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Sample records for foramen schwannomas review

  1. Foramen magnum schwannoma: review of the literature and report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacif, Marcelo Souto; Caiado, Stella; Oliveira, Nidia di Paula Silva; Paula Neto, Walter Teixeira de; Campos, Flavio do Amaral; Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet Moreira Damas dos

    2001-01-01

    The authors report an unusual presentation of a voluminous neck schwannoma in a 53-year-old female that presented with a three-year history of progressive weakness associated with impaired movement of the limbs. Neurological examination revealed postural instability, unstable and paraparetic gait, tetraparesis and dyspnea. A preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the neck revealed an expansive, extradural, well-circumscribed lesion, with soft-tissue attenuation, at the level of C1-C2 vertebral bodies. During surgery, the tumor was found to be extradural, lateral to the cervical spinal cord, attached to the C1 left nerve root and extending upwards through the foramen magnum. Histopathological analysis of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. The patient showed a favorable outcome with progressive improvement of the symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging proved to be valuable in the detection and evaluation of the lesion, although the definite diagnosis was achieved only after histopathological studies. We concluded that magnetic resonance imaging for early diagnosis and prompt surgical resection seems to be the best approach to achieve good prognosis. (author)

  2. Foramen magnum schwannoma: review of the literature and report of a case; Schwannoma do forame magno: revisao e relato de caso

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    Nacif, Marcelo Souto; Caiado, Stella; Oliveira, Nidia di Paula Silva; Paula Neto, Walter Teixeira de [Fundacao Educacional Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biomedicas. Faculdade de Medicina de Teresopolis]. E-mail: marcelonacif30@hotmail.com; Mello, Ricardo Andrade Fernandes de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Jauregui, Gustavo Federico [Hospital Geral de Bonsucesso, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campos, Flavio do Amaral [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet Moreira Damas dos [Instituto de Pos-graduacao Medica Carlos Chagas (IPGMCC), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia

    2001-02-01

    The authors report an unusual presentation of a voluminous neck schwannoma in a 53-year-old female that presented with a three-year history of progressive weakness associated with impaired movement of the limbs. Neurological examination revealed postural instability, unstable and paraparetic gait, tetraparesis and dyspnea. A preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the neck revealed an expansive, extradural, well-circumscribed lesion, with soft-tissue attenuation, at the level of C1-C2 vertebral bodies. During surgery, the tumor was found to be extradural, lateral to the cervical spinal cord, attached to the C1 left nerve root and extending upwards through the foramen magnum. Histopathological analysis of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. The patient showed a favorable outcome with progressive improvement of the symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging proved to be valuable in the detection and evaluation of the lesion, although the definite diagnosis was achieved only after histopathological studies. We concluded that magnetic resonance imaging for early diagnosis and prompt surgical resection seems to be the best approach to achieve good prognosis. (author)

  3. Schwannoma do forame magno: revisão e relato de caso Foramen magnum schwannoma: review of the literature and report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Souto Nacif

    2005-02-01

    nerve root and extending upwards through the foramen magnum. Histopathological analysis of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. The patient showed a favorable outcome with progressive improvement of the symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging proved to be valuable in the detection and evaluation of the lesion, although the definite diagnosis was achieved only after histopathological studies. We concluded that magnetic resonance imaging for early diagnosis and prompt surgical resection seems to be the best approach to achieve good prognosis.

  4. Large Dumbbell-Shaped C1 Schwannoma Presenting as a Foramen Magnum Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Helms, Jody; Michael, Lattimore Madison

    2012-01-01

    Schwannomas involving the foramen magnum commonly originate from the lower cranial nerves, but they are rarely found arising from the first cervical root. To date, very few cases have been described in the literature. The majority involve either the intradural or extradural compartment but not both. We report the second case of a dumbbell-shaped schwannoma arising from the first cervical root. Our patient presented with hemisensory deficits secondary to brainstem compression at the level of t...

  5. Large Dumbbell-Shaped C1 Schwannoma Presenting as a Foramen Magnum Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Jody; Michael, Lattimore Madison

    2012-01-01

    Schwannomas involving the foramen magnum commonly originate from the lower cranial nerves, but they are rarely found arising from the first cervical root. To date, very few cases have been described in the literature. The majority involve either the intradural or extradural compartment but not both. We report the second case of a dumbbell-shaped schwannoma arising from the first cervical root. Our patient presented with hemisensory deficits secondary to brainstem compression at the level of the foramen magnum. The patient underwent a far lateral approach, and a gross total resection was achieved. Preoperative suspicion of the diagnosis is helpful in anticipating displacement and avoiding damage to the surrounding neurovascular structures. PMID:23946923

  6. Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: A Critical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Erin S.; Suh, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas are slow-growing tumors of the myelin-forming cells that cover cranial nerve VIII. The treatment options for patients with vestibular schwannoma include active observation, surgical management, and radiotherapy. However, the optimal treatment choice remains controversial. We have reviewed the available data and summarized the radiotherapeutic options, including single-session stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated conventional radiotherapy, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton beam therapy. The comparisons of the various radiotherapy modalities have been based on single-institution experiences, which have shown excellent tumor control rates of 91-100%. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy have successfully improved cranial nerve V and VII preservation to >95%. The mixed data regarding the ideal hearing preservation therapy, inherent biases in patient selection, and differences in outcome analysis have made the comparison across radiotherapeutic modalities difficult. Early experience using proton therapy for vestibular schwannoma treatment demonstrated local control rates of 84-100% but disappointing hearing preservation rates of 33-42%. Efforts to improve radiotherapy delivery will focus on refined dosimetry with the goal of reducing the dose to the critical structures. As future randomized trials are unlikely, we suggest regimented pre- and post-treatment assessments, including validated evaluations of cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, and quality of life assessments with long-term prospective follow-up. The results from such trials will enhance the understanding of therapy outcomes and improve our ability to inform patients.

  7. Patent foramen ovale and migraine attacks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Philomena Z Y; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2014-05-01

    Migraine headache and the presence of a patent foramen ovale have been associated with each other, although the precise pathophysiological mechanism(s) are uncertain. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the extent of patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and to determine whether closure of a patent foramen ovale would improve migraine headache. An electronic literature search was performed to select studies between January 1980 and February 2013 that were relevant to the prevalence of patent foramen ovale and migraine, and the effects of intervention(s) on migraine attacks. Of the initial 368 articles presented by the initial search, 20 satisfied the inclusion criteria assessing patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and 21 presented data on patent foramen ovale closure. In case series and cohort studies, patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs ranged from 14.6% to 66.5%. Case-control studies reported a prevalence ranging from 16.0% to 25.7% in controls, compared with 26.8% to 96.0% for migraine with aura. The extent of improvement or resolution of migraine headache attack symptoms was variable. In case series, intervention ameliorated migraine headache attack in 13.6% to 92.3% of cases. One single randomized trial did not show any benefit from patent foramen ovale closure. The data overall do not exclude the possibility of a placebo effect for resolving migraine following patent foramen ovale closure. This systematic review demonstrates firstly that migraine headache attack is associated with a higher prevalence of patent foramen ovale than among the general population. Observational data suggest that some improvement of migraine would be observed if the patent foramen ovale were to be closed. A proper assessment of any interventions for patent foramen ovale closure would require further large randomized trials to be conducted given uncertainties from existing trial data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anatomical Position of Mental foramen: a Review

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    Vinit Aher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental foramen is a key factor in many of the surgical as well as clinical procedures in routine clinical practice. The variations of mental foramen with respect to position, size and number dose significantly alter the clinical implications of various intraoral treatments. The accurate knowledge of the mental nerve and its position helps the clinician for delivering local anesthesia effectively also placement of implants and dentures intraorally to replace missing teeth is important in prosthetic point of view. While doing the surgical procedures in this region the position of mental nerve and its foramen is of importance to avoid intraoperative neurovascular damage and to avoid postoperative neurosensory disturbances. The ethnic and racial variations are seen in the position of mental foramen, although a gender variation in same population has not been seen. Thus the knowledge of the position of mental nerve is important for day to day clinical practice of dentistry.

  9. Jugular Foramen Collision Tumor (Schwannoma and Plasma Cell Pseudotumor), a Probable IgG4-Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhit, Mudathir S; Fujii, Masazumi; Jinguji, Shinya; Sato, Taku; Sakuma, Jun; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2017-06-01

    Lower cranial nerve sheath tumors are relatively rare. Cases of schwannoma collision tumors have rarely been reported, with most of the reported cases describing schwannoma and meningioma collision tumors. We report a very rare case of a cerebellopontine angle collision tumor of the ninth cranial nerve schwannoma with an IgG4 plasma cell pseudotumor. IgG4 plasma cell pseudotumors comprise a group of diseases called IgG4-related diseases (IgG4-RDs). These diseases usually affect organs such as the pancreas and salivary gland. Few cases of nervous system IgG4-RDs have been reported. Under intraoperative microscopy, the tumor in our case did not appear different from usual cases of schwannoma, but histopathology showed significant infiltration of IgG4 plasma cells. IgG4-RDs have a distinctive histopathologic pattern; however, their pathophysiology remains unclear. Special attention must be paid to the diagnosis of such diseases because they mimic other diseases and can be missed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Appearance of Schwannomas from Head to Toe: A Pictorial Review

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    Jamie Crist

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign soft-tissue tumors that arise from peripheral nerve sheaths throughout the body and are commonly encountered in patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2. The vast majority of schwannomas are benign, with rare cases of malignant transformation reported. In this pictorial review, we discuss the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI appearance of schwannomas by demonstrating a collection of tumors from different parts of the body that exhibit similar MRI characteristics. We review strategies to distinguish schwannomas from malignant soft-tissue tumors while exploring the anatomic and histologic origins of these tumors to discuss how this correlates with their imaging findings. Familiarity with the MRI appearance of schwannomas can help aid in the differential diagnosis of soft-tissue masses, especially in unexpected locations.

  11. Stereotactic radiosurgery: the preferred management for patients with nonvestibular schwannomas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, Bruce E.; Foote, Robert L.; Stafford, Scott L.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To review patient outcomes after radiosurgery of nonvestibular schwannomas. Methods and Materials: From April 1992 to February 2000, 23 patients had radiosurgery at our center for nonvestibular schwannomas. Affected cranial nerves included the trochlear (n=1), trigeminal (n=10), jugular foramen region (n=10), and hypoglossal (n=2). Nine patients had undergone one or more prior tumor resections. One patient had a malignant schwannoma; 2 patients had neurofibromatosis. The median prescription isodose volume was 8.9 cc (range, 0.2 to 17.6 cc). The median tumor margin dose was 18 Gy (range, 12 to 20 Gy); the median maximum dose was 36 Gy (range, 24 to 40 Gy). The median follow-up after radiosurgery was 43 months (range, 12 to 111 months). Results: Twenty-two of 23 tumors (96%) were either smaller (n=12) or unchanged in size (n=10) after radiosurgery. One patient with a malignant schwannoma had tumor progression outside the irradiated volume despite having both radiosurgery and fractionated radiation therapy (50.4 Gy); he died 4 years later. Morbidity related to radiosurgery occurred in 4 patients (17%). Three of 10 patients with trigeminal schwannomas suffered new or worsened trigeminal dysfunction after radiosurgery. One patient with a hypoglossal schwannoma had eustachian tube dysfunction after radiosurgery. No patient with a lower cranial nerve schwannoma developed any hearing loss, facial weakness, or swallowing difficulty after radiosurgery. Conclusions: Although the reported number of patients having radiosurgery for nonvestibular schwannomas is limited, the high tumor control rates demonstrated after vestibular schwannoma radiosurgery should apply to these rare tumors. Compared to historical controls treated with surgical resection, radiosurgery appears to have less treatment-associated morbidity for nonvestibular schwannomas, especially for schwannomas involving the lower cranial nerves

  12. Clinical anatomy and clinical significance of the cervical intervertebral foramen: a review.

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    Sioutas, G; Kapetanakis, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarise the knowledge about the anatomy of the cervical intervertebral foramen as a whole. Such reviews are rare in the literature. The intervertebral or neural foramen is the opening between the spinal canal and the extraspinal region. It is located between the vertebral pedicles at all spinal levels. A number of structures pass through the foramen: nerves, vessels and ligaments. We describe the bony borders and dimensions of the foramen, the adjacent ligaments, the arteries and veins passing through or neighbouring it, and the neural components. Many procedures are performed in the area of the cervical intervertebral foramen. Knowledge of the anatomy of the foramen is essential in order to operate to the area and to minimize iatrogenic injuries.

  13. [A new case of "olfactory schwannoma"; presentation and literature review].

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    Martínez-Soto, L; Alfaro-Baca, R; Torrecilla-Sardón, M V; Fernández-Vallejo, B; Ferreira-Muñóz, R; De Diego, T

    2009-06-01

    We report the case of a 54-year-old man who presented at the Emergency Department with intense headache of 6-days duration and sporadic nominal dysphasia. He did not present anosmia and the rest of the examination was normal. The emergency CT and the posterior cerebral MR showed a great subfrontal extra-axial mass of 7 x 6 x 5 cm, over the right side of the cribiform plate, hetereogeneously enhancing after gadolinium administration. Preoperative diagnosis was olfactory groove meningioma. After total removal by bifrontal craniotomy the histopathological diagnosis was schwannoma of the conventional type. Owing to the unusual frequency of this kind of tumors (26 to the date), we review the literature, the possible radiological differences with olfactory groove meningiomas and the different theories about their origin.

  14. A Review on Anatomical Variations of Mental Foramen (Number, Location, Shape, Symmetry, Direction and Size

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    F Ezoddini-Ardakani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mental foramen is located on the anterior aspect of the mandible that permits the terminal branch of the inferior alveolar nerve and blood vessels to exit. The anatomical variations of mental foramen are of considerable importance in local anesthesia, treatment of the fractures in the parasymphysis area, orthognatic surgeries, implant placement, etc. Regarding the importance of mental foramen in dentistry (from local anesthesia to invasive surgical procedures, this study intends to review the anatomical variations of mental foramen in this study. Absence of mental foramen is rare. On the other hand, prevalence of accessory mental foramen has been estimated lower than 15% in the most studies. The position of mental foramen is normally between first and second premolar teeth or under second premolar tooth in different ethnic groups and bilateral symmetry exists in regard with location in most cases. In most studies, the ratio of distance from mental foramen to symphysis to distance from symphysis to posterior border of ramus has been reported about 1/3.5 to 1/3. Mental foramen is oval or circular in shape and its most common direction is usually posterosuperior. Its size in different studies has been estimated about 2 to 5 millimeters and asymmetry in size is possible on both sides of mandible. Due to variations of mental foramen between various ethnic groups and even different individuals in the same ethnic group, using advanced imaging techniques such as CBCT is recommended in order to gain detailed knowledge of anatomy and morphology of mental foramen before applying invasive surgeries.

  15. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma: case report and review of the literature

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    Fairbanks Robert K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vestibular schwannomas, also called acoustic neuromas, are benign tumors of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Patients with these tumours almost always present with signs of hearing loss, and many also experience tinnitus, vertigo, and equilibrium problems. Following diagnosis with contrast enhanced MRI, patients may choose to observe the tumour with subsequent scans or seek active treatment in the form of microsurgery, radiosurgery, or radiotherapy. Unfortunately, definitive guidelines for treating vestibular schwannomas are lacking, because of insufficient evidence comparing the outcomes of therapeutic modalities. We present a contemporary case report, describing the finding of a vestibular schwannoma in a patient who presented with dizziness and a "clicking" sensation in the ear, but no hearing deficit. Audible clicking is a symptom that, to our knowledge, has not been associated with vestibular schwannoma in the literature. We discuss the diagnosis and patient's decision-making process, which led to treatment with Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Treatment resulted in an excellent radiographic response and complete hearing preservation. This case highlights an atypical presentation of vestibular schwannoma, associated with audible "clicks" and normal hearing. We also provide a concise review of the available literature on modern vestibular schwannoma treatment, which may be useful in guiding treatment decisions.

  16. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma: case report and review of the literature.

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    Arthurs, Benjamin J; Lamoreaux, Wayne T; Giddings, Neil A; Fairbanks, Robert K; Mackay, Alexander R; Demakas, John J; Cooke, Barton S; Lee, Christopher M

    2009-12-18

    Vestibular schwannomas, also called acoustic neuromas, are benign tumors of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Patients with these tumours almost always present with signs of hearing loss, and many also experience tinnitus, vertigo, and equilibrium problems. Following diagnosis with contrast enhanced MRI, patients may choose to observe the tumour with subsequent scans or seek active treatment in the form of microsurgery, radiosurgery, or radiotherapy. Unfortunately, definitive guidelines for treating vestibular schwannomas are lacking, because of insufficient evidence comparing the outcomes of therapeutic modalities.We present a contemporary case report, describing the finding of a vestibular schwannoma in a patient who presented with dizziness and a "clicking" sensation in the ear, but no hearing deficit. Audible clicking is a symptom that, to our knowledge, has not been associated with vestibular schwannoma in the literature. We discuss the diagnosis and patient's decision-making process, which led to treatment with Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Treatment resulted in an excellent radiographic response and complete hearing preservation. This case highlights an atypical presentation of vestibular schwannoma, associated with audible "clicks" and normal hearing. We also provide a concise review of the available literature on modern vestibular schwannoma treatment, which may be useful in guiding treatment decisions.

  17. Laryngeal Schwannoma: A Case Presentation and Review of the Mayo Clinic Experience.

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    Romak, Jonathan J; Neel, H Bryan; Ekbom, Dale C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the nature of laryngeal schwannomas through review of the experience of a single institution during a 104-year period. This is a retrospective case series. The Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota clinical and surgical pathology database was reviewed for the years 1985-2011. Four cases of laryngeal schwannoma were identified. These cases were pooled with a previously published series of laryngeal schwannomas treated at our institution between 1907 and 1986. The characteristics of all 11 cases were studied, and relevant literature was reviewed. A total of 11 cases of schwannoma of the larynx were identified. The mean age at presentation was 48 years (range 12-73 years). The most common presenting symptoms were dysphonia and dysphagia. The most frequently involved primary site was the false vocal fold (six patients), followed by the aryepiglottic fold (three), epiglottis (two), subglottis (two), ventricle (one), true vocal fold (one) and postcricoid region (one). The mean maximal tumor diameter was 2.5 cm. In all but one case, surgical excision was curative with no recurrence during recorded follow up ranging from 1 to 17 years. Laryngeal schwannomas, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal tumors. They occur most frequently in the false vocal fold and present most commonly with dysphonia and/or dysphagia. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Trigeminal Schwannoma with intra- and extracranial portions - a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Setubal, Roger; Florencio, Filipe Toledo; Gomes, Marcio Rogerio Alcala; Mayo, Suzete Varela; Leiro, Luis Carlos Filgueira; Soares, Aldemir Humberto

    1997-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 40-year-old male patient presenting a mandibular branch Schwannoma of the trigeminal nerve with intra-and extracranial portions. The radiologic, computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings are discussed and a review of the literature is presented. (author)

  19. Foramen Magnum Meningioma: a Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurinovic, Pavao; Bulicic, Ana Repic; Marcic, Marino; Mise, Nikolina Ivica; Titlic, Marina; Suljic, Enra

    2016-02-01

    Meningiomas are slow-growing benign tumors that arise at any location where arachnoid cells reside. Although meningiomas account for a sizable proportion of all primary intracranial neoplasms (14.3-19%), only 1.8 to 3.2% arise at the foramen magnum. Their indolent development at the craniocervical junction makes clinical diagnosis complex and often leads to a long interval between onset of symptoms and diagnosis. We report a case of a 79-year-old male patient, presented with ataxia and sense of threatening fainting during verticalization. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of meningioma in the right side of craniospinal junction.

  20. Jugular foramen meningiomas. Review of the major surgical series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, B.

    2010-01-01

    Primary jugular foramen meningiomas are uncommon, with 96 previous cases published between 1992 and 2007. Exact location and extent of tumor were determined on the basis of radiologic and operative findings and used to develop a staging system. The mean age of patients was 39.4 years. The lesion was located on the right in 14 patients and on the left in 11 patients. The series identified 23 males and 58 females. The most common presenting clinical symptoms were hearing loss and tinnitus. Most clinical findings were middle ear mass and neck mass. Most meningiomas were World Health Organization grade I. The most common postoperative complications were lower cranial nerve paresis and facial nerve paresis. Surgical planning should consider that meningiomas usually invade the dura mater, cranial nerves, and surrounding bone. The surgeon should carefully collect detailed data about the tumor, and consult an otolaryngologist preoperatively for lower cranial nerve functions and hearing levels.(author)

  1. Jugular foramen meningiomas. Review of the major surgical series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakar, B [Faculty of Medicine, Kirikkale Univ., Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2010-02-15

    Primary jugular foramen meningiomas are uncommon, with 96 previous cases published between 1992 and 2007. Exact location and extent of tumor were determined on the basis of radiologic and operative findings and used to develop a staging system. The mean age of patients was 39.4 years. The lesion was located on the right in 14 patients and on the left in 11 patients. The series identified 23 males and 58 females. The most common presenting clinical symptoms were hearing loss and tinnitus. Most clinical findings were middle ear mass and neck mass. Most meningiomas were World Health Organization grade I. The most common postoperative complications were lower cranial nerve paresis and facial nerve paresis. Surgical planning should consider that meningiomas usually invade the dura mater, cranial nerves, and surrounding bone. The surgeon should carefully collect detailed data about the tumor, and consult an otolaryngologist preoperatively for lower cranial nerve functions and hearing levels.(author)

  2. Schwannoma of the 6th nerve: case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Li; Jingjun Li; Jing Li; Zhen Wu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Schwannomas of the 6th nerve are extremely rare.Only 22 cases of intracranial schwannomas of the 6th cranial nerve pathologically confirmed have been reported.Case Presentation: Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old girl who presented with isolated progressive 6th nerve palsy.A cisternal type of schwannomawas found from neuro-imaging.Subtotal removal of the tumor was performed by a routine left subtemporal craniotomy with an petrosectomy.The attachment to the 6th nerve was found.After surgery, the patient's 6th nerve palsy remained.Histological images revealed a cellular schwannoma.Then the classification, clinical presentation, diagnosis, operation, stereotactic radiosurgery are reviewed.Conclusions: The location and the attachment to the 6th nerve is the key for diagnosis.Most cases are treated surgically.It looks like it is not easy to completely remove for CA type because of invasion of the cavernous sinus or firm adherence to the nerves.The 6th nerve function seldom completely recovered postoperatively.The direction of further research is to improve the diagnosis and therapy to have better nerve recovery.

  3. Risk factors associated with vestibulocochlear nerve schwannoma: systematic review Fatores de risco associados ao Schwannoma do nervo vestibular: revisão sistemática

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    Ana Paula Corona

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The vestibulocochlear nerve schwannoma (VS is a benign tumor that stems from the edge of the Schwann´s sheath. It is considered the most frequent intracranial benign tumor, of low lethality rate and unknown etiology. AIM: to identify risk factors associated with VS. STUDY DESIGN: systematic review. METHODS: electronic search of studies using the following key words: "risk", "schwannoma", "vestibular", "neuroma" and "acoustic". All original articles on epidemiological studies published in Portuguese, English or Spanish describing measures of association were included. RESULTS: twenty case-control studies were found, most of them published in the United States. The analysis of those studies shows educational level, household income, occupation, exposure to ionizing radiation and noise, allergic diseases as well as the use of both cellular and cordless phones as risk factors for the VS. CONCLUSION: methodological limitations and lack of precision in the findings impose limits to definitive conclusions concerning those risk factors. The current study contributes with information which can subsidize decisions related to the methodology to be used, having in mind new investigations on risk factors for VS. Therefore, it is of great help for knowledge improvement in this field.O Schwannoma do nervo vestibular (SV é um tumor benigno que se origina da bainha de Schwann do VIII par craniano. É o tumor benigno intracraniano mais frequente, de baixa letalidade e etiologia obscura. OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores de risco associados ao SV. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Revisão sistemática. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Identificação de estudos em bases de dados eletrônicos utilizando as palavras-chaves "risk", "risco", "schwannoma", "vestibular", "neuroma" e "acoustic". Incluíram-se artigos originais de pesquisa epidemiológica publicados em português, espanhol ou inglês, que referiam alguma medida de associação. Foram comparados e analisados aspectos metodológicos e

  4. FORAMEN MENTONIANO ACCESORIO: PRESENTACION DE UN CASO Y REVISION DE LA BIBLIOGRAFIA. Accessory mental foramen: A case report and literature review.

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    Javier Elías Fernández

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available El foramen mentoniano accesorio es un orificio adicional al foramen mentoniano que se localiza en la cara anterolateral externa del cuerpo mandibular y que se conecta con el conducto dentario inferior.  Su ubicación es posteroinferior al foramen mentoniano.  De acuerdo a su clasificación también se lo conoce como foramen mental doble, foramen mental adicional, foramen mental múltiple, foramen mental accesorio o foramen mandibular bucal suplementario. Su frecuencia de aparición varía del 1% al 10 %, cuando son unilaterales y del 0,47% al 1,2% cuando son bilaterales.  El  foramen mentoniano accesorio es una rara variante anatómica de poca frecuencia pero de gran relevancia clínico-quirúrgica ya que está asociado a un paquete vasculonervioso por lo cual es necesario su diagnóstico radiográfico ya sea por métodos convencionales o por alta resolución para evitar posibles complicaciones en los diferentes procedimientos odontológicos. Se presenta un caso de foramen mentoniano accesorio de un paciente remitido al Servicio de Radiología de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNC. La tomografía computada constituye el estudio por imágenes de excelencia ante la presunción de un foramen accesorio ya que los diferentes cortes tomográficos y la reconstrucción 3D nos permiten localizarlo de manera precisa e inequívoca. Constituye generalmente un hallazgo radiográfico o se observa durante procedimientos quirúrgicos al quedar al descubierto por el desplazamiento de los tejidos blandos. Cuando se localiza antes de cualquier procedimiento odontológico se deben tomar todos los recaudos necesarios para evitar daño del paquete vasculonervioso y futuras complicaciones como hemorragias o parestesias, principalmente en prácticas como la colocación de implantes dentales o las apicectomías. Accessory mental foramen (AMF is defined as any openings in addition to mental foramen, with connection to the mandibular canal in the anterolateral

  5. Systematic Review of Treatment for Trapped Thrombus in Patent Foramen Ovale.

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    Seo, Won-Woo; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Myung-Soo; Lee, Jun-Hee; Park, Dae-Gyun; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Oh, Dong-Jin

    2017-09-01

    Trapped thrombus in patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a rare complication of pulmonary embolism that may lead to tragic clinical events. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal treatment for different clinical situations in patients with trapped thrombus in a PFO by conducting a literature review. A PubMed database search was conducted from 1991 through 2015, and 194 patients (185 articles) with trapped thrombus in a PFO were identified. Patient characteristics, paradoxical embolic events, and factors affecting 60-day mortality were analyzed retrospectively. Among all patients, 112 (57.7%) were treated with surgery, 28 with thrombolysis, and 54 with anticoagulation alone. Dyspnea (79.4%), chest pain (33.0%), and syncope (17.5%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Pretreatment embolism was found in 37.6% of cases, and stroke (24.7%) was the most common event. Surgery was associated with fewer post-treatment embolic events than were other treatment options (p=0.044). In the multivariate analysis, initial shock or arrest, and thrombolysis were independent predictors of 60-day mortality. Thrombolysis was related with higher 60-day mortality compared with surgery in patients who had no initial shock or arrest. This systematic review showed that surgery was associated with a lower overall incidence of post-treatment embolic events and a lower 60-day mortality in patients with trapped thrombus in a PFO. In patients without initial shock or arrest, thrombolysis was related with a higher 60-day mortality compared with surgery.

  6. Frontoethmoidal Schwannoma with Exertional Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Akiyama, Katsuhiko; Seki, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Go; Kakita, Akiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Frontoethmoidal schwannomas are rare. No case manifesting exertional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea has ever been reported to the best of our knowledge. In this report, we describe an extremely rare case of frontoethmoidal schwannoma extending through the olfactory groove with exertional CSF rhinorrhea as the initial symptom. A 50-year-old woman was presented to our clinic for frequent nasal discharge on exertion. A postcontrast computed tomographic scan demonstrated heterogeneously enhanced tumor from the anterior cranial fossa to the anterior ethmoid sinus. A gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance image revealed a well-defined heterogeneously enhanced tumor situated in the midline anterior cranial fossa and anterior ethmoid sinus. After the resection, the defect of the right anterior skull base was reconstructed with a fascia graft and adipose tissue taken from the abdomen, as well as a pedicle periosteum flap. A histologic examination revealed the tumor as schwannoma. Her rhinorrhea completely resolved. She regained her sense of smell and taste 1 month after the operation. According to previous reports, olfactory groove, and paraolfactory groove/periolfactory groove schwannomas can be divided into 4 types: subfrontal, nasoethmoidal, frontoethmoidal, and ethmofrontal. Among them, a frontoethmoidal schwannoma can manifest exertional CSF rhinorrhea as an initial symptom. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Schwannomas of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Kanatas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign encapsulated nerve sheath tumors composed of Schwann cells. Malignant change in head and neck schwannomas is rare, with the incidence varying between 8 and 13.9%. In this review, we discuss the presentation and the management of head and neck schwannomas. The issues and difficulties based on our own experience as well as the experience of published reports from the literature are presented.

  8. Facial Nerve Schwannoma: A Case Report, Radiological Features and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilloni, Giulia; Mico, Barbara Massa; Altieri, Roberto; Zenga, Francesco; Ducati, Alessandro; Garbossa, Diego; Tartara, Fulvio

    2017-12-22

    Facial nerve schwannoma localized in the middle fossa is a rare lesion. We report a case of a facial nerve schwannoma in a 30-year-old male presenting with facial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 3 cm diameter tumor of the right middle fossa. The tumor was removed using a sub-temporal approach. Intraoperative monitoring allowed for identification of the facial nerve, so it was not damaged during the surgical excision. Neurological clinical examination at discharge demonstrated moderate facial nerve improvement (Grade III House-Brackmann).

  9. Stereotactic radiosurgery vs. fractionated radiotherapy for tumor control in vestibular schwannoma patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Oscar; Bartek, Jiri; Shalom, Netanel Ben; Wangerid, Theresa; Jakola, Asgeir Store; Förander, Petter

    2017-06-01

    Repeated controlled studies have revealed that stereotactic radiosurgery is better than microsurgery for patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) 18 years) patients with unilateral VS, followed for a median of >5 years, were eligible for inclusion. After screening titles and abstracts of the 1094 identified articles and systematically reviewing 98 of these articles, 19 were included. Patients with unilateral VS treated with radiosurgery were compared to patients treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. No randomized controlled trial (RCT) was identified. None of the identified controlled studies comparing SRS with FSRT were eligible according to the inclusion criteria. Nineteen case series on SRS (n = 17) and FSRT (n = 2) were included in the systematic review. Loss of tumor control necessitating a new VS-targeted intervention was found in an average of 5.0% of the patients treated with SRS and in 4.8% treated with FSRT. Mean deterioration ratio for patients with serviceable hearing before treatment was 49% for SRS and 45% for FSRT, respectively. The risk for facial nerve deterioration was 3.6% for SRS and 11.2% for FSRT and for trigeminal nerve deterioration 6.0% for SRS and 8.4% for FSRT. Since these results were obtained from case series, a regular meta-analysis was not attempted. SRS and FSRT are both noninvasive treatment alternatives for patients with VS with low rates of treatment failure in need of rescue therapy. In this selection of patients, the progression-free survival rates were on the order of 92-100% for both treatment options. There is a lack of high-quality studies comparing radiation therapy alternatives for patients with VS. Finally, 19 articles reported long-term tumor control after SRS, while only 2 articles reported long-term FSRT results, making effect estimates more uncertain for FSRT.

  10. Clinical anatomy and significance of the thoracic intervertebral foramen: A cadaveric study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkasdaris, Grigorios; Tripsianis, Grigorios; Kotopoulos, Konstantinos; Kapetanakis, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    The literature is lacking information on the anatomy and the osseous dimensions of the thoracic intervertebral foramen (IVF). We describe the anatomy of the broader area, and we proceed with morphometric data of the vertebrae and the foramina. Depiction of these features is provided with imaging and illustrations. The purpose of this paper is to survey and present the anatomy of the foramen as a whole and provide baseline statistical data. We review relevant literature, and we present data obtained from skeletal samples of known population and sex. One hundred and nineteen thoracic vertebrae of ten cadaveric spines from the prefecture of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Greece, were selected. Statistical analysis measuring the vertical height and the foraminal width of each vertebra was made in accordance with sex. No statistically important differences referring to the descriptive data of both sexes were found. However, statistically, important positive correlation between the vertebral height and the foraminal width was observed, especially for men. The components of the foramen including arteries and veins passing through or neighboring it, and the spinal nerves and roots are described and depicted. The osseous thoracic IVF reveals a glimpse of the in vivo structure and alterations of its width may be present in back pain and other degenerative diseases. Although it is crucial for surgeries and other interventional procedures of the thoracic spine, little is known about the precise anatomy and dimensions of this anatomical landmark.

  11. Clinical anatomy and significance of the thoracic intervertebral foramen: A cadaveric study and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorios Gkasdaris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The literature is lacking information on the anatomy and the osseous dimensions of the thoracic intervertebral foramen (IVF. We describe the anatomy of the broader area, and we proceed with morphometric data of the vertebrae and the foramina. Depiction of these features is provided with imaging and illustrations. The purpose of this paper is to survey and present the anatomy of the foramen as a whole and provide baseline statistical data. Materials and Methods: We review relevant literature, and we present data obtained from skeletal samples of known population and sex. One hundred and nineteen thoracic vertebrae of ten cadaveric spines from the prefecture of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Greece, were selected. Statistical analysis measuring the vertical height and the foraminal width of each vertebra was made in accordance with sex. Results: No statistically important differences referring to the descriptive data of both sexes were found. However, statistically, important positive correlation between the vertebral height and the foraminal width was observed, especially for men. The components of the foramen including arteries and veins passing through or neighboring it, and the spinal nerves and roots are described and depicted. Conclusions: The osseous thoracic IVF reveals a glimpse of the in vivo structure and alterations of its width may be present in back pain and other degenerative diseases. Although it is crucial for surgeries and other interventional procedures of the thoracic spine, little is known about the precise anatomy and dimensions of this anatomical landmark.

  12. Closure of patent foramen ovale for cryptogenic stroke patients: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xuan; Ou-Yang, Guang; Yan, Peng-Fei; Huang, Shu-Lan; Zhang, Zhen-Tao; Zhang, Zhao-Hui

    2018-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the efficacy and safety of transcatheter device closure (TDC) plus anti-thrombotic drugs over medical management alone for patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen oval. PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library database were searched for randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). The primary endpoint is the composite of stroke and transient ischemic attack. The secondary endpoints are all-cause mortality, total serious adverse events, atrial fibrillation and bleeding. Five RCTs with a total of 3440 participants were included. TDC significantly decreased the risk of primary endpoint when compared to medical therapy alone (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.43-0.69). Further subgroup analyses showed that patients with male gender and with substantial shunt size of foramen ovale significantly benefited from TDC as compared to those with female gender and with no substantial shunt size of foramen oval separately. Moreover, TDC was superior to medical therapy with anti-platelet drug alone (not with anti-coagulation). On the other hand, the incidence of atrial fibrillation was higher in TDC group (RR 4.49, 95% CI 2.02-9.97), with the risk of other adverse events equivalent between the two groups. TDC plus anti-thrombotic drugs is superior than medical therapy alone for secondary prevention of stroke, especially for those with male gender and with substantial shunt size of foramen ovale. Though it may increase the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation, it would not bring higher risk of all-cause mortality, total adverse events and bleeding.

  13. Schwannoma of the upper lip: A case report and literature review

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    Peediackel Antony George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Schwannomas or neurilemmomas are well demarcated, benign neurogenic lesions arising by a fibroblastic proliferation of the nerve sheath cell (Schwann cell. They usually present as solitary encapsulated lesions with rare occurrence in the upper lip. Non-diagnosed or misdiagnosed schwannomas present a high risk for the tumor to continue growing and exerting pressure on surrounding nerves. These tumours based on their location could lead to facial weakness and paralysis, pressure in ears, tinnitus, hearing loss, balance loss, and could lead to a life-threatening situation. Case Outline. This case is a rare presentation of a schwannoma located in the upper lip of a 21-year-old male patient of Indian origin. The patient complained of a swelling in the mouth with a difficulty in keeping the mouth closed. The swelling was surgically excised and the patient healed completely. Conclusion. This case of occurrence of tumor on the upper lip points to the possibility of considering schwannoma as a possibility in the diagnosis of oral tumors in the future, as the location of the tumor was rare and had a high chance of misdiagnosis.

  14. Hydrocephalus caused by unilateral foramen of Monro obstruction: A review on terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigri, Flavio; Gobbi, Gabriel Neffa; da Costa Ferreira Pinto, Pedro Henrique; Simões, Elington Lannes; Caparelli-Daquer, Egas Moniz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydrocephalus caused by unilateral foramen of Monro (FM) obstruction has been referred to in literature by many different terminologies. Precise terminology describing hydrocephalus confined to just one lateral ventricle has a very important prognostic value and determines whether or not the patient can be shunt free after an endoscopic procedure. Methods: Aiming to define the best term for unilateral FM obstruction, 19 terms were employed on PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) as quoted phrases. Results: A total of 194 articles were found. Four patterns of hydrocephalus were discriminated as a result of our research term query and were divided by types for didactic purpose. Type A - partial dilation of the lateral ventricle; Type B - pure unilateral obstruction of the FM; Type C - previously shunted patients with secondary obstruction of the FM; and Type D - asymmetric lateral ventricles with patent FM. Conclusion: In unilateral FM obstruction hydrocephalus, an in-depth review on terminology application is critical to avoid mistakes that may compromise comparisons among different series. This terminology review suggests that Type B hydrocephalus, i.e., the hydrocephalus confined to just one lateral ventricle with no other sites of cerebrospinal fluid circulation blockage, are best described by the terms unilateral hydrocephalus (UH) and monoventricular hydrocephalus, the first being by far the most popular. Type A hydrocephalus is best represented in the literature by the terms uniloculated hydrocephalus and loculated ventricle; Type C hydrocephalus by the terms isolated lateral ventricle and isolated UH; and Type D hydrocephalus by the term asymmetric hydrocephalus. PMID:27274402

  15. Morphological approach of the sternal foramen: an anatomic study and a short review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantsinikoudis, N; Chaniotakis, C; Gkasdaris, G; Georgiou, N; Kapetanakis, S

    2017-01-01

    The sternal foramen (SF) constitutes a specific anatomic defect in sternum, indicating an impaired fusion of ossificated segments, which occurs either in an anatomical part of the sternum or in sternal joints. The aim of this article is to provide baseline statistical data about the variations of the SF, to present a short review of the relevant literature and to compare results with other studies and populations. We review relevant literature, and we present data obtai-ned from skeletal samples of known population and sex. A total of 35 well-preserved dried sterna from the prefecture of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Greece, were selected: 20 men and 15 women with a mean age of 55 ± 6 years old. Measurements were made with a sliding calliper and photographic documentation. The incidence of the SF in the 35 dried specimens was 14.2%, 4 men (20% of male sample) and 1 woman (6.6% of female sample) and 80% of sternal foramina were observed in male individuals. The SF was found in the sternum body (2 cases, 40% of foramina), in xiphoid process (2 cases, 40% of foramina) and in sternoxiphoidal junction (1 case, 20% of foramina). All of the sterna presented 1 single visible SF. Two anatomically unique cases were identified throughout these 5 sterna, both belonging in male subjects. The SF constitutes a relatively common variation with great radiological, clinical, and forensic significance. Presence of a SF with irregular bony margins complicates considerably radiological differential diagnosis. Awareness of this important anatomic variation is fundamental for clinicians and autopsy pathologists, in order to avoid severe fatal complications and elucidate the exact cause of death, respectively.

  16. Temporal fossa intra-extracranial dumbbell schwannoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wong, Limy

    2011-02-01

    Intra-extracranial schwannomas arising unrelated to major cranial nerves are exceedingly rare neoplasms. We report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with a 9 month history of progressive temporal swelling which was excised and found histologically to be a schwannoma. A succinct review of the relevant literature is presented.

  17. Temporal fossa intra-extracranial dumbbell schwannoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wong, Limy

    2012-02-01

    Intra-extracranial schwannomas arising unrelated to major cranial nerves are exceedingly rare neoplasms. We report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with a 9 month history of progressive temporal swelling which was excised and found histologically to be a schwannoma. A succinct review of the relevant literature is presented.

  18. Intra- and Extramedullary Dumbbell-Shaped Schwannoma of the Medulla Oblongata: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Ni, Ming; Liu, Wei-Ming; Jia, Wang; Jia, Gui-Jun; Zhang, Jun-Ting

    2017-02-01

    Brainstem intramedullary schwannomas (ISs) are extremely rare. Various theories have been suggested to explain its origin. It was first speculated that ISs arise from the region where the nerve roots lose their sheaths on penetrating the pia mater. Later, it was further predicted that ISs would contain both intra- and extramedullary parts and would be shaped like a dumbbell. However, no cases reported previously can support this assumption adequately. A 40-year-old woman presented with constant cervical pain, accompanied by progressive weakness of upper extremities and glove distribution numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a rare intra- and extramedullary dumbbell-shaped lesion of the medulla oblongata, which was partially removed via a midline suboccipital craniectomy. Histologic and immunohistochemical examinations confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Routine imaging performed 20 months after the initial resection revealed a regrowth of the intramedullary part, which was subsequently partially removed through a far-lateral approach, with symptoms alleviated. At 2-year follow-up, there continued to be no radiologic or clinical evidence of regrowth. To date and to our knowledge, there are only 16 reported cases of brainstem ISs, none of which contained both intra- and extramedullary components. We believe this is the first report of dumbbell schwannoma of the medulla oblongata with adequate radiologic evidence. The relevant literature is reviewed, and an assumption has been proposed that dumbbell or surfacing ISs arising near entry zones of sensory nerves, mixed cranial nerves, or ventral root may originate from the aberrant Schwann cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of the Retromolar Foramen in Dry Mandibles of South-Eastern Part of India: A Morphological Study with Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Salem, Abdel-Halim; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan

    2014-01-01

    The retromolar foramen (RMF) is a rare anatomical structure situated in the retromolar fossa behind the third molar tooth. When it is present, the foramen is connected with the mandibular canal and is believed to transmit neurovascular structures that provide accessory source to the mandibular molars and the buccal area. Reports from the literature show that the presence of RMF could pose a challenge in complete blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve during mandibular surgeries. We report the incidence of retromolar foramen from ninety-four dry mandibles of south-eastern part of Karnataka State, India. The foramen was observed in 11 mandibles out of 94 included in the study (11.7%). In three mandibles, the foramen was present bilaterally (3.2%) and in three it was on the left side (3.2%) and in five it was on the right side (5.3%). For the first time, we also measured the dimensions of the retromolar area and distance of the foramen from third molar tooth to understand its risks during the surgical extraction of the lower third molar tooth. A thorough review of the literature has also been done to compare the present findings with the studies reported from the various populations. PMID:25489487

  20. Intracranial schwannomas arising from cranial nerves: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmeet Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors arising from the cranial nerve sheath are common intracranial neoplasms, with only few articles describing their imaging characteristics. In this present study of four cases of schwannomas originating from the cranial nerves in the head region, we are discussing the radiological features on imaging with the clinical presentation and contrasting them with other differentials in their respective locations. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were done in these cases and correlated with clinical and biopsy findings.

  1. Obturator nerve schwannoma presenting as an adnexal mass: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, M.; Thurston, W.A.; Merchant, N. [The Toronto Hospital, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Murphy, K.J. [The Toronto Hospital, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-02-01

    Schwannomas are relatively common, benign nerve-sheath tumours. They arise most commonly from either cranial nerves or the dorsal root of spinal nerves. Schwannomas have also been reported to occur in peripheral nerve-root trunks, although this location is much less common. We report a case of a 45-year-old woman with a large pelvic mass originally believed to be an ovarian tumour. Following surgical excision, the tumour was found to be a schwannoma of the obturator nerve. To our knowledge, there are no reported cases of an obturator nerve schwannoma. The imaging features of schwannomas are reviewed. (author)

  2. Sciatica from a Foraminal Lumbar Root Schwannoma: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarush Rustagi

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes lumbar foraminal schwannoma as an unusual cause of radiculopathy, presenting clinically as a lumbar disc prolapse. The diagnosis was confirmed on MRI scan. Patient had complete symptomatic recovery following surgical enucleation of the tumour mass from the L5 nerve root. This case report is of particular interest as it highlights the diagnostic confusion, which is bound to arise, because the clinical presentation closely mimics a lumbar PID. This often leads to delay in diagnosis and “failure of conservative treatment.”

  3. Fourth Ventricular Schwannoma: Identical Clinicopathologic Features as Schwann Cell-Derived Schwannoma with Unique Etiopathologic Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany R. Hodges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case in the literature of fourth ventricular schwannoma. The etiology and natural history of intraventricular schwannomas is not well understood. A thorough review of potential etiopathogenic mechanisms is provided in this case report. Case Description. A 69-year-old man presented with an incidentally found fourth ventricular tumor during an evaluation for generalized weakness, gait instability, and memory disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a heterogeneously enhancing lesion in the fourth ventricle. A suboccipital craniotomy was performed to resect the lesion. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma (WHO grade I. Conclusions. Schwannomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraventricular tumors. Although the embryologic origins may be different from nerve sheath-derived schwannomas, the histologic, clinical, and natural history appear identical and thus should be managed similarly.

  4. Schwannoma originating from lower cranial nerves: report of 4 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kito, Akira; Maki, Hideki; Hattori, Kenichi; Noda, Tomoyuki; Wada, Kentaro

    2012-02-01

    Four cases of schwannoma originating from the lower cranial nerves are presented. Case 1 is a schwannoma of the vagus nerve in the parapharyngeal space. The operation was performed by the transcervical approach. Although the tumor capsule was not dissected from the vagus nerve, hoarseness and dysphagia happened transiently after the operation. Case 2 is a schwannoma in the jugular foramen. The operation was performed by the infralabyrinthine approach. Although only the intracapsular tumor was enucleated, facial palsy, hoarseness, dysphagia and paresis of the deltoid muscle occurred transiently after the operation. The patient's hearing had also slightly deteriorated. Case 3 is a dumbbell-typed schwannoma originating from the hypoglossal nerve. The hypoglossal canal was markedly enlarged by the tumor. As the hypoglossal nerves were embedded in the tumor, the tumor around the hypoglossal nerves was not resected. The tumor was significantly enlarged for a while after stereotactic irradiation. Case 4 is an intracranial cystic schwannoma originating from the IXth or Xth cranial nerves. The tumor was resected through the cerebello-medullary fissure. The tumor capsule attached to the brain stem was not removed. Hoarseness and dysphagia happened transiently after the operation. Cranial nerve palsy readily occurs after the removal of the schwannoma originating from the lower cranial nerves. Mechanical injury caused by retraction, extension and compression of the nerve and heat injury during the drilling of the petrous bone should be cautiously avoided.

  5. Mental foramen and lingual vascular canals of mandible on MDCT images: anatomical study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direk, Filiz; Uysal, Ismihan Ilknur; Kivrak, Ali Sami; Fazliogullari, Zeliha; Unver Dogan, Nadire; Karabulut, Ahmet Kagan

    2018-03-01

    The mental foramen and lingual vascular canals are related to vessels and nerves in the mandibular body. The aim of the present study was to determine the number and location of these structures and to make measurements of them. The archived Multidetector Computed Tomography images of 100 adult (15- to 70-year-old) patients were evaluated retrospectively. The diameters of the mental foramens and their distances from the front, back, upper and lower reference points were measured. The distribution of mental foramens with respect to the teeth was also researched. The presence of lingual vascular canals, and the number of median and lateral canals was determined, and the length of the median lingual vascular canals measured. All measurement parameters were analyzed by gender, side and age group. Eleven patients demonstrated a total of 15 accessory mental foramen. Median lingual vascular canals were observed in 100% of cases, with lateral lingual vascular canals determined in 32%. Significant differences were observed in the results of different gender groups (P mental foramen was determined mostly in males, and unilaterally on the right side; also, the distances of mental foramen, except the distance from the back border of the mandible (P mental foramen, as well as the presence, position and size of lingual vascular canals can be clearly investigated by multidetector computed tomography. A preoperative knowledge of the positions of neurovascular and bone structures is very important for preventing complications that may occur during or after operations.

  6. [Video-nystagmography and vibration test in the diagnosis of vestibular schwannoma. Review of 100 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Négrevergne, M; Ribeiro, S; Moraes, C L; Maunsell, R; Morata, G Celis; Darrouzet, V

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate informations given by the combination of videonystagmography (VNG) including vibratory tests and auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in patients suffering vestibular schwannoma (VS) and try to find the most conclusive test(s). Combination of different functional tests is supposed to improve diagnosis and preoperative evaluation and precise indication for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facing audiological and vestibular symptoms. A prospective study of 100 patients with VS. All patients underwent a preoperative work-up including complete audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR) and videonystagmography (VNG). VNG protocol included caloric testing, rotatory tests, oculometry tests (saccade testing, optokinetic testing) and spontaneous and gaze-evoked nystagmus. From these six tests a score of positivity could be set, from 0 to 6. The vibratory test is non invasive and easy to realize. Were observed: 1/ a good sensitivity in vibratory test to elicit nystagmus in this context. 2/ a good correlation between subliminal rotatory chair tests and vibratory tests 3/ a better control of caloric testing using vibratory test. 4/ a good but deficient sensitivity of ABR alone with regard to VS (95%) 5/ an increase of sensitivity of VNG when coupling it with ABR and using as a criterion the score of positivity: no patient had all tests negative. The vibratory test is a non-invasive, fast examination with an easy execution. It reinforces VNG-ABR association screening power to diagnose VS. It constitutes, combined to caloric testing a good tool to diagnose and evaluate unilateral vestibular weakness.

  7. Patent Foramen Ovale in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease and Stroke: Case Presentations and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Razdan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD are at increased risk for stroke, the underlying pathophysiology is incompletely understood. Intracardiac shunting via a patent foramen ovale (PFO is associated with cryptogenic stroke in individuals without SCD. Recent evidence suggests that PFOs are associated with stroke in children with SCD, although the role of PFOs in adults with stroke and SCD is unknown. Here, we report 2 young adults with SCD, stroke, and PFOs. The first patient had hemoglobin SC and presented with a transient ischemic attack and a subsequent ischemic stroke. There was no evidence of cerebral vascular disease on imaging studies and the PFO was closed. The second patient had hemoglobin SS and two acute ischemic strokes. She had cerebral vascular disease with moyamoya in addition to a peripheral deep venous thrombosis (DVT. Chronic transfusion therapy was recommended, and the DVT was managed with warfarin. The PFO was not closed, and the patients' neurologic symptoms were stabilized. We review the literature on PFOs and stroke in SCD. Our cases and the literature review illustrate the dire need for further research to evaluate PFO as a potential risk factor for stroke in adults with SCD.

  8. CT and MR features of the intracranial Schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, So Lyung; Ro, Hee Jeong; Lee, Hong Jae; Jung, Seung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Yang, Il Kwon; Lee, Han Jin; Choi, Kyu Ho; Kim, Jong Woo; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate CT and MR findings of the intracranial schwannomas arising from variable cranial nerves. The authors retrospectively analyzed CT (n=21) and MR (n=15) findings of 24 cases in 23 patients (M : 7, F : 16) who had suffered from surgically-proven intracranial schwannomas over the previous five years. Schwannomas arose from the acoustic nerve(n=18), the trigeminal nerve(n=2), the glossopha-ryngeal-vagal-accessory nerve complex (n=2), and the olfactory nerve(n=1). Intracranial schwannomas were well defined, ,lobulated and inhomogeneously or homogeneously enhancing masses on CT and MR, and were located along the course of the specific cranial nerve. Acoustic schwannomas involved both the internal auditory canal(IAC) and the cerebellopontive angle(CPA) in 14 case, the IAC in three, and the SPA in two. Two trigeminal schwannomas involved both middle and posterior cranial fossa and were in the shape of a dumbbell. One of the two schwannomas that invelved lower cranial nerve complex(9-11th) was located in the medullary cistern and jugular foramen ; the other was located in the central posterior cranial fossa. A case of olfactory schwannoma was located in the right cribriform plate. The precontrast CT scan showed low density in 13 cases (62%), isodensity in seven(33%) and high density in one(5%). on postcontrast CT scan, enhancement was seen in 20 cases(95%). Of the 15 cases with MR, 2 had low signal intensity on T1 weighted image and 14 had high signal intensity on T2 weighted image. MR imaging after Gd-DTPA infusion showed enhancement in 14 cases. Enhancement was inhomogeneous in 14 cases on CT and in 13 on MR. Of 24 cases, intratumoral necrosis was seen in 19, ring enhancement in five and severe cystic change in one. Other findings were in tratumoral calcification (21%), hemorrhage(8%), pressure bony erosion(70.8%), midline shift(58%), peritumoral edema(29%) and hydrocephalus(33%). On MR, there was in all 15 cases a peritumoral low signal intensity rim on T1-and

  9. Long-term Hearing Preservation After Resection of Vestibular Schwannoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Syed F; Huq, Farhan; Seidman, Michael; Taylor, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    The objective is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on the long-term results of hearing preservation after vestibular schwannoma resection. Ovid/Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library from January 1980 to January 2015. Inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years, minimum 10 patients in the treatment group, hearing preserving microsurgery, no previous radiation treatment, serviceable hearing at immediate postop follow-up, hearing outcomes reported using Gardner Robinson or the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgeons hearing grading scales, and average follow-up of 5 years. Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and last follow-up audiograms were required. Exclusion criteria included neurofibromatosis type 2 patients and surgery for salvage therapy or decompression. Quality evaluated using Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies. Meta-analysis was performed using R v3.2.2, Metafor package v 1.9-7. Cohen's D was used to determine effect size. Ten reports had at least 5-year follow-up and used standardized hearing grading scales. The systematic review found that if hearing was preserved at Class A or B at early postop visit, the chance of preserving hearing at 5 years was excellent. Those who maintained speech discrimination score ≥ 89% at the early postoperative follow-up had better long-term hearing preservation. The meta-analysis reveals that only preoperative and postoperative pure-tone average was associated with long-term hearing preservation. Long-term (>5 yr) hearing durability rates are generally very good. Most studies do not report patient and tumor characteristics, therefore precluding combining studies for meta-analysis. Only preoperative and postoperative postoperative pure-tone average was associated with long-term hearing durability.

  10. Solitary eyelid schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu M Magdum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are rare benign tumors arising from Schwann cells of peripheral nerves that form the neural sheath. While there have been reports of such tumors in the orbit, solitary schwannomas arising from the eyelids are very rare. There are reports of schwannomas being erroneously diagnosed as chalazion, inclusion cysts or even eyelid malignancy. We are reporting a case of a 20-year-old female who presented with a painless, non-tender, slow-growing mass in the upper eyelid of the right eye. The external appearance of the mass was suggestive of an implantation cyst of the eyelid and it could be completely excised as it had a well-defined capsule. Histopathological examination showed characteristic hypercellular and hypocellular areas with fusiform nuclei that tended to form palisades. The purpose of reporting this case of schwannoma in a young female is to recommend the inclusion of this entity as a differential diagnosis of well-defined lid tumors.

  11. Angiogenesis in vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Werther, Kim; Nalla, Amarnadh

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are potent mediators of tumor angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that vestibular schwannoma VEGF expression correlates with tumor growth pattern, whereas knowledge on the expression of MMPs is lacking. This study...

  12. Anterolateral meningioma of the foramen magnum and high cervical spine presenting intradural and extradural growth in a child: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Alkinoos; Magras, Ioannis; Sarlis, Panagiotis; Spyridopoulos, Evangelos; Polyzoidis, Konstantinos

    2015-12-01

    We report a rare case of anterolateral meningioma of the foramen magnum (FMM) and high cervical spine presenting both intradural and extradural growth in a 7.5-year-old boy. We also performed a review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature. The patient presented with progressive tetraparesis and gait instability. Neuroimaging revealed an anterolateral tumor of the foramen magnum, C1 and C2 cervical spine level. The patient was treated in two stages: During the first operation, the extradural part was resected while the intradural part was removed in a second operation. Following the second operation, the patient showed almost complete neurological recovery as a result of cervical spinal cord and brainstem decompression but was complicated with cerebrospinal fluid leakage and infection by Acinetobacter. He sustained two further operations for dural sealing and external ventricular drainage and was treated with intraventricular administration of antibiotics. Histopathology of the tumor confirmed a meningotheliomatous meningioma. At the 6-month post-op follow-up examination, the patient exhibited complete neurological recovery and no radiological tumor recurrence. To the authors' best knowledge, we report the third case of sporadic pediatric meningioma of the foramen magnum and high cervical compartments with an extradural growth. Accurate pre-operative estimation of possible extradural growth is crucial towards surgical planning and sufficient treatment. Treatment of choice is total resection in a single operating session to avoid re-operations and increased risk of complications. If not possible, a re-operation should always attempt to secure the desired result.

  13. A giant cholesteatoma of the mastoid extending into the foramen magnum: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidu A Richard

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholesteatomas are very rare benign, progressive lesions that have embryologic derivation and usually result in progressive exfoliation and confinement of squamous epithelium behind an intact or preciously infected tympanic membrane. To the best of our understanding no reports demonstrates the extension of cholesteatoma from the temporal bone into the foramen magnum. We therefore present a case of cholesteatoma extending down into the foramen magnum. We report a case of 67- year-old man with a giant cholesteatoma extending into the foramen magnum without substantial destruction of the mastoid and petrous temporal bones. The patient’s major symptoms were recurrent tinnitus in the left ear and dizziness with unilateral conductive hearing loss. A working diagnosis of cholesteatomas was made combining the symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging findings. He was then successfully operated on with very minimal postoperative complications. Cholesteatomas originating from the mastoid bone often linger with the patients for many years in a subclinical state and progress into a massive size before causing symptoms. Patients with unilateral conductive hearing loss who are otherwise asymptomatic and have a normal tympanic membrane should be suspected with a progressive cholesteatoma. Cholesteatoma should be one of the working diagnosis when an elderly patient present with unilateral conductive hearing loss that is associated with tinnitus and dizziness.

  14. Incidental occurrence of an unusually large mastoid foramen on cone beam computed tomography and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Ali Z.; Sin, Cleo; Rios, Raquel [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States); Mupparapu, Mel [Div. of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine, Philadelphia(United States)

    2016-03-15

    The incidental finding of an enlarged mastoid foramen on the right posterior mastoid region of temporal bone is reported, together with a discussion of its clinical significance. A 67-year-old female underwent the pre-implant assessment of a maxillary left edentulous region. A cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) image was acquired and referred for consultation. Axial CBCT slices revealed a unilateral, well-defined, noncorticated, low-attenuation, transosseous defect posterior to the mastoid air cells in the right temporal bone. The borders of the osseous defect were smooth and continuous. No other radiographic signs suggestive of erosion or sclerosis were noted in the vicinity. The density within the defect was homogenous and consistent with a foramen and/or soft tissue. The patient's history and physical examination revealed no significant medical issues, and she was referred to a neuroradiologist for a second opinion. The diagnosis of an enlarged mastoid foramen was made and the patient was reassured.

  15. Incidental occurrence of an unusually large mastoid foramen on cone beam computed tomography and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, Ali Z.; Sin, Cleo; Rios, Raquel; Mupparapu, Mel

    2016-01-01

    The incidental finding of an enlarged mastoid foramen on the right posterior mastoid region of temporal bone is reported, together with a discussion of its clinical significance. A 67-year-old female underwent the pre-implant assessment of a maxillary left edentulous region. A cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) image was acquired and referred for consultation. Axial CBCT slices revealed a unilateral, well-defined, noncorticated, low-attenuation, transosseous defect posterior to the mastoid air cells in the right temporal bone. The borders of the osseous defect were smooth and continuous. No other radiographic signs suggestive of erosion or sclerosis were noted in the vicinity. The density within the defect was homogenous and consistent with a foramen and/or soft tissue. The patient's history and physical examination revealed no significant medical issues, and she was referred to a neuroradiologist for a second opinion. The diagnosis of an enlarged mastoid foramen was made and the patient was reassured

  16. Schwannoma of the sublingual gland: report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sook; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    Schwannoma, also referred to as neurilemmoma, is a solitary, benign and slow growing tumor of nerve sheath origin. This rare lesion originates from Schwann cell of peripheral, autonomic and cranial nerve. Extracranial neurogenic tumor of the head and neck is uncommon. Schwannoma of the salivary gland is a particularly rare form of an extracranial neurogenic tumor, with most presenting in the parotid gland originating from a peripheral branch of the facial nerve. In this report, an unusual case of schwannoma in the sublingual region is presented and the literature concerning this subject is reviewed.

  17. DIVIDED FORAMEN TRANSVERSARIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Suba; Reena; Ravi

    2013-01-01

    The cervical vertebrae are seven in number. They are the smallest of the vertebrae and can be identified by the presence of a foramen in each transverse process. The dorsal and ventral roots terminate laterally as dorsal and ventral tubercles. The roots are connected lateral to the foramen by an intertubercular lamella. The vertebral artery which arises from the superoposterior aspect of the first part of the subclavian ar...

  18. Sympathetic chain Schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mashat, Faisal M.

    2009-01-01

    Schwannomas are rare, benign, slowly growing tumors arising from Schwann cells that line nerve sheaths. Schwannomas arising from the cervical sympathetic chain are extremely rare. Here, we report a case of a 70-year-old man who presented with only an asymptomatic neck mass. Physical examination revealed a left sided Horner syndrome and a neck mass with transmitted pulsation and anterior displacement of the carotid artery. Computed tomography (CT) showed a well-defined non-enhancing mass with vascular displacement. The nerve of origin of this encapsulated tumor was the sympathetic chain. The tumor was excised completely intact. The pathologic diagnosis was Schwannoma (Antoni type A and Antoni type B). The patient has been well and free of tumor recurrence for 14 months with persistence of asymptomatic left sided Horner syndrome. The clinical, radiological and pathological evaluations, therapy and postoperative complications of this tumor are discussed. (author)

  19. Distinct spontaneous shrinkage of a sporadic vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaowen; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Stangerup, Sven-Eric

    2013-01-01

    on "shrinkage" or "negative growth" or "regression" or "involution" of the tumor were selected, and the contents on the rate, extent and mechanism of spontaneous tumor shrinkage were extracted and reviewed. The reported rate of spontaneous shrinkage of vestibular schwannoma is 5-10% of patients managed......We present a case with outspoken spontaneous vestibular schwannoma shrinkage and review the related literature. The patient was initially diagnosed with a left-sided, intrameatal vestibular schwannoma, which subsequently grew into the cerebello-pontine angle (CPA), followed by total shrinkage...... of the CPA component without any intervention over a 12-year observation period. The literature on spontaneous tumor shrinkage was retrieved by searching the subject terms "vestibular schwannoma, conservative management" in PubMed/MEDLINE database, without a time limit. Of the published data, the articles...

  20. Delivery of Therapeutic Proteins via Extracellular Vesicles: Review and Potential Treatments for Parkinson's Disease, Glioma, and Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Justin; Prabhakar, Shilpa; Balaj, Leonora; Lai, Charles P; Cerione, Richard A; Breakefield, Xandra O

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles present an attractive delivery vehicle for therapeutic proteins. They intrinsically contain many proteins which can provide information to other cells. Advantages include reduced immune reactivity, especially if derived from the same host, stability in biologic fluids, and ability to target uptake. Those from mesenchymal stem cells appear to be intrinsically therapeutic, while those from cancer cells promote tumor progression. Therapeutic proteins can be loaded into vesicles by overexpression in the donor cell, with oligomerization and membrane sequences increasing their loading. Examples of protein delivery for therapeutic benefit in pre-clinical models include delivery of: catalase for Parkinson's disease to reduce oxidative stress and thus help neurons to survive; prodrug activating enzymes which can convert a prodrug which crosses the blood-brain barrier into a toxic chemotherapeutic drug for schwannomas and gliomas; and the apoptosis-inducing enzyme, caspase-1 under a Schwann cell specific promoter for schwannoma. This therapeutic delivery strategy is novel and being explored for a number of diseases.

  1. Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8 th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed.

  2. Intracranial Epidural Haematoma following Surgical Removal of a Giant Lumbosacral Schwannoma: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemir, Jakob; Peterković, Vjerislav; Trninić, Ines; Domazet, Ivan; Barić, Hrvoje; Vukić, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Postoperative intracranial epidural haematoma (EDH) is an extremely rare complication following spinal surgery, with only a handful of cases described in the literature. We report the case of a 16-year-old girl who underwent a successful subtotal resection of a giant lumbosacral schwannoma (L2-S2 level). Recovery from general anaesthesia was uneventful; however, her neurological status deteriorated rapidly within 24 h after surgery. A head computed tomography scan revealed a large right frontoparietal EDH with midline shift. An immediate frontotemporoparietal osteoplastic craniotomy and evacuation of the EDH were performed. At 1 year postoperatively, the patient regained full neurological recovery with no radiological signs of growth of the residual tumour. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Deregulated genes in sporadic vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Holga Andrea; Stangerup, Sven-Eric

    2010-01-01

    In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology.......In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology....

  4. True incidence of vestibular schwannoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Tos, Mirko; Thomsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging.......The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging....

  5. Intratemporal and extratemporal facial nerve schwannoma: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keum Won [Pohang Medical Center, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Kyu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hae Kwan [Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    To analyze the characteristics of CT and MRI findings of facial nerve schwannoma in ten patients. Ten patients with pathologically confirmed facial nerve schwannoma, underwent physical and radilolgic examination. The latter involved MRI in all ten and CT scanning in six. We analyzed the location (epicenter), extent and number of involved segments of tumors, tuumor morphology, and changes in adjacent bony structures. The major symptoms of facial nerve schwannoma were facial nerve paralysis in seven cases and hearing loss in six. Epicenters were detected at the intraparotid portion in five cases, the intracanalicular portion in two, the cisternal portion in one, and the intratemporal portion in two. The segment most frequently involved was the mastoid (n=6), followed by the parotid (n=5), intracanalicular (n=4), cisternal (n=2), the labyrinthine/geniculate ganglion (n=2) and the tympanic segment (n=1). Tumors affected two segments of the facial nerve in eight cases, only one segment in one, and four continuous segments in one. Morphologically, tumors were ice-cream cone shaped in the cisternal segment tumor (1/1), cone shaped in intracanalicular tumors (2/2), oval shaped in geniculate ganglion tumors (1/1), club shaped in intraparotid tumors (5/5) and bead shaped in the diffuse-type tumor (1/1). Changes in adjacent bony structures involved widening of the stylomastoid foramen in intraparotid tumors (5/5), widening of the internal auditary canal in intracanalicular and cisternal tumors (3/3), bony erosion of the geniculate fossa in geniculate ganglion tumors (2/2), and widening of the facial nerve canal in intratemporal and intraparotid tumors (6/6). The characteristic location, shape and change in adjacent bony structures revealed by facial schwannomas on CT and MR examination lead to correct diagnosis.

