approach based on electrical atomic force microscopy. Material removal achieved by successive scanning using doped ultra-sharp full-diamond probes, manufactured in-house, enables us to acquire two-dimensional (2D) resistance maps originating from different depths (equivalently different CNT lengths) on CNT-based interconnects. Stacking and interpolating these 2D resistance maps results in a three-dimensional (3D) representation (tomogram). This allows insight from a structural (e.g. size, density, distribution, straightness) and electrical point of view simultaneously. By extracting the resistance evolution over the length of an individual CNT we derive quantitative information about the resistivity and the contact resistance between the CNT and bottom electrode. (paper)

  13. A prototype operational earthquake loss model for California based on UCERF3-ETAS – A first look at valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Edward; Porter, Keith; Milner, Kevn

    2017-01-01

    We present a prototype operational loss model based on UCERF3-ETAS, which is the third Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast with an Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) component. As such, UCERF3-ETAS represents the first earthquake forecast to relax fault segmentation assumptions and to include multi-fault ruptures, elastic-rebound, and spatiotemporal clustering, all of which seem important for generating realistic and useful aftershock statistics. UCERF3-ETAS is nevertheless an approximation of the system, however, so usefulness will vary and potential value needs to be ascertained in the context of each application. We examine this question with respect to statewide loss estimates, exemplifying how risk can be elevated by orders of magnitude due to triggered events following various scenario earthquakes. Two important considerations are the probability gains, relative to loss likelihoods in the absence of main shocks, and the rapid decay of gains with time. Significant uncertainties and model limitations remain, so we hope this paper will inspire similar analyses with respect to other risk metrics to help ascertain whether operationalization of UCERF3-ETAS would be worth the considerable resources required.

  14. Tropospheric Ozone Source Attribution in Southern California during Summer 2014 Based on Lidar Measurements and Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados Munoz, Maria Jose; Johnson, Matthew S.; Leblanc, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, significant efforts have been made to increase tropospheric ozone long-term monitoring. A large number of ground-based, airborne and space-borne instruments are currently providing valuable data to contribute to better understand tropospheric ozone budget and variability. Nonetheless, most of these instruments provide in-situ surface and column-integrated data, whereas vertically resolved measurements are still scarce. Besides ozonesondes and aircraft, lidar measurements have proven to be valuable tropospheric ozone profilers. Using the measurements from the tropospheric ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) located at the JPL Table Mountain Facility, California, and the GEOS-Chem and GEOS-5 model outputs, the impact of the North American monsoon on tropospheric ozone during summer 2014 is investigated. The influence of the Monsoon lightning-induced NOx will be evaluated against other sources (e.g. local anthropogenic emissions and the stratosphere) using also complementary data such as backward-trajectories analysis, coincident water vapor lidar measurements, and surface ozone in-situ measurements.

  15. Novel Friction Law for the Static Friction Force based on Local Precursor Slipping

    OpenAIRE

    Katano, Yu; Nakano, Ken; Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The sliding of a solid object on a solid substrate requires a shear force that is larger than the maximum static friction force. It is commonly believed that the maximum static friction force is proportional to the loading force and does not depend on the apparent contact area. The ratio of the maximum static friction force to the loading force is called the static friction coefficient µ M, which is considered to be a constant. Here, we conduct experiments demonstrating that the static fricti...

  16. Novel friction law for the static friction force based on local precursor slipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Yu; Nakano, Ken; Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2014-09-10

    The sliding of a solid object on a solid substrate requires a shear force that is larger than the maximum static friction force. It is commonly believed that the maximum static friction force is proportional to the loading force and does not depend on the apparent contact area. The ratio of the maximum static friction force to the loading force is called the static friction coefficient µM, which is considered to be a constant. Here, we conduct experiments demonstrating that the static friction force of a slider on a substrate follows a novel friction law under certain conditions. The magnitude of µM decreases as the loading force increases or as the apparent contact area decreases. This behavior is caused by the slip of local precursors before the onset of bulk sliding and is consistent with recent theory. The results of this study will develop novel methods for static friction control.

  17. F/EF-111 Basing at Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    thrust. As a consequence , the primary exhaust gases through the basic engine section of a turbofan are not the principal sources of objectionable...periphery of the base area. The Grulla and Muleshoe NWRs, within 30 miles of Cannon AFB, provide high-quality habitat for migratory and breeding waterfowl...of plants are found within a 50-mile radius of Cannon AFB: chatterbox orchid, dune unicorn plant, and the tall plains spurge. Two federally listed

  18. Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Base General Plan Development, Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    and is dominated by blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides), three-awned grass (Aristida purpurea), dropseed (Sporobolus...General Plan are to achieve optimal land use planning, protect the natural and human environment, and plan for future mission growth . The Proposed Action...future mission growth , and to improve environmental quality, recreation opportunities, and the safety and medical functions on Base. According to space

  19. Environmental Assessment for Infrastructure Improvements in the Base Developed Area at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Removal of asbestos and lead-based paint from aging facilities would eliminate some existing environmental hazards. Solid waste would be recycled when...new 120,000 lb/hr boiler at Central Heat and Power Plant. The new boiler will replace the existing spreader stoker boiler #5. No additional...for centralized management of the procurement, handling, storage, and issuing of hazardous materials and turn-in, recovery, reuse, or recycling of

  20. Quick-Reaction Report on the Audit of Defense Base Realignment and Closure Budget Data for Naval Station Treasure Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-19

    the audit of two projects: P-608T, Building Modifications, valued at...Island, California, to the Naval Training Center Great Lakes, Illinois. The audit also evaluated the implementation of the DoD Internal Management...related to the two projects in this report and is discussed in Report No. 94-109, Quick-Reaction Report on the Audit of Defense Base Realignment and Closure Budget Data for the Naval Training Center Great Lakes, Illinois, May 19,

  1. Environmental Assessment, Balloon Launch and Landing Operations, Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    largely ignored by the Spanish. Father Eusebio Francisco Kino explored the Santa Cruz Valley from 1691 to 1711, and SECTION 3 AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT 3-16...called None No response received Left message for manuel Savala (new Chairman) Navajo Nation Council Lawrence T. Morgan Speaker PO Box 3390, Window Rock...mouth and base of fins. COUNTY Apache, Cochise, Coconino, Gila, Graham, Greenlee, Navajo, Pima. Santa Cruz , Yavapai Apache, Coconino

  2. Final Environmental Assessment Realignment of Jenkins Armed Forces Reserve Center (AFRC), Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, BRAC 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    cryptoleucus Northern mockingbird Mimus polyglottos Black-throated sparrow Amphispiza bilineata Eastern meadowlark Sturnella magna House finch...Americans- and ealii~ kills 5,000 each year. :ses1 The network combines nub lie e sJ\\ awareness with an Internet- based information service and -qnd...scientists agree that p;roper cooking · will kill HEAL:: s most kinds of harmful bacteria, nobody is convinced that the bulk of consumers know what

  3. Simulation-based prediction of hot-rolled coil forced cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saboonchi, Ahmad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84154 (Iran); Hassanpour, Saeid [Rayan Tahlil Sepahan Co., Isfahan Science and Technology Town, Isfahan 84155 (Iran)

    2008-09-15

    Hot-rolled coils take a long time to cool under normal storehouse conditions due to their high mass. Hotter seasons will lead to even longer storage times and, thus, to shortage of space. Forced cooling methods such as water-immersion and water-spray can be employed to reduce hot-rolled coil cooling time. In this paper, a mathematical model of the thermal behavior of coils is developed to predict and to evaluate the results expected from employing these methods before any real changes can be made on the ground. The results obtained from the model were compared with those from various experiments to verify the model's accuracy. The cooling time was then computed based on changes effected in the boundary conditions appropriate to each of the forced cooling methods employed. Moreover, the savings in storage times were compared to identify the best cooling method. Predictions showed that water immersion at the beginning of cooling cycle was more effective and that the cycle should not exceed 1 h for cost efficiency considerations. When using nozzles to spray it was found that spraying water on end surfaces of coils would be the optimum option resulting in savings in time, water and energy, and with restricted temperature gradient. (author)

  4. A Deployment Scheme Based Upon Virtual Force for Directional Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Kuo Liang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A directional sensor network is composed of many directional sensor nodes. Unlike conventional omni-directional sensors that always have an omni-angle of sensing range; directional sensors may have a limited angle of sensing range due to technical constraints or cost considerations. Area coverage is still an essential issue in a directional sensor network. In this paper, we study the area coverage problem in directional sensor networks with mobile sensors, which can move to the correct places to get high coverage. We present distributed self-deployment schemes of mobile sensors. After sensors are randomly deployed, each sensor calculates its next new location to move in order to obtain a better coverage than previous one. The locations of sensors are adjusted round by round so that the coverage is gradually improved. Based on the virtual force of the directional sensors, we design a scheme, namely Virtual force scheme. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our scheme in term of the coverage improvement.

  5. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  6. Quality of handwriting: Intervention based on the variation of finger force production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Percival Calvo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in the production of proficient handwriting can be detected early in childhood. From the control point of view, non-proficient handwriting can be explained by the difficulty in adequately activating motor synergies that give support to this motor skill. Therefore, imposing different demand on the control to the motor synergies of the fingers can generate improvement in the quality of handwriting. The goal of the present study was to verify the effects of an intervention program for children with handwriting difficulties, composed of manipulative and pre-calligraphic activities that stimulate finger motor synergies through different force production demands. Thirty-four children between 7 and 12 years of age participated in the present study. Handwriting quality was evaluated through the Minnesota Handwriting Assessment. Only the experimental group (n=18 was submitted to the intervention program developed throughout 27 sessions of 30 minutes each. The results indicate that the intervention program based on the variability of force production had a positive effect on the quality of handwriting,mainly in terms of the size of letters.

  7. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Elliott, D.B.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost effective energy projects at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Patrick AFB which is located south of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume.2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance, and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value and value index of each ERO.

  8. Estimation of Power Consumption in the Circular Sawing of Stone Based on Tangential Force Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoqin; Zhang, Meiqin; Huang, Hui; Guo, Hua; Xu, Xipeng

    2018-04-01

    Circular sawing is an important method for the processing of natural stone. The ability to predict sawing power is important in the optimisation, monitoring and control of the sawing process. In this paper, a predictive model (PFD) of sawing power, which is based on the tangential force distribution at the sawing contact zone, was proposed, experimentally validated and modified. With regard to the influence of sawing speed on tangential force distribution, the modified PFD (MPFD) performed with high predictive accuracy across a wide range of sawing parameters, including sawing speed. The mean maximum absolute error rate was within 6.78%, and the maximum absolute error rate was within 11.7%. The practicability of predicting sawing power by the MPFD with few initial experimental samples was proved in case studies. On the premise of high sample measurement accuracy, only two samples are required for a fixed sawing speed. The feasibility of applying the MPFD to optimise sawing parameters while lowering the energy consumption of the sawing system was validated. The case study shows that energy use was reduced 28% by optimising the sawing parameters. The MPFD model can be used to predict sawing power, optimise sawing parameters and control energy.

  9. Applying Recreation Survey Results to Recreation Planning for Water-Based Recreation Areas in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett Duncan; John Mintz; Douglas Rischbieter; John Baas

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on identifying applications of recreation survey results in the context of water-based recreation planning. Recreation researchers have sometimes been criticized for conducting research that is weak in applied value (Cordell 1999). The paper also focuses on the important, but sometimes forgotten role that private entities play (e.g., Pacific Gas and...

