WorldWideScience

Sample records for foragefrom kleingrass panicum

  1. The Genetics of Biofuel Traits in Panicum Grasses: Developing a Model System with Diploid Panicum Hallii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juenger, Thomas [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Integrative Biology; Wolfrum, Ed [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-31

    Our DOE funded project focused on characterizing natural variation in C4 perennial grasses including switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and Hall’s panicgrass (Panicum hallii). The main theme of our project was to better understand traits linked with plant performance and that impact the utility of plant biomass as a biofuel feedstock. In addition, our project developed tools and resources for studying genetic variation in Panicum hallii. Our project successfully screened both Panicum virgatum and Panicum hallii diverse natural collections for a host of phenotypes, developed genetic mapping populations for both species, completed genetic mapping for biofuel related traits, and helped in the development of genomic resources of Panicum hallii. Together, these studies have improved our understanding of the role of genetic and environmental factors in impacting plant performance. This information, along with new tools, will help foster the improvement of perennial grasses for feedstock applications.

  2. Extraction and characterization of whiskers from Panicum grass cellulose fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Douglas F.; Vieira, Julia G.; Pasquini, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In this work are presented studies of the extraction of cellulose whiskers from Panicum grass fibers (Panicum maximum) by acid hydrolysis performed with H 2 SO 4 11.22 M. The fibers used in the hydrolysis process were previously purified and the efficiency of the purification process was evaluated by determining the lignin content by Klason method, before and after purification. The hydrolysis was performed at 40 degree C for 30 minutes. The whiskers were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was verified a reduction in the crystallinity index and also a reduction of the degradation temperature of the whiskers in relation to the purified grass Panicum fibers. (author)

  3. Measurement of steroidal saponins in Panicum and Brachiaria grasses in the USA and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several grasses in the Panicum genus have been reported to cause hepatogenous photosensitization in animals throughout the world. In the United States, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been reported to cause hepatogenous photosensitization in lambs and horses. In Brazil, cultivars of Panicum ...

  4. Molecular markers linked to apomixis in Panicum maximum Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panicum maximum Jacq. is an important forage grass of African origin largely used in the tropics. The genetic breeding of this species is based on the hybridization of sexual and apomictic genotypes and selection of apomictic F1 hybrids. The objective of this work was to identify molecular markers linked to apomixis in P.

  5. The regulation of starch accumulation in Panicum maximum Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... decrease the starch level. These observations are discussed in relation to the photosynthetic characteristics of P. maximum. Keywords: accumulation; botany; carbon assimilation; co2 fixation; growth conditions; mesophyll; metabolites; nitrogen; nitrogen levels; nitrogen supply; panicum maximum; plant physiology; starch; ...

  6. Microbiological Quality of Panicum maximum Grass Silage with Addition of Lactobacillus sp. as Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsih, S.; Sulistiyanto, B.; Utama, C. S.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate microbiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp as starter. The completely randomized design was been used on this research with 4 treaments and 3 replications. The treatments were P0 ( Panicum maximum grass silage without addition Lactobacillus sp ), P1 ( Panicum maximum grass silage with 2% addition Lactobacillus sp), P2 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 4% addition Lactobacillus sp) and P3 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 6% addition Lactobacillus sp).The parameters were microbial populations of Panicum maximum grass silage (total lactic acid bacteria, total bacteria, total fungi, and Coliform bacteria. The data obtained were analyzed variance (ANOVA) and further tests performed Duncan’s Multiple Areas. The population of lactic acid bacteria was higher (PMicrobiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp was better than no addition Lactobacillus sp.

  7. The distribution of 137Cs in maize (Zea mays L.) and two millet species (Panicum miliaceum L. and Panicum maximum Jacq.) cultivated on the cesium-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrzejewska-Nowacka, G.; Nowacka, R.

    2004-01-01

    The plant of three species (Zea mays L., Panicum miliaceum L. and Panicum maximum Jacq.) were grown on the soil contaminated with 0.3 mM CsCl solution traced with 137 Cs, in greenhouse. For all the species, the fresh-to-dry weight ratio was equal in the cesium-treated plants and in the central group after 3 weeks of culture. The shoot-to root fresh weight and dry weight ratios were decreased in maize, unchanged in Panicum miliaceum and increased in Panicum maximum, comparing to the control without cesium treatment. The shoot/soil and also root/soil transfer (TF) for 137 Cs (measured by means of Na I gamma spectrometer) were always the highest in maize, then lower in Panicum miliaceum and the lowest in Panicum maximum. All the plants seem to be hyperaccumulators of cesium. The root/soil Tf was especially high in maize, i.e. 55 (kBq kg -1 biomass)/kBq Kg -1 soil). The shoot/root concentration factor (CF) for 137 Cs was the lowest in maize, higher in Panicum miliaceum and highest in Panicum maximum. The proved ability of the investigated plants for phytoextraction of the soil cesium points to the (author). The detectability and reliin soil bioremediation. From this point of view, Panicum maximum seems to be the most useful plant because it accumulates cesium mainly in the shoot, and maize would be the least useful spices since it has the highest accumulation in root. (author)

  8. Estimativas de repetibilidade para caracteres forrageiros em Panicum maximum Repeatability estimates for forage characters in Panicum maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José da Silva Lédo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se com este trabalho estimar a repetibilidade para caracteres forrageiros de Panicum, e determinar o número de cortes de avaliação necessários para a seleção de genótipos de Panicum, com confiabilidade. Utilizaram-se os dados de um ensaio conduzido no período de 21/11/2002 a 08/04/2005, no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Gado de Leite, localizado em Valença-RJ, onde foram realizados 15 cortes de avaliação. No ensaio, foram avaliados 23 genótipos de Panicum maximum, em parcelas experimentais, dispostas no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram estimados os coeficientes de repetibilidade para as características produção de matéria verde de forragem (PMV; produção de matéria seca de forragem (PMS e de folhas (PMSF; porcentagem de folhas na PMS (%FOL e altura da planta (AP, utilizando os métodos da análise de variância, componentes principais e análise estrutural. Para todas as características avaliadas os efeitos de genótipos, cortes e interação genótipos x cortes foram significativos (PThe objective of this work was to estimate the repeatability for forage characters of Panicum and to determinate the necessary number of evaluation cuts to select Panicum genotypes with confidence. Data of a trial with 15 cuts, carried out between 21/11/2002 and 08/04/2005 in the experimental station of Embrapa Gado de Leite located in Valença, RJ, Brazil, were used. In this study. 23 genotypes of " Panicum maximum" were evaluated, in a complete randomized block, with three replications. The coefficient of repeatability for fresh forage production (PMV, total plant dry matter production (PMS and leaves dry matter production (PMSF were recorded along with leaves percentage in PMS (%FOL and plant hight (AP, using the variance analysis, main components and structural analysis methods. For all evaluated parameters the effects of genotype, cut and genotype x cut interaction were significant (P<0.01. When

  9. Controle químico de Panicum repens e Paspalum repens Chemical control of Panicum repens and Paspalum repens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Carbonari

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Panicum repens e Paspalum repens são espécies infestantes de ambientes úmidos e alagados, freqüentes em margens de lagos, reservatórios, canais de irrigação e drenagem. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes herbicidas no controle dessas duas espécies. O experimento foi conduzido no Núcleo de Pesquisas Avançadas em Matologia, do Departamento de Produção Vegetal, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas/UNESP, campus de Botucatu-SP. As plantas foram cultivadas em caixas d'água e as pulverizações foram realizadas utilizando-se um pulverizador costal pressurizado a CO2. Os tratamentos testados foram: glyphosate a 2.400, 3.360 e 4.320 g e.a. ha-1 + Aterbane 0,5% v/v, glyphosate a 2.400, 3.360 e 4.320 g e.a. ha-1 + Silwet 0.1% v/v, imazapyr a 750 e 1.500 g e.a. ha-1 e diquat a 400 e 800 g i.a. ha-1 (em aplicações seqüenciais de 200+200 g i.a. ha-1 e 400+400 g i.a. ha-1, além de uma testemunha sem aplicação de herbicidas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Avaliações visuais de controle foram realizadas, sendo a massa seca das plantas determinada ao final do estudo. O herbicida glyphosate na dose de 4.320 g e.a. ha-1, independentemente do adjuvante utilizado, assim como na dose de 3.360 g e.a. ha-1 com Aterbane, proporcionou bom controle de Panicum repens e, em todas as doses e adjuvantes testados, promoveu controle excelente de Paspalum repens. O herbicida imazapyr, independentemente da dose testada, apresentou resultados insatisfatórios no controle das plantas de Panicum repens, porém promoveu um excelente controle de Paspalum repens; o herbicida diquat, apesar das duas aplicações e independentemente da dose utilizada, mostrou-se ineficiente para controle das duas espécies.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of Panicum repens and Paspalum repens Bergius to different herbicides applied in

  10. Investigation of RNA structure in satellite panicum mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, D.L.; Day, J.; Larson, S.B.; McPherson, A.