  6. Intratemporal and extratemporal facial nerve schwannoma: CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keum Won; Lee, Ho Kyu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul; Cheong, Hae Kwan

    2001-01-01

    To analyze the characteristics of CT and MRI findings of facial nerve schwannoma in ten patients. Ten patients with pathologically confirmed facial nerve schwannoma, underwent physical and radilolgic examination. The latter involved MRI in all ten and CT scanning in six. We analyzed the location (epicenter), extent and number of involved segments of tumors, tuumor morphology, and changes in adjacent bony structures. The major symptoms of facial nerve schwannoma were facial nerve paralysis in seven cases and hearing loss in six. Epicenters were detected at the intraparotid portion in five cases, the intracanalicular portion in two, the cisternal portion in one, and the intratemporal portion in two. The segment most frequently involved was the mastoid (n=6), followed by the parotid (n=5), intracanalicular (n=4), cisternal (n=2), the labyrinthine/geniculate ganglion (n=2) and the tympanic segment (n=1). Tumors affected two segments of the facial nerve in eight cases, only one segment in one, and four continuous segments in one. Morphologically, tumors were ice-cream cone shaped in the cisternal segment tumor (1/1), cone shaped in intracanalicular tumors (2/2), oval shaped in geniculate ganglion tumors (1/1), club shaped in intraparotid tumors (5/5) and bead shaped in the diffuse-type tumor (1/1). Changes in adjacent bony structures involved widening of the stylomastoid foramen in intraparotid tumors (5/5), widening of the internal auditary canal in intracanalicular and cisternal tumors (3/3), bony erosion of the geniculate fossa in geniculate ganglion tumors (2/2), and widening of the facial nerve canal in intratemporal and intraparotid tumors (6/6). The characteristic location, shape and change in adjacent bony structures revealed by facial schwannomas on CT and MR examination lead to correct diagnosis

  7. Gastric schwannomas: radiological features with endoscopic and pathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, H.S. [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, H.K. [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr; Won, H.J.; Byun, J.H.; Shin, Y.M.; Kim, A.Y.; Kim, P.N.; Lee, M.-G. [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, G.H. [Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M.J. [Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Aim: To describe the radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of gastric schwannomas in 16 patients. Materials and methods: The radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of 16 surgically proven cases of gastric schwannoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) and four patients were evaluated with upper gastrointestinal series. Two radiologists reviewed the CT and upper gastrointestinal series images by consensus with regard to tumour size, contour, margin, and growth pattern, the presence or absence of ulcer, cystic change, and the CT enhancement pattern. Endoscopy was performed in eight of these 16 patients. Six patients underwent endoscopic ultrasonography. Pathological specimens were obtained from and reviewed in all 16 patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed for c-kit, CD34, smooth muscle actin, and S-100 protein. Results: On radiographic examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as submucosal tumours with the CT features of well-demarcated, homogeneous, and uncommonly ulcerated masses. Endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated homogeneous, submucosal masses contiguous with the muscularis propria in all six examined cases. On pathological examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as well-circumscribed and homogeneous tumours in the muscularis propria and consisted microscopically of interlacing bundles of spindle cells. Strong positivity for S-100 protein was demonstrated in all 16 cases on immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Gastric schwannomas appear as submucosal tumours of the stomach and have well-demarcated and homogeneous features on CT, endoscopic ultrasonography, and gross pathology. Immunohistochemistry consistently reveals positivity for S-100 protein in the tumours.

  8. Gastric schwannomas: radiological features with endoscopic and pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, H.S.; Ha, H.K.; Won, H.J.; Byun, J.H.; Shin, Y.M.; Kim, A.Y.; Kim, P.N.; Lee, M.-G.; Lee, G.H.; Kim, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To describe the radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of gastric schwannomas in 16 patients. Materials and methods: The radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of 16 surgically proven cases of gastric schwannoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) and four patients were evaluated with upper gastrointestinal series. Two radiologists reviewed the CT and upper gastrointestinal series images by consensus with regard to tumour size, contour, margin, and growth pattern, the presence or absence of ulcer, cystic change, and the CT enhancement pattern. Endoscopy was performed in eight of these 16 patients. Six patients underwent endoscopic ultrasonography. Pathological specimens were obtained from and reviewed in all 16 patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed for c-kit, CD34, smooth muscle actin, and S-100 protein. Results: On radiographic examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as submucosal tumours with the CT features of well-demarcated, homogeneous, and uncommonly ulcerated masses. Endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated homogeneous, submucosal masses contiguous with the muscularis propria in all six examined cases. On pathological examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as well-circumscribed and homogeneous tumours in the muscularis propria and consisted microscopically of interlacing bundles of spindle cells. Strong positivity for S-100 protein was demonstrated in all 16 cases on immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Gastric schwannomas appear as submucosal tumours of the stomach and have well-demarcated and homogeneous features on CT, endoscopic ultrasonography, and gross pathology. Immunohistochemistry consistently reveals positivity for S-100 protein in the tumours

  9. Patent foramen ovale, ischemic stroke and migraine: systematic review and stratified meta-analysis of association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel; Gregson, John; Willeit, Peter; Stephan, Blossom; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Observational data have reported associations between patent foramen ovale (PFO), cryptogenic stroke and migraine. However, randomized trials of PFO closure do not demonstrate a clear benefit either because the underlying association is weaker than previously suggested or because the trials were underpowered. In order to resolve the apparent discrepancy between observational data and randomized trials, we investigated associations between (1) migraine and ischemic stroke, (2) PFO and ischemic stroke, and (3) PFO and migraine. Eligibility criteria were consistent; including all studies with specifically defined exposures and outcomes unrestricted by language. We focused on studies at lowest risk of bias by stratifying analyses based on methodological design and quantified associations using fixed-effects meta-analysis models. We included 37 studies of 7,686 identified. Compared to reports in the literature as a whole, studies with population-based comparators showed weaker associations between migraine with aura and cryptogenic ischemic stroke in younger women (OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9-2.0; 1 study), PFO and ischemic stroke (HR 1.6; 95 CI 1.0-2.5; 2 studies; OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.9; 3 studies), or PFO and migraine (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.6-1.6; 1 study). It was not possible to look for interactions or effect modifiers. These results are limited by sources of bias within individual studies. The overall pairwise associations between PFO, cryptogenic ischemic stroke and migraine do not strongly suggest a causal role for PFO. Ongoing randomized trials of PFO closure may need larger numbers of participants to detect an overall beneficial effect. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Schwannoma of the Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are neoplasms originating from Schwann cells, which are the cells forming nerve sheaths. These neoplasms generally involve peripheral nerves. They rarely affect the gastrointestinal tract and primary colon involvement is extremely rare. The objective of the present paper was to present a case of primary schwannoma of the sigmoid colon, unassociated with von Recklinghausen disease, that was histopathologically confirmed by means of an immunohistochemical panel. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who had had rectal bleeding when evacuating, with pain and tenesmus, for 4 months. She underwent colonoscopy, which identified a raised submucous lesion of 2.8 cm in diameter, located in the sigmoid colon, 30 cm from the anal margin. During examination, loop polypectomy with lesion excision was performed. Histopathological evaluation showed that this was a tumor of stromal origin. Its resection margins were compromised by neoplasia, and colon resection by means of videolaparoscopy was indicated. Conventional histopathological examination using the hematoxylin-eosin technique suggested that the neoplasm was of mesenchymal origin. An immunohistochemical panel was run for etiological confirmation, using anti-CD34 antibodies, desmin, cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, cKit, chromogranin and S-100 protein. The panel showed intense immunoexpression of S-100 protein. Investigation of the proliferative activity rate using Ki-67 antibodies showed that there was a low rate of mitotic activity, thus confirming the diagnosis of primary benign schwannoma of the colon. The patient’s postoperative evolution was uneventful and she remains in good health, without signs of tumor recurrence, 15 months after surgical excision.

  11. Ancient schwannoma at the olfactory groove mimicking meningioma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin; Jeong, Hae Woong [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Schwannomas are benign slow-growing nerve sheath tumors, which can develop in any peripheral or central nerve that contains Schwann cells. Schwannomas located near the olfactory groove are extremely rare and radiological diagnosis can be difficult. Moreover, ancient schwannoma is an uncommon variant, and radiologic findings are rarely reported. Herein, we reported a surgically confirmed case of ancient schwannoma at the olfactory groove in a 44-year-old woman presenting with headache and visual disturbance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a solid and cystic extra-axial mass located in the subfrontal area mimicking an olfactory groove meningioma. Histopathologic diagnosis of ancient schwannoma was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for S100, CD56, vimentin, and other markers. Furthermore, we described the clinical manifestations, MRI characteristics, and histopathologic findings of the case, and presented a review of related literature.

  12. Schwannoma of the sigmoid colon

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Yaz, Müjgan; Gündüz, Umut rıza

    2015-01-01

    Colonic schwannomas are very rare gastrointestinal tumours originating from Schwann cells, which form the neural sheath. Primary schwannomas of the lower gastrointestinal tract are very rare and usually benign in nature. However, if they are not surgically removed, malign degeneration can occur. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman who presented to our clinic with rectal bleeding and constipation. She underwent a lower gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. A mass subtotally obstructing the lum...

  13. Vulval schwannoma: A cytological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Subhashish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are the most common peripheral nerve sheath tumors, the frequent sites of involvement being the head and neck, the flexor aspect of the limbs, especially near the elbow, wrist, knee, and trunk. Involvement of the female genital tract is extremely rare. We present one such rare case of a solitary vulval schwannoma which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology in a 48 year-old female, and confirmed by histopathological examination.

  14. CT findings of adrenal schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.-M.; Lei, P.-F.; Chen, M.-N.; Lv, X.-F.; Ling, Y.-H.; Cai, P.-Q.; Gao, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the computed tomography (CT) imaging features of patients with adrenal schwannoma. Materials and methods: Eight cases of adrenal schwannoma confirmed by histopathology were included in this study. All eight patients had undergone multiphase CT examinations. The features of the adrenal schwannoma in the CT images were analysed retrospectively in detail, including size, shape, margin, radiodensity, calcification, and enhancement pattern. Results: There were six male and two female patients, with a median age of 44.5 years (range, 25–52 years). Two patients complained of right flank pain, and two with left upper abdominal discomfort, while the remaining patients were diagnosed by routine ultrasound examinations. On unenhanced CT images, all cases of adrenal schwannoma were well circumscribed, rounded or oval, heterogeneous masses with cystic components, with two cases exhibiting calcification, and three cases with septa. On enhanced CT images, all cases displayed mild heterogeneous enhancement of the tumour during the arterial phase, and progressive enhancement during the portal venous phase and equilibrium phase. Conclusion: Adrenal schwannoma commonly presents as a well-defined unilateral mass with cystic degeneration, septa, and a characteristic progressive contrast-enhancement pattern on multiphase enhanced scans. - Highlights: • Adrenal schwannomas were extremely rare, and eight cases' medical data of this disease were collected in this study. • They usually presented a well-defined unilateral mass with cystic degeneration and sepations. • They manifested characteristic progressive contrast enhancement pattern on enhanced CT images.

  15. Tongue schwannomas associated with neurofibromatosis type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harusachi Kanazawa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are typically solitary benign neural tumors; however, multiple lesions associated with the rare genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 have been reported in some cases. We present the case of a tongue schwannomas in a 36-year-old woman previously diagnosed with NF2 with bilateral vestibular schwannomas. To alleviate difficulties with swallowing, tongue nodular masses were surgically removed, and schwannoma was histologically diagnosed. Our patient represents the first case of histologically confirmed tongue schwannoma associated with NF2. This indicates that in patient with NF2, schwannoma may be detected in the oral cavity as well as in other parts of the body. Thus, careful clinical and histological examinations are warranted to identify schwannomas associated with NF2 even in the oral cavity. Keywords: Schwannoma, Tongue, Oral manifestation, Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2

  16. The prevalence of the ponticulus posticus (arcuate foramen) and its importance in the Goel-Harms procedure: meta-analysis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Robert E; Tanweer, Omar

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed published radiographic and cadaver series describing the incidence of the anatomical anomaly ponticulus posticus and discuss its relevance to C1 lateral mass screw (C1LMS) insertion. Online databases were searched for English-language articles describing the presence of ponticulus posticus in cadaver and radiographic studies. Forty-four reports describing 21,789 patients (n = 15,542) or bony/cadaver specimens (n = 6247) fulfilled inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis techniques were applied to estimate the prevalence of this anomaly. The overall prevalence of ponticulus posticus was 16.7%. The anomaly was identified in 18.8% of cadaver, 17.2% of computed tomographic, and 16.6% on radiographic studies. The anomaly composed a complete foramen in 9.3% of patients and was partial/incomplete in 8.7%. It was present bilaterally in 5.4% of cases and unilateral in 7.6%. There was no significant difference in prevalence between males (15.8%) and females (14.6%). Review of that literature demonstrated a dramatic increase in the number of patients treated with C1LMS through the posterior arch since first described in 2002, necessitating recognition of this anomaly when performing the Goel-Harms procedure. The atlantal anomaly ponticulus posticus is not rare, occurring in 16.7% of patients in radiographic and cadaver studies. This anomaly may give the false impression that the posterior arch of the atlas is of adequate size to accommodate a C1LMS and may lead to inadvertent vertebral artery injury. Careful assessment via preoperative multiplanar computed tomographic imaging should be performed before consideration of C1LMS implantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Patent foramen ovale closure vs medical therapy for stroke prevention: meta-analysis of randomized trials and review of heterogeneity in meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Jacob A; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Khairy, Paul; Silversides, Candice K; Gladstone, David J; O'Gara, Patrick T; Landzberg, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) might be a risk factor for unexplained ("cryptogenic") stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of transcatheter PFO closure compared with antithrombotic therapy for secondary prevention of cerebrovascular events among patients with cryptogenic stroke. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of MedLine and Embase (from inception to March 2013) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared transcatheter PFO closure with medical therapy in subjects with cryptogenic stroke. Data were independently extracted on trial conduct quality, baseline characteristics, efficacy, and safety events from published articles and appendices. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the composite of stroke or TIA, and adverse cardiovascular events including atrial fibrillation/flutter were constructed. Three RCTs of 2303 subjects with previous stroke, TIA, or systemic arterial embolism (mean age, 45.7 years; 47.3% women; mean follow-up, 2.6 years) were included. PFO closure did not significantly reduce the risk of recurrent stroke/TIA (3.7% vs 5.2%; RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.50-1.07; P = 0.10); however, an increased risk of incident atrial fibrillation/flutter was detected (3.8% vs 1.0%; RR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.95-6.89; P < 0.0001). No significant heterogeneity was detected for any end point among subgroups of patients stratified according to age, sex, index cardiovascular event, device type, interatrial shunt size, and presence of an atrial septal aneurysm (all P interactions ≥ 0.09). Meta-analysis of RCTs that assessed transcatheter PFO closure for secondary prevention of cerebrovascular events in subjects with cryptogenic stroke does not demonstrate benefit compared with antithrombotic therapy, and suggests potential risks. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the mastoid facial nerve canal mimicking a facial nerve schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew L; Bharatha, Aditya; Aviv, Richard I; Nedzelski, Julian; Chen, Joseph; Bilbao, Juan M; Wong, John; Saad, Reda; Symons, Sean P

    2009-07-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma of the skull base is a rare entity. Involvement of the temporal bone is particularly rare. We present an unusual case of progressive facial nerve paralysis with imaging and clinical findings most suggestive of a facial nerve schwannoma. The lesion was tubular in appearance, expanded the mastoid facial nerve canal, protruded out of the stylomastoid foramen, and enhanced homogeneously. The only unusual imaging feature was minor calcification within the tumor. Surgery revealed an irregular, cystic lesion. Pathology diagnosed a chondromyxoid fibroma involving the mastoid portion of the facial nerve canal, destroying the facial nerve.

  19. Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings of spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeo Ju; Park, In Suh; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Choi, Suk Jin; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Woo Chul; Han, Jun Gu; Cho, Soon Gu [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas with pathologic correlation and to determine whether these schwannomas share the imaging features of schwannomas in the peripheral nerves. The MRIs of 17 cases of pathologically proven spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas were reviewed retrospectively, and cystic changes, enhancement, and intratumoral hemorrhage of the tumors were evaluated. Imaging features known to be common findings of schwannoma in the peripheral nerves, such as encapsulation, the target sign, the fascicular sign, and visualization of entering or exiting nerve rootlets, were also evaluated. The histopathology of the tumors was correlated with the MRI findings. Cystic changes were detected in 14 cases by MRI and in 16 cases by pathology. The most common pattern of enhancement was a thick peripheral septal pattern (70.59%). Intratumoral hemorrhage was detected in four cases on MRI, but in all cases on pathology. Encapsulation was observed in all cases. The fascicular sign was seen in only four cases, and thickening of an exiting rootlet was visualized in one case. None of the cases showed the target sign. Spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas were typical encapsulated cystic tumors and had few imaging features of schwannomas in the peripheral nerves.

  20. Gastric Schwannoma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kye Ho; Jee, Keum Nahn

    2006-01-01

    Gastric Schwannoma is a rare benign intramural tumor arising from the stomach, and it accounts for only 0.1% of all the different kinds of gastric neoplasms, and it's less than 4% of all the benign gastric tumors. This tumor is very difficult to differentiate from the other mesenchymal tumors by the clinical, endoscopic and radiologic findings. In this study, we demonstrate the appearance of this tumor on endoscopic ultrasound and contrast-enhanced abdomen CT. We also show the histopathologic findings of a surgically confirmed gastric Schwannoma that was located in the proper muscle layer

  1. Retroperitoneal Schwannoma: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kalaycı

    2011-01-01

    Case Presentation. A 38-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency service with the complaints of progressive abdominal pain and nausea for the last 24 hours. Abdominal examination was compatible with acute abdomen. Acute appendicitis was diagnosed by CT. During CT evaluation, a round shaped soft-tissue mass at the retroperitoneal area inferior to the right kidney was detected, The mass was resected and histology revealed schwannoma. Conclusion. Rare tumoral lesions with benign course such as schwannoma can be detected incidentally.

  2. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage due to Spinal Cord Schwannoma Presenting Findings Mimicking Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Yin-Xi; Zhang, Qing; Song, Shui-Jiang; Liu, Zhi-Rong

    2016-08-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) of spinal origin is uncommon in clinical practice, and spinal schwannomas associated with SAH are even more rarely reported. We report an unusual case of spinal SAH mimicking meningitis with normal brain computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and negative CT angiography. Cerebrospinal fluid examination results were consistent with the manifestation of SAH. Spinal MRI performed subsequently showed an intradural extramedullary mass. The patient received surgery and was finally diagnosed with spinal cord schwannoma. A retrospective chart review of the patient was performed. We describe a case of SAH due to spinal cord schwannoma. Our case highlights the importance of careful history taking and complete evaluation. We emphasize that spinal causes should always be ruled out in patients with angionegative SAH and that schwannoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of SAH etiologies even though rare. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MR findings in intralabyrinthine schwannomas

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    Montague, Mary-Louise; Kishore, Ameet; Hadley, Donald M.; O' Reilly, Brian

    2002-05-01

    AIM: Intralabyrinthine schwannomas (ILS) are rare benign tumours. They are not always recognized on routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We aimed to study the clinical presentation and MRI findings in our patients with ILS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients with vestibular schwannomas treated at this center. RESULTS: Of 144 vestibular schwannomas studied at this centre, three patients had an ILS. The most common presenting symptoms were unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo. Two patients demonstrated a progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The third patient had a severe SNHL at presentation. MRI enhanced with contrast medium was positive in the two patients with progressive SNHL and negative in the patient with the severe SNHL. CONCLUSION: This series demonstrates the ability of MRI to identify schwannomas filling the labyrinth, and also its inability to identify extremely small ILS. It underlines the importance of sending the cristae of patients undergoing labyrinthectomy for presumed Meniere's disease for histological examination. Montague, M.-L. et al. (2002)

  4. MR findings in intralabyrinthine schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, Mary-Louise; Kishore, Ameet; Hadley, Donald M.; O'Reilly, Brian

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Intralabyrinthine schwannomas (ILS) are rare benign tumours. They are not always recognized on routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We aimed to study the clinical presentation and MRI findings in our patients with ILS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients with vestibular schwannomas treated at this center. RESULTS: Of 144 vestibular schwannomas studied at this centre, three patients had an ILS. The most common presenting symptoms were unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo. Two patients demonstrated a progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The third patient had a severe SNHL at presentation. MRI enhanced with contrast medium was positive in the two patients with progressive SNHL and negative in the patient with the severe SNHL. CONCLUSION: This series demonstrates the ability of MRI to identify schwannomas filling the labyrinth, and also its inability to identify extremely small ILS. It underlines the importance of sending the cristae of patients undergoing labyrinthectomy for presumed Meniere's disease for histological examination. Montague, M.-L. et al. (2002)

  5. Atypical Manifestation of Vestibular Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster, Guilherme

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vestibular schwannoma (also known as acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor whose cells are derived from Schwann sheaths, which commonly occurs from the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve. Furthermore, vestibular schwannomas account for ∼8% of intracranial tumors in adults and 80 to 90% of tumors of the cerebellopontine angle. Its symptoms are varied, but what stands out most is a unilateral sensorineural hearing loss, with a low index of speech recognition. Objective: Describe an atypical manifestation of vestibular schwannoma. Case Report: The 46-year-old woman had vertigo and binaural hearing loss and fullness, with ear, nose, and throat examination suggestive of cochlear injury. After 6 months, the patient developed worsening of symptoms and onset of right unilateral tinnitus. In further exams the signs of cochlear damage remained, except for the vestibular test (hyporeflexia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an expansive lesion in the right cerebellopontine angle. Discussion: This report warns about the atypical manifestations of vestibular schwannoma, which must always be remembered in investigating and diagnosing hearing loss.

  6. MR findings in intralabyrinthine schwannomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montague, Mary-Louise; Kishore, Ameet; Hadley, Donald M; O' Reilly, Brian

    2002-05-01

    AIM: Intralabyrinthine schwannomas (ILS) are rare benign tumours. They are not always recognized on routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We aimed to study the clinical presentation and MRI findings in our patients with ILS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients with vestibular schwannomas treated at this center. RESULTS: Of 144 vestibular schwannomas studied at this centre, three patients had an ILS. The most common presenting symptoms were unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo. Two patients demonstrated a progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The third patient had a severe SNHL at presentation. MRI enhanced with contrast medium was positive in the two patients with progressive SNHL and negative in the patient with the severe SNHL. CONCLUSION: This series demonstrates the ability of MRI to identify schwannomas filling the labyrinth, and also its inability to identify extremely small ILS. It underlines the importance of sending the cristae of patients undergoing labyrinthectomy for presumed Meniere's disease for histological examination. Montague, M.-L. et al. (2002)

  7. Reconstruction of the cranial base in surgery for jugular foramen tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramina, Ricardo; Maniglia, Joao J; Paschoal, Jorge R; Fernandes, Yvens B; Neto, Mauricio Coelho; Honorato, Donizeti C

    2005-04-01

    The surgical removal of a jugular foramen (JF) tumor presents the neurosurgeon with a complex management problem that requires an understanding of the natural history, diagnosis, surgical approaches, and postoperative complications. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is one of the most common complications of this surgery. Different surgical approaches and management concepts to avoid this complication have been described, mainly in the ear, nose, and throat literature. The purpose of this study was to review the results of CSF leakage prevention in a series of 66 patients with JF tumors operated on by a multidisciplinary cranial base team using a new technique for cranial base reconstruction. We retrospectively studied 66 patients who had JF tumors with intracranial extension and who underwent surgical treatment in our institutions from January 1987 to December 2001. Paragangliomas were the most frequent lesions, followed by schwannomas and meningiomas. All patients were operated on using the same multidisciplinary surgical approach (neurosurgeons and ear, nose, and throat surgeons). A surgical strategy for reconstruction of the cranial base using vascularized flaps was carried out. The closure of the surgical wound was performed in three layers. A specially developed myofascial flap (temporalis fascia, cervical fascia, and sternocleidomastoid muscle) associated to the inferior rotation of the posterior portion of the temporalis muscle was used to reconstruct the cranial base with vascularized flaps. In this series of 66 patients, postoperative CSF leakage developed in three cases. These patients presented with very large or recurrent tumors, and the postoperative CSF fistulae were surgically closed. The cosmetic result obtained with this reconstruction was classified as excellent or good in all patients. Our results compare favorably with those reported in the literature. The surgical strategy used for cranial base reconstruction presented in this article has

  8. AN INTERESTING CASE OF ANCIENT SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Schwannoma is a common benign tumour of nerve sheath. Degenerating type of schwannoma is called ancient schwannoma. Ancient schwannomas of scalp are rare and are often misdiagnosed as sebaceous cyst or dermoid cyst. CASE REPORT : We present a thirty two year old male presented with scalp swel ling of eight years duration. X - ray showed no intracranial extension. He underwent excision of the tumour and histopathology was reported as ancient schwannoma. DISCUSSION : Histopathologically , ancient schwannomas charecterised by cellular Antoni type A ar eas and less cellular Antoni type - B areas. 9 th , 7 th , 11 th , 5 th and 4 th cranial nerves are often affected and may be associated with multiple neuro fibramatosis (Von - Recklinghausen’s disease. Impact : Case is presented for its rarity and possible pre - operative misdiagnosis

  9. Schwannoma Originating From the Periphereral Intercostal Nerves

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    Yunus Aksoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are usually solitary, encapsulated, and asymptomatic, benign neurogenic tumors originating from the nerve sheath. Schwannomas rarely show malignant transformation, however, require close monitoring. They are primarily located in the thorax in the costovertebral sulcus, may rarely originate from peripheral intercostal nerves. Less than 10% of primary thoracic neurogenic tumors originate from the peripheral intercostal nerves. The main treatment and diagnosis of schwannomas are complete surgical resection. We report a rare case of a 40-year-old male with asymptomatic schwannoma originating from an intercostal nerve which was found incidentally on his chest X-ray and was treated with surgery.

  10. Epidemiology and natural history of vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2012-01-01

    This article describes various epidemiologic trends for vestibular schwannomas over the last 35 years, including a brief note on terminology. Additionally, it provides information on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing level following the diagnosis of a vestibular schwannoma. A treatm......This article describes various epidemiologic trends for vestibular schwannomas over the last 35 years, including a brief note on terminology. Additionally, it provides information on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing level following the diagnosis of a vestibular schwannoma...

  11. Collision tumor of the facial nerve: a synchronous seventh nerve schwannoma and neurofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Brian C; Carlson, Matthew L; Driscoll, Colin L; Moore, Eric J

    2012-10-01

    To report a novel case of a collision tumor involving an intraparotid neurofibroma and a mastoid segment facial nerve schwannoma. Clinical capsule report. Tertiary academic referral center. A 29-year-old woman with a 2-year history of an asymptomatic enlarging left infraauricular mass and normal FN function presented to a tertiary care referral center. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a cystic lesion in the deep portion of the parotid gland extending into the stylomastoid foramen. The patient underwent superficial parotidectomy, and a cystic parotid mass was found to be intrinsic to the intraparotid facial nerve. A portion of the mass was biopsied, and intraoperative frozen section pathology was consistent with a neurofibroma. A mastoidectomy with FN decompression was then performed until a normal-appearing segment was identified just proximal to the second genu. After biopsy, proximal facial nerve stimulation failed to elicit evoked motor potentials, and en bloc resection was performed. Final pathology demonstrated a schwannoma involving the mastoid segment and a neurofibroma involving the proximal intraparotid facial nerve. We report the first case of a facial nerve collision tumor involving an intraparotid neurofibroma and a mastoid segment facial nerve schwannoma. Benign FN sheath tumors of the parotid gland are rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass.

  12. Echocardiographic Follow-Up of Patent Foramen Ovale and the Factors Affecting Spontaneous Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ali; Aydin, Alperen; Demir, Tevfik; Aydin, Fatma; Ucar, Birsen; Kilic, Zubeyir

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the echocardiographic follow-up of patent foramen ovale, which is considered a potential etiological factor in various diseases, and to determine the factors affecting spontaneous closure. Between January 2000 and June 2012, records of 918 patients with patent foramen ovale were retrospectively reviewed. Patency of less than 3 mm around the fossa ovalis is called patent foramen ovale. Patients with cyanotic congenital heart diseases, severe heart valve disorders and severe hemodynamic left to right shunts were excluded from the study. The patients were divided into three groups based on age; 1 day-1 month in group 1, 1 month-12 months in group 2, and more than 12 months in group 3. Of the 918 patients, 564 (61.4%) had spontaneous closure, 328 (35.8%) had patent foramen ovale continued, 15 (1.6%) patients had patent foramen ovale enlarged to 3-5 mm, 6 patients were enlarged to 5-8 mm, and in one patient patent foramen ovale reached to more than 8 mm size. Defect was spontaneously closed in 65.9% of the patients in group 1, 66.7% of the patients in group 2, and 52.3% of the patients in group 3. There was a negative correlation between the age of diagnosis and spontaneous closure (p patent ductus arteriosus and atrial septal aneurysm did not have any effect on spontaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (p > 0.05). However, ventricular septal defect and spontaneous closure of patent foramen ovale had a positive correlation (p closure rate of patent foramen ovale is high. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between spontaneous closure of patent foramen ovale with early diagnosis and small defect size.

  13. Stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muzevic, Dario; Legcevic, Jelena; Splavski, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas) are common benign tumours that arise from the Schwann cells of the vestibular nerve. Management options include observation with neuroradiological follow-up, microsurgical resection and stereotactic radiotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To assess...... the effect of stereotactic radiotherapy compared to observation, microsurgical resection, any other treatment modality, or a combination of two or more of the above approaches for vestibular schwannoma. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL......; Web of Science; CAB Abstracts; ISRCTN and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 24 July 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) exploring the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy compared with observation alone, microsurgical...

  14. Schwannoma of the adrenal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anunayi Jeshtadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral schwannomas are extremely rare and are usually discov-ered incidentally on USG/CT-Scan. Primary schwannomas of the adrenal gland are extremely uncommon. It has been theorized that they originate from Schwann cells that insulate the nerve fi-bers innervating the adrenal medulla. Histopathological examina-tion coupled with immunohistochemistry provides the definitive diagnosis. A 55 year old normotensive female presented with pain in the right loin since 5 months. Her renal parameters were normal. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen showed a well delineated 6.5 x 5cms mass at upper pole of her right kidney. 24-hour urinary metanephrine was slightly elevated (3.07mg/24hrs. A decline in Serum cortisol levels was observed following a dexamethasone suppression test (18.89nmol/l. Histopathological examination revealed a spindle cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed strong and diffuse positive staining for S-100 with negative expression for CD-117, desmin, CD-34, HMB-45, synaptophysin, chromogranin, cytokeratin, and SMA. Ki-67 index was 2%.A diagnosis of cellular schwannoma of adrenal gland was confirmed.

  15. A rare adrenal incidentaloma: adrenal schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adas, Mine; Ozulker, Filiz; Adas, Gokhan; Koc, Bora; Ozulker, Tamer; Sahin, Ilknur Mansuroglu

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal schwannoma is an extremely uncommon cause of incidentaloma. It originates from neural sheath Schwann cells of the adrenal gland. We report the case of a left adrenal schwannoma incidentally discovered in a 32-year-old woman during examination of bloated feeling and stomach ache. The patient was incidentally found to have a left adrenal mass of 9 cm on abdominal ultrasonography. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) were also performed. Metabolic evaluation was unremarkable. Due to the large size of the tumor, left adrenalectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histological examination established the diagnosis of schwannoma. This diagnosis was supported by immunohistochemistry of S-100 and vimentin positivity. In conclusion, adrenal schwannoma is an extremely rare entity and can grow considerably in size. The present case report emphasizes that clinicians should be aware of the possibility of retroperitoneal schwannoma. Total excision of benign schwannoma is associated with a favorable outcome. To our knowledge, there are case reports of schwannoma with CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings in the literature, although this is the first schwannoma case with PET-CT imaging.

  16. Improved results for vestibular schwannoma radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flickinger, J C; Kondziolka, D; Pollock, B; Lunsford, L D

    1995-07-01

    PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Treatment techniques in radiosurgery have changed since 1987. We reviewed patients who received radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma to identify these changes and to investigate any differences in tumor control and complications. MATERIALS and METHODS: One hundred thirty-eight unilateral vestibular schwannoma patients with a minimum follow-up of two years after treatment with gamma knife radiosurgery between 1987 and 1992 were analyzed. The early treatment group consisted of 55 patients treated between 1987-1989 (median: tumor volume 3.63 cc, Dmin 18.1 Gy, Dmax 35.4 Gy, isocenters 2.3, follow-up 50.4 mos.). The later treatment group consisted of 83 patients treated between 1990-1992 (median: tumor volume 3.81 cc, Dmin 16.0 Gy, Dmax 31.6 Gy, isocenters 4.7, follow-up 35.8 mos.) RESULTS: Clinical tumor recurrence requiring surgical intervention occurred in one patient in each group. The overall actuarial clinical tumor control rate was 98%. Slight increases in tumor size (1 to 2 mm) were identified in five other patients not requiring intervention, because of no further tumor growth (n=4) or shrinkage (n=1). This led to an overall radiologic tumor control rate of 92% (not significantly different in either group). Compared to the early treatment group, the incidence of facial neuropathy (temporary or permanent) decreased in the later group (49% vs. 11%, p < 0.0001), as did trigeminal neuropathy (40% vs. 8%, p < 0.0001). Serviceable hearing preservation improved only slightly in the later group (27% vs. 40%, p = 0.70). CONCLUSION: We document a significant decrease in the morbidity of vestibular schwannoma radiosurgery over this time period with no decrease in the high rate of tumor control. This improvement is attributed to a) better conformal dose-planning with stereotactic MRI rather than CT, b) an increase in the number of isocenters used, and c) a reduction in the average dose administered by 2 Gy.

  17. Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guidelines on the Treatment of Adults With Vestibular Schwannomas: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jeffrey J; Kalkanis, Steven N; Ryken, Timothy C

    2018-02-01

    Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are uncommon lesions that are a substantial challenge to the neurosurgeons, otologists, and radiation oncologists who undertake their clinical management. A starting point to improving the current knowledge is to define the benchmarks of the current research studying VS management using evidence-based techniques in order to allow meaningful points of departure for future scientific and clinical research. To establish the best evidence-based management of VS, including initial otologic evaluation, imaging diagnosis, use of surgical techniques, assessment of tumor pathology, and the administration of radiation therapy. Multidisciplinary writing groups were identified to design questions, literature searches, and collection and classification of relevant findings. This information was then translated to recommendations based on the strength of the available literature. This guideline series yielded some level 2 recommendations and a greater number of level 3 recommendations directed at the management of VS. Importantly, in some cases, a number of well-designed questions and subsequent searches did not yield information that allowed creation of a meaningful and justifiable recommendation. This series of guidelines was constructed to assess the most current and clinically relevant evidence for the management of VS. They set a benchmark regarding the current evidence base for this type of tumor while also highlighting important key areas for future basic and clinical research, particularly on those topics for which no recommendations could be formulated.  The full guidelines can be found at: https://www.cns.org/guidelines/guidelines-management-patients-vestibular-schwannoma. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  18. A case of a massive mandibular schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannoma, a benign nerve sheath tumor is relatively rare in occurrence and even rarer in sites, such as jaw bones. There are only 45 reported cases of intraosseous schwannoma of the jaws reported in the literature. We report a rare case of mandibular schwannoma in a 50-year-old Indian male. The clinical features resembled that of a residual cyst, fibro-osseous lesion or an odontogenic tumor/cyst. Radiological differential diagnoses of ameloblastoma or odontogenic keratocyst was made based on the findings of the orthopantomogram. The lesion was examined histopathologically and a final diagnosis of schwannoma arising from the inferior alveolar nerve was made. The aim of this report is to add information to the existing sparse literature on intraosseous schwannomas of the jaw.

  19. Intracochlear Schwannoma: Diagnosis and Management

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    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schwannomas of the eighth cranial nerve are benign tumors that usually occur in the internal auditory canal or the cerebellopontine angle cistern. Rarely, these tumors may originate from the neural elements within the vestibule, cochlea, or semicircular canals and are called intralabyrinthine schwannomas. Intracochlear schwannomas (ICSs represent a small percentage of these tumors, and their diagnosis is based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Objectives To report the clinical and radiologic features and audiometric testing results of an ICS in a 48-year-old man after a 22-month follow-up period. Resumed Report A patient with an 8-year history of persistent tinnitus in his right ear, combined with ipsilateral progressive hearing loss and aural fullness. Audiometry revealed normal hearing in the left ear and a moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear, with decreased speech reception threshold and word recognition score, compared with the exam performed 5 years previously. MRI showed a small intracochlear nodular lesion in the modiolus, isointense on T1 with a high contrast enhancement on T1 postgadolinium images. During the follow-up period, there were no radiologic changes on imaging studies. Thus, a wait-and-scan policy was chosen as the lesion remained stable with no considerable growth and the patient still presents with residual hearing. Conclusions Once diagnosed, not all ICS patients require surgery. Treatment options for ICS include stereotactic radiotherapy and rescanning policy, depending on the tumor's size, evidence of the tumor's growth, degree of hearing loss, intractable vestibular symptoms, concern about the pathologic diagnosis, and the patient's other medical conditions.

  20. Clinical features and surgical treatment of cauda equina schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jun HUANG

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical features and surgical treatment method of cauda equina schwannoma.Methods Clinical symptoms,imaging characteristics and functional outcomes after surgical treatment of 32 patients with cauda equina schwannoma from June 2007 to March 2009 were retrospectively reviewed.Results Most patients(30 cases suffered lower extremity numbness/pain before operations and 18 of them suffered in both lower extremities.Physical examination showed bilateral nerve damage or unilateral multiple nerve damage in 25 cases.The initial symptom of 12 cases was simple lumbago.Ten cases were misdiagnosed as lumbar disc herniation.Six patients were scanned by computed tomography but none of them was diagnosed correctly.All the patients were definitely diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging(MRI,the typical appearance of the schwannoma was a round or ovoid mass with isointense or slightly hyperintense on T1-weighted images,while on T2-weighted images with heterogeneous hyperintense in 25 cases,slightly hyperintense in 2,and homogeneous hyperintense in 5.Gadolinium-enhanced MRI was performed in 13 patients,of whom 10 cases showed heterogeneous or annular enhancing.In all patients,the tumor was resected completely,the functional outcomes were satisfactory except one with a giant tumor,in whom the neurological symptom was aggravated,and no recurrence was found during a short-term follow-up.Conclusions The characteristic features of cauda equina schwannoma were lower extremities numbness/pain and bi-or unilateral polyradiculopathy in physical examination.MRI is helpful for early diagnosis and recommended as the first choice.Functional outcomes are satisfactory in patients with tumor completely resected.

  1. [A Case of Primary Schwannoma of the Urinary Bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Waku, Natsui; Kawai, Koji; Ikeda, Atsushi; Kimura, Tomokazu; Ishitsuka, Ryutaro; Kojima, Takahiro; Suetomi, Takahiro; Joraku, Akira; Miyazaki, Jun; Sakashita, Mai; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented with a bladder tumor. She was asymptomatic, and the tumor was incidentally detected with radiological imaging performed during treatment of cervical cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed a solitary submucosal tumor located in the anterior wall of the urinary bladder, with homogeneous contrast enhancement. Cystoscopy showed a submucosal tumor covered by normal mucosa. A paraganglioma was considered in the differential diagnosis, but symptoms suggesting hypercatecholaminemia were not apparent. Moreover, she did not have a family history or symptoms associated with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1). She underwent partial cystectomy with a preliminary diagnosis of submucosal bladder tumor. Histopathological diagnosis confirmed a schwannoma arising from the bladder wall. She was followed up without intravesical recurrence or metastases for 6 months. In the literature, only 12 cases of bladder schwannoma have been reported. There was no reported family history or symptoms associated with NF-1 in any of the cases. Although the number of cases is limited, literature review showed a favorable prognosis for bladder schwannoma with local tumor resection in patients without NF-1.

  2. Small vestibular schwannomas presenting with facial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espahbodi, Mana; Carlson, Matthew L; Fang, Te-Yung; Thompson, Reid C; Haynes, David S

    2014-06-01

    To describe the surgical management and convalescence of two patients presenting with severe facial nerve weakness associated with small intracanalicular vestibular schwannomas (VS). Retrospective review. Two adult female patients presenting with audiovestibular symptoms and subacute facial nerve paralysis (House-Brackmann Grade IV and V). In both cases, post-contrast T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enhancing lesion within the internal auditory canal without lateral extension beyond the fundus. Translabyrinthine exploration demonstrated vestibular nerve origin of tumor, extrinsic to the facial nerve, and frozen section pathology confirmed schwannoma. Gross total tumor resection with VIIth cranial nerve preservation and decompression of the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was performed. Both patients recovered full motor function between 6 and 8 months after surgery. Although rare, small VS may cause severe facial neuropathy, mimicking the presentation of facial nerve schwannomas and other less common pathologies. In the absence of labyrinthine extension on MRI, surgical exploration is the only reliable means of establishing a diagnosis. In the case of confirmed VS, early gross total resection with facial nerve preservation and labyrinthine segment decompression may afford full motor recovery-an outcome that cannot be achieved with facial nerve grafting.

  3. Endoscope-assisted resection of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Shimazu, Yousuke; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Date, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intraventricular cavernous angiomas are rare pathological entities, and those located at the foramen of Monro are even rarer. We herein present a case of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro that was successfully treated by neuroendoscope-assisted surgical removal, and review the relevant literature. Case presentation A 65-year-old woman had experienced headache and vomiting for 10?days before admission to another hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass at t...

  4. Arcuate foramen and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmark, O.; Gurdal, E.; Cavdar, S.; Ekinci, G.; Yildiz, E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study determines the degree of ossification of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane in dry bone, plane lateral cervical spine radiographs and computer tomography (CT). The average length, width and the area of the arcuate foramen were measured on dry bone and on cervical CT. Further, age, gender and complaints of the patients of shoulder and arm pain, neck pain, headache, vertigo, and lacrimation in relation to the presence of bony complete or incomplete arcuate foramen were evaluated. From February 2004 to January 2005 60 dry atlases were obtained from the Anatomy Department, University of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey and 416 lateral cervical spine radiographs were obtained from the Radiology department for neurological and orthopedic evaluations. Each complete arcuate foramen was calculated with the aid of Clemex Vision PE demo version computer program. Among the 60 dry atlases examined 7 (11.7%) had complete and 2 (3.3 %) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 416 plane lateral cervical spine radiographs examined, 30 (7.2%) had complete and 26 (6.25%) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 30 complete arcuate foramen 24 (80%) were females and 6 (20%) were males. The frequency of having a complete arcuate foramen in females was 8.45%, and in males it was 4.55%. Further, of the 26 incomplete arcuate foramen 20 (76.9%) were females and 6 (23.1%) were males. The frequency of having an incomplete arcuate foramen in females was 7%, and in males was 4.55%. The statistical evaluations showed that patients with complete arcuate foramen had significant complaints of shoulder-arm pain (p=0.0072), neck pain (p=0.0072) and vertigo (p=0.0598) compared to patients with incomplete arcuate foramen. The patients with complete arcuate foramen had a headache ratio of 12:30 and this ratio was 2:26 in patients with incomplete arcuate foramen and the difference between complete and incomplete arcuate foramen was statistically significant (p=0.0062). Further

  5. Obturator foramen dissection for excision of symptomatic transobturator mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, W Stuart; Kit, Laura Chang; Kaufman, Melissa R; Karram, Mickey; Bales, Gregory T; Dmochowski, Roger R

    2012-05-01

    Groin pain after transobturator synthetic mesh placement can be recalcitrant to conservative therapy and ultimately requires surgical excision. We describe our experiences with and technique of obturator foramen dissection for mesh excision. The records of 8 patients treated from 2005 to 2010, were reviewed. Obturator dissection was performed via a lateral groin incision over the inferior pubic ramus at the level of the obturator foramen, typically in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. Five patients had transobturator mid urethral sling surgery for stress urinary incontinence, 2 had mid urethral sling and trocar based anterior vaginal wall mesh kits with transobturator passage of mesh arms for stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse, and 1 had an anterior vaginal wall mesh kit for pelvic organ prolapse. Patients had 0 to 2 prior transvaginal mesh excisions before obturator surgery. All patients presented with intractable pain in the area of the obturator foramen and/or medial groin for which conservative treatment measures had failed. Six patients underwent concurrent vaginal and obturator dissection and 2 underwent obturator dissection alone. In all cases residual mesh (3 to 11 cm) was identified and excised from the obturator foramen. Mesh was closely associated to or traversing the adductor longus muscle and tendon with significant fibrous reaction in all cases. Postoperatively 5 patients were cured of pain and/or infection, and 3 reported no or some improvement at a mean followup of 6 months (range 1 to 12). Our experience suggests that surgical excision of residual mesh can alleviate many of the symptoms in many patients. In all cases mesh remnants were identified and removed, and typically involved neuromuscular structures adjacent to the obturator foramen. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Schwannoma in the vestibule and cochlea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susilawati, S. [Fatmawati Hospital, Jakarta (Indonesia). Department of Ear, Nose and Throat; Adler, J. [Sutherland Imaging Centre, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Fagan, P. [St Vincents Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW (Australia)

    1997-05-01

    Schwannoma of the vestibule or the cochlea is an unusual lesion. In the past, most examples have been found at autopsy or as unsuspected findings at surgery for vertigo. The symptoms of isolated labyrinthine schwannoma may be indistinguishable from advanced Meniere`s disease. Magnetic resonance imaging has led to pre-operative diagnosis in some cases. Two cases of schwannoma within the labyrinth from a series of 339 symptomatic acoustic tumours, are presented and the imaging findings are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Chordoma in the jugular foramen area: a review of 16 cases%颈静脉孔区脊索瘤16例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田凯兵; 王亮; 郝淑煜; 李达; 王科; 吴震; 张力伟; 张俊廷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analysis the clinical characteristics,surgical treatment and outcome of chordoma in the jugular foramen area.Methods The author retrospectively studied data from 16 patients with chordoma in the jugular foramen area who had undergone surgeries in the department of skullbase and brain stem of Beijing Tiantan Hospital between January 2006 and June 2011,and follow-up was performed through recheck in out-patient department,telephone and letter.Results There are 8 females and 8 males in this group and all of them underwent surgical procedures.The mean age is 39-year-old and the mean symptomatic history time was 18.3 months.The main clinical presentation is paralysis of the lower cranial nerves (Ⅸ,Ⅹ and Ⅺ,12 cases),6 patients also suffered from deficits in cranial nerve Ⅷ,other presentations are deficits in eyesight (4 cases),ataxia (3 cases),numbness of limbs (2 cases),facial paralysis (2 cases) and deficits of abducent nerve (1 case).Far lateral approach was used in 10 cases,retrosigmoidsuboccipital approach was used in 2 cases,infratemporal trans-tentorium of cerebellum approach in 2 cases and expanded middle cranial fossa approach in 2 cases.Gross total removal was achivevd in 5 cases,subtotal removal in 10 cases and partial resection 1 case.The pathologic type of 5 cases in this group is typical chordoma,and other 11 cases are chondroid chordoma.Follow-up revealed obvious improvement in 5 cases,permanent paralysis of the lower cranial nerves in 7 cases and facial paralysis in 1 case.Conclusions The main clinical presentation of patients with jugular foramen chordoma is paralysis of the lower cranial nerves and the main pathology of the chordoma in this area is chondroid type,choosing an appropriate approach and the protection of lower cranial nerve are important for a good prognosis.%目的 探讨颈静脉孔区脊索瘤的临床特点和手术疗效.方法 回顾性分析16例颈静脉孔区脊索瘤患者的临

  8. A Rare Case of Radiologically Not Distinguishable Coexistent Meningioma and Vestibular Schwannoma in the Cerebellopontine Angle – Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Grauvogel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The simultaneous occurrence of cerebellopontine angle (CPA meningioma and vestibular schwannoma (VS in the absence of neurofibromatosis type 2 or history of irradiation is very rare. We report a case with coexistent CPA meningioma and VS, which were radiologically not distinguishable in preoperative imaging. Case Description: A 46-year-old female presented with acute hearing loss, tinnitus and gait ataxia. Otorhinolaryngological diagnostic workup and imaging studies showed an intra- and extrameatal homogenous contrast enhancing lesion. The neuroradiological diagnosis was VS. The patient was operated via the retrosigmoid approach. Intraoperatively two distinct tumors were found: a small, mainly intrameatally located VS and a larger meningioma originating from the dura of the petrous bone. Both tumors were completely microsurgically removed. The patient experienced no new neurological deficit after surgery; particularly facial nerve function was completely preserved. Histopathological examination revealed a fibromatous meningioma and a VS, respectively. Conclusions: The coincidental occurrence of CPA meningioma and VS is very rare. Careful interpretation of imaging studies before surgery is crucial. Even such rare cases should be kept in mind when discussing the therapeutic options with the patient. More studies are needed for a better understanding of mechanisms leading to multiple tumor growth.

  9. Assessment of the Horizontal and Vertical Position of Mental Foramen in Indian Population in Terms of Age and Sex in Dentate Subjects by Pano-ramic Radiographs: A Retrospective Study with Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnami, Priyanka; Gupta, Deepak; Arora, Vishal; Bhalla, Saurabh; Kumar, Adarsh; Malik, Rashi

    2015-01-01

    To familiarize new criteria to access vertical position of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs. Furthermore, to determine and compare the position and symmetry of mental foramen in horizontal as well as in vertical plane in Indian population and to compare the results with those reported for other populations in the literature. Further gender differences in mental foramen position were also accessed to comment on the reliability of panoramic radiographs for sex determination. Methods and Material : Six hundred digital panoramic radiographs were selected and studied regarding the location and symmetry of mental foramen. They were also compared with the other studies in the literature. The method employed is similar to that described by Al Jasser and Nwoku for horizontal position and Fishal et al. for vertical position of mental foramen. Certain modifications were carried out in Fishal's criteria for vertical position assessment. Results : The commonest position of the mental foramen in horizontal plane was in line with the longitudinal axis of the second premolar (61.0%) while in vertical plane it was found to be located inferior to the apex of second premolar (72.2%). Conclusion : Mental foramen exists in different locations and possesses many variations. Hence, Individual, gender, age, race and assessing technique largely influence these variations. It suggests that the clinicians should carefully identify these anatomical landmarks, by analyzing all influencing factors, prior to their diagnostic or the other dental, surgical and implant operation.

  10. Vestibular Schwannoma or acoustic neuroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmatara M

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular schwannoma is the most common tumor of the posterior fossa of the skull. Patients referred with the primary otologic symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, imbalance, and the cranial nerve palsy. Thirty-three patients were operated and treated by a team of otolaryngologist and neurosurgeon, anudiometrist, and internist. Patients'chiefcomplaint was due to 94% hearing loss and 27% tinnitus. They scarcely complain of vertigo. If a patient refers with the palsy or paralysis of facial nerve preoperation, we must think of the facial nerve schwannoma or hemangioma or congential cholestoma or malignant metastases rather than acoustic neuroma. The best way for preoperative diagnosis is audiometry, ABR (Auditory Brain Response, and SDS (speech discrimination score with 90% success, but computer Tomography (CT scan and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Image are the valuable anatomic diagnostic radiographic devices. The best method of operation is translabirynthine approach (TLA, since it has the advantages such as an easy access to nerve paths and being the nearest path to CPA (Cerebellopontine Angle. Physicians ought to talk to patients about the importance of the microscopic surgery, surgical methods, and their probable diverse effects such as hearing loss, facial nerve palsy, and intracranial problems.

  11. Natural history of vestibular schwannomas and hearing loss in NF2 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, M; Bernardeschi, D; Sterkers, O; Kalamarides, M

    2015-07-13

    Bilateral vestibular schwannomas are the hallmark of neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), occurring in 95% of patients. These tumors are associated with significant morbidity due to hearing loss, tinnitus, imbalance and facial weakness. As radiosurgery and chemotherapy have been recently introduced in the treatment armamentarium in addition to surgery, a thorough evaluation of vestibular schwannoma natural history is mandatory to determine the role and timing of each treatment modality. An exhaustive review of the literature was performed using the PubMed database concerning the natural history of tumor growth and hearing loss in NF2 patients with vestibular schwannomas. Although some aspects of vestibular schwannoma natural history remain uncertain (pattern of tumor growth, mean tumor growth rate), factors influencing growth such as age at presentation and paracrine factors are well established. Studies focusing on the natural history of hearing have highlighted different patterns of hearing loss and the possible role of intralabyrinthine tumors. The polyclonality of vestibular schwannomas in NF2 was recently unveiled, giving a new perspective to their growth mechanisms. An uniform evaluation of tumor growth using volumetric evaluation and hearing with standard classifications will ensure the use of common endpoints and should improve the quality of clinical trials as well as foster comparison among studies while ensuring more consistency in decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety and efficacy of device closure for patent foramen ovale for secondary prevention of neurological events: Comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakeem, Abdul; Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos; Hacioglu, Yalcin; Uretsky, Barry F.; Gundogdu, Betul; Leesar, Massoud; Bailey, Steven R.; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Controversy persists regarding the management of patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing PFO closure with medical therapy. Methods and Results: A prospective protocol was developed and registered using the following data sources: PubMed, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, conference proceedings, and Internet-based resources of clinical trials. Primary analyses were performed using the intention-to-treat method. Three randomized trials comparing percutaneous PFO closure vs. medical therapy for secondary prevention of embolic neurological events formed the data set. Baseline characteristics were similar. During long-term follow-up, the pooled incidence of the primary endpoint (composite of stroke, death, or fatal stroke) was 3.4% in the PFO closure arm and 4.8% in the medical therapy group [risk-reduction (RR) 0.7 (0.48–1.06); p = 0.09]. The incidence of recurrent neurological events (secondary endpoint) was 1.7% for PFO closure and 2.7% for medical therapy [RR 0.66 (0.35–1.24), p = 0.19]. There was no difference in terms of death or adverse events between the two groups. Conclusions: While this meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials demonstrated no statistical significance in comparison to medical therapy, there was a trend towards overall improvement in outcomes in the PFO closure group

  13. Safety and efficacy of device closure for patent foramen ovale for secondary prevention of neurological events: Comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakeem, Abdul [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos [Citizens Memorial Hospital Heart and Vascular Institute, Bolivar, MO (United States); Hacioglu, Yalcin; Uretsky, Barry F.; Gundogdu, Betul [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Leesar, Massoud [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bailey, Steven R. [University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Cilingiroglu, Mehmet, E-mail: mcilingiroglu@yahoo.com [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Background: Controversy persists regarding the management of patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing PFO closure with medical therapy. Methods and Results: A prospective protocol was developed and registered using the following data sources: PubMed, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, conference proceedings, and Internet-based resources of clinical trials. Primary analyses were performed using the intention-to-treat method. Three randomized trials comparing percutaneous PFO closure vs. medical therapy for secondary prevention of embolic neurological events formed the data set. Baseline characteristics were similar. During long-term follow-up, the pooled incidence of the primary endpoint (composite of stroke, death, or fatal stroke) was 3.4% in the PFO closure arm and 4.8% in the medical therapy group [risk-reduction (RR) 0.7 (0.48–1.06); p = 0.09]. The incidence of recurrent neurological events (secondary endpoint) was 1.7% for PFO closure and 2.7% for medical therapy [RR 0.66 (0.35–1.24), p = 0.19]. There was no difference in terms of death or adverse events between the two groups. Conclusions: While this meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials demonstrated no statistical significance in comparison to medical therapy, there was a trend towards overall improvement in outcomes in the PFO closure group.

  14. Schwannoma of the stomach: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Yun, Yeung Geum; Yang, Kee Hwa

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of exogastric schwannoma of the stomach in 41-years-old male patient with papable mass in left upper abdomen. Upper Gl series revealed extrinsic compression on the greater curvature of the stomach. CT scan showed a low density mass attached to greater curvature of the stomach with inhomogeneous contrast enhancement in the mass lesion. The mass was removed by surgery, and confirmed pathologically as schwannoma arising from the stomach

  15. Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guidelines on Surgical Resection for the Treatment of Patients With Vestibular Schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipanayis, Constantinos G; Carlson, Matthew L; Link, Michael J; Rayan, Tarek A; Parish, John; Atkins, Tyler; Asher, Anthony L; Dunn, Ian F; Corrales, C Eduardo; Van Gompel, Jamie J; Sughrue, Michael; Olson, Jeffrey J

    2018-02-01

    What surgical approaches for vestibular schwannomas (VS) are best for complete resection and facial nerve (FN) preservation when serviceable hearing is present? There is insufficient evidence to support the superiority of either the middle fossa (MF) or the retrosigmoid (RS) approach for complete VS resection and FN preservation when serviceable hearing is present. Which surgical approach (RS or translabyrinthine [TL]) for VS is best for complete resection and FN preservation when serviceable hearing is not present? There is insufficient evidence to support the superiority of either the RS or the TL approach for complete VS resection and FN preservation when serviceable hearing is not present. Does VS size matter for facial and vestibulocochlear nerve preservation with surgical resection? Level 3: Patients with larger VS tumor size should be counseled about the greater than average risk of loss of serviceable hearing. Should small intracanalicular tumors (<1.5 cm) be surgically resected? There are insufficient data to support a firm recommendation that surgery be the primary treatment for this subclass of VSs. Is hearing preservation routinely possible with VS surgical resection when serviceable hearing is present? Level 3: Hearing preservation surgery via the MF or the RS approach may be attempted in patients with small tumor size (<1.5 cm) and good preoperative hearing. When should surgical resection be the initial treatment in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2)? There is insufficient evidence that surgical resection should be the initial treatment in patients with NF2. Does a multidisciplinary team, consisting of neurosurgery and neurotology, provides the best outcomes of complete resection and facial/vestibulocochlear nerve preservation for patients undergoing resection of VSs? There is insufficient evidence to support stating that a multidisciplinary team, usually consisting of a neurosurgeon and a neurotologist, provides superior outcomes compared

  16. MR imaging of spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: changes of intervertebral foramen and nerve root compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyung [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Young Soo [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate the factors affecting intervertebral foramen stenosis and nerve root compression in spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. We investigated 120 intervertebral foramina of 60 patients with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis who had undergone lumbar MRI. A retrospective review of their MR images revealed the degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis and causes of nerve root compression. The relationship between disk height diminution following spondylolysis and degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis was also evaluated. Forty eight of 60 patients showed a similar degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis, and in 12 patients the degree of stenosis was different. In 110 intervertebral foramina, stenosis of both the superior and inferior compartments of intervertebral foramina was demonstrated. In 37 of 120 cases (30.8%), stenosis was mild ; in 44 of 120 (36.7%) it was modcrate, and in 29 of 120 (24.2%) it was severe. Stenosis of the inferior compartment was demonstrated in ten of 120 intervertebral foramina (8.3%). Nerve root compression was caused by posterior bulging of the intervertebral disk (65/120), descent of the pedicle (51/120), an isthmic bony segment above the site of spondylolytic (44/120), a bony spur formed at a spondylolytic site (11/120), and fibrocartilaginous callus at a spondylolytic site (5/48). In all cases there was degenerative change of the intervertebral disk at the affected level. There was no relationship between degree of disk height diminution and degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis (p > 0.05). The degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis and causes of nerve root compression in spondylolytic spondylolisthesis are variable, and MRI demonstrates them precisely. There was no positive relationship between degree of nerve root compression at an intervertebral foramen and degree of spondylolysis and degeneration of an intervertebral foramen. The degree of nerve root compression is believed to be another criterion for describing

  17. MR imaging of spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: changes of intervertebral foramen and nerve root compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Young Soo

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the factors affecting intervertebral foramen stenosis and nerve root compression in spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. We investigated 120 intervertebral foramina of 60 patients with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis who had undergone lumbar MRI. A retrospective review of their MR images revealed the degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis and causes of nerve root compression. The relationship between disk height diminution following spondylolysis and degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis was also evaluated. Forty eight of 60 patients showed a similar degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis, and in 12 patients the degree of stenosis was different. In 110 intervertebral foramina, stenosis of both the superior and inferior compartments of intervertebral foramina was demonstrated. In 37 of 120 cases (30.8%), stenosis was mild ; in 44 of 120 (36.7%) it was modcrate, and in 29 of 120 (24.2%) it was severe. Stenosis of the inferior compartment was demonstrated in ten of 120 intervertebral foramina (8.3%). Nerve root compression was caused by posterior bulging of the intervertebral disk (65/120), descent of the pedicle (51/120), an isthmic bony segment above the site of spondylolytic (44/120), a bony spur formed at a spondylolytic site (11/120), and fibrocartilaginous callus at a spondylolytic site (5/48). In all cases there was degenerative change of the intervertebral disk at the affected level. There was no relationship between degree of disk height diminution and degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis (p > 0.05). The degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis and causes of nerve root compression in spondylolytic spondylolisthesis are variable, and MRI demonstrates them precisely. There was no positive relationship between degree of nerve root compression at an intervertebral foramen and degree of spondylolysis and degeneration of an intervertebral foramen. The degree of nerve root compression is believed to be another criterion for describing

  18. Naso-ethmoid schwannoma with intracranial extension: case report Schwannoma naso-etmoidal com extensão intracraniana: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Siqueira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Intranasal schwannomas are rare lesions, specially when they present with an intracranial extension. The fifth case in the medical literature of a naso-ethmoid schwannoma with extension into the anterior cranial fossa is presented. The magnetic resonance findings and the details of the combined intracranial / transfacial operative approach used are described. The possible origin and the clinical characteristics of this rare lesion are reviewed.Schwannomas intranasais são lesões raras, principalmente quando apresentam um extensão intracraniana. Estamos apresentando o quinto caso da literatura médica de um schwannoma naso-etmoidal com extensão para o interior da fossa craniana anterior. São descritos os achados da ressonância magnética e os detalhes da via de acesso cirúrgico combinada intracraniana/transfacial. A possível origem e as características clínicas dessa lesaõ rara são revistas.

  19. Audiovestibular Function Deficits in Vestibular Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin von Kirschbaum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vestibular schwannomas (VS are benign tumours of the vestibular nerve and can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, facial palsy, and brainstem compression. Audiovestibular diagnostic tests are essential for detection and treatment planning. Methods. Medline was used to perform a systematic literature review with regard to how audiovestibular test parameters correlate with symptoms, tumour size, and tumour location. Results. The auditory brainstem response can be used to diagnose retrocochlear lesions caused by VS. Since hearing loss correlates poorly with tumour size, a retrocochlear lesion is probably not the only cause for hearing loss. Also cochlear mechanisms seem to play a role. This can be revealed by abnormal otoacoustic emissions, despite normal ABR and new MRI techniques which have demonstrated endolymphatic hydrops of the inner ear. Caloric and head impulse tests show frequency specific dynamics and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials may help to identify the location of the tumour regarding the involved nerve parts. Conclusion. In order to preserve audiovestibular function in VS, it is important to stop the growth of the tumour and to avoid degenerative changes in the inner ear. A detailed neurotological workup helps to diagnose VS of all sizes and can also provide useful prognostic information.

  20. Foramen magnum position in bipedal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Kirk, E Christopher

    2013-11-01

    The anterior position of the human foramen magnum is often explained as an adaptation for maintaining balance of the head atop the cervical vertebral column during bipedalism and the assumption of orthograde trunk postures. Accordingly, the relative placement of the foramen magnum on the basicranium has been used to infer bipedal locomotion and hominin status for a number of Mio-Pliocene fossil taxa. Nonetheless, previous studies have struggled to validate the functional link between foramen magnum position and bipedal locomotion. Here, we test the hypothesis that an anteriorly positioned foramen magnum is related to bipedalism through a comparison of basicranial anatomy between bipeds and quadrupeds from three mammalian clades: marsupials, rodents and primates. Additionally, we examine whether strepsirrhine primates that habitually assume orthograde trunk postures exhibit more anteriorly positioned foramina magna compared with non-orthograde strepsirrhines. Our comparative data reveal that bipedal marsupials and rodents have foramina magna that are more anteriorly located than those of quadrupedal close relatives. The foramen magnum is also situated more anteriorly in orthograde strepsirrhines than in pronograde or antipronograde strepsirrhines. Among the primates sampled, humans exhibit the most anteriorly positioned foramina magna. The results of this analysis support the utility of foramen magnum position as an indicator of bipedal locomotion in fossil hominins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnostics and therapy of vestibular schwannomas – an interdisciplinary challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosahl, Steffen; Bohr, Christopher; Lell, Michael; Hamm, Klaus; Iro, Heinrich

    2017-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas (VS) expand slowly in the internal auditory canal, in the cerebellopontine angle, inside the cochlear and the labyrinth. Larger tumors can displace and compress the brainstem. With an annual incidence of 1:100,000 vestibular schwannoma represent 6–7% of all intracranial tumors. In the cerebellopontine angle they are by far the most neoplasm with 90% of all lesions located in this region. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), audiometry, and vestibular diagnostics are the mainstays of the clinical workup for patients harboring tumors. The first part of this paper delivers an overview of tumor stages, the most common grading scales for facial nerve function and hearing as well as a short introduction to the examination of vestibular function. Upholding or improving quality of life is the central concern in counseling and treating a patient with vestibular schwannoma. Preservation of neuronal function is essential and the management options – watchful waiting, microsurgery and stereotactic radiation – should be custom-tailored to the individual situation of the patient. Continuing interdisciplinary exchange is important to monitor treatment quality and to improve treatment results. Recently, several articles and reviews have been published on the topic of vestibular schwannoma. On the occasion of the 88th annual meeting of the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck surgery a special volume of the journal “HNO” will be printed. Hence this presentation has been designed to deviate from the traditional standard which commonly consists of a pure literature review. The current paper was conceptually woven around a series of interdisciplinary cases that outline examples for every stage of the disease that show characteristic results for management options to date. Systematic clinical decision pathways have been deduced from our experience and from results reported in the literature. These pathways are graphically outlined after

  2. Atypical presentations of retroperitoneal giant schwannomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Ozbir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are usually benign rare tumors that originating from Schwann cells of peripheral nerve sheaths. Presentation is generally varied and changed in a non-specific range from abdominal mass, flank pain to incidental findings. Herein we report 2 cases of retroperitoneal giant schwannomas with different clinical presentations, of whom one presented with vague abdominal pain, palpable abdominal mass for 4 years, swelling and bilateral hydronephrosis that caused by giant abdominal mass; the other one presented with right flank pain, rectal hemorrhage and lower extremities edema. Two patients were treated by complete surgical excision of masses. The histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis was reported as benign schwannoma. Both of patients are doing well and had no recurrence in 9 years and 28 months follow-up, respectively.