  10. Force Concept Inventory-Based Multiple-Choice Test for Investigating Students' Representational Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates students' ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency) in the context of the force concept. For this purpose we developed the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (R-FCI), which makes use of nine items from the 1995 version of the Force Concept Inventory…

  11. A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols affect the Earth's energy budget directly by scattering and absorbing radiation and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and, thereby, affecting cloud properties. However, large uncertainties exist in current estimates of aerosol forcing because of incomplete knowledge concerning the distribution and the physical and chemical properties of aerosols as well as aerosol-cloud interactions. In recent years, a great deal of effort has gone into improving measurements and datasets. It is thus feasible to shift the estimates of aerosol forcing from largely model-based to increasingly measurement-based. Our goal is to assess current observational capabilities and identify uncertainties in the aerosol direct forcing through comparisons of different methods with independent sources of uncertainties. Here we assess the aerosol optical depth (τ, direct radiative effect (DRE by natural and anthropogenic aerosols, and direct climate forcing (DCF by anthropogenic aerosols, focusing on satellite and ground-based measurements supplemented by global chemical transport model (CTM simulations. The multi-spectral MODIS measures global distributions of aerosol optical depth (τ on a daily scale, with a high accuracy of ±0.03±0.05τ over ocean. The annual average τ is about 0.14 over global ocean, of which about 21%±7% is contributed by human activities, as estimated by MODIS fine-mode fraction. The multi-angle MISR derives an annual average AOD of 0.23 over global land with an uncertainty of ~20% or ±0.05. These high-accuracy aerosol products and broadband flux measurements from CERES make it feasible to obtain observational constraints for the aerosol direct effect, especially over global the ocean. A number of measurement-based approaches estimate the clear-sky DRE (on solar radiation at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA to be about -5.5±0.2 Wm-2 (median ± standard error from various methods over the global ocean. Accounting for thin cirrus

  12. FxLMS Method for Suppressing In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor Vertical Force Based on Vehicle Active Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration of SRM obtains less attention for in-wheel motor applications according to the present research works. In this paper, the vertical component of SRM unbalanced radial force, which is named as SRM vertical force, is taken into account in suspension performance for in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles (IWM-EV. The analysis results suggest that SRM vertical force has a great effect on suspension performance. The direct cause for this phenomenon is that SRM vertical force is directly exerted on the wheel, which will result in great variation in tyre dynamic load and the tyre will easily jump off the ground. Furthermore, the frequency of SRM vertical force is broad which covers the suspension resonance frequencies. So it is easy to arouse suspension resonance and greatly damage suspension performance. Aiming at the new problem, FxLMS (filtered-X least mean square controller is proposed to improve suspension performance. The FxLMS controller is based on active suspension system which can generate the controllable force to suppress the vibration caused by SRM vertical force. The conclusion shows that it is effective to take advantage of active suspensions to reduce the effect of SRM vertical force on suspension performance.

  13. Six-Month Results for the Kelly Air Force Base Compressed Work Week Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    plans to continue the CWS past the 1-year original plan. REFERENCES 1. Balch, B.W. The four day week and the older workers. Personnel Journal, 394-396...8217 perceptions of the four - day week . California Management Review, 28, 31-35, 1975. 15. Mills, M.E. Core-12: A controlled study of the impact of 12 hour scheduling

  14. Fine Tuning of Basic Forces through the Existence of Carbon-Based Life

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The bulk of the carbon in our universe is produced in the triple-alpha process in helium-burning red giant stars. We calculated the change of the triple-alpha reaction rate in a microscopic twelve-nucleon model of the 12C nucleus and looked for the effects of minimal variations of the strengths of the underlying strong and Coulomb interactions. Stellar model calculations are performed using the alternative reaction rates. We show that outside a narrow window of 0.5% of the strength or range of the strong interaction the stellar production of carbon or oxygen is reduced by factors of 130 to 1000. Therefore, outside this window the existence of carbon-based life in our universe would be strongly disfavored. These anthropically allowed strengths of the strong and electromagnetic forces also constrain the sum of the light quark masses and the Higgs vacuum expectation value.

  15. Automated solid-phase subcloning based on beads brought into proximity by magnetic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Elton P; Nikoshkov, Andrej; Uhlen, Mathias; Rockberg, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In the fields of proteomics, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology there is a need for high-throughput and reliable cloning methods to facilitate construction of expression vectors and genetic pathways. Here, we describe a new approach for solid-phase cloning in which both the vector and the gene are immobilized to separate paramagnetic beads and brought into proximity by magnetic force. Ligation events were directly evaluated using fluorescent-based microscopy and flow cytometry. The highest ligation efficiencies were obtained when gene- and vector-coated beads were brought into close contact by application of a magnet during the ligation step. An automated procedure was developed using a laboratory workstation to transfer genes into various expression vectors and more than 95% correct clones were obtained in a number of various applications. The method presented here is suitable for efficient subcloning in an automated manner to rapidly generate a large number of gene constructs in various vectors intended for high throughput applications.

  16. Fault tree model of human error based on error-forcing contexts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Jang, Seung Cheol; Ha, Jae Joo

    2004-01-01

    In the safety-critical systems such as nuclear power plants, the safety-feature actuation is fully automated. In emergency case, the human operator could also play the role of a backup for automated systems. That is, the failure of safety-feature-actuation signal generation implies the concurrent failure of automated systems and that of manual actuation. The human operator's manual actuation failure is largely affected by error-forcing contexts (EFC). The failures of sensors and automated systems are most important ones. The sensors, the automated actuation system and the human operators are correlated in a complex manner and hard to develop a proper model. In this paper, we will explain the condition-based human reliability assessment (CBHRA) method in order to treat these complicated conditions in a practical way. In this study, we apply the CBHRA method to the manual actuation of safety features such as reactor trip and safety injection in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants

  17. Periodic Forcing of a 555-IC Based Electronic Oscillator in the Strong Coupling Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, Moisés

    We designed and developed a master-slave electronic oscillatory system (based on the 555-timer IC working in the astable mode), and investigated its dynamic behavior regarding synchronization. For that purpose, we measured the rotation numbers corresponding to the phase-locking rhythms achieved in a large set of values of the normalized forcing frequency (NFF) and of the coupling strength between the master and the slave oscillators. In particular, we were interested in the system behavior in the strong-coupling limit, because such problem has not been extensively studied from an experimental perspective. Our results indicate that, in such a limit, a degenerate codimension-2 bifurcation point at NFF = 2 exists, in which all the phase-locking regions converge. These findings were corroborated by means of a mathematical model developed to that end, as well as by ad hoc further experiments.

  18. The possibility of multi-layer nanofabrication via atomic force microscope-based pulse electrochemical nanopatterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Uk Su; Morita, Noboru; Lee, Deug Woo; Jun, Martin; Park, Jeong Woo

    2017-05-01

    Pulse electrochemical nanopatterning, a non-contact scanning probe lithography process using ultrashort voltage pulses, is based primarily on an electrochemical machining process using localized electrochemical oxidation between a sharp tool tip and the sample surface. In this study, nanoscale oxide patterns were formed on silicon Si (100) wafer surfaces via electrochemical surface nanopatterning, by supplying external pulsed currents through non-contact atomic force microscopy. Nanoscale oxide width and height were controlled by modulating the applied pulse duration. Additionally, protruding nanoscale oxides were removed completely by simple chemical etching, showing a depressed pattern on the sample substrate surface. Nanoscale two-dimensional oxides, prepared by a localized electrochemical reaction, can be defined easily by controlling physical and electrical variables, before proceeding further to a layer-by-layer nanofabrication process.

  19. Simulation-based Extraction of Key Material Parameters from Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsafi, Huseen; Peninngton, Gray

    Models for the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and sample interaction contain numerous material parameters that are often poorly known. This is especially true when dealing with novel material systems or when imaging samples that are exposed to complicated interactions with the local environment. In this work we use Monte Carlo methods to extract sample material parameters from the experimental AFM analysis of a test sample. The parameterized theoretical model that we use is based on the Virtual Environment for Dynamic AFM (VEDA) [1]. The extracted material parameters are then compared with the accepted values for our test sample. Using this procedure, we suggest a method that can be used to successfully determine unknown material properties in novel and complicated material systems. We acknowledge Fisher Endowment Grant support from the Jess and Mildred Fisher College of Science and Mathematics,Towson University.

  20. High-resolution distributed-feedback fiber laser dc magnetometer based on the Lorentzian force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranch, G A; Flockhart, G M H; Kirkendall, C K

    2009-01-01

    A low-frequency magnetic field sensor, based on a current-carrying beam driven by the Lorentzian force, is described. The amplitude of the oscillation is measured by a distributed-feedback fiber laser strain sensor attached to the beam. The transduction mechanism of the sensor is derived analytically using conventional beam theory, which is shown to accurately predict the responsivity of a prototype sensor. Excellent linearity and negligible hysteresis are demonstrated. Noise sources in the fiber laser strain sensor are described and thermo-mechanical noise in the transducer is estimated. The prototype sensor achieves a magnetic field resolution of 5 nT Hz for 25 mA of current, which is shown to be close to the predicted thermo-mechanical noise limit of the sensor. The current is supplied optically through a separate optical fiber yielding an electrically passive sensor head

  1. Prediction of hydraulic force and momentum on pelton turbine jet deflector based on cfd simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Boro

    2015-01-01

    The numerical simulation of three-dimensional turbulent flow through the jet-distributor, free stream jet and deflector of Pelton Turbine is presented in this work. The calculations are performed using the CFD package Ansys CFX (Navie-Stokes equations and the k-omega SST turbulent model). A traditional definition for calculation of hydraulic forces and momentum on the jet deflector and a method for experimental evaluation are described. The steps for flow modelling, mesh (grid) generation, as well as the results obtained from the numerical simulation of the flow and stress deformation calculations of the jet-deflector are presented. This work corresponds with the actual approach of methods development for flow simulation and calculations of Pelton Turbines. The kinematic and dynamic parameters are calculated based on CFD simulations. The results of the calculations represents reliable tool in the procedure of development and construction of Pelton Turbines. (author)

  2. Improved social force model based on exit selection for microscopic pedestrian simulation in subway station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勋; 李海鹰; 孟令云; 许心越; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    An improved social force model based on exit selection is proposed to simulate pedestrians’ microscopic behaviors in subway station. The modification lies in considering three factors of spatial distance, occupant density and exit width. In addition, the problem of pedestrians selecting exit frequently is solved as follows: not changing to other exits in the affected area of one exit, using the probability of remaining preceding exit and invoking function of exit selection after several simulation steps. Pedestrians in subway station have some special characteristics, such as explicit destinations, different familiarities with subway station. Finally, Beijing Zoo Subway Station is taken as an example and the feasibility of the model results is verified through the comparison of the actual data and simulation data. The simulation results show that the improved model can depict the microscopic behaviors of pedestrians in subway station.

  3. Age group classification and gender detection based on forced expiratory spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgun, Sema; Ozbek, I Yucel

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates the utility of forced expiratory spirometry (FES) test with efficient machine learning algorithms for the purpose of gender detection and age group classification. The proposed method has three main stages: feature extraction, training of the models and detection. In the first stage, some features are extracted from volume-time curve and expiratory flow-volume loop obtained from FES test. In the second stage, the probabilistic models for each gender and age group are constructed by training Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) and Support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. In the final stage, the gender (or age group) of test subject is estimated by using the trained GMM (or SVM) model. Experiments have been evaluated on a large database from 4571 subjects. The experimental results show that average correct classification rate performance of both GMM and SVM methods based on the FES test is more than 99.3 % and 96.8 % for gender and age group classification, respectively.

  4. Force-based and displacement-based reliability assessment approaches for highway bridges under multiple hazard actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The strength limit state of American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD Bridge Design Specifications is developed based on the failure probabilities of the combination of non-extreme loads. The proposed design limit state equation (DLSE has been fully calibrated for dead load and live load by using the reliability-based approach. On the other hand, most of DLSEs in other limit states, including the extreme events Ⅰ and Ⅱ, have not been developed and calibrated though taking certain probability-based concepts into account. This paper presents an assessment procedure of highway bridge reliabilities under the limit state of extreme event Ⅰ, i. e., the combination of dead load, live load and earthquake load. A force-based approach and a displacement-based approach are proposed and implemented on a set of nine simplified bridge models. Results show that the displacement-based approach comes up with more convergent and accurate reliabilities for selected models, which can be applied to other hazards.