    2006-01-01

    Three new crystal forms of satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) were grown and their structures solved from X-ray diffraction data using molecular replacement techniques. The crystals were grown under conditions of pH and ionic strength that were appreciably different then those used for the original structure determination. In rhombohedral crystals grown at pH 8.5 and low ionic strength PEG 3350 solutions, Fourier syntheses revealed segments, ten amino acid residues long, of amino-terminal polypeptides not previously seen, as well as masses of electron density within concavities on the interior of the capsid, which appeared in the neighborhoods of icosahedral five- and threefold axes. The densities were compatible with secondary structural domains of RNA, and they included a segment of double helical RNA of about four to five base pairs oriented, at least approximately, along the fivefold axes. The distribution of RNA observed for SPMV appears to be distinctly different than the encapsidated nucleic acid conformation previously suggested for another satellite virus, satellite tobacco mosaic virus. This study further shows that analysis of viruses in crystals grown under different chemical conditions may reveal additional information regarding the structure of encapsidated RNA

  11. Morphophysiological and chemical aspects of torpedograss (Panicum repens L., Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated some of the morphophysiological and bromatological aspects of torpedograss (Panicum repens L. through the quantification of accumulation, allocation and chemical composition of dry matter (DM during spring-summer. Four destructive harvests of aerial and underground parts were carried out on 23 October 2003, 3 December 2003, 22 January 2004 and 20 February 2004, corresponding to 31, 73, 123 and 152 days after the start of the spring. In these harvests, the DM accumulation was respectively 1,650; 4,470; 10,900 and 14,540 kg/ha in the aerial part, with leaf percentages between 45% (first harvest and 35% (last harvest. The crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF changed between the first and the last harvest, from 9.9 to 7% (CP, 63.9% to 70.3% (FDN, and 37% to 40.8% (FDA, in samples composed by leaves, culms, inflorescences and stolons. The DM allocation to rhizomes (Rh, roots (R, leaves (L, culms+stolons (C and inflorescences (I changed, between the first and the last harvest, from 42 to 19% (Rh, 10 to 7% (R, 22 to 27% (L, 25 to 44% (C, and 0 to 2% (I.

  12. Little Cross-Feeding of the Mycorrhizal Networks Shared Between C3-Panicum bisulcatum and C4-Panicum maximum Under Different Temperature Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Řezáčová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs formed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF interconnect plants of the same and/or different species, redistributing nutrients and draining carbon (C from the different plant partners at different rates. Here, we conducted a plant co-existence (intercropping experiment testing the role of AMF in resource sharing and exploitation by simplified plant communities composed of two congeneric grass species (Panicum spp. with different photosynthetic metabolism types (C3 or C4. The grasses had spatially separated rooting zones, conjoined through a root-free (but AMF-accessible zone added with 15N-labeled plant (clover residues. The plants were grown under two different temperature regimes: high temperature (36/32°C day/night or ambient temperature (25/21°C day/night applied over 49 days after an initial period of 26 days at ambient temperature. We made use of the distinct C-isotopic composition of the two plant species sharing the same CMN (composed of a synthetic AMF community of five fungal genera to estimate if the CMN was or was not fed preferentially under the specific environmental conditions by one or the other plant species. Using the C-isotopic composition of AMF-specific fatty acid (C16:1ω5 in roots and in the potting substrate harboring the extraradical AMF hyphae, we found that the C3-Panicum continued feeding the CMN at both temperatures with a significant and invariable share of C resources. This was surprising because the growth of the C3 plants was more susceptible to high temperature than that of the C4 plants and the C3-Panicum alone suppressed abundance of the AMF (particularly Funneliformis sp. in its roots due to the elevated temperature. Moreover, elevated temperature induced a shift in competition for nitrogen between the two plant species in favor of the C4-Panicum, as demonstrated by significantly lower 15N yields of the C3-Panicum but higher 15N yields of the C4-Panicum at elevated as

  13. Five nuclear loci resolve the polyploid history of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. and relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy K Triplett

    Full Text Available Polyploidy poses challenges for phylogenetic reconstruction because of the need to identify and distinguish between homoeologous loci. This can be addressed by use of low copy nuclear markers. Panicum s.s. is a genus of about 100 species in the grass tribe Paniceae, subfamily Panicoideae, and is divided into five sections. Many of the species are known to be polyploids. The most well-known of the Panicum polyploids are switchgrass (Panicum virgatum and common or Proso millet (P. miliaceum. Switchgrass is in section Virgata, along with P. tricholaenoides, P. amarum, and P. amarulum, whereas P. miliaceum is in sect. Panicum. We have generated sequence data from five low copy nuclear loci and two chloroplast loci and have clarified the origin of P. virgatum. We find that all members of sects. Virgata and Urvilleana are the result of diversification after a single allopolyploidy event. The closest diploid relatives of switchgrass are in sect. Rudgeana, native to Central and South America. Within sections Virgata and Urvilleana, P. tricholaenoides is sister to the remaining species. Panicum racemosum and P. urvilleanum form a clade, which may be sister to P. chloroleucum. Panicum amarum, P. amarulum, and the lowland and upland ecotypes of P. virgatum together form a clade, within which relationships are complex. Hexaploid and octoploid plants are likely allopolyploids, with P. amarum and P. amarulum sharing genomes with P. virgatum. Octoploid P. virgatum plants are formed via hybridization between disparate tetraploids. We show that polyploidy precedes diversification in a complex set of polyploids; our data thus suggest that polyploidy could provide the raw material for diversification. In addition, we show two rounds of allopolyploidization in the ancestry of switchgrass, and identify additional species that may be part of its broader gene pool. This may be relevant for development of the crop for biofuels.

  14. The tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamjitrpanich, Waraporn; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Laurent, François; Kosanlavit, Rachain

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the initial method for phytoremediation involving germination and transplantation. The study was also to determine the tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum (Purple guinea grass) and Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil. It was found that the transplantation of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus was more suitable than germination as the initiate method of nano-phytoremediation potting test. The study also showed that Panicum maximum was more tolerance than Helianthus annuus in TNT and nZVI-contaminated soil. Therefore, Panicum maximum in the transplantation method should be selected as a hyperaccumulated plant for nano-phytoremediation potting tests. Maximum tolerance dosage of Panicum maximum to TNT-concentration soil was 320 mg/kg and nZVI-contaminated soil was 1000 mg/kg in the transplantation method.

  15. Leaf Dynamics of Panicum maximum under Future Climatic Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto de Assis Prado, Carlos Henrique; Haik Guedes de Camargo-Bortolin, Lívia; Castro, Érique; Martinez, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Panicum maximum Jacq. 'Mombaça' (C4) was grown in field conditions with sufficient water and nutrients to examine the effects of warming and elevated CO2 concentrations during the winter. Plants were exposed to either the ambient temperature and regular atmospheric CO2 (Control); elevated CO2 (600 ppm, eC); canopy warming (+2°C above regular canopy temperature, eT); or elevated CO2 and canopy warming (eC+eT). The temperatures and CO2 in the field were controlled by temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) and mini free-air CO2 enrichment (miniFACE) facilities. The most green, expanding, and expanded leaves and the highest leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaves day(-1)) and leaf elongation rate (LER, cm day(-1)) were observed under eT. Leaf area and leaf biomass were higher in the eT and eC+eT treatments. The higher LER and LAR without significant differences in the number of senescent leaves could explain why tillers had higher foliage area and leaf biomass in the eT treatment. The eC treatment had the lowest LER and the fewest expanded and green leaves, similar to Control. The inhibitory effect of eC on foliage development in winter was indicated by the fewer green, expanded, and expanding leaves under eC+eT than eT. The stimulatory and inhibitory effects of the eT and eC treatments, respectively, on foliage raised and lowered, respectively, the foliar nitrogen concentration. The inhibition of foliage by eC was confirmed by the eC treatment having the lowest leaf/stem biomass ratio and by the change in leaf biomass-area relationships from linear or exponential growth to rectangular hyperbolic growth under eC. Besides, eC+eT had a synergist effect, speeding up leaf maturation. Therefore, with sufficient water and nutrients in winter, the inhibitory effect of elevated CO2 on foliage could be partially offset by elevated temperatures and relatively high P. maximum foliage production could be achieved under future climatic change.