  3. EXTRACRANIAL HEAD AND NECK SCHWANNOMA: CASE REPORT

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    Ashok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schwannoma is a benign nerve sheath tumour composed of Schwan cells which normally produce the insulating myelin sheath covering peripheral nerves. Schwannoma is a homogenous tumour, consisting only of schwan cells. The tumour cells stay outside the nerve, but the tumour itself may either push the nerve aside or up against a bony structure there by producing nerve damage. They arise from peripheral, cranial and autonomic nerves and usually present as solitary well demarcated lesions. Extracranial Head and Neck schwannomas are rare tumours. They may produce secondary symptoms like nasal obstruction, dysphagia, and hoarseness of voice depending upon the location of the tumour. FNAC, Ultra sound, CT, MRI may be of limited help in the diagnosis. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Post operative histopa thological examination establishes the final diagnosis

  4. Epithelioid schwannoma of the skin displaying unique histopathological features: a teaching case giving rise to diagnostic difficulties on a morphological examination of a resected specimen, with a brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Kirishima, Mari; Hiraki, Tsubasa; Higashi, Michiyo; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Tanimoto, Akihide

    2017-01-19

    Epithelioid schwannoma as a rare variant poses a challenge to all pathologists, as this uncommon entity is extremely difficult to conclusively diagnose by morphological analyses on a resected sample alone owing to its unique histopathological features. However, few papers have described the detailed clinicopathological characteristics of epithelioid schwannoma. A 65-year-old female presented with a history of a flat and slightly elevated firm and tan plaque accompanied by occasional tenderness, measuring 10 × 8 mm, in the right joint of her hand 1 year before resection. A gross examination of a locally resected specimen revealed an encapsulated nodular lesion, yellow-whitish in color, partly filled with blood. A microscopic examination showed that the tumor predominantly consisted of a solid proliferation of epithelioid cells having mildly enlarged and round to partially spindled nuclei and abundant vacuolated or clear cytoplasm with very few mitotic figures and modest nuclear size variation, associated with focal hyalinized, cystic and hemorrhagic degeneration. This well-demarcated tumor was surrounded by dense, hyalinized and layered fibrocollagenous stroma. Immunohistochemically, these tumor cells were diffusely positive for S-100 protein and had a very low MIB-1 labeling index, and type IV collagen was strongly reactive with reduplicated basal lamina of them. We ultimately made a diagnosis of cutaneous epithelioid schwannoma. We should be aware that, since pathologists might misinterpret epithelioid schwannoma as other soft tissue tumors, including its malignant counterpart, a wide panel of immunohistochemical antibodies can be powerful supplementary tools for identifying a very rare entity of conventional schwannoma.

  5. The mandible and its foramen: anatomy, anthropology, embryology and resulting clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, M; Tomaszewska, I M; Lipska, W; Lis, G J; Tomaszewski, K A

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarise the knowledge about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen and also to highlight the most important clinical implications of the current studies regarding anaesthesia performed in the region of the mandible. An electronic journal search was undertaken to identify all the relevant studies published in English. The search included MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and years from 1950 to 2012. The subject search used a combination of controlled vocabulary and free text based on the search strategy for MEDLINE using key words: 'mandible', 'mandibular', 'foramen', 'anatomy', 'embryology', 'anthropology', and 'mental'. The reference lists of all the relevant studies and existing reviews were screened for additional relevant publications. Basing on relevant manuscripts, this short review about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen was written.

  6. Pontine extension of a tentorial schwannoma without cranial nerve involvement: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Urso Pietro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Intracranial schwannomas unrelated to the cranial nerves are uncommon. We report a new case of tentorial schwannoma unrelated to the cranial nerves, with extension into the pons. A literature review with discussion of the most relevant pathogenetic aspects is also performed. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian man was admitted with right-sided paresthesias and weakness of his upper and lower extremities. The neurological examination revealed right hemiparesis and hemi-hypoesthesia. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a cerebellopontine lesion, arising from the left free edge of the tentorium, and extending into his pons. A piecemeal removal was performed through a retrosigmoid approach. The lesion was not found to be associated with any cranial nerves. The histological examination revealed a schwannoma Antoni type A. His postoperative course was uneventful. At one year follow-up, the patient was neurologically intact and the magnetic resonance imaging of his brain performed at that time showed complete removal without signs of recurrence. Conclusion Tentorial schwannomas are rare clinical entities. Knowledge of their clinical, radiological and anatomical characteristics is very important for the correct diagnosis and management.

  7. The imaging manifestation of intracranial schwannomas not arising from cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Boning; Sun Gengxi; Liang Kangfu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To report 4 cases of operation-confirmed intracranial schwannomas not arising from cranial nerves, and to discuss the histogenesis and CT and MRI manifestation combining with the literature. Methods: CT and MRI findings of these 4 intracranial schwannomas were analyzed retrospectively and their pathologic characteristics were reviewed. Results: The tumors demonstrated low-iso mixed density with necrotic and cystic areas. Large degeneration even became the prominent characteristics on CT scan. Low-signal to iso-signal intensity on T 1 -weighted images and heterogeneous high-signal intensity on T 2 -weighted images were revealed. The solid portion and the wall of the tumors were moderately enhanced on enhanced CT and MRI scans. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections showed two corresponding histological patterns: Antoni Type A and Antoni Type B pattern. The tumor cells exhibited a strong positive staining pattern for s-100 protein. Conclusion: The imaging manifestations of these tumors were similar to that of cranial nerve schwannomas except that the former had higher cystic degeneration rate. We should take that diagnosis into consideration when the mass is not located on cranial nerve but its image feature resembles schwannomas

  8. THREE YEARS STUDY OF SCHWANNOMAS OF PERIPHERAL NERVES

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    Subha Dhua

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In this paper authors present three cases of schwannomas including a case of multiple schwannomas without the features of neurofibromatosis (NF. There was no family history of neurofibromatosis. All the patients underwent surgical excision and improved from the symptomatic lesions. Histopathology confirmed these lesions as schwannomas. The authors recommend surgery for symptomatic lesions. Asymptomatic tumours can be monitored. Regular follow up is essential as they may develop fresh lesions at any time. The relevant literature is discussed. • Malignant transformation of the schwannomas is rare and has poor prognosis. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of schwannomas. • We should distinguish between “ancient schwannoma” and malignant transformation of schwannoma since treatment and prognosis vary. • Imaging is not entirely reliable in differentiating benign from malignant peripheral nerve tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the patients underwent surgical excision and improved from the symptomatic lesions. Histopathology confirmed these lesions as schwannomas. The authors recommend surgery for symptomatic lesions. RESULTS The histopathological studies confirmed the lesion as Flexi Schwannoma and surgery was considered to be the best option. CONCLUSION Schwannomas and meningiomas are usually benign tumours curable by complete removal. They occur either as single sporadic tumors in otherwise healthy individuals in the fourth to sixth decades of life or as multiple tumours at an early age as part of the autosomal dominant genetic disorder neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2. The hallmark feature of NF2 is bilateral vestibular schwannomas. Multiplicity, a lobular growth pattern, and invasiveness are typical features of NF2 schwannomas. The diagnosis of NF2 is difficult in a group of heterogeneous and poorly defined patients who do not have BVSs but present with other features suggestive of NF2, namely (1 multiple

  9. Complications of Microsurgery of Vestibular Schwannoma

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    Jan Betka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to analyze complications of vestibular schwannoma (VS microsurgery. Material and Methods. A retrospective study was performed in 333 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma indicated for surgical treatment between January 1997 and December 2012. Postoperative complications were assessed immediately after VS surgery as well as during outpatient followup. Results. In all 333 patients microsurgical vestibular schwannoma (Koos grade 1: 12, grade 2: 34, grade 3: 62, and grade 4: 225 removal was performed. The main neurological complication was facial nerve dysfunction. The intermediate and poor function (HB III–VI was observed in 124 cases (45% immediately after surgery and in 104 cases (33% on the last followup. We encountered disordered vestibular compensation in 13%, permanent trigeminal nerve dysfunction in 1%, and transient lower cranial nerves (IX–XI deficit in 6%. Nonneurological complications included CSF leakage in 63% (lateral/medial variant: 99/1%, headache in 9%, and intracerebral hemorrhage in 5%. We did not encounter any case of meningitis. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates that despite the benefits of advanced high-tech equipment, refined microsurgical instruments, and highly developed neuroimaging technologies, there are still various and significant complications associated with vestibular schwannomas microsurgery.

  10. Cellular schwannoma arising from sigmoid mesocolon presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannomas are a type of peripheral nerve sheath tumors with clinically indolent behavior. Though, they can occur anywhere in body, the incidence in retroperitoneum, mediastinum, and pelvis is exceedingly rare. We present a case of a 58‑year‑old female with a massive twisted tumor arising from sigmoid mesocolon.

  11. Cellular Schwannoma Arising from Sigmoid Mesocolon Presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannomas are a type of peripheral nerve sheath tumors with clinically indolent behavior. Though, they can occur anywhere in body, the incidence in retroperitoneum, mediastinum, and pelvis is exceedingly rare. We present a case of a 58‑year‑old female with a massive twisted tumor arising from sigmoid mesocolon.

  12. Intralabyrinthine schwannoma shown by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.R.; Birzgalis, A.R.; Ramsden, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    Intralabyrinthine schwannomas are rare benign tumours which present with progressive or fluctuant audiovestibular symptoms and may mimic Menieres disease. The size and position of these lesions make preoperative diagnosis unusual and most are discovered incidentally at labyrinthectomy. A case is reported which was diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed at surgery. (orig.)

  13. Endoscope-assisted resection of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Shimazu, Yousuke; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Date, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Intraventricular cavernous angiomas are rare pathological entities, and those located at the foramen of Monro are even rarer. We herein present a case of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro that was successfully treated by neuroendoscope-assisted surgical removal, and review the relevant literature. A 65-year-old woman had experienced headache and vomiting for 10 days before admission to another hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass at the foramen of Monro, and obstructive hydrocephalus of both lateral ventricles. The patient was then referred to our hospital. Neurological examination on admission to our hospital showed memory disturbance (Mini-Mental State Examination 20/30) and wide-based gait. A cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro was diagnosed based on the typical popcorn-like appearance of the lesion on MRI. The lesion was completely removed by neuroendoscope-assisted transcortical surgery with the Viewsite Brain Access System (Vycor Medical Inc., Boca Raton, FL), leading to a reduction in the size of the ventricles. The resected mass was histologically confirmed to be cavernous angioma. The patient's symptoms resolved immediately and there were no postoperative complications. Minimally invasive neuroendoscope-assisted surgery was used to successfully treat a cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro.

  14. Prevalence of hydrocephalus in 157 patients with vestibular schwannoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogg, Jeffrey M.; Ahn, S.H.; Tung, G.A. [Rhode Island Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Reinert, S.E. [Rhode Island Hospital, Lifespan Medical Computing, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Noren, G. [Rhode Island Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Providence, Rhode Island (United States)

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hydrocephalus in patients with vestibular schwannoma. A second objective was to investigate possible etiologies for hydrocephalus in this population by attempting to correlate the incidence and severity of hydrocephalus with tumor volume and extent of fourth ventricular compression. The MRI examinations of 157 adult patients with vestibular schwannoma were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor size was quantified, and the presence of accompanying hydrocephalus was assessed, categorized as communicating type or non-communicating type and then rated as mild, moderate or severe (grades 1-3). Next, the degree of fourth ventricular distortion caused by tumor mass effect was evaluated and categorized as mild, moderate or severe (grades 1-3). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to test the relationships between tumor volume and (1) the extent of fourth ventricular effacement and (2) severity of hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus was present in 28/157 (18%) cases and was categorized as mild in 11/28 (39%), moderate in 15/28 (54%) and severe in 2/28 (7%). Communicating-type hydrocephalus was present in 17/28 (61%) and non-communicating type in 11/28 (39%). There was a positive correlation between the grade of non-communicating hydrocephalus and tumor volume (r=0.38; P<0.001) and between the severity of fourth ventricular compression and extent of hydrocephalus in this group(r=0.43; P<0.001). (orig.)

  15. Preoperative predictive factors for hearing preservation in vestibular schwannoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit; Piccirillo, Enrico; Jain, Yogesh; Augurio, Angela; Sanna, Mario

    2006-01-01

    We performed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the various predictive factors for postoperative hearing preservation in the surgical management of vestibular schwannoma. Of 792 patients operated on for vestibular schwannoma between April 1987 and July 2002, 107 were candidates for hearing preservation surgery. These patients were divided into group 1 (hearing preserved) and group 2 (hearing not preserved), and both of these groups were evaluated for age, sex, pure tone average, sound discrimination score, tumor size, and auditory brain stem response parameters. A corrected chi2 test and a corrected t-test were used for statistical analysis. Multiple regression analysis was further done to evaluate independent predictive factors, either alone or in combination. The results were evaluated by use of the modified Sanna classification and the guidelines of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS). Preoperative pure tone average and tumor size were the 2 predictive factors in our study. A Pearson correlation test showed that there was no multicollinearity between the factors. On multiple regression analysis by backward elimination of nonsignificant factors, we found that tumor size is an independent predictive factor for postoperative hearing. According to the modified Sanna classification, postoperative hearing was preserved in 11.2% of patients (equivalent to class A of AAO-HNS guidelines). In our series, preoperative pure tone average and tumor size were found to be predictors of postoperative hearing levels.

  16. Preoperative diffusion tensor imaging-fiber tracking for facial nerve identification in vestibular schwannoma: a systematic review on its evolution and current status with a pooled data analysis of surgical concordance rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savardekar, Amey R; Patra, Devi P; Thakur, Jai D; Narayan, Vinayak; Mohammed, Nasser; Bollam, Papireddy; Nanda, Anil

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Total tumor excision with the preservation of neurological function and quality of life is the goal of modern-day vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. Postoperative facial nerve (FN) paralysis is a devastating complication of VS surgery. Determining the course of the FN in relation to a VS preoperatively is invaluable to the neurosurgeon and is likely to enhance surgical safety with respect to FN function. Diffusion tensor imaging-fiber tracking (DTI-FT) technology is slowly gaining traction as a viable tool for preoperative FN visualization in patients with VS. METHODS A systematic review of the literature in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases was performed in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and those studies that preoperatively localized the FN in relation to a VS using the DTI-FT technique and verified those preoperative FN tracking results by using microscopic observation and electrophysiological monitoring during microsurgery were included. A pooled analysis of studies was performed to calculate the surgical concordance rate (accuracy) of DTI-FT technology for FN localization. RESULTS Fourteen studies included 234 VS patients (male/female ratio 1:1.4, age range 17-75 years) who had undergone preoperative DTI-FT for FN identification. The mean tumor size among the studies ranged from 29 to 41.3 mm. Preoperative DTI-FT could not visualize the FN tract in 8 patients (3.4%) and its findings could not be verified in 3 patients (1.2%), were verified but discordant in 18 patients (7.6%), and were verified and concordant in 205 patients (87.1%). CONCLUSIONS Preoperative DTI-FT for FN identification is a useful adjunct in the surgical planning for large VSs (> 2.5 cm). A pooled analysis showed that DTI-FT successfully identifies the complete FN course in 96.6% of VSs (226 of 234 cases) and that FN identification by DTI-FT is accurate in 90.6% of cases (205 of 226

  17. Transcatheter Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale: Devices and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Transcatheter closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) reduces the risk of recurrent cryptogenic stroke compared with medical therapy. PFO closure is a prophylactic procedure, and will not provide the patient with symptomatic improvement, except in cases of hypoxemia due to right-to-left shunt or possibly migraine headaches. Therefore, appropriate patient selection is critical, and procedural safety is paramount. Herein, we review key characteristics of the devices currently available for transcatheter PFO closure within the United States, and highlight key technical aspects of the PFO closure procedure that will maximize procedural success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Malignant transformation in a hybrid schwannoma/perineurioma: Addition to the spectrum of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Rekhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign nerve sheath tumors include schwannomas, neurofibromas and perineuriomas. The malignant counterpart of a nerve sheath tumor is designated as a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST. Lately, benign nerve sheath tumors comprising more than one component have been described, including hybrid schwannomas/perineuriomas. However, malignant transformation in a hybrid schwannoma/perineurioma has not been documented so far. Herein, we present a rare case of a young adult male who presented with a soft tissue mass in his right thigh that was excised elsewhere and submitted to us for histopathological review. One of the tissue sections displayed histopathological features of a hybrid schwannoma/perineurioma, including alternate arrangement of benign schwann and perineurial cells, reinforced with S100-P and epithelial membrane antigen positivity, respectively, along with low MIB1 and negative p53 immunostaining. The other two tissue sections showed a spindly sarcomatous tumor that was immunohistochemically positive for S100-P, CD34, p53 and exhibited high MIB1 (30-40%. Diagnosis of a MPNST arising in a hybrid schwannoma/perineurioma was made. This unusual case forms yet another addition to the spectrum of a MPNST.

  19. Longitudinal stress fracture: patterns of edema and the importance of the nutrient foramen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Joseph G.; Widman, David; Holsbeeck, Marnix van [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the MR appearances of six cases of longitudinal stress fracture of the lower extremity.Results. One fracture was in the femur and five were in the tibia. Four of the tibial fractures showed edema starting in the mid-tibia at the level of the nutrient foramen with the fracture on the anteromedial cortex. The other tibial fracture started at the nutrient foramen. Three fractures (two tibial and the femur fracture) showed eccentric marrow edema; all fractures showed either eccentric periosteal reaction or soft tissue edema.Conclusion. Primary diagnosis of longitudinal stress fracture is made by finding a vertical cleft on one or more axial images. Secondary signs of position of the nutrient foramen and patterns of edema may be useful. (orig.)

  20. Intracranial schwannoma presenting as a subfrontal tumor: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, P P; Zagzag, D; Benjamin, V

    1997-01-01

    Intracerebral schwannomas not associated with cranial nerves account for less than 1% of surgically treated schwannomas of the central and peripheral nervous system. Subfrontal schwannomas are extremely rare, with only 15 cases reported to date. A 33-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of progressive headaches and lethargy. Radiographic studies revealed a large subfrontal tumor thought to be a meningioma preoperatively. The patient underwent a craniotomy for resection of his tumor. Intraoperatively, a large extra-axial tumor arising from the floor of the left frontal fossa was encountered. Microscopic examination of the tumor revealed a schwannoma. Several theories on the possible origin of intracerebral schwannomas have been considered. Because of the age of the patient at presentation, many authors have postulated a developmental origin for these lesions. However, extra-axial schwannomas not associated with cranial nerves often present later in life, suggesting a different pathogenesis for this subgroup.

  1. Perineural tumor extension through the foramen ovale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, F.J.; Braun, I.F.; Jensen, M.E.; Nadel, L.

    1988-01-01

    The third division of the trigeminal nerve exists through the foramen ovale and supplies extensive superficial and deep facial structures. As such, it is a common route of perineural spread of head and neck tumors. Perineural tumor extension through basal foramina is well documented pathologically and has been described with multiple radiologic modalities. The authors present seven patients with transforaminal lesions evaluated with MR imaging. Clinical findings referable to the two dimensions of V 3 are correlated with the images. This paper focuses on the normal anatomy and pathologic findings in and around the foramen ovale

  2. Laryngeal schwannoma: a case report with emphasis on sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marquez Ferreira de, E-mail: luisronan@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, MG (Brazil); De Nicola, Harley; Yamasaki, Rosiane; Pedroso, Jose Eduardo; Brasil, Osiris de Oliveira Campones do; Yamashita, Helio [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina

    2014-05-15

    Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors composed of Schwann cells, which normally produce the insulating myelin sheath covering peripheral, cranial and autonomic nerves. Twenty-five to forty-five percent of all schwannomas occur in the head and neck region, but location of such tumors in the larynx is rarely observed. The present report is aimed at describing a clinical case of laryngeal schwannoma, with emphasis on sonographic findings. (author)

  3. Facial Nerve Schwannoma of the Cerebellopontine Angle: A Diagnostic Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Lassaletta, Luis; Roda, José María; Frutos, Remedios; Patrón, Mercedes; Gavilán, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Facial nerve schwannomas are rare lesions that may involve any segment of the facial nerve. Because of their rarity and the lack of a consistent clinical and radiological pattern, facial nerve schwannomas located at the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and internal auditory canal (IAC) represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. In this report, a case of a CPA/IAC facial nerve schwannoma is presented. Contemporary diagnosis and management of this rare lesion are analyzed.

  4. Communicating Hydrocephalus Associated with Small- to Medium-Sized Vestibular Schwannomas: Clinical Significance of the Tumor Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masaaki; Nakai, Tomoaki; Kohta, Masaaki; Kimura, Hidehito; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-10-01

    The etiology of hydrocephalus associated with the small- to medium-sized vestibular schwannomas is still controversial. We investigated tumor-specific factors related to the association of hydrocephalus with small- to medium-sized vestibular schwannomas. Among the 77 patients with vestibular schwannoma smaller than 30 mm, 9 patients demonstrated associated communicating hydrocephalus. Patient medical records, radiologic data, and histopathologic specimens were reviewed retrospectively. The age of the patients, and size, mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and histologic features of the tumors were compared with those of patients without hydrocephalus. The symptoms related to hydrocephalus improved in all patients after tumor removal. Both the mean size and ADC values exhibited a statistically significant difference between the tumors with and without hydrocephalus (P hydrocephalus. The increased tumor ADC value was considered to be the result of degenerative change and suggested the involvement of protein sloughing in the etiology of the associated hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M; Ginsberg, Lawrence E; Gidley, Paul W

    2014-08-01

    Background Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomography demonstrated filling and erosion of the stylomastoid foramen with a mass on the facial nerve. Postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a pleomorphic adenoma. Facial paralysis was thought to be caused by extrinsic nerve compression. Conclusions This case illustrates the difficulty of accurate preoperative diagnosis of a parotid gland mass and reinforces the concept that facial nerve paralysis in the context of salivary gland tumors may not always indicate malignancy.

  6. CT findings of esophageal schwannoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Ho; Ryu, Dae Shick; Eom, Dae Woon; Shin, Dong Rock; Choi, Soo Jung; Ahn, Jae Hong; Park, Man Soo; Yoo, Dong Kon [Gangneung Asan Hospital, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Esophageal schwannomas are a relative rare benign neoplasm that usually occurs in the upper esophagus, in the middle aged women. We report a case of a 67-year-old man with a lower esophageal schwannoma. This lesion was composed of homogenous density, iso-attenuating with the chest wall muscle on pre- and post-contrast chest computed tomography (CT). The CT findings of the esophageal schwannoma are similar to those of esophageal leiomyoma. Hense, esophageal schwannoma may be a differential diagnosis with esophageal leiomyoma.

  7. Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Characterisation of Gastric Schwannomas in 29 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Wu, Xiaojiang; Kreis, Martin E.; Yu, Zhen; Feng, Lijin; Chen, Chunqiu; Xu, Bin; Bu, Zhaode; Li, Ziyu; Ji, Jiafu

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas are tumors arising from the nervous system that also occur infrequently in the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly in the stomach. This report characterizes 29 patients with benign or malignant gastric schwannomas. Surgical data and clinical follow-up information were available for 28 cases with a median postoperative duration of 57 months. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of benign and malignant schwannomas were analysed. Four cases (13.7%) were histologically diagnosed with malignant schwannoma. All tumors were positive for S-100 and CD56 proteins, displaying a diffuse staining pattern. Vimentin was expressed in 100% cases and all schwannomas were negative for smooth muscle actin, c-kit, and HMB-45. A significant difference was observed between the group of benign and malignant schwannomas as regards recurrences and metastasis after complete resection (P = 0.015). The survival time of patients with benign schwannomas was longer than the malignant group (P = 0.013), so gastric malignant schwannomas have a potential for recurrence and metastasis, with subsequently short survival. Complete resection with an attempt to remove all tumor tissue with negative margins is of paramount importance in the management of gastric schwannomas, particularly when they turn out to be malignant. PMID:24688535

  8. Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Characterisation of Gastric Schwannomas in 29 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are tumors arising from the nervous system that also occur infrequently in the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly in the stomach. This report characterizes 29 patients with benign or malignant gastric schwannomas. Surgical data and clinical follow-up information were available for 28 cases with a median postoperative duration of 57 months. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of benign and malignant schwannomas were analysed. Four cases (13.7% were histologically diagnosed with malignant schwannoma. All tumors were positive for S-100 and CD56 proteins, displaying a diffuse staining pattern. Vimentin was expressed in 100% cases and all schwannomas were negative for smooth muscle actin, c-kit, and HMB-45. A significant difference was observed between the group of benign and malignant schwannomas as regards recurrences and metastasis after complete resection (P=0.015. The survival time of patients with benign schwannomas was longer than the malignant group (P=0.013, so gastric malignant schwannomas have a potential for recurrence and metastasis, with subsequently short survival. Complete resection with an attempt to remove all tumor tissue with negative margins is of paramount importance in the management of gastric schwannomas, particularly when they turn out to be malignant.

  9. Solitary Schwannoma in the breast: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yun Jung; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan; Kim, Soung Hee; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soo Hyun [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-08-15

    Schwannoma (neurilemoma) is a benign nerve tumor derived from the nerve sheath. The most common locations are the flexor surfaces of the extremities, and the head and the neck. Schwannoma of the breast is unusual. To our knowledge, few studies have reported the radiologic appearance of Schwannoma in the breast and there has been only one report from Korea (1-3). This tumor can be clinically and radiologically considered to be fibroadenoma, which is a common benign tumor of the breast. We describe the mammographic and sonographic findings of a case of Schwannoma in the breast.

  10. Anatomical structure of lingual foramen in cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Min Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether cone beam computed tomography can depict the distribution, position, frequency, relative vertical dimension, and the diameter of the lingual foramen and direction of lingual bone canal. Cone beam computed tomography of mandible was performed on 25 males and 25 females with no history of any orthodontic treatments or any other dental surgeries. A statistical comparison was done on the mean values of males and females. In the location and distribution of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was found in all subjects and lateral lingual foramen in 58%. In the lateral lingual foramen, bilateral type was found in 28% and unilateral type in 30%. In the number of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen had two foramina and lateral lingual foramen had one foramen, mostly. In the relative mean vertical dimension of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.03 ± 0.08, and both lateral lingual foramina was 0.20 ± 0.04. The mean diameter of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.9 mm ± 0.28, right lateral lingual foramen was 0.92 mm ± 0.23, and left lateral lingual foramen was 0.88 mm ± 0.27. The most frequent direction of the lingual bone canals, median lingual bone canal proceeded in anteroinferior direction and lateral lingual bone canal in anterosuperolateral direction. Cone beam computed tomography can be helpful for surgery and implantation on the mandibular area. Radiologist should be aware of this anatomical feature and its possible implications.

  11. Anatomical structure of lingual foramen in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Min Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-15

    To evaluate whether cone beam computed tomography can depict the distribution, position, frequency, relative vertical dimension, and the diameter of the lingual foramen and direction of lingual bone canal. Cone beam computed tomography of mandible was performed on 25 males and 25 females with no history of any orthodontic treatments or any other dental surgeries. A statistical comparison was done on the mean values of males and females. In the location and distribution of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was found in all subjects and lateral lingual foramen in 58%. In the lateral lingual foramen, bilateral type was found in 28% and unilateral type in 30%. In the number of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen had two foramina and lateral lingual foramen had one foramen, mostly. In the relative mean vertical dimension of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.03 {+-} 0.08, and both lateral lingual foramina was 0.20 {+-} 0.04. The mean diameter of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.9 mm {+-} 0.28, right lateral lingual foramen was 0.92 mm {+-} 0.23, and left lateral lingual foramen was 0.88 mm {+-} 0.27. The most frequent direction of the lingual bone canals, median lingual bone canal proceeded in anteroinferior direction and lateral lingual bone canal in anterosuperolateral direction. Cone beam computed tomography can be helpful for surgery and implantation on the mandibular area. Radiologist should be aware of this anatomical feature and its possible implications.

  12. Meningioma of Foramen Magnum Causing Drop Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mahore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old female presented with frequent episodes of falls without loss of consciousness. These episodes lasted for brief period followed by full neurological recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain showed foramen magnum meningioma encasing left vertebral artery. The patient had dramatic improvement after excision of the tumor.

  13. Retrospective Morphometric Analysis of the Infraorbital Foramen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... prevent the damage of the neurovascular structures during maxillofacial surgery ... Infraorbital nerve passes through infraorbital sulcus and infraorbital canal and extended to the skull via the infraorbital foramen (IOF).[1]. Infraorbital nerve block is used in regional ...... Trigeminal nerve peripheral branch.

  14. Congenital constriction of the foramen of Monro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marions, O.; Boethius, J.

    1986-01-01

    We report two cases of hydrocephalus in adults. The radiological investigations and direct inspection during surgery in one of the cases indicate that the hydrocephalus is caused in both cases by a benign stricture in the region of the foramen of Monro and that this constriction is congenital. This origin of hydrocephalus has not been reported previously in adults. (orig.)

  15. Retrospective Morphometric Analysis of the Infraorbital Foramen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of our study is to examine the morphometric characteristics of the infraorbital foramen (IOF) and its anatomic localization by using conebeam computerized tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: In our study, the anatomic characteristics of the IOF were identified by studying retrospectively the CBCT ...

  16. Complications of microsurgery of vestibular schwannoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Betka, J.; Zvěřina, E.; Balogová, Zuzana; Profant, Oliver; Skřivan, J.; Kraus, J.; Lisý, J.; Syka, Josef; Chovanec, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, May 28 (2014), s. 315952 ISSN 2314-6133 R&D Projects: GA MZd NT12459 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NT11543; GA MŠk(CZ) UNCE 204013; GA UK(CZ) SVV 266513; GA MŠk(CZ) Prvouk-P27/LF1/1 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : acoustic neurona surgery * tumor surgery * vestibular schwannomas Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.579, year: 2014

  17. Pelvic schwannoma in the right parametrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machairiotis N

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Machairiotis,4 Paul Zarogoulidis,3 Aikaterini Stylianaki,1 Eleni Karatrasoglou,4 Georgia Sotiropoulou,4 Alvin Floreskou,4 Eleana Chatzi,4 Athanasia Karamani,4 Georgia Liapi,5 Eleni Papakonstantinou,5 Nikolaos Katsikogiannis,1 Nikolaos Courcoutsakis,2 Christodoulos Machairiotis4 1Surgery Department, 2Radiology Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 3Pulmonary Department, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Obstetric Gynecology Department, 5Pathology Department, Thriasio General Hospital, Athens, Greece Abstract: Neurilemomas are benign usually encapsulated nerve sheath tumors derived from the Schwann cells. These tumors commonly arise from the cranial nerves as acoustic neurinomas but they are extremely rare in the pelvis and the retroperitoneal area (less than 0.5% of reported cases, unless they are combined with von Recklinghausen disease (type 1 neurofibromatosis. We report the case of a 58-year-old female with pelvic schwannoma, 6.5 × 5.5 cm in size, in the right parametrium. This is the first case reported in the literature. Based on the rarity of this tumor and in order to ensure optimum treatment and survival for our patient, we performed laparotomy with total abdominal hysterectomy and en-block tumor excision. A frozen section was taken during the surgery before complete resection of the mass, which was ambiguous. Because of the possibility of malignancy, complete excision of the mass was performed, with pelvic blunt dissection. Histological examination showed a benign neoplasm, originating from the cells of peripheral nerve sheaths; diagnosis was a schwannoma. There were degenerative areas, including cystic degeneration, hemorrhagic infiltrations, ischemic foci with pycnotic cells, and collagen replacement. Pelvic schwannomas are rare neoplasms that can be misdiagnosed. Laparoscopy is a safe

  18. Intraparenchymal schwannoma of the frontal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogaonkar M

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available A 45 year old woman with bifrontal headaches and progressive diminution in vision over 6 months was found to have bilateral papilloedema. CT scan showed large right frontal lesion with surrounding oedema. Right basal frontotemporal craniotomy was performed to excise the multinodular, intraparenchymatous tumor. Hispathology confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Post-operative course was uneventful with disappearance of pre-operative signs and symptoms.

  19. A Case Report of Schwannoma Presenting as Sciatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Afshar Fard

    2012-08-01

    The patient underwent operation and sciatic nerve explored via posterior tight and unique neural branch of mass dissociated of sciatic and mass resected. Pathology report confirmed Schwannoma in the patient. Conclusion: In patients with sciatic pain, schwannoma nerve is one of the differential diagnosis and it needs to be considered in assessing of patients.

  20. Molecular characterization of chromosome 22 deletions in schwannomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, E. K.; Brouwer-Mladin, R.; Bosch, D. A.; Westerveld, A.; Hulsebos, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    Schwannomas are tumors of the cranial, spinal, and peripheral nerve sheaths that originate from Schwann cells. Acoustic neurinomas are the most frequent cranial schwannomas. They might develop sporadically or in the context of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Loss of part or all of chromosome 22 is

  1. Malignant Transformation of Vagal Nerve Schwannoma in to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannomas are benign, rare peripheral nerve sheath tumors that occur in the head and neck region. Some physicians opt to closely observe cases of schwannoma of the neck on an outpatient basis rather than to perform radical surgery. However, there is a possibility, albeit rare, of malignant transformation of a benign ...

  2. Malignant Transformation of Vagal Nerve Schwannoma in to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vagal schwannomas are benign, rare peripheral nerve sheath tumors in the head and neck region. Some physicians opt to closely observe cases of schwannoma of the neck on an outpatient basis rather than to perform radical surgery. However, there is a possibility, albeit rare, of malignant transformation of a.

  3. Translabyrinthine surgery for disabling vertigo in vestibular schwannoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godefroy, W. P.; Hastan, D.; van der Mey, A. G. L.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the impact of translabyrinthine surgery on the quality of life in vestibular schwannoma patients with rotatory vertigo. Prospective study in 18 vestibular schwannoma patients. The study was conducted in a multispecialty tertiary care clinic. All 18 patients had a unilateral

  4. Long-term hearing preservation in vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Thomsen, Jens; Tos, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas.......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas....

  5. Tracheal schwannoma: Completely resected with therapeutic bronchoscopic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney Thomas Jesudason Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal schwannomas are rare benign tumors of the trachea. There are only a few reported cases in the literature. Surgeons have generally resected these tumors, whereas bronchoscopists have attempted to remove them bronchoscopically. We report a case of tracheal schwannoma which was completely resected using bronchoscopic techniques.

  6. Benign intramural schwannoma of the esophagus ? case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kozak, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Mateusz; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Kozak, J?zef

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas of the esophagus are rare peripheral nerve tumors. A 37-year-old woman with dysphagia was found to have an intramural tumor of the upper esophagus. The lesion was revealed on computed tomography. Endoscopic ultrasound biopsy was nondiagnostic. Through right thoracotomy, the mass was enucleated from the wall of the esophagus. Benign schwannoma was diagnosed only after immunological staining examination.

  7. Laparoscopic resection of an obturator schwannoma: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Ke; WANG Yu-mei; CHEN Jie

    2010-01-01

    @@ Schwannomas are usually benign tumors that arise from a nerve supporting the Schwann cells, those are mostly associated with the cranial or main peripheral nerves. The occurrence of retroperitoneal schwannoma is quite rare, and in such a case, surgical excision is the first option for treatment.

  8. Radiographic Localization of the Mental Foramen and Mandibular Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Afkhami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurately localizing the mental foramen and mandibular canal is important when administering local anesthesia and performing surgery; therefore, knowing the normal range of the possible locations is essential. Our purpose was to assess the location of the mental foramen and mandibular canal in an Iranian population using panoramic radiography.Materials and Methods: Standard panoramic radiographies were performed. The positions of 100 mental foramens were evaluated. The distances from the center of the mental foramen to the superior and inferior borders of the mandible and to the apexes of the first and second premolar were measured. The distance of the mental foramens from the mandibular midline and the diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection were also measured.Results: Among 100 mental foramens, 6% were positioned under the first premolar, 24% were between the first and second premolars, 67% were under the second premolar, and the remaining 3% were behind the second premolar. The mean distance from the mental foramen to the mandibular midline was 27.77±3.20 mm. The mean diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection was 3.09±0.69mm.Conclusion: The mental foramen was near the second premolar and the inferior border of the mandible. This information can be used to perform safer mental nerve blocks in surgical interventions.

  9. Patent Foramen Ovale: Is Stroke Due to Paradoxical Embolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranoux, D.; Cohen, A.; Cabanes, L.; Amarenco, P.; Bousser, M. G.; Mas, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Background and Purpose: A patent foramen ovale has been reported to be significantly more frequent in young stroke patients than in matched control subjects, and paradoxical embolism has been suggested as the main mechanism of stroke in-this situation. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods: Sixty-eight consecutive patients under 55 years of age presenting with an ischemic stroke had an extensive workup, including transesophageal echocardiography with contrast. We compared the prevalence of criteria for the diagnosis of paradoxical embolism in patients with and without a patent foramen ovale. Results: A patent foramen ovale was found in 32 patients (47%). A Valsalva-provoking activity was present at stroke onset in six patients with a patent foramen ovale and in eight patients with no patent foramen ovale (X(sup 2)=0.1, nonsignificant). Clinical/radiological features suggestive of an embolic mechanism were not more frequent in patients with a patent foramen ovale. Clinical evidence of deep vein thrombosis was present in one patient with a patent foramen ovale and in none of the others. No occult venous thrombosis was found in a subgroup of patients with a patent foramen ovale and no definite cause for stroke who underwent venography (n=13). Conclusions. Our results do not support the hypothesis that paradoxical embolism is the primary mechanism of stroke in patients with a patent foramen ovale. (Stroke 1993;24:31-34) KEY WORDS e cerebral ischemia e embolism foramen ovale, patent

  10. Linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: a UK series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benghiat, H; Heyes, G; Nightingale, P; Hartley, A; Tiffany, M; Spooner, D; Geh, J I; Cruickshank, G; Irving, R M; Sanghera, P

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate non-auditory toxicity and local control after linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of vestibular schwannomas. The institutional policy was to use SRS for radiologically progressing vestibular schwannomas. Case notes and plans were retrospectively reviewed for all patients undergoing SRS for vestibular schwannomas between September 2002 and June 2012. All patients were surgically immobilised using a BrainLab stereotactic head frame. The treatment plan was generated using BrainLab software (BrainScan 5.03). The aim was to deliver 12 Gy to the surface of the target with no margin. Patients with a minimum of 12 months of follow-up were included for toxicity and local control assessment. Radiological progression was defined as growth on imaging beyond 2 years of follow-up. Overall local control was defined in line with other series as absence of surgical salvage. Ninety-nine patients were identified. Two patients were lost to follow-up. After a median follow-up interval of 2.4 years, the actuarial radiological progression-free survival at 3 years was 100% and overall local control was also 100%. However, two patients progressed radiologically at 3.3 and 4.5 years, respectively. Twenty-one of 97 (22%) evaluable patients suffered trigeminal toxicity and this was persistent in 8/97 (8%). Two of 97 (2%) suffered long-term facial nerve toxicity (one with associated radiological progression causing hemi-facial spasm alone). One of 97 (1%) required intervention for obstructive hydrocephalus. No statistically significant dosimetric relationship could be shown to cause trigeminal or facial nerve toxicity. However, 7/8 patients with persistent trigeminal nerve toxicity had tumours in contact with the trigeminal nerve. SRS delivering 12 Gy using a linear accelerator leads to high local control rates, but only prospective evaluation will fully establish short-term toxicity. In this study, persistent trigeminal toxicity occurred almost

  11. Unusually large quiescent ancient schwannoma of hypoglossal nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta P Wanjari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is considered as a variant of schwannoma, comprising about 10% of all schwanommas. Schwannoma is a benign neoplasm derived from the nerve sheath of peripheral motor, sensory and sympathetic nerves and from the cranial nerve pairs. It usually presents as a solitary soft-tissue lesion which is slow growing, encapsulated and is often associated with nerve attached peripherally. Diagnosis is often confirmed with the microscopic examination. The long standing schwannoma attributes to degenerative changes and is termed "ancient" schwannoma. Present case is of a 68-year-old female patient who reported with an asymptomatic large swelling below mandible on the left side since last 23 years. The lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia.

  12. Clinical, radiological, surgical, and pathological determinants of olfactory groove schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sadayandi Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Olfactory groove schwannomas (OGS are rare anterior cranial fossa base tumors with only 41 cases reported in literature. Olfactory ensheathing cell schwannoma (OECS has similar clinico-radiological features as OGS, but a different cell of origin. In recent years, there is growing interest in OECS as more cases are being reported. Aims: The objective was to study the clinico-radiological features of OGS and define the histological differentiation from OECS. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical, radiological, surgical and histopathological picture of all cases of OGS managed in our institute. Immuno histochemical studies were performed in these tumors for differentiating from OECS. A comprehensive review of articles published until date describing the operative treatment was done. Results: All three cases had presented with seizures, two had anosmia and papilledema. Gross-total resection was achieved in all our patients. One patient expired in the postoperative period due to septicemia. Positive expression to newer immuno histochemical biomarker CD57 (Leu7, with negative staining to smooth muscle α-actin (SMA was helpful in confirming the diagnosis of OGS and differentiating it from OECS in all our cases. Conclusions: OECS, though rare has to be differentiated from OGS using immuno histochemistry. Gross-total resection of OGS with preservation of olfactory function is often possible and curative. Although these tumors are commonly treated with microsurgical skull base approaches, an endoscopic endonasal approach can be considered in some cases, with repair using mucoperiosteal pedicled flap to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leak.

  13. Is there a correlation between sleep disordered breathing and foramen magnum stenosis in children with achondroplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Klane K; Parnell, Shawn E; Kifle, Yemiserach; Blackledge, Marcella; Bompadre, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Children with achondroplasia have midface hypoplasia, frontal bossing, spinal stenosis, rhizomelia, and a small foramen magnum. Central sleep apnea, with potential resultant sudden death, is thought to be related to compression of the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction in these patients. Screening polysomnography and/or cervical spine MRI are often performed for infants with achondroplasia. Decompressive suboccipital craniectomy has been performed in selected cases. We aim to better delineate the relationship between polysomnography, cervical spine MRI, and indications for surgical decompression in achondroplasia.We retrospectively review electronic medical records of all children with achondroplasia in our IRB-approved skeletal dysplasia registry who had received screening polysomnography and cervical spine MRI examination was performed. We explored correlations of polysomnography, MRI parameters, and need for decompressive surgery. Seventeen patients with both polysomnography and MRI of the cervical spine met inclusion criteria. The average age at time of the sleep study was 2.4 ± 3.6 years. An abnormal apnea-hypopnea index was found in all patients, with central sleep apnea found in 6/17. Five patients (29%) required foramen magnum decompression. We found no statistically significant correlation between central sleep apnea and abnormal MRI findings suggestive of foramen magnum stenosis. Screening polysomnography is an important tool but does not appear to correlate with MRI findings of foramen magnum stenosis. Cord compression, with either associated T2 cord signal abnormality or clinical findings of clonus, was most predictive of subsequent surgical decompression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Communicating Hydrocephalus Associated with Intracranial Schwannoma Treated by Gamma Knife Radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Lee, Sung Ho; Choi, Man Kyu; Choi, Seok Keun; Park, Bong Jin; Lim, Young Jin

    2016-05-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been established as an effective and safe treatment for intracranial schwannoma. However, serious complications can occur after GKRS, including hydrocephalus. The pathophysiology and risk factors of this disorder are not yet fully understood. The objective of the study was to assess potential risk factors for hydrocephalus after GKRS. We retrospectively reviewed the medical radiosurgical records of 244 patients who underwent GKRS to treat intracranial schwannoma. The following parameters were analyzed as potential risk factors for hydrocephalus after GKRS: age, sex, target volume, irradiation dose, prior tumor resection, treatment technique, and tumor enhancement pattern. The tumor enhancement pattern was divided into 2 groups: group A (homogeneous enhancement) and group B (heterogeneous or rim enhancement). Of the 244 patients, 14 of them (5.7%) developed communicating hydrocephalus. Communicating hydrocephalus occurred within 2 years after GKRS in most patients (92.8%). No significant association was observed between any of the parameters investigated and the development of hydrocephalus, with the exception of tumor enhancement pattern. Group B exhibited a statistically significant difference by univariate analysis (P = 0.002); this difference was also significant by multivariate analysis (P = 0.006). Because hydrocephalus is curable, patients should be closely monitored for the development of this disorder after GKRS. In particular, patients with intracranial schwannomas with irregular enhancement patterns or cysts should be meticulously observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Peripheral Vestibular System Disease in Vestibular Schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Hansen, Søren; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2015-01-01

    density of the peripheral vestibular nerve branches, and atrophy of the neuroepithelium of the vestibular end organs. In cases with small tumors, peripheral disease occurred only in the tissue structures innervated by the specific nerve from which the tumor originated. CONCLUSION: Vestibular schwannomas...... are associated with distinctive disease of the peripheral vestibular tissue structures, suggesting anterograde degeneration and that dizziness in these patients may be caused by deficient peripheral vestibular nerve fibers, neurons, and end organs. In smaller tumors, a highly localized disease occurs, which...

  16. Vestibular schwannomas: Accuracy of tumor volume estimated by ice cream cone formula using thin-sliced MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsing-Hao; Li, Ya-Hui; Lee, Jih-Chin; Wang, Chih-Wei; Yu, Yi-Lin; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Ma, Hsin-I; Hsu, Hsian-He; Juan, Chun-Jung

    2018-01-01

    We estimated the volume of vestibular schwannomas by an ice cream cone formula using thin-sliced magnetic resonance images (MRI) and compared the estimation accuracy among different estimating formulas and between different models. The study was approved by a local institutional review board. A total of 100 patients with vestibular schwannomas examined by MRI between January 2011 and November 2015 were enrolled retrospectively. Informed consent was waived. Volumes of vestibular schwannomas were estimated by cuboidal, ellipsoidal, and spherical formulas based on a one-component model, and cuboidal, ellipsoidal, Linskey's, and ice cream cone formulas based on a two-component model. The estimated volumes were compared to the volumes measured by planimetry. Intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver agreement was tested. Estimation error, including absolute percentage error (APE) and percentage error (PE), was calculated. Statistical analysis included intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), linear regression analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and paired t-tests with P ice cream cone method, and ellipsoidal and Linskey's formulas significantly reduced the APE to 11.0%, 10.1%, and 12.5%, respectively (all P ice cream cone method and other two-component formulas including the ellipsoidal and Linskey's formulas allow for estimation of vestibular schwannoma volume more accurately than all one-component formulas.

  17. MR imaging of cranial nerve schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, M.; Peyster, R.; Cross, R.R.; Charles, J.; Murtagh, R.; Shapiro, R.; Chyatte, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the major advantages of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging over other imaging modalities is direct visualization of the cranial nerves. This is best accomplished with thin-section, contiguous T1-weighted images. They report a series of 75 cranial nerve neuromas, including 47 of the eighth nerve and a mixture of schwannomas involving all other cranial nerves (excluding the fourth). All tumors demonstrated at least some area of increased signal (equal to or greater than that of cerebrospinal fluid) on T2-weighted images. This fact enabled them to differentiate schwannomas from neoplasms (lymphoma, meningioma, sarcoma) that may be isointense on T2-weighted pulse sequences. Many of the lesions had areas of low signal intermixed with predominantly high signal (on T2-weighted images). The pathologic evaluation of these areas of decreased signal revealed predominant fibrosis. In addition, some of the neuromas had a cystic component. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging may permit detection when the nerve is still normal in size

  18. Schwannoma of the left brachial plexus mimicking a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannoma of the left brachial plexus mimicking a cervicomediastinal ... Her voice was hoarse but there was no eye signs suggestive of thyrotoxicosis. ... A presumptive diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma with retrosternal extension was made.

  19. Rare presentation of pancreatic schwannoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofigh Arash

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Schwannoma is a rare tumor among pancreatic neoplasms. Schwannomas vary in size, and most of them are cystic, mimicking pancreatic cystic lesions. Generally, a definitive diagnosis is made at the time of histological analysis. The mainstay treatment is surgical resection. Case presentation We report an unusual presentation of pancreatic schwannoma with abdominal pain and several episodes of cholangitis in a 54-year-old Caucasian (Iranian man. The condition was not diagnosed pre-operatively and Whipple's procedure was performed. Conclusion Pancreatic schwannoma is an important clinical entity to include in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic lesions. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult but computed tomographic findings may be helpful. The tumor may also have atypical and rare presentations, such as cholangitis and weight loss. For benign tumors, simple enucleation is usually adequate, whereas malignant tumors require standard oncological resection.

  20. Vestibular schwannoma with contralateral facial pain – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodsi Mohammad

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma most commonly presents with ipsilateral disturbances of acoustic, vestibular, trigeminal and facial nerves. Presentation of vestibular schwannoma with contralateral facial pain is quite uncommon. Case presentation Among 156 cases of operated vestibular schwannoma, we found one case with unusual presentation of contralateral hemifacial pain. Conclusion The presentation of contralateral facial pain in the vestibular schwannoma is rare. It seems that displacement and distortion of the brainstem and compression of the contralateral trigeminal nerve in Meckel's cave by the large mass lesion may lead to this atypical presentation. The best practice in these patients is removal of the tumour, although persistent contralateral pain after operation has been reported.

  1. Patent foramen ovale influences the presentation of decompression illness in SCUBA divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Kevin; Wolfers, Darren; Turner, Robert; Bennett, Michael; Allan, Roger; Jepson, Nigel; Cranney, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Few have examined the influence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) on the phenotype of decompression illness (DCI) in affected divers. A retrospective review of our database was performed for 75 SCUBA divers over a 10-year period. Overall 4,945 bubble studies were performed at our institution during the study period. Divers with DCI were more likely to have positive bubble studies than other indications (pAustralia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sciatica due to Schwannoma at the Sciatic Notch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Haspolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are rarely seen on the sciatic nerve and can cause sciatica. In this case report we aimed to present an unusual location of schwannoma along sciatic nerve that causes sciatica. A 60-years-old-man was admitted to us with complaints of pain on his thigh and paresthesia on his foot. Radiography of the patient revealed a solitary lesion on the sciatic nerve. The lesion was excised and the symptoms resolved after surgery.

  3. Sciatica due to Schwannoma at the Sciatic Notch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspolat, Yavuz; Ozkan, Feyza Unlu; Turkmen, Ismail; Kemah, Bahattin; Turhan, Yalcin; Sarar, Serhan; Ozkan, Korhan

    2013-01-01

    Schwannomas are rarely seen on the sciatic nerve and can cause sciatica. In this case report we aimed to present an unusual location of schwannoma along sciatic nerve that causes sciatica. A 60-years-old-man was admitted to us with complaints of pain on his thigh and paresthesia on his foot. Radiography of the patient revealed a solitary lesion on the sciatic nerve. The lesion was excised and the symptoms resolved after surgery. PMID:23762699

  4. Liver schwannoma incidentally discovered in a patient with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Murat; Bozkirli, Bahadir; Leventoglu, Sezai; Unal, Kemal; Kapucu, L Ozlem; Akyurek, Nalan; Sare, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Benign schwannomas, also referred to as neurilemomas, neurinomas, and perineural fibroblastomas, are encapsulated nerve sheath tumors. Primary schwannomas of the liver are extremely rare. We present a case of liver schwannoma, incidentally found in a patient with breast cancer. A 66-year-old female consulted her physician for a mass she palpated on her left breast. The abdominal ultrasonography (USG) revealed a 44 x 28 mm mass in the medial segment of the left lobe of her liver suspicious of a metastasis. An USG-guided biopsy was performed and the histo-pathological examination revealed a "peripheral nerve sheath tumor". Positron emission tomography (PET-CT) revealed a pathologic FDG uptake in the lesion that was previously defined in the liver. The tumor resected from the liver was 5 x 4 x 3 cm, yellowish, soft, and capsulated tumor. Microscopic examination revealed that the mass consisted of bundles of spindle cells with hypercellular and hypocellular areas. In immunohistochemistry, there was a strong positive staining for S-100. The tumor was diagnosed as benign liver schwannoma. Schwannomas are benign, encapsulated neoplasms. Symptoms and signs vary depending on the anatomical site and the size of the neoplasm; however, most schwannomas present as an asymptomatic or painless mass. Recurrence is unusual, despite of an incomplete removal, and malignant transformation is exceedingly rare (Fig. 4, Ref. 8). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  5. Plexiform (multinodular) schwannoma of soft palate. Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Vasileiadis, Ioannis; Petousis, Aristotelis; Fiska, Aliki; Stavrianaki, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Plexiform schwannoma is a rare benign neoplasm of the neural sheath characterized by a multinodular plexiform growth pattern. Only 5% of schwannomas have a plexiform or multinodular growth pattern. Schwannoma apparently derives from the Schwann cells. Extracranially, 25% of all schwannomas are located in the head and neck region, but only 1% show an intraoral origin. The intraoral lesions show a predilection for the tongue, followed by the palate, buccal mucosa, lip and gingival. Microscopic examination is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Characteristic histological signs are the palisading of the spindle-shaped Schwann cells around the central acellular area, so called Verocay bodies. We report a case of a 21-year-old woman with a smooth mass of the soft palate that was gradually increasing. Surgical excision of the mass was done and the histopathology and immunohistochemistry study of the excised lesion revealed a multinodular plexiform schwannoma of the soft palate. The patient is under regular clinical control, with no signs of recurrence after 17 months. Plexiform schwannomas of the soft palate are mentioned very rarely in the English literature. This rare benign tumor is worthy of recognition because it can be misdiagnosed as plexiform neurofibroma.

  6. Proton beam stereotactic radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsh, Griffith R.; Thornton, Allan F.; Chapman, Paul H.; Bussiere, Marc R.; Rabinov, James D.; Loeffler, Jay S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The proton beam's Bragg peak permits highly conformal radiation of skull base tumors. This study, prompted by reports of transient (30% each) and permanent (10% each) facial and trigeminal neuropathy after stereotactic radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas with marginal doses of 16-20 Gy, assessed whether proton beam radiosurgery using a marginal dose of only 12 Gy could control vestibular schwannomas while causing less neuropathy. Methods and Materials: Sixty-eight patients (mean age 67 years) were treated between 1992 and 1998. The mean tumor volume was 2.49 cm 3 . The dose to the tumor margin (70% isodose line) was 12 Gy. The prospectively specified follow-up consisted of neurologic evaluation and MRI at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Results: After a mean clinical follow-up of 44 months and imaging follow-up of 34 months in 64 patients, 35 tumors (54.7%) were smaller and 25 (39.1%) were unchanged (tumor control rate 94%; actuarial control rate 94% at 2 years and 84% at 5 years). Three tumors enlarged: one shrank after repeated radiosurgery, one remained enlarged at the time of unrelated death, and one had not been imaged for 4 years in a patient who remained asymptomatic at last follow-up. Intratumoral hemorrhage into one stable tumor required craniotomy that proved successful. Thus, 97% of tumors required no additional treatment. Three patients (4.7%) underwent shunting for hydrocephalus evident as increased ataxia. Of 6 patients with functional hearing ipsilaterally, 1 improved, 1 was unchanged, and 4 progressively lost hearing. Cranial neuropathies were infrequent: persistent facial hypesthesia (2 new, 1 exacerbated; 4.7%); intermittent facial paresthesias (5 new, 1 exacerbated; 9.4%); persistent facial weakness (2 new, 1 exacerbated; 4.7%) requiring oculoplasty; transient partial facial weakness (5 new, 1 exacerbated; 9.4%), and synkinesis (5 new, 1 exacerbated; 9.4%). Conclusion: Proton beam stereotactic radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas at the

  7. Outcome after translabyrinthine surgery for vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Jacob Bertram; Fugleholm, Kåre; Poulsgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to study the outcome after translabyrinthine surgery for vestibular schwannomas, with special focus on the facial nerve function. The study design is a case series from a national centralized database and it is set in two University Hospitals in Denmark....... Participants were 1244 patients who underwent translabyrinthine surgery during a period of 33 years from 1976 to 2009. Main outcome measures were tumor removal, intraoperative facial nerve preservation, complications, and postoperative facial nerve function. In 84% patients, the tumor was totally resected...... and in ~85% the nerve was intact during surgery. During 33 years, 12 patients died from complications to surgery and ~14% had cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Before surgery, 74 patients had facial paresis and 46% of these improved after surgery. In patients with normal facial function, overall ~70% had a good...

  8. Repeat Gamma Knife surgery for vestibular schwannomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonneville, Sarah; Delbrouck, Carine; Renier, Cécile; Devriendt, Daniel; Massager, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamma Knife (GK) surgery is a recognized treatment option for the management of small to medium-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS) associated with high-tumor control and low morbidity. When a radiosurgical treatment fails to stop tumor growth, repeat GK surgery can be proposed in selected cases. Methods: A series of 27 GK retreatments was performed in 25 patients with VS; 2 patients underwent three procedures. The median time interval between GK treatments was 45 months. The median margin dose used for the first, second, and third GK treatments was 12 Gy, 12 Gy, and 14 Gy, respectively. Six patients (4 patients for the second irradiation and 2 patients for the third irradiation) with partial tumor regrowth were treated only on the growing part of the tumor using a median margin dose of 13 Gy. The median tumor volume was 0.9, 2.3, and 0.7 cc for the first, second, and third treatments, respectively. Stereotactic positron emission tomography (PET) guidance was used for dose planning in 6 cases. Results: Mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range 24–110). At the last follow-up, 85% of schwannomas were controlled. The tumor volume decreased, remained unchanged, or increased after retreatment in 15, 8, and 4 cases, respectively. Four patients had PET during follow-up, and all showed a significant metabolic decrease of the tumor. Hearing was not preserved after retreatment in any patients. New facial or trigeminal palsy did not occur after retreatment. Conclusions: Our results support the long-term efficacy and low morbidity of repeat GK treatment for selected patients with tumor growth after initial treatment. PMID:26500799

  9. Symptomatic Patent Foramen Ovale with Hemidiaphragm Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea accounts for more than one-fourth of the hospital admissions from Emergency Department. Chronic conditions such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Congestive Heart Failure, and Asthma are being common etiologies. Less common etiologies include conditions such as valvular heart disease, pulmonary embolism, and right-to-left shunt (RLS from patent foramen ovale (PFO. PFO is present in estimated 20–30% of the population, mostly a benign condition. RLS via PFO usually occurs when right atrium pressure exceeds left atrium pressure. RLS can also occur in absence of higher right atrium pressure. We report one such case that highlights the importance of high clinical suspicion, thorough evaluation, and percutaneous closure of the PFO leading to significant improvement in the symptoms.

  10. Functional Nerve Preservation in Extracranial Head and Neck Schwannoma Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijichi, Kei; Kawakita, Daisuke; Maseki, Shinichiro; Beppu, Shintaro; Takano, Gaku; Murakami, Shingo

    2016-05-01

    A schwannoma is an uncommon, benign neurogenic tumor of Schwann cells. Tumor enucleation is the recommended surgical method to preserve function of the original nerve, although enucleation does not guarantee completely intact nerve function after the operation. To establish a strategy for functional preservation in extracranial head and neck schwannoma treatment by using an electromyographic (EMG) system during tumor resection. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 15 patients who underwent surgery for removal of schwannoma tumors between April 1, 2006, and March 31, 2015, at an academic tertiary referral center. Data analysis was conducted from April 3, 2006, to September 15, 2015. Neurogenic tumors were diagnosed according to preoperative findings, and during surgery tumors were exposed and given EMG-controlled electrical stimulation to analyze their origins. In motor nerve cases, the electrical activity of the muscle was measured and recorded by EMG. The tumor was then enucleated by incision along tumor fibers mapped using EMG stimulation. If a nerve bundle was visible, we incised along there and enucleated the tumor. A strategy using electrical stimulation to improve preservation of nerve function in extracranial head and neck schwannoma operations. Frequency and duration of postoperative neurologic complications associated with functional preservation surgery with tumor enucleation was evaluated using EMG monitoring according to tumor origin. Of the 15 patients with extracranial schwannoma, 9 (60%) were women (mean [SD] age, 36.3 [15.3] years). All 15 patients underwent surgery using a transcervical approach. The most common nerves of origin were the vagus nerve and the sympathetic chain. In sensory or sympathetic nerve cases, the EMG response was absent. Two of 5 patients with vagus schwannoma had postoperative temporary vocal nerve palsy. These symptoms showed improvement after 1 year. There was no tumor recurrence during the follow-up period in any

  11. Roentgen-anatomic studies on the mental foramen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soon Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author measured the distance from mental foramen to the occlusal plane and classified the positional frequency of mental foramen to the tooth site using topography. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Of 964 mental foramen taken, the common site was in 2nd premolar region showing 64.08 percent in right and 57.17 per cent in left site. 2. The average distance from occlusal plane to the upper border of premolar region was 23.20 mm and lower border was 25. 07 mm. 3. The positional variation of mental foramen was that 4.77 percent were located above the apex of the nearest tooth, 50.42 per cent were located at the apex of the nearest tooth and 44.81 percent were located below the apex of the nearest tooth.

  12. Complete morphometric analysis of jugular foramen and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Swaroop Das

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study gives knowledge about the various parameters, anatomical variations of jugular foramen in both sexes of an adult Indian population, and its clinical impact on the surgeries of this region.

  13. Roentgen-anatomic studies on the mental foramen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soon Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1972-01-01

    The author measured the distance from mental foramen to the occlusal plane and classified the positional frequency of mental foramen to the tooth site using topography. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Of 964 mental foramen taken, the common site was in 2nd premolar region showing 64.08 percent in right and 57.17 per cent in left site. 2. The average distance from occlusal plane to the upper border of premolar region was 23.20 mm and lower border was 25. 07 mm. 3. The positional variation of mental foramen was that 4.77 percent were located above the apex of the nearest tooth, 50.42 per cent were located at the apex of the nearest tooth and 44.81 percent were located below the apex of the nearest tooth.

  14. Bilateral arcuate foramen associated with partial defect of the posterior arch of the atlas in a medieval skeleton: case report and review of the literature. Looking backward to go forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travan, Luciana; Saccheri, Paola; Sabbadini, Gastone; Crivellato, Enrico

    2011-08-01

    We observed a complex atlas (C1) dysmorphism in a human medieval skeleton dug up from the sixth to the seventh century necropolis located in the north-eastern Italy. We analyzed such a dysmorphism in the light of pertinent literature and discussed the functional and clinical implications related to this type of C1 structural malformation. Macroscopical and CT-SCAN examinations of the atlas were carried out. Bone findings consisted of partial aplasia of the posterior arch of the C1 accompanied by a bilateral arcuate foramen. In addition, the spinous processes of C7 and T1 were found to be bifid. Although such abnormalities are supposed to be clinically inconspicuous, yet they may become challenging or even dangerous in the context of trauma. They may even complicate specific diagnostic or surgical procedures. In addition, they may cause a great number of symptoms, ranging from headache and neck pain to loss of postural muscle tone and consciousness, due to the close and complex relationship of bone structures with nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and ligaments. As a result, radiologists, clinicians, surgeons, and chiropractors should consider in their clinical reasoning the possibility that atlas dysmorphisms may occur.

  15. Best practices in the evaluation and treatment of foramen magnum stenosis in achondroplasia during infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Klane K; Bompadre, Viviana; Goldberg, Michael J; Bober, Michael B; Campbell, Jeffrey W; Cho, Tae-Joon; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Mackenzie, William; Parnell, Shawn E; Raggio, Cathleen; Rapoport, David M; Spencer, Samantha A; Savarirayan, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common inherited disorder of bone growth (skeletal dysplasia). Despite this fact, consistent and evidence-based management approaches to recognized, life-threatening complications, such as foramen magnum stenosis, are lacking. This study aims to outline best practice, based on evidence and expert consensus, regarding the diagnosis, assessment, and management of foramen magnum stenosis in achondroplasia during infancy. A panel of 11 multidisciplinary international experts on skeletal dysplasia was invited to participate in a Delphi process. They were: 1) presented with a list of 26 indications and a thorough literature review, 2) given the opportunity to anonymously rate the indications and discuss in face to face discussion; 3) edit the list and rate it in a second round. Those indications with more than 80% agreement were considered as consensual. After two rounds of rating and a face-to-face meeting, consensus was reached to support 22 recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of foramen magnum stenosis in infants with achondroplasia. These recommendations include indications for surgical decompression, ventriculomegaly, and hydrocephalus, sleep-disordered breathing, physical exams and the use of polysomnography and imaging in this condition. We present a consensus-based best practice guidelines consisting of 22 recommendations. It is hoped that these guidelines will lead to more uniform and structured evaluation, standardizing care pathways, and improving mortality and morbidity outcomes for this cohort. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Post-operative complications after removal of sporadic vestibular schwannoma via retrosigmoid-suboccipital approach: current diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampakis, Stylianos; Koutsimpelas, Dimitrios; Gouveris, Haralampos; Mann, Wolf

    2011-05-01

    The retrosigmoid (suboccipital) approach is one of four surgical approaches for the treatment of vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas). It is increasingly used by otologic surgeons, and in experienced hands is associated with improved results and more limited complications. Mortality rates are minimal and often zero, while postoperative sequelae, on the other hand, are not rare. In order to not only save the patient's life, but also to assure good quality of life after the surgery, one must consider many different aspects of management of the respective complications. In this review the issues of current management of CSF leak and meningitis, facial paresis, headache, hearing loss, unsteadiness, disequilibrium, vertigo, tinnitus, cerebellar and brain stem injuries or abscess, vascular complications and venous air embolism after retrosigmoid approach for removal of vestibular schwannomas are presented. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  17. Von Reckling-hausen disease associated to thyroid carcinoma and malignant schwannoma of the chest wall. A case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz P, J.; Tantalean, E.; Guzman, R.; Pomatanta P, J.; Grados M, J.; Vilela, C.