  5. Factors which influence on force of boxers` and footballers` shots on the stage of base pre-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitenko S.A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available On the stage of base pre-treatment factors which influence on force of shots the hands of boxers and feet of footballers as a criterion of competition activity efficiency are certain. Connections are certain between force of shots by hands and feet. The objective test of the specialized sense determination of boxers` and footballers` shots is offered. It is recommended to develop maximal and explosive force of all parts of sportsman body at implementation preparatory exercises with the further transfer of physical qualities on implementation of the special exercises.

  6. Driving forces for home-based reablement; a qualitative study of older adults' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelle, Kari Margrete; Tuntland, Hanne; Førland, Oddvar; Alvsvåg, Herdis

    2017-09-01

    As a result of the ageing population worldwide, there has been a growing international interest in a new intervention termed 'reablement'. Reablement is an early and time-limited home-based intervention with emphasis on intensive, goal-oriented and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for older adults in need of rehabilitation or at risk of functional decline. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe how older adults experienced participation in reablement. Eight older adults participated in semi-structured interviews. A qualitative content analysis was used as the analysis strategy. Four main themes emerged from the participants' experiences of participating in reablement: 'My willpower is needed', 'Being with my stuff and my people', 'The home-trainers are essential', and 'Training is physical exercises, not everyday activities'. The first three themes in particular reflected the participants' driving forces in the reablement process. Driving forces are intrinsic motivation in interaction with extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation was based on the person's willpower and responsibility, and extrinsic motivation was expressed to be strengthened by being in one's home environment with 'own' people, as well as by the co-operation with the reablement team. The reablement team encouraged and supported the older adults to regain confidence in performing everyday activities as well as participating in the society. Our findings have practical significance for politicians, healthcare providers and healthcare professionals by contributing to an understanding of how intrinsic and extrinsic motivation influence reablement. Some persons need apparently more extrinsic motivational support also after the time-limited reablement period is completed. The municipal health and care services need to consider individualised follow-up programmes after the intensive reablement period in order to maintain the achieved skills to perform everyday activities and participate in

  7. Hydrochemical data base for the Death Valley Region, California and Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfect, D.L.; Faunt, C.C.; Steinkampf, W.C.; Turner, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data derived from samples collected within an approximately 100,000-square-kilometer area in the Southern Great Basin have been compiled into a digital data base. The data were compiled from published reports, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS), and previously unpublished USGS files. The data are contained in two compressed files which self-expand into Lotus (.WK1) files. The first file contains 4,738 records (4.84 megabytes) and represents the basic compilation of all identified analyses. The second file is an edited version of the first and contains 3,733 records (3.84 megabytes). Editing included the removal of duplicate records and the combining of records, when appropriate. The analyses presented are of variable quality and comprehensiveness and include no isotopic data. Of the 3,733 analyses in the edited data base, 58 percent of the major ion concentrations balance to within ±10 percent. Most of the remaining records are not sufficiently complete for a balance to be calculated

  8. Contraceptive use and risk of unintended pregnancy in California

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Diana; Bley, Julia; Mikanda, John; Induni, Marta; Arons, Abigail; Baumrind, Nikki; Darney, Philip D.; Stewart, Felicia

    2004-01-01

    Abstract California is home to more than one out of eight American women of reproductive age. Because California has a large, diverse and growing population, national statistics do not necessarily describe the reproductive health of California women. This article presents risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections among women in California based on the California Women’s Health Survey. Over 8900 women of reproductive age who participated in this survey between 1998 and 2001 pr...

  9. Objective Assessment of Laparoscopic Force and Psychomotor Skills in a Novel Virtual Reality-Based Haptic Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M S Raghu; Manivannan, Muniyandi; Manoharan, Govindan; Chandramohan, S M

    2016-01-01

    Most of the commercially available virtual reality-based laparoscopic simulators do not effectively evaluate combined psychomotor and force-based laparoscopic skills. Consequently, the lack of training on these critical skills leads to intraoperative errors. To assess the effectiveness of the novel virtual reality-based simulator, this study analyzed the combined psychomotor (i.e., motion or movement) and force skills of residents and expert surgeons. The study also examined the effectiveness of real-time visual force feedback and tool motion during training. Bimanual fundamental (i.e., probing, pulling, sweeping, grasping, and twisting) and complex tasks (i.e., tissue dissection) were evaluated. In both tasks, visual feedback on applied force and tool motion were provided. The skills of the participants while performing the early tasks were assessed with and without visual feedback. Participants performed 5 repetitions of fundamental and complex tasks. Reaction force and instrument acceleration were used as metrics. Surgical Gastroenterology, Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital; Institute of Surgical Gastroenterology, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital. Residents (N = 25; postgraduates and surgeons with 4 and ≤10 years of laparoscopic surgery). Residents applied large forces compared with expert surgeons and performed abrupt tool movements (p < 0.001). However, visual + haptic feedback improved the performance of residents (p < 0.001). In complex tasks, visual + haptic feedback did not influence the applied force of expert surgeons, but influenced their tool motion (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in complex tissue sweeping task, expert surgeons applied more force, but were within the tissue damage limits. In both groups, exertion of large forces and abrupt tool motion were observed during grasping, probing or pulling, and tissue sweeping maneuvers (p < 0.001). Modern day curriculum-based training should evaluate the skills

  10. Combination Rules for Morse-Based van der Waals Force Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Sun, Lei; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2018-02-15

    In traditional force fields (FFs), van der Waals interactions have been usually described by the Lennard-Jones potentials. Conventional combination rules for the parameters of van der Waals (VDW) cross-termed interactions were developed for the Lennard-Jones based FFs. Here, we report that the Morse potentials were a better function to describe VDW interactions calculated by highly precise quantum mechanics methods. A new set of combination rules was developed for Morse-based FFs, in which VDW interactions were described by Morse potentials. The new set of combination rules has been verified by comparing the second virial coefficients of 11 noble gas mixtures. For all of the mixed binaries considered in this work, the combination rules work very well and are superior to all three other existing sets of combination rules reported in the literature. We further used the Morse-based FF by using the combination rules to simulate the adsorption isotherms of CH 4 at 298 K in four covalent-organic frameworks (COFs). The overall agreement is great, which supports the further applications of this new set of combination rules in more realistic simulation systems.

  11. Force Sensor Based Tool Condition Monitoring Using a Heterogeneous Ensemble Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tool condition monitoring (TCM plays an important role in improving machining efficiency and guaranteeing workpiece quality. In order to realize reliable recognition of the tool condition, a robust classifier needs to be constructed to depict the relationship between tool wear states and sensory information. However, because of the complexity of the machining process and the uncertainty of the tool wear evolution, it is hard for a single classifier to fit all the collected samples without sacrificing generalization ability. In this paper, heterogeneous ensemble learning is proposed to realize tool condition monitoring in which the support vector machine (SVM, hidden Markov model (HMM and radius basis function (RBF are selected as base classifiers and a stacking ensemble strategy is further used to reflect the relationship between the outputs of these base classifiers and tool wear states. Based on the heterogeneous ensemble learning classifier, an online monitoring system is constructed in which the harmonic features are extracted from force signals and a minimal redundancy and maximal relevance (mRMR algorithm is utilized to select the most prominent features. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, a titanium alloy milling experiment was carried out and samples with different tool wear states were collected to build the proposed heterogeneous ensemble learning classifier. Moreover, the homogeneous ensemble learning model and majority voting strategy are also adopted to make a comparison. The analysis and comparison results show that the proposed heterogeneous ensemble learning classifier performs better in both classification accuracy and stability.

  12. Geothermal potential on Kirtland Air Force Base lands, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, P. R., Jr.

    1981-10-01

    Public policy expressed in a number of national directives in recent years stresses the conservation of conventional fuel supplies, a switch to alternative fuels, and the application of advanced energy technologies at federal installations. Natural gas currently furnishes 85 to 95 percent of the average 94 x 1,000,000 Btu/hr energy requirements for space heating and cooling at Kirtland Air Force Base. Studies of alternatives to the use of natural gas at the base include examination of the geothermal option. Four of North America's major physiographic provinces coalesce in central New Mexico on or near Kirtland AFB. Their junction is identified throughout much of this region by a tectonic depression occupied by the Rio Grande that is structurally complex, stratigraphically and hydrologically unique, and coincides with geologically recent volcanic centers. This trough, the Rio Grande rift, has been identified as a major geothermal resource area. The western part of Kirtland AFB is in the Albuquerque Basin segment of the Rio Grande rift. Extensive sampling and geochemical analysis of groundwater in and near the base disclosed no significant geothermal parameters. However, structural conditions and current hydrologics regimes strongly suggest that thermal waters would be masked by near surface, low temperature meteoric water originating as rain and snowfall in the nearby mountains.

  13. A novel coefficient for detecting and quantifying asymmetry of California electricity market based on asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρDXA, contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr.

  14. A novel coefficient for detecting and quantifying asymmetry of California electricity market based on asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρ D X A , contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr.

  15. Physically Based Modeling of Delta Island Consumptive Use: Fabian Tract and Staten Island, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas J. Siegfried

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2014v12iss4art2Water use estimation is central to managing most water problems. To better understand water use in California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, a collaborative, integrated approach was used to predict Delta island diversion, consumption, and return of water on a more detailed temporal and spatial resolution. Fabian Tract and Staten Island were selected for this pilot study based on available data and island accessibility. Historical diversion and return location data, water rights claims, LiDAR digital elevation model data, and Google Earth were used to predict island diversion and return locations, which were tested and improved through ground-truthing. Soil and land-use characteristics as well as weather data were incorporated with the Integrated Water Flow Model Demand Calculator to estimate water use and runoff returns from input agricultural lands. For modeling, the islands were divided into grid cells forming subregions, representing fields, levees, ditches, and roads. The subregions were joined hydrographically to form diversion and return watersheds related to return and diversion locations. Diversions and returns were limited by physical capacities. Differences between initial model and measured results point to the importance of seepage into deeply subsided islands. The capabilities of the models presented far exceeded current knowledge of agricultural practices within the Delta, demonstrating the need for more data collection to enable improvements upon current Delta Island Consumptive Use estimates.

  16. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  17. Force Rendering and its Evaluation of a Friction-Based Walking Sensation Display for a Seated User.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ginga; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi; Takemura, Haruo

    2018-04-01

    Most existing locomotion devices that represent the sensation of walking target a user who is actually performing a walking motion. Here, we attempted to represent the walking sensation, especially a kinesthetic sensation and advancing feeling (the sense of moving forward) while the user remains seated. To represent the walking sensation using a relatively simple device, we focused on the force rendering and its evaluation of the longitudinal friction force applied on the sole during walking. Based on the measurement of the friction force applied on the sole during actual walking, we developed a novel friction force display that can present the friction force without the influence of body weight. Using performance evaluation testing, we found that the proposed method can stably and rapidly display friction force. Also, we developed a virtual reality (VR) walk-through system that is able to present the friction force through the proposed device according to the avatar's walking motion in a virtual world. By evaluating the realism, we found that the proposed device can represent a more realistic advancing feeling than vibration feedback.

  18. A modal approach based on perfectly matched layers for the forced response of elastic open waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallezot, M.; Treyssède, F.; Laguerre, L.