  16. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a reinforcing fibre in polypropylene composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Elbersen, H.W.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Klerk-Engels, de B.

    2003-01-01

    In this study the switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a biomass crop being developed in North America and Europe, was tested as a stiffening and reinforcing agent in polypropylene (PP) composites with and without maleic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP) as a compatibiliser and to evaluate the effect of

  17. Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Steroidal Saponins in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified for development into an efficient and environment friendly biomass energy crop. A recent five-year study demonstrated that switchgrass grown for biofuel production produced 540 percent more energy than what is needed to grow, harvest and process...

  18. Genome-size variation in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum): flow cytometry and cytology reveal rampant aneuploidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a native perennial dominant of the prairies of North America, has been targeted as a model herbaceous species for biofeedstock development. A flow-cytometric survey of a core set of 11 primarily upland polyploid switchgrass accessions indicated that there was con...

  19. Preference by horses for bedding pellets made from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bedding system used for stalled horses can impact their health and well-being. This study examined the saponin concentration in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) straw, and bedding pellets made from switchgrass straw. Further, this study determined the palatability of bedding pellets made from sw...

  20. Clinical evaluation and evolution of colic cases associated with Panicum maximum in Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gebara Sampaio Dória

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Dória R.G.S., Freitas S.H., Laskoski L.M., Carvalho M.B., Monteiro A.O.N., Camplesi A.C. & Valadão C.A.A. [Clinical evaluation and evolution of colic cases associated with Panicum maximum in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.] Avaliação clínica e da evolução dos casos de cólica associados a Panicum maximum no Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:303-308, 2015. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Centro, Pirassununga, SP 13635-900, Brasil. E-mail: redoria@usp.br An acute disease characterized by colic and timpanism was reported in Pará and Rondônia after horses fed with Panicum maximum cultivars Momba- ça, Tanzânia and Massai pasture grazing. In this study an acute abdomen case was experimentally reproduced after the ingestion of Panicum maximum var Massai pasture based on twenty two clinic and surgical cases of acute timpanic colic cases reported in a farm in the city of Cuiabá – MT, fed with Panicum maximum var Massai pasture, confirming the etiology and accompanying the clinical evolution of the disease. A horse kept in a stall fed only with Massai pasture was daily evaluated and it was verified that the animal presented as result a clinic perfil of pain, high cardiac frequency, respiratory difficulty, intestinal motility absence and exaggerated distention of the stomach and bowels by gas, seeing during the necropsy the stomach and bowels fully distended by gas with liquefied content except by small colon where the feces presented dry and with mucus characterizing the intestinal atony. The necessity of studies that search the identification of the agent responsible for the intestinal atony and gas accumulation in horses fed with Panicum maximum is exposed.

  1. Search for C4 developmental mutants in Panicum maximum Jacq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fladung, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Mutant plants are useful tools for studying developmental processes in defined genetic backgrounds by comparing them with their respective wild type forms. In this sense, developmental mutants or mutations involved in the establishment of certain leaf or flower specific traits are of special interest. In particular, the evolution of C 4 photosynthesis from C 3 precursors was accompanied by severe developmental changes in leaf morphology and anatomy. Our search of such mutants was followed by the idea to approach the evolution of the C 4 syndrome from a mutagenic point of view. Variants affecting normal development of the C 4 leaf anatomy may, in fact, represent possible regressive steps in C4 photosynthesis. Seeds of the C4 grass Panicum maximum Jacq. were mutagenized using ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) and putative variants were isolated in the M2 generation by visual inspection. Main selection characteristics were whole plant, leaf morphology and pigmentation, and growth characteristics. The choice of a polyploid species for mutagenesis experiments was based on the need of detecting rare mutants, which are possibly lethal when using a diploid plant species. These variants could be of regulatory nature, affecting both morphology and physiology of C 4 photosynthesis early in leaf development. In total, nearly 100 variants were isolated and grown to maturity. Main isolated variants, which conforms to the prediction mentioned above, were as following: large interveinal space-1 and -3 (lis1, lis3), abnormal bundle sheath (abs), midribless (mbl) and variegated leaf -1 (var1). The variant lis1 was a short plant with leaves smaller than the wild type, and had a leaf lamina with a crinkly surface. Photosynthetically, lis1 indicates a clear regression from the C 4 to the C 3 photosynthesis type, which was correlated in the leaf lamina with an increase in the distance between small veins. The variant lis3 was not similar phenotypically to lis1, but it also had very

  2. Diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of Panicum repens L. roots and rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozaien, Hoda E; El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy; Temraz, Abeer; El-Gindi, Omayma D; Taha, Kamilia F

    2018-02-08

    The diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of Panicum repens was investigated in rats. A single oral dose of 500 mg/kg of P. repens extract were given to rats, after 24 h, urine volume, its sodium and potassium concentrations were estimated. Treatment with P. repens extract caused a significant increase in tested parameters as compared to their corresponding controls, p < 0.05.

  3. Effects of plant density on forage production in five populations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.) forage yield evaluation plots are often established at a density of 6.0 plants m-2 to accommodate mechanical transplanting and harvesting equipment. However, forage crops are usually established from seed at higher plant densities. Experiments were conducted to determine if ...

  4. Complete nucleotide sequences and virion particle association of two satellite RNAs of panicum mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Jesse D; Monis, Judit; Scholthof, Karen-Beth

    2017-08-15

    Over six decades ago, panicum mosaic virus (PMV) was identified as the first viral pathogen of cultivated switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Subsequently, PMV was demonstrated to support the replication of both a satellite RNA virus (SPMV) and satellite RNA (satRNA) agents during natural infections of host grasses. In this study, we report the isolation and full-length sequences of two PMV satRNAs identified in 1988 from St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) and centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) hosts. Each of these satellites have sequence relatedness at their 5'- and 3'-ends. In addition, satC has a region of ∼100 nt complementary to the 3'-end of the PMV genome. These agents are associated with purified virions of SPMV infections. Additionally, satS and satC RNAs contain conserved in-frame open reading frames in the complementary-sense sequences that could potentially generate 6.6- and 7.9-kDa proteins, respectively. In protoplasts and plants satS is infectious, when co-inoculated with the PMV RNA alone or PMV+SPMV RNAs, and negatively affects their accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative relationships and chromosome evolution in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and its genomic model, foxtail millet (Setaria italica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) consensus map was developed that combined data from two mapping populations and integrated recombination data from both parents of this largely obligate outcrossing species. The consensus map consisted of 1,321 loci and spanned 2,122 cM. An analysis of the distri...

  6. Effect of alfalfa (medicago sativa) on fermentation profile and nutritive value of switchgrass (panicum virgatum) and bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon) silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Farm in Lexington, Kentucky between October and November, 2009 to evaluate the effect of different percentages of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as mixtures in switchgrass (Panicum virgatus) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silages. ...

  7. Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l'herbe de lait ( Euphorbia heterophylla L.) ou aux feuilles de patate douce ( Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) sur la croissance des lapins ( Oryctolagus cuniculus L.)