    1999-01-01

    The multiple neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease associated to malignant schwannoma in about 3% of the cases and very rarely to others cancers. The study provides information on the case of a 32 year-old woman who suffers from this disease and presented two synchronous cancers: a papillary carcinoma of thyroid and a malignant schwannoma of the chest wall. The thyroid tumour was managed with hemithyroidectomy, hormonotherapy and radiotherapy, and the lesion of the thoracic wall was treated with local radical resection application of Marlex mesh and rotation of a musculocutaneous flap of the dorsal muscle. A review of the literature on the clinical aspects of this association and the surgical techniques employed to cover the defect of the chest wall is presented. (authors)

  18. Hypochondroplasia with Foramen Magnum Stenosis: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazik Aşılıoğlu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypochondroplasia was first reported in the English literature by Beals (1969. The features are similar to those of achondroplasia but are less severe and are usually reported not to involve the skull. The foramen magnum and whole spinal canal are reduced in diameter in achondroplasia, but less so in hypochondroplasia. In this study, we present an unique case of a seven month old child with hypochondroplasia with symptomatic foramen magnum stenosis which required surgical decompression. This 7-month-old child with hypochondroplasia presented with hypotonia and severe respiratory disabilities, including apneic episodes requiring continuous positive airway pressure. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed marked foramen magnum stenosis. Foramen magnum decompression was performed. Postoperatively, steady motor improvement has been observed and the patient no longer requires ventilatory support. To the our knowledge, this is the first report of hypochondroplasia and symptomatic foramen magnum stenosis. In this case we wish to emphasize the necessity of the radiological imaging of foramen magnum and spinal cord for the patient who has respiratory distress and hypotonia with skeletal dysplasia.

  19. Complete Cranial Iliac Osteotomy to Approach the Lumbosacral Foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dyall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An approach using a complete cranial iliac osteotomy (CCIO to access the lumbosacral (LS foramen in dogs from lateral was developed using cadavers and applied in a clinical patient with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS. The foraminal enlargement in the cadavers and the patient was documented on postoperative CT scans. The preoperative CT scan of the patient showed moderate cranial telescoping of the sacral roof and a moderate central disk protrusion, leading to moderate to severe compression of the cauda equina. In addition, there was lateral spondylosis with consequential stenosis of the right LS foramen. The right L7 nerve had lost its fat attenuation and appeared thickened. After a routine L7S1 dorsal laminectomy with a partial discectomy, a CCIO was performed, providing good access to the LS foramen and the adhesions around the proximal L7 nerve caudoventral to the foramen. The osteotomy was stabilized with a locking plate and a cerclage wire. The dog recovered well from the procedures and after 36 h, the dog walked normally and was discharged from the hospital. Eight and 16 weeks later, the signs of the DLSS had markedly improved. From these data, it can be concluded that the CCIO is a useful approach to the LS foramen and intervertebral disk in selected patients with DLSS, giving good access to the structures around the LS foramen.

  20. Gamma-knife radiosurgery in the treatment of trigeminal schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peker, S.; Bayrakli, F.; Kilic, T.; Pamir, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    Trigeminal nerve schwannomas account for 0.07 %-0.28 % of all intracranial tumors. Advances in skull base surgery have led to more aggressive resection of these tumors, but surgery may associated with development of new neurological deficits. In this report, we analyse the long-term results 15 patients with newly diagnosed or residual/recurrent trigeminal schwannoma who underwent gamma-knife treatment. During a mean 61 months of follow-up, MRI revealed reduction of tumor size in 13 and no size change in 2 patients. The tumor growth control rate was 100 % and only 1 patient had transient facial numbness and diplopia. For patients with small to moderate size trigeminal schwannomas, gamma-knife radiosurgery is associated with good tumor control and a minimal risk of adverse radiation effects. (author)

  1. Retroperitoneal schwannoma: diagnostic imaging findings in 5 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltazar, Alberto; Santamarina, Mario; Scalise, Gabriela; Ponce de Leon, Valeria; Bello, Lorena

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the different imaging findings (US, CT and MRI) in retroperitoneal schwannoma. Materials and methods: 5 patients (3 male and 2 females) with a diagnosis of retroperitoneal schwannoma were retrospectively evaluated. Ages ranged from 33 to 63 years (means 54 years). The images (US, CT and MR) were analyzed and correlated to histopathologic results. Results: The most frequent clinical finding was abdominal pain (60%). A presumptive diagnosis prior to surgery was suggested in 3/5 cases that had well-defined masses with a predominant cystic appearance. All patients underwent surgery with tumoral resection. Only 2 patients (40%) had recurrence within a three years period of follow-up. Conclusion: Retroperitoneal schwannoma is an infrequent tumor. In our series, no pathognomotic features were observed on US, CT or MRI. However, 3/5 tumors showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images due to cystic areas. (author)

  2. Retroperitoneal Gastrointestinal Type Schwannoma Presenting as a Renal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Hall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal schwannomas are extremely rare, and unreported in Urology. Often thought to be malignant from imaging the diagnosis is often delayed until Histology. We report a case of retroperitoneal schwanoma thought to be a malignant renal mass. Seventy three year old lady presented with abdominal pain. Imaging showed a mass attached to the renal pelvis thus she underwent a radical nephrectomy. Histology reported retroperitoneal schwannoma. Malignant forms are rare however treatment for these is surgical excision. Awareness of the existence of these tumors may help in avoiding unnecessary radical surgeries by opting for biopsy preoperatively.

  3. [Primary malignant schwannoma of the buccal branch of facial nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumine, M; Thiery, G; Harroudi, T; Amrani, M; El Othmany, A; Rzin, A

    2012-06-01

    Primary malignant schwannomas are rare neoplasms of nerve sheath origin, especially in the location of the head and neck where few cases are described in the literature. We report the case of a 65-year-old male diagnosed with malignant schwannoma in the left cheek. The patient underwent surgery with wide local excision, reconstruction were made later by skin graft. The treatment of choice is radical excision of the lesion with wide margins. In fact, to reduce local tumor recurrence, the use of adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy is still controversial. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Stereotactic radiation therapy for large vestibular schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandl, Ellen S.; Meijer, Otto W.M.; Slotman, Ben J.; Vandertop, W. Peter; Peerdeman, Saskia M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the morbidity and tumor-control rate in the treatment of large vestibular schwannomas (VS) after stereotactic radiation therapy in our institution. Material and methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients (17 men, 8 women) with large VS (diameter 3.0 cm or larger), treated with stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) between 1992 and 2007, were retrospectively studied after a mean follow-up period of three years with respect to tumor-control rate and complications. Results: Actuarial 5-year maintenance of pre-treatment hearing level probability of 30% was achieved. Five of 17 patients suffered permanent new facial nerve dysfunction. The actuarial 5-year facial nerve preservation probability was 80%. Permanent new trigeminal nerve neuropathy occurred in two of 15 patients, resulting in an actuarial 5-year trigeminal nerve preservation probability of 85%. Tumor progression occurred in four of 25 (16%) patients. The overall 5-year tumor control probability was 82%. Conclusion: Increased morbidity rates were found in patients with large VS treated with SRT or SRS compared to the published series on regular sized VS and other smaller retrospective studies on large VS.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial nerve schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew L; Aviv, Richard I; Chen, Joseph M; Nedzelski, Julian M; Yuen, Heng-Wai; Fox, Allan J; Bharatha, Aditya; Bartlett, Eric S; Symons, Sean P

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes the magnetic resonance (MR) appearances of facial nerve schwannoma (FNS). We hypothesize that the extent of FNS demonstrated on MR will be greater compared to prior computed tomography studies, that geniculate involvement will be most common, and that cerebellar pontine angle (CPA) and internal auditory canal (IAC) involvement will more frequently result in sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Retrospective study. Clinical, pathologic, and enhanced MR imaging records of 30 patients with FNS were analyzed. Morphologic characteristics and extent of segmental facial nerve involvement were documented. Median age at initial imaging was 51 years (range, 28-76 years). Pathologic confirmation was obtained in 14 patients (47%), and the diagnosis reached in the remainder by identification of a mass, thickening, and enhancement along the course of the facial nerve. All 30 lesions involved two or more contiguous segments of the facial nerve, with 28 (93%) involving three or more segments. The median segments involved per lesion was 4, mean of 3.83. Geniculate involvement was most common, in 29 patients (97%). CPA (P = .001) and IAC (P = .02) involvement was significantly related to SNHL. Seventeen patients (57%) presented with facial nerve dysfunction, manifesting in 12 patients as facial nerve weakness or paralysis, and/or in eight with involuntary movements of the facial musculature. This study highlights the morphologic heterogeneity and typical multisegment involvement of FNS. Enhanced MR is the imaging modality of choice for FNS. The neuroradiologist must accurately diagnose and characterize this lesion, and thus facilitate optimal preoperative planning and counseling.

  6. A radiographic study of mental foramen in intraoral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Choi, Karp Shik

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in periapical radiographs. For this study, periapical radiographs of premolar areas were obtained from the 200 adults. Accordingly, the positional and shape changes of mental foramen were evaluated. The authors obtained radiographs according to changes in radiation beam direction in periapical radiographs of premolar areas, and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained: 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (34.3%), round or oval (28.0%), unidentified (25.5%) and diffuse (12.2%) type in descending order of frequency. 2, Horizontal positions of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (55.3%), the area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (39.6%), the area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (3.4%), the 1st premolar area (1.0%), the area between the canine and 1st premolar (0.7%) in descending order of frequency. 3. Vertical positions of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the inferior to apex (67.1%), and at apex (24.8%), overlap with apex (6.4%), superior to apex (1.7%) in descending order of frequency. 4. Shapes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the upward 10 degree positioned periapical radiographs. And according to the changes of horizontal and vertical position, they were observed similar to normally positioned periapical radiographs.

  7. Varied Presentation of Schwannoma – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruquaya Mir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas can occur anywhere in the body with unusual presentation. They are difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Fine needle aspiration biopsy does not appear to provide an accurate preoperative diagnosis. Complete excision of the mass should be the goal of surgical excision.

  8. Retropharyngeal Schwannoma Excised Through a Transoral Approach: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ying Hsieh

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The contents of the retropharyngeal space are limited to fat and retropharyngeal nodes. Primary tumors originating from the retropharyngeal space are rare. More than 25% of schwannomas are found in the head and neck region, and they are rarely found in the retropharyngeal space. Here, we report the case of a 44-year-old woman with a schwannoma confined to the left retropharyngeal space, who presented with snoring and a mild lump in the throat sensation. Physical examination revealed anterior bulging of the left oropharyngeal wall, with intact mucosa. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined, encapsulated tumor in the left retropharyngeal space with bright signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, which was strongly enhanced after gadolinium administration. The tumor was removed through a transoral approach, resulting in a short postoperative recovery time without complications. The pathologic diagnosis was schwannoma. The patient has been well and free of tumor recurrence for 2 years. From anatomic and physiologic viewpoints, excision through a transoral approach is a good choice for a confined retropharyngeal schwannoma.

  9. Schwannoma of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve : A Rare Entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer, Linda M; Teding van Berkhout, F; Priesterbach, Loudy; Buijsrogge, Marc P

    Neurogenic tumors are the most common posterior mediastinal tumors in adults. Schwannomas originating from the recurrent laryngeal nerve are rare. The present study describes a 46-year-old man with a tumor in the left superior mediastinum. Because of the narrow relationship with the aorta and the

  10. Imaging characteristics of intraparenchymal schwannoma and the related pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuyong; Geng Daoying; He Huijin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To Analyze the imaging characteristics of intraparenchymal schwannoma and the related pathology, in order to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and be in favor of the clinics and the prognosis. Methods: Four cases were confirmed to be intraparenchymal schwannoma by pathological and immunohistochemistry examination. One case was examined with precontrast and enhanced CT scanning, one with unenhanced MRI scanning, two with unenhanced and enhanced CT and MRI scanning. Their images were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Of the four cases, three patients were less than 30 years old, with tumors located supratentorially. Cysts were found in all cases, with nodules on the wall in 3 cases. The nodules were enhanced markedly in two cases and moderately in one case. In addition, calcification was detected in one case and prominent peritumoral edema existed in 1 case. The picture of the pathology demonstrated Antoni type A and Antoni type B. Immunostaining showed intense immunoreactivity for S-100 protein and Vim and negative immunoreactivity for GFAP and EMA. Conclusions: Intraparenchymal schwannoma mostly occurred in juvenile, which located supratentorially in most cases. The presence of a cyst and peritumoral edema together with the tumor appears to be characteristic of intraparenchymal schwannoma. Calcification or the enhanced nodule is the helpful sign for the diagnosis. Combining the imaging findings with the pathology and immunohistochemistry results can gain the accurate diagnosis. (authors)

  11. Skull base surgery of non vestibular schwannomas of the posterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Twenty one patients with intracranial schwannomas arising from cranial nerves other than the vestibulocochlear were surgically treated in the Neurosurgery department, Alexandria University, in the period between 2003 and 2008. There were 14 males and 7 females and the mean age was 38 years. Seven of our ...

  12. Neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring during an optic nerve schwannoma removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, Daniel; Escanio Cortés, Manuel; Tena-Suck, Martha; Orozco Garduño, Adolfo Josué; López Pizano, Jesús Alejandro; Villanueva Domínguez, Jonathan; Fernández Gónzalez-Aragón, Maricarmen; Gómez-Amador, Juan Luis

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports the case of a patient with optic nerve schwannoma and the first use of neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potentials during the removal of such tumor with no postoperative visual damage. Schwannomas are benign neoplasms of the peripheral nervous system arising from the neural crest-derived Schwann cells, these tumors are rarely located in the optic nerve and the treatment consists on surgical removal leading to high risk of damage to the visual pathway. Case report of a thirty-year-old woman with an optic nerve schwannoma. The patient underwent surgery for tumor removal on the left optic nerve through a left orbitozygomatic approach with intraoperative monitoring of left II and III cranial nerves. We used Nicolet Endeavour CR IOM (Carefusion, Middleton WI, USA) to performed visual evoked potentials stimulating binocularly with LED flash goggles with the patient´s eyes closed and direct epidural optic nerve stimulation delivering rostral to the tumor a rectangular current pulse. At follow up examinations 7 months later, the left eye visual acuity was 20/60; Ishihara score was 8/8 in both eyes; the right eye photomotor reflex was normal and left eye was mydriatic and arreflectic; optokinetic reflex and ocular conjugate movements were normal. In this case, the epidural direct electrical stimulation of optic nerve provided stable waveforms during optic nerve schwannoma resection without visual loss.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging surveillance following vestibular schwannoma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew L; Van Abel, Kathryn M; Driscoll, Colin L; Neff, Brian A; Beatty, Charles W; Lane, John I; Castner, Marina L; Lohse, Christine M; Link, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    To describe the incidence, pattern, and course of postoperative enhancement within the operative bed using serial gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection and to identify clinical and radiologic variables associated with recurrence. Retrospective cohort study. All patients who underwent microsurgical resection of VS between January 2000 and January 2010 at a single tertiary referral center were reviewed. Postoperative enhancement patterns were characterized on serial MRI studies. Clinical follow-up and outcomes were recorded. During the last 10 years, 350 patients underwent microsurgical VS resection, and of these, 203 patients met study criteria (mean radiologic follow-up, 3.5 years). A total of 144 patients underwent gross total resection (GTR), 32 received near-total resection (NTR), and the remaining 27 underwent subtotal resection (STR); 98.5% of patients demonstrated enhancement within the operative bed following resection (58.5% linear, 41.5% nodular). Stable enhancement patterns were seen in 24.5% of patients, regression in 66.0%, and resolution in only 3.5% of patients on the most recent postoperative MRI. Twelve patients recurred a mean of 3.0 years following surgery. The average maximum linear diameter growth rate among recurrent tumors was 2.3 mm per year. Those receiving STR were more than nine times more likely to experience recurrence compared to those undergoing NTR or GTR (P assist the clinician in determining an appropriate postoperative MRI surveillance schedule. Future studies using standardized terminology and consistent study metrics are needed to further refine surveillance recommendations. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Stereotactic Radiosurgery versus Natural History in Patients with Growing Vestibular Schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Albert; Gooderham, Peter; Mick, Paul; Westerberg, Brian; Toyota, Brian; Akagami, Ryojo

    2015-08-01

    Objective To describe our experience with stereotactic radiosurgery and its efficacy on growing tumors, and then to compare this result with the natural history of a similar cohort of non-radiation-treated lesions. Study Design A retrospective chart review and cohort comparison. Methods The long-term control rates of patients having undergone radiosurgery were collected and calculated, and this population was then compared with a group of untreated patients from the same period of time with growing lesions. Results A total of 61 patients with growing vestibular schwannomas treated with radiosurgery were included. After a mean of 160 months, we observed a control rate of 85.2%. When compared with a group of 36 patients with growing tumors who were yet to receive treatment (previously published), we found a corrected control rate or relative risk reduction of only 76.8%. Conclusion Radiosurgery for growing vestibular schwannomas is less effective than previously reported in unselected series. Although radiosurgery still has a role in managing this disease, consideration should be given to the actual efficacy that may be calculated when the natural history is known. We hope other centers will similarly report their experience on this cohort of patients.

  15. Surgical management of vestibular schwannoma: attempted preservation of hearing and facial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, T F; Matter, A; Ahmed, M R

    2013-05-01

    Vestibular schwannomas are benign tumours which usually originate from the vestibular portion of the VIIIth cranial nerve. Treatment options include observation with serial imaging, stereotactic radiation and microsurgical removal. The goal of surgery was complete eradication of tumour with preservation of hearing and facial nerve function. A retrospective review was undertaken of 24 cases of vestibular schwannoma jointly operated upon by a team of neurosurgeons and otologists at the Suez Canal University Hospital, with assessment of VIIth and VIIIth cranial nerve function, tumour size, and extent of growth. All surgery utilised a retromastoid, suboccipital approach. Complete tumour removal was achieved in 19 patients. Anatomical preservation of the facial nerve was possible in 66.6 per cent of patients. Pre-operative, useful hearing was present in four patients, and preserved in 80 per cent. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage was diagnosed in two (8.3 per cent) patients, who responded to conservative therapy. The retromastoid, suboccipital surgical approach to the skull base can be safely and successfully achieved using a microsurgical technique, with minimal or no damage to neurovascular structures, even for large tumours.

  16. Vestibular schwannoma and fitness to fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Yoann; Raynal, Marc; Hunkemöller, Iris; Lepage, Pierre; Kossowski, Michel

    2010-10-01

    When a pilot is referred for vestibular schwannoma (VS), his or her fitness to fly may be questioned. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe a series of VS cases in a pilot population and to discuss their fitness to fly options. Between September 2002 and March 2010, the ENT/Head and Neck Surgery Department of the National Pilot Expertise Center conducted nearly 120,000 expert consultations for 40,000 pilots. We examined the files of 10 pilots who were referred to our 2 national experts for VS. At the time of the expert consultation, hypoacusis was present in nine cases (four with total deafness), tinnitus in one case, and vertigo in nine cases. In our series, only 2 of the 10 pilots experienced a negative impact on their fitness to fly. Decisions on fitness to fly were based on several factors: minimally disturbed audition, i.e., less than a 35-dB hearing loss with a good speech discrimination score; good balance, i.e., no reported difficulties; no spontaneous nystagmus recorded on videonystagmography (VNG); no postural deviation; and a normal head-shaking test. The delay and the VS's evolution between diagnosis and expert consultation are important because the selection of a treatment to control VS is critical in minimizing the possible associated complications. When a pilot is referred for VS, his or her fitness to fly is determined by the size of the tumor, balance, auditory status, and the follow-up results of these findings. The complications that may arise from VS treatments must also be considered.

  17. Multidetector computed tomography diagnosis of gastric volvulus through the foramen of Morgagni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecouvet, S; Coulier, B; Pierard, F; Gogoase, M; Coppens, J P; Van Hoof, M

    2014-01-01

    Morgagni hernia is considered to be the rarest form of all diaphragmatic hernias. It develops through a congenital defect in the retrosternal area. Usually asymptomatic, this entity can lead to life-threatening complications such as incarceration, strangulation or volvulus of the herniated viscus. We hereby report a rare case of organoaxial gastric volvulus producing through the foramen of Morgagni in a 78-year-old woman. The full diagnosis was made by upper gastro-intestinal series and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The basic anatomy, physiopathology, diagnostic methods, complications and surgical treatment of Morgagni hernia are briefly reviewed.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a non-contrast screening MRI protocol for vestibular schwannoma in patients with asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowson, Matthew G.; Rocke, Daniel J.; Kaylie, David M.; Hoang, Jenny K.; Weissman, Jane L.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine if a non-contrast screening MRI is cost-effective compared to a full MRI protocol with contrast for the evaluation of vestibular schwannomas. A decision tree was constructed to evaluate full MRI and screening MRI strategies for patients with asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss. If a patient were to have a positive screening MRI, s/he received a full MRI. Vestibular schwannoma prevalence, MRI specificity and sensitivity, and gadolinium anaphylaxis incidence were obtained through literature review. Institutional charge data were obtained using representative patient cohorts. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were completed to determine CE model threshold points for MRI performance characteristics and charges. The mean charge for a full MRI with contrast was significantly higher than a screening MRI ($4089 ± 1086 versus $2872 ± 741; p < 0.05). The screening MRI protocol was more cost-effective than a full MRI protocol with a willingness-to-pay from $0 to 20,000 USD. Sensitivity analyses determined that the screening protocol dominated when the screening MRI charge was less than $4678, and the imaging specificity exceeded 78.2%. The screening MRI protocol also dominated when vestibular schwannoma prevalence was varied between 0 and 1000 in 10,000 people. A screening MRI protocol is more cost-effective than a full MRI with contrast in the diagnostic evaluation of a vestibular schwannoma. A screening MRI likely also confers benefits of shorter exam time and no contrast use. Further investigation is needed to confirm the relative performance of screening protocols for vestibular schwannomas. (orig.)

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a non-contrast screening MRI protocol for vestibular schwannoma in patients with asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowson, Matthew G.; Rocke, Daniel J.; Kaylie, David M. [Duke University Medical Center, Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Durham, NC (United States); Hoang, Jenny K. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Weissman, Jane L. [Oregon Health Sciences University, Professor Emerita of Diagnostic Radiology, Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-08-15

    We aimed to determine if a non-contrast screening MRI is cost-effective compared to a full MRI protocol with contrast for the evaluation of vestibular schwannomas. A decision tree was constructed to evaluate full MRI and screening MRI strategies for patients with asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss. If a patient were to have a positive screening MRI, s/he received a full MRI. Vestibular schwannoma prevalence, MRI specificity and sensitivity, and gadolinium anaphylaxis incidence were obtained through literature review. Institutional charge data were obtained using representative patient cohorts. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were completed to determine CE model threshold points for MRI performance characteristics and charges. The mean charge for a full MRI with contrast was significantly higher than a screening MRI ($4089 ± 1086 versus $2872 ± 741; p < 0.05). The screening MRI protocol was more cost-effective than a full MRI protocol with a willingness-to-pay from $0 to 20,000 USD. Sensitivity analyses determined that the screening protocol dominated when the screening MRI charge was less than $4678, and the imaging specificity exceeded 78.2%. The screening MRI protocol also dominated when vestibular schwannoma prevalence was varied between 0 and 1000 in 10,000 people. A screening MRI protocol is more cost-effective than a full MRI with contrast in the diagnostic evaluation of a vestibular schwannoma. A screening MRI likely also confers benefits of shorter exam time and no contrast use. Further investigation is needed to confirm the relative performance of screening protocols for vestibular schwannomas. (orig.)

  20. Plexiform Schwannoma of the Stomach in Neurofibromatosis Type 2: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Yeom, Dong Heon; Cho, Hyun Sun; Cho, Woo Ho

    2012-01-01

    Plexiform schwannoma is a relatively rare benign subepithelial tumor arising from the peripheral nerve sheath, and associated with Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). There are a few reports of plexiform schwannomas arising from the gastrointestinal tract, and to our knowledge, there is no report of it arising from the stomach in a patient with NF2. Here we present the first case of a plexiform schwannoma of the stomach in an NF2 patient a submucosal tumor on radiologic finding.

  1. Laryngeal schwannoma in an 8-year-old boy with inspiratory dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognone, Elisa; Rossi, Andrea; Conte, Massimo; Nozza, Paolo; Tarantino, Vincenzo; Fibbi, Antonio; Saetti, Roberto; Cutrone, Cesare; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2007-10-01

    Schwannomas of the larynx are rare lesions in the pediatric age group. In this article, we report on the neuroimaging features of a schwannoma arising from the left aryepiglottic fold in an 8-year-old boy with a 6-month history of inspiratory dyspnea. Neuroimaging showed a well-defined, avoid mass originating from the left aryepiglottic fold. The lesion was removed endoscopically. Complete removal of laryngeal schwannomas is curative, and adjuvant treatment is not required.

  2. Intrinsic brainstem schwannoma – A rare clinical entity and a histological enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraparenchymal schwannomas arising in the brainstem are very rare, and only eight cases have been reported in literature till now. We report an intraparenchymal brainstem schwannoma presenting with the classical clinical presentation of an intrinsic brainstem lesion, and discuss its clinicoradiological characteristics and histological origins. We highlight the importance of an intraoperative frozen section diagnosis in such cases. Intraoperative tissue diagnosis significantly may alter the surgical strategy, which should be aimed at near total intracapsular decompression of the schwannoma.

  3. Acute headache attributed to whiplash in arcuate foramen and non-arcuate foramen subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Luis; Mata-Escolano, Federico; Blanco-Pérez, Esther; Llidó, Susanna; Bastir, Markus; Sanchis-Gimeno, Juan A

    2017-04-01

    To test the association between arcuate foramen (AF) in the first cervical vertebra with acute headache attributed to whiplash. Retrospective study of 128 patients that suffered a whiplash. The presence or absence of AF was recorded after a radiographic study, as well as the presence or absence of acute headache after the whiplash. The frequency of AF was 17.2%. Patients with bilateral AF presented a significant (p = 0.000, Fisher's test) increase in the frequency of acute headache (90.9%) in comparison with the non-AF group (5.7%). The ratio between the presence and absence of acute headache was 166.6 times higher (IC 95% 18.2-1526.22) in subjects with bilateral AF in comparison with non-AF subjects. The presence of bilateral AF is associated to an increased frequency of acute headache after suffering a whiplash, information of interest for the attention to these patients.

  4. Patent foramen ovale: detection with nongated multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Marie-Pierre; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Letourneau, Thierry; Henon, Hilde; Leys, Didier; Delannoy-Deken, Valérie; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Remy, Jacques

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate nongated multidetector computed tomography (CT) in the detection of patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) in comparison with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. One hundred five patients (57 men, 48 women; mean age, 53 years) with a recent stroke underwent TEE and multidetector CT on the same day. After injection of a diluted iodinated contrast material, a series of 2.4-mm-thick transverse images centered on the fossa ovalis were acquired in conjunction with release of the Valsalva maneuver. Two independent radiologists considered PFO present if left atrial enhancement was detected visually before enhancement of the pulmonary veins or if an early peak of left atrial enhancement was found at time-attenuation curve analysis. PFO was detected with 98% specificity (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91, 0.99). Overall sensitivity was 55% (95% CI: 0.38, 0.70), ranging from 28% for shunts classified as grade 1 at TEE to 91% for those classified as grade 4 at TEE. Interreader agreement was good (kappa = 0.81). Visual assessment was better than time-attenuation curve analysis, which enabled detection of only 15 of the 40 cases of PFO. Multidetector CT depicted only 22% of cases of ASA. The mean effective radiation dose was 2.3 mSv. Nongated multidetector CT can be used to diagnose high-grade shunts through a PFO, with 91% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Thus, PFO detection, in addition to routine CT evaluation of the lungs, could be indicated in patients with unexplained hypoxemia. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  5. Slip Interface Imaging Predicts Tumor-Brain Adhesion in Vestibular Schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ziying; Glaser, Kevin J; Manduca, Armando; Van Gompel, Jamie J; Link, Michael J; Hughes, Joshua D; Romano, Anthony; Ehman, Richard L; Huston, John

    2015-11-01

    To test the clinical feasibility and usefulness of slip interface imaging (SII) to identify and quantify the degree of tumor-brain adhesion in patients with vestibular schwannomas. S With institutional review board approval and after obtaining written informed consent, SII examinations were performed in nine patients with vestibular schwannomas. During the SII acquisition, a low-amplitude mechanical vibration is applied to the head with a pillow-like device placed in the head coil and the resulting shear waves are imaged by using a phase-contrast pulse sequence with motion-encoding gradients synchronized with the applied vibration. Imaging was performed with a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) system in less than 7 minutes. The acquired shear motion data were processed with two different algorithms (shear line analysis and calculation of octahedral shear strain [OSS]) to identify the degree of tumor-brain adhesion. Blinded to the SII results, neurosurgeons qualitatively assessed tumor adhesion at the time of tumor resection. Standard T2-weighted, fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA), and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging were reviewed to identify the presence of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) clefts around the tumors. The performance of the use of the CSF cleft and SII to predict the degree of tumor adhesion was evaluated by using the κ coefficient and McNemar test. Among the nine patients, SII agreed with the intraoperative assessment of the degree of tumor adhesion in eight patients (88.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 57%, 98%), with four of four, three of three, and one of two cases correctly predicted as no adhesion, partial adhesion, and complete adhesion, respectively. However, the T2-weighted, FIESTA, and T2-weighted FLAIR images that used the CSF cleft sign to predict adhesion agreed with surgical findings in only four cases (44.4% [four of nine]; 95% CI: 19%, 73%). The κ coefficients indicate good agreement (0

  6. Painful percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy of Schwannoma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kim, Young Joo; Park, Seog Hee; Shin, Kyung Sub; Lee, Eun Jung

    1995-01-01

    Percutaneous aspiration needle biopsy of the intrathoracic disease is a safe, easy, and accurate diagnostic method. It usually causes mild pain or discomfort during the procedure. We had a patient who complained of severe sharp pain, well localized at the biopsy site of the target mass during CT-guided transthoracic aspiration biopsy. It was pathologically confirmed as an intrathoracic schwannoma after special staining. To our knowledge, there has been no published report of such a painful percutaneous needle biopsy in a patient with schwannoma in Korea. Two cases were reported in other radiologic journals. The severe sharp pain developed during the transthoracic aspiration needle biopsy is a reliable sign of neurogenic tumor, therefore the participating radiologist should recommend specific immumochemical stain for neurogenic tumor to pathologist

  7. Gastric schwannoma presenting as a casual ultrasonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Higueras, Francisco Javier; Pereñíguez López, Ana; Estrella Díez, Esther; Muñoz Tornero, María; Egea Valenzuela, Juan; Bas Bernal, Águeda; Garre Sánchez, Carmen; Vargas Acosta, Ángel; Sánchez Velasco, Eduardo; Carballo Álvarez, Luis Fernando

    2016-12-01

    We present the case of a patient under study due to ascites in which a mass located on the gastric wall was observed during ultrasonography. Further studies (upper endoscopy and computed tomography) confirmed this finding. After an ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy, diagnosis of gastric schwannoma was made as intense S-100 expression was found. Surgery was rejected due to the bad clinical situation of the patient and because the mass was an asymptomatic benign tumor.

  8. Association between vestibular schwannomas and mobile phone use

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, In Seok; Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Jinna; Lee, Jong Dae; Lee, Won-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) grow in the region where the energy from mobile phone use is absorbed. We examined the associations of VSs with mobile phone use. This study included 119 patients who had undergone surgical tumor removal. We used two approaches in this investigation. First, a case–control study for the association of mobile phone use and incidence of VSs was conducted. Both cases and controls were investigated with questions based on INTERPHONE guidelines. Amount of mobile phone u...

  9. Quality of life in patients after vestibular Schwannoma surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hajná, Barbora

    2011-01-01

    TVestibular schwannoma is a benign tumor that arises from the Schwann cells of the vestibular nerve. Unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus, facial and trigeminal dysfunction and vertigo are the most common symptoms. Surgical removal of the tumor is one of the treatment modalities of this disease. Surgical excision usually involves the complete vestibular nerve resection and there is also a risk of cochlear and facial nerve lesion. This thesis deals with changes in quality of life in patients afte...

  10. Cochlear Implantation in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2 and Patients with Vestibular Schwannoma in the Only Hearing Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Celis-Aguilar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implants are a new surgical option in the hearing rehabilitation of patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 and patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS in the only hearing ear. Auditory brainstem implant (ABI has been the standard surgical treatment for these patients. We performed a literature review of patients with NF2 and patients with VS in the only hearing ear. Cochlear implantation (CI provided some auditory benefit in all patients. Preservation of cochlear nerve integrity is crucial after VS resection. Results ranged from environmental sound awareness to excellent benefit with telephone use. Promontory stimulation is recommended although not crucial. MRI can be performed safely in cochlear implanted patients.

  11. Stereotactic radiosurgery vs. fractionated radiotherapy for tumor control in vestibular schwannoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Oscar; Bartek, Jiri; Shalom, Netanel Ben

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Repeated controlled studies have revealed that stereotactic radiosurgery is better than microsurgery for patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) ... to patients treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. RESULTS: No randomized controlled trial (RCT) was identified. None of the identified controlled studies comparing SRS with FSRT were eligible according to the inclusion criteria. Nineteen case series on SRS (n = 17) and FSRT (n = 2) were...... included in the systematic review. Loss of tumor control necessitating a new VS-targeted intervention was found in an average of 5.0% of the patients treated with SRS and in 4.8% treated with FSRT. Mean deterioration ratio for patients with serviceable hearing before treatment was 49% for SRS and 45...

  12. The extracisternal approach in vestibular schwannoma surgery and facial nerve preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. S. Vellutini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The classical surgical technique for the resection of vestibular schwannomas (VS has emphasized the microsurgical anatomy of cranial nerves. We believe that the focus on preservation of the arachnoid membrane may serve as a safe guide for tumor removal. Method The extracisternal approach is described in detail. We reviewed charts from 120 patients treated with this technique between 2006 and 2012. Surgical results were evaluated based on the extension of resection, tumor relapse, and facial nerve function. Results Overall gross total resection was achieved in 81% of the patients. The overall postoperative facial nerve function House-Brackmann grades I-II at one year was 93%. There was no recurrence in 4.2 years mean follow up. Conclusion The extracisternal technique differs from other surgical descriptions on the treatment of VS by not requiring the identification of the facial nerve, as long as we preserve the arachnoid envelope in the total circumference of the tumor.

  13. Analysis on CT features of tumor-like gastric schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Chen Jie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze CT imaging features of tumor-like gastric schwannomas. Methods: Ten patients with gastric schwannomas were retrospectively analyzed. All were scanned with pre-and pro-enhanced CT. Analysis of the CT findings included evaluation of the volume, number, location, contour, growth pattern, border, enhancement pattern, and enhancement grade as well as the presence of surface dimpling, integrity of overlying mucosa. All cases were confirmed by pathology. Results: In every case, simple tumor was present. The largest was about 5.7 cm in the diameter, the smallest was 2.3 cm. All tumors were round or oval, and one tumor was slightly lobulated. Endoluminal growth pattern was defined in two cases, exoluminal growth pattern was defined in one case, and a mixed growth pattern was noted in the rest. The borders of tumors were clear. In arterial phase, no visible enhancement was present in eight cases and mild enhancement in two cases. All cases were constantly enhanced in portal phase. Superficial ulcers were present in four cases. Conclusion: CT findings of tumor-like gastric schwannomas are distinctive to a certain degree. It can be used to guide clinical therapy. (authors)

  14. An evidence-based case of acoustic/vestibular schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vestibular schwannoma, often called an acoustic neuroma/schwannoma, is a benign primary intracranial tumor of the myelin-forming cells of the vestibulo-cochlear nerve (8 th cranial nerve. This tumor arises from the Schwann cells responsible for the myelin sheath that helps keep peripheral nerves insulated. [1] Approximately, 3000 cases are diagnosed each year in the United States with a prevalence of about 1 in 100,000 worldwide. It comprises 5-10% of all intracranial neoplasms in adults. Incidence peaks in the fifth and sixth decades and both sexes are affected equally. Studies in Denmark published in 2004 show the incidence of 17.4/million. Most acoustic neuromas are diagnosed in patients between the ages of 30 and 60, and men and women appear to be affected equally. [2] The case illustrated here is a rare one of acoustic/vestibular schwannoma a surgical conditions, treated with Lycopodium, which produced improvement on both subjective and objective parameters.

  15. Schwannoma extending from the umbilical region to the mid-thigh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... originating from the cells of peripheral nerve sheaths; the diagnosis was a schwannoma. Abdominal schwannomas are rare neoplasms that can be misdiagnosed. Laparoscopy is a safe and efficient option for approaching benign pelvic tumours and may offer the advantage of better visualisation of structures owing to the ...

  16. Multiple schwannomas of cauda equine in the absence of von Recklinghausen's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayaoglu, Cetin R.; Sengul, G.; Aydin, Ismail H.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple schwannomas in the absence of neurofibromatosis is rarely reported in the literature. We present a 56-year-old female with a history of severe leg and back pain on the left side for one year. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 4 schwannomas located in the cauda equine in the absence of von Recklinghausen's disease. (author)

  17. Schwannoma of the facial nerve involving the middle cranial fossa:case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAI Ke; CHEN Zhong-ping

    2007-01-01

    @@ Facial nerve schwannoma involving the middle cranial fossa is quite rare,and its accurate diagnosis is very difficult before SUrgery.Here we present a case of schwannoma of the facial nerve at the middle cranial fossa that was misdiagnosed previously at a local hospital and then cured in our hospital.

  18. Predicting Nonauditory Adverse Radiation Effects Following Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma: A Volume and Dosimetric Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Bernstein, Mark; Gentili, Fred; Heydarian, Mostafa; Tsao, May; Schwartz, Michael; Prooijen, Monique van; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Ménard, Cynthia; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Laperriere, Norm; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric predictors of nonauditory adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma treated with a 12 Gy prescription dose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience of vestibular schwannoma patients treated between September 2005 and December 2009. Two hundred patients were treated at a 12 Gy prescription dose; 80 had complete clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 24 months (median, 28.5 months). All treatment plans were reviewed for target volume and dosimetry characteristics; gradient index; homogeneity index, defined as the maximum dose in the treatment volume divided by the prescription dose; conformity index; brainstem; and trigeminal nerve dose. All adverse radiation effects (ARE) were recorded. Because the intent of our study was to focus on the nonauditory adverse effects, hearing outcome was not evaluated in this study. Results: Twenty-seven (33.8%) patients developed ARE, 5 (6%) developed hydrocephalus, 10 (12.5%) reported new ataxia, 17 (21%) developed trigeminal dysfunction, 3 (3.75%) had facial weakness, and 1 patient developed hemifacial spasm. The development of edema within the pons was significantly associated with ARE (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only target volume is a significant predictor of ARE (p = 0.001). There is a target volume threshold of 5 cm3, above which ARE are more likely. The treatment plan dosimetric characteristics are not associated with ARE, although the maximum dose to the 5th nerve is a significant predictor of trigeminal dysfunction, with a threshold of 9 Gy. The overall 2-year tumor control rate was 96%. Conclusions: Target volume is the most important predictor of adverse radiation effects, and we identified the significant treatment volume threshold to be 5 cm3. We also established through our series that the maximum tolerable dose to the 5th nerve is 9 Gy.

  19. Predicting Nonauditory Adverse Radiation Effects Following Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma: A Volume and Dosimetric Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Bernstein, Mark; Gentili, Fred [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Heydarian, Mostafa; Tsao, May [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Schwartz, Michael [Radiation Oncology Program and Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Prooijen, Monique van [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Millar, Barbara-Ann; Menard, Cynthia [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Kulkarni, Abhaya V. [Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada); Laperriere, Norm [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Zadeh, Gelareh, E-mail: Gelareh.Zadeh@uhn.on.ca [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric predictors of nonauditory adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma treated with a 12 Gy prescription dose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience of vestibular schwannoma patients treated between September 2005 and December 2009. Two hundred patients were treated at a 12 Gy prescription dose; 80 had complete clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 24 months (median, 28.5 months). All treatment plans were reviewed for target volume and dosimetry characteristics; gradient index; homogeneity index, defined as the maximum dose in the treatment volume divided by the prescription dose; conformity index; brainstem; and trigeminal nerve dose. All adverse radiation effects (ARE) were recorded. Because the intent of our study was to focus on the nonauditory adverse effects, hearing outcome was not evaluated in this study. Results: Twenty-seven (33.8%) patients developed ARE, 5 (6%) developed hydrocephalus, 10 (12.5%) reported new ataxia, 17 (21%) developed trigeminal dysfunction, 3 (3.75%) had facial weakness, and 1 patient developed hemifacial spasm. The development of edema within the pons was significantly associated with ARE (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only target volume is a significant predictor of ARE (p = 0.001). There is a target volume threshold of 5 cm3, above which ARE are more likely. The treatment plan dosimetric characteristics are not associated with ARE, although the maximum dose to the 5th nerve is a significant predictor of trigeminal dysfunction, with a threshold of 9 Gy. The overall 2-year tumor control rate was 96%. Conclusions: Target volume is the most important predictor of adverse radiation effects, and we identified the significant treatment volume threshold to be 5 cm3. We also established through our series that the maximum tolerable dose to the 5th nerve is 9 Gy.

  20. Association of Genetic Predisposition With Solitary Schwannoma or Meningioma in Children and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathmanaban, Omar N; Sadler, Katherine V; Kamaly-Asl, Ian D; King, Andrew T; Rutherford, Scott A; Hammerbeck-Ward, Charlotte; McCabe, Martin G; Kilday, John-Paul; Beetz, Christian; Poplawski, Nicola K; Evans, D Gareth; Smith, Miriam J

    2017-09-01

    Meningiomas and schwannomas are usually sporadic, isolated tumors occurring in adults older than 60 years and are rare in children and young adults. Multiple schwannomas and/or meningiomas are more frequently associated with a tumor suppressor syndrome and, accordingly, trigger genetic testing, whereas solitary tumors do not. Nevertheless, apparently sporadic tumors in young patients may herald a genetic syndrome. To determine the frequency of the known heritable meningioma- or schwannoma-predisposing mutations in children and young adults presenting with a solitary meningioma or schwannoma. Using the database of the Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, this cohort study analyzed lymphocyte DNA from young individuals prospectively referred to the clinic for genetic testing between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2016, on presentation with a single meningioma (n = 42) or schwannoma (n = 135) before age 25 years. Sequencing data were also examined from an additional 39 patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 who were retrospectively identified as having a solitary tumor before age 25 years. Patients with schwannoma were screened for NF2, SMARCB1, and LZTR1 gene mutations, while patients with meningioma were screened for NF2, SMARCB1, SMARCE1, and SUFU. The type of underlying genetic mutation, or lack of a predisposing mutation, was associated with the presenting tumor type and subsequent development of additional tumors or other features of known schwannoma- and meningioma-predisposing syndromes. In 2 cohorts of patients who presented with an isolated meningioma (n = 42; median [range] age, 11 [1-24] years; 22 female) or schwannoma (n = 135; median [range] age, 18 [0.2-24] years; 60 female) before age 25 years, 16 of 42 patients (38%) had a predisposing mutation to meningioma and 27 of 135 patients (20%) to schwannoma, respectively. In the solitary meningioma cohort, 34 of 63 patients (54%) had a constitutional mutation in a known meningioma

  1. Ancient schwannoma of thoracic spine in a schizophrenic patient with somatic delusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Wen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of schwannoma characterized by histopathologic degenerative changes, which are thought to be the result of long-term tumor growth and aging. However, ancient schwannoma in the spinal canal is particularly rare. We report a case of thoracic spine intradural extramedullary ancient schwannoma in a schizophrenic patient, who kept saying that “something in his back was giving him electric shock” for a long time. Unfortunately, this complaint was misinterpreted as somatic delusion symptoms. A spinal cord tumor was taken into consideration only after paraparesis developed. We have highlighted this case to remind every clinician to remain alert about the possibility of organic disease while treating patients with psychotic disorder history. Thorough neurological examination is required to avoid misdiagnosis. Spinal canal schwannoma can be totally removed successfully with good functional outcome and prognosis.

  2. Foramen Tympanicum or Foramen of Huschke: A Bioarchaeological Study on Human Skeletons from an Iron Age Cemetery at Tabriz Kabud Mosque Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaian, Jafar; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Vahdati Nasab, Hamed; Hojabri Nobari, Ali Reza; Abedollahi, Ali

    2015-07-01

    The foramen tympanicum is an anatomical variation that is created in the tympanic plate of temporal bone during the first year of life. The tympanic plate grows and foramen tympanicum is gradually closed by about the fifth postnatal year. However, due to a defect in normal ossification, foramen tympanicum sporadically remains throughout life. The construction of a shopping center in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, led to the discovery of an Iron Age cemetery (1500-500 BC). Several tombs have been uncovered below one meter of sterile soil so far and a thick level of architectural debris from the medieval city has been discovered. Up to now, no bioarchaeological data has been gathered about the burials in this area. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of foramen tympanicum in this area. In this study, 45 skeletons were studied and the prevalence of this foramen was about 4.4% bilaterally. We also reported on two babies with fused and un-fused squamotympanic fissure. The persistence of this foramen is a possible risk factor for otologic complications after arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint and salivary gland fistula through this foramen. The closure of this foramen could be also used for age estimation in sub-adult individuals. The incidence of this trait in this study was similar to other available studies on modern skeletons.

  3. Foramen Tympanicum or Foramen of Huschke: A Bioarchaeological Study on Human Skeletons from an Iron Age Cemetery at Tabriz Kabud Mosque Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Rezaian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The foramen tympanicum is an anatomical variation that is created in the tympanic plate of temporal bone during the first year of life. The tympanic plate grows and foramen tympanicum is gradually closed by about the fifth postnatal year. However, due to a defect in normal ossification, foramen tympanicum sporadically remains throughout life. The construction of a shopping center in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, led to the discovery of an Iron Age cemetery (1500-500 BC. Several tombs have been uncovered below one meter of sterile soil so far and a thick level of architectural debris from the medieval city has been discovered. Up to now, no bioarchaeological data has been gathered about the burials in this area. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of foramen tympanicum in this area. In this study, 45 skeletons were studied and the prevalence of this foramen was about 4.4% bilaterally. We also reported on two babies with fused and un-fused squamotympanic fissure. The persistence of this foramen is a possible risk factor for otologic complications after arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint and salivary gland fistula through this foramen. The closure of this foramen could be also used for age estimation in sub-adult individuals. The incidence of this trait in this study was similar to other available studies on modern skeletons.

  4. Imaging of patent foramen ovale with 64-section multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Farhood; Channual, Stephanie; Raney, Aidan; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V; Narula, Jagat; Fowler, Steven; Abolhoda, Amir; Milliken, Jeffrey C

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the feasibility of 64-section multidetector computed tomography (CT) by using CT angiography (a) to demonstrate anatomic detail of the interatrial septum pertinent to the patent foramen ovale (PFO), and (b) to visually detect left-to-right PFO shunts and compare these findings in patients who also underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). In this institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant study, electrocardiographically gated coronary CT angiograms in 264 patients (159 men, 105 women; mean age, 60 years) were reviewed for PFO morphologic features. The length and diameter of the opening of the PFO tunnel, presence of atrial septal aneurysm (ASA), and PFO shunts were evaluated. A left-to-right shunt was assigned a grade according to length of contrast agent jet (grade 1, 1 cm to 2 cm; grade 3, >2 cm). In addition, 23 patients who underwent both modalities were compared (Student t test and linear regression analysis). A difference with P patent at the entry into the right atrium (PFO) in 62 patients (61.4% of patients with flap valve, 23.5% of total patients). A left-to-right shunt was detected in 44 (16.7% of total) patients (grade 1, 61.4%; grade 2, 34.1%; grade 3, 4.5%). No shunt was seen in patients without a flap valve. Mean length of PFO tunnel was 7.1 mm in 44 patients with a shunt and 12.1 mm in 57 patients with a flap valve without a shunt (P < .0001). In patients with a tunnel length of 6 mm or shorter, 92.6% of the shunts were seen. ASA was seen in 11 (4.2%) patients; of these patients, a shunt was seen in seven (63.6%). In 23 patients who underwent CT angiography and TEE, both modalities showed a PFO shunt in seven. Multidetector CT provides detailed anatomic information about size, morphologic features, and shunt grade of the PFO. Shorter tunnel length and septal aneurysms are frequently associated with left-to-right shunts in patients with PFO. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  5. Long-Term Facial Nerve Outcomes after Microsurgical Resection of Vestibular Schwannomas in Patients with Preoperative Facial Nerve Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Michael A; Hendricks, Benjamin; Sarris, Christina E; Spetzler, Robert F; Almefty, Kaith K; Porter, Randall W

    2018-06-01

    Objectives  This study aimed at evaluating facial nerve outcomes in vestibular schwannoma patients presenting with preoperative facial nerve palsy. Design  A retrospective review. Setting  Single-institution cohort. Participants  Overall, 368 consecutive patients underwent vestibular schwannoma resection. Patients with prior microsurgery or radiosurgery were excluded. Main Outcome Measures  Incidence, House-Brackmann grade. Results  Of 368 patients, 9 had confirmed preoperative facial nerve dysfunction not caused by prior treatment, for an estimated incidence of 2.4%. Seven of these nine patients had Koos grade 4 tumors. Mean tumor diameter was 3.0 cm (range: 2.1-4.4 cm), and seven of nine tumors were subtotally resected. All nine patients were followed up clinically for ≥ 6 months. Of the six patients with a preoperative House-Brackmann grade of II, two improved to grade I, three were stable, and one patient worsened to grade III. Of the three patients with grade III or worse, all remained stable at last follow-up. Conclusions  Preoperative facial nerve palsy is rare in patients with vestibular schwannoma; it tends to occur in patients with relatively large lesions. Detailed long-term outcomes of facial nerve function after microsurgical resection for these patients have not been reported previously. We followed nine patients and found that eight (89%) of the nine patients had either stable or improved facial nerve outcomes after treatment. Management strategies varied for these patients, including rates of subtotal versus gross-total resection and the use of stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with residual tumor. These results can be used to help counsel patients preoperatively on expected outcomes of facial nerve function after treatment.

  6. Surgical Treatment for Thrombus Straddling a Patent Foramen Ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Barboza de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a case of a 41-year-old female with deep vein thrombosis after abdominal surgery. The patient quickly developed severe pulmonary embolism and stroke representative of paradoxical embolism. Echocardiography showed a thrombus straddling a patent foramen ovale, which was confirmed intraoperatively. An accurate diagnosis and rapid treatment decisions are crucial for preventing patient deterioration in the form of new pulmonary embolisms or stroke.

  7. POSITION OF CEREBELLAR TONSILS IN REFERENCE TO FORAMEN MAGNUM: AN MRI STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Normal position of the cerebellar tonsils is described to be at or above the foramen magnum. Western studies have shown the cerebellar tonsils to be below the foramen magnum. Position of tonsils is of great importance in assessing the hind brain deformity–Chiari malformation. There are no Indian studies to corroborate the findings. Hence, we proposed a basic study to find out the existence of tonsillar ectopia (Position of tonsils below the foramen magnum) in normal population. Ou...

  8. AN ANATOMICAL PERSPECTIVE OF HUMAN OCCIPITAL CONDYLES AND FORAMEN MAGNUM WITH NEUROSURGICAL CORRELATES

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav; Divya; Abha

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Knowledge of condylar anatomy helps the surgeon in making important decisions regarding extent and direction of condylar drilling and minimizing injury and retraction of neural structures. Important preoperative information includes length, width, axis/directions and overriding of occipital condyle in foramen magnum, relationships of condyles to foramen magnum and to hypoglossal canal. The antero-posterior and transverse diameters of foramen magnum and amount of over...

  9. Lumbar Nerve Root Occupancy in the Foramen in Achondroplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Hitesh N.; Song, Hae-Ryong; Yang, Jae Hyuk

    2008-01-01

    Lumbar stenosis is common in patients with achondroplasia because of narrowing of the neural canal. However, it is unclear what causes stenosis, narrowing of the central canal or foramina. We performed a morphometric analysis of the lumbar nerve roots and intervertebral foramen in 17 patients (170 nerve roots and foramina) with achondroplasia (eight symptomatic, nine asymptomatic) and compared the data with that from 20 (200 nerve roots and foramina) asymptomatic patients without achondroplasia presenting with low back pain without neurologic symptoms. The measurements were made on left and right parasagittal MRI scans of the lumbar spine. The foramen area and root area were reduced at all levels from L1 to L5 between the patients with achondroplasia (Groups I and II) and the nonachondroplasia group (Group III). The percentage of nerve root occupancy in the foramen between Group I and Group II as compared with the patients without achondroplasia was similar or lower. This implied the lumbar nerve root size in patients with achondroplasia was smaller than that of the normal population and thus there is no effective nerve root compression. Symptoms of lumbar stenosis in achondroplasia may be arising from the central canal secondary to degenerative disc disease rather than a true foraminal stenosis. Level of Evidence: Level I, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18259829

  10. Surgical experience with skull base approaches for foramen magnum meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Sanabria, Elio Arnaldo; Ehara, Kazumasa; Tamaki, Norihiko

    2002-11-01

    The surgical treatment of patients with foramen magnum meningioma remains challenging. This study evaluated the outcome of this tumor according to the evolution of surgical approaches during the last 29 years. A retrospective analysis of medical records, operative notes, and neuroimages of 492 meningioma cases from 1972 to 2001 identified seven cases of foramen magnum meningioma (1.4%). All patients showed various neurological symptoms corresponding with foramen magnum syndrome. The tumor locations were anterior in five cases and posterior in two. Surgical removal was performed through a transoral approach in one patient, the suboccipital approach in three, and the transcondylar approach in two. Total removal was achieved in all patients, except for one who refused any surgical treatment. The major complications were tetraparesis and lower cranial nerve paresis for tumors in anterior locations, and minor complications for posterior locations. One patient died of atelectasis and pneumonia after a long hospitalization. The transcondylar approach is recommended for anterior locations, and the standard suboccipital approach for posterior locations.

  11. Surface Projection of Interosseous Foramen of the Leg: Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Arguello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was conducted to identify the surface projection of the interosseous foramen and associated structures of the proximal leg using the average clinician’s thumb width as a quick measurement to assist in differential diagnosis and treatment. Methods. Twelve cadavers (5 males and 7 females, age range = 51–91 years, and mean age = 76.9 were dissected for analysis. Location and size of interosseous foramen, location of anterior tibial artery, location of deep fibular nerve, and corresponding arterial branches were measured and converted into thumb widths. Results. Mean thumb width measured among the cadavers was 17.94±3.9 mm. The interosseous foramen measured was approximately 1 thumb width vertically (18.47±3.0 mm and 1/2 thumb width horizontally (7.32±2.1 mm and was located approximately 1 thumb width distally to the tibial tuberosity (20.81±6.8 mm and 2 thumb widths (37.47±4.7 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. The anterior tibial artery and deep fibular nerve converged approximately 4 thumb widths (74.31±14.8 mm inferior to the tibial tuberosity and 2 thumb widths (33.46±4.9 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. Conclusion. Clinicians may identify anatomical structures of the proximal leg with palpation using the thumb width for measurement.

  12. Multidisciplinary Assessment in Optimising Results of Percutaneous Patent Foramen Ovale Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Allan; Ekmejian, Avedis; Collins, Nicholas; Bhagwandeen, Rohan

    2017-03-01

    Percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure is a therapeutic option to prevent recurrent cerebral ischaemia in patients with cryptogenic stroke and transient cerebral ischaemia (TIA). The apparent lack of benefit seen in previous randomised trials has, in part, reflected inclusion of patients with alternate mechanisms of stroke. The role of formal neurology involvement in accurately delineating the likely aetiology of stroke or TIA is crucial in appropriate identification of patients for device closure. Furthermore, as the benefits of device closure may accrue over time, long-term follow-up is essential to define the role of device closure in management of presumed cryptogenic stroke. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with percutaneous PFO device closure since 2005. All subjects who underwent PFO closure at John Hunter and Lake Macquarie Private Hospitals were included in the study. All patients referred for device closure following cryptogenic stroke or TIA had first undergone formal neurology review with appropriate imaging and exclusion of paroxysmal atrial arrhythmia. Patients with a history of transient ischaemic attack (TIA) are frequently referred to a specialised clinic, aimed to identify patients with conditions not referable to cerebral ischaemia, with investigations initiated by the specialist clinic to elucidate an underlying aetiology. Outcome data was derived from the Hunter New England Area Local Health District Cardiac and Stroke Outcomes Unit, in addition to review of the medical record. The Cardiac and Stroke Outcomes Unit prospectively identified all patients presenting with stroke, TIA and atrial fibrillation. One hundred and twelve consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous patent foramen ovale closure between 2005 and 2015 were identified. The average age was 42.7 years and 57 (50.9%) patients were male. Cryptogenic stroke (68.8%) and transient cerebral ischaemia (23.2%) were the most common indications for PFO closure, with the

  13. Giant thoracic schwannoma presenting with abrupt onset of abdominal pain: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Giant intradural extramedullary schwannomas of the thoracic spine are not common. Schwannomas, that is, tumors derived from neoplastic Schwann cells, and neurofibromas represent the most common intradural extramedullary spinal lesions. We report the case of a patient with a giant thoracic schwannoma presenting unusually with acute abdominal pain and with delayed neurological impairment. Case presentation A 26-year-old Hispanic man with no previous medical problems presented with acute periumbilical pain. After extensive work-up including an exploratory laparotomy for appendectomy, magnetic resonance imaging scans of the lumbar and thoracic spine revealed a giant intradural extramedullary thoracic schwannoma within the spinal canal posterior to the T9, T10, and T11 vertebral bodies. Magnetic resonance imaging signal prolongation was noted in the spinal cord both rostral and caudal to the schwannoma. The patient underwent an urgent laminectomy from T8 to L1. After sacrificing the T10 root, the tumor was removed en bloc. Postoperatively, the patient improved significantly gaining antigravity strength in both lower extremities. Conclusion The T10 dermatome is represented by the umbilical region. This referred pain may represent a mechanism by which a giant thoracic schwannoma may present as acute abdominal pain. Acute, intense abdominal pain with delayed neurologic deficit is a rare presentation of a thoracic schwannoma but should be considered as a possible cause of abdominal pain presenting without clear etiology. Although these lesions may be delayed in their diagnosis, early diagnosis and treatment may lead to an improved clinical outcome. PMID:19946504

  14. Giant thoracic schwannoma presenting with abrupt onset of abdominal pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Isaac

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Giant intradural extramedullary schwannomas of the thoracic spine are not common. Schwannomas, that is, tumors derived from neoplastic Schwann cells, and neurofibromas represent the most common intradural extramedullary spinal lesions. We report the case of a patient with a giant thoracic schwannoma presenting unusually with acute abdominal pain and with delayed neurological impairment. Case presentation A 26-year-old Hispanic man with no previous medical problems presented with acute periumbilical pain. After extensive work-up including an exploratory laparotomy for appendectomy, magnetic resonance imaging scans of the lumbar and thoracic spine revealed a giant intradural extramedullary thoracic schwannoma within the spinal canal posterior to the T9, T10, and T11 vertebral bodies. Magnetic resonance imaging signal prolongation was noted in the spinal cord both rostral and caudal to the schwannoma. The patient underwent an urgent laminectomy from T8 to L1. After sacrificing the T10 root, the tumor was removed en bloc. Postoperatively, the patient improved significantly gaining antigravity strength in both lower extremities. Conclusion The T10 dermatome is represented by the umbilical region. This referred pain may represent a mechanism by which a giant thoracic schwannoma may present as acute abdominal pain. Acute, intense abdominal pain with delayed neurologic deficit is a rare presentation of a thoracic schwannoma but should be considered as a possible cause of abdominal pain presenting without clear etiology. Although these lesions may be delayed in their diagnosis, early diagnosis and treatment may lead to an improved clinical outcome.

  15. Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Bernhard; Kalesan, Bindu; Mattle, Heinrich P; Khattab, Ahmed A; Hildick-Smith, David; Dudek, Dariusz; Andersen, Grethe; Ibrahim, Reda; Schuler, Gerhard; Walton, Antony S; Wahl, Andreas; Windecker, Stephan; Jüni, Peter

    2013-03-21

    The options for secondary prevention of cryptogenic embolism in patients with patent foramen ovale are administration of antithrombotic medications or percutaneous closure of the patent foramen ovale. We investigated whether closure is superior to medical therapy. We performed a multicenter, superiority trial in 29 centers in Europe, Canada, Brazil, and Australia in which the assessors of end points were unaware of the study-group assignments. Patients with a patent foramen ovale and ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or a peripheral thromboembolic event were randomly assigned to undergo closure of the patent foramen ovale with the Amplatzer PFO Occluder or to receive medical therapy. The primary end point was a composite of death, nonfatal stroke, TIA, or peripheral embolism. Analysis was performed on data for the intention-to-treat population. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.1 years in the closure group and 4.0 years in the medical-therapy group. The primary end point occurred in 7 of the 204 patients (3.4%) in the closure group and in 11 of the 210 patients (5.2%) in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio for closure vs. medical therapy, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24 to 1.62; P=0.34). Nonfatal stroke occurred in 1 patient (0.5%) in the closure group and 5 patients (2.4%) in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.02 to 1.72; P=0.14), and TIA occurred in 5 patients (2.5%) and 7 patients (3.3%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.23 to 2.24; P=0.56). Closure of a patent foramen ovale for secondary prevention of cryptogenic embolism did not result in a significant reduction in the risk of recurrent embolic events or death as compared with medical therapy. (Funded by St. Jude Medical; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00166257.).

  16. Sociodemographic factors and vestibular schwannoma: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Vestibular schwannoma (VS) (or acoustic neuroma) accounts for about 5%-6% of all intracranial tumors; little is known about the etiology. We investigated the association between various sociodemographic indicators and VS in a cohort of 3.26 million Danish residents, with 1087 cases identified in 35...... 308 974 person-years under risk, with data accrued from 1993 to 2006. Complete ascertainment of cases was ensured by using population-based and clinical cancer registries. Information on sociodemographic indicators was obtained on an annually updated individual level from Statistics Denmark. Log...

  17. Anesthetic management of schwannoma of the base of the tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma B Batra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannoma arising from the base of the tongue are very rare and only a few cases have been reported so far. Definitive diagnosis is always made after a histological examination. Apart from an anticipated difficult airway with a risk of airway obstruction upon induction of general anesthesia, anesthetic concerns also include possibility of trauma to the growth and bleeding with attendant risks. We discuss the awake fiberoptic technique used for endotracheal intubation in such a case. This case report highlights the importance of detailed history taking and clinical examination, with emphasis on airway assessment and preoperative planning.

  18. Critical Airway Compromise due to a Massive Vagal Schwannoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, AM

    2016-05-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old man with a slowly enlarging neck lump and compressive symptoms. He presented to a separate institution 10 years prior where an observational approach was advocated. Following preoperative investigations and embolization, an 11cm vagal schwannoma was excised and vagus nerve was sacrificed. Although conservative management is appropriate for a select patient population, surgical excision is treatment of choice for cervical neurogenic tumours and paraganglionomas and must be considered in young patients or rapidly expanding tumours to avoid compressive symptoms, as in this case.

  19. Nonvestibular schwannoma tumors in the cerebellopontine angle: A structured approach and management guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, J.B.; Poulsgaard, L.; Thomsen, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    The most common cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumor is a vestibular schwannoma, but one in five CPA tumors are not vestibular schwannomas. These tumors may require different management strategies. Compared with vestibular schwannomas, symptoms and signs from cranial nerve VIII are less frequent......: other cranial nerve and cerebellar symptoms and signs predominate in patients with these less common CPA tumors. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging often show features leading to the correct diagnosis. Treatment most often includes surgery, but a policy of observation or subtotal...

  20. Gastric schwannoma: a benign tumor often misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva S. Shah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastric schwannomas are rare mesenchymal tumors that arise from the nerve plexus of gut wall. They present with nonspecific symptoms and are often detected incidentally. Preoperative investigation is not pathognomic and many are therefore misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We report a rare case of a 37-year old woman who underwent laparotomy for complex bilateral ovarian cyst with resection of gastric-gastrointestinal stromal tumor preoperatively, but confirmed to have a gastric schwannomas postoperatively. This case underscores the differential diagnosis of submucosal, exophytic gastric mass as schwannoma.

  1. Foramen magnum decompression versus terminal ventriculostomy for the treatment of syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizzolo, F; Versari, P; D'Aliberti, G; Arena, O; Scotti, G; Mariani, C

    1988-01-01

    The A.A review 30 consecutive cases of syringomyelia operated on during the last seven years. Six terminal ventriculostomies (TV) and twenty-seven procedures for foramen magnum decompression (FMD) were performed. All patients of TV group had CT-myelography (CTM) and/or NMR controls at different times after surgery. Clinical results are as follows: 1) of the 6 patients who had TV, only one showed an improvement while five continued to deteriorate and three of them needed a FMD, one a cysto-peritoneal shunt and the last one died from lung cancer. 2) of the 27 patients who had FMD, twenty improved, four were unchanged and three worsened. 3) no surgical deaths occurred in this series. Postoperative NMR monitoring represents an effective non-invasive neuroradiological procedure that allows follow-up of syrinx evolution over the years.

  2. Hearing preservation and facial nerve function after microsurgery for intracanalicular vestibular schwannomas: comparison of middle fossa and retrosigmoid approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noudel, R; Gomis, P; Duntze, J; Marnet, D; Bazin, A; Roche, P H

    2009-08-01

    Therapeutic options for vestibular schwannomas (VS) include microsurgery, stereotactic radiosurgery and conservative management. Early treatment of intracanalicular vestibular schwannomas (IVS) may be advisable because their spontaneous course will show hearing loss in most cases. Advanced microsurgical techniques and continuous intraoperative monitoring of cranial nerves may allow hearing preservation (HP) without facial nerve damage. However, there are still controversies about the definition of hearing preservation, and the best surgical approach that should be used. In this study, we reviewed the main data from the recent literature on IVS surgery and compared hearing, facial function and complication rates after the retrosigmoid (RS) and middle fossa (MF) approaches, respectively. The results showed that the average HP rate after IVS surgery ranged from 58% (RS) to 62% (MF). HP varied widely depending on the audiometric criteria that were used for definition of serviceable hearing. There was a trend to show that the MF approach offered a better quality of postoperative hearing (not statistically significant), whereas the RS approach offered a better facial nerve preservation and fewer complications (not statistically significant). We believe that the timing of treatment in the course of the disease and selection between radiosurgical versus microsurgical procedure are key issues in the management of IVS. Preservation of hearing and good facial nerve function in surgery for VS is a reasonable goal for many patients with intracanalicular tumors and serviceable hearing. Once open surgery has been decided, selection of the approach mainly depends on individual anatomical considerations and experience of the surgeon.