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the computation of the forced response of elastic open waveguides with a numerical modal approach based on perfectly matched layers (PML). With a PML of infinite thickness, the solution can theoretically be expanded as a discrete sum of trapped modes, a discrete sum of leaky modes and a continuous sum of radiation modes related to the PML branch cuts. Yet with numerical methods (e.g. finite elements), the waveguide cross-section is discretized and the PML must be truncated to a finite thickness. This truncation transforms the continuous sum into a discrete set of PML modes. To guarantee the uniqueness of the numerical solution of the forced response problem, an orthogonality relationship is proposed. This relationship is applicable to any type of modes (trapped, leaky and PML modes) and hence allows the numerical solution to be expanded on a discrete sum in a convenient manner. This also leads to an expression for the modal excitability valid for leaky modes. The physical relevance of each type of mode for the solution is clarified through two numerical test cases, a homogeneous medium and a circular bar waveguide example, excited by a point source. The former is favourably compared to a transient analytical solution, showing that PML modes reassemble the bulk wave contribution in a homogeneous medium. The latter shows that the PML mode contribution yields the long-term diffraction phenomenon whereas the leaky mode contribution prevails closer to the source. The leaky mode contribution is shown to remain accurate even with a relatively small PML thickness, hence reducing the computational cost. This is of particular interest for solving three-dimensional waveguide problems, involving two-dimensional cross-sections of arbitrary shapes. Such a problem is handled in a third numerical example by considering a buried square bar.

  19. The force analysis for superparamagnetic nanoparticles-based gene delivery in an oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jiajia [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Shi, Zongqian, E-mail: zqshi@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Jia, Shenli [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Zhang, Pengbo [Department of Anesthesiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, No.157 West 5 Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710004 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Due to the peculiar magnetic properties and the ability to function in cell-level biological interaction, superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SMNP) have been being the attractive carrier for gene delivery. The superparamagnetic nanoparticles with surface-bound gene vector can be attracted to the surface of cells by the Kelvin force provided by external magnetic field. In this article, the influence of the oscillating magnetic field on the characteristics of magnetofection is studied in terms of the magnetophoretic velocity. The magnetic field of a cylindrical permanent magnet is calculated by equivalent current source (ECS) method, and the Kelvin force is derived by using the effective moment method. The results show that the static magnetic field accelerates the sedimentation of the particles, and drives the particles inward towards the axis of the magnet. Based on the investigation of the magnetophoretic velocity of the particle under horizontally oscillating magnetic field, an oscillating velocity within the amplitude of the magnet oscillation is observed. Furthermore, simulation results indicate that the oscillating amplitude plays an important role in regulating the active region, where the particles may present oscillating motion. The analysis of the magnetophoretic velocity gives us an insight into the physical mechanism of the magnetofection. It's also helpful to the optimal design of the magnetofection system. - Highlights: • We compare the results of the ECS method and FEA method with the commercial software, Ansys. • We analyze the physic mechanism of the oscillating motion of the particles in the presence of an oscillating magnet. • We discuss the influence of the oscillating amplitude of the magnet on the behavior of the particle.

  20. Griffiss Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Electric resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Shankle, S.A.; Elliott, D.B.; Stucky, D.J.; Keller, J.M.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Dagle, J.E.; Gu, A.Y.

    1993-09-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). FEMP, with support from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is designing this model program for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. The program with Griffiss AFB will (1) identify and evaluate all cost-effective electric energy projects; (2) develop a schedule for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have them procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the ACC Griffiss AFB facility located near Rome, New York. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in seven common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO provides information on the initial cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. The evaluation methodology and technical and cost assumptions are also described for each ERO. Summary tables present the operational performance of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  1. Optical Characterization of Lorentz Force Based CMOS-MEMS Magnetic Field Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, John Ojur; Ahmad, Farooq; Khir, M Haris Bin Md; Bin Hamid, Nor Hisham

    2015-07-27

    Magnetic field sensors are becoming an essential part of everyday life due to the improvements in their sensitivities and resolutions, while at the same time they have become compact, smaller in size and economical. In the work presented herein a Lorentz force based CMOS-MEMS magnetic field sensor is designed, fabricated and optically characterized. The sensor is fabricated by using CMOS thin layers and dry post micromachining is used to release the device structure and finally the sensor chip is packaged in DIP. The sensor consists of a shuttle which is designed to resonate in the lateral direction (first mode of resonance). In the presence of an external magnetic field, the Lorentz force actuates the shuttle in the lateral direction and the amplitude of resonance is measured using an optical method. The differential change in the amplitude of the resonating shuttle shows the strength of the external magnetic field. The resonance frequency of the shuttle is determined to be 8164 Hz experimentally and from the resonance curve, the quality factor and damping ratio are obtained. In an open environment, the quality factor and damping ratio are found to be 51.34 and 0.00973 respectively. The sensitivity of the sensor is determined in static mode to be 0.034 µm/mT when a current of 10 mA passes through the shuttle, while it is found to be higher at resonance with a value of 1.35 µm/mT at 8 mA current. Finally, the resolution of the sensor is found to be 370.37 µT.

  2. A dynamic force balance model for colloidal expansion and its DLVO-based application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longcheng; Moreno, Luis; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2009-01-20

    A force balance model that describes the dynamic expansion of colloidal bentonite gels/sols is presented. The colloidal particles are assumed to consist of one or several thin sheets with the other dimensions much larger than their thickness. The forces considered include van der Waals force, diffuse double layer force, thermal force giving rise to Brownian motion, gravity, as well as friction force. The model results in an expression resembling the instationary diffusion equation but with an immensely variable diffusivity. This diffusivity is strongly influenced by the concentration of counterions as well as by the particle concentration in the colloid gel/sol. The properties of the model are explored and discussed, exemplified by the upward expansion of an originally highly compacted bentonite tablet in a test tube. Examples are presented for a number of cases with ionic concentrations varying between very dilute waters up to several molar of counterions. The volume fraction of particles ranges from 40% to very dilute sols.

  3. Does More Money Matter? An Introduction to the Performance-Based Scholarship Demonstration in California. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Michelle; Patel, Reshma

    2012-01-01

    The expense of attending college is one factor that may explain why low-income students often drop out of school. In California, despite generous state aid and relatively low fees at community colleges, many low-income students still have substantial college-related costs that they cannot cover. To compound matters, federal support for students…

  4. Competency-Based Assignment & Promotion to Meet Air Force Senior Leader Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steele, Jr., Robert G; Fletcher, Kelly E; Nadoiski, William F; Buckman, Emily A; Oliver, Jr., Stephen W

    2006-01-01

    .... The third component, competencies, are occupational skill sets and enduring leadership competencies Air Force leaders develop as they progress along the tactical, operational and strategic levels...

  5. Final Environmental Assessment For Proposed Family Campground Expansion Maxwell Air Force Base, Montgomery County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    during Final EA preparation. Providing private address information with your comment is voluntary and such personal information will be kept confidential ...commercially available. 4.2 Commercial kitchen appliances shall be either ENERGY STAR®, FEMP designated or qualified for California Utilities Rebate Program... kitchen pre-rinse spray valves (PRSV) with low flow nozzles) i. Install or convert to only ENERGY STAR® Commercial Dishwashers j. Install or convert to

  6. Radiative Forcing Over Ocean by Ship Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Wilcox, E.; Poudyal, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in surface albedo represent one of the main forcing agents that can counteract, to some extent, the positive forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Here, we report on enhanced ocean reflectance from ship wakes over the Pacific Ocean near the California coast, where we determined, based on airborne radiation measurements that ship wakes can increase reflected sunlight by more than 100%. We assessed the importance of this increase to climate forcing, where we estimated the global radiative forcing of ship wakes to be -0.00014 plus or minus 53% Watts per square meter assuming a global distribution of 32331 ships of size of greater than or equal to 100000 gross tonnage. The forcing is smaller than the forcing of aircraft contrails (-0.007 to +0.02 Watts per square meter), but considering that the global shipping fleet has rapidly grown in the last five decades and this trend is likely to continue because of the need of more inter-continental transportation as a result of economic globalization, we argue that the radiative forcing of wakes is expected to be increasingly important especially in harbors and coastal regions.

  7. Demonstration of Security Benefits of Renewable Generation at FE Warren Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, William M.; Myers, Kurt; Seifert, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Report detailing field demonstration of security benefits of renewable generation at FE Warren Air Force Base. The 2006 National Defense Appropriations Act directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to coordinate the testing of a wind turbine (new to the U.S. market) at an Air Force installation as a follow on to analyses conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laborabory (PNNL) as part of the 2005 DOD Renewable Assessment. The earlier study simulated the performance of renewable power produced from wind turbines, solar photovoltaics and geothermal energy as part of a Base-wide energy security solution. The simulation concluded that integration of renewable generating resources with emergency generators, typically diesel-fired, could significantly enhance energy security and extend power supplies during prolonged commercial grid power outages. A simulation is insufficient to convince skeptics of the reliability of renewable resources, especially those that produce power only intermittently, like wind and solar. Therefore, Congress requested a field demonstration be performed using a wind turbine because wind power is the most erratic of all renewable resources. Following this direction, the Air Force identified a site for the wind turbine demonstration and contracted with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and PNNL to conduct the demonstration and implement other provisions in the appropriation bill. INL identified a wind turbine that met the legislative requirements (the Gamesa G-80), and with the support of PNNL and the Air Force, selected FE Warren Air Force Base for the demonstration. FE Warren has an excellent wind resource and was already a host to two wind turbines and could accommodate a third. The G-80 is rated at 2 MWs versus the two existing 660 kW turbines, consequently wind production would more than double. Procurement, siting, and acceptance testing of the new turbine was completed in early 2010. The field test was conducted in late April 2010

  8. Measurement model and calibration experiment of over-constrained parallel six-dimensional force sensor based on stiffness characteristics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Zhi; Zhao, Yanzhi; Zhao, Tieshi; Cao, Yachao; Liu, Menghua

    2017-01-01

    An over-constrained, parallel six-dimensional force sensor has various advantages, including its ability to bear heavy loads and provide redundant force measurement information. These advantages render the sensor valuable in important applications in the field of aerospace (space docking tests, etc). The stiffness of each component in the over-constrained structure has a considerable influence on the internal force distribution of the structure. Thus, the measurement model changes when the measurement branches of the sensor are under tensile or compressive force. This study establishes a general measurement model for an over-constrained parallel six-dimensional force sensor considering the different branch tensions and compression stiffness values. Numerical calculations and analyses are performed using practical examples. Based on the parallel mechanism, an over-constrained, orthogonal structure is proposed for a six-dimensional force sensor. Hence, a prototype is designed and developed, and a calibration experiment is conducted. The measurement accuracy of the sensor is improved based on the measurement model under different branch tensions and compression stiffness values. Moreover, the largest class I error is reduced from 5.81 to 2.23% full scale (FS), and the largest class II error is reduced from 3.425 to 1.871% FS. (paper)

  9. The Five Immune Forces Impacting DNA-Based Cancer Immunotherapeutic Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha Amara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA-based vaccine strategy is increasingly realized as a viable cancer treatment approach. Strategies to enhance immunogenicity utilizing tumor associated antigens have been investigated in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. The promising outcomes of these studies have suggested that DNA-based vaccines induce potent T-cell effector responses and at the same time cause only minimal side-effects to cancer patients. However, the immune evasive tumor microenvironment is still an important hindrance to a long-term vaccine success. Several options are currently under various stages of study to overcome immune inhibitory effect in tumor microenvironment. Some of these approaches include, but are not limited to, identification of neoantigens, mutanome studies, designing fusion plasmids, vaccine adjuvant modifications, and co-treatment with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. In this review, we follow a Porter’s analysis analogy, otherwise commonly used in business models, to analyze various immune-forces that determine the potential success and sustainable positive outcomes following DNA vaccination using non-viral tumor associated antigens in treatment against cancer.