  8. Macronutrients leaf contents of corn in intercropping with forages of genus Panicum and Urochloa in simultaneous seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tsuzukibashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The planting of crops in degraded pasture areas is a formula used for decades by farmers to recover the productive capacity of pastures and soils. The integrated crop-livestock (ICL consists of different production systems of grains, fibers, wood, meat, milk and agro-deployed in the same area, in intercrop, rotation or succession. Typically this integration mainly involves the planting of grain and pasture in the recovery or deployment. This work aimed to evaluate the macronutrients leaf contents of irrigated corn intercropped with forages of the genus Panicum and Urochloa simultaneously to sown corn. The experiment was conducted at the Farm for Teaching, Research and Extension, Faculty of Engineering - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in Savannah conditions, in experimental area that had a history of no-tillage to 8 years (previous crop corn. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown simultaneously (CTS corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown simultaneously (CMS to corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraes sown simultaneously (CBS corn; Urochloa ruziziensis sown simultaneously (CRS to corn, and corn without intercropping (CWI. The seeds of grasses were sown in spacing of 0.34 m, being sown with a seed drill with disc coulters mounted mechanism for no-tillage system at a depth of 0.03 m. There was no significant difference between the single corn tillage and intercropping with different modalities of forage genus Panicum and Urochloa to the leaf contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg, demonstrating the non-compete forages with corn in a intercrop on the absorption of these nutrients. In respect to S, CTS presented higher content of S foliar when compared to CWI (Table 1. The absorption of nutrients by corn are not affect by the intercrop with forages of the genus Panicum and Urochloa, in simultaneously sown.

  9. Microsatellite markers for the native Texas perennial grass, Panicum hallii (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, David B; Purmal, Colin T; Meyer, Eli; Juenger, Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    We developed microsatellites for Panicum hallii for studies of gene flow, population structure, breeding experiments, and genetic mapping. Next-generation (454) genomic sequence data were used to design markers. Eighteen robust markers were discovered, 15 of which were polymorphic across six accessions of P. hallii var. hallii. Fourteen of the markers cross-amplified in a P. capillare accession. For the 15 polymorphic markers, the total number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 26 (mean: 11.0) across six populations (11-19 individuals per population). Observed heterozygosity (mean: 0.031) was 13.7 times lower than the expected heterozygosity (mean: 0.426). The deficit of heterozygous individuals is consistent with P. hallii having a high rate of self-fertilization. These markers will be useful for studies in P. hallii and related species.

  10. Panicum milioides, a Graminease plant having Kranz leaf anatomy without C/sub 4/-photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, R; Kashiwagi, M [Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering

    1975-08-01

    Light and electron microscopic observations of the leaf tissue of Panicum milioides showed that bundle sheath cell contained a substanital number of chloroplasts and other organelles. The radial arrangement of chlorenchymatous bundle sheath cells, designated as Kranz leaf anatomy, has been considered to be specific to C/sub 4/ plants. However, photosynthetic /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse-and-chase experiments revealed that the reductive pentosephosphate pathway was the main route operating in leaves of p. milioides. The interveinal distance of the leaves was intermediate between C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ Gramineae species. These results indicate that P. milioides is a natural plant species having characteristics intermediate between C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ types.

  11. Acumulación de hojarasca en un pastizal de Panicum maximum y en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala Litter accumulation in a Panicum maximum grassland and in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", Matanzas, Cuba, con el objetivo de determinar la acumulación de la hojarasca en un pastizal de Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Likoni y en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham. En los pastizales de P. maximum de ambos sistemas se determinó la acumulación de la hojarasca según la técnica propuesta por Bruce y Ebershon (1982, mientras que la hojarasca de L. leucocephala acumulada en el sistema silvopastoril se determinó según Santa Regina et al. (1997. De forma general, los resultados demostraron que en ambos pastizales la guinea acumuló una menor cantidad de hojarasca durante el período junio-diciembre, etapa en la que se produce su mayor desarrollo vegetativo. En la leucaena la mayor producción de hojarasca ocurrió en el período de diciembre a enero, asociada con la caída natural de sus hojas que se produce por efecto de las temperaturas más bajas y la escasa humedad en el suelo. En el sistema silvopastoril la hojarasca de leucaena representó el mayor porcentaje de peso dentro de la producción total, con un contenido más alto de nitrógeno y de calcio que el de la hojarasca del estrato herbáceo. En la guinea la lluvia fue el factor climático que mayor correlación negativa presentó con la producción de hojarasca en ambos sistemas, y en la leucaena la mayor correlación negativa se encontró con la temperatura mínima.A study was carried out at the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages "Indio Hatuey", Matanzas, Cuba, with the objective of determining the litter accumulation in a pastureland of Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Likoni and in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham. In the P. maximum pasturelands of both systems the litter accumulation was determined by means of the technique proposed by Bruce and Ebershon (1982, while

  12. Sheep poisoning by Panicum dichotomiflorum in northeastern Brazil Intoxicação por Panicum dicotomiflorum em ovinos na região nordeste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Riet-Correa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Different species of Panicum, including P. dichotomiflorum,have been reported as a cause of photosensitization in sheep, horses, cattle and goats. An outbreak of hepatogenous photosensitization occurred in 3 flocks of hair sheep in the Brazilian semiarid region. Eighty one out of 365 sheep were affected and 39 died. The main affected animals were nursing lambs and sheep younger than one year old. Donkeys, goats and cattle grazing in the same pasture were not affected. Clinical signs were edema of the head, followed by dermatitis, mainly in the face, ears, and croup, ocular discharge, corneal opacity with blindness, and redness of the coronary band and hoof. At necropsy of one affected lamb the liver was yellowish. Upon histologic examination scattered necrotic hepatocytes were observed in the liver and focal areas of necrosis of myocytes appeared in the heart. Samples of P. dicotomiflorum were analyzed by TLC and those containing saponins were isolated by HPLC using RP-C18 column and eluted with a mixture of MeOH and H2O. The isolated compounds were submitted to ¹H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Reactions were positive to furostanol saponins with the same Rf of the standard protodioscin (0.21 and methylprotodioscin (0.32. The spectroscopic results indicated a mixture of (25R- and (25S-protodioscin isomers in a proportion of 3:1, and methylprotodioscin.Diferentes espécies de Panicum, incluindo P. dichotomiflorum,causam fotossensibilização em ovinos, eqüinos, bovinos e caprinos. Um surto de fotossensibilização hepatógena ocorreu em 3 rebanhos de ovinos no município de Casa Nova, Bahia. Oitenta e um de 365 ovinos adoeceram e 39 morreram. Cordeiros lactentes e ovinos de menos de um ano foram mais afetados. Jumentos, cabras e bovinos que permaneciam nas mesmas pastagens não foram afetados. Clinicamente observou-se edema da face, seguido por dermatite, principalmente da face, orelhas e garupa, corrimento ocular, opacidade da córnea com cegueira

  13. Fungic microflora of Panicum maximum and Styosanthes spp. commercial seed / Microflora fúngica de sementes comerciais de Panicum maximum e Stylosanthes spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rodrigues Fabris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The sanitary quality of 26 lots commercial seeds of tropical forages, produced in different regions (2004-05 and 2005-06 was analyzed. The lots were composed of seeds of Panicum maximum ('Massai', 'Mombaça' e 'Tanzânia' and stylo ('Estilosantes Campo Grande' - ECG. Additionally, seeds of two lots of P. maximum for exportation were analyzed. The blotter test was used, at 20ºC under alternating light and darkness in a 12 h photoperiod, for seven days. The Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Rhizopus genus consisted the secondary or saprophytes fungi (FSS with greatest frequency in P. maximum lots. In general, there was low incidence of these fungus in the seeds. In relation to pathogenic fungi (FP, it was detected high frequency of contaminated lots by Bipolaris, Curvularia, Fusarium and Phoma genus. Generally, there was high incidence of FP in P. maximum seeds. The occurrence of Phoma sp. was hight, because in 81% of the lots showed incidence superior to 50%. In 'ECG' seeds it was detected FSS (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium genus and FP (Bipolaris, Curvularia, Fusarium and Phoma genus, usually, in low incidence. FSS and FP were associated to P. maximum seeds for exportation, with significant incidence in some cases. The results indicated that there was a limiting factor in all producer regions regarding sanitary quality of the seeds.Sementes comerciais de forrageiras tropicais, pertencente a 26 lotes produzidos em diferentes regiões (safras 2004-05 e 2005-06, foram avaliadas quanto à sanidade. Foram analisadas sementes de cultivares de Panicum maximum (Massai, Mombaça e Tanzânia e de estilosantes (Estilosantes Campo Grande – ECG. Adicionalmente, avaliou-se a qualidade sanitária de dois lotes de sementes de P. maximum destinados à exportação. Para isso, as sementes foram submetidas ao teste de papel de filtro em gerbox, os quais foram incubados a 20ºC, com fotoperíodo de 12 h, durante sete dias. Os fungos saprófitos ou