  3. Predictors of vertigo in patients with untreated vestibular schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jan Fredrik; Nilsen, Kathrin Skorpa; Vassbotn, Flemming Slinning; Møller, Per; Myrseth, Erling; Lund-Johansen, Morten; Goplen, Frederik Kragerud

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that vertigo is the most powerful negative predictor of quality of life in patients with vestibular schwannomas, but the variability in vertigo symptom severity is still poorly understood. We wanted to find out whether vertigo could be related to objective parameters such as tumor size, location, vestibular nerve function, hearing, and postural stability in patients with untreated vestibular schwannomas. Baseline data from prospective cohort study. Tertiary referral center. Four hundred thirty-four consecutive patients with unilateral VS diagnosed on MRI. Mean age 56 years (range 16-84 yr). Fifty-three percent women. Diagnostic, with a medical history, otolaryngological examination, pure-tone and speech audiometry, MRI, posturography, and videonystagmography with bithermal caloric tests. Dizziness measured on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary outcome measures were canal paresis and postural imbalance (static and dynamic posturography). Three hundred three patients (70%) completed the VAS. Severe dizziness, defined as VAS 75 or greater, was reported by 9% of the patients. Larger tumors were associated with higher risk of postural instability and canal paresis. Moderate to severe dizziness was associated with postural imbalance and canal paresis, and possibly with small to medium-sized tumors. Postural instability was related to tumor size and canal paresis when measured by dynamic, but not with static, posturography. A minority of VS patients experience severe vestibular symptoms related to canal paresis and postural instability. A curvilinear relationship is hypothesized between tumor size and dizziness.

  4. Transoral Robotic Surgery in Retrostyloid Parapharyngeal Space Schwannomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarin, Mohssen; Tagliabue, Marta; Chu, Francesco; Zorzi, Stefano; Proh, Michele; Preda, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumors are very rare, representing about 0.5% of head and neck neoplasms. An external surgical approach is mainly used. Several recent papers show how transoral robotic surgery (TORS) excision could be a prospective tool to remove mainly benign lesions in PPS; no cases of neurogenic tumors from the retrostyloid space treated with TORS have been reported. We present two cases which underwent TORS for schwannomas from the retrostyloid compartment of the parapharyngeal space. Clinical diagnosis of schwannoma was performed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the first case a 6 cm neurogenic tumor arose from the vagus nerve and in the second case a 5 cm mass from the sympathetic chain was observed. Both cases were treated successfully by the TORS approach using a new “J”-shaped incision through the mucosa and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Left vocal cord palsy and the Claude Bernard Horner syndrome, respectively, were observed as expected postsurgical sequelae. In case 1 the first bite syndrome developed after three months, while no complications were observed in case 2. Both patients regained a normal swallowing function. TORS seems to be a feasible mini-invasive procedure for benign PPS masses including masses in the poststyloid space. PMID:25202464

  5. Transoral Robotic Surgery in Retrostyloid Parapharyngeal Space Schwannomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohssen Ansarin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parapharyngeal space (PPS tumors are very rare, representing about 0.5% of head and neck neoplasms. An external surgical approach is mainly used. Several recent papers show how transoral robotic surgery (TORS excision could be a prospective tool to remove mainly benign lesions in PPS; no cases of neurogenic tumors from the retrostyloid space treated with TORS have been reported. We present two cases which underwent TORS for schwannomas from the retrostyloid compartment of the parapharyngeal space. Clinical diagnosis of schwannoma was performed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In the first case a 6 cm neurogenic tumor arose from the vagus nerve and in the second case a 5 cm mass from the sympathetic chain was observed. Both cases were treated successfully by the TORS approach using a new “J”-shaped incision through the mucosa and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Left vocal cord palsy and the Claude Bernard Horner syndrome, respectively, were observed as expected postsurgical sequelae. In case 1 the first bite syndrome developed after three months, while no complications were observed in case 2. Both patients regained a normal swallowing function. TORS seems to be a feasible mini-invasive procedure for benign PPS masses including masses in the poststyloid space.

  6. ROBOTIC SURGERY FOR GIANT PRESACRAL DUMBBELL-SHAPE SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Yudoyono

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the feasibility of using da Vinci robotic surgical system to perform spinal surgery. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of a 29-year-old female patient complaining right pelvic pain for 1 month revealed a 17x8x10 cm non-homogeneous dumbbell shape encapsulated mass with cystic change located in the pelvic cavity and caused an anterior displacement of urinary bladder and colon. Results: There was no systemic complication and pain decrease 24 hours after surgery and during 2 years of follow up. The patient started a diet 6 hours after the surgery and was discharged 72 hours after the surgery. The pathological diagnosis of the tumor was schwannoma. Conclusions: Giant dumbbell shape presacral schwannomas are rare tumours and their surgical treatment is challenging because of the complex anatomy of the presacral. Clinical application of da Vinci robotic surgical system in the spinal surgical field is currently confined to the treatment of some specific diseases or procedures. However, robotic surgery is expected to play a practical future role as it is minimally invasive. The advent of robotic technology will prove to be a boon to the neurosurgeon.

  7. The bony crescent sign - a new sign of facial nerve schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, A.; Fagan, P.

    1992-01-01

    Schwannomas are relatively uncommon intracranial tumours. They most commonly involve the acoustic nerve followed in frequency by the trigeminal nerve. Other cranial nerves are rarely involved. Facial nerve schwannomas occurring within the petrous temporal bone are very rare. Their diagnosis may be missed prospectively even when appropriate computerized tomography (CT) scans are performed. Even in retrospect the site of abnormality may be difficult to identify, especially if there is an associated middle ear mass such as a cholesteatoma. In the 4 cases presented the facial nerve schwannoma was seen on high resolution CT as a soft tissue mass bounded anteriorly by a thin rim of bone. This bony crescent sign is a previously undescribed feature of facial nerve schwannoma which appears to be strongly indicative of the presence of this tumour. Recognition of this sign makes these tumours arising in the region of the geniculate ganglion easy to diagnose prospectively. 12 refs., 6 figs

  8. Benign giant mediastinal schwannoma presenting as cardiac tamponade in a woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiya Mitsuaki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mediastinal schwannomas are typically benign and asymptomatic, and generally present no immediate risks. We encountered a rare case of a giant benign posterior mediastinal schwannoma, complicated by life-threatening cardiac tamponade. Case presentation We report the case of a 72-year-old Japanese woman, who presented with cardiogenic shock. Computed tomography of the chest revealed a posterior mediastinal mass 150 cm in diameter, with pericardial effusion. The cardiac tamponade was treated with prompt pericardial fluid drainage. A biopsy was taken from the mass, and after histological examination, it was diagnosed as a benign schwannoma, a well-encapsulated non-infiltrating tumor, originating from the intrathoracic vagus nerve. It was successfully excised, restoring normal cardiac function. Conclusion Our case suggests that giant mediastinal schwannomas, although generally benign and asymptomatic, should be excised upon discovery to prevent the development of life-threatening cardiopulmonary complications.

  9. Angiogenesis in vestibular schwannomas: expression of extracellular matrix factors MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Werther, Kim; Nalla, Amarnadh

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are potent mediators of tumor angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that vestibular schwannoma VEGF expression correlates with tumor growth pattern, whereas knowledge on the expression of MMPs is lacking. This study...

  10. Schwannoma in the porta hepatis - laparoscopic excision under laparoscopic ultrasound guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Maciej; Sroczyński, Maciej; Donizy, Piotr; Rudnicki, Jerzy

    2017-09-01

    Schwannomas are usually benign tumors attached to peripheral nerves and are rarely found in the gastrointestinal tract. Schwannomas in the porta hepatis are extremely rare, with only 15 cases described in the literature to date. A 22-year-old female patient presented with colicky upper abdominal pain lasting 3 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdominal cavity revealed a tumor in the porta hepatis. The patient was qualified for laparoscopy. The tumor was totally excised laparoscopically under guidance of laparoscopic ultrasound without intra- or postoperative complications. Postoperative histopathological examination confirmed the porta hepatic schwannoma. The patient recovered uneventfully with very good cosmetic results. In the follow-up period of 5 months we have not observed any abdominal or general health problems. The present case is the first report in the world of laparoscopic ultrasound guided laparoscopic excision of a porta hepatic schwannoma.

  11. Linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for bilateral vestibular schwannomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Otto W. M.; Vandertop, W. Peter; Lagerwaard, Frank J.; Slotman, Ben J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) patients typically have bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) and are at risk for developing bilateral deafness, bilateral trigeminal, and bilateral facial nerve function loss. Previous reports suggested that treatment outcomes in these

  12. Clinical experience with Leksell gamma knife in the treatment of trigeminal schwannomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG En-min; PAN Li; ZHANG Nan; ZHOU Liang-fu; WANG Bing-jiang; DONG Ya-fei; DAI Jia-zhong; CAI Pei-wu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Trigeminal nerve schwannomas, which are rare, slowly growing, benign tumors, account for 0.2% to 1.0% of all intracranial tumors and 0.8% to 8.0% of intracranial schwannomas.1-5 These tumors are treated surgically.1-4 The development of microsurgery and skull base surgery has made complete resection possible in most patients. Nevertheless, cranial nerve sequelae appear after complete resection of these tumors because they are located close to the cavernous sinus and usually adhere to the vital vascular and neural structures. As an alternative to microsurgical resection, Leksell gamma knife (LGK) radiosurgery has been performed for patients with intracranial schwannomas to minimize the treatment-related morbidity and achieve a long-term control of tumor growth.6,7 In this report, we describe our 6-year experience in the treatment of 38 patients with trigeminal schwannomas by LGK.

  13. Imaging-documented repeated intratumoral hemorrhage in vestibular schwannoma: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandl, E. S.; Vandertop, W. P.; Meijer, O. W. M.; Peerdeman, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Intratumoral hemorrhage in vestibular schwannomas is rare. Symptoms often have an acute onset and include headache, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and depressed consciousness. Intratumoral hemorrhage is probably caused by vascular fragility associated with tumor characteristics and growth. With

  14. Another look at the foramen magnum in bipedal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Kirk, E Christopher

    2017-04-01

    A more anteriorly positioned foramen magnum evolved in concert with bipedalism at least four times within Mammalia: once in macropodid marsupials, once in heteromyid rodents, once in dipodid rodents, and once in hominoid primates. Here, we expand upon previous research on the factors influencing mammalian foramen magnum position (FMP) and angle with four new analyses. First, we quantify FMP using a metric (basioccipital ratio) not previously examined in a broad comparative sample of mammals. Second, we evaluate the potential influence of relative brain size on both FMP and foramen magnum angle (FMA). Third, we assess FMP in an additional rodent clade (Anomaluroidea) containing bipedal springhares (Pedetes spp.) and gliding/quadrupedal anomalures (Anomalurus spp.). Fourth, we determine the relationship between measures of FMP and FMA in extant hominoids and an expanded mammalian sample. Our results indicate that bipedal/orthograde mammals have shorter basioccipitals than their quadrupedal/non-orthograde relatives. Brain size alone has no discernible effect on FMP or FMA. Brain size relative to palate size has a weak influence on FMP in some clades, but effects are not evident in all metrics of FMP and are inconsistent among clades. Among anomaluroids, bipedal Pedetes exhibits a more anterior FMP than gliding/quadrupedal Anomalurus. The relationship between FMA and FMP in hominoids depends on the metric chosen for quantifying FMP, and if modern humans are included in the sample. However, the relationship between FMA and FMP is nonexistent or weak across rodents, marsupials, and, to a lesser extent, strepsirrhine primates. These results provide further evidence that bipedal mammals tend to have more anteriorly positioned foramina magna than their quadrupedal close relatives. Our findings also suggest that the evolution of FMP and FMA in hominins may not be closely coupled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Establishment of a porcine model of patent foramen ovale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weijian; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of developing an animal model of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in piglets by percutaneous atrial septal puncture and balloon dilation. Methods: A standardized percutaneous atrial trans-septal puncture and balloon dilation was conducted in eleven healthy piglets under general anesthesia. A Rups-100 system inserted through a femoral vein was used for the trans-septal puncture, and subsequent balloon dilatation was performed at the puncture site to imitate a PFO. Euthanasia and autopsy were performed on day-1 in 1 piglet (early autopsy), and on day-21 in the remaining 10 piglets (late autopsy). Results: Artificial PFO was successfully created in all piglets and verified by fluoroscopy. No major technical difficulty or complication was encountered except in one which developed mild hemopericardium. In the piglet which had early autopsy, the artificial foramen was measured 0.8 cm x 0.7 cm in cross-section and aggregates of erythrocytes were revealed over its rim under light microscopy. In the late autopsy group (n=10), 7 piglets had the created foramens healed and sealed off; while the other 3 showed relatively small residual lumens measuring 0.1 cm x 0.2 cm, 0.2 cm x 0.2 cm and 0.1 cm x 0.3 cm in cross-section respectively. Histological examination of specimens from the late autopsy group showed variable neointima hyperplasia, loss of neointima, infiltration of lymphocytes, focal hydropic degeneration of cardiac muscle, and focal fibrosis of interstitium at the immediate vicinity of regardless of the course of healing. Conclusion: Artificial creation of PFO in piglets is feasible by percutaneous atrial septal puncture and balloon dilation. This protocol may serve as a research model for PFO-related stroke in human. (authors)

  16. Sex Prediction using Foramen Magnum and Occipital Condyles Computed Tomography Measurements in Sudanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Mohamed El-Barrany

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination is important in establishing the identity of an individual. The foramen magnum is an important landmark of the skull base. The present research aimed to study the value of foramen magnum measurements to determine sex using computed tomography (CT among Sudanese individuals. Foramen magnum CT scans of 400 Sudanese individuals (200 males and 200 females aged 18 - 83 years were included in this study. Foramen magnum (length and width, right occipital condyle (length and width, left occipital condyle (length and width, minimum intercondylar distance, maximum bicondylar distance and maximum medial intercondylar distance were measured. All data were subjected to discriminant functions analysis. All nine measurements were significantly higher in males than females. Among these measurements, the right condyle length, minimum intercondylar distance, and foramen magnum width were able to determine sex in Sudanese individuals with an accuracy rate of 83 %.

  17. A thrombus in transit through a patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibebuogu, Uzoma N; Khouzam, Rami N; Sharma, Gyanendra; Thornton, John W; Robati, Roshanak; Silverman, David

    2014-10-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a congenital heart defect that may first be diagnosed in adulthood and has a prevalence of 25% to 30%. Although many patients with PFO are asymptomatic and do not require treatment, paradoxical embolism can cause stroke or myocardial infarction. The authors report an unusual case of PFO with a transversing thrombus in an 80-year-old man. The patient's initial presentation appeared clinically as acute coronary syndrome, but he was subsequently diagnosed with a massive thrombus in transit via a PFO and pulmonary embolus leading to right-sided heart failure.

  18. Contribution of p75NTR to Schwannoma Growth and Therapeutic Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    reducing schwannoma cell growth in culture and in animal models of human schwannoma disease. We find that the NF2 gene product, merlin, regulates p75NTR...treatment period. B. Waterfall plots of change in tumor volume for each tumor. Task 6- Define the ability of simultaneous inhibition of p75NTR and mTOR...mTOR inhibitors in culture, we have not used these compounds in animal models . Changes that had a significant impact on expenditures- None

  19. Case Report: Sciatic nerve schwannoma - a rare cause of sciatica [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Munakomi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report a rare case of a sciatic nerve schwannoma causing sciatica in a 69-year-old female. Sciatic nerve schwannoma is a rare entity. It should always be considered as a possible cause of sciatica in patients that present with symptoms of sciatica with no prolapsed disc in the lumbar spine and a negative crossed straight leg raise test. Timely diagnosis and complete excision of the lesion leads to complete resolution of the symptoms of such patients.

  20. A Case of Schwannoma of the Common Peroneal Nerve in the Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, Tayyar Taylan; Aktaş, Birol; Özkan, Korhan; Özturan, Burak; Kilic, Bulent; Demiroğlu, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign neurogenic tumors of peripheral nerves that originate from neural sheath. The aim of this case report is to bring to mind the schwannoma in the patient with knee pain. A 39-year-old woman presented with a complaint of knee pain of three months history. After surgical intervention, the patient’s complaints completely disappeared in the post-operative period. This should come to mind in the differential diagnosis of knee pain. PMID:28286620

  1. A case of schwannoma of the common peroneal nerve in the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyar Taylan Öz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign neurogenic tumors of peripheral nerves that originate from neural sheath. The aim of this case report is to bring to mind the schwannoma in the patient with knee pain. A 39-year-old woman presented with a complaint of knee pain of three months history. After surgical intervention, the patient’s complaints completely disappeared in the post-operative period. This should come to mind in the differential diagnosis of knee pain.

  2. Extracranial Facial Nerve Schwannoma Treated by Hypo-fractionated CyberKnife Radiosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Ayaka; Miyazaki, Shinichiro; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2016-01-01

    Facial nerve schwannoma is a rare intracranial tumor. Treatment for this benign tumor has been controversial. Here, we report a case of extracranial facial nerve schwannoma treated successfully by hypo-fractionated CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA) radiosurgery?and discuss the efficacy of this treatment. A 34-year-old female noticed a swelling in her right mastoid process. The lesion enlarged over a seven-month period, and she experienced facial spasm on the right side. She was diagnosed wi...

  3. Preclinical Validation of Anti-Nuclear Factor Kappa B Therapy against Vestibular Schwannoma and Neurofibromatosis Type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Thomsen, J., Nielsen, F.C., 2010. Deregulated genes in sporadic vestibular schwannomas. Otol. Neurotol. 31 (2), 256e266. Cioffi, J.A., Yue, W.Y., Mendolia...Thomas, R., Gope, M.L., Doddaballapur, S.K., Gope, R., 2006. Age dependent phosphorylation and deregulation of p53 in human vestibular schwannomas. Mol...tissue was visualized and imaged using a Carl Zeiss 2000 upright microscope (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany ). Schwann and schwannoma cell isolation and

  4. Facial Nerve Schwannoma Involving Middle Cranial Fossa: When the Unilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Guide to the Correct Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    De Stefano, Alessandro; Dispenza, Francesco; Kulamarva, Gautham

    2011-01-01

    The Facial Nerve Schwannoma is a rare tumor and it seldom involved the middle cranial fossa. Facial nerve schwannoma has various manifestations, including facial palsy but unfortunately facial nerve is very resistant to compression and often facial nerve paralysis or a facial weakness are not present. We present a case of giant facial nerve schwannoma involved the middle cranial fossa without facial nerve paralysis. In these cases the unilateral hearing loss (if present) guide to a correct di...

  5. Suitability of foramen magnum measurements in sex determination and their clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellioglu, A Metin; Durum, Y; Gok, M; Karakas, S; Polat, A G; Karaman, C Z

    2018-01-01

    The foramen magnum provides a transition between fossa cranii posterior and canalis vertebralis. Medulla oblongata, arteria vertebralis and nervus accessorius spinal part pass through the foramen magnum. In this study, we aimed to make the morphometric measurements of the foramen magnum on computed tomography (CT) and to determine the feasibility of sex determination based on these measurements. Besides sex determination, from a clinical aspect, it is important to know the measurements of the foramen magnum in the normal population in terms of diseases characterised by displacement of the posterior fossa structures through foramen magnum to upper cervical spinal canal such as Chiari malformations and syringomyelia. All the data for our study was obtained retrospectively from 100 patients (50 males, 50 females) who had a CT scan of the head and neck region in Adnan Menderes University Hospital, Department of Radiology. To examine the foramen magnum in each and every occipital bone, we measured the foramen magnum's anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter, the area of the foramen magnum and its circumference. We found that men have a higher average value than women in our study. According to Student's t-test results; in all measured parameters, there is significant difference between the genders (p discriminant function test is performed for all four measurements, the discrimination rate is 64% for all women, 70% for all men and 67% for both genders. As a result of our study, the metric data we obtained will be useful in cases where the skeletons' sex could not be determined by any other methods. We believe that, our study may be useful for other studies in determining of sex from foramen magnum. Our measurements could give some information of the normal ranges of the foramen magnum in normal population, so that this can contribute to the diagnosis process of some diseases by imaging. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 99-104).

  6. Enlarged thalamostriate vein causing unilateral Monro foramen obstruction. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Jody; Grand, Walter

    2009-06-01

    Causes of unilateral hydrocephalus resulting from an obstruction at the Monro foramen include foraminal atresia, tumors, gliosis, contralateral shunting, and infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, few reports in the literature cite vascular lesions as the cause of the obstruction. To their knowledge, the authors present the first report of unilateral hydrocephalus occurring due to an abnormally enlarged thalamostriate vein independent of an arteriovenous malformation or developmental venous angioma. The condition was treated successfully by endoscopic septum pellucidum fenestration. A 28-year-old man was referred for evaluation due to a 10-year history of chronic headaches that worsened in severity over the past year. A CT scan of the head revealed unilateral right ventricular dilation. Cranial MR imaging with and without contrast administration showed a dilated right thalamostriate-internal vein complex without any evidence of associated arteriovenous malformation or venous angioma. Endoscopic exploration of the right lateral ventricle showed an enlarged subependymal thalamostriate vein obstructing the Monro foramen. An endoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum was performed, resulting in alleviation of the patient's symptoms. Abnormally enlarged venous structures may cause obstructive unilateral hydrocephalus and can be a rare cause of chronic, intermittent headaches in adults. Endoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum is an effective treatment.

  7. VESTIBULAR SCHWANNOMA (ACOUSTIC NEUROMA) MIMICKING TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS: A CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Maurício A.; Selaimen, Caio M. P.; Chaves, Karen D.; Bisi, Melissa C.; Grossi, Márcio L.

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 6 to 16% of patients with trigeminal neuralgia symptoms present intracranial tumors, the most common being the vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma). Some symptoms reported by patients include hearing loss, tinnitus, headaches, vertigo and trigeminal disturbances. An increased muscle response in the surrounding head and neck musculature may also be observed, which mimics signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. In these cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be a useful tool in tumor diagnosis. The differential diagnosis between myofascial and neuralgic pain is important, as both may present similar characteristics, while being of different origin, and demanding special treatment approaches. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship among trigeminal neuralgia symptoms, intracranial tumors and temporomandibular dysfunction by presenting a clinical case. PMID:19089251

  8. Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Vestibular Schwannomas Accelerates Hearing Loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Rune, E-mail: rune333@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Claesson, Magnus [Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Stangerup, Sven-Eric [Ear, Nose, and Throat Department, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Roed, Henrik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Christensen, Ib Jarle [Finsen Laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Caye-Thomasen, Per [Ear, Nose, and Throat Department, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Juhler, Marianne [Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-08-01

    Objective: To evaluate long-term tumor control and hearing preservation rates in patients with vestibular schwannoma treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT), comparing hearing preservation rates to an untreated control group. The relationship between radiation dose to the cochlea and hearing preservation was also investigated. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients receiving FSRT between 1997 and 2008 with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included. All patients received 54 Gy in 27-30 fractions during 5.5-6.0 weeks. Clinical and audiometry data were collected prospectively. From a 'wait-and-scan' group, 409 patients were selected as control subjects, matched by initial audiometric parameters. Radiation dose to the cochlea was measured using the original treatment plan and then related to changes in acoustic parameters. Results: Actuarial 2-, 4-, and 10-year tumor control rates were 100%, 91.5%, and 85.0%, respectively. Twenty-one patients had serviceable hearing before FSRT, 8 of whom (38%) retained serviceable hearing at 2 years after FSRT. No patients retained serviceable hearing after 10 years. At 2 years, hearing preservation rates in the control group were 1.8 times higher compared with the group receiving FSRT (P=.007). Radiation dose to the cochlea was significantly correlated to deterioration of the speech reception threshold (P=.03) but not to discrimination loss. Conclusion: FSRT accelerates the naturally occurring hearing loss in patients with vestibular schwannoma. Our findings, using fractionation of radiotherapy, parallel results using single-dose radiation. The radiation dose to the cochlea is correlated to hearing loss measured as the speech reception threshold.

  9. Electrical vestibular stimulation after vestibular deafferentation and in vestibular schwannoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Tin Aw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vestibular reflexes, evoked by human electrical (galvanic vestibular stimulation (EVS, are utilized to assess vestibular function and investigate its pathways. Our study aimed to investigate the electrically-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex (eVOR output after bilateral and unilateral vestibular deafferentations to determine the characteristics for interpreting unilateral lesions such as vestibular schwannomas. METHODS: EVOR was recorded with dual-search coils as binocular three-dimensional eye movements evoked by bipolar 100 ms-step at EVS intensities of [0.9, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0] mA and unipolar 100 ms-step at 5 mA EVS intensity. Five bilateral vestibular deafferented (BVD, 12 unilateral vestibular deafferented (UVD, four unilateral vestibular schwannoma (UVS patients and 17 healthy subjects were tested with bipolar EVS, and five UVDs with unipolar EVS. RESULTS: After BVD, bipolar EVS elicited no eVOR. After UVD, bipolar EVS of one functioning ear elicited bidirectional, excitatory eVOR to cathodal EVS with 9 ms latency and inhibitory eVOR to anodal EVS, opposite in direction, at half the amplitude with 12 ms latency, exhibiting an excitatory-inhibitory asymmetry. The eVOR patterns from UVS were consistent with responses from UVD confirming the vestibular loss on the lesion side. Unexpectedly, unipolar EVS of the UVD ear, instead of absent response, evoked one-third the bipolar eVOR while unipolar EVS of the functioning ear evoked half the bipolar response. CONCLUSIONS: The bidirectional eVOR evoked by bipolar EVS from UVD with an excitatory-inhibitory asymmetry and the 3 ms latency difference between normal and lesion side may be useful for detecting vestibular lesions such as UVS. We suggest that current spread could account for the small eVOR to 5 mA unipolar EVS of the UVD ear.

  10. Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Vestibular Schwannomas Accelerates Hearing Loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Rune; Claesson, Magnus; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Roed, Henrik; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Juhler, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate long-term tumor control and hearing preservation rates in patients with vestibular schwannoma treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT), comparing hearing preservation rates to an untreated control group. The relationship between radiation dose to the cochlea and hearing preservation was also investigated. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients receiving FSRT between 1997 and 2008 with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included. All patients received 54 Gy in 27-30 fractions during 5.5-6.0 weeks. Clinical and audiometry data were collected prospectively. From a “wait-and-scan” group, 409 patients were selected as control subjects, matched by initial audiometric parameters. Radiation dose to the cochlea was measured using the original treatment plan and then related to changes in acoustic parameters. Results: Actuarial 2-, 4-, and 10-year tumor control rates were 100%, 91.5%, and 85.0%, respectively. Twenty-one patients had serviceable hearing before FSRT, 8 of whom (38%) retained serviceable hearing at 2 years after FSRT. No patients retained serviceable hearing after 10 years. At 2 years, hearing preservation rates in the control group were 1.8 times higher compared with the group receiving FSRT (P=.007). Radiation dose to the cochlea was significantly correlated to deterioration of the speech reception threshold (P=.03) but not to discrimination loss. Conclusion: FSRT accelerates the naturally occurring hearing loss in patients with vestibular schwannoma. Our findings, using fractionation of radiotherapy, parallel results using single-dose radiation. The radiation dose to the cochlea is correlated to hearing loss measured as the speech reception threshold.

  11. Probabilistic Tractography of the Cranial Nerves in Vestibular Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolal, Amir; Juratli, Tareq A; Podlesek, Dino; Rieger, Bernhard; Kitzler, Hagen H; Linn, Jennifer; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2017-11-01

    Multiple recent studies have reported on diffusion tensor-based fiber tracking of cranial nerves in vestibular schwannoma, with conflicting results as to the accuracy of the method and the occurrence of cochlear nerve depiction. Probabilistic nontensor-based tractography might offer advantages in terms of better extraction of directional information from the underlying data in cranial nerves, which are of subvoxel size. Twenty-one patients with large vestibular schwannomas were recruited. The probabilistic tracking was run preoperatively and the position of the potential depictions of the facial and cochlear nerves was estimated postoperatively by 3 independent observers in a blinded fashion. The true position of the nerve was determined intraoperatively by the surgeon. Thereafter, the imaging-based estimated position was compared with the intraoperatively determined position. Tumor size, cystic appearance, and postoperative House-Brackmann score were analyzed with regard to the accuracy of the depiction of the nerves. The probabilistic tracking showed a connection that correlated to the position of the facial nerve in 81% of the cases and to the position of the cochlear nerve in 33% of the cases. Altogether, the resulting depiction did not correspond to the intraoperative position of any of the nerves in 3 cases. In a majority of cases, the position of the facial nerve, but not of the cochlear nerve, could be estimated by evaluation of the probabilistic tracking results. However, false depictions not corresponding to any nerve do occur and cannot be discerned as such from the image only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphometric study on mandibular foramen and incidence of accessory mandibular foramen in mandibles of south Indian population and its clinical implications in inferior alveolar nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, R; RaviVarman, C; Manoranjitham, R; Veeramuthu, M

    2016-12-01

    The mandibular foramen is a landmark for procedures like inferior alveolar nerve block, mandibular implant treatment, and mandibular osteotomies. The present study was aimed to identify the precise location of the mandibular foramen and the incidence of accessory mandibular foramen in dry adult mandibles of South Indian population. The distance of mandibular foramen from the anterior border of the ramus, posterior border of the ramus, mandibular notch, base of the mandible, third molar, and apex of retromolar trigone was measured with a vernier caliper in 204 mandibles. The mean distance of mandibular foramen from the anterior border of ramus of mandible was 17.11±2.74 mm on the right side and 17.41±3.05 mm on the left side, from posterior border was 10.47±2.11 mm on the right side and 9.68±2.03 mm on the left side, from mandibular notch was 21.74±2.74 mm on the right side and 21.92±3.33 mm on the left side, from the base of the ramus was 22.33±3.32 mm on the right side and 25.35±4.5 mm on the left side, from the third molar tooth was 22.84±3.94 mm on the right side and 23.23±4.21 mm on the left side, from the apex of retromolar trigone was 12.27±12.13 mm on the right side and 12.13±2.35 mm on the left side. Accessory mandibular foramen was present in 32.36% of mandibles. Knowledge of location mandibular foramen is useful to the maxillofacial surgeons, oncologists and radiologists.

  13. USE OF CT FOR ANALYSIS OF THE VERTEBRAL FORAMEN IN THE HOSPITAL OF QUERÉTARO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS CISNEROS LÁMBARRI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the morphology of the vertebral foramen and its distance to the midline. Methods: Twenty cervical CT scans from the radiographic record of 12 men and 8 women, 18 to 74 years old, of C1 to C6 segments were evaluated, measuring the foramen diameter and its distance to the midline. We look for anomalies of vertebral foramen morphology, using Philips Ingenuity CT equipment with Philips IntelliSpace Portal software. Results: The mean age was 47 years; the segment with the most anomalies was C1, with 10% (increase in foramen diameter, followed by C2 and C6, with 5% (vertebral foramen hypotrophy; the mean diameter of the C1 to C6 segment was 6.081 mm, and the median distance from the midline to the vertebral foramen of C2 to C6 was 13.215 mm. The largest diameter of the vertebral foramen was C2, with a mean of 6.67 mm and the smallest was C4, with a mean of 5.75 mm; the greatest distance from the midline to the vertebral foramen was C1, with a mean of 22.59 mm and the shortest was C4, with a mean of 12.13 mm. Conclusions: The mean diameter of the vertebral foramen and its distance to the midline was determined, setting a safety region for procedures. In our city, there is no study that determines the means of the vertebral foramina diameters, the distance from the midline and its anomalies. It is necessary to rely on CT scans and to make a preoperative plan to avoid complications associated with morphological alterations.

  14. Current practices in vestibular schwannoma management: a survey of American and Canadian neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Matthew R; Fisher, Winfield S; McGrew, Benjamin M; Walters, Beverly C

    2014-12-01

    Comprehensive therapy for vestibular schwannomas has changed dramatically over the past fifty years. Previously, neurosurgeons were most likely to treat these tumors via an independent surgical approach. Currently, many neurosurgeons treat vestibular schwannomas employing an interdisciplinary team approach with neuro-otologists and radiation oncologists. This survey aims to determine the current treatment paradigm for vestibular schwannomas among American and Canadian neurosurgeons, with particular attention to the utilization of a team approach to the surgical resection of these lesions. A seventeen part survey questionnaire was sent by electronic mail to residency trained members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons currently practicing in Canada or the United States. Questions were divided into groups regarding physician background, overall practice history, recent practice history, opinions on treatment paradigms, and experience with an interdisciplinary team approach. Seven hundred and six responses were received. The vast majority of neurosurgeons surgically resect vestibular schwannomas as part of an interdisciplinary team (85.7%). Regional variations were observed in the use of an interdisciplinary team: 52.3% of responding neurosurgeons who surgically treat vestibular schwannomas without neuro-otologists currently practice in the South (no other region represented more than 15.4% of this group, p=0.02). Surgeons who have treated >50 vestibular schwannomas show a trend towards more frequent utilization of an interdisciplinary approach than less experienced surgeons, but this did not reach statistical significance. The majority of neurosurgeons in the United States and Canada surgically resect vestibular schwannomas via an interdisciplinary approach with the participation of a neuro-otologist. Neurosurgeons in the South appear more likely to surgically treat these tumors alone than neurosurgeons in other regions of the U.S. and Canada

  15. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for large vestibular schwannomas greater than 3 cm in diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Tu, Hsien-Tang; Chuang, Chun-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Siu; Chou, Hsi-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Huang, Chuan-Fu

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an important alternative management option for patients with small- and medium-sized vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Its use in the treatment of large tumors, however, is still being debated. The authors reviewed their recent experience to assess the potential role of SRS in larger-sized VSs. METHODS Between 2000 and 2014, 35 patients with large VSs, defined as having both a single dimension > 3 cm and a volume > 10 cm 3 , underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Nine patients (25.7%) had previously undergone resection. The median total volume covered in this group of patients was 14.8 cm 3 (range 10.3-24.5 cm 3 ). The median tumor margin dose was 11 Gy (range 10-12 Gy). RESULTS The median follow-up duration was 48 months (range 6-156 months). All 35 patients had regular MRI follow-up examinations. Twenty tumors (57.1%) had a volume reduction of greater than 50%, 5 (14.3%) had a volume reduction of 15%-50%, 5 (14.3%) were stable in size (volume change 3 cm and a volume > 10 cm 3 and tolerable mass effect can be managed satisfactorily with GKRS. Tumor volume ≥ 15 cm 3 is a significant factor predicting poor tumor control following GKRS.

  16. Long-term mobile phone use and the risk of vestibular schwannoma: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Olsen, Jørgen H; Johansen, Christoffer

    2011-08-15

    Vestibular schwannomas grow in the region within the brain where most of the energy by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from using mobile phones is absorbed. The authors used 2 Danish nationwide cohort studies, one a study of all adult Danes subscribing for a mobile phone in 1995 or earlier and one on sociodemographic factors and cancer risk, and followed subjects included in both cohorts for occurrence of vestibular schwannoma up to 2006 inclusively. In this study including 2.9 million subjects, a long-term mobile phone subscription of ≥11 years was not related to an increased vestibular schwannoma risk in men (relative risk estimate = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.52, 1.46), and no vestibular schwannoma cases among long-term subscribers occurred in women versus 1.6 expected. Vestibular schwannomas did not occur more often on the right side of the head, although the majority of Danes reported holding their mobile phone to the right ear. Vestibular schwannomas in long-term male subscribers were not of larger size than expected. Overall, no evidence was found that mobile phone use is related to the risk of vestibular schwannoma. Because of the usually slow growth of vestibular schwannoma and possible diagnostic delay, further surveillance is indicated.

  17. Long-term socio-economic impact of vestibular schwannoma for patients under observation and after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tos, Tina; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Stangerup, Sven-Eric

    2003-01-01

    This study describes and compares the long-term socio-economic impact for patients diagnosed with a vestibular schwannoma and either operated on or observed. A consecutive sample of patients diagnosed with vestibular schwannoma in Denmark and either operated on (748 patients) or observed...

  18. Patent Foramen Ovale Closure or Antiplatelet Therapy for Cryptogenic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lars; Kasner, Scott E; Rhodes, John F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the prevention of recurrent stroke after cryptogenic stroke is uncertain. We investigated the effect of PFO closure combined with antiplatelet therapy versus antiplatelet therapy alone on the risks of recurrent stroke and new...... brain infarctions. METHODS: In this multinational trial involving patients with a PFO who had had a cryptogenic stroke, we randomly assigned patients, in a 2:1 ratio, to undergo PFO closure plus antiplatelet therapy (PFO closure group) or to receive antiplatelet therapy alone (antiplatelet-only group......). Imaging of the brain was performed at the baseline screening and at 24 months. The coprimary end points were freedom from clinical evidence of ischemic stroke (reported here as the percentage of patients who had a recurrence of stroke) through at least 24 months after randomization and the 24-month...

  19. Sex differences in cryptogenic stroke with patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeltchev, Krassen; Wiedmer, Sebastian; Schwerzmann, Markus; Windecker, Stephan; Haefeli, Tobias; Meier, Bernhard; Mattle, Heinrich P; Arnold, Marcel

    2008-09-01

    Sex differences in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and cryptogenic stroke have not been systematically analyzed. We aimed to determine sex influences on demographics, vascular risk factors, clinical manifestations, stroke location, and clinical outcome. One thousand two hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were admitted to a single stroke center. All patients underwent a complete stroke workup including clinical examination, standard blood tests, cerebral and vascular imaging, transesophageal echocardiography, and 24-hour electrocardiography. In 500 patients, no definite etiology could be established (cryptogenic stroke/TIA). Of them, 167 patients (107 men and 60 women, mean age 52 +/- 13 years) had an PFO. The prevalence of PFO in patients with cryptogenic stroke or TIA was higher in men than in women (38% vs 28%, P = .014). Stroke severity and the prevalence of risk factors did not differ between the 2 sexes. There was an independent association between male sex and stroke location in the posterior cerebral circulation (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.5, P = .006). Men and women did not differ in respect to PFO grade, prevalence of right-to-left shunt at rest, or coexistence of atrial septal aneurysm. Clinical outcome at 3 months was similar in both sexes. Patent foramen ovale was more prevalent in men than in women with cryptogenic stroke. There were no sex influences on age, risk factors, echocardiographic characteristics of PFO, or clinical outcome. Male sex was independently associated with stroke in the posterior cerebral circulation.

  20. A neurofibromatosis type 2 case with vestibular, trigeminal and facial schwannomas together: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akay, S.; Hamcan, S.; Kara, K.; Battal, B.; Tasar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is characterized by the development of multiple nervous system tumors. This disorder is also called multiple inherited schwannomas (MIS), meningiomas (M), and ependymomas (E) (MISME) syndrome. Objectives and tasks: To discuss the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of a NF2 case who has bilateral vestibular and trigeminal schwannomas, unilateral facial schwannoma, multiple meningiomas and cervical intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Materials and methods: A 23-year-old male patient complaining of tinnitus and imbalance for 3 years, came to Neck-Nose-Throat department of our hospital. After the physical examination, the patient was referred to our department for the further work up with MR imaging. Results: Brain MR imaging showed bilateral acoustic schwannoma which reach through the internal acoustic canals. Bilateral symmetric homogeneously enhanced masses were also detected in Meckel's caves. Similarly, one milimetric enhancing lesion was seen at the right facial nerve. Eight meningiomas in various locations were observed, as well. Additionally, two enhancing intramedullary well-defined small foci were detected in the proximal cervical spinal cord. Ependymomas or intraparanchimal schwannomas were primarily suspected. Conclusion: This case includes all the probable intracranial and spinal mass lesions which may be associated with NF2. Enhanced MR is very reliable imaging modality for the detailed evaluation of NF2 patients

  1. Laryngeal schwannoma excised under a microlaryngoscope without tracheotomy: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, BAOXIN; DONG, PIN; SHEN, BIN; XU, HONGMING; ZHENG, JIN

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign encapsulated tumors arising from Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Between 25 and 45% of schwannomas occur in the head and neck region. Schwannomas of the larynx are extremely rare with an incidence of 0.1–1.5% in all benign laryngeal tumors. Laryngeal schwannomas usually occur in females aged between their 4th and 5th decades. The most successful curative method is surgical resection. When selecting the surgical method, the size and location of the tumor, as well as the requests of the patient, should be considered. The present case report describes a 29-year-old female patient with symptoms of hoarseness and dyspnea on exertion. Through endoscopic biopsy, histopathology revealed a schwannoma. Considering the symptoms, age and preferences of the patient, the method of trans-oral microlaryngoscopic excision without tracheotomy was used to excise the tumor located in the aryepiglottic fold. Results from a short-term follow-up showed the postoperative result to be satisfactory. PMID:24669270

  2. A neurofibromatosis type 2 case with vestibular, trigeminal and facial schwannomas together: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akay, S; Hamcan, S; Kara, K; Battal, B; Tasar, M

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is characterized by the development of multiple nervous system tumors. This disorder is also called multiple inherited schwannomas (MIS), meningiomas (M), and ependymomas (E) (MISME) syndrome. Objectives and tasks: To discuss the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of a NF2 case who has bilateral vestibular and trigeminal schwannomas, unilateral facial schwannoma, multiple meningiomas and cervical intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Materials and methods: A 23-year-old male patient complaining of tinnitus and imbalance for 3 years, came to Neck-Nose-Throat department of our hospital. After the physical examination, the patient was referred to our department for the further work up with MR imaging. Results: Brain MR imaging showed bilateral acoustic schwannoma which reach through the internal acoustic canals. Bilateral symmetric homogeneously enhanced masses were also detected in Meckel's caves. Similarly, one milimetric enhancing lesion was seen at the right facial nerve. Eight meningiomas in various locations were observed, as well. Additionally, two enhancing intramedullary well-defined small foci were detected in the proximal cervical spinal cord. Ependymomas or intraparanchimal schwannomas were primarily suspected. Conclusion: This case includes all the probable intracranial and spinal mass lesions which may be associated with NF2. Enhanced MR is very reliable imaging modality for the detailed evaluation of NF2 patients.

  3. Management of vestibular schwannomas with linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Omer; Beyzadeoglu, Murat; Dincoglan, Ferrat; Demiral, Selcuk; Uysal, Bora; Gamsiz, Hakan; Oysul, Kaan; Dirican, Bahar; Sirin, Sait

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of treatment for vestibular schwannoma is to achieve local control without comprimising regional cranial nerve function. Stereotactic radiosurgery has emerged as a viable therapeutic option for vestibular schwannoma. The aim of the study is to report our 15-year single center experience using linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of patients with vestibular schwannoma. Between July 1998 and January 2013, 68 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma were treated using stereotactic radiosurgery at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy. All patients underwent high-precision stereotactic radiosurgery using a linear accelerator with 6-MV photons. Median follow-up time was 51 months (range, 9-107). Median age was 45 years (range, 20-77). Median dose was 12 Gy (range, 10-13) prescribed to the 85%-95% isodose line encompassing the target volume. Local tumor control in patients with periodic follow-up imaging was 96.1%. Overall hearing preservation rate was 76.5%. Linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery offers a safe and effective treatment for patients with vestibular schwannoma by providing high local control rates along with improved quality of life through well-preserved hearing function.

  4. Long-term mobile phone use and the risk of vestibular schwannoma: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas grow in the region within the brain where most of the energy by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from using mobile phones is absorbed. The authors used 2 Danish nationwide cohort studies, one a study of all adult Danes subscribing for a mobile phone in 1995 or earlier...... and one on sociodemographic factors and cancer risk, and followed subjects included in both cohorts for occurrence of vestibular schwannoma up to 2006 inclusively. In this study including 2.9 million subjects, a long-term mobile phone subscription of =11 years was not related to an increased vestibular...... reported holding their mobile phone to the right ear. Vestibular schwannomas in long-term male subscribers were not of larger size than expected. Overall, no evidence was found that mobile phone use is related to the risk of vestibular schwannoma. Because of the usually slow growth of vestibular schwannoma...

  5. Long-term mobile phone use and the risk of vestibular schwannoma: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas grow in the region within the brain where most of the energy by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from using mobile phones is absorbed. The authors used 2 Danish nationwide cohort studies, one a study of all adult Danes subscribing for a mobile phone in 1995 or earlier...... and one on sociodemographic factors and cancer risk, and followed subjects included in both cohorts for occurrence of vestibular schwannoma up to 2006 inclusively. In this study including 2.9 million subjects, a long-term mobile phone subscription of ≥11 years was not related to an increased vestibular...... reported holding their mobile phone to the right ear. Vestibular schwannomas in long-term male subscribers were not of larger size than expected. Overall, no evidence was found that mobile phone use is related to the risk of vestibular schwannoma. Because of the usually slow growth of vestibular schwannoma...

  6. Study of DSA-guided percutaneous puncture location of foramen oval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaojun; He Jiawei; Bai Guanghui; Shi Jianjing; Xu Chongyong; Zhan Gonghao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the technique of digital substraction angiography (DSA)-guided percutaneous puncture location of foramen oval. Methods: 39 cases of trigeminal neuralgia were included in the study from Feb. 2004 to Oct. 2006. The patients were punctured by the amending anterior position. The f0ramen oval was displayed by moving the tube tilted 20-28 degree to the caudal and 16-23 degree to the healthy side. The direction and depth of the needles was determined on the lateral view. Then, radio-frequency thermocoagulation therapy was performed. Results: The needles were located in oval foramen in all the patients. Pain disappeared in 36 cases, alleviated in other cases, and no serious complication occurred during therapy. Conclusions: Oval foramen locations by DSA can improve the successful rate of operation. The foramen oval can be clearly displayed by DSA-guided in amending position, with comfortable position for patients. (authors)

  7. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Mental Foramen Variations: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Karbasi Kheir, Mitra; Hekmatian, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mental foramen is important in surgical operations of premolars because it transfers the mental nerves and vessels. This study evaluated the variations of mental foramen by cone-beam computed tomography among a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods. A total number of 180 cone-beam computed tomography projections were analyzed in terms of shape, size, direction, and horizontal and vertical positions of mental foramen in the right and left sides. Results. The most common shape was oval, opening direction was posterior-superior, horizontal position was in line with second premolar, and vertical position was apical to the adjacent dental root. The mean of foremen diameter was 3.59 mm. Conclusion. In addition to the most common types of mental foramen, other variations exist, too. Hence, it reflects the significance of preoperative radiographic examinations, especially 3-dimensional images to prevent nerve damage

  8. Neuroendoscopic treatment of idiopathic occlusion of unilateral foramen of Monro presenting as chronic headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Shukla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric ventriculomegly due to idiopathic occlusion of the foramen of Monro is rare. Such patients present with clinical features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP. Presentation as chronic headache has not been previously described. In the absence of raised ICP, pursuing surgical treatment raises a clinical dilemma as the headache may be a primary headache with no improvement after surgery. A 21-year-old woman presented with chronic headache. She was found to have asymmetric ventriculomegaly due to the occlusion of the foramen of Monro. She underwent endoscopic septostomy and widening of the foramen of Monro. Her headache subsided after surgery. At 15 months of follow-up, she was free from headache without medications. Unilateral occlusion of the foramen of Monro can present with asymmetric ventriculomegaly resulting in chronic headache. Though the symptoms of raised ICP may not be present, still endoscopic relief of ventriculomegaly leads to cure of headache.

  9. Landmarks for Identifying the Suprascapular Foramen Anteriorly: Application to Anterior Neurotization and Decompressive Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouvakhova, Olga V; Macchi, Veronica; Fries, Fabian N; Loukas, Marios; De Caro, Raffaele; Oskouian, Rod J; Spinner, Robert J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2018-02-01

    Additional landmarks for identifying the suprascapular nerve at its entrance into the suprascapular foramen from an anterior approach would be useful to the surgeon. To identify landmarks for the identification of this hidden site within an anterior approach. In 8 adult cadavers (16 sides), lines were used to connect the superior angle of the scapula, the acromion, and the coracoid process tip thus creating an anatomic triangle. The suprascapular nerve's entrance into the suprascapular foramen was documented regarding its position within this anatomical triangle. Depths from the skin surface and specifically from the medial-most point of the clavicular attachment of the trapezius to the suprascapular nerve's entrance into the suprascapular foramen were measured using calipers and a ruler. The clavicle was then fractured and retracted superiorly to verify the position of the nerve's entrance into the suprascapular foramen. From the trapezius, the nerve's entrance into the foramen was 3 to 4.2 cm deep (mean, 3.5 cm). The mean distance from the tip of the corocoid process to the suprascapular foramen was 3.8 cm. The angle best used to approach the suprascapular foramen from the surface was 15° to 20°. Based on our study, an anterior suprascapular approach to the suprascapular nerve as it enters the suprascapular foramen can identify the most medial fibers of the trapezius attachment onto the clavicle and insert a finger at an angle of 15° to 20° laterally and advanced to an average depth of 3.5 cm. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  10. Incidencia del foramen retromolar en mandibulas humanas: aspectos étnicos y clínicos

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Ana Claudia; Freire, Alexandre Rodrigues; Prado, Guilherme Bevilacqua; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua; Botacin, Paulo Roberto [UNESP; Ferreira Caria, Paulo Henrique

    2012-01-01

    The retromolar foramen allows the passage of the neurovascular bundles that contribute to nutrition and innervation of the pulp and periodontium of the lower teeth. Knowledge of this anatomical variation may prevent complications in the anesthesia and surgical procedures in this area and serve as an anatomical landmark for ethnic identification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the retromolar foramen in human mandibles of adult Brazilians and discuss the clinical and ethnic...

  11. SURGICAL OUTCOME OF CERVICAL AND FORAMEN MAGNUM INTRA DURAL AND INTRA MEDULLARY TUMOURS

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Babu; Deekshanti Narayan; Biju; Manas; Vijaya Saradhi; Pathapati Rama; Madhavalu

    2014-01-01

    : INTRODUCTION: Spinal tumors account for only approximately 5-15% of the nervous system neoplasms. Technical advances in imaging and surgical procedures have brought about significant better clinical results in the last 2 decades. We also evaluated surgical and functional outcomes in patients having cervical intradural tumors including tumors at foramen magnum. METHODS: All patients who underwent surgical treatment for cervical intradural tumors from foramen magnum to C7,...

  12. SAGITTAL DIAMETER OF FORAMEN MAGNUM IN NORMAL POPULATION: AN MRI STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Lower position of cerebellar tonsils was frequently noticed in Western studies. In some of the studies, sagittal diameter of foramen magnum was found to be larger in cases of Chiari malformation. However, there are no Indian studies for comparison. Our study was proposed to determine the standard values for sagittal diameter of foramen magnum in various age groups and both sexes. This gives a guideline for further studies in pathological conditions like Craniovertebral Junctional ...

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN ENDOCRANIAL CAPACITY AND SIZE OF FORAMEN MAGNUM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SEX

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidhar P Shepur; Magi M; Nanjundappa B; Pavan P Havaldar; Premalatha Gogi; Shaik Hussain Saheb

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endocranial capacity is an important parameter in the study of human evolution, race and sex determination of skull. Diameters of foramen magnum are important because vital structures passing through it may endues compression and for sex determination of skulls. Correlation between endocranial capacity and area of foramen magnum was reported in mammals. This relation in human can be used to determine sex of damaged skulls. Methods: 150 dry skulls and 30 CT scan imag...

  14. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sect...

  15. Normal and pathological growth of the foramen occipitale magnum shown in the plain radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliesener, J.A.; Schmidt, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    The transverse diameter of the foramen occipitale magnum (f.o.m.) in the semiaxial skull X-ray was measured and evaluated statistically in 174 cerebrally healthy children of different ages. These normal values are contrasted with the foramen diameters of 35 children with verified Arnold-Chiari malformation as well as children with macrocephaly and microcephaly. The values in children with Arnold-Chiari malformation are all above the norm, irrespective of whether or not there is a concomitant hydrocephalus.

  16. Paradoxical embolization via a patent foramen ovale following acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.V.; Bynevelt, V.; Price, R.

    2005-01-01

    The foramen ovale is usually obliterated following establishment of the adult circulation but remains patent in 25% of individuals. This potential communication between the venous and arterial circulations can allow thromboembolic material to bypass the lungs and enter the systemic circulation. We report two cases of paradoxical embolization through a patent foramen ovale following acute large pulmonary embolism (PE) and discuss the factors that predispose to paradoxical embolization following PE Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  17. Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in cryptogenic stroke patients under 60 years with patent foramen ovale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutet, Claire, E-mail: claire.boutet@chu-st-etienne.fr [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Rouffiange-Leclair, Laure, E-mail: laurerouffiange@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Garnier, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.garnier@chu-st-etienne.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Quenet, Sara, E-mail: sara.quenet@chu-st-etienne.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Delsart, Daphné, E-mail: daphne.delsart@hotmail.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Therapeutic Medicine, CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord, Saint-Etienne (France); Inserm, CIE3, F-42055 Saint-Etienne (France); Varvat, Jérôme, E-mail: jvarvat@9online.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Epinat, Magali, E-mail: magali.epinat@chu-st-etienne.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Schneider, Fabien, E-mail: fabien.schneider@univ-st-etienne.fr [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Antoine, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: j.christophe.antoine@chu-st-etienne.fr [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, INSERM U1028 – CNRS UMR5292 (France); EA 4338, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); and others

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain feature in cryptogenic stroke patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO), cryptogenic stroke patients without PFO and patients with cardioembolic stroke. Materials and methods: The ethics committee required neither institutional review board approval nor informed patient consent for retrospective analyses of the patients’ medical records and imaging data. The patients’ medical files were retrospectively reviewed in accordance with human subject research protocols. Ninety-two patients under 60 years of age were included: 15 with cardioembolic stroke, 32 with cryptogenic stroke with PFO and 45 with cryptogenic stroke without PFO. Diffusion-weighted imaging of brain MRI was performed by a radiologist blinded to clinical data. Univariate, Fischer's exact test for qualitative data and non-parametric Wilcoxon test for quantitative data were used. Results: There was no statistically significant difference found between MRI features of patients with PFO and those with cardioembolic stroke (p < .05). Patients without PFO present more corticosubcortical single lesions (p < .05) than patients with PFO. Patients with PFO have more often subcortical single lesions larger than 15 mm, involvement of posterior cerebral arterial territory and intracranial occlusion (p < .05) than patients with cryptogenic stroke without PFO. Conclusion: Our study suggests a cardioembolic mechanism in ischemic stroke with PFO.

  18. A morphological and morphometric study of jugular foramen in dry skulls with its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Jugular foramen of human skull is one of the most interesting foramina. It is a complex bony canal, numerous vital structures, including nerves and vessels are transmitted through it. Most of the intracranial and extra cranial lesions of posterior cranial fossa might affect the structures in jugular foramen in addition to intrinsic abnormalities. As the neurosurgeons have become courageous in approaching this area, so there is a need to become familiar with this area. Hence, the present study was done to examine the anatomy of jugular foramen, including its morphological features and dimensions. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 50 dried skulls. 100 jugular foramina were studied on both right and left side of skulls. The length, width of jugular foramen and width and depth of jugular fossa were measured using vernier calipers. Presence of dome, complete and incomplete septation was also looked for. Results: The mean right and left anteroposterior diameter, latero-medial diameter, area, jugular fossa width, depth in our study was 11.22, 16.52, 187.34, 6.83, 11.58 mm and 9.52, 16.02, 153.2, 5.69, 11.13 mm. Dome was present in jugular foramen in 74% on the right side and 58% on the left side. Complete septation in jugular foramen is seen in 44% on the right side and 42% on the left side. Conclusion: This study will help the neurosurgeons while doing surgery in this region.

  19. Radiographic evaluation of the mental foramen in a selected Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghanifar Sina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information on the position of the mental foramen is important for dental surgeons. Variations in its position can be a cause of complications during local anesthesia or surgical procedures. The usual position of the mental foramen in an Iranian population has not been previously reported. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the most common location of the mental foramen in an Iranian population. We also analyzed gender differences and the symmetry of location within individuals. Materials and Methods : 400 panoramic radiographs were evaluated with regard to the location and symmetry of the mental foramina in male and female subjects. Results : We found that the mental foramen was located between the first and second premolars in 47.2% of patients and in line with the second premolar in 46%. In 49.2% of males, the mental foramen was in line with the second premolar. In 50.9% of females it was between the first and second premolars. It was symmetrical in 85.7%. Conclusions : Based on this study it appears that the most common position of mental foramen is either between the two premolars or in line with the second premolar. This is in concordance with previous studies.

  20. A radiographic study of the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Karp Shik; Kim, Dong Youn; Sohn, Jeong Ick; Bae, Yong Chul

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs. For this study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from the 200 adults and evaluated the position and shape of mental foramen. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, the author also obtained panoramic radiographs from the 100 adults and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained : 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (43.3%), round or oval (42.5%), unidentified (7.5%) and diffuse (6.7%) type in descending order of frequency. 2. Horizontal position of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (54.2%), and area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (43.1%), area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (2.7%), and at apex (9.7%), overlap with apex (1.9%), superior of apex (0.2%) in descending order of frequency. 4. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, shape changes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the forward 10 mm and chin down 10 degree positioned panoramic radiographs, And changes of horizontal and vertical position were observed in similar to compared with normal positioned panoramic radiographs.

  1. Comparative morphology of premolar foramen in lagomorphs (Mammalia: Glires and its functional and phylogenetic implications.

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    Łucja Fostowicz-Frelik

    Full Text Available Lagomorphs (a group that consists of pikas, hares, rabbits and allies are notable for their conservative morphology retained for most of their over 50 million years evolutionary history. On the other hand, their remarkable morphological uniformity partly stems from a considerable number of homoplasies in cranial and dental structures that hamper phylogenetic analyses. The premolar foramen, an opening in the palate of lagomorphs, has been characterized as an important synapomorphy of one clade, Ochotonidae (pikas. Within Lagomorpha, however, its phylogenetic distribution is much wider, the foramen being present not only in all ochotonids but also in leporids and stem taxa; its morphology and incidence also varies considerably across the order, even intraspecifically. In this study, we provide a broad survey of the taxonomic distribution of the premolar foramen in extant and fossil Lagomorpha and describe in detail the morphological variation of this character within the group. Micro-computed tomography was used to examine the hard palate and infraorbital groove morphology in Poelagus (Leporidae and Ochotona. Scans revealed the course and contacts of the canal behind the premolar foramen and structural differences between the two crown clades. We propose that the premolar foramen has evolved independently in several lineages of Lagomorpha, and we discuss development and function of this foramen in the lagomorph skull. This study shows the importance of comprehensive studies on phylogenetically informative non-dental characters in Lagomorpha.

  2. STATE ANXIETY, SUBJECTIVE IMBALANCE AND HANDICAP IN VESTIBULAR SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yougan Saman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEvidence is emerging of a significant clinical and neuro-anatomical relationship between balance and anxiety. Research has suggested a potentially priming effect with anxiety symptoms predicting a worsening of balance function in patients with underlying balance dysfunction. We propose to show that a vestibular stimulus is responsible for an increase in state anxiety and there is a relationship between increased state anxiety and worsening balance function. Aims1.To quantify state anxiety following a vestibular stimulus in patients with a chronic vestibular deficit.2.To determine if state anxiety during a vestibular stimulus would correlate with the severity of chronic balance symptoms and handicap. MethodsTwo separate cohorts Vestibular Schwannoma (VS patients underwent vestibular tests (electronystagmography, cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and caloric responses and questionnaire assessment (Vertigo handicap Questionnaire, Vertigo Symptom Scale, State Trait Anxiety InventoryFifteen post resection Vestibular schwannoma patients, with complete unilateral vestibular deafferentation, were assessed at a minimum of 6 months after surgery in Experiment 1 (Aim 1. Forty-five patients with VS in-situ and with preserved vestibular function formed the cohort for Experiment 2 (Aim 2. Experiment 1: VS subjects (N=15 with a complete post-resection unilateral vestibular deafferentation completed a State anxiety questionnaire before caloric assessment and again afterwards with the point of maximal vertigo as the reference (Aim 1. Experiment 2: State anxiety measured at the point of maximal vertigo following a caloric assessment was compared between two groups of presenting with balance symptoms (Group 1 N=26 and without balance symptoms (Group 2 N=11 (Aim 2. The presence of balance symptoms was defined as having a positive score on the VSS-VER.ResultsIn experiment 1, a significant difference (p<0.01 was found when comparing

  3. Resection of cervical vagal schwannoma via a post-auricular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jong-Lyel

    2006-03-01

    Cervical vagal schwannomas are extremely rare and gross total resection is the standard treatment modality. However, because the conventional cervical approach leaves an incision scar in a visible area, other approaches need to be developed for young women who want the postoperative scar to be invisible. A 28-year-old female underwent complete resection of a 4x4 cm tumor in her right upper neck via a post-auricular approach using an inverted V-shaped incision along the post-auricular sulcus and hairline. The tumor was a schwannoma originating from the right cervical vagus nerve. Postoperatively, right vocal cord paralysis developed despite careful dissection but completely recovered within 6 months after surgery. The patient was satisfied with an invisible external scar which was hidden by her auricle and hair. A cervical vagal schwannoma can be successfully removed by making an incision in a potentially invisible area.

  4. Acute necrosis after Gamma Knife surgery in vestibular schwannoma leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitza, Sandra; Pangalu, Athina; Horstmann, Gerhard A; van Eck, Albert T; Regli, Luca; Tarnutzer, Alexander A

    2016-08-01

    We discuss a rare acute complication after Gamma Knife therapy (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) in a single patient. A 52-year-old woman presented with vertigo, facial weakness and hearing loss emerging 48hours following Gamma Knife radiosurgery for a right-sided vestibular schwannoma. Neurological examination 6days after symptom onset showed right-sided facial palsy, spontaneous left-beating nystagmus and pathologic head-impulse testing to the right. Pure-tone audiogram revealed right-sided sensorineural hearing loss. A diagnosis of acute vestibulocochlear and facial neuropathy was made. Brain MRI demonstrated focal contrast sparing within the schwannoma, likely related to acute radiation necrosis. Acute multiple cranial neuropathies of the cerebellopontine angle after Gamma Knife treatment should raise suspicion of acute tissue damage within the schwannoma and should result in urgent MRI. Treatment with steroids may be considered based on accompanying swelling and edema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cellular schwannoma arising from the gastric wall misdiagnosed as a gastric stromal tumor: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangyao; Chen, Ping; Zong, Liang; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Cellular schwannomas have been previously described at almost every anatomic location of the human body, but reports in the gastric wall are rare. The current study presents a rare case of cellular schwannoma originating from the gastric wall. Computed tomography revealed a 5.6×5.3×4.0-cm 3 solid mass located in the posterior wall of the stomach. Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin. Microscopically, the tissue was composed of spindle-shaped and fascicularly-arranged cells, but mitotic figures were rare. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor was negative for cluster of differentiation (CD)117, CD34, smooth muscle actin and desmin, but positive for S-100 and Ki67. The patient presented no evidence of recurrence and metastasis during follow-up. Gastric cellular schwannomas may be diagnosed by clinical characteristics, histological observations and immunohistochemical markers.

  6. Immediate and Long-term Hearing Outcomes With the Middle Cranial Fossa Approach for Vestibular Schwannoma Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sameer; Arts, H Alexander; El-Kashlan, Hussam; Basura, Gregory J; Thompson, B Gregory; Telian, Steven A

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the immediate postoperative and long-term hearing outcome data in patients who have undergone hearing preservation attempts with the middle cranial fossa (MCF) approach for the resection of sporadic vestibular schwannoma. Retrospective review of a surgical patient cohort. Tertiary academic referral center. Adult patients with unilateral sporadic vestibular schwannoma. Surgical treatment with a MCF approach. Comparison of pre- and postoperative audiometric data in accordance with the 1995 and 2012 American Academy of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery guidelines on reporting hearing outcomes and with a word recognition score only scale. Long-term hearing outcome data were analyzed in the following postoperative groups: 3 to 5, 6 to 8, 9 to 11, and 12+ years after surgery. From 1999 to 2016, 174 patients underwent the MCF approach and 155 of them met inclusion criteria for analysis of hearing outcome data. Class A or B hearing was preserved in 70% of the entire cohort after recovery. Seventy-one patients with measurable hearing met criteria for long-term data analysis. The rate of American Academy of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery class A or B hearing preservation was 82% at 3 to 5 years and declined thereafter. The rate of word recognition score class I or II hearing preservation was 98% at 3 to 5 years and declined less rapidly thereafter. Patients with preoperative Class A hearing had significantly higher rates of successful hearing preservation at all postoperative intervals. Delayed hearing loss occurs in a progressively increasing fashion but speech understanding remains durable for a majority of patients whose hearing is initially preserved with the MCF approach.

  7. Reporting success rates in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas: are we accounting for the natural history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Lau, Tsz; Vasan, Rohit; Danner, Christopher; Youssef, A Samy; van Loveren, Harry; Agazzi, Siviero

    2014-06-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is generally accepted as one of the best treatment options for vestibular schwannomas. We question whether growth control is an accurate measure of success in vestibular schwannoma treatment. We aim to clarify the success rate of stereotactic radiosurgery and adjust the reported results to the benign natural history of untreated tumors. All articles were taken from a PubMed search of the English literature from the years 2000-2011. Inclusion criteria were articles containing the number of patients treated, radiation technique, average tumor size, follow-up time, and percentage of tumors growing during follow-up. Data were extracted from 19 articles. Success rates were adjusted using published data that 17% to 30% of vestibular schwannomas grow. The average reported success rate for stereotactic radiosurgery across all articles was 95.5%. When considering 17% or 30% natural growth without intervention, the adjusted success rates became 78.2% and 86.9% respectively. These rates were obtained by applying the natural history growth percentages to any tumors not reported to be growing before radiosurgical intervention. Success in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas with stereotactic radiosurgery is often defined as lack of further growth. Recent data on the natural growth history of vestibular schwannomas raise the question of whether this is the best definition of success. We have identified a lack of continuity regarding the reporting of success and emphasize the importance of the clarification of the success of radiosurgery to make informed decisions regarding the best treatment options for vestibular schwannoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Extradural spinal schwannoma at cervical spine in 12 year old child

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    Madoori Srinivas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spinal schwannomas are benign tumors arising from spinal nerve root sheaths. It is a primary spinal tumor which are rare in children. We report a case of a 12 year old girl who presented with weakness of all limbs and unable to walk. Imaging studies demonstrated an extradural spinal tumor at cervical spine. The patient was operated and tumor was totally removed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. After surgery there was improvement in signs and symptoms. After two months of operation, child could able to walk normally.