  10. Optimization of Contact Force and Pull-in Voltage for Series based MEMS Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet KSHIRSAGAR

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cantilever based metal-to-metal contact type MEMS series switch has many applications namely in RF MEMS, Power MEMS etc. A typical MEMS switch consists of a cantilever as actuating element to make the contact between the two metal terminals of the switch. The cantilever is pulled down by applying a pull-in voltage to the control electrode that is located below the middle portion of the cantilever while only the tip portion of the cantilever makes contact between the two terminals. Detailed analysis of bending of the cantilever for different pull-in voltages reveals some interesting facts. At low pull-in voltage the cantilever tip barely touches the two terminals, thus resulting in very less contact area. To increase contact area a very high pull-in voltage is applied, but it lifts the tip from the free end due to concave curving of the cantilever in the middle region of the cantilever where the electrode is located. Again it results in less contact area. Furthermore, the high pull-in voltage produces large stress at the base of the cantilever close to the anchor. Therefore, an optimum, pull-in voltage must exist at which the concave curving is eliminated and contact area is maximum. In this paper authors report the finding of optimum contact force and pull-in voltage.

  11. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  12. Effect on injuries of assigning shoes based on foot shape in air force basic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Brosch, Lorie C; Venuto, Margaret; Swedler, David I; Bullock, Steven H; Gaines, Lorraine S; Murphy, Ryan J; Tchandja, Juste; Jones, Bruce H

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether assigning running shoes based on the shape of the bottom of the foot (plantar surface) influenced injury risk in Air Force Basic Military Training (BMT) and examined risk factors for injury in BMT. Data were collected from BMT recruits during 2007; analysis took place during 2008. After foot examinations, recruits were randomly consigned to either an experimental group (E, n=1042 men, 375 women) or a control group (C, n=913 men, 346 women). Experimental group recruits were assigned motion control, stability, or cushioned shoes for plantar shapes indicative of low, medium, or high arches, respectively. Control group recruits received a stability shoe regardless of plantar shape. Injuries during BMT were determined from outpatient visits provided from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Other injury risk factors (fitness, smoking, physical activity, prior injury, menstrual history, and demographics) were obtained from a questionnaire, existing databases, or BMT units. Multivariate Cox regression controlling for other risk factors showed little difference in injury risk between the groups among men (hazard ratio [E/C]=1.11, 95% CI=0.89-1.38) or women (hazard ratio [E/C]=1.20, 95% CI= 0.90-1.60). Independent injury risk factors among both men and women included low aerobic fitness and cigarette smoking. This prospective study demonstrated that assigning running shoes based on the shape of the plantar surface had little influence on injury risk in BMT even after controlling for other injury risk factors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. An improved visualization-based force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, Stuart J.; Karl, Sebastian [Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Spacecraft Section, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This article is concerned with describing and exploring the limitations of an improved version of a recently proposed visualization-based technique for the measurement of forces and moments in short-duration hypersonic wind tunnels. The technique is based on tracking the motion of a free-flying body over a sequence of high-speed visualizations; while this idea is not new in itself, the use of high-speed digital cinematography combined with a highly accurate least-squares tracking algorithm allows improved results over what have been previously possible with such techniques. The technique precision is estimated through the analysis of artificially constructed and experimental test images, and the resulting error in acceleration measurements is characterized. For wind-tunnel scale models, position measurements to within a few microns are shown to be readily attainable. Image data from two previous experimental studies in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are then reanalyzed with the improved technique: the uncertainty in the mean drag acceleration is shown to be reduced to the order of the flow unsteadiness, 2-3%, and time-resolved acceleration measurements are also shown to be possible. The response time of the technique for the configurations studied is estimated to be {proportional_to}0.5 ms. Comparisons with computations using the DLR TAU code also yield agreement to within the overall experimental uncertainty. Measurement of the pitching moment for blunt geometries still appears challenging, however. (orig.)

  14. Passive hybrid force-position control for tele-operation based on real-time simulation of a virtual mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, L.; Andriot, C.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid force-position control aims at controlling position and force in separate directions. It is particularly useful to perform certain robotic tasks. In tele-operation context, passivity is important because it ensures stability when the system interacts with any passive environment. In this paper, we propose an original approach to hybrid force-position control of a force reflecting tele-robot system. It is based on real-time simulation of a virtual mechanism corresponding to the task. the resulting control law is passive. Experiments on a 6 degrees of freedom tele-operation system consisting in following a bent pipe under several control modes validate the approach. (authors). 12 refs., 6 figs

  15. A novel method of evaluating the lift force on the bluff body based on Noca’s flux equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui Xiang-Kun; Jiang Nan

    2015-01-01

    The influence of experimental error on lift force evaluated by Noca’s flux equation is studied based on adding errors into the direct numerical simulation data for flow past cylinder at Re = 100. As Noca suggested using the low-pass filter to get rid of the high-frequency noise in the evaluated lift force, we verify that his method is inapplicable for dealing with the dataset of 1% experimental error, although the precision is acceptable in practice. To overcome this defect, a novel method is proposed in this paper. The average of the lift forces calculated by using multiple control volume is taken as the evaluation before applying the low-pass filter. The method is applied to an experimental data for flow past a cylinder at approximately Re = 900 to verify its validation. The results show that it improves much better on evaluating the lift forces. (paper)

  16. Development and Testing of an Integrated Rotating Dynamometer Based on Fiber Bragg Grating for Four-Component Cutting Force Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyao; Bing, Junjun; Xiao, Li; Yun, Kang; Wan, Liang

    2018-04-18

    Cutting force measurement is of great importance in machining processes. Hence, various methods of measuring the cutting force have been proposed by many researchers. In this work, a novel integrated rotating dynamometer based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) was designed, constructed, and tested to measure four-component cutting force. The dynamometer consists of FBGs that are pasted on the newly designed elastic structure which is then mounted on the rotating spindle. The elastic structure is designed as two mutual-perpendicular semi-octagonal rings. The signals of the FBGs are transmitted to FBG interrogator via fiber optic rotary joints and optical fiber, and the wavelength values are displayed on a computer. In order to determine the static and dynamic characteristics, many tests have been done. The results show that it is suitable for measuring cutting force.

  17. Single cell adhesion force measurement for cell viability identification using an AFM cantilever-based micro putter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yajing; Nakajima, Masahiro; Kojima, Seiji; Homma, Michio; Kojima, Masaru; Fukuda, Toshio

    2011-11-01

    Fast and sensitive cell viability identification is a key point for single cell analysis. To address this issue, this paper reports a novel single cell viability identification method based on the measurement of single cell shear adhesion force using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever-based micro putter. Viable and nonviable yeast cells are prepared and put onto three kinds of substrate surfaces, i.e. tungsten probe, gold and ITO substrate surfaces. A micro putter is fabricated from the AFM cantilever by focused ion beam etching technique. The spring constant of the micro putter is calibrated using the nanomanipulation approach. The shear adhesion force between the single viable or nonviable cell and each substrate is measured using the micro putter based on the nanorobotic manipulation system inside an environmental scanning electron microscope. The adhesion force is calculated based on the deflection of the micro putter beam. The results show that the adhesion force of the viable cell to the substrate is much larger than that of the nonviable cell. This identification method is label free, fast, sensitive and can give quantitative results at the single cell level.

  18. Using Landsat-based evapotranspiration data to assess the linkages between water right transfers and economic transactions in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G. B.; Velpuri, N. M.; Schauer, M.; Friedrichs, M.; Singh, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    We used 31 years (1984-2014) of cloud-free Landsat data (3,396 Landsat scenes) to estimate evapotranspiration over the southwestern United States using the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model. We focused on some of California's most agriculture-intensive watersheds (8 central valley watersheds and Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID)). Farmers in southern California (including PVID) have water rights on the Colorado River. After meeting competing demands for agriculture (irrigation) and rural domestic use, the Colorado River is diverted to meet urban water demands in southern California. Due to the population growth and increasing domestic use, farmers have entered a special agreement to transfer their water rights under the fallowing program to the Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California. MWD supplies water to 19 million people, more than half of California's population, and is the largest supplier of treated water in the United States. In this study, we presented the total annual volumetric water use in the Palo Verde Irrigation District since 1984 and computed historical annual crop water saved due to a fallowing program. We then converted volumetric water saved to total payouts to farmers in dollars and estimated the number of beneficiary households in the Greater Los Angeles area. It is interesting to see that nearly 120,000 acre-feet of water was transferred from PVID to MWD in 2011 and the cost of water payouts were over $20 million. This water saving met the demands of over 325,000 households in the Greater Los Angeles area. This analysis helps to a) demonstrate an approach to estimate and compare annual water use and water payments/savings using satellite data, b) monitor water rights compliance in an irrigation district, c) demonstrate the impact of water savings, and d) understand the interconnections between land-water management and socio-economic transactions across multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  19. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

  20. Polarizable Force Field for DNA Based on the Classical Drude Oscillator: I. Refinement Using Quantum Mechanical Base Stacking and Conformational Energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkul, Justin A; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2017-05-09

    Empirical force fields seek to relate the configuration of a set of atoms to its energy, thus yielding the forces governing its dynamics, using classical physics rather than more expensive quantum mechanical calculations that are computationally intractable for large systems. Most force fields used to simulate biomolecular systems use fixed atomic partial charges, neglecting the influence of electronic polarization, instead making use of a mean-field approximation that may not be transferable across environments. Recent hardware and software developments make polarizable simulations feasible, and to this end, polarizable force fields represent the next generation of molecular dynamics simulation technology. In this work, we describe the refinement of a polarizable force field for DNA based on the classical Drude oscillator model by targeting quantum mechanical interaction energies and conformational energy profiles of model compounds necessary to build a complete DNA force field. The parametrization strategy employed in the present work seeks to correct weak base stacking in A- and B-DNA and the unwinding of Z-DNA observed in the previous version of the force field, called Drude-2013. Refinement of base nonbonded terms and reparametrization of dihedral terms in the glycosidic linkage, deoxyribofuranose rings, and important backbone torsions resulted in improved agreement with quantum mechanical potential energy surfaces. Notably, we expand on previous efforts by explicitly including Z-DNA conformational energetics in the refinement.

  1. Crack growth in the creep region: criteria based on material forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1984-12-01

    Meaning of C* concept is discussed. It is shown that this concept is only a global approach of material force rate concept. The field of Csub(i)sup(*) (material force rate densities) is more representative of creep crack growth than C* integral. As application corrected expressions of C* are proposed for non isothermal cases, strain hardening creep and effect of material elasticity

  2. Normal and friction stabilization techniques for interactive rigid body constraint-based contact force computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silcowitz-Hansen, Morten; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel, yet simple, method for stabilization of normal forces. A normal stabilization term, carefully designed from hypotheses about interactive usability, is added to the contact force problem. Further, we propose friction stabilization as a completely new stabilization paradigm...

  3. Internal and external force-based impedance control for cooperative manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, D.J.F.; Kostic, D.; Denasi, A.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    An asymptotically stable cascaded control algorithm is proposed for cooperative manipulation of a common object. This algorithm controls motion and internal forces of the object, as well as the contact forces between the object and environment. The motion of each manipulator is controlled using an

  4. Recording the dynamic endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles by AFM-based force tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bohua; Tian, Yongmei; Pan, Yangang; Shan, Yuping; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Sun, Yingchun; Wang, Hongda

    2015-05-07

    We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly.

  5. 3D printed flexible capacitive force sensor with a simple micro-controller based readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Martijn G.; Sanders, Remco; Krijnen, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a proof of principle of a flexible force sensor and the corresponding readout circuit. The flexible force sensor consists of a parallel plate capacitor that is 3D printed using regular and conductive thermoplastic poly-urethane (TPU). The capacitance change

  6. A force transmission system based on a tulip-shaped electrostatic clutch for haptic display devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hikaru; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Kazuo

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes a novel type of force transmission system for haptic display devices. The system consists of an array of end-effecter elements, a force/displacement transmitter and a single actuator producing a large force/displacement. It has tulip-shaped electrostatic clutch devices to distribute the force/displacement from the actuator among the individual end effecters. The specifications of three components were determined to stimulate touched human fingers. The components were fabricated by using micro-electromechanical systems and conventional machining technologies, and finally they were assembled by hand. The performance of the assembled transmission system was experimentally examined and it was confirmed that each projection in the arrayed end effecters could be moved individually. The actuator in a system whose total size was only 3.0 cm × 3.0 cm × 4.0 cm produced a 600 mN force and displaced individual array elements by 18 µm.