  14. Consumo voluntário de forragem de três cultivares de Panicum maximum sob pastejo Voluntary intake of three cultivars of Panicum maximum under grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar o consumo de matéria seca de animais pastejando três cultivares de Panicum maximum e relacioná-lo com ganho de peso, tempo de pastejo (TP e algumas características químicas e estruturais do pasto. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com três tratamentos e três repetições. O consumo voluntário de matéria seca (CVMS foi estimado em quatro ocasiões (maio, setembro, novembro e fevereiro. Para calcular a produção de fezes, foi usado o óxido crômico como marcador externo. Foram estimados a digestibilidade in situ da matéria seca e o tempo de pastejo, respectivamente, por intermédio de extrusas e tacógrafos. Foram estimadas as disponibilidades da forragem e dos componentes da planta. Apesar de os CVMS pelos animais terem sido semelhantes entre as cultivares, foram observadas maiores diferenças nos ganhos de peso, para os animais pastejando o capim Tanzânia, seguidos daqueles pastejando os capins Colonião e Tobiatã. Diferenças também foram observadas entre as cultivares para TP, que foi menor para os animais em pasto de Tobiatã, quando comparados aos que pastejaram as outras duas cultivares. O aumento no TP observado durante o período da seca não foi suficiente para impedir queda no consumo de forragem neste período. O CVMS foi correlacionado (r² = 0,77 com ganho diário de peso. As características estruturais das pastagens, disponibilidade de folhas e relação material verde:material morto, influenciaram mais o CVMS, ganho de peso diário e TP que os valores nutritivos das mesmas.The objectives of this work were to estimate the dry matter intake by animals grazing three cultivars of Panicum maximum, and to relate it to live weight gain, grazing time (GT and some structural and chemical characteristics of the pastures. The experimental design was the randomized block with three treatments and three replicates. The dry matter voluntary intake (DMVI was

  15. THE DYNAMICS OF TOTAL AMYLASE\\'S ACTIVITY IN PANICUM MILIACEUM AND SETARIA GLAUCA DURING THE GERMINATION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciornea

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available : It was studied the dynamics of total amylase\\'s activity in millet (Panicum miliaceum and bristle grass (Setaria glauca during the germination period. The enzymatic activity was determined by the Noelting - Brenfeld method, the results obtained being expressed in M maltose / g. In both millet and bristle grass, it was evidenced that both parameters taken into study (the species and the germination time do influence the enzymatic activity, although to a different extent.

  16. The effect of alcoholic extract of Panicum miliaceum L. seed on hippocampus neuronal density in male mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Bornarodi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hippocampus organization is a part of temporal lobe, which consists of several sections including hippocampal body, dentate gyrus and subiculum. Panicum miliaceum L. contains proteins, vitamins and antioxidants for human health. This study was conducted to examine the effect of the alcoholic extract of the seed of Panicum miliaceum L. plant on hippocampus neuronal density. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male mice were divided into 4 groups (n=6, each group. The alcoholic extract of the seed of the Panicum miliaceum L. plant was prepared by soxhlet extraction. Three doses of the extract 25, 50, 75 mg/kg were intraperitoneally injected to 3 treatment groups for 21 days and the control group received normal saline injection. At the end of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized and after perfusion, their brains were removed from the skull. After tissue processing, slices of the brain were prepared and stained. Then, different regions of the hippocampus were photographed and neuronal densities were evaluated. Results: Results showed that the neuronal density in the CA1, CA3 regions of the group treated with 50 mg/kg of the alcoholic extract and in all regions of hippocampus (CA1,CA2,CA3 in groups treated with dose of 75 mg/kg of the alcoholic extract had a significant increase compared to the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: The present study shows that the alcoholic extract of the seed of Panicum miliaceum L. plant increases neuronal density and induces neurogenesis in the mouse hippocampus.

  17. Dry Matter Yield And Competitiveness Of Alang-alang (Imperata Cylindrica) And Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum) In Intercropping

    OpenAIRE

    Rusdy, M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine dry matter yield and competitiveness of alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) in intercropping. The experiment was arranged in factorial combinations of four planting proportions, two levels of nitrogen fertilization and three harvesting intervals with three replications. Planting proportions were 0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100% of alang-alang (planting densities of 0, 1, 2 and 3 plants/pot) combined with 100, 66.7, 33...

  18. Total number of tillers of different accessions of Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Perez Granato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of forage grasses is due to continuous emission of leaves and tillers, ensuring the restoration of leaf área after cutting or grazing, thus ensuring the sustainability of forage. This study aimed to asses the total number tillers in different acessions of Panicum maximum Jacq. The experiment was carried in field belonging to the Instituto de Zootecnia located in Nova Odessa / SP. Evaluated two new accesses Panicum maximum, and two commercial cultivars. The cultivars tested were Aruana, Milenio, NO 2487, NO 78, and the two latter belonging to the Germoplasm Collection of the IZ. The experimental desing was in randomized complete block with four replications. The experimental area consisted of 16 plots of 10 m2 (5 x 2 m each. The experimental area was analyzed and according to the results, received dolomitic limestone corresponding 2t /ha, two months before the implementation of the experiment. Sowing was made by broad costing together with 80 kg/ha of P2O5 in the form of single superphosfate. After 60 days of implantation of the experiment it was a made a leveling of the plots to a height of about 15 cm. After this it was applied 250g of the 20-00-20 fertilizer/plot. Thirty days after the standardization it was evaluated the total number of tillers of the cultivars, using a metal frame of 0.5 x 0.5m which was thrown at random on each of the 16 plots, leaving one meter of each extremitly, and all tillers which were within the frame counted. After finished the counting of all tillers, the plots cut again at a height of approximately 15 cm. The second evaluation took place after thirty days, and it was again counted the total number of tillers following the same procedure. The results were analyzed by Tukey test at 5% after transforming the data to log(x. For the first evaluation there was no statistical difference in the total number of tillers between cultivars. But, in the second evaluation, the total number of tillers of NO 78

  19. Crescimento e desenvolvimento do dossel de Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça Canopy growth and development of Panicum maximum "cv" Mombaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Alexandrino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Em duas áreas de 1.200m² de capim Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça, acompanhou-se a evolução do perfilhamento, da biomassa, do índice de área foliar (IAF, da interceptação da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (IRFA e da eficiência de uso da radiação (EUR no verão e outono. Para melhor compreesão do crescimento do dossel, realizou-se também análise do crescimento, estimando-se a taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR, a taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL e a razão de área foliar (RAF da gramínea. Para todas as variáveis, foram consideradas estimativas semanais, realizadas aos 7º, 14º, 21º, 28º, 35º, 42º e 49º dias de rebrotação da gramínea, após pastejo de uniformização. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e duas áreas experimetais: uma no verão e outra no outono. No verão e no outono, foram visualizados, respectivamente, 28 e 24 pontos, sorteados pelos tratamentos experimentais, semelhantes quanto à altura do dossel e à cobertura do solo, após intenso pastejo de uniformização. O perfilhamento da gramínea, intenso na primeira semana, decresceu nas duas semanas seguintes e praticamente cessou a partir da quarta semana. A IRFA evoluiu assintoticamente, atingindo valores de 96% em ambas as estações. O IAF apresentou o mesmo padrão de resposta, com valores de 8 e 4 no verão e no outono, respectivamente. Em ambas as estações, a biomassa evoluiu de forma quadrática com o decorrer da rebrotação. A EUR, mais alta no verão que no outono, decreceu e seus respectivos valores foram 1,76 e 0,54gMS/MJ, em razão da menor precipitação pluviométrica desse período. A eficiência de crescimento do dossel, medida pela TCR, mais alta no verão que no outono e decresceu assintoticamente durante a rebrotação, em ambos os períodos. Enquanto a TAL reduziu durante o período de rebrotação, a RAF aumentou até um ponto de máximo, tanto no verão como no outono