  9. Association between vestibular schwannomas and mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, In Seok; Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Jinna; Lee, Jong Dae; Lee, Won-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) grow in the region where the energy from mobile phone use is absorbed. We examined the associations of VSs with mobile phone use. This study included 119 patients who had undergone surgical tumor removal. We used two approaches in this investigation. First, a case-control study for the association of mobile phone use and incidence of VSs was conducted. Both cases and controls were investigated with questions based on INTERPHONE guidelines. Amount of mobile phone use according to duration, daily amount, and cumulative hours were compared between two groups. We also conducted a case-case study. The location and volume of the tumors were investigated by MRI. Associations between the estimated amount of mobile phone use and tumor volume and between the laterality of phone use and tumor location were analyzed. In a case-control study, the odds ratio (OR) of tumor incidence according to mobile phone use was 0.956. In the case-case study, tumor volume and estimated cumulative hours showed a strong correlation (r(2) = 0.144, p = 0.002), and regular mobile phone users showed tumors of a markedly larger volume than those of non-regular users (p mobile phones and tumor volume that showed strong correlation with amount of mobile phone use, thus there is a possibility that mobile phone use may affect tumor growth.

  10. A giant plexiform schwannoma of the brachial plexus: case report

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    Kohyama Sho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the case of a patient who noticed muscle weakness in his left arm 5 years earlier. On examination, a biloculate mass was observed in the left supraclavicular area, and Tinel's sign caused paresthesia in his left arm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a continuous, multinodular, plexiform tumor from the left C5 to C7 nerve root along the course of the brachial plexus to the left brachia. Tumor excision was attempted. The median and musculocutaneous nerves were extremely enlarged by the tumor, which was approximately 40 cm in length, and showed no response to electric stimulation. We resected a part of the musculocutaneous nerve for biopsy and performed latissimus dorsi muscle transposition in order to repair elbow flexion. Morphologically, the tumor consisted of typical Antoni A areas, and immunohistochemistry revealed a Schwann cell origin of the tumor cells moreover, there was no sign of axon differentiation in the tumor. Therefore, the final diagnosis of plexiform Schwannoma was confirmed.

  11. Selection of treatment and surgical approach for vestibular schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Kuniki; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sakoda, Eiichiro

    2007-01-01

    Described are the present state of selection of stereotactic radiotherapy or surgical treatment and their combination for schwannomas in the title, and authors' policy of surgery as a first choice treatment. The policy stands on the concept that surgery is useful for the controllability thereafter of the tumor, of which size is at first larger than 25 mm diameter, and radiotherapy like a gamma-knife is applicable to the residual tissue grown after operation and to the tissue with less than the size before surgery because the smaller the size, the better is thought the control by the knife (reportedly 100% for the tissue of <14 mm diameter). The basis of authors' selection of two surgical approaches of through-lower lateral occiput and trans-labyrinthine, and their outcomes like hearing loss are described and discussed in details for 24 patients (two underwent radiotherapy before surgery) during the period Sep. 2003-Aug. 2006 of authors' hospital. Radiotherapy is thought essentially useful for the control of the tumor with a small or surgically reduced size. (R.T.)

  12. Observations on the bony bridging of the jugular foramen in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodo, Y

    1986-02-01

    The anatomical nature and pattern of incidence of bony bridging of the jugular foramen was investigated using 64 fetal crania aged nine months to term and 222 adult crania of Japanese. In addition, the region of the jugular foramen of an adult cadaver was carefully dissected in order to clarify the relationship between the cranial nerves passing through the jugular foramen and the intrajugular processes of the jugular foramen. The general conclusions concerning the anatomical nature of the bony bridging of the jugular foramen were as follows. (1) The intrajugular process of the temporal bone is situated posterior to the triangular depression (as described in Gray's Anatomy) of the petrous part. (2) The bony bridging of the jugular foramen is established by the contact of the intrajugular process of the temporal bone with the bony process of the occipital bone projecting either from just above the hypoglossal canal (Type I) or from posterior to the hypoglossal canal (Type III). (3) If both the processes of the occipital bone reach the intrajugular process of the temporal bone simultaneously, the jugular foramen is divided into three compartments. (4) In the case of Type I bridging, the anteromedial compartment transmits the glossopharyngeal nerve, while the posterolateral compartment gives passage to the vagus nerve, the accessory nerve and the internal jugular vein. (5) In the case of Type II bridging, the anteromedial compartment contains the glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves, and the posterolateral compartment transmits the internal jugular vein. (6) When tripartite division of the jugular foramen occurs, the anteromedial compartment transmits the glossopharyngeal nerve, the middle compartment contains the vagus and accessory nerves, and the posterolateral compartment transmits the internal jugular vein. Concerning the pattern of incidence of jugular foramen bridging in the Japanese fetal and adult cranial series, this is similar to that of the bony

  13. Mean platelet volume is elevated in patients with patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Bulent; Caglar, Ilker Murat; Ungan, Ismail; Ugurlucan, Murat; Tureli, Hande Oktay; Karakaya, Osman

    2013-12-30

    Platelets play a major role in thromboembolic events. Increased mean platelet volume (MPV) indicates higher platelet reactivity and also a tendency to thrombosis. Patent foramen ovale (PFO), persistence of the fetal anatomic shunt between right and left atria, is strongly associated with cryptogenic stroke. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between MPV and PFO and if such an association exists, whether higher MPV levels may require antiplatelet therapy before a thromboembolic event happens, together with a literature review. Thirty patients (15 women, 15 men), free of any cerebrovascular events, were diagnosed with PFO by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), enrolled as the study group. Thirty consecutive patients (16 women and 14 men), who were diagnosed as normal in TEE, were enrolled as the control group. These two groups were compared according to MPV and anatomical features of the right atrium. There was no significant difference between study and control groups in clinical features and also no difference was observed in platelet counts; however, MPV in the PFO group was significantly higher than the control group (8.38 ±0.93 fl and 7.45 ±0.68 fl respectively). Our results indicate that elevated MPV may be detected in patients with PFO. This might be one of the explanations for the relationship between PFO and cryptogenic stroke; however, larger cohorts are warranted in order to define further mechanisms.

  14. Angiographic frequency of blunt cerebrovascular injury in patients with carotid canal or vertebral foramen fractures on multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Alexander; Ott, Frederick; Short, James; McKinney, Zeke; Truwit, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Blunt carotid injuries (BCI's) and blunt vertebral artery injuries (BVI's), known jointly as BCVI's, are common in 'high risk' patients. The purpose is to evaluate the rate of occurrence of BCI/BVI in patients screened purely by the radiologic criteria of fracture through the carotid canal or vertebral transverse foramina, or significant cervical subluxation, noted by multidetector CT. Methods: Seventy-one patients with 108 catheterized vessels were included over a 13-month interval. The angiographic examinations were prompted by current hospital protocol, solely by the presence of fractures involving/adjacent to the carotid canal, cervical fractures involving/adjacent to the foramen transversarium, or cervical fractures with significant subluxation. The incidence of each grade of blunt injury was calculated after review of the CT scans and catheter angiograms by two neuroradiologists. Results: Two thousand and seventy-three total blunt trauma admissions occurred during the time period, with a BCVI rate of 0.92-1.0% (depending on the reviewer), similar to previous studies. Mean time to catheter angiography was 16.6 h. Of the 71 included patients, there were 11-12 BCI's and 10-12 BVI's, an overall rate of 27-30% of BCVI in the patients with foraminal fractures. Interobserver agreement in reviewing the catheter angiograms was excellent (Kappa 0.795). Of note, three internal carotid pseudoaneurysms resolved spontaneously after anticoagulation or aspirin. Conclusion: This study confirms that there is a high rate of BCVI in the presence of carotid canal or vertebral foramen fractures that are noted by multidetector CT. Utilization of purely radiologic criteria of foraminal involvement may be a significant screening tool in the decision of whether to evaluate these patients acutely by catheter or CT angiography, and for early detection of patients at risk for symptomatology, to initiate prompt, prophylactic treatment

  15. Angiographic frequency of blunt cerebrovascular injury in patients with carotid canal or vertebral foramen fractures on multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Alexander [Department of Radiology, Hennepin County and University of Minnesota-Fairview and Medical Centers, Minneapolis, MN (United States)]. E-mail: mckin022@umn.edu; Ott, Frederick [Department of Radiology, Hennepin County and University of Minnesota-Fairview and Medical Centers, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Short, James [Department of Radiology, Hennepin County and University of Minnesota-Fairview and Medical Centers, Minneapolis, MN (United States); McKinney, Zeke [Department of Radiology, Hennepin County and University of Minnesota-Fairview and Medical Centers, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Truwit, Charles [Department of Radiology, Hennepin County and University of Minnesota-Fairview and Medical Centers, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose: Blunt carotid injuries (BCI's) and blunt vertebral artery injuries (BVI's), known jointly as BCVI's, are common in 'high risk' patients. The purpose is to evaluate the rate of occurrence of BCI/BVI in patients screened purely by the radiologic criteria of fracture through the carotid canal or vertebral transverse foramina, or significant cervical subluxation, noted by multidetector CT. Methods: Seventy-one patients with 108 catheterized vessels were included over a 13-month interval. The angiographic examinations were prompted by current hospital protocol, solely by the presence of fractures involving/adjacent to the carotid canal, cervical fractures involving/adjacent to the foramen transversarium, or cervical fractures with significant subluxation. The incidence of each grade of blunt injury was calculated after review of the CT scans and catheter angiograms by two neuroradiologists. Results: Two thousand and seventy-three total blunt trauma admissions occurred during the time period, with a BCVI rate of 0.92-1.0% (depending on the reviewer), similar to previous studies. Mean time to catheter angiography was 16.6 h. Of the 71 included patients, there were 11-12 BCI's and 10-12 BVI's, an overall rate of 27-30% of BCVI in the patients with foraminal fractures. Interobserver agreement in reviewing the catheter angiograms was excellent (Kappa 0.795). Of note, three internal carotid pseudoaneurysms resolved spontaneously after anticoagulation or aspirin. Conclusion: This study confirms that there is a high rate of BCVI in the presence of carotid canal or vertebral foramen fractures that are noted by multidetector CT. Utilization of purely radiologic criteria of foraminal involvement may be a significant screening tool in the decision of whether to evaluate these patients acutely by catheter or CT angiography, and for early detection of patients at risk for symptomatology, to initiate prompt, prophylactic treatment.

  16. Anatomy of the patent foramen ovale for the interventionalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jeff A; Edwards, William D; Hagler, Donald J

    2009-05-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an interatrial communication whose management is controversial. Several manufacturers have submitted protocols for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of their PFO closure device. The purpose of this study was to define anatomy relevant to percutaneous PFO closure, validate the clinical observation that most PFOs contain little tissue rim at the aorta, comment on proposed closure guidelines, and to discuss approaches to PFO closure. From the Mayo Clinic Tissue Registry, five normal hearts with PFO were selected from each sex from the first 10 decades of life (n = 100). Measurements (mm) included PFO length, diameter, and distance from FO-superior vena cava (SVC) and FO-aortic annulus (AoAn). Patient age, weight, and height were obtained from autopsy reports, and body surface area (BSA) was calculated. PFO length and diameter increased with age (P = 0.029 and 0.001, respectively), and FO-SVC and FO-AoAn increased with BSA (P women than men (P = 0.028). Using current sizing guidelines, 66% (CI = 56-75%) of the 100 patients would have been excluded from device closure, and only 31% could have received the smallest (18 mm) device. Our results suggest that the proposed device closure guidelines may result in inappropriate device sizing. In addition to excluding suitable candidates, strict application of the guidelines could also result in incomplete closure or device embolization. Suggestions for modification of the guidelines and options for device closure are discussed.

  17. [Patent foramen ovele, good reasons to close it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Bernhard

    2018-03-01

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is not to be considered a disease as it is present in about 25 % of people. Yet, it is the prime reason for paradoxical embolism that can cause serious problems, such as death, stroke, myocardial infarction, and peripheral ischemia. The frequency of such events is probably underestimated as other causes tend to be blamed for them. Device PFO closure can be easily accomplished as outpatient procedure with minimal discomfort and risk and it has been referred to as mechanical vaccination. Randomized trials have proved its value for reduction of recurrent stroke. There is also good evidence that PFO closure solves problems like platypnoea orthodeoxia and exercise desaturation, improves migraine, and is helpful in sleep apnoea. In addition, it renders diving and high altitude climbing safer. The absolute risk of a PFO is dependent on its size and its association with an atrial septal aneurysm, a Eustachian valve, or a Chiari network. The number needed to treat to prevent one stroke by PFO closure may be as low as 2 over lifetime in selected patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Effectiveness of percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale for hypoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Brett E; Nguyen, Bryant H; Buckner, J Kern; Freeman, Andrew M; Carroll, John D

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure to improve systemic hypoxemia. Although PFO-mediated right-to-left shunt (RTLS) is associated with hypoxemia, the ability of percutaneous closure to ameliorate hypoxemia is unknown. Between 2004 and 2009, 97 patients who underwent PFO closure for systemic hypoxemia and dyspnea that was disproportionate to underlying lung disease were included for evaluation. All patients exhibited PFO-mediated RTLS as determined by agitated saline echocardiography. Procedural success was defined as implantation of a device without major complications and mild or no residual shunt at 6 months. Clinical success was defined as a composite of an improvement in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, reduction of dyspnea symptoms, or decreased oxygen requirement. Procedural success was achieved in 96 of 97 (99%), and clinical success was achieved in 68 of 97 (70%). The presence of any moderate or severe interatrial shunt by agitated saline study (odds ratio [OR] = 4.7; p gender (OR = 0.30; p <0.017) decreased the likelihood of success. In conclusion, based on the largest single-center experience of patients referred for PFO closure for systemic hypoxemia, PFO closure was a mechanically effective procedure with an associated improvement in echocardiographic evidence of RTLS, NYHA functional class, and oxygen requirement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Late malignant transformation of vestibular schwannoma in the absence of irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Poulsgaard, Lars; Broholm, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Late malignant transformation of vestibular schwannoma (VS) following irradiation has previously been reported 29 times in the literature. Here, the authors report the first late malignant transformation of VS unrelated to neurofibromatosis or radiation exposure. After undergoing a near-total exc...

  20. Late Malignant Transformation of a Vestibular Schwannoma without Association to NFII or Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Poulsgaard, Lars; Broholm, Helle

    Late malignant transformation of vestibular schwannoma (VS) following irradiation has previously been reported 29 times in the literature. Here, the authors report the first late malignant transformation of VS unrelated to neurofibromatosis or radiation exposure. After undergoing a near-total exc...

  1. Giant mediastinal schwannoma located in the lower right side of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-18

    Jan 18, 2016 ... nerve. The tumor was coated with a white envelope and filled. Giant mediastinal schwannoma located in the lower right side of the chest. Y Wu, J Zhang, Y Chai. Department of Thoracic Surgery, School of Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Access this article online.

  2. Therapeutic profile of single-fraction radiosurgery of vestibular schwannoma: unrelated malignancy predicts tumor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wowra, Berndt; Muacevic, Alexander; Fürweger, Christoph; Schichor, Christian; Tonn, Jörg-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Radiosurgery has become an accepted treatment option for vestibular schwannomas. Nevertheless, predictors of tumor control and treatment toxicity in current radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas are not well understood. To generate new information on predictors of tumor control and cranial nerve toxicity of single-fraction radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas, we conducted a single-institution long-term observational study of radiosurgery for sporadic vestibular schwannomas. Minimum follow-up was 3 years. Investigated as potential predictors of tumor control and cranial nerve toxicity were treatment technology; tumor resection preceding radiosurgery; tumor size; gender; patient age; history of cancer, vascular disease, or metabolic disease; tumor volume; radiosurgical prescription dose; and isodose line. Three hundred eighty-six patients met inclusion criteria. Treatment failure was observed in 27 patients. History of unrelated cancer (strongest predictor) and prescription dose significantly predicted tumor control. The cumulative incidence of treatment failure was 30% after 6.5 years in patients with unrelated malignancy and 10% after ≥15 years in patients without such cancer (P making in ambiguous cases. PMID:22561798

  3. Long-term quality of life and tumour control following gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangerid, Theresa; Bartek, Jiri; Svensson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has for the last decades been an established treatment option for patients with small- or medium-sized vestibular schwannomas (VS), although little data is reported on long-term outcome regarding quality of life (QOL) and tumour control in this patient category...

  4. Cervical Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential in Hypoglossal Nerve Schwannoma: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Aravind Kumar; Savardekar, Amey Rajan; Shivashankar, Nagaraja Rao

    2018-02-01

    Schwannoma of the hypoglossal nerve is rare. This case report documents an atypical abnormality of the cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) in a patient with schwannoma of the hypoglossal nerve. The observed abnormality was attributed to the proximity of the hypoglossal nerve to the spinal accessory nerve in the medullary cistern and base of the skull. To report cVEMP abnormality in a patient with hypoglossal nerve schwannoma and provide an anatomical correlation for this abnormality. Case report. A 44-yr-old woman. Pure-tone and speech audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic stapedial reflex, auditory brainstem response, and cVEMP testing were performed. The audiological test results were normal except for the absence of cVEMP on the lesion side (right). A cVEMP abnormality indicating a compromised spinal accessory nerve was observed in a patient with hypoglossal nerve schwannoma. This case report highlights the importance of recording cVEMP in relevant neurological conditions and provides clinical proof for the involvement of the spinal accessory nerve in the vestibulocollic reflex pathway. American Academy of Audiology

  5. The Middle Fossa Approach for the Removal of a Trochlear Schwannoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Andrew B.; Michael, L. Madison

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Schwannomas originating from the trochlear nerve are extremely rare; only 30 cases have been reported in the literature. Many operative approaches have been utilized for lesion resection, but the advantages of the anterior transpetrosal approach are numerous and include excellent exposure, minimal extradural retraction of the temporal lobe, and minimal cerebrospinal fluid leaks. We report the second case of a trochlear schwannoma resected via the anterior transpetrosal approach. Setting. A 64-year-old male presented with 3-month history of diplopia and headaches. On physical examination, he was found to have a right fourth nerve palsy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass within the right ambient cistern compressing the adjacent midbrain. A right-sided anterior transpetrosal approach was used—which confirmed that the trochlear nerve entered the mass—to achieve gross total resection. Pathological examination confirmed diagnosis of schwannoma. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. He experienced a persistent fourth nerve palsy postoperatively with an otherwise normal neurological examination. Follow-up imaging confirmed complete removal of the tumor. Conclusion. The anterior transpetrosal approach is an excellent approach for removal of trochlear schwannomas involving the cisternal course of the trochlear nerve. It affords complete visualization of this anatomical region while introducing minimal morbidity. PMID:24716021

  6. The Middle Fossa Approach for the Removal of a Trochlear Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Boucher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Schwannomas originating from the trochlear nerve are extremely rare; only 30 cases have been reported in the literature. Many operative approaches have been utilized for lesion resection, but the advantages of the anterior transpetrosal approach are numerous and include excellent exposure, minimal extradural retraction of the temporal lobe, and minimal cerebrospinal fluid leaks. We report the second case of a trochlear schwannoma resected via the anterior transpetrosal approach. Setting. A 64-year-old male presented with 3-month history of diplopia and headaches. On physical examination, he was found to have a right fourth nerve palsy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass within the right ambient cistern compressing the adjacent midbrain. A right-sided anterior transpetrosal approach was used—which confirmed that the trochlear nerve entered the mass—to achieve gross total resection. Pathological examination confirmed diagnosis of schwannoma. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. He experienced a persistent fourth nerve palsy postoperatively with an otherwise normal neurological examination. Follow-up imaging confirmed complete removal of the tumor. Conclusion. The anterior transpetrosal approach is an excellent approach for removal of trochlear schwannomas involving the cisternal course of the trochlear nerve. It affords complete visualization of this anatomical region while introducing minimal morbidity.

  7. Extracranial Facial Nerve Schwannoma Treated by Hypo-fractionated CyberKnife Radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ayaka; Miyazaki, Shinichiro; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2016-09-21

    Facial nerve schwannoma is a rare intracranial tumor. Treatment for this benign tumor has been controversial. Here, we report a case of extracranial facial nerve schwannoma treated successfully by hypo-fractionated CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA) radiosurgery and discuss the efficacy of this treatment. A 34-year-old female noticed a swelling in her right mastoid process. The lesion enlarged over a seven-month period, and she experienced facial spasm on the right side. She was diagnosed with a facial schwannoma via a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head and neck and was told to wait until the facial nerve palsy subsides. She was referred to our hospital for radiation therapy. We planned a fractionated CyberKnife radiosurgery for three consecutive days. After CyberKnife radiosurgery, the mass in the right parotid gradually decreased in size, and the facial nerve palsy disappeared. At her eight-month follow-up, her facial spasm had completely disappeared. There has been no recurrence and the facial nerve function has been normal. We successfully demonstrated the efficacy of CyberKnife radiosurgery as an alternative treatment that also preserves neurofunction for facial nerve schwannomas.

  8. Differentiation of primary chordoma, giant cell tumor and schwannoma of the sacrum by CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Ming-Jue, E-mail: smjsh@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Cheng-Sheng [Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001 (China); Ding, Xiao-Yi, E-mail: dingxiaoyi1965@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Yuan, Fei, E-mail: yuanfeirj@hotmail.com [Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Du, Lian-Jun; Lu, Yong [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhang, Wei-Bin [Department of Orthopedics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To evaluate criteria to differentiate sacral chordoma (SC), sacral giant cell tumor (SGCT) and giant sacral schwannoma (GSS) with CT and MRI. Materials and methods: CT and MR images of 22 SCs, 19 SGCTs and 8 GSSs were reviewed. The clinical and imaging features of each tumor were analyzed. Results: The mean ages of SC, SGCT and GSS were 55.1 ± 10.7, 34.3 ± 10.7 and 42.4 ± 15.7 years old. SCs (77.3%) were predominantly located in the midline of lower sacrum, while most SGCTs (73.7%) and GSSs (87.5%) were eccentrically located in upper sacrum. There were significant differences in age, location, eccentricity, morphology of bone residues, intratumoral bleeding and septations. Multiple small cysts were mainly observed in SGCTs (73.7%) with large central cysts in GSSs (87.5%). SGCTs expanded mainly inside sacrum while SCs and GSSs often extended into pelvic cavity (P = 0.0022). Involvement of sacroiliac joints and muscles were also different. Ascending extension within sacral canal was only displayed in SCs. The preservation of intervertebral discs showed difference between large and small tumors (P = 0.0002), regardless of tumor type (P = 0.095). No significant difference was displayed in gender (P = 0.234) or tumor size (P = 0.0832) among three groups. Conclusion: Age, epicenter of the lesion (midline vs. eccentric and upper vs. lower sacral vertebra), bone residues, cysts, bleeding, septation, expanding pattern, muscles and sacroiliac joint involvement can be criteria for diagnosis. Fluid–fluid level is specific for SGCTs and ascending extension within the sacral canal for SCs. The preservation of intervertebral discs is related to tumor size rather than tumor type.

  9. Knowledge silos: assessing knowledge sharing between specialties through the vestibular schwannoma literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurman, Zane; Golfinos, John G; Roland, J Thomas; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE It is common for a medical disorder to be managed or researched by individuals who work within different specialties. It is known that both neurosurgeons and neurotologists manage vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. While overlap in specialty focus has the potential to stimulate multidisciplinary collaboration and innovative thinking, there is a risk of specialties forming closed-communication loops, called knowledge silos, which may inhibit knowledge diffusion. This study quantitatively assessed knowledge sharing between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the subject of VS. METHODS A broad Web of Science search was used to download details for 4439 articles related to VS through 2016. The publishing journal's specialty and the authors' specialties (based on author department) were determined for available articles. All 114,647 of the article references were categorized by journal specialty. The prevalence of several VS topics was assessed using keyword searches of titles. RESULTS For articles written by neurosurgeons, 44.0% of citations were from neurosurgery journal articles and 23.4% were from otolaryngology journals. The citations of otolaryngology authors included 11.6% neurosurgery journals and 56.5% otolaryngology journals. Both author specialty and journal specialty led to more citations of the same specialty, though author specialty had the largest effect. Comparing the specialties' literature, several VS topics had significantly different levels of coverage, including radiosurgery and hearing topics. Despite the availability of the Internet, there has been no change in the proportions of references for either specialty since 1997 (the year PubMed became publicly available). CONCLUSIONS Partial knowledge silos are observed between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the topic of VS, based on the peer-reviewed literature. The increase in access provided by the Internet and searchable online databases has not decreased specialty reference bias

  10. What Is the Safety and Efficacy of Chemical Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis Following Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Geoffrey C; Bowers, Christian A; MacDonald, Joel D; Couldwell, William T; Shelton, Clough; Gurgel, Richard K

    2018-02-01

    The benefit of routine chemical prophylaxis use for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in skull base surgery is controversial. Chemical prophylaxis can prevent undue morbidity and mortality, however there are risks for hemorrhagic complications. Retrospective case-control. A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent surgery for vestibular schwannoma from 2011 to 2016 was performed. Patients were divided by receipt of chemical VTE prophylaxis. Number of VTEs and hemorrhagic complications (intracranial hemorrhage, abdominal hematoma, and postauricular hematoma) were recorded. One hundred twenty-six patients were identified, 55 received chemical prophylaxis, and 71 did not. All the patients received mechanical prophylaxis. Two patients developed a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and one patient developed a pulmonary embolism (PE). All patients who developed a DVT or PE received chemical prophylaxis. There was no difference in DVT (p = 0.1886) or PE (p = 0.4365) between those who received chemical prophylaxis and those who did not. Five patients developed a hemorrhagic complication, two intracranial hemorrhage, three abdominal hematoma, and zero postauricular hematoma. All five patients with a complication received chemical prophylaxis (p = 0.00142). The relative risk of a hemorrhagic complication was 14.14 (95% CI = 0.7987-250.4307; p = 0.0778). There was a significant difference between the number of hemorrhagic complications but not between numbers of DVT or PE. Mechanical and chemical prophylaxis may lower the risk of VTE but in our series, hemorrhagic complications were observed. These measures should be used selectively in conjunction with early ambulation.

  11. Morphometric aspects of the foramen magnum and the orbit in Brazilian dry skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. S. Pires

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric analysis of crania structures are of great significance to anatomists, forensic doctors, anthropologists, and surgeons. We performed a morphometric study regarding the foramen magnum and the bony orbit on the right side of the cranium in 77 skulls with the purpose of identifying a correlation between these measures, as they are often employed alone to identify the genre and race of a skeleton with no other remains, since the cranium is a structure that can resist fire, explosions, and mutilations. The foramen magnum receives special attention, as it is located in a region together with many strong muscles and ligaments. The measures were taken with a sliding digital caliper. Our results showed that the foramen magnum had a mean anteroposterior diameter of 34.23±2.54 mm, and the mean transverse diameter was 28.62±2.83 mm. The most common shape for the foramen magnum was oval. The mean right orbital height was 32.89±2.45 mm, and the mean right orbital breadth was 37.15±2.68 mm. There was a weak to moderate correlation between these measures. Furthermore, the foramen magnum and the orbit are regions of surgical and clinical significance, thus requiring knowledge regarding the morphometric aspects of such areas, since they can often suffer morphological changes due to a number of diseases and they undergo surgical procedures in order to treat these conditions.

  12. Radiologic study of mandibular foramen of mandibular prognathism by three-dimensional computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Moon, Cheol Hyun; Im, Jeong Soo; Seo, Hwa Jeong [Graduate School of Public Health and Social Welfare, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    This study is aimed to evaluate the position of mandibular foramen of mandibular prognathism patients using 3-dimensional CT images in order to reduce the chance of an anesthetic failure of the mandibular nerve and to prevent the damage to the inferior alveolar nerve during the orthognathic surgery. The control group consist of 30 patients with class I occlusion. The experimental group consist of 44 patients with class III malocclusion. Three-dimensional computed tomography was used to evaluate the position of the mandibular foramina. The distance between mandibular plane and mandibular foramen, class I was 25.385 mm, class III was 23.628 mm. About the distance between occlusal plane and mandibular foramen, class I was 1.478 mm, class III was 5.144 mm. The distance between posterior border plan of mandibular ramus and mandibular foramen had not statistically significant. About the distance between sagittal plane of mandible and mandibular foramen did not also showed statistically significant. The result of this study could help the clinicians to apprehend more accurate anatomical locations of the foramina on the mandible with various facial skeletal types. Thereby to perform more accurate block anesthesia of the mandibular nerve and osteotomy with minimal nerve damage. In addition, this study could provide fundamental data for any related researches about the location of the mandibular foramina for other purposes.

  13. Radiologic study of mandibular foramen of mandibular prognathism by three-dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Moon, Cheol Hyun; Im, Jeong Soo; Seo, Hwa Jeong

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the position of mandibular foramen of mandibular prognathism patients using 3-dimensional CT images in order to reduce the chance of an anesthetic failure of the mandibular nerve and to prevent the damage to the inferior alveolar nerve during the orthognathic surgery. The control group consist of 30 patients with class I occlusion. The experimental group consist of 44 patients with class III malocclusion. Three-dimensional computed tomography was used to evaluate the position of the mandibular foramina. The distance between mandibular plane and mandibular foramen, class I was 25.385 mm, class III was 23.628 mm. About the distance between occlusal plane and mandibular foramen, class I was 1.478 mm, class III was 5.144 mm. The distance between posterior border plan of mandibular ramus and mandibular foramen had not statistically significant. About the distance between sagittal plane of mandible and mandibular foramen did not also showed statistically significant. The result of this study could help the clinicians to apprehend more accurate anatomical locations of the foramina on the mandible with various facial skeletal types. Thereby to perform more accurate block anesthesia of the mandibular nerve and osteotomy with minimal nerve damage. In addition, this study could provide fundamental data for any related researches about the location of the mandibular foramina for other purposes.

  14. A study of angle of mandibular canal and mental foramen on the panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Moon

    2009-01-01

    To assessment the angle between mandibular canal and occlusal plane at each posterior tooth region and location of mental foramen on the panoramic radiographs. This study analysed 46 half-mandibles of panoramic radiographs. Inferior border of mandibular canal was traced. Occlusal plane was drawn from lingual cusp tip of the first premolar to distolingual cusp tip of the second molar. Perpendicular line from occlusal plane was drawn at each tooth region and then tangential lines were drawn from the crossing points at canal. The angle between occlusal plane and tangential line was measured. The location of mental foramen was also studied. According to the location of mental foramen, radiographs were divided into M (mesial) group and D (distal) group on the basis of the second premolar. and then inter-group analysis about mandibular canal angle was done. The angles of mandibular canals were -17.7 .deg. C, -9.5 .deg. C, 8.2 .deg. C, 22.3 .deg. C, and 39.2 .deg. C at first premolar, second premolar, first molar, second molar, and third molar, respectively. The commonest position of the mental foramen was distal to the second premolar. Inter-group comparison showed statistically significant difference at the second premolar and the first molar (p<0.001). The acknowledgement of mandibular canal angulation and location of mental foramen can help understanding the course of mandibular canal.

  15. Prediction of Balance Compensation After Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parietti-Winkler, Cécile; Lion, Alexis; Frère, Julien; Perrin, Philippe P; Beurton, Renaud; Gauchard, Gérome C

    2016-06-01

    Background Balance compensation after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery is under the influence of specific preoperative patient and tumor characteristics. Objective To prospectively identify potential prognostic factors for balance recovery, we compared the respective influence of these preoperative characteristics on balance compensation after VS surgery. Methods In 50 patients scheduled for VS surgical ablation, we measured postural control before surgery (BS), 8 (AS8) days after, and 90 (AS90) days after surgery. Based on factors found previously in the literature, we evaluated age, body mass index and preoperative physical activity (PA), tumor grade, vestibular status, and preference for visual cues to control balance as potential prognostic factors using stepwise multiple regression models. Results An asymmetric vestibular function was the sole significant explanatory factor for impaired balance performance BS, whereas the preoperative PA alone significantly contributed to higher performance at AS8. An evaluation of patients' balance recovery over time showed that PA and vestibular status were the 2 significant predictive factors for short-term postural compensation (BS to AS8), whereas none of these preoperative factors was significantly predictive for medium-term postoperative postural recovery (AS8 to AS90). Conclusions We identified specific preoperative patient and vestibular function characteristics that may predict postoperative balance recovery after VS surgery. Better preoperative characterization of these factors in each patient could inform more personalized presurgical and postsurgical management, leading to a better, more rapid balance recovery, earlier return to normal daily activities and work, improved quality of life, and reduced medical and societal costs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. A Xenograft Model of Vestibular Schwannoma and Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Christine T; Bracho, Olena; Mei, Christine; Bas, Esperanza; Fernandez-Valle, Cristina; Telischi, Fred; Liu, Xue-Zhong

    2018-03-19

    Microsurgical implantation of mouse merlin-deficient Schwann cells (MD-SC) into the cerebellopontine angle of immunodeficient rats will initiate tumor formation, hearing loss, and vestibular dysfunction. The progress in identifying effective drug therapies for treatment of Neurofibromatosis type II (NF2) is limited by the availability of animal models of VS that develop hearing loss and imbalance. A microsurgical technique for implanting MD-SCs onto the cochleovestibular nerve of rats was developed. Ten Rowett Nude rats were implanted with either ∼10 MD-SCs expressing luciferase (N = 5) or vehicle (N = 5). Rats received bioluminescence imaging, auditory brainstem response testing, and were observed for head tilt every 2 weeks after surgery, for a total of 6 weeks. Tumors were harvested and processed with hematoxylin & eosin staining and immunohistochemistry was performed for S100. Rats implanted with MD-SCs developed significantly higher tumor bioluminescence measurements and hearing threshold shifts at multiple frequencies by the 4th and 6th weeks post-implantation, compared with control rats. Rats implanted with MD-SCs also developed gross tumor. The tumor volume was significantly greater than nerve volumes obtained from rats in the control group. All rats with tumors developed a head tilt, while control rats had no signs of vestibular dysfunction. Tumors demonstrated histological features of schwannoma and express S100. Using this microsurgical technique, this xenograft rat model of VS develops tumors involving the cochleovestibular nerve, shifts in hearing thresholds, and vestibular dysfunction. This animal model can be used to investigate tumor-mediated hearing loss and perform preclinical drug studies for NF2.

  17. Predictors of Trigeminal Neuropathy After Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senova, Suhan [Unité de Radiochirurgie Gamma Knife, Region Ile De France, Paris (France); Service de Neurochirurgie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) La Pitié-Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Inserm, U955, Equipe 14, Université Paris Est, Faculté de médecine, Créteil (France); Aggad, Mourad [Unité de Radiochirurgie Gamma Knife, Region Ile De France, Paris (France); Service de Neurochirurgie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) La Pitié-Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Golmard, Jean-Louis [Service de Biostatistiques, CHU La Pitié-Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Hasboun, Dominique [Service de Neuroanatomie, CHU La Pitié-Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Lamproglou, Ioannis [Unité de Radiochirurgie Gamma Knife, Region Ile De France, Paris (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze the relationship between dosimetric characteristics and symptoms related to trigeminal neuropathy (TN) observed after radiosurgery (RS) for vestibular schwannomas (VS); to propose guidelines to optimize planification in VS RS regarding TN preservation; and to detail the mechanism of TN impairment after VS RS. Methods and Materials: One hundred seventy-nine patients treated between 2011 and 2013 for VS RS and without trigeminal impairment before RS were included in a retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine predictors of TN among characteristics of the patients, the dosimetry, and the VS. Results: There were 20 Koos grade 1, 99 grade 2, 57 grade 3, and 3 grade 4. Fourteen patients (7.8%) presented a transitory or permanent TN. Between the patients with and without TN after VS RS, there was no significant difference regarding dosimetry or VS volume itself. Significant differences (univariate analysis P<.05, Mann-Whitney test) were found for parameters related to the cisternal portion of the trigeminal nerve: total integrated dose, maximum dose, mean dose, volume of the Vth nerve (Vol{sub v}), and volume of the Vth nerve receiving at least 11 Gy (Vol{sub Vcist>11Gy}), but also for maximal dose to the Vth nerve nucleus and intra-axial portion (Dose max{sub Vax}). After multivariate analysis, the best model predicting TN included Vol{sub Vcist>11Gy} (P=.0045), Dose max{sub Vax} (P=.0006), and Vol{sub v} (P=.0058). The negative predictive value of this model was 97%. Conclusions: The parameters Vol{sub Vcist>11Gy}, Dose max{sub Vax}, and Vol{sub v} should be checked when designing dosimetry for VS RS.

  18. Removal of vestibular schwannoma and facial nerve preservation using small suboccipital retrosigmoid craniotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ling; CHEN Li-hua; LING Feng; LIU Yun-sheng; Madjid Samii; Amir Samii

    2010-01-01

    Background Vestibular schwannoma, the commonest form of intracranial schwannoma, arises from the Schwann cells investing the vestibular nerve. At present, the surgery for vestibular schwannoma remains one of the most complicated operations demanding for surgical skills in neurosurgery. And the trend of minimal invasion should also be the major influence on the management of patients with vestibular schwannomas. We summarized the microsurgical removal experience in a recent series of vestibular schwannomas and presented the operative technique and cranial nerve preservation in order to improve the rates of total tumor removal and facial nerve preservation.Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in 145 patients over a 7-year period who suffered from vestibular schwannomas that had been microsurgicaily removed by suboccipital retrosigmoid transmeatus approach with small craniotomy. CT thinner scans revealed the tumor size in the internal auditory meatus and the relationship of the posterior wall of the internal acoustic meatus to the bone labyrinths preoperatively. Brain stem evoked potential was monitored intraoperatively. The posterior wall of the internal acoustic meatus was designedly drilled off. Patient records and operative reports, including data from the electrophysiological monitoring, follow-up audiometric examinations, and neuroradiological findings were analyzed.Results Total tumor resection was achieved in 140 cases (96.6%) and subtotal resection in 5 cases. The anatomical integrity of the facial nerve was preserved in 91.0% (132/145) of the cases. Intracranial end-to-end anastomosis of the facial nerve was performed in 7 cases. Functional preservation of the facial nerve was achieved in 115 patients (Grade Ⅰ and Grade Ⅱ, 79.3%). No patient died in this series. Preservation of nerves and vessels were as important as tumor removal dudng the operation. CT thinner scan could show the relationship between the posterior wall of the internal

  19. Quality of Life in 807 Patients with Vestibular Schwannoma: Comparing Treatment Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Géke; van Leeuwen, Bibian M; Putter, Hein; Jansen, Jeroen C; Malessy, Martijn J A; van Benthem, Peter Paul G; van der Mey, Andel G L; Stiggelbout, Anne M

    2017-07-01

    Objective In vestibular schwannoma treatment, the choice among treatment modalities is controversial. The first aim of this study was to examine the quality of life of patients with vestibular schwannoma having undergone observation, radiation therapy, or microsurgical resection. The second aim was to examine the relationship between perceived symptoms and quality of life. Last, the association between quality of life and time since treatment was studied. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods A total of 1208 patients treated for sporadic vestibular schwannoma between 2004 and 2014 were mailed the disease-specific Penn Acoustic Neuroma Quality of Life (PANQOL) questionnaire and additional questions on symptoms associated with vestibular schwannoma. Total and domain scores were calculated and compared among treatment groups. Propensity scores were used, and results were stratified according to tumor size to control for potential confounders. Correlations were calculated to examine the relationship between self-reported symptoms and quality of life, as well as between quality of life and time since treatment. Results Patients with small tumors (≤10 mm) under observation showed a higher PANQOL score when compared with the radiation therapy and microsurgical resection groups. A strong negative correlation was found between self-reported symptoms and quality of life, with balance problems and vertigo having the largest impact. No correlation was found between PANQOL score and time since treatment. Conclusion This study suggests that patients with small vestibular schwannomas experience better quality of life when managed with observation than do patients who have undergone active treatment.

  20. Long-Term Results for Trigeminal Schwannomas Treated With Gamma Knife Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Toshinori, E-mail: h-toshi@komakihp.gr.jp; Kato, Takenori; Iizuka, Hiroshi; Kida, Yoshihisa

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection is considered the desirable curative treatment for trigeminal schwannomas. However, complete resection without any complications remains challenging. During the last several decades, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a minimally invasive treatment modality. Information regarding long-term outcomes of SRS for patients harboring trigeminal schwannomas is limited because of the rarity of this tumor. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term tumor control and functional outcomes in patients harboring trigeminal schwannomas treated with SRS, specifically with gamma knife surgery (GKS). Methods and Materials: Fifty-three patients harboring trigeminal schwannomas treated with GKS were evaluated. Of these, 2 patients (4%) had partial irradiation of the tumor, and 34 patients (64%) underwent GKS as the initial treatment. The median tumor volume was 6.0 cm{sup 3}. The median maximum and marginal doses were 28 Gy and 14 Gy, respectively. Results: The median follow-up period was 98 months. On the last follow-up image, 7 patients (13%) had tumor enlargement, including the 2 patients who had partial treatment. Excluding the 2 patients who had partial treatment, the actuarial 5- and 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 90% and 82%, respectively. Patients with tumors compressing the brainstem with deviation of the fourth ventricle had significantly lower PFS rates. If those patients with tumors compressing the brainstem with deviation of the fourth ventricle are excluded, the actuarial 5- and 10-year PFS rates increased to 95% and 90%, respectively. Ten percent of patients had worsened facial numbness or pain in spite of no tumor progression, indicating adverse radiation effect. Conclusions: GKS can be an acceptable alternative to surgical resection in patients with trigeminal schwannomas. However, large tumors that compress the brainstem with deviation of the fourth ventricle should be surgically removed first and then

  1. Clinical impact of patent foramen ovale diagnosis with transcranial Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzola, Gian Paolo

    2002-11-01

    The role of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in cryptogenic stroke is still debated, but from recent follow-up studies it seems that the amount of right-to-left shunt (RLS) and the association with atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) are major determinants of stroke recurrence. PFO and RLS through the atrial chambers have been recently studied in a number of conditions not or marginally related to cerebrovascular disease. Historically the first studies addressed the presence of RLS in scuba divers as a possible abnormality related to decompression sickness (DS) of unknown aetiology. Despite initial debate there is now robust evidence to claim that patency of foramen ovale increases the risk of developing DS by two and half to four times. Patients with PFO-related DS tend to have early occurrence of symptoms after surfacing and a clinical presentation that indicates brain or upper cervical spinal cord involvement. Recent reports suggest that divers with hemodynamically significant RLS may have an increased risk of developing clinically asymptomatic multiple brain lesions. PFO has been found in patients suffering from migraine with aura with approximately the same frequency as that encountered in cryptogenic stroke patients. This finding has prompted speculations on the possible role of RLS in increasing the stroke risk in migraineurs and in the pathophysiology of the aura. Recent reports showing that migraine with aura is dramatically improved after transcatheter closure of PFO suggest that migraine with aura may indeed be triggered by humoral factors that reach the brain by escaping the pulmonary filter. A RLS is involved in a rare condition known as platypnea-orthodeoxia and perhaps underlies an increased risk of cerebral complications after major orthopedic surgery. Valsalva-like activities often precede the occurrence of attacks of transient global amnesia (TGA) and abnormalities consistent with hypoperfusion of deep limbic structures have been reported during a typical TGA

  2. Hearing outcomes of vestibular schwannoma patients managed with 'wait and scan': predictive value of hearing level at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, S-E; Tos, M; Thomsen, J

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of both hearing level (at various frequencies) and speech discrimination for forecasting hearing outcome after a period of observation, in patients with vestibular schwannoma....

  3. Persistent foramen of Huschke: a tomographic study; Persistencia do forame de Huschke: um estudo tomografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Henrique Nogueira; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; Mello, Rossana Corbo Ramalho de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: hsodonto@gmail.com; Leite, Horacio Faig [UNESP, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Xavier, Sergio Salles [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho. Servico de Cardiologia

    2006-07-15

    Objective: to evaluate the persistency of foramen of Huschke by means of computed tomography study of the ear region and approaching important clinical aspects related to the presence of this anatomical anomaly. Materials and methods: two examiners have analyzed the whole tympanic portion of temporal bone in 150 bilateral computed tomography studies of the ear region, searching for foramen of Huschke presence or absence. Results: the mentioned anatomical anomaly was found in 17 cases (11.3%), 13 patients (76.5%) being female and four (23.5%) male. This higher female incidence is statistically confirmed. Conclusion: ear and/or temporomandibular joint specialists should turn their attention to the persistency of foramen of Huschke. (author)

  4. Adult brain abscess associated with patent foramen ovale: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathopoulos Georgios T

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brain abscess results from local or metastatic septic spread to the brain. The primary infectious site is often undetected, more commonly so when it is distant. Unlike pediatric congenital heart disease, minor intracardiac right-to-left shunting due to patent foramen ovale has not been appreciated as a cause of brain abscess in adults. Here we present a case of brain abscess associated with a patent foramen ovale in a 53-year old man with dental-gingival sepsis treated in the intensive care unit. Based on this case and the relevant literature we suggest a link between a silent patent foramen ovale, paradoxic pathogen dissemination to the brain, and development of brain abscess.

  5. Accessory mental foramen: A rare anatomical variation detected by cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; De Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoe-Rebello, Ieda Margarida [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the vestibular portion of the mandible through which nerve endings, such as the mental nerve, emerge. In general, the mental foramen is located between the lower premolars. This region is a common area for the placement of dental implants. It is very important to identify anatomical variations in presurgical imaging exams since damage to neurovascular bundles may have a direct influence on treatment success. In the hemimandible, the mental foramen normally appears as a single structure, but there are some rare reports on the presence and number of anatomical variations; these variations may include accessory foramina. The present report describes the presence of accessory mental foramina in the right mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before dental implant placement.

  6. Relationship between foramen magnum position and locomotion in extant and extinct hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaux, Dimitri; Bienvenu, Thibaut; Guy, Franck; Daver, Guillaume; Sansalone, Gabriele; Ledogar, Justin A; Rae, Todd C; Wroe, Stephen; Brunet, Michel

    2017-12-01

    From the Miocene Sahelanthropus tchadensis to Pleistocene Homo sapiens, hominins are characterized by a derived anterior position of the foramen magnum relative to basicranial structures. It has been previously suggested that the anterior position of the foramen magnum in hominins is related to bipedal locomotor behavior. Yet, the functional relationship between foramen magnum position and bipedal locomotion remains unclear. Recent studies, using ratios based on cranial linear measurements, have found a link between the anterior position of the foramen magnum and bipedalism in several mammalian clades: marsupials, rodents, and primates. In the present study, we compute these ratios in a sample including a more comprehensive dataset of extant hominoids and fossil hominins. First, we verify if the values of ratios can distinguish extant humans from apes. Then, we test whether extinct hominins can be distinguished from non-bipedal extant hominoids. Finally, we assess if the studied ratios are effective predictors of bipedal behavior by testing if they mainly relate to variation in foramen magnum position rather than changes in other cranial structures. Our results confirm that the ratios discriminate between extant bipeds and non-bipeds. However, the only ratio clearly discriminating between fossil hominins and other extant apes is that which only includes basicranial structures. We show that a large proportion of the interspecific variation in the other ratios relates to changes in facial, rather than basicranial, structures. In this context, we advocate the use of measurements based only on basicranial structures when assessing the relationship between foramen magnum position and bipedalism in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A case of huge neurofibroma expanding extra- and intracranially through the enlarged jugular foramen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanakita, Junya; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Handa, Hajime

    1984-01-01

    The surgical approach to the jugular foramen has been considered to be very difficult and troublesome, because of the location in which important structures, such as the internal jugular vein, internal carotid artery and lower cranial nerves, converge in the narrow deep space. A case of huge neurofibroma, which extended from the tentorium cerebelli through the dilated jugular foramen to the level of the vertebral body of C 3 was presented. A 12-year-old girl was admitted with complaints of visual disturbance and palsy of the V-XII cranial nerves of the left side. Plain skull film showed prominent widening of the cranial sutures and enlargement of the sella turcica. Horizontal CT scan with contrast showed symmetrical ventricular dilatation and a heterogeneously enhanced mass, which was situated mainly in the left CP angle. Coronal CT scan with contrast revealed a huge mass and enlarged jugular foramen, through which the tumor extended to the level of the vertebral body of C 3 . Occlusion of the sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein of the left side was noticed in the vertebral angiography. Two-stage approach, the first one for removal of the intracranial tumor and the second one for extracranial tumor, was performed for its huge tumor. Several authors have reported excellent surgical approaches for the tumors situated in the jugular foramen. By our approach, modifying Gardner's original one, a wide operative field was obtained to remove the tumor around the jugular foramen with success. Our approach for the jugular foramen was described with illustrations. (author)

  8. Study of the inferior alveolar canal and mental foramen on digital panoramic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pria, Carlos M; Masood, Farah; Beckerley, Joy M; Carson, Robert E

    2011-07-01

    To study the radiographic location of the mental foramen and appearance of the inferior alveolar canal and the relationship between image gray values and the clarity of inferior alveolar canal on the digital panoramic images and to evaluate if the histogram equalization of the digital image would improve the visualization of the inferior alveolar canal outline on the digital panoramic images in the mandible. Five hundred digital panoramic images were evaluated by two examiners using a specific inclusion criteria. Only the right side of the mandible was studied. Chi-square analyses were used for comparisons of distributions. Mean and median pixel values were analyzed separately with a one-way analysis of variance. Also, percentages were calculated to report the usefulness of the histogram equalization for visualization of canal. RESULTS show variation in location of mental foramen. Most frequent location of the mental foramen was reported as first and second premolar region. Chi-square analysis showed that the frequency of occurrence of the mental foramen was equally probable for any of the three locations. The study did not find significant usefulness of the gray values obtained from the histogram equalization in predicting the clarity of inferior alveolar canal outlines. Knowing the normal relationship and the anatomical variation of the maxillofacial structures for each patient is important for surgical implant treatment planning to avoid future complications. It is also important to be familiar with the advantages and limitations of diagnostic aids available before making treatment planning decisions based on such findings. Digital imaging, Panoramic, Inferior alveolar canal, Mental foramen. How to cite this article: Pria CM, Masood F, Beckerley JM, Carson RE. Study of the Inferior Alveolar Canal and Mental Foramen on Digital Panoramic Images. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(4):265-271. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  9. Locating Mandibular Foramen in Children with Mandibular Retrognathism in Mixed Dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrsa Paryab

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. One of the most common reasons forthe inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia failure is the variation in mandibular foramen location. The aim of this study was to assess the location of mandibular foramen in chil-dren with mandibular retrognathism in comparison to children with normal skeletal occlusion in the mixed dentition. Materials and methods. One hundred and twenty panoramic radiographs of patients in mixed dentition period, undergo-ing orthodontic treatment, were selected based on inclusion criteria, skeletal occlusion and stage of dental development. The radiographs were divided into two groups: I: 60 panoramic radiographs of patients with normal skeletal occlusion (15 in each of the Hellman dental age stages; II: 60 panoramic radiographs of patients with mandibular retrognathism (15 in each of the Hellman dental age stages. The radiographs were traced and the linear distance from the mandibular foramen to the borders of the mandibular ramus and its angular position were identified. The measurements were compared between the two groups and among the four dental age groups by t-test, ANOVA and post hoc tests. Results. No statistically significant differences werefound between the patients with normal skeletal occlusion and patients with mandibular retrognathism (P>0.05. Statistical tests showed significant differences in the vertical location of mandibu-lar foramen and gonial angle between the four dental age groups (P<0.05. Conclusion. Mandibular retrognathism does not have a significant impact on the location of the mandibular foramen in the mixed dentition period. The child’s dental age would be considered in the localization of the mandibular foramen.

  10. MR imaging of a malignant schwannoma and an osteoblastoma with fluid-fluid levels. Report of two new cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilanova, J.C.; Dolz, J.L.; Aldoma, J.; Capdevila, A.; Maestro de Leon, J.L.; Aparicio, A.

    1998-01-01

    One case of malignant schwannoma of the sacrum and another of occipital osteoblastoma were evaluated by MR imaging. Both tumors showed fluid-fluid levels with different signal intensities in the sequences performed. Pathologic examination revealed hemmorhagic fluid in both tumors. Malignant schwannoma and osteoblastoma should be included in the list of bone and soft-tissue with fluid-fluid levels. Our data confirm the non-specificity of this finding, which only suggests the presence of previous intratumoral hemorrhage. (orig.) (orig.)

  11. A primary leiomyoma in the neural foramen of the lumbar spine: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Chang; Kang, Byeong Seong; Kim, Young Min; Park, Moon Soo; Jeong, Ae Kyung; Yang, Myeon Jun; Hwang, Jae Cheol [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    A primary leiomyoma in the neural foramen of the lumbar spine is a very rare condition. We examined a 23-year-old female presented with back and right flank pain. A plain radiography showed a well-defined, osteolytic lesion in the L3 body. In addition, MR images showed a mass lesion with intense enhancement, after intravenous injection with contrast material, in the right neural foramen at the L2/3 level. A histopathologic examination of the resected specimen revealed a benign leiomyoma.

  12. Normal and pathological growth of the foramen occipitale magnum shown in the plain radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliesener, J.A.; Schmidt, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    The transverse diameter of the foramen occipitale magnum (f.o.m.) in the semiaxial skull X-ray was measured and evaluated statistically in 174 cerebrally healthy children of different ages. These normal values are contrasted with the foramen diameters of 35 children with verified Arnold-Chiari malformation as well as children with macrocephaly and microcephaly. The values in children with Arnold-Chiari malformation are all above the norm, irrespective of whether or not there is a concomitant hydrocephalus. (orig.) [de

  13. Indications of Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Seiji; Takanashi, Masami; Hojyo, Atsufumi; Tanaka, Chiharu; Konishi, Masanori; Nakamura, Hirohiko

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the indication of gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas by analyzing tumor control and possible complications using low marginal doses and conformal multiple shots to fit irregular tumor shapes. The authors evaluated 223 patients with followed-up periods ranging from 5 years to 15 years (mean 7.7 years, median 7.4 years). Marginal doses were 9 to 15 Gy (mean 12.5 Gy, median 12 Gy) with corresponding treatment volumes being between 0.1 and 18.7 cm 3 (mean 2.6 cm 3 , median 1.8 cm 3 ). The number of isocenters varied from 2 to 24 shots (mean 9, median 9.2). The actuarial tumor control rates were 95% at 5 years and 94% at 7 years, respectively. Larger tumors (p=0.0068) and those in younger patients (p=0.093) tended to recur significantly. The preservation rates of useful hearing were 84%, 71%, and 64% at 2, 4, and 7 years, respectively. The most deterioration seemed to occur in cases with elderly patients (p=0.0048). Facial and trigeminal functions were preserved at 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. Amongst all patients, 20.6% developed transient dizziness, with persistent dizziness remaining in 1.5% of the total. Fifty-six other patients not in the long-term evaluation consecutively underwent caloric testing and static stabilometry as well as neurological examinations to evaluate vestibular function in detail, both before and after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS). The results showed that 90% of the patients had already developed vestibular dysfunction before the treatment despite reported symptoms of dizziness. GKRS did not significantly affect vestibular function. Hydrocephalus was recognized in 5.5% of all patients, and seemed to occur primarily in cases with larger tumors (p=0.0189). GKRS provides a safe and effective therapy for small to medium sized tumors up to 8 cm 3 . Long-term hearing preservation rate may be affected by presbycusis in elderly patients. (author)

  14. Predictors of Preoperative Tinnitus in Unilateral Sporadic Vestibular Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Naros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveNearly two-thirds of patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS are reporting a significantly impaired quality of life due to tinnitus. VS-associated tinnitus is attributed to an anatomical and physiological damage of the hearing nerve by displacing growth of the tumor. In contrast, the current pathophysiological concept of non-VS tinnitus hypothesizes a maladaptive neuroplasticity of the central nervous system to a (hidden hearing impairment resulting in a subjective misperception. However, it is unclear whether this concept fits to VS-associated tinnitus. This study aims to determine the clinical predictors of VS-associated tinnitus to ascertain the compatibility of both pathophysiological concepts.MethodsThis retrospective study includes a group of 478 neurosurgical patients with unilateral sporadic VS evaluated preoperatively regarding the occurrence of ipsilateral tinnitus depending on different clinical factors, i.e., age, gender, tumor side, tumor size (T1–T4 according to the Hannover classification, and hearing impairment (Gardner–Robertson classification, GR1–5, using a binary logistic regression.Results61.8% of patients complain about a preoperative tinnitus. The binary logistic regression analysis identified male gender [OR 1.90 (1.25–2.75; p = 0.002] and hearing impairment GR3 [OR 1.90 (1.08–3.35; p = 0.026] and GR4 [OR 8.21 (2.29–29.50; p = 0.001] as positive predictors. In contrast, patients with large T4 tumors [OR 0.33 (0.13–0.86; p = 0.024] and complete hearing loss GR5 [OR 0.36 (0.15–0.84; p = 0.017] were less likely to develop a tinnitus. Yet, 60% of the patients with good clinical hearing (GR1 and 25% of patients with complete hearing loss (GR5 suffered from tinnitus.ConclusionThese data are good accordance with literature about non-VS tinnitus indicating hearing impairment as main risk factor. In contrast, complete hearing loss appears a negative predictor for tinnitus. For the first

  15. Are stage IV vestibular schwannomas preoperatively different from other stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Stéphane; Dubreuil, Christian; Zaouche, Sandra; Ferber-Viart, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on the clinical and paraclinical symptoms of patients suffering from Stage IV vestibular schwannomas (VSs). In this prospective study, we included 734 patients who have VS and candidates for operation. Patients were classified as having Stage I, II, III, or IV tumors according to Tos criteria as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. PREOPERATIVE CLINICAL EVALUATION: We recorded the occurrence of complaints (%) and duration (yr) of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorder. Preoperative paraclinical evaluation included pure-tone (PTA) and speech audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR) patterns, and vestibular deficit at videonystamography (VNG). Continuous variables were compared between Stage IV and other stages using analysis of variance. Qualitative variables expressed as a percentage of presence were compared between Stage IV and other stages using percentage comparison. Quantitative Parameters. Patients with Stage IV VS were significantly younger as compared with patients with other stages. Stage IV hearing loss was greater compared with other stages at 250 and 500 Hz but smaller at 2,000 and 8,000 Hz. We found no difference in the loss of PTA between Stage IV and the other stages. Speech discriminancy score was smaller in Stage IV. The durations of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorders were similar whatever the tumor stage. Auditory brainstem response patterns showed no difference in Wave III latency between Stage IV VS and other stages, whereas Wave V latency and V-I interval were higher in Stage IV. Both ABR threshold and VNG caloric deficit were higher in Stage IV VS compared with other stages. Qualitative Parameters. The percentage of patients with Stage IV was lower than that with Stages II and III. The percentage of men and women was similar in all stages. The occurrence of hearing loss was similar in all stages, whereas that of tinnitus was lower in Stage IV compared with Stages I and II. In

  16. Patent foramen ovale: diagnosis with multidetector CT--comparison with transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin; Hur, Jin; Shim, Chi-Young; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Ha, Jong-Won; Choe, Kyu Ok; Heo, Ji Hoe; Choi, Eui-Young; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical feasibility and accuracy of 64-section multidetector computed tomography (CT) compared with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for diagnosis of a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study. The study included 152 consecutive stroke patients (mean age, 61.7 years; 98 men, 54 women) who underwent both cardiac multidetector CT and TEE. Electrocardiographically gated cardiac CT was performed with a 64-section CT scanner by using a saline-chaser contrast agent injection technique. A contrast agent jet from the contrast agent-filled left atrium (LA) to the saline-filled right atrium (RA) and channel-like appearance of the interatrial septum (IAS) were evaluated on axial and oblique sagittal CT images. Two-dimensional and Doppler TEE were performed to detect PFO. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of CT were obtained with TEE as the reference standard. A PFO was present in 26 patients at TEE. On CT images, a left-to-right contrast agent jet toward the inferior vena cava was noted in 21 patients (sensitivity, 73.1%; specificity, 98.4%; PPV, 90.5%; NPV, 94.7%). Channel-like appearance of the IAS was detected in 38 patients (sensitivity, 76.9%; specificity, 85.7%; PPV, 52.6%; NPV, 94.7%). Channel-like appearance of the IAS was noted in all patients who had a contrast agent jet. A contrast agent jet from LA to RA toward the inferior vena cava with channel-like appearance of the IAS on CT images confirms the presence of a PFO. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of transesophageal echocardiogram for the detection of patent foramen ovale: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojadidi, Mohammad Khalid; Bogush, Nikolay; Caceres, Jose Diego; Msaouel, Pavlos; Tobis, Jonathan M

    2014-07-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a remnant of the fetal circulation present in 20% of the population. Right-to-left shunting (RLS) through a PFO has been linked to the pathophysiology of stroke, migraine with aura, and hypoxemia. While different imaging modalities including transcranial Doppler, intra-cardiac echo, and transthoracic echo (TTE) have often been used to detect RLS, transesophageal echo (TEE) bubble study remains the gold standard for diagnosing PFO. The aim of this study was to determine the relative accuracy of TEE in the detection of PFO. A systematic review of Medline, using a standard approach for meta-analysis, was performed for all prospective studies assessing accuracy of TEE in the detection of PFO using confirmation by autopsy, cardiac surgery, and/or catheterization as the reference. Search results revealed 3105 studies; 4 met inclusion criteria. A total of 164 patients were included. TEE had a weighted sensitivity of 89.2% (95% CI: 81.1-94.7%) and specificity of 91.4% (95% CI: 82.3-96.8%) to detect PFO. The overall positive likelihood ratio (LR+) was 5.93 (95% CI: 1.30-27.09) and the overall negative likelihood ratio (LR-) was 0.22 (95% CI: 0.08-0.56). While TEE bubble study is considered to be the gold standard modality for diagnosing PFO, some PFOs may still be missed or misdiagnosed. It is important to understand the limitations of TEE and perhaps use other highly sensitive screening tests, such as transcranial doppler (TCD), in conjunction with TEE before scheduling a patient for transcatheter PFO closure. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale versus Medical Therapy after Cryptogenic Stroke: Meta-Analysis of Five Randomized Controlled Trials with 3440 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros Oliveira; de Oliveira Neto, Luiz de Albuquerque Pereira; do Nascimento, Gabriella Caroline Sales; Vieira, Erik Everton da Silva; Martins, Gabriel Lopes; Rodrigues, Karine Coelho; Nascimento, Giulia Cioffi; de Menezes, Alexandre Motta; Lins, Ricardo Felipe de Albuquerque; Silva, Frederico Pires Vasconcelos; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine whether patent foramen ovale closure reduces the risk of stroke, also assessing some safety outcomes. Introduction The clinical benefit of closing a patent foramen ovale after a cryptogenic stroke has been an open question for several decades, so that it is necessary to review the current state of published medical data in this regard. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LI-LACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for randomized controlled trials that reported any of the following outcomes: stroke, death, major bleeding or atrial fibrillation. Five studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria and included 3440 patients (1829 for patent foramen ovale closure and 1611 for medical therapy). Results The risk ratio (RR) for stroke in the "device closure" group compared with the "medical therapy" showed a statistically significant difference between the groups, favouring the "device closure" group (RR 0.400; 95% CI 0.183-0.873, P=0.021). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the safety outcomes death and major bleeding, but we observed an increase in the risk of atrial fibrillation in the "device closure group (RR 4.000; 95% CI 2.262-7.092, P<0.001). We also observed that the larger the proportion of effective closure, the lower the risk of stroke. Conclusion This meta-analysis found that stroke rates are lower with percutaneously implanted device closure than with medical therapy alone, being these rates modulated by the rates of effective closure. PMID:29617507

  19. Morphometrics of foramen magnum in African four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgiri, I; Olopade, J O; Yahaya, A

    The purpose of this study was to examine the morphometry of the foramen magnum of African four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) in Maiduguri. Fourteen hedgehog skulls (7 male and 7 female each) were used for this study. The overall mean value of foramen magnum height and width were 0.51 ± 0.05 cm and 0.64 ± 0.04 cm while occipital condylar and interparacondylar widths were 1.00 ± 0.12 cm and 1.62 ± 0.07 cm, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two sexes. The foramen magnum index was 83.4 ± 5.51 cm in males and was significantly higher than 76.3 ± 6.37 cm observed in females. The presences of dorsal notches (occipital dysplasia) were observed, that were of three distinct types. It is envisaged, that the study will provide a valuable database on the anatomy of foramen magnum of hedgehogs in Nigeria for morphological, neurological, zooarchaeological, and comparative anatomical studies.

  20. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24–0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25–0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully. PMID:25937698

  1. Endoscopic resection of cavernoma of foramen of Monro in a patient with familial multiple cavernomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Ricardo; Galeano, Inmaculada

    2008-09-01

    Intraventricular cavernomas are extremely infrequent and only 11 cases of cavernous hemangioma to occur at the foramen of Monro have been reported in the literature. This 56 years old patient was admitted with progressive and intractable headache of 10 days of evolution. He was known to suffer familial multiple cavernomatosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), revealed obstructive hydrocephalus due to a cavernoma located in the area of the left foramen of Monro. Under neuronavigation guidance, complete endoscopic resection of the cavernoma was performed and normal ventricular size achieved. The patient experienced transient recent memory loss that resolved within a month after surgery. In the literature attempted endoscopic resection is reported to be abandoned due to bleeding and ineffectiveness of piecemeal endoscopic resection. In this case, the multiplicity of the lesions made it advisable to resect the lesion endoscopically, to avoid an open procedure in a patient with multiple potentially surgical lesions. Endoscopic resection was uneventful with easy control of bleeding with irrigation, suction, and bipolar coagulation despite dense vascular appearance of the lesion. During the procedure, precise visualization of the vascular structures around the foramen of Monro allowed complete resection with satisfactory control of the instruments. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first published cavernoma of foramen of Monro successfully resected using an endoscopic approach.

  2. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, J; Zaror, C; Monardes, H; Hermosilla, V; Muñoz, C; Cantin, M

    2014-06-01

    Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3-5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24-0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25-0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully.

  3. Rapid pre-operative diagnosis of ileal hernia through the foramen of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. Y-P Lo, MD. Corresponding author: Y-H Liao (D14887@mail.cmuh.org.tw). Internal hernias through the foramen of Winslow are extremely rare. Prompt diagnosis and early surgical reduction are vital to prevent bowel gangrene and avoid ...

  4. Change in hearing during 'wait and scan' management of patients with vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Tos, M.