  7. Bioactive conformational generation of small molecules: A comparative analysis between force-field and multiple empirical criteria based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Hualiang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conformational sampling for small molecules plays an essential role in drug discovery research pipeline. Based on multi-objective evolution algorithm (MOEA, we have developed a conformational generation method called Cyndi in the previous study. In this work, in addition to Tripos force field in the previous version, Cyndi was updated by incorporation of MMFF94 force field to assess the conformational energy more rationally. With two force fields against a larger dataset of 742 bioactive conformations of small ligands extracted from PDB, a comparative analysis was performed between pure force field based method (FFBM and multiple empirical criteria based method (MECBM hybrided with different force fields. Results Our analysis reveals that incorporating multiple empirical rules can significantly improve the accuracy of conformational generation. MECBM, which takes both empirical and force field criteria as the objective functions, can reproduce about 54% (within 1Å RMSD of the bioactive conformations in the 742-molecule testset, much higher than that of pure force field method (FFBM, about 37%. On the other hand, MECBM achieved a more complete and efficient sampling of the conformational space because the average size of unique conformations ensemble per molecule is about 6 times larger than that of FFBM, while the time scale for conformational generation is nearly the same as FFBM. Furthermore, as a complementary comparison study between the methods with and without empirical biases, we also tested the performance of the three conformational generation methods in MacroModel in combination with different force fields. Compared with the methods in MacroModel, MECBM is more competitive in retrieving the bioactive conformations in light of accuracy but has much lower computational cost. Conclusions By incorporating different energy terms with several empirical criteria, the MECBM method can produce more reasonable conformational

  8. Properties of forced convection experimental with silicon carbide based nano-fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soanker, Abhinay

    -fluids. The nano-fluid properties were tested at three different volume concentrations; 0.55%, 1% and 1.6%. Thermal conductivity was measured for the three-volume concentration as function of temperature. Thermal conductivity enhancement increased with the temperature and may be attributed to increased Brownian motion of colloidal particles at higher temperatures. Measured thermal conductivity values are compared with results obtained by theoretical model derived in this work. Effect of temperature and volume concentration on viscosity was also measured and reported. Viscosity increase and related consequences are important issues for the use of nano-fluids. Extensive measurements of heat transfer and pressure drop for forced convection in circular pipes with nano-fluids was also conducted. Parameters such as heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number, pressure drop and a thermal hydraulic performance factor that takes into account the gains made by increase in thermal conductivity as well as penalties related to increase in pressure drop are evaluated for laminar and transition flow regimes. No significant improvement in heat transfer (Nusselt number) compared to its based fluid was observed. It is also observed that the values evaluated for the thermal-hydraulic performance factor (change in heat transfer/change in pressure drop) was under unity for many flow conditions indicating poor overall applicability of SiC based nano-fluids.

  9. Real-time deflection and friction force imaging by bimorph-based resonance-type high-speed scanning force microscopy in the contact mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Fan, Haiyun; Zhao, Jianyong; Shang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    We report herein an alternative high-speed scanning force microscopy method in the contact mode based on a resonance-type piezoelectric bimorph scanner. The experimental setup, the modified optical beam deflection scheme suitable for smaller cantilevers, and a high-speed control program for simultaneous data capture are described in detail. The feature of the method is that the deflection and friction force images of the sample surface can be obtained simultaneously in real time. Images of various samples (e.g., a test grating, a thin gold film, and fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass slides) are acquired successfully. The imaging rate is 25 frames per second, and the average scan speed reaches a value of approximately 2.5 cm/s. The method combines the advantages of both observing the dynamic processes of the sample surface and monitoring the frictional properties on the nanometer scale. 07.79.Lh; 07.79.Sp; 68.37.Ps.

  10. Direct current force sensing device based on compressive spring, permanent magnet, and coil-wound magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Or, Siu Wing; Ho, S L

    2013-12-01

    A force sensing device capable of sensing dc (or static) compressive forces is developed based on a NAS106N stainless steel compressive spring, a sintered NdFeB permanent magnet, and a coil-wound Tb(0.3)Dy(0.7)Fe(1.92)/Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 magnetostrictive∕piezoelectric laminate. The dc compressive force sensing in the device is evaluated theoretically and experimentally and is found to originate from a unique force-induced, position-dependent, current-driven dc magnetoelectric effect. The sensitivity of the device can be increased by increasing the spring constant of the compressive spring, the size of the permanent magnet, and/or the driving current for the coil-wound laminate. Devices of low-force (20 N) and high-force (200 N) types, showing high output voltages of 262 and 128 mV peak, respectively, are demonstrated at a low driving current of 100 mA peak by using different combinations of compressive spring and permanent magnet.

  11. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size

  12. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Leobardo Herrera-May

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases.

  13. Intelligent tuning method of PID parameters based on iterative learning control for atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Li, Yingzi; Zhang, Yingxu; Chen, Yifu; Song, Zihang; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Suoxin; Qian, Jianqiang

    2018-01-01

    Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) parameters play a vital role in the imaging process of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Traditional parameter tuning methods require a lot of manpower and it is difficult to set PID parameters in unattended working environments. In this manuscript, an intelligent tuning method of PID parameters based on iterative learning control is proposed to self-adjust PID parameters of the AFM according to the sample topography. This method gets enough information about the output signals of PID controller and tracking error, which will be used to calculate the proper PID parameters, by repeated line scanning until convergence before normal scanning to learn the topography. Subsequently, the appropriate PID parameters are obtained by fitting method and then applied to the normal scanning process. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by the convergence analysis. Simulations and experimental results indicate that the proposed method can intelligently tune PID parameters of the AFM for imaging different topographies and thus achieve good tracking performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vibration energy harvesting based monitoring of an operational bridge undergoing forced vibration and train passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Paul; Hazra, Budhaditya; Karoumi, Raid; Mathewson, Alan; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2018-06-01

    The application of energy harvesting technology for monitoring civil infrastructure is a bourgeoning topic of interest. The ability of kinetic energy harvesters to scavenge ambient vibration energy can be useful for large civil infrastructure under operational conditions, particularly for bridge structures. The experimental integration of such harvesters with full scale structures and the subsequent use of the harvested energy directly for the purposes of structural health monitoring shows promise. This paper presents the first experimental deployment of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting devices for monitoring a full-scale bridge undergoing forced dynamic vibrations under operational conditions using energy harvesting signatures against time. The calibration of the harvesters is presented, along with details of the host bridge structure and the dynamic assessment procedures. The measured responses of the harvesters from the tests are presented and the use the harvesters for the purposes of structural health monitoring (SHM) is investigated using empirical mode decomposition analysis, following a bespoke data cleaning approach. Finally, the use of sequential Karhunen Loeve transforms to detect train passages during the dynamic assessment is presented. This study is expected to further develop interest in energy-harvesting based monitoring of large infrastructure for both research and commercial purposes.

  15. Force Sensitive Handles and Capacitive Touch Sensor for Driving a Flexible Haptic-Based Immersive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Cugini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object. Specifically, the user interacts with the FSH to move the virtual object and to appropriately position the haptic interface for retrieving the six degrees of freedom required for both manipulation and modification modalities. The FCTS allows the system to track the movement and position of the user’s fingers on the strip, which is used for rendering visual and sound feedback. Two evaluation experiments are described, which involve both the evaluation and the modification of a 3D shape. Results show that the use of the haptic strip for the evaluation of aesthetic shapes is effective and supports product designers in the appreciation of the aesthetic qualities of the shape.

  16. Force sensitive handles and capacitive touch sensor for driving a flexible haptic-based immersive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Mario; Bordegoni, Monica; Cugini, Umberto

    2013-10-09

    In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH) and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS) to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object. Specifically, the user interacts with the FSH to move the virtual object and to appropriately position the haptic interface for retrieving the six degrees of freedom required for both manipulation and modification modalities. The FCTS allows the system to track the movement and position of the user's fingers on the strip, which is used for rendering visual and sound feedback. Two evaluation experiments are described, which involve both the evaluation and the modification of a 3D shape. Results show that the use of the haptic strip for the evaluation of aesthetic shapes is effective and supports product designers in the appreciation of the aesthetic qualities of the shape.

  17. A Compact Forearm Crutch Based on Force Sensors for Aided Gait: Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Moriana, Gema; Sevillano, José Luis; Ridao-Fernández, Carmen

    2016-06-21

    Frequently, patients who suffer injuries in some lower member require forearm crutches in order to partially unload weight-bearing. These lesions cause pain in lower limb unloading and their progression should be controlled objectively to avoid significant errors in accuracy and, consequently, complications and after effects in lesions. The design of a new and feasible tool that allows us to control and improve the accuracy of loads exerted on crutches during aided gait is necessary, so as to unburden the lower limbs. In this paper, we describe such a system based on a force sensor, which we have named the GCH System 2.0. Furthermore, we determine the validity and reliability of measurements obtained using this tool via a comparison with the validated AMTI (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Watertown, MA, USA) OR6-7-2000 Platform. An intra-class correlation coefficient demonstrated excellent agreement between the AMTI Platform and the GCH System. A regression line to determine the predictive ability of the GCH system towards the AMTI Platform was found, which obtained a precision of 99.3%. A detailed statistical analysis is presented for all the measurements and also segregated for several requested loads on the crutches (10%, 25% and 50% of body weight). Our results show that our system, designed for assessing loads exerted by patients on forearm crutches during assisted gait, provides valid and reliable measurements of loads.

  18. A Compact Forearm Crutch Based on Force Sensors for Aided Gait: Reliability and Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Chamorro-Moriana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, patients who suffer injuries in some lower member require forearm crutches in order to partially unload weight-bearing. These lesions cause pain in lower limb unloading and their progression should be controlled objectively to avoid significant errors in accuracy and, consequently, complications and after effects in lesions. The design of a new and feasible tool that allows us to control and improve the accuracy of loads exerted on crutches during aided gait is necessary, so as to unburden the lower limbs. In this paper, we describe such a system based on a force sensor, which we have named the GCH System 2.0. Furthermore, we determine the validity and reliability of measurements obtained using this tool via a comparison with the validated AMTI (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Watertown, MA, USA OR6-7-2000 Platform. An intra-class correlation coefficient demonstrated excellent agreement between the AMTI Platform and the GCH System. A regression line to determine the predictive ability of the GCH system towards the AMTI Platform was found, which obtained a precision of 99.3%. A detailed statistical analysis is presented for all the measurements and also segregated for several requested loads on the crutches (10%, 25% and 50% of body weight. Our results show that our system, designed for assessing loads exerted by patients on forearm crutches during assisted gait, provides valid and reliable measurements of loads.

  19. Weather Research and Forecasting Model Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III; Hoeth, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This abstract describes work that will be done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in assessing the success of different model configurations in predicting "wind cycling" cases at Edwards Air Force Base, CA (EAFB), in which the wind speeds and directions oscillate among towers near the EAFB runway. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model allows users to choose among two dynamical cores - the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) and the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM). There are also data assimilation analysis packages available for the initialization of the WRF model - the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) and the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS). Having a series of initialization options and WRF cores, as well as many options within each core, creates challenges for local forecasters, such as determining which configuration options are best to address specific forecast concerns. The goal of this project is to assess the different configurations available and determine which configuration will best predict surface wind speed and direction at EAFB.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Recycled Concrete Using Convex Aggregate Model and Base Force Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijiang Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the Base Force Element Method (BFEM on potential energy principle, a new numerical concrete model, random convex aggregate model, is presented in this paper to simulate the experiment under uniaxial compression for recycled aggregate concrete (RAC which can also be referred to as recycled concrete. This model is considered as a heterogeneous composite which is composed of five mediums, including natural coarse aggregate, old mortar, new mortar, new interfacial transition zone (ITZ, and old ITZ. In order to simulate the damage processes of RAC, a curve damage model was adopted as the damage constitutive model and the strength theory of maximum tensile strain was used as the failure criterion in the BFEM on mesomechanics. The numerical results obtained in this paper which contained the uniaxial compressive strengths, size effects on strength, and damage processes of RAC are in agreement with experimental observations. The research works show that the random convex aggregate model and the BFEM with the curve damage model can be used for simulating the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of RAC.