  20. Development of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a bioenergy feedstock in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Samuel B.; Adams Kszos, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    A 10-year US Department of Energy-sponsored research program designed to evaluate and develop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a native perennial warm-season grass, as a dedicated energy crop is reviewed. The programmatic objectives were to identify the best varieties and management practices to optimize productivity, while developing an understanding of the basis for long-term improvement of switchgrass through breeding and sustainable production in conventional agroecosystems. This research has reduced the projected production cost of switchgrass by about 25% ($8-9 Mg -1 ) through yield increases of about 50% achieved through selection of the best regionally adapted varieties; through optimizing cutting frequency and timing; and by reducing the level (by about 40%) and timing of nitrogen fertilization. Breeding research has made further gains in productivity of switchgrass that exceed the historical rate of yield improvement of corn. Studies of soil carbon storage under switchgrass indicate significant carbon sequestration will occur in soils that will improve soil productivity and nutrient cycling and can substantially augment greenhouse gas reductions associated with substituting renewable energy for fossil energy. Collaborative research with industry has included fuel production and handling in power production, herbicide testing and licensing, release of new cultivars, and genetic modifications for chemical coproduct enhancement. Economically based life cycle analyses based on this research suggest that switchgrass produced for energy will compete favorably both as an agricultural crop and as fuel for industry

  1. Forage yield and nutritive value of Panicum maximum genotypes in the Brazilian savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte Fernandes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The narrow genetic variability of grasslands and the incidence of new biotic and abiotic stresses have motivated the selection of new Panicum maximum genotypes for use as forage for beef cattle in the Brazilian savannah. This study aimed to evaluate forage yield and nutritive value of P. maximum genotypes including 14 accessions (PM30 to PM43, four intraspecific hybrids (PM44 to PM47 and six cultivars (Aruana, Massai, Milênio, Mombaça, Tanzania and Vencedor, examining 24 genotypes over two years (2003 and 2004. Milênio cultivar was the genotype with the highest dry matter yield (DMY in both years (18.4 t ha-1 and 20.9 t ha-1, respectively although it presented a high proportion of stems (~ 30%. Genotypes that showed higher Leaf DMY in both years were the accession PM34 (14.7 t ha-1 and the hybrid PM46 (14.0 t ha-1, while Mombaça and Tanzania yielded 12.5 and 11.0 t ha-1, respectively. Leaf organic matter digestibility and leaf DMY for PM40 and PM46 genotypes exceeded the mean (> 656 g kg-1 and > 11.7 t ha-1, respectively. For this reason, PM40 and PM46 can be considered promising P. maximum genotypes for use as forage for grazing systems in the Brazilian savannah.

  2. Effect of pollination mode on progeny of Panicum coloratum var. makarikariense: Implications for conservation and breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena V. Armando

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Panicum coloratum var. makarikariense, a perennial grass native to Africa, is adapted to a wide range of soil and climatic conditions with potential to be used as forage in tropical and semi-arid regions around the world. Our objective was to understand how the pollination mode affects viable seed production and further survival of the progeny. We evaluated self- and open-pollinated progenies from different accessions by measuring the seed production of the parents and their germination performance, germination rate and seedling survival. Parents and progeny were also fingerprinted with Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR. Progeny produced through open-pollination resulted in significantly more filled seeds and superior seedling survival than self-pollination. These results indicate that accessions studied here rely heavily on cross-pollination, whereas the contribution of self-pollinated offspring to the population is likely to be low. SSR profiles showed that, on average, 85% of the progeny (arising from cross-pollination possessed paternal specific markers and 100% of them were genetically different from the maternal genotype. All plants examined had 4x = 36 chromosomes. Overall, our findings indicate that var. makarikariense is able to generate highly polymorphic progeny through segregation and recombination. This study provides reference information for the formulation of appropriate strategies for pasture germplasm management, conservation and development of breeding programs. 

  3. Global changes in mineral transporters in tetraploid switchgrasses (Panicum virgatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A. Palmer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L is perennial, C4 grass with great potential as a biofuel crop. An in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that control mineral uptake, distribution and remobilization will benefit sustainable production. Nutrients are mobilized from aerial portions to below-ground crowns and rhizomes as a natural accompaniment to above-ground senescence post seed-set. Mineral uptake and remobilization is dependent on transporters, however, little if any information is available about the specific transporters that are needed and how their relative expression changes over a growing season. Using well-defined classes of mineral transporters, we identified 520 genes belonging to 40 different transporter classes in the tetraploid switchgrass genome. Expression patterns were determined for many of these genes using publically available transcriptomic datasets obtained from both greenhouse and field grown plants. Certain transporters showed strong temporal patterns of expression in distinct developmental stages of the plant. Gene-expression was verified for selected transporters using qRT-PCR. By and large these analyses confirmed the developmental stage-specific expression of these genes. Mineral analyses indicated that K, Fe, Mg, Co and As had a similar pattern of accumulation with apparent limited remobilization at the end of the growing season. These initial analyses will serve as a foundation for more detailed examination of the nutrient biology of switchgrass.

  4. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Panicum turgidum Forssk from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaeed, Abdulaziz M; Al-Faifi, Sulieman A; Migdadi, Hussein M; El-Bana, Magdy I; Al Qarawi, Abdulaziz A; Khan, Mohammad Altaf

    2018-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 177 accessions of Panicum turgidum Forssk, representing ten populations collected from four geographical regions in Saudi Arabia, was analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A set of four primer-pairs with two/three selective nucleotides scored 836 AFLP amplified fragments (putative loci/genome landmarks), all of which were polymorphic. Populations collected from the southern region of the country showed the highest genetic diversity parameters, whereas those collected from the central regions showed the lowest values. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 78% of the genetic variability was attributable to differences within populations. Pairwise values for population differentiation and genetic structure were statistically significant for all variances. The UPGMA dendrogram, validated by principal coordinate analysis-grouped accessions, corresponded to the geographical origin of the accessions. Mantel's test showed that there was a significant correlation between the genetic and geographical distances ( r  = 0.35, P  < 0.04). In summary, the AFLP assay demonstrated the existence of substantial genetic variation in P. turgidum . The relationship between the genetic diversity and geographical source of P. turgidum populations of Saudi Arabia, as revealed through this comprehensive study, will enable effective resource management and restoration of new areas without compromising adaptation and genetic diversity.

  5. Evaluation of ecophysiological characteristics of intercropping of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghanbari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. intercropping, an experiment was conducted during 2008-2009 at Agriculture Research Center of Zabol University, Iran. The experiment was as randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatment s consisted of sole crop of millet, sole crop of cowpea, 25% millet + 100% cowpea, 50% millet + 50% cowpea, 75% millet + 100% cowpea and 100% millet + 100% cowpea. The results showed that intercropping treatments had significant effect (P < 1% on millet and bean seed yield, LER, dry matter of weeds, PAR, temperature and (P < 5% on soil moisture content. The highest seed yield of millet and cowpea obtained from treatments of sole crops. The LER for most intercrops was greater than one which indicated that intercropping had advantage over sole crop. For weeds management and control the results indicated that weed suppressing effects in intercropping treatments is better than sole crops treatment, so that the lowest dry matter of weeds obtained from 100% millet + 100% cowpea treatment. PAR in all of stages showed that the highest PAR interception obtained from intercropping treatments specially 100% millet + 100% cowpea treatment. In addition to the lowest of soil moisture content and temperature obtained from this treatment.

  6. Phytoliths analysis for the discrimination of Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wu, Naiqin; Liu, Kam-Biu; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

    2009-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum) are the oldest domesticated dry farming crops in Eurasia. Identifying these two millets in the archaeobotanical remains are still problematic, especially because the millet grains preserve only when charred. Phytoliths analysis provides a viable method for identifying this important crop. However, to date, the identification of millet phytoliths has been questionable, because very little study has been done on their morphometry and taxonomy. Particularly, no clear diagnostic feature has been used to distinguish between Foxtail millet and Common millet. Here we examined the anatomy and silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from the inflorescence bracts in 27 modern plants of Foxtail millet, Common millet, and closely related grasses, using light microscopy with phase-contrast and microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that five key diagnostic characteristics in phytolith morphology can be used to distinguish Foxtail millet from Common millet based on the presence of cross-shaped type, regularly arranged papillae, Omega-undulated type, endings structures of epidermal long cell, and surface ridgy line sculpture in the former species. We have established identification criteria that, when used together, give the only reliable way of distinguishing between Foxtail millet and Common millet species based on their phytoliths characteristics, thus making a methodological contribution to phytolith research. Our findings also have important implications in the fields of plant taxonomy, agricultural archaeology, and the culture history of ancient civilizations.