    2008-01-01

    : At the time of diagnosis, 334 patients (53 per cent) had good hearing and speech discrimination of better than 70 per cent; at the end of the 10-year observation period, this latter percentage was 31 per cent. In 17 per cent of the patients, speech discrimination at diagnosis was 100 per cent; of these, 88......Aim: To evaluate hearing changes during 'wait and scan' management of patients with vestibular schwannoma. Subjects: Over a 10-year period, 636 patients have prospectively been allocated to 'wait and scan' management, with annual magnetic resonance scanning and audiological examination. Results...... surgery and of radiation therapy with those of 'wait and scan' management, it appears that, in vestibular schwannoma patients with a small tumour and normal speech discrimination, the main indication for active treatment should be established tumour growth Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  5. Use of Ir192 interstitial brachytherapy for an equine malignant dermal schwannoma : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Saulez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old Hanoverian mare was evaluated for a right buccal swelling that recurred 3 months following surgical resection. Ultrasonographic examination showed a broadly pedunculated subcutaneous mass at the level of 106-109 and 406-409 cheek teeth associated with an erosive mucosal lesion on the inside of the cheek. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen revealed a well-demarcated, malignant, dermal schwannoma. Following subcutaneous placement of platinum coated Ir192 wires under general anaesthesia, low-dose radiation of 5 gray per day was delivered for 14 days. Short-term complications included loss of patency of the right nasolacrimal duct, erythema, dermatitis, leukotrichia and left-sided deviation of the muzzle. Ten months later, there has been no tumour recurrence. Findings suggest that the use of interstitial brachytherapy should be considered for a malignant, dermal schwannoma that has recurred or is not amenable to surgery.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of trigeminal schwannomas extending into both the middle and posterior cranial fossa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐启武; 车晓明; 胡杰; 杨伯捷

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trigeminal schwannomas (TSs) account for 0.1%-0.4% of all intracranial tumors and 1%-8% of intracranial schwannomas.1,2 Yoshida and Kawase3 classified TSs into 6 types according to their locations: M (TS involving the middle cranial fossa), P (TS involving the posterior cranial fossa), E (TS located at extracranial space), MP (TS involving both the middle and the posterior cranial fossa), ME (TS involving the middle cranial fossa and the extracranial space), and MPE (TS involving the the middle and the posterior cranial fossa and the extracranial space). Of these types, MP is the commonest, but is difficult to be totally removed. Between January 1984 and June 2003, we surgically treated 28 patients with TSs of type MP and obtained satisfactory results. To make a correct diagnosis of TS, to select appropriate surgical approach, and to improve surgical outcome of TS of type MP, we analysed the related clinical data and experiences.

  7. Benign Ancient Schwannoma of the abdominal wall: An unwanted birthday present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Manisha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a recent growth in the use of whole body Computerised Tomography (CT scans in the private sector as a screening test for asymptomatic disease. This is despite scant evidence to show any positive effect on morbidity or mortality. There has been concern raised over the possible harms of the test in terms of radiation exposure as well as the risk and anxiety of further investigation and treatment for the large numbers of benign lesions identified. Case Presentation A healthy 64 year old lady received a privately funded whole body CT scan for her birthday which revealed an incidental mass in the right iliac fossa. This was investigated with further imaging and colonoscopy and as confident diagnosis could not be made, eventually excised. Histology demonstrated this to be a benign ancient schwannoma and we believe this to be the first reported case of an abdominal wall schwannoma in the English literature Conclusions Ancient schwannomas are rare tumours of the peripheral nerve sheaths more usually found in the head, neck and flexor surfaces of extremities. They are a subtype of classical schwannomas with a predominance of degenerative changes. Our case highlights the pitfalls of such screening tests in demonstrating benign disease and subjecting patients to what turns out to be unnecessary invasive investigation and treatment. It provides evidence as to the consequences of the large number of false positive results that are created by blind CT scanning of asymptomatic patients i.e. its tendency to detect pseudodiesease rather than affect survival rates. Should the number of scans increase there may be an unnecessary burden on NHS resources due to the large numbers of benign lesions picked up, that are then referred for further investigation.

  8. Preoperative Identification of Facial Nerve in Vestibular Schwannomas Surgery Using Diffusion Tensor Tractography

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Min-Su; Kwon, Hyeok-Gyu; Jang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Oh-Lyong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Facial nerve palsy is a common complication of treatment for vestibular schwannoma (VS), so preserving facial nerve function is important. The preoperative visualization of the course of facial nerve in relation to VS could help prevent injury to the nerve during the surgery. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) for preoperative identification of facial nerve. Methods We prospectively collected data from 11 patients with VS, who underwent pr...

  9. The Ultrasonographic Determination of the Position of the Mental Foramen and its Relation to the Mandibular Premolar Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Abdullah Ebrahim; Motara, Feroza; Moolla, Muhammed

    2016-06-01

    The position of the mental foramen has been well researched in cadaver specimens, radiographically as well as intraoperatively. To our knowledge, this landmark study is the first to make use of ultrasonography in a study population to determine the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. Ultrasonography has great potential to further revolutionize the practice of medicine and dento-maxillofacial surgery. To make use of ultrasound to determine the position of the mental foramen and its relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. One hundred Black and Caucasian subjects were enrolled. A high frequency (8MHz) transducer (PLF.805ST) of a diagnostic ultrasound system (model SSA-510A) was applied above the inferior border of the mandible, just lateral to the mentum. With the marker of the transducer pointing cranially, the position of the mental foramen in relation to the closest mandibular premolar tooth was determined. The position was compared across race, sex and age groups. All mental foramina (100%) were visualised. Overall the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right (44%) and between the first and second premolars on the left (44%). There were no statistical differences (p >0.05) between race groups, sex and age groups with regard to the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolars. However, in Blacks, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar and in Caucasians the most common position was between the first and second premolars. The most frequent position of the mental foramen in females was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right and between the first and second premolars on the left. In males, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar bilaterally. The most common position of the mental

  10. Schwannoma of the descending loop of the hypoglossal nerve: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Pasqua, Rocco; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Schwannomas of the descending loop of the hypoglossal nerve are very rare. They are slow-growing tumors that may masquerade a carotid body tumor. A 60-year-old female was referred for a latero-cervical mass appearing as a chemodectoma at CT-scan. At operation, a 2cm mass arising from the descending loop of the hypoglossal nerve was resected en bloc with the loop itself and a functional lymphadenectomy was associated. Post-operative course was uneventful and the patient is free from disease recurrence at one year follow-up. En bloc resection remains the real curative treatment of Schwannomas, ensuring unlimited freedom from disease, although causing functional impairment which may be significant. Nonetheless recurrence should be prevented as, beside requiring reintervention, it may harbor a malignant evolution towards sarcoma. Schwannomas of the descending lop of the hypoglossal nerve may masquerade a chemodectoma of the carotid bifurcation and can be curatively resected without any functional impairment. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Melanotic Schwannomas Are Rarely Seen Pigmented Tumors with Unpredictable Prognosis and Challenging Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Elif; Ekmekci, Sumeyye; Oztekin, Ozgur; Diniz, Gulden

    2017-01-01

    Melanotic Schwannoma (MS) is rarely seen and potentially malignant neoplasm that is categorized as a variant of Schwannoma. MS most frequently involves intracranial structures followed by posterior nerve roots in the spinal canal. Approximately 50% of the cases with MS have psammomatous calcifications and this type of MS is related to Carney complex with autosomal dominant inheritance. Most cases of MS are benign, though 10% of them are malignant with metastatic potential. MS mimics melanoma and the differential diagnosis should be made excluding other melanin producing neoplasms especially melanoma. Case 1 . A 42-year-old hypertensive male presented for checkup. He had a well-defined extraspinal oval lesion measuring 3.5 × 2.5 cm near right adrenal. Case 2 . A 22-year-old female presented with neurofibromatosis-2, bilateral acoustic schwannomas and café au lait lesions on sacrococcygeal region. She had an intradural extramedullary lesion measuring 6.1 × 2.0 cm at L1-2 level. MS is a rare neoplasm composed of Schwann cells and melanin pigment. These tumors are usually benign but they may become aggressive. The biologic behavior of MS is difficult to predict; the patients have to be followed up for a longer period due to its malignant potential.

  12. Dose verification to cochlea during gamma knife radiosurgery of acoustic schwannoma using MOSFET dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil D; Kumar, Rajesh; Akhilesh, Philomina; Pendse, Anil M; Deshpande, Sudesh; Misra, Basant K

    2012-01-01

    Dose verification to cochlea using metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter using a specially designed multi slice head and neck phantom during the treatment of acoustic schwannoma by Gamma Knife radiosurgery unit. A multi slice polystyrene head phantom was designed and fabricated for measurement of dose to cochlea during the treatment of the acoustic schwannoma. The phantom has provision to position the MOSFET dosimeters at the desired location precisely. MOSFET dosimeters of 0.2 mm x 0.2 mm x 0.5 μm were used to measure the dose to the cochlea. CT scans of the phantom with MOSFETs in situ were taken along with Leksell frame. The treatment plans of five patients treated earlier for acoustic schwannoma were transferred to the phantom. Dose and coordinates of maximum dose point inside the cochlea were derived. The phantom along with the MOSFET dosimeters was irradiated to deliver the planned treatment and dose received by cochlea were measured. The treatment planning system (TPS) estimated and measured dose to the cochlea were in the range of 7.4 - 8.4 Gy and 7.1 - 8 Gy, respectively. The maximum variation between TPS calculated and measured dose to cochlea was 5%. The measured dose values were found in good agreement with the dose values calculated using the TPS. The MOSFET dosimeter can be a suitable choice for routine dose verification in the Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

  13. Detection of Spontaneous Schwannomas by MRI in a Transgenic Murine Model of Neurofibromatosis Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Messerli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous schwannomas were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in a transgenic murine model of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 expressing a dominant mutant form of merlin under the Schwann cell-specific PO promoter. Approximately 85% of the investigated mice showed putative tumors by 24 months of age. Specifically, 21% of the mice showed tumors in the intercostal muscles, 14% in the limb muscles, 7% in the spinal cord and spinal ganglia, 7% in the external ear, 14% in the muscle of the abdominal region, and 7% in the intestine; 66% of the female mice had uterine tumors. Multiple tumors were detected by MRI in 21% of mice. The tumors were isointense with muscle by T1-weighted MRI, showed strong enhancement following administration of gadolinium-DTPA, and were markedly hyperintense by T2-weighted MRI, all hallmarks of the clinical manifestation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry indicated that the tumors consisted of schwannomas and Schwann cell hyperplasias. The lesions stained positively for S-100 protein and a marker antigen for the mutated transgenic NF2 protein, confirming that the imaged tumors and areas of hyperplasia were of Schwann cell origin and expressed the mutated NF2 protein. Tumors were highly infectable with a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 vector, hrR3, which contains the reporter gene, lacZ. The ability to develop schwannoma growth with a noninvasive imaging technique will allow assessment of therapeutic interventions.

  14. Grading of vestibular schwannomas and corresponding tumor volumes: ramifications for radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindermann, T; Schlegel, I

    2013-01-01

    Patients with vestibular schwannomas (VS) are either assigned to watchful waiting, microsurgical resection, or radiosurgery. Decision making on how to proceed is based on parameters such as age, tumor growth, loss of hearing, and the tumor's Koos grading. In order to correlate Koos grading with tumor volume, patient records of 235 patients with VS who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) were retrospectively reviewed. From 1994 to 2009, 235 consecutive patients underwent GKRS for sporadic VS at the Zurich Gamma Knife Center. Median follow up was 62.8 ± 33.0 months. Of the 235 tumors, 32 (13.6 %) were graded Koos I with a volume of 0.25 ± 0.3 cc; 71 (30.2 %) were graded Koos II with a volume of 0.57 ± 0.54 cc; 70 (29.8 %) were graded Koos III with a volume of 1.82 ± 1.88 cc; and 62 (26.4 %) were graded Koos IV with a volume of 4.17 ± 2.75 cc. Tumor progression was defined as a volume increase > 20 % at 2 years or later following GKRS. Overall tumor progression occurred in 21/235 (8.9 %) patients at 3.4 ± 0.9 years. Tumor progression did not differ statistically significantly in the various Koos grades: 1/32 (3.1 %) patients with VS Koos Grade I, 7/71 (9.8 %) patients with VS Koos Grade II, 6/70 (8.6 %) patients with VS Koos Grade III, and 7/62 (11.3 %) patients with VS Koos Grade IV. To our knowledge, this is the first work correlating the various Koos grades of VS to their respective tumor volumes. In our patients, tumor volumes of VS Koos Grade IV were limited because all of our patients were eligible for radiosurgery. In our series, the outcome following GKRS for patients with VS Koos Grade IV tumors did not differ from patients with VS Koos Grades I-III. We therefore suggest to limit Koos Grade IV VS to tumor volumes 6 cc that may not be eligible for radiosurgery.

  15. Patent foramen ovale in patients with pulmonary embolism: A prognostic factor on CT pulmonary angiography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Tan, Stephanie; Patel, Vishal; Zalta, Benjamin A; Shmukler, Anna; Levsky, Jeffrey M; Jain, Vineet R; Shaban, Nada M; Haramati, Linda B

    2017-12-02

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) represents a risk factor for mortality, but this has not been evaluated for CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between PFO and mortality in patients with acute PE diagnosed on CTPA. This retrospective study included 268 adults [173 women, mean age 61 (range 22-98) years] diagnosed with acute PE on non-ECG-gated 64-slice CTPA in 2012 at our medical center. The images were reviewed for PFO by a panel of cardiothoracic radiologists with an average of 11 years of experience (range 1-25 years). CT signs of right heart strain and PE level were noted. Transthoracic echocardiograms (TTE), when available (n = 207), were reviewed for PFO by a cardiologist with subspecialty training in advanced imaging and with 3 years of experience. The main outcome was 30-day mortality. Fischer's exact test was utilized to compare mortality. PFO prevalence on CTPA was 22% (58/268) and 4% (9/207) on TTE. Overall 30-day mortality was 6% (16/268), 9% (5/58) for patients with PFO and 5% (11/210) for those without (p = 0.35). CT signs of right heart strain trended with higher mortality, but statistically significant only for hepatic vein contrast reflux [14% (6/44) vs 4% (10/224), p = 0.03]; right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) diameter ratio >1 [8% (13/156) vs RV:LV ≤ 1 3% (3/112), p = 0.07], septal bowing [10% (4/42) vs without 5% (12/226), p = 0.30]. PFO was demonstrated on CTPA in a proportion similar to the known population prevalence, while routine TTE was less sensitive. Mortality was non-significantly higher in patients with acute PE and PFO in this moderate-sized study. A larger study to answer this clinically important question is worthwhile. Copyright © 2017 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced RAC1 activity inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in neurofibromatosis type 2(NF2)-associated schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Bo; Li, Peng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Pinan

    2017-12-01

    Objective To study the function and potential mechanism of RAC1 inhibitors in NF2-associated schwannoma. Methods In this study, we the downregulation of RAC1 activity and tumor cell phenotypes by RAC1 inhibitor NSC23766 in vitro. And we further validated the anti-proliferation effect by this RAC1 inhibitor in subcutaneous xenograft tumor model and sciatic nerve model. Results Pharmacological inhibition of RAC1 could significantly inhibit the proliferation of both RT4 cells and human NF2-associated primary schwannoma cells by inducing apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition of RAC1 effectively reduced Rac1 activity and down-regulated the pathway downstream of Rac. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of RAC1 showed a potential antitumor effect, with low toxicity in vivo. Conclusion RAC1 inhibitors may play a therapeutic role in patients with schwannoma.

  17. Stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of acoustic schwannomas: comparative observations of 125 patients treated at one institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, David W.; Suarez, Oscar; Goldman, H. Warren; Downes, M. Beverly; Bednarz, Greg; Corn, Benjamin W.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Rosenstock, Jeffrey; Curran, Walter J.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and, more recently, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) have been recognized as noninvasive alternatives to surgery for the treatment of acoustic schwannomas. We review our experience of acoustic tumor treatments at one institution using a gamma knife for SRS and the first commercial world installation of a dedicated linac for SRT. Methods: Patients were treated with SRS on the gamma knife or SRT on the linac from October 1994 through August 2000. Gamma knife technique involved a fixed-frame multiple shot/high conformality single treatment, whereas linac technique involved daily conventional fraction treatments involving a relocatable frame, fewer isocenters, and high conformality established by noncoplanar arc beam shaping and differential beam weighting. Results: Sixty-nine patients were treated on the gamma knife, and 56 patients were treated on the linac, with 1 NF-2 patient common to both units. Three patients were lost to follow-up, and in the remaining 122 patients, mean follow-up was 119±67 weeks for SRS patients and 115±96 weeks for SRT patients. Tumor control rates were high (≥97%) for sporadic tumors in both groups but lower for NF-2 tumors in the SRT group. Cranial nerve morbidities were comparably low in both groups, with the exception of functional hearing preservation, which was 2.5-fold higher in patients who received conventional fraction SRT. Conclusion: SRS and SRT represent comparable noninvasive treatments for acoustic schwannomas in both sporadic and NF-2 patient groups. At 1-year follow-up, a significantly higher rate of serviceable hearing preservation was achieved in SRT sporadic tumor patients and may therefore be preferable to alternatives including surgery, SRS, or possibly observation in patients with serviceable hearing

  18. Trepanation and enlarged parietal foramen on skulls from the Loyalty Islands (Melanesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Sergey V; Sviridov, Alexey A

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this study is a comprehensive examination of openings discovered on two skulls in the collection of skeletal remains from the Loyalty Islands (Melanesia). The skull No. 1524 displayed an evidence of successful trepanation, and the skull No. 7985 revealed openings that were reminiscent of a trepanation, however, we are inclined to believe that in the latter case we are dealing with a rare genetic anomaly - enlarged parietal foramen.

  19. Patent Foramen Ovale as a Risk Factor for Altitude Decompression Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Medical Issues in Hypo-and Hyperbaric Conditions [les Questions medicales a caractere oprationel liees aux conditions hypobares ou hyperbares ] To order the...on "Operational Medical Issues in Hypo- and Hyperbaric Conditions ", held in Toronto, Canada, 16-19 October 2000, and published in RTO MP-062. 3-2...Space Environ Med 1996; 67: 1092-6. Powell MR, Norfleet WT, Kumar KV, Butler BD. Patent foramen ovale and hypobaric decompression. Aviat Space Environ

  20. Dumb-bell sarcoma of the foramen jugulare with syringomyelia. A radio-induced tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieben, G; Sieben-Praet, M; de Reuck, J; de Coster, W; Remouchamps, A; Roels, H; van der Eecken, H [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Dept. of. Neurology and Pathology

    1980-01-01

    The clinicopathological findings of a 58-year-old man, who developed cervicothoracic syringomyelia at the age of 25 are presented. He was given radiation therapy at the age of 33. At the age of 57 he developed a foramen jugulare syndrome on the left, caused by a low grade leiomyosarcoma. Etiologically, the most attractive hypothesis appears to be that the tumour was induced by radiation therapy administered 24 years previously.

  1. MORPHOMETRIC EVALUATION OF FORAMEN MAGNUM FOR SEX DETERMINATION IN A DOCUMENTED NORTH INDIAN SAMPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Jain; Alok Kumar; Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Sex determination is used in anthropology, forensic medicine and medic o - legal cases. It is (1) remarked that “next to the pelvis, the skull is the most easily sexed portion of the skeleton”. It has been suggested (2 - 5) that the measurements of the foramen magnum are useful for determining the sex. There are two osteological techniques used to determine the sex of an individual; the first is visual assessment to evaluate the morphological sex tra...

  2. Foramen of Monro meningioma with atypical appearance: CT and conventional MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakyemez, B.; Erdogan, C.; Oruc, E.; Parlak, M.; Aker, S.; Aksoy, K.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Intraventricular meningiomas have often been reported; however, literature reveals very few cases localized within foramen of Monro. Herein we report a 57-year-old woman admitted with obstructive hydrocephalus-related symptoms. Strikingly, the lesion was completely calcified in (T and had no marked solid component on MRI. The lesion was completely removed by surgical resection with a transfrontal intraventricular approach. The resected mass was histopathologically diagnosed as meningioma. The patient's symptoms resolved immediately after the operation

  3. Retrieval of Embolized Amplatzer Patent Foramen Ovale Occlusion Device: Issues Related to Late Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan J. Davies

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Embolization of a percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO closure device is a rare but serious complication. While early, periprocedural device embolization can normally be managed with snare and percutaneous retrieval, late embolization requires a different management strategy due to inability of the device to deform to allow passage into a large caliber sheath. We present a case of asymptomatic device embolization recognized six months following implantation and discuss the challenges encountered in successfully retrieving the device.

  4. A Case of Action-Induced Clonus that Mimicked Action Tremors and was Associated with Cervical Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hee Sung

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clonus is the rhythmic muscle contraction which usually occurs in patients with lesions involving descending motor pathways. Sometimes, rhythmic oscillation of action induced clonus could be confused to action tremor. We report a case of action induced clonus associated with cervical schwannoma which was misdiagnosed as essential tremor. The patient had spasticity in all limbs with exaggerated tendon reflexes, and passive stretch-induced clonus. Imaging and histological examinations revealed a schwannoma extending from C2 to C7. The lesion was partially removed by surgery. Even though essential tremor is a common disease, clinician have to do sufficient neurologic examination considering differential diagnosis.

  5. MR imaging of a malignant schwannoma and an osteoblastoma with fluid-fluid levels. Report of two new cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilanova, J.C.; Dolz, J.L.; Aldoma, J.; Capdevila, A. [Centre Diagnostic Pedralbes, Ressonancia Magnetica, Barcelona (Spain); Maestro de Leon, J.L.; Aparicio, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Mutua de Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-10-01

    One case of malignant schwannoma of the sacrum and another of occipital osteoblastoma were evaluated by MR imaging. Both tumors showed fluid-fluid levels with different signal intensities in the sequences performed. Pathologic examination revealed hemmorhagic fluid in both tumors. Malignant schwannoma and osteoblastoma should be included in the list of bone and soft-tissue with fluid-fluid levels. Our data confirm the non-specificity of this finding, which only suggests the presence of previous intratumoral hemorrhage. (orig.) (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs.

  6. Can patent foramen ovale affect rehabilitation? The uncommon association of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallerini, S; Calchetti, B; Cianchi, C; Di Troia, A M; Madonna, R; Cresti, A; Mancuso, M

    2011-06-01

    Platypnea-orthodeoxia is a rare syndrome characterized by dyspnea and deoxygenation induced by a change to a sitting or standing from a recumbent position. It is the result of posturally accentuated intracardiac or pulmonary right-to-left shunt leading to arterial oxygen desaturation. Only few cases of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome are reported in the literature and the association between stroke and platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome with evidence of patent foramen ovale is extremely rare. We describe the case of a 67-year-old female admitted to our Rehabilitation Unit for disabling basilar stroke due to paradoxical embolism from patent foramen ovale that during the first days of rehabilitation showed signs and symptoms of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. To remove a life-threatening condition for the patient and in order to develop the normal rehabilitation project, that was stopped by the platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome, the patient fastly underwent to percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale. The stabilization of oxygen arterial saturation with postural changes and the disappearance of symptoms of POS allowed to develop the rehabilitation project with progressive neurological improvement.

  7. A 2-D simulation of hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro of the human ventricular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammourah, S.; Aroussi, A. [Univ. of Nottingham, School of Mechanical, Materials, Manufacturing and Management, University Park, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: eaxsaka@nottingham.ac.uk; Vloeberghs, M. [Queen' s Medical Centre, Dept. of Child Health, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This study investigates the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow behavior in a two-dimensional plane (2-D) of the human ventricular system when the hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro (F.O.M) occurs. In order to understand the CSF behaviour when the hydrocephalus occurs, it is essential to comprehend its normal flow dynamics i.e. the healthy case with no hydrocephalus. This had been done numerically by reconstructing the ventricular system geometry from the MRI scans and then made a 15{sup o} degree cut in the surgical line to obtain the outlines of the 2-D plane. The healthy cases were solved for the CSF actual flow rate, which is between 100-500 ml/day in 100 incremental steps. The unhealthy cases were studied for the average flow rate, which is 300 ml/day but for blockage ratios of the Foramen diameter of 20%, 50% and 75%. These obstructions are designed to simulate the hydrocephalus. The results show that as the flow rate increases the pressure and the velocity values increases, but no changes in the flow pattern occurs. The maximum pressure on the normal cases occurred in the lateral ventricles and the maximum velocity occurred in the aqueduct neck. The results of the hydrocephalus cases show that as the obstruction degree increases the pressure in the lateral ventricle increases accompanied with a velocity increase in the obstructed Foramen, which may cause unwanted stress on the neighboring tissues. (author)

  8. Differentiating human versus non-human bone by exploring the nutrient foramen: implications for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vail; Beckett, Sophie; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    One of the roles of a forensic anthropologist is to assist medico-legal investigations in the identification of human skeletal remains. In some instances, only small fragments of bone may be present. In this study, a non-destructive novel technique is presented to distinguish between human and non-human long bones. This technique is based on the macroscopic and computed tomography (CT) analysis of nutrient foramina. The nutrient foramen of long bone diaphyses transmits the nutrient artery which provides much of the oxygen and nutrients to the bone. The nutrient foramen and its canal were analysed in six femora and humeri of human, sheep (Ovies aries) and pig (Sus scrofa) species. The location, position and direction of the nutrient foramina were measured macroscopically. The length of the canal, angle of the canal, circumference and area of the entrance of the foramen were measured from CT images. Macroscopic analysis revealed the femora nutrient foramina are more proximal, whereas humeri foramina are more distal. The human bones and sheep humerus conform to the perceived directionality, but the pig bones and sheep femur do not. Amongst the parameters measured in the CT analysis, the angle of the canal had a discriminatory power. This study shows the potential of this technique to be used independently or complementary to other methods in distinguishing between human and non-human bone in forensic anthropology.

  9. Patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke. Echocardiography role and state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo U, Mario H

    2008-01-01

    The causes of ischemic stroke in young patients are difficult to find, in spite of systematic investigations directed to rule out heart etiology, alterations in coagulation or any other type of vascular disease; hence the cryptogenic definition. There have been speculations regarding the potential role of right-to-left intracardiac shunts as a path for paradoxical embolisms that result in ischemic cerebral disease. Transesophagic echocardiography with peripheral venous injection of saline contrast has shown to be the preferred method for the diagnosis of patent foramen ovale and right-to-left shunt. Prospective studies using acetylsalicylic acid or warfarin have not shown significant reduction of recurrent strokes. Even though both surgical and percutaneous closure of the patent foramen ovale have shown to decrease the rate of subsequent embolic episodes, their indication remains under discussion, at least until the appearance of randomized clinical trials, now under development. However, the cases of recurrent paradoxical embolism and those in professional scuba divers, both with intra-atrial septum aneurysm and an associated patent foramen ovale, are the only unequivocal indications for percutaneous closure. Successful closure, defined by transesophagic echocardiography, seems to predict lack of recurrent embolic events. As the complication rate of device implantation may decrease and these devices become technologically simple, percutaneous closure will prevail over surgical closure

  10. Visibility of the mandibular canal and the mental foramen in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seon Jin; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duk

    2001-01-01

    To determine the head position that the superior border of the mandibular canal as well as mental foramen can be more clearly visualized in panoramic radiography. Ten dry mandibles were radiography bilaterally using PM 2002 CC panoramic machine. A 20 mm thick aluminium filter was added to the slit collimator to obtain radiographs with acceptable density. The specimens were tilted by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 degrees downward with and without radiopaque markers. Radiopaque markers were inserted into the mandibular canals and the mental canals of each side of the specimens to serve as reference image when assessing the radiographs. The obtained results were analyzed statistically. Mandibular canals were significantly more clearly visible in the radiographs with 4 and 6 degree downward position on both sides (P<0.05). Mental foramen were significantly more clearly visible in the was not significant difference between right and left sides. Panoramic radiographs with 4 to 6 degree downward tilting could be valuable in locating the mandibular canal as well as the mental foramen

  11. A 2-D simulation of hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro of the human ventricular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammourah, S.; Aroussi, A.; Vloeberghs, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow behavior in a two-dimensional plane (2-D) of the human ventricular system when the hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro (F.O.M) occurs. In order to understand the CSF behaviour when the hydrocephalus occurs, it is essential to comprehend its normal flow dynamics i.e. the healthy case with no hydrocephalus. This had been done numerically by reconstructing the ventricular system geometry from the MRI scans and then made a 15 o degree cut in the surgical line to obtain the outlines of the 2-D plane. The healthy cases were solved for the CSF actual flow rate, which is between 100-500 ml/day in 100 incremental steps. The unhealthy cases were studied for the average flow rate, which is 300 ml/day but for blockage ratios of the Foramen diameter of 20%, 50% and 75%. These obstructions are designed to simulate the hydrocephalus. The results show that as the flow rate increases the pressure and the velocity values increases, but no changes in the flow pattern occurs. The maximum pressure on the normal cases occurred in the lateral ventricles and the maximum velocity occurred in the aqueduct neck. The results of the hydrocephalus cases show that as the obstruction degree increases the pressure in the lateral ventricle increases accompanied with a velocity increase in the obstructed Foramen, which may cause unwanted stress on the neighboring tissues. (author)

  12. Tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo asociado a foramen oval permeable High-risk massive pulmonary thromboembolism associated with patent foramen ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La alta mortalidad de los pacientes con tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo amerita un enfoque terapéutico enérgico e invasivo que incluya la embolectomía pulmonar quirúrgica en aquellos pacientes con contraindicación para trombolisis o trombolisis fallida. Describimos un caso de tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo que recibió tratamiento quirúrgico en vez de trombolisis debido a que al momento del diagnóstico presentaba un trombo móvil a través de un foramen oval permeable con altísima posibilidad de embolismo paradójico arterial.High mortality rate associated with massive pulmonary embolism requires an aggressive invasive approach including surgical pulmonary embolectomy when thrombolytic therapy has failed or is contraindicated. We describe a case of high-risk massive pulmonary embolism who underwent surgical treatment due to the presence of a mobile intracardiac clot in a patent foramen ovale, and the possible risk of paradoxical arterial embolism.

  13. Age, gender and tumour size predict work capacity after surgical treatment of vestibular schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shudifat, Abdul Rahman; Kahlon, Babar; Höglund, Peter; Soliman, Ahmed Y; Lindskog, Kristoffer; Siesjo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify predictive factors for outcome after surgery of vestibular schwannomas. This is a retrospective study with partially collected prospective data of patients who were surgically treated for vestibular schwannomas at a single institution from 1979 to 2000. Patients with recurrent tumours, NF2 and those incapable of answering questionnaires were excluded from the study. The short form 36 (SF36) questionnaire and a specific questionnaire regarding neurological status, work status and independent life (IL) status were sent to all eligible patients. The questionnaires were sent to 430 eligible patients (out of 537) and 395 (93%) responded. Scores for work capacity (WC) and IL were compared with SF36 scores as outcome estimates. Patients were divided into two groups (group age, gender and tumour diameter were independent predictive factors for postoperative WC in multivariate analysis. A high-risk group was identified in women with age >50 years and tumour diameter >25 mm. In patients ≥64, gender and tumour diameter were significant predictive factors for IL in univariate analysis. Perioperative and postoperative objective factors as length of surgery, blood loss and complications did not predict outcome in the multivariable analysis for any age group. Patients' assessment of change in balance function was the only neurological factor that showed significance both in univariate and multivariable analysis in both age cohorts. While SF36 scores were lower in surgically treated patients in relation to normograms for the general population, they did not correlate significantly to WC and IL. The SF36 questionnaire did not correlate to outcome measures as WC and IL in patients undergoing surgery for vestibular schwannomas. Women and patients above 50 years with larger tumours have a high risk for reduced WC after surgical treatment. These results question the validity of quality of life scores in assessment of outcome after surgery

  14. Postural Stability Evaluation of Patients Undergoing Vestibular Schwannoma Microsurgery Employing the Inertial Measurement Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Kutilek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on a noninvasive method and system of quantifying postural stability of patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma microsurgery. Recent alternatives quantifying human postural stability are rather limited. The major drawback is that the posturography system can evaluate only two physical quantities of body movement and can be measured only on a transverse plane. A complex movement pattern can be, however, described more precisely while using three physical quantities of 3-D movement. This is the reason why an inertial measurement unit (Xsens MTx unit, through which we obtained 3-D data (three Euler angles or three orthogonal accelerations, was placed on the patient’s trunk. Having employed this novel method based on the volume of irregular polyhedron of 3-D body movement during quiet standing, it was possible to evaluate postural stability. To identify and evaluate pathological balance control of patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma microsurgery, it was necessary to calculate the volume polyhedron using the 3-D Leibniz method and to plot three variables against each other. For the needs of this study, measurements and statistical analysis were made on nine patients. The results obtained by the inertial measurement unit showed no evidence of improvement in postural stability shortly after surgery (4 days. The results were consistent with the results obtained by the posturography system. The evaluated translation variables (acceleration and rotary variables (angles measured by the inertial measurement unit correlate strongly with the results of the posturography system. The proposed method and application of the inertial measurement unit for the purpose of measuring patients with vestibular schwannoma appear to be suitable for medical practice. Moreover, the inertial measurement unit is portable and, when compared to other traditional posturography systems, economically affordable. Inertial measurement units can

  15. Microvascular Decompression for Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia in Patient with Facial Nerve Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, John P; Van Gompel, Jamie J; Link, Michael J; Carlson, Matthew L

    2018-05-01

    Secondary trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is uncommon. When a space-occupying lesion with mass effect is identified, the associated TN is often exclusively attributed to the tumor. This report illustrates the importance of considering coexistent actionable pathology when surgically treating secondary TN. A 51-year-old woman presented with abrupt-onset TN of the V2 and V3 nerve divisions with hypesthesia. She denied changes in hearing, balance, or facial nerve dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 1.6-cm contrast-enhancing cerebellopontine angle tumor that effaced the trigeminal nerve, consistent with a vestibular schwannoma. In addition, a branch of the superior cerebellar artery abutted the cisternal segment of the trigeminal nerve on T2-weighted thin-slice magnetic resonance imaging. Intraoperative electrical stimulation of the tumor elicited a response from the facial nerve at low threshold over the entire accessible tumor surface, indicating that the tumor was a facial nerve schwannoma. Considering the patient's lack of facial nerve deficit and that the tumor exhibited no safe entry point for intracapsular debulking, tumor resection was not performed. Working between the tumor and tentorium, a branch of the superior cerebellar artery was identified and decompressed with a Teflon pad. At last follow-up, the patient exhibited resolution of her TN. Her hearing and facial nerve function remained intact. Despite obstruction from a medium-sized tumor, it is still possible to achieve microvascular decompression of the fifth cranial nerve. This emphasizes the importance of considering other actionable pathology during surgical management of presumed tumor-induced TN. Further, TN is relatively uncommon with medium-sized vestibular schwannomas and coexistent causes should be considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Schwanoma de plexo braquial: relato de dois casos Schwannoma of brachial plexus: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Baldoíno Leal Filho

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Schwanomas, neurinomas ou neurilemomas são tumores benignos de nervos periféricos. Podem ocorrer em associação com a neurofibromatose tipo 2. Relatamos dois casos de tumor cervical originado em plexo braquial sem associação com neurofibromatose. Uma mulher, de 31 anos apresentando uma tumefação em região supraclavicular direita, dor irradiada para o membro ipsilateral e sinal de Tinel à percussão da região. Outra mulher, 52 anos, com cervicobraquialgia persistente à direita há um ano. Ambas foram submetidas a microcirurgia, com ressecção total da lesão. O estudo histopatológico foi compatível com schwanoma. As duas pacientes tiveram boa evolução neurológica, com desaparecimento dos sinais e sintomas.Schwannomas, neurinomas or neurilemmomas are benign peripheral nerve tumors. The literature report some cases associated with neurofibromatosis 2. We report two cases of cervical schwannoma originating from the brachial plexus unassociated with neurofibromatosis. A 31-year-old woman presented with a mass in the right supraclavicular region, irradiating pain and distal tingling to percussion (Tinel's sign for 6 months. And a 52-year-old woman presented with pain in the cervical region and right arm for one year. Both the patients underwent to a microsurgery with total resection of the lesion. Histology of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Postoperatively, the patients had a good recovery.

  17. Small-field fractionated radiotherapy with or without stereotactic boost for vestibular schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagei, K.; Shirato, H.; Suzuki, K.; Isu, T.; Sawamura, Y.; Sakamoto, T.; Fukuda, S.; Nishioka, T.; Hashimoto, S.; Miyasaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of small-field fractionated radiotherapy with or without stereotactic boost (SB) for vestibular schwannomas.Methods and materials: Thirty-nine patients with vestibular schwannoma were treated with irradiation between March 1991 and February 1996. Extra-meatal tumor diameters were under 30 mm. Thirty-three patients received small-field fractionated radiotherapy followed by SB. Basic dose schedule was 44 Gy in 22 fractions over 5 1/2 weeks plus 4 Gy in one session. Six patients received small-field fractionated radiotherapy only (40-44 Gy in 20-22 fractions over 5-5 1/2 weeks or 36 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks).< Results: Follow-up ranged from 6 to 69 months (median, 24 months). Tumors decreased in size in 13 cases (33%), were unchanged in 25 (64%), and increased in one (3%). The actuarial 2-year tumor control rate was 97%. Fifteen patients had useful hearing (Gardner-Robertson class 1-2) and 25 patients had testable hearing (class 1-4) before irradiation. The 2-year actuarial rates of useful hearing preservation (free of deterioration from class 1-2 to class 3-5) were 78%. The 2-year actuarial rates of any testable hearing preservation (free of deterioration from class 1-4 to class 5) were 96%. No permanent facial and trigeminal neuropathy developed after irradiation. The 2-year actuarial incidences of facial and trigeminal neuropathies were 8% and 16%, respectively.Conclusions: Small-field fractionated radiotherapy with or without SB provides excellent short-term local control and a relatively low incidence of complications for vestibular schwannoma, although further follow-up is necessary to evaluate the long-term results. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. A Patient-Assessed Morbidity to Evaluate Outcome in Surgically Treated Vestibular Schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shudifat, Abdul Rahman; Kahlon, Babar; Höglund, Peter; Lindberg, Sven; Magnusson, Måns; Siesjo, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Outcome after treatment of vestibular schwannomas can be evaluated by health providers as mortality, recurrence, performance, and morbidity. Because mortality and recurrence are rare events, evaluation has to focus on performance and morbidity. The latter has mostly been reported by health providers. In the present study, we validate 2 new scales for patient-assessed performance and morbidity in comparison with different outcome tools, such as quality of life (QOL) (European Quality of Life-5 dimensions [EQ-5D]), facial nerve score, and work capacity. There were 167 total patients in a retrospective (n = 90) and prospective (n = 50) cohort of surgically treated vestibular schwannomas. A new patient-assessed morbidity score (paMS), a patient-assessed Karnofsky score (paKPS), the patient-assessed QOL (EQ-5D) score, work capacity, and the House-Brackmann facial nerve score were used as outcome measures. Analysis of paMS components and their relation to other outcomes was done as uni- and multivariate analysis. All outcome instruments, except EQ-5D and paKPS, showed a significant decrease postoperatively. Only the facial nerve score (House-Brackmann facial nerve score) differed significantly between the retrospective and prospective cohorts. Out of the 16 components of the paMS, hearing dysfunction, tear dysfunction, balance dysfunction, and eye irritation were most often reported. Both paMS and EQ-5D correlated significantly with work capacity. Standard QOL and performance instruments may not be sufficiently sensitive or specific to measure outcome at the cohort level after surgical treatment of vestibular schwannomas. A morbidity score may yield more detailed information on symptoms that can be relevant for rehabilitation and occupational training after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic significance of electrophysiological tests for facial nerve outcome in vestibular schwannoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinther, J J S; Van Rompaey, V; Somers, T; Zarowski, A; Offeciers, F E

    2011-01-01

    To assess the prognostic significance of pre-operative electrophysiological tests for facial nerve outcome in vestibular schwannoma surgery. Retrospective study design in a tertiary referral neurology unit. We studied a total of 123 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma who underwent microsurgical removal of the lesion. Nine patients were excluded because they had clinically abnormal pre-operative facial function. Pre-operative electrophysiological facial nerve function testing (EPhT) was performed. Short-term (1 month) and long-term (1 year) post-operative clinical facial nerve function were assessed. When pre-operative facial nerve function, evaluated by EPhT, was normal, the outcome from clinical follow-up at 1-month post-operatively was excellent in 78% (i.e. HB I-II) of patients, moderate in 11% (i.e. HB III-IV), and bad in 11% (i.e. HB V-VI). After 1 year, 86% had excellent outcomes, 13% had moderate outcomes, and 1% had bad outcomes. Of all patients with normal clinical facial nerve function, 22% had an abnormal EPhT result and 78% had a normal result. No statistically significant differences could be observed in short-term and long-term post-operative facial function between the groups. In this study, electrophysiological tests were not able to predict facial nerve outcome after vestibular schwannoma surgery. Tumour size remains the best pre-operative prognostic indicator of facial nerve function outcome, i.e. a better outcome in smaller lesions.

  20. Patent foramen ovale in a large population of ischemic stroke patients: diagnosis, age distribution, gender, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Yesilbursa, Dilek; Huang, Wen Ying; Aggarwal, Kul; Gupta, Vijaya; Gomez, Camilo; Patel, Vinod; Miller, Andrew P; Nanda, Navin C

    2008-02-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a well-recognized risk factor for ischemic strokes. The true prevalence of PFO among stroke patients is still under debate. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the "gold standard" in diagnosing PFO but the physiology requires right-to-left atrial shunting. In this report, we evaluate the prevalence of PFO in a diverse group of ischemic stroke patients studied by TEE. TEE of 1,663 ischemic stroke patients were reviewed for cardiac source of embolism, including PFO and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA). Agitated saline bubble injection was performed to look for right to left atrial shunting. Success of maneuvers to elevate right atrial pressure (RAP) was noted by looking at the atrial septal bulge. Among 1,435 ischemic stroke patients analyzed, the presence or absence of PFO could not be determined in 32.1% because bulging of the septum could not be demonstrated in patients with negative contrast study despite aggressive maneuvers to elevate RAP. Of the remaining 974 patients, 294 patients (30.2%) had a PFO. The mean age was 61.5 years in both groups, with a bimodal distribution of PFO and the highest prevalence occurring in gender or racial difference in the prevalence of PFO, but there was a bimodal distribution in prevalence with age.

  1. Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma mimicking temporomandibular disorders: a case report Schwannoma vestibular (neurinoma do acústico imitando desordens temporomandibulares: um relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício A. Bisi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 6 to 16% of patients with trigeminal neuralgia symptoms present intracranial tumors, the most common being the vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma. Some symptoms reported by patients include hearing loss, tinnitus, headaches, vertigo and trigeminal disturbances. An increased muscle response in the surrounding head and neck musculature may also be observed, which mimics signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. In these cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has proved to be a useful tool in tumor diagnosis. The differential diagnosis between myofascial and neuralgic pain is important, as both may present similar characteristics, while being of different origin, and demanding special treatment approaches. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship among trigeminal neuralgia symptoms, intracranial tumors and temporomandibular dysfunction by presenting a clinical case.Aproximadamente 6 a 16% dos pacientes com sintomas de neuralgia trigeminal apresentam tumores intracranianos, sendo mais comum o schwannoma vestibular (neurinoma do acústico. Alguns sintomas relatados pelos pacientes são perda da audição, zumbido, dores de cabeça, vertigens e distúrbios trigeminais. Uma resposta muscular aumentada na musculatura associada da cabeça e do pescoço também pode ser observada, o que pode mimetizar sinais e sintomas de desordens temporomandibulares. Nestes casos é de grande valia o uso de imagem de ressonância magnética (IRM para detecção de tumores. É importante, também, a diferenciação de dores miofasciais e neurálgicas, pois ambas podem apresentar características semelhantes, mas com origens e tratamentos diferentes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi demonstrar através de relato de caso clínico a associação entre sintomas de neuralgia trigeminal, tumores intracranianos e disfunção temporomandibular.

  2. Schwannoma del nervio facial intraparotídeo. Un dilema terapéutico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Barba-Recreo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Los schwannomas del nervio facial intraparotídeos son tumores benignos poco frecuentes, suponiendo frecuentemente un reto diagnóstico y terapéutico. La mayoría de los pacientes presentan una masa parotídea asintomática y las pruebas de imagen y la punción con aguja fina no suelen ser concluyentes en el diagnóstico. Tras la revisión de la literatura a propósito de un caso, pretendemos proporcionar cierta guía para el tratamiento de esta rara patología.

  3. Isolated spinal accessory neuropathy and intracisternal schwannomas of the spinal accessory nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Ajmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 40-year-old female patient presenting with isolated left spinal accessory neuropathy that developed insidiously over 6 years. She complained of ill-defined deep neck and shoulder pain. On examination, prominent sternocleidomastoid and trapezoid muscle weakness and atrophy, shoulder instability, and lateral scapular winging were observed. MRI identified a small mass of the cisternal portion of the spinal accessory nerve. Its appearance was typical of schwannoma. Surgical treatment was not offered because of the small tumor size, lack of mass effect and the questionable functional recovery in the presence of muscular atrophy.

  4. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy in three to five fractions for vestibular schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Kotsuma, Tadayuki

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively examine the outcomes of hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy in three to five fractions for vestibular schwannomas. Twenty-five patients with 26 vestibular schwannomas were treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy using a CyberKnife. The vestibular schwannomas of 5 patients were associated with type II neurofibromatosis. The median follow-up time was 80 months (range: 6-167); the median planning target volume was 2.6 cm 3 (0.3-15.4); and the median prescribed dose (≥D90) was 21 Gy in three fractions (18-25 Gy in three to five fractions). Progression was defined as ≥2 mm 3-dimensional post-treatment tumor enlargement excluding transient expansion. Progression or any death was counted as an event in progression-free survival rates, whereas only progression was counted in progression-free rates. The 7-year progression-free survival and progression-free rates were 78 and 95%, respectively. Late adverse events (≥3 months) with grades based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, v4.03 were observed in 6 patients: Grade 3 hydrocephalus in one patient, Grade 2 facial nerve disorders in two and Grade 1-2 tinnitus in three. In total, 12 out of 25 patients maintained pure tone averages ≤50 dB before hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy, and 6 of these 12 patients (50%) maintained pure tone averages at this level at the final audiometric follow-up after hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. However, gradient deterioration of pure tone average was observed in 11 of these 12 patients. The mean pure tone averages before hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy and at the final follow-up for the aforementioned 12 patients were 29.8 and 57.1 dB, respectively. Treating vestibular schwannomas with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy in three to five fractions may prevent tumor progression with tolerable toxicity. However, gradient

  5. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy in three to five fractions for vestibular schwannoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo [Osaka Univ., Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kotsuma, Tadayuki [Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); others, and

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively examine the outcomes of hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy in three to five fractions for vestibular schwannomas. Twenty-five patients with 26 vestibular schwannomas were treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy using a CyberKnife. The vestibular schwannomas of 5 patients were associated with type II neurofibromatosis. The median follow-up time was 80 months (range: 6-167); the median planning target volume was 2.6 cm{sup 3} (0.3-15.4); and the median prescribed dose ({>=}D90) was 21 Gy in three fractions (18-25 Gy in three to five fractions). Progression was defined as {>=}2 mm 3-dimensional post-treatment tumor enlargement excluding transient expansion. Progression or any death was counted as an event in progression-free survival rates, whereas only progression was counted in progression-free rates. The 7-year progression-free survival and progression-free rates were 78 and 95%, respectively. Late adverse events ({>=}3 months) with grades based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, v4.03 were observed in 6 patients: Grade 3 hydrocephalus in one patient, Grade 2 facial nerve disorders in two and Grade 1-2 tinnitus in three. In total, 12 out of 25 patients maintained pure tone averages {<=}50 dB before hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy, and 6 of these 12 patients (50%) maintained pure tone averages at this level at the final audiometric follow-up after hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. However, gradient deterioration of pure tone average was observed in 11 of these 12 patients. The mean pure tone averages before hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy and at the final follow-up for the aforementioned 12 patients were 29.8 and 57.1 dB, respectively. Treating vestibular schwannomas with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy in three to five fractions may prevent tumor progression with tolerable toxicity. However, gradient

  6. Single-fraction vs. fractionated linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma: a single-institution study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, O. W. M.; Vandertop, W. P.; Baayen, J. C.; Slotman, B. J.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this single-institution trial, we investigated whether fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy is superior to single-fraction linac-based radiosurgery with respect to treatment-related toxicity and local control in patients with vestibular schwannoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: All 129

  7. Ten-Year Follow-up on Tumor Growth and Hearing in Patients Observed With an Intracanalicular Vestibular Schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchmann, Malene; Karnov, Kirstine; Hansen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing in patients with a vestibular schwannoma (VS) are almost exclusively short-term data. Long-term data are needed for comparison with results of surgery and radiotherapy.  OBJECTIVE: To report the long-term occurrence of tumor g...

  8. Impact of video-endoscopy on the results of retrosigmoid-transmeatal microsurgery of vestibular schwannoma: prospective study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chovanec, M.; Zvěřina, E.; Profant, Oliver; Skřivan, J.; Čakrt, O.; Lisý, J.; Betka, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 270, č. 4 (2013), s. 1277-1284 ISSN 0937-4477 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NS9909 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : vestibular schwannoma * acoustic neuroma * endoscopy-assisted microsurgery Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2013

  9. Schwannoma of the Median Nerve at the Wrist and Palmar Regions of the Hand: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Kütahya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are also known as neurolemmas that are usually originated from Schwann cells located in the peripheric nerve sheaths. They are the most common tumours of the hand (0.8–2%. They usually present solitary swelling along the course of the nerve however multiple lesions may be present in cases of NF type 1, familial neurofibromatosis, and sporadic schwannomatosis. Schwannomas are generally represented as an asymptomatic mass; however pain, numbness and fatigue may take place with the increasing size of the tumour. EMG (electromyelography, MRI (magnetic resonance imagination, and USG (ultrasound are helpful in the diagnosis. Surgical removal is usually curative. In this paper, we present a 24-year-old male referred to our clinic for a lump located at the volar side of the left wrist and a lump located in his left palm and numbness at his 3rd and 4th fingers. Total excision was performed for both lesions. Histopathological examination of the masses revealed typical features of schwannoma. At the 6th-month followup the patient was symptom-free except for slight paresthesia of the 3rd and the 4th fingers. For our knowledge, this is the second case in the literature presenting wrist and palm involvement of the median nerve schwannoma.

  10. Achondroplasia in children: correlation of ventriculomegaly, size of foramen magnum and jugular foramina, and emissary vein enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Hergan, Benedikt; Carson, Kathryn A; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with diminished growth of the skull base secondary to defective enchondral bone formation. This leads to narrowing of the foramen magnum and jugular foramina, which further leads to ventricular dilatation and prominence of the emissary veins. The primary goal of our study was to determine a correlation between the degree of ventricular dilatation, jugular foramina and foramen magnum narrowing, as well as emissary vein enlargement. Conventional T2-weighted MR images were evaluated for surface area of the foramen magnum and jugular foramina, ventricular dilatation, and emissary veins enlargement in 16 achondroplasia patients and 16 age-matched controls. Ratios were calculated for the individual parameters using median values from age-matched control groups to avoid age as a confounder. Compared to age-matched controls, in children with achondroplasia, the surface area of the foramen magnum (median 0.50 cm(2), range 0.23-1.37 cm(2) vs. 3.14 cm(2), 1.83-6.68 cm(2), p achondroplasia, (1) the variation in ventricular dilatation may be related to an unquantifiable interdependent relationship of emissary vein enlargement, venous channel narrowing, and foramen magnum compression and (2) stable ventricular size facilitated by interdependent factors likely obviates the need for ventricular shunt placement.

  11. Endoscopic biopsy of foramen of Monro and third ventricle lesions guided by frameless neuronavigation: usefulness and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Ricardo; Galeano, Inmaculada

    2009-09-01

    To describe our institution experience regarding the usefulness and limitations of frameless neuronavigation in the endoscopic biopsy of foramen of Monro and third ventricle lesions. We report our experience with 22 patients harbouring intraventricular lesions located in the region of the foramen of Monro or the third ventricle who underwent endoscopic biopsy guided by the neuronavigation system. Nine lesions were located on the posterior aspect of the third ventricle or at the pineal region, and thirteen lesions were located at the foramen of Monro or anterior third ventricle region. The endoscopes were introduced via an operating sheath, which had previously been inserted with a trocar under neuronavigational control. After approaching the foramen of Monro from the planned angle, surgery was continued under direct visualisation until the lesion was reached, if it was located on the third ventricle. In cases where the lesion was located at the foramen of Monro, an excellent view of the lesion was obtained and neuronavigation was used to determine the location of critical areas. Histological examination of biopsy specimens obtained endoscopically was diagnostic in all cases. Open surgery following endoscopic biopsy was only needed in 1 patient out of 22. In our experience, image-guided neuroendoscopy can improve the accuracy of the endoscopic approach, minimising brain trauma. It can be particularly helpful when performing a brain biopsy in the absence of clear intraventricular landmarks or in the event of adverse visual conditions such as intraventricular bleeding.

  12. Residential traffic noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma - a Danish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-10-01

    Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential traffic noise was associated with vestibular schwannoma in a large, population-based Danish case-control study. We identified 1454 VS cases, age above 30 years at diagnosis, between 1990 and 2007. For each case, we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income, cohabitation status, railway noise exposure, municipal population density, and municipal income. A two-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for developing VS, per 10 dB increment. There was no clear trend in categorical analyses. Similarly, linear and categorical analyses of residential railway noise did not suggest an association. We found no interaction with demographics, year of diagnosis, individual and municipal socioeconomic variables, and railway noise exposure. The results did not differ by tumor side, spread or size. The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise and VS.

  13. Magnetic resonance cisternography using the fast spin echo method for the evaluation of vestibular schwannoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, Shigeru; Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Uemura, Kenichi [Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    Neuroimaging of vestibular schwannoma was performed with the fat-suppression spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (SPGR) method and magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography, which is a fast spin echo method using a long echo train length, for the preoperative evaluation of the lateral extension of the tumor in the internal auditory canal, and the anatomical identification of the posterior semicircular canal and the nerves in the canal distal to the tumor. The SPGR method overestimated the lateral extension in eight cases, probably because of enhancement of the nerves adjacent to the tumor in the canal. The posterior semicircular canal could not be clearly identified, and the cranial nerves in the canal were shown only as a nerve bundle. In contrast, MR cisternography showed clear images of the lateral extension of the tumor and the facial and cochlear nerves adjacent to the tumor in the internal auditory canal. The anatomical location of the posterior semicircular canal was also clearly shown. These preoperative findings are very useful to plan the extent to which the internal auditory canal can be opened, and for intraoperative identification of the nerves in the canal. MR cisternography is less invasive since no contrast material or radiation is required, as with thin-slice high-resolution computed tomography (CT). MR cisternography should replace high-resolution CT for the preoperative neuroradiological evaluation of vestibular schwannoma. (author)

  14. Tissue-Specific Ablation of Prkar1a Causes Schwannomas by Suppressing Neurofibromatosis Protein Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette N. Jones

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Signaling events leading to Schwann cell tumor initiation have been extensively characterized in the context of neurofibromatosis (NF. Similar tumors are also observed in patients with the endocrine neoplasia syndrome Carney complex, which results from inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A. Loss of PRKAR1A causes enhanced protein kinase A activity, although the pathways leading to tumorigenesis are not well characterized. Tissue-specific ablation of Prkar1a in neural crest precursor cells (TEC3KO mice causes schwannomas with nearly 80% penetrance by 10 months. These heterogeneous neoplasms were clinically characterized as genetically engineered mouse schwannomas, grades II and III. At the molecular level, analysis of the tumors revealed almost complete loss of both NF proteins, despite the fact that transcript levels were increased, implying posttranscriptional regulation. Although Erk and Akt signaling are typically enhanced in NF-associated tumors, we observed no activation of either of these pathways in TEC3KO tumors. Furthermore, the small G proteins Ras, Rac1, and RhoA are all known to be involved with NF signaling. In TEC3KO tumors, all three molecules showed modest increases in total protein, but only Rac1 showed significant activation. These data suggest that dysregulated protein kinase A activation causes tumorigenesis through pathways that overlap but are distinct from those described in NF tumorigenesis.

  15. [Dumbbell malignant dorsal schwannoma embolized and operated by single posterior approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalo, Gorka; de Frutos, Daniel; García, Juan Carlos; Ortega, Rodrigo; Guelbenzu, Juan José; Zazpe, Idoya

    2018-02-19

    We report a case of a 41 years old patient complaining of chronic dorsalgia. MRI showed a well defined intradural extramedular dumbbell-shaped lesion, associated to a left paravertebral tumor at D5-D6 level. The tumor was embolizated prior to surgery. Following she underwent a D4-D6 laminotomy, left D5-D6 costotransversectomy and resection of the intracanal extradural part of the lesion with section of the left D5 nerve. Posteriorly, complete resection of the extracanal portion of the tumor was performed by a postero-lateral approach. The anatomopathologic diagnosis was a malignant schwannoma. After the surgery, the patient required adyuvant radiotherapic treatment. Malignant schwannoma is a very uncommon tumor which belongs to the malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). It develops from Schwann cells. It is frequently associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis. MPNST usually present local recurrence and can metastatize. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Thorascopic resection of an apical paraspinal schwannoma using the da Vinci surgical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David; Sherman, Jonathan H; Avila, Edward; Bilsky, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Posterior mediastinal neurogenic tumors have traditionally been resected via an open posterolateral thoracotomy. Video-assisted thorascopic surgery has emerged as an alternative technique allowing for improved morbidity with decreased blood loss, less postoperative pain, and a shorter recovery period, among others. The da Vinci surgical system, as first described for urologic procedures, has recently been reported for lung lobectomy. This technique provides the advantages of instrumentation with 6 degrees of freedom, stable operating arms, and improved visualization with the three-dimensional high-definition camera. We describe the technique for thorascopic resection of an apical paraspinal schwannoma of the T1 nerve root with the da Vinci surgical system. This technique used a specialized intraoperative neuromonitoring probe for free-running electromyography (EMG) and triggered EMG. We demonstrate successful resection of a posterior paraspinal schwannoma with the da Vinci surgical system while preserving neurologic function. The patient displayed stable intraoperative monitoring of the T1 nerve root and full intrinsic hand strength postoperatively. The technique described in this article introduces robotic system accuracy and precludes the need for an open thoracotomy. In addition, this approach demonstrates the ability of the da Vinci surgical system to safely dissect tumors from their neural attachments and is applicable to other such lesions of similar size and location. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Gamma knife radiosurgery for acoustic Schwannoma. Early effects and preservation of hearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirato, Masafumi; Inoue, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masaru; Ohye, Chihiro; Hirato, Junko [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Shibazaki, Tohru; Andou, Yoshitaka

    1995-10-01

    The effects of relatively low dose gamma knife irradiation on acoustic Schwannoma were evaluated. The signal intensity change and tumor shrinkage on magnetic resonance (MR) images, change in hearing, and complications in 28 patients (mean age 47.0{+-}13.6 yrs) were studied. Three patients had bilateral tumors. Six were already deaf when treated. The maximum tumor diameter was 35 mm. The mean dose delivered to the tumor was 12.1{+-}1.6 Gy at the periphery, and 25.2{+-}4.3 Gy at the center. The mean follow-up time was 16 months and the longest 24 months. Lowering of the MR signal intensity in the tumor center appeared after 3 months at earliest but generally after 6 months. Signs of tumor shrinkage appeared within 12 months on average. Cyst in the tumor enlarged rapidly after treatment in two patients. The percentage of hearing preservation was 85% (17/20) at 3 months, 80% (16/20) at 6 months, 72% (13/18) at 9 months, 75% (12/16) at 12 months, 67% (8/12) at 15 months, 60% (6/10) at 18 months, and 50% (2/4) at 24 months. Subtle changes in hearing were detected by speech tone audiometry. Temporary facial numbness and weakness was seen in one patient each. No patient had lower cranial nerve paresis. Relatively low dose gamma knife radiosurgery is effective in suppressing growth of acoustic Schwannoma with preservation of hearing. (author).

  18. Gamma knife radiosurgery for acoustic Schwannoma. Early effects and preservation of hearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirato, Masafumi; Inoue, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masaru; Ohye, Chihiro; Hirato, Junko; Shibazaki, Tohru; Andou, Yoshitaka.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of relatively low dose gamma knife irradiation on acoustic Schwannoma were evaluated. The signal intensity change and tumor shrinkage on magnetic resonance (MR) images, change in hearing, and complications in 28 patients (mean age 47.0±13.6 yrs) were studied. Three patients had bilateral tumors. Six were already deaf when treated. The maximum tumor diameter was 35 mm. The mean dose delivered to the tumor was 12.1±1.6 Gy at the periphery, and 25.2±4.3 Gy at the center. The mean follow-up time was 16 months and the longest 24 months. Lowering of the MR signal intensity in the tumor center appeared after 3 months at earliest but generally after 6 months. Signs of tumor shrinkage appeared within 12 months on average. Cyst in the tumor enlarged rapidly after treatment in two patients. The percentage of hearing preservation was 85% (17/20) at 3 months, 80% (16/20) at 6 months, 72% (13/18) at 9 months, 75% (12/16) at 12 months, 67% (8/12) at 15 months, 60% (6/10) at 18 months, and 50% (2/4) at 24 months. Subtle changes in hearing were detected by speech tone audiometry. Temporary facial numbness and weakness was seen in one patient each. No patient had lower cranial nerve paresis. Relatively low dose gamma knife radiosurgery is effective in suppressing growth of acoustic Schwannoma with preservation of hearing. (author)

  19. Lack of association between human herpesvirus and vestibular schwannoma: analysis of 121 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimrao, Sanjiv K; Maguire, John; Garnis, Cathie; Tang, Patrick; Lea, Jane; Akagami, Ryojo; Westerberg, Brian D

    2015-03-01

    To assess for the presence of human herpesvirus (HHV) using immunohistochemical and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in surgically excised vestibular schwannoma (VS) samples. Cross-sectional study. A retrospective laboratory-based study of tumors from patients with vestibular schwannoma. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) representing sporadic and NF2-associated VS from 121 patients, as well as appropriate positive and negative controls, were studied. TMA sections were immunostained using antibodies directed against HHV-1, HHV-2, HHV-3, HHV-4, HHV-5, and HHV-8. PCR was used for the detection of all 8 known human herpesviruses. There was no detectable HHV (HHV-1, HHV-2, HHV-3, HHV-4, HHV-5, HHV-8) by immunohistochemistry in any of the 121 cases of sporadic and NF2 cases analyzed. These data were further validated by DNA sequence analyses using PCR in a subset of the VS samples, all of which were found to be negative for all HHV. The data offer no support for an association between HHV and the development of sporadic or NF2-associated VS in humans. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  20. Radiographic and computed tomographic features of caval foramen hernias of the liver in 7 dogs: mimicking lung nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Soyoung; Jo, Jieun; Lee, Seungjun; Eom, Kidong

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the imaging features and characteristics of caval foramen hernias in 7 dogs diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). On lateral radiographs, 6 of 7 dogs showed dome-shaped, broad-based, caudal mediastinal lesions. CT findings included caudal vena cava (CVC) compression (n=7), right lateral (n=6) or medial (n=1) liver lobe involvement, hepatic vein dilation (n=5) and biliary tract involvement (n=1) with partial (n=6) or entire (n=1) liver lobe hernias. A caval foramen hernia should be part of the differential diagnosis when the aforementioned imaging features are detected. CT is considered as a useful tool for diagnosis and evaluation in dogs with a caval foramen hernia.

  1. Computed tomography in the foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isu, T.; Ito, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Tsuru, M. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine); Kitaoka, K.

    1981-10-01

    The value of computed tomography in the spine and spinal cord disease recently has been well documented. However, little attention is made to the role of computed tomography in foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion. We report 16 cases of the foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion. Method: Either EMI Head Scanner, CT 1010 (slice thickness 10 mm) or EMI Whole Body Scanner, CT 5005 (slice thickness 13 mm) was used. In 9 cases enhanced CT with intravenous injection of contrast medium was performed. Eleven cases received intrathecal injection of metrizamide. Materials: 1) control group without cervical pathology 70 cases, 2) spinal cord tumor 6 cases, 3) atlanto-axial dislocation 6 cases, 4) Chiari malformation (type 1) 3 cases, 5) spinal foreign body (acupuncture needle) 1 case. Results: 1. plain CT. 1) In control group without cervical pathology the cervical cord at C/sub 1/ level was seen as area surrounded by ring of subarachnoid space. 2) In 14 cases except for 1 case of atlanto-axial dislocation and 1 case of spinal foreign body identification of the cervical cord at C/sub 1/ level was impossible. 3) CT was of diagnostic value in detecting altanto-axial dislocation and spinal foreign body. 2. enhanded CT. Meningioma and neurinoma showed positive contrast enhancement. However, astrocytoma and herniated cerebellar tonsils were not detectable. 3. CT metrizamide myelography visualized the subarachnoid space and made it possible to localize the lesion in the spinal canal in relation to the spinal cord. Conclusion: Attention should be given to plain CT finding at C/sub 1/ level in diagnosis of foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion. If identification of cervical cord at C/sub 1/ level is impossible, it is suspected that subarachnoid space is blocked by the lesion, and enhanced CT and CT metrizamide myelography must be performed.

  2. ILEAL HERNIATION THROUGH THE FORAMEN OF WINSLOW: OVEREATING AS A RISK FACTOR FOR INTERNAL HERNIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Nikolić, Marko; Kruljac, Ivan; Marjan, Domagoj; Penavić, Ivan; Ljubicić, Neven; Budimir, Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Internal hernias have an overall incidence of less than 1% and are difficult to diagnose clinically due to their nonspecific presentation. Most internal hernias present as strangulating closed-loop obstruction and delay in surgical intervention is responsible for a high mortality rate (49%). We present a case of ileal herniation through the foramen of Winslow. A 29-year-old previously healthy female presented with acute onset right upper quadrant pain, abdominal fullness, and nausea. The pain was sudden in onset and began shortly after a dinner party where she consumed larger portions of food. Laboratory investigations revealed mild leukocytosis with left shift. Dual-phase multi-detector computed tomography disclosed herniation of the small bowel into the lesser sac. The patient underwent an emergency median laparotomy that revealed ileal herniation through the foramen of Winslow. Adhesiolysis and manual reduction of the bowel was performed, and the reduced bowel showed only congestive changes. The postoperative recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the third postoperative day. Risk factors for internal herniation still remain unclear, although excessively mobile bowel loops and an enlarged foramen of Winslow have been described. Our case demonstrated that overeating could be an additional risk factor for internal herniation. We describe our clinical and radiology findings, as well as surgical management. Due to the high rates of morbidity and mortality, it is imperative that clinicians be aware of the possible risks factors for internal herniation. Internal hernias should be included in the differential diagnosis of small bowel obstruction so that appropriate steps can be made in the work-up of these patients, followed by timely surgical intervention.