  1. Modeling and analysis of a robust thermal control system based on forced convection thermal switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew D.; Palo, Scott E.

    2006-05-01

    There is a critical need, not just in the Department of Defense (DOD) but the entire space industry, to reduce the development time and overall cost of satellite missions. To that end, the DOD is actively pursuing the capability to reduce the deployment time of a new system from years to weeks or even days. The goal is to provide the advantages space affords not just to the strategic planner but also to the battlefield commanders. One of the most challenging aspects of this problem is the satellite's thermal control system (TCS). Traditionally the TCS must be vigorously designed, analyzed, tested, and optimized from the ground up for every satellite mission. This "reinvention of the wheel" is costly and time intensive. The next generation satellite TCS must be modular and scalable in order to cover a wide range of applications, orbits, and mission requirements. To meet these requirements a robust thermal control system utilizing forced convection thermal switches was investigated. The problem was investigated in two separate stages. The first focused on the overall design of the bus. The second stage focused on the overarching bus architecture and the design impacts of employing a thermal switch based TCS design. For the hot case, the fan provided additional cooling to increase the heat transfer rate of the subsystem. During the cold case, the result was a significant reduction in survival heater power.

  2. An atomic force microscopy-based method for line edge roughness measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouchier, M.; Pargon, E.; Bardet, B. [CNRS/UJF-Grenoble1/CEA LTM, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2013-03-14

    With the constant decrease of semiconductor device dimensions, line edge roughness (LER) becomes one of the most important sources of device variability and needs to be controlled below 2 nm for the future technological nodes of the semiconductor roadmap. LER control at the nanometer scale requires accurate measurements. We introduce a technique for LER measurement based upon the atomic force microscope (AFM). In this technique, the sample is tilted at about 45 Degree-Sign and feature sidewalls are scanned along their length with the AFM tip to obtain three-dimensional images. The small radius of curvature of the tip together with the low noise level of a laboratory AFM result in high resolution images. Half profiles and LER values on all the height of the sidewalls are extracted from the 3D images using a procedure that we developed. The influence of sample angle variations on the measurements is shown to be small. The technique is applied to the study of a full pattern transfer into a simplified gate stack. The images obtained are qualitatively consistent with cross-section scanning electron microscopy images and the average LER values agree with that obtained by critical dimension scanning electron microscopy. In addition to its high resolution, this technique presents several advantages such as the ability to image the foot of photoresist lines, complex multi-layer stacks regardless of the materials, and deep re-entrant profiles.

  3. Dielectrophoresis-magnetophoresis force driven magnetic nanoparticle movement in transformer oil based magnetic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chul; Lee, Sangyoup

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic fluid is a stable colloidal mixture contained magnetic nanoparticles coated with a surfactant. Recently, it was found that the fluid has properties to increase heat transfer and dielectric characteristics due to the added magnetic nanoparticles in transformer oils. The magnetic nanoparticles in the fluid experience an electrical force directed toward the place of maximum electric field strength when the electric field is applied. And when the external magnetic field is applied, the magnetic nanoparticles form long chains oriented along the direction of the field. The behaviors of magnetic nanoparticles in both the fields must play an important role in changing the heat transfer and dielectric characteristics of the fluids. In this study, we visualized the movement of magnetic nanoparticles influenced by both the fields applied in-situ. It was found that the magnetic nanoparticles travel in the region near the electrode by the electric field and form long chains along the field direction by the magnetic field. It can be inferred that the movement of magnetic nanoparticles appears by both the fields, and the breakdown voltage of transformer oil based magnetic fluids might be influenced according to the dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles.

  4. Sequence-specific inhibition of Dicer measured with a force-based microarray for RNA ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Katja; Aschenbrenner, Daniela; Gaub, Hermann E

    2013-04-01

    Malfunction of protein translation causes many severe diseases, and suitable correction strategies may become the basis of effective therapies. One major regulatory element of protein translation is the nuclease Dicer that cuts double-stranded RNA independently of the sequence into pieces of 19-22 base pairs starting the RNA interference pathway and activating miRNAs. Inhibiting Dicer is not desirable owing to its multifunctional influence on the cell's gene regulation. Blocking specific RNA sequences by small-molecule binding, however, is a promising approach to affect the cell's condition in a controlled manner. A label-free assay for the screening of site-specific interference of small molecules with Dicer activity is thus needed. We used the Molecular Force Assay (MFA), recently developed in our lab, to measure the activity of Dicer. As a model system, we used an RNA sequence that forms an aptamer-binding site for paromomycin, a 615-dalton aminoglycoside. We show that Dicer activity is modulated as a function of concentration and incubation time: the addition of paromomycin leads to a decrease of Dicer activity according to the amount of ligand. The measured dissociation constant of paromomycin to its aptamer was found to agree well with literature values. The parallel format of the MFA allows a large-scale search and analysis for ligands for any RNA sequence.

  5. Model Based Analysis of Forced and Natural Convection Effects in an Electrochemical Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Brunner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High purity copper, suitable for electrical applications, can only be obtained by electro-winning. The hallmark of this process is its self-induced natural convection through density variations of the electrolyte at both anode and cathode. In order to do this, first the full dynamic complexity of the process needs to be understood. Thus an OpenFoam®-based 2D model of the process has been created. This finite-volume multiphysics approach solves the laminar momentum and copper-ion species conservation equations, as well as local copper-ion conversion kinetics. It uses a Boussinesq approximation to simulate the species-momentum coupling, namely natural draft forces induced by variations of the spatial copper concentration within the fluid. The model shows good agreement with benchmark-cases of real-life electrochemical cells found in literature. An additional flow was imposed at the bottom of a small scale electrochemical cell in order to increase the ionic transport and thereby increase the overall performance of the cell. In a small scale electrochemical cell in strictly laminar flow, the overall performance could be increased and stratification decreased.

  6. Patterns of intrinsic bioremediation at two U.S. Air Force bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemeier, T.H.; Swanson, M.A.; Wilson, J.T.; Kampbell, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Intrinsic bioremediation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) occurs when indigenous microorganisms work to reduce the total mass of contamination in the subsurface without the addition of nutrients. A conservative tracer, such as trimethylbenzene, found commingled with the contaminant plume can be used to distinguish between attenuation caused by dispersion, dilution from recharge, volatilization, and sorption and attenuation caused by biodegradation. Patterns of intrinsic bioremediation can vary markedly from site to site depending on governing physical, biological, and chemical processes. Intrinsic bioremediation causes measurable changes in groundwater chemistry. Specifically, concentrations of contaminants, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, ferrous iron, sulfate, and methane in groundwater change both temporally and spatially as biodegradation proceeds Operations at Hill Air Force Base (AFB) and Patrick AFB resulted in fuel-hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater. In both cases, trimethylbenzene data confirm that dissolved BTEX is biodegrading. Geochemical evidence from the Hill AFB site suggests that aerobic respiration, denitrification, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis all are contributing to intrinsic bioremediation of dissolved BTEX. Sulfate reduction is the dominant biodegradation mechanism at this site. Geochemical evidence from Patrick AFB suggests that aerobic respiration, iron reduction, and methanogenesis are contributing to intrinsic bioremediation of dissolved BTEX. Methanogenesis is the dominant biodegradation mechanism at this site

  7. VIRGY: a virtual reality and force feedback based endoscopic surgery simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, C; Guzzoni, D; Georg, O

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the VIRGY project at the VRAI Group (Virtual Reality and Active Interface), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Lausanne, Switzerland). Since 1994, we have been investigating a variety of virtual-reality based methods for simulating laparoscopic surgery procedures. Our goal is to develop an endoscopic surgical training tool which realistically simulates the interactions between one or more surgical instruments and gastrointestinal organs. To support real-time interaction and manipulation between instruments and organs, we have developed several novel graphic simulation techniques. In particular, we are using live video texturing to achieve dynamic effects such as bleeding or vaporization of fatty tissues. Special texture manipulations allows us to generate pulsing objects while minimizing processor load. Additionally, we have created a new surface deformation algorithm which enables real-time deformations under external constraints. Lastly, we have developed a new 3D object definition which allows us to perform operations such as total or partial object cuttings, as well as to selectively render objects with different levels of detail. To provide realistic physical simulation of the forces and torques on surgical instruments encountered during an operation, we have also designed a new haptic device dedicated to endososcopic surgery constraints. We are using special interpolation and extrapolation techniques to integrate our 25 Hz visual simulation with the 300 Hz feedback required for realistic tactile interaction. The fully VIRGY simulator has been tested by surgeons and the quality of both our visual and haptic simulation has been judged sufficient for training basic surgery gestures.

  8. Sequential actin-based pushing forces drive meiosis I chromosome migration and symmetry breaking in oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kexi; Rubinstein, Boris; Unruh, Jay R.; Guo, Fengli; Slaughter, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Polar body extrusion during oocyte maturation is critically dependent on asymmetric positioning of the meiotic spindle, which is established through migration of the meiosis I (MI) spindle/chromosomes from the oocyte interior to a subcortical location. In this study, we show that MI chromosome migration is biphasic and driven by consecutive actin-based pushing forces regulated by two actin nucleators, Fmn2, a formin family protein, and the Arp2/3 complex. Fmn2 was recruited to endoplasmic reticulum structures surrounding the MI spindle, where it nucleated actin filaments to initiate an initially slow and poorly directed motion of the spindle away from the cell center. A fast and highly directed second migration phase was driven by actin-mediated cytoplasmic streaming and occurred as the chromosomes reach a sufficient proximity to the cortex to activate the Arp2/3 complex. We propose that decisive symmetry breaking in mouse oocytes results from Fmn2-mediated perturbation of spindle position and the positive feedback loop between chromosome signal-induced Arp2/3 activation and Arp2/3-orchestrated cytoplasmic streaming that transports the chromosomes. PMID:23439682

  9. Studying the Post-Fire Response of Vegetation in California Protected Areas with NDVI-based Pheno-Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, S.; Gillespie, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Post-fire response from vegetation is determined by the intensity and timing of fires as well as the nature of local biomes. Though the field-based studies focusing on selected study sites helped to understand the mechanisms of post-fire response, there is a need to extend the analysis to a broader spatial extent with the assistance of remotely sensed imagery of fires and vegetation. Pheno-metrics, a series of variables on the growing cycle extracted from basic satellite measurements of vegetation coverage, translate the basic remote sensing measurements such as NDVI to the language of phenology and fire ecology in a quantitative form. In this study, we analyzed the rate of biomass removal after ignition and the speed of post-fire recovery in California protected areas from 2000 to 2014 with USGS MTBS fire data and USGS eMODIS pheno-metrics. NDVI drop caused by fire showed the aboveground biomass of evergreen forest was removed much slower than shrubland because of higher moisture level and greater density of fuel. In addition, the above two major land cover types experienced a greatly weakened immediate post-fire growing season, featuring a later start and peak of season, a shorter length of season, and a lower start and peak of NDVI. Such weakening was highly correlated with burn severity, and also influenced by the season of fire and the land cover type, according to our modeling between the anomalies of pheno-metrics and the difference of normalized burn ratio (dNBR). The influence generally decayed over time, but can remain high within the first 5 years after fire, mostly because of the introduction of exotic species when the native species were missing. Local-specific variables are necessary to better address the variance within the same fire and improve the outcomes of models. This study can help ecologists in validating the theories of post-fire vegetation response mechanisms and assist local fire managers in post-fire vegetation recovery.