  7. Phytoliths analysis for the discrimination of Foxtail millet (Setaria italica and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houyuan Lu

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum are the oldest domesticated dry farming crops in Eurasia. Identifying these two millets in the archaeobotanical remains are still problematic, especially because the millet grains preserve only when charred. Phytoliths analysis provides a viable method for identifying this important crop. However, to date, the identification of millet phytoliths has been questionable, because very little study has been done on their morphometry and taxonomy. Particularly, no clear diagnostic feature has been used to distinguish between Foxtail millet and Common millet. Here we examined the anatomy and silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from the inflorescence bracts in 27 modern plants of Foxtail millet, Common millet, and closely related grasses, using light microscopy with phase-contrast and microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that five key diagnostic characteristics in phytolith morphology can be used to distinguish Foxtail millet from Common millet based on the presence of cross-shaped type, regularly arranged papillae, Omega-undulated type, endings structures of epidermal long cell, and surface ridgy line sculpture in the former species. We have established identification criteria that, when used together, give the only reliable way of distinguishing between Foxtail millet and Common millet species based on their phytoliths characteristics, thus making a methodological contribution to phytolith research. Our findings also have important implications in the fields of plant taxonomy, agricultural archaeology, and the culture history of ancient civilizations.

  8. Genetic diversity and phylogeography of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) across Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Harriet V; Campana, Michael G; Lawes, Matthew C; Park, Yong-Jin; Bower, Mim A; Howe, Christopher J; Jones, Martin K

    2011-01-01

    Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is one of the world's oldest cultivated cereals, with several lines of recent evidence indicating that it was grown in northern China from at least 10 000 cal bp. Additionally, a cluster of archaeobotanical records of P. miliaceum dated to at least 7000 cal bp exists in eastern Europe. These two centres of early records could either represent independent domestications or cross-continental movement of this cereal that would predate that of any other crop by some 2 millennia. Here, we analysed genetic diversity among 98 landrace accessions from across Eurasia using 16 microsatellite loci, to explore phylogeographic structure in the Old World range of this historically important crop. The major genetic split in the data divided the accessions into an eastern and a western grouping with an approximate boundary in northwestern China. A substantial number of accessions belonging to the ‘western’ genetic group were also found in northeastern China. Further resolution subdivided the western and eastern genepools into 2 and 4 clusters respectively, each showing clear geographic patterning. The genetic data are consistent with both the single and multiple domestication centre hypotheses and add specific detail to what these hypotheses would entail regarding the spread of broomcorn millet. Discrepancies exist between the predictions from the genetic data and the current archaeobotanical record, highlighting priorities for investigation into early farming in Central Asia. PMID:22004244

  9. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum Intercropping within Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda Does Not Affect Wild Bee Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W. Campbell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensively-managed pine (Pinus spp. have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine (P. taeda plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3–4 year old pine plantations and 9–10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations.

  10. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Intercropping within Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Does Not Affect Wild Bee Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joshua W; Miller, Darren A; Martin, James A

    2016-11-04

    Intensively-managed pine ( Pinus spp.) have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ), a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine ( P. taeda ) plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3-4 year old pine plantations and 9-10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations.

  11. Accelerating the Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Breeding Cycle Using Genomic Selection Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Alexander E.; Lu, Fei; Cherney, Jerome H.; Buckler, Edward S.; Casler, Michael D.; Costich, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial grass undergoing development as a biofuel feedstock. One of the most important factors hindering breeding efforts in this species is the need for accurate measurement of biomass yield on a per-hectare basis. Genomic selection on simple-to-measure traits that approximate biomass yield has the potential to significantly speed up the breeding cycle. Recent advances in switchgrass genomic and phenotypic resources are now making it possible to evaluate the potential of genomic selection of such traits. We leveraged these resources to study the ability of three widely-used genomic selection models to predict phenotypic values of morphological and biomass quality traits in an association panel consisting of predominantly northern adapted upland germplasm. High prediction accuracies were obtained for most of the traits, with standability having the highest ten-fold cross validation prediction accuracy (0.52). Moreover, the morphological traits generally had higher prediction accuracies than the biomass quality traits. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the quality of current genomic and phenotypic resources available for switchgrass is sufficiently high for genomic selection to significantly impact breeding efforts for biomass yield. PMID:25390940

  12. Mechanical response of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) seeds under quasi-static compression: Experiments and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasseldine, Benjamin P J; Gao, Chao; Collins, Joseph M; Jung, Hyun-Do; Jang, Tae-Sik; Song, Juha; Li, Yaning

    2017-09-01

    The common millet (Panicum miliaceum) seedcoat has a fascinating complex microstructure, with jigsaw puzzle-like epidermis cells articulated via wavy intercellular sutures to form a compact layer to protect the kernel inside. However, little research has been conducted on linking the microstructure details with the overall mechanical response of this interesting biological composite. To this end, an integrated experimental-numerical-analytical investigation was conducted to both characterize the microstructure and ascertain the microscale mechanical properties and to test the overall response of kernels and full seeds under macroscale quasi-static compression. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to examine the microstructure of the outer seedcoat and nanoindentation was performed to obtain the material properties of the seedcoat hard phase material. A multiscale computational strategy was applied to link the microstructure to the macroscale response of the seed. First, the effective anisotropic mechanical properties of the seedcoat were obtained from finite element (FE) simulations of a microscale representative volume element (RVE), which were further verified from sophisticated analytical models. Then, macroscale FE models of the individual kernel and full seed were developed. Good agreement between the compression experiments and FE simulations were obtained for both the kernel and the full seed. The results revealed the anisotropic property and the protective function of the seedcoat, and showed that the sutures of the seedcoat play an important role in transmitting and distributing loads in responding to external compression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptomic analysis, genic SSR development, and genetic diversity of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum; Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Siyu; Sun, Zhaoxia; Li, Yaoshen; Wang, Yijie; Ling, Hubin; Xing, Guofang; Han, Yuanhuai; Li, Hongying

    2017-07-01

    Proso millet ( Panicum miliaceum ; Poaceae) is a minor crop with good nutritional qualities and strong tolerance to drought stress and soil infertility. However, studies on genetic diversity have been limited due to a lack of efficient genetic markers. Illumina sequencing technology was used to generate short read sequences of proso millet, and de novo transcriptome assemblies were used to develop a de novo assembly of proso millet. Genic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were identified and used to detect polymorphism among 56 accessions. Population structure and genetic similarity coefficient were estimated. In total, 25,341 unique gene sequences and 4724 SSR loci were obtained from the transcriptome, of which 229 pairs of SSR primers were validated, which resulted in 14 polymorphic genic SSR primers exhibiting 43 total alleles. According to the ratio of polymorphic markers (6.1%, 14/229), there are potentially 288 polymorphic genic SSR markers available for genetic assay development in the future. Bayesian population analyses showed that the 56 accessions comprised two distinct groups. A genetic structure and cluster assay indicated that the accessions from the Loess Plateau of China shared a high genetic similarity coefficient with those from other regions and that there was no correlation between genetic diversity and geographic origin. The transcriptome sequencing data and millet-specific SSR markers developed in this study establish an excellent resource for gene discovery and may improve the development of breeding programs in proso millet in the future.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis, genic SSR development, and genetic diversity of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum; Poaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Siyu; Sun, Zhaoxia; Li, Yaoshen; Wang, Yijie; Ling, Hubin; Xing, Guofang; Han, Yuanhuai; Li, Hongying

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum; Poaceae) is a minor crop with good nutritional qualities and strong tolerance to drought stress and soil infertility. However, studies on genetic diversity have been limited due to a lack of efficient genetic markers. Methods: Illumina sequencing technology was used to generate short read sequences of proso millet, and de novo transcriptome assemblies were used to develop a de novo assembly of proso millet. Genic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were identified and used to detect polymorphism among 56 accessions. Population structure and genetic similarity coefficient were estimated. Results: In total, 25,341 unique gene sequences and 4724 SSR loci were obtained from the transcriptome, of which 229 pairs of SSR primers were validated, which resulted in 14 polymorphic genic SSR primers exhibiting 43 total alleles. According to the ratio of polymorphic markers (6.1%, 14/229), there are potentially 288 polymorphic genic SSR markers available for genetic assay development in the future. Bayesian population analyses showed that the 56 accessions comprised two distinct groups. Discussion: A genetic structure and cluster assay indicated that the accessions from the Loess Plateau of China shared a high genetic similarity coefficient with those from other regions and that there was no correlation between genetic diversity and geographic origin. The transcriptome sequencing data and millet-specific SSR markers developed in this study establish an excellent resource for gene discovery and may improve the development of breeding programs in proso millet in the future. PMID:28791202