  3. Microcomputed tomography analysis of mesiobuccal orifices and major apical foramen in first maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Ametrano, Gianluca; D'Antò, Vincenzo; Formisano, Anna; Simeone, Michele; Riccitiello, Francesco; Amato, Massimo; Rengo, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study was to determined by microcomputed tomography (µCT) the horizontal distance between the main (MB1) and the second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) orifices, the vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices planes, and the distance between the anatomic apex and major apical foramen (AF). Furthermore, we characterized the entire internal and external anatomy of the MB, distalbuccal (DB) and palatal (P) maxillary first molars roots. Twenty-two intact extracted first maxillary molars were scanned by X-ray computed transaxial µCT and then 2D and 3D images were processed and analyzed. The results showed that 77.27% of the mesiobuccal (MB) roots presented a second MB canal, and 29.41% of the MB2 were independent from the MB1 canals. In 15 teeth, there were three root canal orifices on the chamber floor, and 10 of these teeth presented MB2 canals. The mean vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 planes was 1.68 ± 0.83 mm. Seven teeth had four orifices. The mean horizontal interorificial distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices was 1.21 ± 0.5 mm. Accessory canals were observed in 33.33% of the roots, loops in 6.06%, while isthmuses were found in 15 of the 22 MB roots. Of the total roots, 74.24% presented one foramen, while all of the roots showed a major apical foramen that was not coincident with the anatomic apex. Our µCT analysis provided interesting features on the horizontal and vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices and on the distance of AF and anatomic apex. These results have an important clinical value because might support the endodontist in the recruitment, negotiation and obturation of maxillary first molar canal system.

  4. Development of a new laparoscopic Foramen Epiploicum Mesh Closure (FEMC) technique in 6 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, T; Wiemer, P; Bosseler, L; Ugahary, F; Martens, A

    2016-05-01

    Epiploic foramen entrapment (EFE) is, based on the number of reports in the literature, a relatively important life-threatening cause of colic in horses that could be prevented by closing the epiploic foramen (EF) in horses at risk of developing EFE. To describe the laparoscopic foramen epiploicum mesh closure (FEMC) technique and its outcome. Descriptive experimental study. The EF of 6 horses was closed with the FEMC technique. A diabolo-shaped constructed mesh was introduced into the omental vestibule through the EF under laparoscopic visualisation in the standing sedated horse. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded during the post operative period. Four weeks after the intervention, repeat laparoscopy was performed in all horses. Three horses were subjected to euthanasia one, 2 and 3 months after the intervention, and were examined on necropsy and histopathology. The remaining 3 horses were followed clinically for 6 months. The 6 FEMC procedures were performed successfully in a median surgery time of 22 min (range 18-27 min). One horse was treated for large colon impaction in the immediate post operative period. On repeat laparoscopy at 4 weeks all 6 EFs were closed and no undesired adhesions were identified. This was confirmed on gross and histopathological examination of the 3 horses that were subjected to euthanasia. The 3 remaining horses were clinically normal in the 6-month post operative observation period. This FEMC technique provides a fast, simple, reliable and safe procedure to obliterate the EF and may be useful in horses at risk for EFE. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Patent foramen ovale and the risk of ischemic stroke in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Marco R; Sacco, Ralph L; Sciacca, Robert R; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi

    2007-02-20

    We sought to assess the risk of ischemic stroke from a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the multiethnic prospective cohort of northern Manhattan. Patent foramen ovale has been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, mainly in case-control studies. The actual PFO-related stroke risk in the general population is unclear. The presence of PFO was assessed at baseline by using transthoracic 2-dimensional echocardiography with contrast injection in 1,100 stroke-free subjects older than 39 years of age (mean age 68.7 +/- 10.0 years) from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS). The presence of atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) also was recorded. Subjects were followed annually for outcomes. We assessed PFO/ASA-related stroke risk after adjusting for established stroke risk factors. We detected PFO in 164 subjects (14.9%); ASA was present in 27 subjects (2.5%) and associated with PFO in 19 subjects. During a mean follow-up of 79.7 +/- 28.0 months, an ischemic stroke occurred in 68 subjects (6.2%). After adjustment for demographics and risk factors, PFO was not found to be significantly associated with stroke (hazard ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87 to 3.09). The same trend was observed in all age, gender, and race-ethnic subgroups. The coexistence of PFO and ASA did not increase the stroke risk (adjusted hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 0.17 to 9.24). Isolated ASA was associated with elevated stroke incidence (2 of 8, or 25%; adjusted hazard ratio 3.66, 95% CI 0.88 to 15.30). Patent foramen ovale, alone or together with ASA, was not associated with an increased stroke risk in this multiethnic cohort. The independent role of ASA needs further assessment in appositely designed and powered studies.

  6. Computed tomography in the foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isu, Toyohiko; Ito, Terufumi; Iwasaki, Yoshnobu; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Kitaoka, Kenichi.

    1981-01-01

    The value of computed tomography in the spine and spinal cord disease recently has been well documented. However, little attention is made to the role of computed tomography in foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion. We report 16 cases of the foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion. Method: Either EMI Head Scanner, CT 1010 (slice thickness 10 mm) or EMI Whole Body Scanner, CT 5005 (slice thickness 13 mm) was used. In 9 cases enhanced CT with intravenous injection of contrast medium was performed. Eleven cases received intrathecal injection of metrizamide. Materials: 1) control group without cervical pathology 70 cases, 2) spinal cord tumor 6 cases, 3) atlanto-axial dislocation 6 cases, 4) Chiari malformation (type 1) 3 cases, 5) spinal foreign body (acupuncture needle) 1 case. Results: 1. plain CT. 1) In control group without cervical pathology the cervical cord at C 1 level was seen as area surrounded by ring of subarachnoid space. 2) In 14 cases except for 1 case of atlanto-axial dislocation and 1 case of spinal foreign body identification of the cervical cord at C 1 level was impossible. 3) CT was of diagnostic value in detecting altanto-axial dislocation and spinal foreign body. 2. enhanded CT. Meningioma and neurinoma showed positive contrast enhancement. However, astrocytoma and herniated cerebellar tonsils were not detectable. 3. CT metrizamide myelography visualized the subarachnoid space and made it possible to localize the lesion in the spinal canal in relation to the spinal cord. Conclusion: Attention should be given to plain CT finding at C 1 level in diagnosis of foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion. If identification of cervical cord at C 1 level is impossible, it is suspected that subarachnoid space is blocked by the lesion, and enhanced CT and CT metrizamide myelography must be performed. (author)

  7. Threading the Needle: Intrapelvic Displacement of a Femoral Neck Fracture through the Obturator Foramen

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    Gautham Prabhakar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite timely and appropriate management, displaced femoral neck fractures are often devastating injuries for the young patient. The risk of negative sequelae is further amplified with increasing displacement and vertical fracture patterns. Open anatomic reduction with rigid internal fixation is essential to maximize the healing potential in displaced fractures of the femoral neck. Successful primary osteosynthesis of significantly displaced femoral neck fractures in the young patient has been reported in the literature. We present a unique case of open reduction and internal fixation of a high-energy femoral neck fracture with extrusion of the head through the obturator foramen into the pelvis without associated acetabular or pelvic injury.

  8. Correlation or causation: untangling the relationship between patent foramen ovale and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Eric; Love, Barry; Giovannone, Steve; Volpicelli, Frank; Goldman, Martin E

    2007-03-01

    Observational evidence from the literature has shown an association between migraine headaches and patent foramen ovale (PFO). This observation has led to hypotheses that could explain the etiology of migraines in those with a PFO, including right-to-left shunting of venous agents such as serotonin that are normally broken down in the pulmonary circulation. Further evidence suggests that closure of a PFO may improve migraine symptoms and serve as an effective treatment modality for migraines. Several randomized controlled double-blinded studies are underway that will more definitively establish the role of specific devices in PFO closure in those suffering from migraines.

  9. Spectral Doppler interrogation of the patent foramen ovale-a window to left heart hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Bahaa M; Husain, Aysha; Bakarman, Hatem; Dahdouh, Ziad; Salvo, Giovanni Di; Mohty, Dania

    2015-02-01

    Spectral Doppler interrogation of flow across a patent foramen ovale (PFO) allows recording of the instantaneous pressure gradient between left and right atrium (RA). The assessment of RA pressure using the size and collapsibility of the inferior vena cava would thus allow estimation of left atrial (LA) pressure. In this article, we illustrate the value of spectral Doppler interrogation of flow across the PFO by transthoracic echocardiography as a novel and simple tool for the assessment of LA pressure and left cardiac hemodynamics in addition to the conventional noninvasive parameters. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis and patent foramen ovale in young adults with cryptogenic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffre, A; Guidolin, B; Ruidavets, J-B; Nasr, N; Larrue, V

    2017-05-01

    Up to 50% of ischaemic strokes in young adults are classified as cryptogenic despite extensive work-up. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis (NOCA) and its association with patent foramen ovale (PFO) in young adults with cryptogenic stroke (CS). Patients aged 18-54 years, consecutively treated for first-ever CS in an academic stroke service, were included. NOCA was assessed using carotid ultrasound examination and was defined as carotid plaque with young adults with CS. NOCA is negatively associated with PFO. Detecting NOCA is an important component of stroke investigation in young adults. © 2017 EAN.

  11. A 51-year-old man with intramedullary spinal cord abscess having a patent foramen ovale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Kanako; Ishihara, Hiroyuki; Okuda, Shiho; Kanda, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 51-year-old man with intramedullary spinal cord abscess (ISCA) having a patent foramen ovale (PFO). He developed fever and tetraplegia after a recent dental treatment. MRI showed ISCA with longitudinal swelling from the upper cervical to the lumbar spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis indicated bacterial meningitis, and the culture of CSF revealed Streptococcus viridans. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed the existence of a PFO. We suspected another possibility other than systemic bacteraemia, that paradoxical bacteric embolisation through PFO after the dental treatment caused ISCA. While several reports of brain abscess with PFO are available, this is the first report of ISCA with PFO. PMID:22696715

  12. Accuracy of five electronic foramen locators with different operating systems: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Bruno Carvalho de; Bueno, Michelli de Medeiros; Luna-Cruz, Suyane Maria; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Fernandes, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, ex vivo, the precision of five electronic root canal length measurement devices (ERCLMDs) with different operating systems: the Root ZX, Mini Apex Locator, Propex II, iPex, and RomiApex A-15, and the possible influence of the positioning of the instrument tips short of the apical foramen. Forty-two mandibular bicuspids had their real canal lengths (RL) previously determined. Electronic measurements were performed 1.0 mm short of the apical foramen (-1.0), followed by measurements at the apical foramen (0.0). The data resulting from the comparison of the ERCLMD measurements and the RL were evaluated by the Wilcoxon and Friedman tests at a significance level of 5%. Considering the measurements performed at 0.0 and -1.0, the precision rates for the ERCLMDs were: 73.5% and 47.1% (Root ZX), 73.5% and 55.9% (Mini Apex Locator), 67.6% and 41.1% (Propex II), 61.7% and 44.1% (iPex), and 79.4% and 44.1% (RomiApex A-15), respectively, considering ±0.5 mm of tolerance. Regarding the mean discrepancies, no differences were observed at 0.0; however, in the measurements at -1.0, the iPex, a multi-frequency ERCLMD, had significantly more discrepant readings short of the apical foramen than the other devices, except for the Propex II, which had intermediate results. When the ERCLMDs measurements at -1.0 were compared with those at 0.0, the Propex II, iPex and RomiApex A-15 presented significantly higher discrepancies in their readings. Under the conditions of the present study, all the ERCLMDs provided acceptable measurements at the 0.0 position. However, at the -1.0 position, the ERCLMDs had a lower precision, with statistically significant differences for the Propex II, iPex, and RomiApex A-15.

  13. Foramen ovale electrodes in the evaluation of epilepsy surgery: conventional and unconventional uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakis, Ioannis; Velez-Ruiz, Naymee; Pathmanathan, Jay S; Sheth, Sameer A; Eskandar, Emad N; Cole, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Foramen ovale (FO) electrodes have been used in the evaluation of epilepsy surgery for more than 25 years. Their traditional application was in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Due in part to advances in neuroimaging, their use has declined. We describe our cumulative experience with FO electrodes and use examples to illustrate a range of indications for FO recordings that extend beyond their conventional utility for mesial temporal lobe cases. We also summarize the pros and cons of FO electrodes implantation and attempt to reestablish their utility in presurgical evaluation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphologic and Morphometric Analysis of Lingula in Localizing Mandibular Foramen with its Surgical Importance

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    Phalguni Srimani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Morphologic and morphometric evaluation of mandible is clinically important. Considering the close relationship of lingula with neurovascular structures entering through mandibular foramen, lingula is often used as an important bony landmark during oral and maxillofacial surgical approach and inferior alveolar nerve block anaesthesia. Inadequate anatomical knowledge may result various intra operative complications like haemorrhge, fractures and nerve injury. Also, structural variations of lingula followed by inaccurate localization of mandibular foramen have been implicated as causative factor for unsuccessful inferior alveolar nerve block anaesthesia. Aim: To determine morphological and morphometric variations related to lingula of mandible in localizing mandibular foramen and to compare the results with similar type of osteological studies performed earlier on different population group. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 36 adult dry human mandibles on both sides to categorize lingula according to its various shapes and determine the location of lingula based on surrounding mandibular landmarks by using Vernier caliper as 5 distances from tip of lingula as follows: i to anterior border of ramus of mandible; ii to posterior border of ramus of mandible; iii to centre of mandibular notch; iv to the alveolar socket of second molar tooth; and v to the base of mandible. The present study also indicated bilingual distance between tips of lingula of both sides. Data collected were analyzed statistically. Results: The most common shape of lingula was observed as triangular (51.39% followed by truncated (23.61%, then nodular (20.83% and assimilated (4.17% as least prevalent type. The average distances of tip of lingula from anterior and posterior borders of ramus of mandible were 18.21±1.50 mm and 16.33±1.21 mm respectively. On average, the tip of lingula was situated at 18.17±1.51 mm, 33.40±2.11 mm and 32.07±2.68 mm

  15. Isolated brain metastases of osteosarcoma in a patient presenting with a patent foramen ovale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menassa, L.; Haddad, S.; Aoun, N.; Slaba, S.; Atallah, N.

    1997-01-01

    We report the case of a patient in whom brain MR imaging was requested for initial symptoms of intracranial hypertension. The presence of multiple intracranial hemorrhagic lesions suggested brain metastases. Body screening showed periosteal osteosarcoma of the left fibula with no lung metastases, but with a patent foramen ovale which probably allowed neoplastic cells to reach the brain without being filtered through the lungs. The conclusion of this study was that a left-right cardiac communication is to be considered in cases of isolated brain metastases from osteosarcoma. (orig.). With 3 figs

  16. Unilateral Absence of Mental Foramen with Surgical Exploration in a Living Human Subject

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    Murat Ulu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mental foramen (MF is an important anatomic landmark of the mandible, in which the somatic afferent sensory nerve of the mandibular nerve emerges as mental nerve and blood vessels. The identification and actual location of MF are important in order to avoid sensory dysfunction or paresthesia due to mental nerve injury. In the literature there are some rare reports on the anatomical variations of the MF such as its location or presence of accessory foramina. The present report describes the absence of mental foramina on the left side of the mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before impacted tooth removal and observed directly during surgery.

  17. Position of the Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiography and Its Relationship to Age in a Selected Iranian Population

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    Dehghani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The position of the mental foramen is critical for surgery and local anesthesia. Objectives This study was conducted to assess the position of the mental foramen and its relationship to age in a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Three hundred panoramic radiographs were assessed. Three variables were assessed for each radiograph: anterior-posterior position, superior-inferior position, and radiographic appearance. The position and appearance of the mental foramen were recorded according to gender and age. The results were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results Considering the anterior-posterior position, the mental foramina were located in the following positions: between premolars (41.5%, at the apex of the second premolars (31.7%, in the posterior area of the second premolars (19.2%, in the anterior area of the first premolars (4.3%, and at the apex of the first premolars (3.3%.The superior-inferior position of the mental foramina were below, above, and at the level of the apices of the premolars in 78.8%, 2.5%, and 18.7% of cases, respectively. The appearance of the mental foramen was continuous in relation to the mandibular canal in 55.9% of cases, while it was separated, diffuse, and unidentified in 29.5%, 9.7%, and 5% of cases, respectively. Age was found to affect the position and appearance of mental foramen. Conclusions The mental foramina were most commonly located between the first and second premolars and below the apex. A continuous appearance was the most common appearance for the mental foramen, which was similar in males and females.

  18. Radiographic and computed tomographic features of caval foramen hernias of the liver in 7 dogs: mimicking lung nodules

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, Jaehwan; KIM, Soyoung; JO, Jieun; LEE, Seungjun; EOM, Kidong

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the imaging features and characteristics of caval foramen hernias in 7 dogs diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). On lateral radiographs, 6 of 7 dogs showed dome-shaped, broad-based, caudal mediastinal lesions. CT findings included caudal vena cava (CVC) compression (n=7), right lateral (n=6) or medial (n=1) liver lobe involvement, hepatic vein dilation (n=5) and biliary tract involvement (n=1) with partial (n=6) or entire (n=1) liver lobe hernias. A caval foramen hernia...

  19. Schwanoma de laringe: relato de caso Schwannoma of the larynx: case report

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    Erich Christiano M. Melo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Schwanomas são tumores benignos, de crescimento lento, encapsulados, que surgem da bainha das células de Schwann de nervos motores, sensitivos ou cranianos, não contendo elementos nervosos. A localização na laringe é extremamente rara, existindo relatos esporádicos na literatura mundial. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar um caso de schwanoma laríngeo atendido em nosso meio. O paciente de 82 anos de idade, sexo feminino, procurou nosso serviço com queixa de disfagia para sólidos de longa data e sensação de globus faríngeo. A laringoscopia com telescópio rígido de 70º evidenciou um tumor submucoso, arredondado, na região interaritenóidea. A tomografia computadorizada de pescoço mostrou tratar-se de lesão aparentemente sólida, sem necrose central e sem extensão para planos profundos, medindo aproximadamente 2,5 cm no maior diâmetro. A paciente foi submetida a microcirurgia de laringe, com ressecção completa da lesão. O exame histopatológico revelou tratar-se de um schwanoma laríngeo. A paciente evoluiu bem, sem sinais de tumor residual ou recidiva em dois anos de seguimento clínico.Schwannomas are benign, slow-growing, encapsulated tumors, which appear on the sheath of sensitive or cranial motor nerves Schwann cells, and having no nervous elements. They rarely appear on the larynx, and there are sporadic reports in the literature. This work has as purpose to report a case of laryngeal schwannoma. A 82 years-old woman, born and residing in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, went to the Hospital, suffering from slowly progressive, long-term dysphagia for solids and globus sensation. The indirect laryngoscopy with a 70º rigid telescope revealed a submucous tumor, rounded, at the interarytenoid region. A neck computed tomography was made, revealing an apparently solid lesion, with no central necrosis and no extension to deeper levels, the greatest diameter of which was of 2.5 cm. The patient underwent a larynx microsurgery with

  20. Schwannoma intralaberíntico. Descripción de un caso

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    José Antonio CÁMARA-ARNAZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: El schwannoma intralaberíntico es un tumor benigno muy infrecuente, de lento crecimiento extradural, localizado primariamente en el laberinto membranoso. A través de un caso clínico presentamos las características de su evolución, intentamos ofrecer una explicación fisiopatológica de la sintomatología y de los hallazgos audio-vestibulares y describimos finalmente, las diferentes opciones terapéuticas. Descripción: Se trata de una mujer de 59 años, que comienza con síntomas inespecíficos del oído izquierdo a los que posteriormente se añade una pérdida auditiva. Al confirmar que se trata de una hipoacusia unilateral no justificada, solicitamos una RM que pone de manifiesto la presencia de un pequeño tumor de 2-3 mm intravestibular, al que revisaremos periódicamente. Discusión: El origen y la prevalencia del schwannoma intralaberíntico son desconocidos. Aunque la clínica se confunde con la de otros procesos otológicos más frecuentes, la realización de RM incrementaría el número de casos diagnosticados. En función del paciente, de su sintomatología, de la evolución y de las características tumorales, se decide el tipo de tratamiento Conclusión: El schwannoma intralaberíntico debe formar parte del diagnóstico diferencial en pacientes con síntomas audio-vestibulares unilaterales y solicitar una RM de alta resolución para obtener el diagnóstico definitivo. Presentando un pronóstico excelente, la observación es considerada como la mejor opción terapéutica.

  1. Locomotor pattern fails to predict foramen magnum angle in rodents, strepsirrhine primates, and marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Aidan A; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Meindl, Richard S; Lovejoy, C Owen

    2016-05-01

    Foramen magnum position has traditionally been used as an indicator of bipedality because it has been thought to favor a more "balanced" skull position. Here, we analyzed foramen magnum angle (FMA) in relation to locomotion in three mammalian orders that include bipedal or orthograde species in addition to quadrupedal or pronograde species. In marsupials and strepsirrhine primates, we found that there is no relationship between locomotor pattern and FMA. In rodents, we found that there is a significant difference in FMA between bipedal and quadrupedal rodents. However, when these species are analyzed in the context of enlarged auditory bullae, this relationship is no longer significant. Additionally, we find a significant relationship between relative brain size and FMA in strepsirrhine primates. Taken together, these data indicate that several developmental modules of the cranium influence FMA, but that locomotion does not. We caution that basicranial evolution is a complex phenomenon that must be explored in the context of each taxon's unique evolutionary and developmental history. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of a patent foramen ovale in humans on thermal responses to passive cooling and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James T; Hay, Madeline W; Hardin, Alyssa M; White, Matthew D; Lovering, Andrew T

    2017-12-01

    Humans with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) have a higher esophageal temperature (T esoph ) than humans without a PFO (PFO-). Thus the presence of a PFO might also be associated with differences in thermal responsiveness to passive cooling and heating such as shivering and hyperpnea, respectively. The purpose of this study was to determine whether thermal responses to passive cooling and heating are different between PFO- subjects and subjects with a PFO (PFO+). We hypothesized that compared with PFO- subjects PFO+ subjects would cool down more rapidly and heat up slower and that PFO+ subjects who experienced thermal hyperpnea would have a blunted increase in ventilation. Twenty-seven men (13 PFO+) completed two trials separated by >48 h: 1 ) 60 min of cold water immersion (19.5 ± 0.9°C) and 2 ) 30 min of hot water immersion (40.5 ± 0.2°C). PFO+ subjects had a higher T esoph before and during cold water and hot water immersion ( P heating. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is found in ~25-40% of the population. The presence of a PFO appears to be associated with a greater core body temperature and blunted ventilatory responses during passive heating. The reason for this blunted ventilatory response to passive heating is unknown but may suggest differences in thermal sensitivity in PFO+ subjects compared with PFO- subjects. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Prevalence of patent foramen ovale with right-to-left shunting in dogs with pulmonic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y; Nishimoto, Y; Sunahara, H; Takano, H; Aoki, T

    2012-01-01

    Right-to-left (R-L) shunt caused by patent foramen ovale (PFO) concurrent with pulmonic stenosis (PS) is considered common, although there is a lack of published evidence. To investigate the prevalence of R-L shunt caused by a PFO in dogs with PS. Thirty-one client-owned dogs with PS, without obvious extracardiac disease detected on the clinical examinations. Case control study: R-L shunt probably caused by PFO was diagnosed when IV injected microbubbles appeared at the left atrial level with an intact atrial septum on echocardiography (bubble-positive dogs). The severity of PS concurrent tricuspid regurgitation (TR), relative thickness of the right ventricle, and relative right atrial area were compared between bubble-positive and bubble-negative dogs. The prevalence of R-L shunts caused by PFO was 39% (12 of 31 cases). The instantaneous pressure gradient (PG) across the pulmonic valve and relative thickness of the right ventricle were significantly increased in bubble-positive compared with those in bubble-negative dogs. None of the dogs with mild or moderate PS (pressure gradient dogs was significantly higher than that in bubble-negative dogs. DISCUSSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Patent foramen ovale PFO with R-L shunt was more common in dogs with very severe PS and absent in dogs with mild PS. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Features of the brainstem and tentorial foramen relationship and their practical value

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    O. V. Redyakina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Establish the morphological features and practical significance of the tentorial-stem relationship from the position of individual anatomical variability. Methods: head morphometry, macro and microscopic examination of the brainstem, morphometry of the brainstem and its departments, tentorial aperture morphometry, foramen magnum craniometry, manufacture of corrosion molds of the posterior cranial fossa, statistical processing of the results, computer-graphic modeling of the brainstem and surrounding formations. Results.  In the course of the study, the features of the individual variability of the tentorial foramen form were established, namely: shortened-expanded and oval-convex forms were defined in brachycephalic; in dolichocephalic - oblong-narrowed and elongated-conical. At the same time, a number of existing sizes and forms of the tentorial-stem spaces were noted. Among them, four main ones are described: front, side (right and left and rear. They have individual characteristics. Thus, in the brachycephalic we define lateral holes, due to the convexity of the tentorial margins. In dolichocephalic - front and back gaps, depending on the characteristics of their elongations. The obtained data are of great importance for the craniotopographic justification of the tentorial-stem wedges, which are formed with tumors which located here. In our opinion, tumors have the greatest possibility of passage through the left or right lateral intervals in people with a brachymorph form of the head, and through the anterior and posterior intervals - in people with meso- and dolichomorph forms of the head.

  5. Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor in a Teenager with Unusual Infiltration Into the Jugular Foramen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaka, Yoko T; Yoon, Janet M; Malicki, Denise M; Khanna, Paritosh C; Levy, Michael L; Crawford, John R

    2015-12-01

    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor is a rare malignant neoplasm that represents 1%-2% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role in establishing the diagnosis with a loss of INI-1 staining in tumor cells. In this case report, we describe a teenager with an unusual presentation and pattern of infiltration of the tumor. A 13-year-old boy presented with a history over several months of progressive nausea, weight loss, and hoarseness of voice associated with multiple lower cranial nerve palsies on neurologic examination. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large heterogeneously enhancing extra-axial neoplasm with extension and bony expansion of the jugular foramen. After near total resection, neuropathology demonstrated the absence of INI-1 expression consistent with a diagnosis of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor. This case highlights the diverse clinical presentation and infiltrative potential of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors, thus expanding the differential diagnosis of extra-axial tumors invading the jugular foramen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuroradiological evaluation of benign extramedullary tumors in the high cervical region and at the foramen magnum

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    Nishiura, Iwao; Koyama, Tsunemaro; Tanaka, Kimito; Aii, Heihachirou

    1986-06-01

    Twelve cases of benign extramedullary tumors in the high cervical region and at the foramen magnum were experienced during past five years among eighty all spinal and paraspinal tumors. The diagnosis of masses in this region is very difficult because of the variety of clinical course, symptoms and neurological findings as pointed out by many reporters. Also in our cases, 70 % of the patients complained of the deteriorated motor weakness of the upper or lower extremities on admission, though they had noticed the onset of slight neck or occipital pain a few years ago. Neurological examination on admission clearly showed the symptom of myelopathy except in two cases with a tumor at the foramen magnum and C/sub 1/ level. The percentage of positive findings of plain X-rays was 50 %, that of metrizamide myelography was 92 % and that of IV. e. CT and met. e. CT was 100 %. NMR-CT was performed in 2 cases, and in one of them it was useful in confirming the tumor configuration and extension. Five interesting cases were described mainly from the neuroradiological aspects. Finally the differentiation between meningioma and neurinoma was discussed from the aspects of myelogram, CT and NMR-CT. As already pointed out, it is most important not to forget the existence of tumors in this region when one comes across the confused symptoms, afterwards not to overlook the slight positive neurological and neuroradiological findings.

  7. Morphometric analysis of diameter and relationship of vertebral artery with respect to transverse foramen in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binit Sureka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the location, origin, size and relationship of the vertebral artery and the transverse foramina in the lower cervical spine by computed tomographic angiography (CTA measurements in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of multi-detector CT (MDCT cerebral angiography scans was done between June 2011 and February 2014. A total of 120 patients were evaluated. The diameter of the vertebral artery (AL and the shortest distance between the vertebral artery and the medial (M, lateral (L, anterior (A, and posterior (P borders of transverse foramen were studied. In addition, the shortest distance between the vertebral artery and pedicle (h was also analyzed. Statistical Analysis: The means and their standard deviations (SD were calculated in both the sexes. The t-tests were performed to look for significant sexual difference. Results: The largest vertebral artery diameter (AL was at level C7 on the right side (3.5 ± 0.8 and at the level of C5 on the left side (3.7 ± 0.4. Statistically significant difference between males and females were seen at levels C4, C5, and C7. The diameter of the vertebral artery was smaller in females than males. The L value was greater than other parameters (M, A, P at the same level in all the measurements. The h value was greatest at C6 level and shortest at C5. Conclusion: CTA is necessary before pedicle screw fixation due to variation in measurements at all levels. The highest potential risk of vertebral artery injury during cervical pedicle screw implantation may be at C5, then at C4, and the safest is at C7.

  8. Clinical experience with vestibular schwannomas: epidemiology, symptomatology, diagnosis, and surgical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tos, M; Charabi, S; Thomsen, J

    1998-01-01

    The Danish model for vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery has been influenced by some historical otological events, taking its origin in the fact that the first attempt to remove CPA tumors was performed by an otologist in 1916. In approximately 50 years VS surgery was performed by neurosurgeons in a decentralized model. Highly specialized neuro- and otosurgeons have been included in our team since the early beginning of the centralized Danish model of VS surgery in 1976. Our surgical practice has always been performed on the basis of known and proven knowledge, but we spared no effort to search for innovative procedures. The present paper reflects the experience we have gained in two decades of VS surgery. Our studies on the incidence, symptomatology, diagnosis, expectancy and surgical results are presented.

  9. Diagnosis and surgical outcomes of intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma showing normal facial nerve function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D W; Byeon, H K; Chung, H P; Choi, E C; Kim, S-H; Park, Y M

    2013-07-01

    The findings of intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma (FNS) using preoperative diagnostic tools, including ultrasonography (US)-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy, computed tomography (CT) scan, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were analyzed to determine if there are any useful findings that might suggest the presence of a lesion. Treatment guidelines are suggested. The medical records of 15 patients who were diagnosed with an intraparotid FNS were retrospectively analyzed. US and CT scans provide clinicians with only limited information; gadolinium enhanced T1-weighted images from MRI provide more specific findings. Tumors could be removed successfully with surgical exploration, preserving facial nerve function at the same time. Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI showed more characteristic findings for the diagnosis of intraparotid FNS. Intraparotid FNS without facial palsy can be diagnosed with MRI preoperatively, and surgical exploration is a suitable treatment modality which can remove the tumor and preserve facial nerve function. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. WE-F-304-04: Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas: Tumor Control Probability Analyses and Recommended Reporting Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltys, S. [Stanford Univ. (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) was introduced clinically more than twenty years ago, and many subsequent publications have reported safety and efficacy data. The AAPM Working Group on Biological Effects of Hypofractionated Radiotherapy/SBRT (WGSBRT) extracted published treatment outcomes data from extensive literature searches to summarize and construct tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for six anatomical regions: Cranial, Head and Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic, and Spinal. In this session, we present the WGSBRT’s work for cranial sites, and recurrent head and neck cancer. From literature-based data and associated models, guidelines to aid with safe and effective hypofractionated radiotherapy treatment are being determined. Further, the ability of existing and proposed radiobiological models to fit these data is considered as to the ability to distinguish between the linear-quadratic and alternative radiobiological models such as secondary cell death from vascular damage, immunogenic, or bystander effects. Where appropriate, specific model parameters are estimated. As described in “The lessons of QUANTEC,” (1), lack of adequate reporting standards continues to limit the amount of useful quantitative information that can be extracted from peer-reviewed publications. Recommendations regarding reporting standards are considered, to enable such reviews to achieve more complete characterization of clinical outcomes. 1 Jackson A, Marks LB, Bentzen SM, Eisbruch A, Yorke ED, Ten Haken RK, Constine LS, Deasy JO. The lessons of QUANTEC: recommendations for reporting and gathering data on dose-volume dependencies of treatment outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Mar 1;76(3 Suppl):S155–60. Learning Objectives: Describe the techniques, types of cancer and dose schedules used in treating recurrent H&N cancers with SBRT List the radiobiological models that compete with the linear-quadratic model

  11. WE-F-304-04: Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas: Tumor Control Probability Analyses and Recommended Reporting Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltys, S.

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) was introduced clinically more than twenty years ago, and many subsequent publications have reported safety and efficacy data. The AAPM Working Group on Biological Effects of Hypofractionated Radiotherapy/SBRT (WGSBRT) extracted published treatment outcomes data from extensive literature searches to summarize and construct tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for six anatomical regions: Cranial, Head and Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic, and Spinal. In this session, we present the WGSBRT’s work for cranial sites, and recurrent head and neck cancer. From literature-based data and associated models, guidelines to aid with safe and effective hypofractionated radiotherapy treatment are being determined. Further, the ability of existing and proposed radiobiological models to fit these data is considered as to the ability to distinguish between the linear-quadratic and alternative radiobiological models such as secondary cell death from vascular damage, immunogenic, or bystander effects. Where appropriate, specific model parameters are estimated. As described in “The lessons of QUANTEC,” (1), lack of adequate reporting standards continues to limit the amount of useful quantitative information that can be extracted from peer-reviewed publications. Recommendations regarding reporting standards are considered, to enable such reviews to achieve more complete characterization of clinical outcomes. 1 Jackson A, Marks LB, Bentzen SM, Eisbruch A, Yorke ED, Ten Haken RK, Constine LS, Deasy JO. The lessons of QUANTEC: recommendations for reporting and gathering data on dose-volume dependencies of treatment outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Mar 1;76(3 Suppl):S155–60. Learning Objectives: Describe the techniques, types of cancer and dose schedules used in treating recurrent H&N cancers with SBRT List the radiobiological models that compete with the linear-quadratic model

  12. Long-term follow-up reveals low toxicity of radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutten, Isabelle; Baumert, Brigitta G.; Seidel, Laurence; Kotolenko, Snezana; Collignon, Jacques; Kaschten, Bruno; Albert, Adelin; Martin, Didier; Deneufbourg, Jean-Marie; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Stevenaert, Achille

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The long-term effects of radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas were investigated in a group of consecutively treated patients. Methods and materials: Between 1995 and 2001, 26 patients (median age: 67, range: 30-82) with a vestibular schwannoma were treated by Linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The median follow-up was 49 months (16-85 months). Only progressive tumours were treated. The median size of tumours was 18 mm (range 9-30 mm). Before SRS, 11 patients had a useful hearing (Gardner-Robertson classes 1 and 2). Single doses of 10-14 Gy were prescribed at the 80% isodose at the tumour margin. The follow-up consisted of regular imaging with MRI the first 3-6 months after the intervention, followed by additional yearly MRIs, a hearing test and a neurological examination. Result: The 5-year-probability of tumour control (defined as stabilization or decrease in size) was 95%. Five-year-probability of preservation of hearing and facial nerve function was 96% and 100%, respectively. Hearing was preserved in 10 out of 11 patients who had a normal or useful hearing at the time of treatment. Mild and transient trigeminal toxicity occurred in 2 (8%) patients. It appeared to be significantly correlated to the dose used (p = 0.044). However, only a tendency to significance could be demonstrated in the relationship between the two factors when using the Cox analysis (hazard ratio = 1.7; 95% CI: 0.7-3.9; p = 0.23). Conclusions: With the doses used, our study demonstrates that SRS provides an equivalent tumour control rate when compared to surgery, as well as on a long-term basis, an excellent preservation of the facial and the acoustic nerves. Although no permanent trigeminal toxicity was observed, our data confirm that doses below 14 Gy can avoid transient dysesthesias

  13. Hearing preservation after low-dose gamma knife radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiba, Ayako; Hayashi, Motohiro; Chernov, Mikhail; Kawamata, Takakazu; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the retrospective study was to evaluate the factors associated with hearing preservation after low-dose Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) of vestibular schwannomas performed according to the modern standards. From January 2005 to September 2010, 141 consecutive patients underwent such treatment in Tokyo Women's Medical University. Mean marginal dose was 11.9 Gy (range, 11-12 Gy). The doses for the brain stem, cranial nerves (V, VII, and VHIII), and cochlea were kept below 14 Gy, 12 Gy, and 4 Gy, respectively. Out of the total cohort, 102 cases with at least 24 months follow-up were analyzed. Within the median follow-up of 56 months (range, 24-99 months) the crude tumor growth control was 92% (94 cases), whereas its actuarial rate at 5 years was 93%. Out of 49 patients with serviceable hearing on the side of the tumor before GKS, 28 (57%) demonstrated its preservation at the time of the last follow-up. No one evaluated factor, namely Gardner-Robertson hearing class before irradiation, Koos tumor stage, extension of the intrameatal part of the neoplasm up to fundus, nerve of tumor origin, presence of cystic changes in the neoplasm, and cochlea dose demonstrated statistically significant association with preservation of the serviceable hearing after radiosurgery. In conclusion, GKS of vestibular schwannomas performed according to the modern standards of treatment permits to preserve serviceable hearing on the side of the tumor in more than half of the patients. The actual causes of hearing deterioration after radiosurgery remain unclear. (author)

  14. Long-term follow up after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Dolenc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to define long-term electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes and complications after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale in adults.Methods: The clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic follow-up of 137 consecutive patients that underwent transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (51 patients or patent foramen ovale (86 patients in a 10-year period was analyzed retrospectively.Results: In the patent foramen ovale group, we observed no significant postprocedural changes. There were no changes in heart rate, heart rhythm and PR or QRS duration in both groups. In the atrial septal defect group, we observed a leftward shift in the heart axis (p = 0.017, a decrease in the estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.024, decreased tricuspid early diastolic flow velocity (p = 0.002, a decrease in the right chamber dimensions (p = 0.0004 and interventricular septal movement normalization (p < 0.0001. Most of the complications were mild and occurred early after the procedure. Three early serious complications were documented.Conclusions: No electrocardiographic or echocardiographic changes occurred after patent foramen ovale closure. Atrial septal defect closure is related to significant early morphological and hemodynamic improvement. Postprocedural complications are usually early and mild but serious late complications can occur. For that reason, long-term follow up is recommended in these patients.

  15. Determination of apical constriction and apical foramen using electronic apex locator in vivo: Comparison between vital and nonvital teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Aggarwal

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The study supports that EAL measures the location of AC and apical foramen with similar accuracy in vital and nonvital teeth. Furthermore, the distance between the two is reliable when compared with the actual distance observed under stereomicroscope supporting its widespread usage in clinical endodontics.

  16. Measurements of the vertebral foramen and the spinal cord by means of x-ray computed tomography (corpse)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kazue; Katakura, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Sato, Takanori; Azuma, Koji; Okuaki, Koju; Mizukoshi, Hitoshi; Kageyama, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Sigeki

    1985-01-01

    It is important for orthopedics to measure the sizes of the vertebral canal and the spinal cord. Owing to the development of X-ray computed tomography (XCT), clear cross section images of the vertebral foramen and the spinal cord are now available, facilitating the measurement of these sizes, so that many literatures on this subject have been reported. The authors studied the errors of measurements of the anteroposterior diameterers of the vertebral foramen and the spinal cord by means of XCT (EMI CT 5005 type, slice thickness: 14mm). Method: Cross section images by XCT at the mid-plane of each vertebral body of cadaver were taken, and then, sawed cross sections were prepared for actual survey of the antero-posterior diameters of the vertebral foramen and the spinal cord. Measurements by XCT were made with the CT-number profile method and the multi-format film method. Results: The errors at the measurement of the antero-posterior diameters of the vertebral foramen and the spinal cord were about +- 2.0 - +- 4.5 %. The slice thickness of XCT pictures at present is thinner than 14mm and if we can make the tomographic plane at a right angle to the long axis of the vertebral column, the errors may be more minimized. (author)

  17. Multidetector Row CT Detection of a Patent Foramen Ovale Causing Neurologic Deficits in an Adolescent: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Bin [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hun; Oh, Jae Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye Sun [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Eun Ha [Dept. of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a persisting fetal circulation structural abnormality that can cause neurologic deficits such as migraine and cryptogenic stroke. Here we report a case of PFO diagnosed by cardiac multidetector row CT in an adolescent male with chronic migraine and stroke.

  18. Multidetector Row CT Detection of a Patent Foramen Ovale Causing Neurologic Deficits in an Adolescent: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Bin; Kim, Dong Hun; Oh, Jae Hee; Seo, Hye Sun; Suk, Eun Ha

    2012-01-01

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a persisting fetal circulation structural abnormality that can cause neurologic deficits such as migraine and cryptogenic stroke. Here we report a case of PFO diagnosed by cardiac multidetector row CT in an adolescent male with chronic migraine and stroke.

  19. Cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma masquerading as a carotid body tumour with a postoperative complication of first-bite syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casserly, Paula

    2012-01-31

    Carotid body tumours (CBT) are the most common tumours at the carotid bifurcation. Widening of the bifurcation is usually demonstrated on conventional angiography. This sign may also be produced by a schwannoma of the cervical sympathetic plexus. A 45-year-old patient presented with a neck mass. Investigations included contrast-enhanced CT, MRI and magnetic resonance arteriography with contrast enhancement. Radiologically, the mass was considered to be a CBT due to vascular enhancement and splaying of the internal and external carotid arteries. Intraoperatively, it was determined to be a cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma (CSCS). The patient had a postoperative complication of first-bite syndrome (FBS).Although rare, CSCS should be considered in the differential diagnosis for tumours at the carotid bifurcation. Damage to the sympathetic innervation to the parotid gland can result in severe postoperative pain characterised by FBS and should be considered in all patients undergoing surgery involving the parapharyngeal space.

  20. Assessment of tumor blood flow and its correlation with histopathologic features in skull base meningiomas and schwannomas by using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Kazuyuki; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hirohiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate whether pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL)-MRI can adequately evaluate tumor perfusion even if the tumors are located in the skull base region and evaluate the correlation between tumor blood flow (TBF) and the histopathologic features of skull base meningiomas and schwannomas. Materials and methods: We enrolled 31 patients with skull base meningioma (n = 14) and schwannoma (n = 17) who underwent surgical resection. TBF was calculated from pcASL. Tissue sections were stained with CD34 to evaluate microvessel area (MVA). TBF and MVA ratio were compared between meningiomas and schwannomas using Mann–Whitney U-test. The correlations between MVA ratio and TBF were evaluated in each tumor by using single linear regression analysis and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r s ). Results: MVA ratio and TBF were significantly higher in meningioma than in schwannoma (both p < 0.01). Correlation analyses revealed significant positive correlations between MVA ratio and both mean and max TBF for meningiomas (r s = 0.89, 0.81, both p < 0.01). There was a weak positive correlation between MVA ratio and mean TBF for schwannomas (r s = 0.43, p = 0.04). However, no significant correlation was found between MVA ratio and max TBF for schwannoma. Conclusions: pcASL-MRI is useful for evaluating tumor perfusion even if the tumors are located in the skull base region. Moreover, pcASL-TBF was significantly higher in most meningiomas compared to schwannomas, which can help in the differential diagnosis of the 2 tumor types even without the use of contrast material

  1. Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Gidley, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomograph...

  2. Preclinical Validation of Anti-Nuclear Factor Kappa B Therapy Against Vestibular Schwannoma and Neurofibromatosis Type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    renal failure. Pharmacologic treatment of NF2 represents a major unmet medical need. The hallmark of NF2 is bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VSs...it to test our leading hypothesis over the next year. Innovation: Our focus on NFκB as a potent pharmacologic target for NF2 is novel. Our work...diagnostic awareness among clinicians (4,5). Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) of the brain is currently the gold standard for

  3. Maternal administration of meclozine for the treatment of foramen magnum stenosis in transgenic mice with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Masaki; Mishima, Kenichi; Esaki, Ryusaku; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji; Kitoh, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most common short-limbed skeletal dysplasia caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. Foramen magnum stenosis (FMS) is one of the serious neurological complications in ACH. Through comprehensive drug screening, the authors identified that meclozine, an over-the-counter drug for motion sickness, inhibited activation of FGFR3 signaling. Oral administration of meclozine to the growing ACH mice promoted longitudinal bone growth, but it did not prevent FMS. In the current study, the authors evaluated the effects of maternal administration of meclozine on FMS in ACH mice. METHODS The area of the foramen magnum was measured in 17-day-old Fgfr3 ach mice and wild-type mice using micro-CT scanning. Meclozine was administered to the pregnant mice carrying Fgfr3 ach offspring from embryonic Day (ED) 14.5 to postnatal Day (PD) 4.5. Spheno-occipital and anterior intraoccipital synchondroses were histologically examined, and the bony bridges were scored on PD 4.5. In wild-type mice, tissue concentrations of meclozine in ED 17.5 fetuses and PD 6.5 pups were investigated. RESULTS The area of the foramen magnum was significantly smaller in 17-day-old Fgfr3 ach mice than in wild-type mice (p < 0.005). There were no bony bridges in the spheno-occipital and anterior intraoccipital synchondroses in wild-type mice, while some of the synchondroses prematurely closed in untreated Fgfr3 ach mice at PD 4.5. The average bony bridge score in the cranial base was 7.053 ± 1.393 in untreated Fgfr3 ach mice and 6.125 ± 2.029 in meclozine-treated Fgfr3 ach mice. The scores were not statistically significant between mice with and those without meclozine treatment (p = 0.12). The average tissue concentration of meclozine was significantly higher (508.88 ± 205.16 ng/g) in PD 6.5 mice than in ED 17.5 mice (56.91 ± 20.05 ng/g) (p < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS Maternal administration of meclozine postponed premature

  4. [Migraine with aura and patent foramen ovale. A different clinical entity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Moreno, J M; Casado-Naranjo, I; Gómez, M; Portilla, Jc; Caballero, M; Serrano, A; Ojalvo, M J; Falcón, A; Tena-Mora, D; Calle, M

    2008-10-01

    This work has aimed to evaluate the prevalence of patent foramen ovale in subjects with migraine with aura by transcranial contrast doppler and to describe the clinical and risk profile of these patients. We performed a transcranial contrast doppler in 94 consecutive out-patients with migraine with aura (MWA) in a neurology outpatient clinic. They were divided into two groups according to the presence of patent foramen ovale: MWA_RLsh (with right-to-left shunt) and MWA_RLNsh (without right-to-left shunt). Differences between the groups were analyzed according to endpoints of age, gender, clinical severity, aura type and attacks frequency, comorbility, cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), neuroimaging findings, severity of shunt and treatment. n=94; MWA_RLsh: 47 (54%). MWA_RLNsh: 40 (46%). Age: 33.13; standard desviation (SD): 10.8 vs 33.496; SD: 11.2; p=0.728. Female: 66 vs 72.5%; p=0.511. Visual aura: 73.9% vs 78.9%; p=0.921. There were no significant differences in regards to the risk factors studied or to the comorbid diseases that are associated to migraine. The patients with patent foramen ovale have an odds ratio (OR) of ischemic stroke: 1.189 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.226 to 6.248; p=0.840), OR for subclinical brain lesions in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): 0.589 (95% CI: 0.193 to 1.799; p=0.35) and OR for combined previous ischemic stroke and subclinical brain lesions: 0.745 (95% CI: 0.261 to 2.129; p=0.58). Migraine attack frequency >1 per month: 27.9 vs 36.4; p=0.464. Need for prophylaxis therapy: 44.7 vs 57.7%; p=0.284. Both groups are similar regarding their clinical profile. We did not find a greater prevalence of stroke or silent brain lesions in the group with positive shunt..

  5. A Large Asymptomatic Thoracic Spine Schwannoma Detected Incidentally by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Seoul Sungae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ie Ryung [Catholic University Medical School Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Schwannoma is not a rare tumor occurring anywhere where sheathed nerve fibers present. However the spinal involvement has been noted to be uncommon. The use of PET in the diagnosis of spinal schwannomas seemed to have only sporadically been reported and standardized uptake values (SUV) measured in peripheral nerves schwannomas varied according to cellularity. Most reported spinal schwannoms were symptomatic and relatively hypometabolic but ours differed in that despite considerable compression of the spinal cord it did not produce clinical symptoms or signs and had a relatively high FDG uptake value. The spine was operated. On opening a 1.0x1.5 cm tumor was found to be encapsulated and located in the right posterolateral aspect of the intradural space at the 4th thoracic spine level. It was completely resected along with the rootlet from which the tumor seemed to have originated not damaging the cord or causing bleeding. The spinal medulla compressed by and adherent to the tumor was decompressed and released following arachnoid adhesiolysis. The hospital stay was uneventful. Patient was discharged and is well and fine without complication eight months after surgery.

  6. Long-term Treatment Response and Patient Outcomes for Vestibular Schwannoma Patients Treated with Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira A. Patel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe aim of this study is to evaluate long-term treatment outcome and toxicities among vestibular schwannoma (VS patients treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT.Methods383 patients with unilateral VS treated with HSRT (25 Gy, five fractions between 1995 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment failure was defined as requiring salvage microsurgery. Posttreatment new/progressive clinical symptoms or increases in baseline tumor volume (BTV due to treatment effect or progression were noted. Symptom outcomes were reported as baseline and posttreatment ± improvement, respectively. Symptoms were grouped by cranial nerve (CN VII or CNVIII. Audiometry was assessed baseline and posttreatment hearing. Patients were grouped as having greater than serviceable hearing [Gardner Robertson (GR score 1–2] or less than non-serviceable hearing (GR score 3–5 by audiometry.ResultsMedian follow-up was 72.0 months. Nine (2.3% experienced treatment failure. At last follow-up, 74 (19.3% had new/progressive symptoms and were categorized as radiologic non-responders, whereas 300 (78.3% had no tumor progression and were grouped as radiologic responders. Average pretreatment BTV for treatment failures, radiologic non-responders, and radiologic responders was 2.11, 0.44, and 1.87 cm3, respectively. Pretreatment CNVII and CNVIII symptoms were present in 9.4 and 93.4% of patients, respectively. Eight (24% with pre-HSRT CNVII and 37 (10% with pre-HSRT CNVIII symptoms recovered CN function post-HSRT. Thirty-five (9% and 36 (9.4% experienced new CNVII and CNVIII deficit, respectively, after HSRT. Of these, 20 (57% and 18 (50% recovered CNVII and CNVIII function, respectively, after HSRT. Evaluable audiograms were available in 199 patients. At baseline and at last follow-up, 65.8 and 36.2% had serviceable hearing, respectively. Fifty-one percent had preservation of serviceable hearing at last follow-up.ConclusionTreatment of VS

  7. Tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo asociado a foramen oval permeable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La alta mortalidad de los pacientes con tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo amerita un enfoque terapéutico enérgico e invasivo que incluya la embolectomía pulmonar quirúrgica en aquellos pacientes con contraindicación para trombolisis o trombolisis fallida. Describimos un caso de tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo que recibió tratamiento quirúrgico en vez de trombolisis debido a que al momento del diagnóstico presentaba un trombo móvil a través de un foramen oval permeable con altísima posibilidad de embolismo paradójico arterial.

  8. Association of a patent foramen ovale with myocardial infarction and pulmonary emboli in a peripartum woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramineni, Rajesh; Daniel, George K

    2010-10-01

    Peripartum myocardial infarction is uncommon but devastating in young women. Although it is generally associated with arterial dissection, pregnancy-induced hypercoagulable state can also be a major contributor. Association of patent foramen ovale (PFO) adds to this potential risk. A 29-year-old postpartum female presented with worsening chest pressure, shortness of breath and syncope. She was hypotensive and tachycardic. A ventilation perfusion imaging displayed high probability for pulmonary emboli. With elevated cardiac enzymes and echocardiogram showing wall motion abnormalities, patient underwent percutaneous coronary angioplasty for a midvessel thrombus in the left anterior descending artery. Further workup showed a thrombus straddling into the left atrium via a PFO and a deep venous thrombus in the right iliac vein. Hormonal changes in pregnancy are noted to place young women in a hypercoagulable state. Screening for PFO in this group of patients with timely intervention might prevent a major systemic event caused by paradoxical embolus.

  9. [Cryptogenic stroke - patent foramen ovale - migraine with aura: incidental triad or significant relationship? Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik, Maria; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    In the second part of the paper, we discuss the relationship between migraine with aura and either patent foramen ovale (PFO) or stroke. The results of the studies suggest that PFO with right-to-left shunt is more prevalent among patients suffering from migraine with aura. Moreover, migraine with aura is a risk factor for ischaemic stroke in women and the risk increases when they have additional vascular risk factors such as taking oral contraception and smoking. However, the pathophysiology of these phenomena remains hypothetical. The most frequently reported theory suggests paradoxical embolism as a mechanism of the above-mentioned pathologies. In this paper we compare the pros and cons of the general theories. We discuss the percutaneous closure of PFO in patients with migraine, regarding the benefit/risk ratio.

  10. Intraoperative computed tomography for cervicomedullary decompression of foramen magnum stenosis in achondroplasia: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arishima, Hidetaka; Tsunetoshi, Kenzo; Kodera, Toshiaki; Kitai, Ryuhei; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Kikuta, Ken-Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The authors report two cases of cervicomedullary decompression of foramen magnum (FM) stenosis in children with achondroplasia using intraoperative computed tomography (iCT). A 14-month-old girl with myelopathy and retarded motor development, and a 10-year-old girl who had already undergone incomplete FM decompression was presented with myelopathy. Both patients underwent decompressive sub-occipitalcraniectomy and C1 laminectomy without duraplasty using iCT. It clearly showed the extent of FM decompression during surgery, which finally enabled sufficient decompression. After the operation, their myelopathy improved. We think that iCT can provide useful information and guidance for sufficient decompression for FM stenosis in children with achondroplasia.

  11. Hemodynamic and respiratory factors that influence the opening of patent foramen ovale in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavlitou, A; Minas, G; Zannetos, S; Kyprianou, T; Tsagourias, M; Matamis, D

    2016-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an anatomic variant that may lead to several pathological conditions, notably right to left shunt, paradoxical embolism, hypoxemia, and cerebral fat embolism. Mechanical positive pressure ventilation may increase the prevalence of PFO opening in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients; however, the respiratory and hemodynamic determinants of PFO opening have been poorly investigated. Contrast-enhanced transesophageal echocardiogram (ce-TEE) is considered the gold standard for PFO detection. We prospectively performed a multicenter study using ce-TEE in order to determine the respiratory and hemodynamic factors that may lead to PFO opening. One hundred and eight consecutive ICU adult patients under mechanical ventilation from three tertiary care hospitals, were included in the study. A standard multiplane ce-TEE was performed, and the dimensions and function of the right and left ventricle were studied. In each patient, the right ventricle (RV) end-diastolic area, RV end-systolic area, left ventricle (LV) end-diastolic area, and LV ejection fraction were measured using the modified Simpson's rule and the four-chamber view. At least three bubble tests were performed to detect PFO opening. Ventilatory parameters such as tidal volume, plateau pressure, static lung compliance, and positive end-expiratory pressure were recorded during the bubble test. Data for 81 men and 27 women were analyzed. PFO was detected in 27 % of the study population. Statistical significance was found between the presence of PFO and plateau pressure (odds ratio 3.421, 95 % CI: 1.2-9.4, p =0.017). Additionally, the presence of right ventricular dilatation (RV>LV) was strongly associated with PFO opening (odds ratio 3.163, 95 % CI: 1.2-8.075, p =0.018). In this group of mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients, right ventricular dilatation and plateau pressure above 26 mmHg were significantly associated with foramen ovale opening. Hippokratia 2016, 20

  12. Morphometrical and Topographical Anatomy of Position of Nutrient Foramen on Fully Ossified Left Femur

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    Tanvir Hossain Parash

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The femur is the typical long bone of lower limb which extends from the pelvis to the knee. It forms the skeleton of the thigh, bears body weight, supports movement of legs; provide attachment to muscles, form blood cells and acts as a store house for calcium and phosphate. The nutrient foramina are cavities that conduct the nutrient arteries and the peripheral nerves. The majority blood supply for femur originates from the nutrient arteries, mainly during the growing period and during the early phase of ossification. In bone grafts the nutrient blood supply is crucial and it should be preserved in order to promote the fracture healing.Objective: The anatomy of nutrient foramen of femur is very essential for orthopedic & vascular surgeons as well as to radiologists for planning of treatment.Materials and method: This cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2011 to June 2012. The study comprised 199 fully ossified left sided dry femur of both sex (n=89 male, n=110 female. Sampling technique was purposive. Morphometric and topographic study was carried out on all samples by direct physical and photographic methods.Results: The most common position of nutrient foramen on the shaft of femur was found on the middle 1/5th in both male and female femur (50.78% in male and 56.86% in female respectively.Conclusion: The anatomical knowledge about this study might be useful in certain surgical procedures as well as micro vascular bone transfer to preserve the circulation.

  13. PREVALENCE OF PATENT FORAMEN OVALE IN YOUNG PATIENTS WITH CRYPTOGENIC ISCHEMIC STROKE

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    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Patent foramen ovale (PFO is the most commonly persistent abnormality of fetal origin. PFO has long been recognized as a potential risk factor for ischemic stroke. This study has shown the prevalence of PFO among young patients with cryptogenic stroke.    METHODS: In our case-control study we had 32 patients, 18 to 55 years old with cryptogenic stroke and 64 participants among normal population with matched age and sex in control group. We studied them for stroke risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia and then election of PFO by contrast trans-thoracic echocardiography. Data entered in SPSS11 and analyzed by Chi-Square and logistic regression. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.    RESULTS: We found that 37.5 % of patients in case group and 7.7 % of patients in controls had PFO and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001. They had no significant difference in other atherosclerosis risk factors. In control group we saw small shunt but in stroke group large shunt was more prevalence (P < 0.05.     CONCLUSION: Our findings supported this idea that PFO is a predisposing factor for stroke and it had a higher prevalence among patients with cryptogenic stroke. Besides, large shunt was more concomitant with ischemic attack. Then we suggest any patient with undefined cause of stroke must be evaluated for PFO.      Keywords: Patent foramen ovale, Stroke, Young.  

  14. Immunohistochemical profile of cytokines and growth factors expressed in vestibular schwannoma and in normal vestibular nerve tissue.

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    Taurone, Samanta; Bianchi, Enrica; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Di Gioia, Cira; Ierinó, Rocco; Carubbi, Cecilia; Galli, Daniela; Pastore, Francesco Saverio; Giangaspero, Felice; Filipo, Roberto; Zanza, Christian; Artico, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Vestibular schwannomas, also known as acoustic neuromas, are benign tumors, which originate from myelin-forming Schwann cells. They develop in the vestibular branch of the eighth cranial nerve in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. The clinical progression of the condition involves slow and progressive growth, eventually resulting in brainstem compression. The objective of the present study was to investigate the expression level and the localization of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the adhesion molecules, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in order to determine whether these factors are involved in the transformation and development of human vestibular schwannoma. The present study investigated whether changes in inflammation are involved in tumor growth and if so, the mechanisms underlying this process. The results of the current study demonstrated that pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TGF-β1, IL-1β and IL-6 exhibited increased expression in human vestibular schwannoma tissue compared with normal vestibular nerve samples. TNF-α was weakly expressed in Schwann cells, confirming that a lower level of this cytokine is involved in the proliferation of Schwann cells. Neoplastic Schwann cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines that may act in an autocrine manner, stimulating cellular proliferation. In addition, the increased expression of VEGF in vestibular schwannoma compared with that in normal vestibular nerve tissue, suggests that this factor may induce neoplastic growth via the promotion of angiogenesis. The present findings suggest that inflammation may promote angiogenesis and consequently contribute to tumor progression. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that VEGF and pro-inflammatory cytokines may be potential therapeutic targets in vestibular

  15. The morphometric analysis of the intervertebral foramen and the spinal nerve root in the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the onset of cervical myelopathy and cervical spondylotic radiculopathy as well as what influence the anatomy of the cervical spine and cervical nerves have on their onset and occurrence of various types of disease state. We conducted imaging and morphological measurements on specimens of cervical spine of Japanese people, focusing attention on the running of intervertebral foramen and dorsal nerve rootlets of the cervical spine. The subjects were cervical spine specimens from 12 cadavers (7 males and 5 females, age at the time of death ranged from 48 to 93 years with a mean of 71 years) obtained at Showa University School of Dentistry in 2005 and 2006. Specimens were prepared by removing the atlas through the 1st thoracic vertebra from the cadavers, then resecting the soft tissue such as muscles to expose the cervical spine in whole circumference. The removed cervical spine specimens, from 1st to 7th cervical spines, were imaged by volume scan of radiographic helical CT at 0.6 mm spatial resolution, and their images were stored as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data. Image measurement on the vertebral body, vertebral foramen, and intervertebral foramen was conducted based on DICOM data. Furthermore, macroscopic observation and measurement were conducted on the dorsal nerve rootlets of cervical spine specimens. The image measurement of cervical spine specimens showed that the intervertebral foramen at C5/6 was the narrowest, followed by C3/4, C4/5, C6/7, and C2/3, respecting. With regard to angles in the frontal section and horizontal section of the groove for the spinal nerve, there was no significant difference in the angle between the right and the left. In the frontal section, the angle was about 63deg at C3, about 57deg at C4, about 52deg at C5, and about 55deg at C6, showing a significantly acute angle at C5, while in the horizontal section, it was about 54deg at C3, about 59deg at C4, about 63

  16. Primary obturator foramen pregnancy: a case report and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jing-xian; LIU Qi; JU Yan; GUAN Qun; WU Yuan-zhe; ZHENG Ning

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ectopic pregnancy, in which the fertilized ovum implants on any tissue other than the endometrium, is the most common life-threatening emergency in the first trimester of pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is 0.25%-1.0% of all pregnancies, and has increased greatly in the last few decades, from 4.5 per 1000 pregnancies in 1970 to an estimated 19.7 per 1000 pregnancies in 1992.1 Generally more than 95% of ectopic gestations are tubal pregnancies; only 1.4% are abdominal pregnancy, of which very rare cases are retroperitoneal pregnancy.

  17. Patent Foramen Ovale Closure for Secondary Prevention of Cryptogenic Stroke: Updated Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

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    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Qamar, Arman; Gupta, Ankur; Bajaj, Navkaranbir; Golwala, Harsh B; Pandey, Ambarish; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2018-05-01

    Patent foramen ovale closure represents a potential secondary prevention strategy for cryptogenic stroke, but available trials have varied by size, device studied, and follow-up. We conducted a systematic search of published randomized clinical trials evaluating patent foramen ovale closure versus medical therapy in patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack using PubMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane through September 2017. Weighting was by random effects models. Of 480 studies screened, we included 5 randomized clinical trials in the meta-analysis in which 3440 patients were randomized to patent foramen ovale closure (n = 1829) or medical therapy (n = 1611) and followed for an average of 2.0 to 5.9 years. Index stroke/transient ischemic attack occurred within 6 to 9 months of randomization. The primary end point was composite stroke/transient ischemic attack and death (in 3 trials) or stroke alone (in 2 trials). Patent foramen ovale closure reduced the primary end point (0.70 vs 1.48 events per 100 patient-years; risk ratio [RR], 0.52 [0.29-0.91]; I 2  = 55.0%) and stroke/transient ischemic attack (1.04 vs 2.00 events per 100 patient-years; RR, 0.55 [0.37-0.82]; I 2  = 42.2%) with modest heterogeneity compared with medical therapy. Procedural bleeding was not different between study arms (1.8% vs 1.8%; RR, 0.94 [0.49-1.83]; I 2  = 29.2%), but new-onset atrial fibrillation/flutter was increased with patent foramen ovale closure (6.6% vs 0.7%; RR, 4.69 [2.17-10.12]; I 2  = 29.3%). In patients with recent cryptogenic stroke, patent foramen ovale closure reduces recurrent stroke/transient ischemic attack compared with medical therapy, but is associated with a higher risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation/flutter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The sixth sense in mammalian forerunners: Variability of the parietal foramen and the evolution of the pineal eye in South African Permo-Triassic eutheriodont therapsids

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    Julien Benoit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In some extant ectotherms, the third eye (or pineal eye is a photosensitive organ located in the parietal foramen on the midline of the skull roof. The pineal eye sends information regarding exposure to sunlight to the pineal complex, a region of the brain devoted to the regulation of body temperature, reproductive synchrony, and biological rhythms. The parietal foramen is absent in mammals but present in most of the closest extinct relatives of mammals, the Therapsida. A broad ranging survey of the occurrence and size of the parietal foramen in different South African therapsid taxa demonstrates that through time the parietal foramen tends, in a convergent manner, to become smaller and is absent more frequently in eutherocephalians (Akidnognathiidae, Whaitsiidae, and Baurioidea and non-mammaliaform eucynodonts. Among the latter, the Probainognathia, the lineage leading to mammaliaforms, are the only one to achieve the complete loss of the parietal foramen. These results suggest a gradual and convergent loss of the photoreceptive function of the pineal organ and degeneration of the third eye. Given the role of the pineal organ to achieve fine-tuned thermoregulation in ectotherms (i.e., “cold-blooded” vertebrates, the gradual loss of the parietal foramen through time in the Karoo stratigraphic succession may be correlated with the transition from a mesothermic metabolism to a high metabolic rate (endothermy in mammalian ancestry. The appearance in the eye of melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells replacing the photoreceptive role of the pineal eye could also have accompanied its loss.

  19. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

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    Srinivas Moogala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. Results: In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Conclusion: Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.

  20. CT and MR imaging findings of subdural dermoid cyst extending into right foramen ovale: a case report

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    Jeong, You Cheol; Park, Cheol Min; Lee, Si Kyeong [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Intracranial dermoid cyst is a rare congenital benign disease, representing less than 0.5% of primary brain tumors. Nevertheless, if ruptured spontaneously or during surgery, it has a poor prognosis due to chemical meningitis. Therefore, it is essential to perform accurate diagnosis and proper treatment. We report an intracranial subdural dermoid cyst that may be misdiagnosed as extracranial or epidural lesion because of extension into the right foramen ovale, and describe the CT and MR imaging findings.