  10. Computational Intelligence Based Data Fusion Algorithm for Dynamic sEMG and Skeletal Muscle Force Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekhar Potluri,; Madhavi Anugolu; Marco P. Schoen; D. Subbaram Naidu

    2013-08-01

    In this work, an array of three surface Electrography (sEMG) sensors are used to acquired muscle extension and contraction signals for 18 healthy test subjects. The skeletal muscle force is estimated using the acquired sEMG signals and a Non-linear Wiener Hammerstein model, relating the two signals in a dynamic fashion. The model is obtained from using System Identification (SI) algorithm. The obtained force models for each sensor are fused using a proposed fuzzy logic concept with the intent to improve the force estimation accuracy and resilience to sensor failure or misalignment. For the fuzzy logic inference system, the sEMG entropy, the relative error, and the correlation of the force signals are considered for defining the membership functions. The proposed fusion algorithm yields an average of 92.49% correlation between the actual force and the overall estimated force output. In addition, the proposed fusionbased approach is implemented on a test platform. Experiments indicate an improvement in finger/hand force estimation.

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Operation and Launch of the Falcon 1 and Falcon 9 Space Vehicles at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Florida, the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California, or the Pacific Ocean near the Marshall Islands . Dragon Capsule Re-entry and Recovery The...California and a third location is in the equatorial Pacific near the Marshall Islands . The capsule would be directed along a pre-planned trajectory to...Water Separator PAE Potentially Adverse Effect PAFB Patrick Air Force Base PAH Poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons Pb lead PCB Poly

  12. FRAME (Force Review Automation Environment): MATLAB-based AFM data processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partola, Kostyantyn R; Lykotrafitis, George

    2016-05-03

    Data processing of force-displacement curves generated by atomic force microscopes (AFMs) for elastic moduli and unbinding event measurements is very time consuming and susceptible to user error or bias. There is an evident need for consistent, dependable, and easy-to-use AFM data processing software. We have developed an open-source software application, the force review automation environment (or FRAME), that provides users with an intuitive graphical user interface, automating data processing, and tools for expediting manual processing. We did not observe a significant difference between manually processed and automatically processed results from the same data sets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combining spanwise morphing, inline motion and model based optimization for force magnitude and direction control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Johannes; Braza, Marianna; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Bats and other animals rapidly change their wingspan in order to control the aerodynamic forces. A NACA0013 type airfoil with dynamically changing span is proposed as a simple model to experimentally study these biomimetic morphing wings. Combining this large-scale morphing with inline motion allows to control both force magnitude and direction. Force measurements are conducted in order to analyze the impact of the 4 degree of freedom flapping motion on the flow. A blade-element theory augmented unsteady aerodynamic model is then used to derive optimal flapping trajectories.

  14. Image-based overlay measurement using subsurface ultrasonic resonance force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer, M. S.; van der Lans, M. J.; Sadeghian, H.

    2018-03-01

    Image Based Overlay (IBO) measurement is one of the most common techniques used in Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing to extract the overlay error values. The overlay error is measured using dedicated overlay targets which are optimized to increase the accuracy and the resolution, but these features are much larger than the IC feature size. IBO measurements are realized on the dedicated targets instead of product features, because the current overlay metrology solutions, mainly based on optics, cannot provide sufficient resolution on product features. However, considering the fact that the overlay error tolerance is approaching 2 nm, the overlay error measurement on product features becomes a need for the industry. For sub-nanometer resolution metrology, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is widely used, though at the cost of very low throughput. The semiconductor industry is interested in non-destructive imaging of buried structures under one or more layers for the application of overlay and wafer alignment, specifically through optically opaque media. Recently an SPM technique has been developed for imaging subsurface features which can be potentially considered as a solution for overlay metrology. In this paper we present the use of Subsurface Ultrasonic Resonance Force Microscopy (SSURFM) used for IBO measurement. We used SSURFM for imaging the most commonly used overlay targets on a silicon substrate and photoresist. As a proof of concept we have imaged surface and subsurface structures simultaneously. The surface and subsurface features of the overlay targets are fabricated with programmed overlay errors of +/-40 nm, +/-20 nm, and 0 nm. The top layer thickness changes between 30 nm and 80 nm. Using SSURFM the surface and subsurface features were successfully imaged and the overlay errors were extracted, via a rudimentary image processing algorithm. The measurement results are in agreement with the nominal values of the programmed overlay errors.

  15. Improvement of force-sensor-based heart rate estimation using multichannel data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruser, Christoph; Kortelainen, Juha M; Winter, Stefan; Tenhunen, Mirja; Parkka, Juha; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present and evaluate algorithms for heartbeat interval estimation from multiple spatially distributed force sensors integrated into a bed. Moreover, the benefit of using multichannel systems as opposed to a single sensor is investigated. While it might seem intuitive that multiple channels are superior to a single channel, the main challenge lies in finding suitable methods to actually leverage this potential. To this end, two algorithms for heart rate estimation from multichannel vibration signals are presented and compared against a single-channel sensing solution. The first method operates by analyzing the cepstrum computed from the average spectra of the individual channels, while the second method applies Bayesian fusion to three interval estimators, such as the autocorrelation, which are applied to each channel. This evaluation is based on 28 night-long sleep lab recordings during which an eight-channel polyvinylidene fluoride-based sensor array was used to acquire cardiac vibration signals. The recruited patients suffered from different sleep disorders of varying severity. From the sensor array data, a virtual single-channel signal was also derived for comparison by averaging the channels. The single-channel results achieved a beat-to-beat interval error of 2.2% with a coverage (i.e., percentage of the recording which could be analyzed) of 68.7%. In comparison, the best multichannel results attained a mean error and coverage of 1.0% and 81.0%, respectively. These results present statistically significant improvements of both metrics over the single-channel results (p < 0.05).

  16. Microfluidic acoustophoretic force based low-concentration oil separation and detection from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Liu, Zhongzheng; Kim, Sungman; Koo, Chiwan; Cho, Younghak; Jang, Dong-Young; Kim, Yong-Joe; Han, Arum

    2014-03-07

    Detecting and quantifying extremely low concentrations of oil from the environment have broad applications in oil spill monitoring in ocean and coastal areas as well as in oil leakage monitoring on land. Currently available methods for low-concentration oil detection are bulky or costly with limited sensitivities. Thus they are difficult to be used as portable and field-deployable detectors in the case of oil spills or for monitoring the long-term effects of dispersed oil on marine and coastal ecosystems. Here, we present a low-concentration oil droplet trapping and detection microfluidic system based on the acoustophoresis phenomenon where oil droplets in water having a negative acoustic contrast factor move towards acoustic pressure anti-nodes. By trapping oil droplets from water samples flowing through a microfluidic channel, even very low concentrations of oil droplets can be concentrated to a detectable level for further analyses, which is a significant improvement over currently available oil detection systems. Oil droplets in water were successfully trapped and accumulated in a circular acoustophoretic trapping chamber of the microfluidic device and detected using a custom-built compact fluorescent detector based on the natural fluorescence of the trapped crude oil droplets. After the on-line detection, crude oil droplets released from the trapping chamber were successfully separated into a collection outlet by acoustophoretic force for further off-chip analyses. The developed microfluidic system provides a new way of trapping, detecting, and separating low-concentration crude oil from environmental water samples and holds promise as a low-cost field-deployable oil detector with extremely high sensitivity. The microfluidic system and operation principle are expected to be utilized in a wide range of applications where separating, concentrating, and detecting small particles having a negative acoustic contrast factor are required.

  17. The impact of previous knee injury on force plate and field-based measures of balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltich, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jackie; Von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Nigg, Benno M; Emery, Carolyn

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic osteoarthritis demonstrate increased sway during quiet stance. The prospective association between balance and disease onset is unknown. Improved understanding of balance in the period between joint injury and disease onset could inform secondary prevention strategies to prevent or delay the disease. This study examines the association between youth sport-related knee injury and balance, 3-10years post-injury. Participants included 50 individuals (ages 15-26years) with a sport-related intra-articular knee injury sustained 3-10years previously and 50 uninjured age-, sex- and sport-matched controls. Force-plate measures during single-limb stance (center-of-pressure 95% ellipse-area, path length, excursion, entropic half-life) and field-based balance scores (triple single-leg hop, star-excursion, unipedal dynamic balance) were collected. Descriptive statistics (mean within-pair difference; 95% confidence intervals) were used to compare groups. Linear regression (adjusted for injury history) was used to assess the relationship between ellipse-area and field-based scores. Injured participants on average demonstrated greater medio-lateral excursion [mean within-pair difference (95% confidence interval); 2.8mm (1.0, 4.5)], more regular medio-lateral position [10ms (2, 18)], and shorter triple single-leg hop distances [-30.9% (-8.1, -53.7)] than controls, while no between group differences existed for the remaining outcomes. After taking into consideration injury history, triple single leg hop scores demonstrated a linear association with ellipse area (β=0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.01, 1.01). On average the injured participants adjusted their position less frequently and demonstrated a larger magnitude of movement during single-limb stance compared to controls. These findings support the evaluation of balance outcomes in the period between knee injury and post-traumatic osteoarthritis onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. The near real-time solar irradiance mapping in California based on satellite data and economic and emission benefits analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Honglei

    2008-01-01

    As the most abundant, sustainable, and green energy source on the earth, solar energy has the potential to resolve environmental problems such as climate change and air pollution caused by fossil energy. Real-time solar irradiance mapping, which gives the real-time data on local solar energy distribution, would provide valuable information and lead to more efficient use of solar energy. State of California (CA) is abundant in solar energy. However, the data of real-time direct ...

  19. A novel aptasensor based on single-molecule force spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection of mercury ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Michaelis, Monika; Wei, Gang; Colombi Ciacchi, Lucio

    2015-08-07

    We have developed a novel aptasensor based on single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) capable of detecting mercury ions (Hg(2+)) with sub-nM sensitivity. The single-strand (ss) DNA aptamer used in this work is rich in thymine (T) and readily forms T-Hg(2+)-T complexes in the presence of Hg(2+). The aptamer was conjugated to an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe, and the adhesion force between the probe and a flat graphite surface was measured by single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). The presence of Hg(2+) ions above a concentration threshold corresponding to the affinity constant of the ions for the aptamer (about 5 × 10(9) M(-1)) could be easily detected by a change of the measured adhesion force. With our chosen aptamer, we could reach an Hg(2+) detection limit of 100 pM, which is well below the maximum allowable level of Hg(2+) in drinking water. In addition, this aptasensor presents a very high selectivity for Hg(2+) over other metal cations, such as K(+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+), and Cd(2+). Furthermore, the effects of the ionic strength and loading rate on the Hg(2+) detection were evaluated. Its simplicity, reproducibility, high selectivity and sensitivity make our SMFS-based aptasensor advantageous with respect to other current Hg(2+) sensing methods. It is expected that our strategy can be exploited for monitoring the pollution of water environments and the safety of potentially contaminated food.

  20. Proof of Concept: Model Based Bionic Muscle with Hyperbolic Force-Velocity Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. B. Haeufle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from basic physical components. It was shown that a contractile element CE consisting of a mechanical energy source (active element AE, a parallel damper element (PDE, and a serial element (SE exhibits operating points with hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. In this paper, a technical proof of this concept was presented. AE and PDE were implemented as electric motors, SE as a mechanical spring. The force-velocity relation of this artificial CE was determined in quick release experiments. The CE exhibited hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. This proof of concept can be seen as a well-founded starting point for the development of Hill-type artificial muscles.