  15. Targeted mutagenesis in tetraploid switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Merrick, Paul; Zhang, Zhengzhi; Ji, Chonghui; Yang, Bing; Fei, Shui-Zhang

    2018-02-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has become a powerful tool for targeted mutagenesis. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a high yielding perennial grass species that has been designated as a model biomass crop by the U.S. Department of Energy. The self-infertility and high ploidy level make it difficult to study gene function or improve germplasm. To overcome these constraints, we explored the feasibility of using CRISPR/Cas9 for targeted mutagenesis in a tetraploid cultivar 'Alamo' switchgrass. We first developed a transient assay by which a non-functional green-fluorescent protein gene containing a 1-bp frameshift insertion in its 5' coding region was successfully mutated by a Cas9/sgRNA complex resulting in its restored function. Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation of embryogenic calli derived from mature caryopses averaged a 3.0% transformation efficiency targeting the genes of teosinte branched 1(tb1)a and b and phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM). With a single construct containing two sgRNAs targeting different regions of tb1a and tb1b genes, primary transformants (T0) containing CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations were obtained at frequencies of 95.5% (tb1a) and 11% (tb1b), respectively, with T0 mutants exhibiting increased tiller production. Meanwhile, a mutation frequency of 13.7% was obtained for the PGM gene with a CRISPR/Cas9 construct containing a single sgRNA. Among the PGM T0 mutants, six are heterozygous and one is homozygous for a 1-bp deletion in the target region with no apparent phenotypical alterations. We show that CRISPR/Cas9 system can generate targeted mutagenesis effectively and obtain targeted homozygous mutants in T0 generation in switchgrass, circumventing the need of inbreeding. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance in the Xero-halophyte Blue Panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. ESHGHIZADEH

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the physiological traits associated with salt tolerance is important in optimal management of biosaline systems and optimum utilization of saline water resources in dry and saline areas. Therefore, some indices of photosynthetic activity, dry matter production and accumulation of sodium and potassium ions in Blue panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz were evaluated in five levels of salinity treatment (0, 70, 140, 210 and 280 mM NaCl solution under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that at 28 and 35 days after salt stress, plant leaf area reduced in the highest salinity treatment, 93 and 96% respectively, compared with control. Leaf stomatal conductance, CO2 fixation and quantum efficiency of photosystem II were decreased by increasing salinity. It caused also a reduction in chlorophyll content (Chl a, Chl b in leaves of Blue panicgrass. Content of carotenoids showed binary patterns to different salinity levels, slightly increased in 70-140 mM NaCl and decreased again in 210-280 mM, respectively. Increasing levels of salinity, increased sodium content in both roots and shoots but the shoots potassium content decreased. Decline in photosynthesis indices caused the reduction of root and shoot dry weight. This decrease resulted from lower leaf area (r=0.91**, lower stomatal conductance (r=0.78**, lower CO2 fixed in photosynthesis (r=0.63**, lower quantum efficiency of photosystem II (r=0.54** and lower Chl a (r=0.45**, respectively. Data analysis base on using stepwise regression introduced leaf area (?=0.560, chlorophyll a content (?=0.245 and shoot potassium content (?= 0.264 as main effective components of salinity tolerance in Blue panicgrass.

  17. Selection of full-sib families of Panicum maximum Jacq under low light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Mochi Victor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The silvopastoral system is a viable technological alternative to extensive cattle grazing, however, for it to be successful, forage grass genotypes adapted to reduced light need to be identified. The objective of this study was to select progenies of Panicum maximum tolerant to low light conditions for use in breeding programs and to study the genetic control and performance of some traits associated with shade tolerance. Six full-sib progenies were evaluated in full sun, 50% and 70% of light reduction in pots and subjected to cuttings. Progeny genotypic values ​​(GV increased with light reduction in relation to plant height (H and specific leaf area (SLA. The traits total dry mass accumulation (DM and leaf dry mass accumulation (LDM had GV higher in 50% shade and intermediate in 70% shade. The GV of tiller number (TIL and root dry mass accumulation (RDM decreased with light reduction. The highest positive correlations were obtained for the traits H and RDM with SLA and DM; the highest negative correlations were between TIL and SLA and RDM, and H and LDM. The progenies showed higher tolerance to 50% light reduction and, among them, two stood out and will be used in breeding programs. It was also found that it is not necessary to evaluate some traits under all light conditions. All traits had high broad sense heritability and high genotypic correlation between progenies in all light intensities. There is genetic difference among the progenies regarding the response to different light intensities, which will allow selection for shade tolerance

  18. Physiological Evaluation of Alkali-Salt Tolerance of Thirty Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofu Hu

    Full Text Available Soil salt-alkalization is a major limiting factor for crop production in many regions. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. is a warm-season C4 perennial rhizomatous bunchgrass and a target lignocellulosic biofuel species. The objective of this study was to evaluate relative alkali-salt tolerance among 30 switchgrass lines. Tillers of each switchgrass line were transplanted into pots filled with fine sand. Two months after transplanting, plants at E5 developmental stage were grown in either half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution with 0 mM Na+ (control or half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution with 150 mM Na+ and pH of 9.5 (alkali-salt stress treatment for 20 d. Alkali-salt stress damaged cell membranes [higher electrolyte leakage (EL], reduced leaf relative water content (RWC, net photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (gs, and transpiration rate (Tr. An alkali-salt stress tolerance trait index (ASTTI for each parameter was calculated based on the ratio of the value under alkali-salt stress and the value under non-stress conditions for each parameter of each line. Relative alkali-salt tolerance was determined based on principal components analysis and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and their ASTTI values. Significant differences in alkali-salt stress tolerance were found among the 30 lines. Lowland lines TEM-SEC, Alamo, TEM-SLC and Kanlow were classified as alkali-salt tolerant. In contrast, three lowland lines (AM-314/MS-155, BN-13645-64 and two upland lines (Caddo and Blackwell-1 were classified as alkali-salt sensitive. The results suggest wide variations exist in alkali-salt stress tolerance among the 30 switchgrass lines. The approach of using a combination of principal components and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and related ASTTI is feasible for evaluating alkali-salt tolerance in switchgrass.

  19. Transcriptional and physiological data reveal the dehydration memory behavior in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Peng, Xi; Guo, Xiaofeng; Tang, Gaijuan; Sun, Fengli; Liu, Shudong; Xi, Yajun

    2018-01-01

    Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) is a model biofuel plant because of its high biomass, cellulose-richness, easy degradation to ethanol, and the availability of extensive genomic information. However, a little is currently known about the molecular responses of switchgrass plants to dehydration stress, especially multiple dehydration stresses. Studies on the transcriptional profiles of 35-day-old tissue culture plants revealed 741 dehydration memory genes. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that these genes were enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and plant hormone signal transduction. Further analysis of specific pathways combined with physiological data suggested that switchgrass improved its dehydration resistance by changing various aspects of its responses to secondary dehydration stress (D2), including the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signal transduction, the biosynthesis of osmolytes (l-proline, stachyose and trehalose), energy metabolism (i.e., metabolic process relating to photosynthetic systems, glycolysis, and the TCA cycle), and lignin biosynthesis. The transcriptional data and chemical substance assays showed that ABA was significantly accumulated during both primary (D1) and secondary (D2) dehydration stresses, whereas JA accumulated during D1 but became significantly less abundant during D2. This suggests the existence of a complicated signaling network of plant hormones in response to repeated dehydration stresses. A homology analysis focusing on switchgrass, maize, and Arabidopsis revealed the conservation and species-specific distribution of dehydration memory genes. The molecular responses of switchgrass plants to successive dehydration stresses have been systematically characterized, revealing a previously unknown transcriptional memory behavior. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of dehydration stress responses in plants. The genes and

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly for the tropical grass Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Toledo-Silva

    Full Text Available Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. is a tropical African grass often used to feed beef cattle, which is an important economic activity in Brazil. Brazil is the leader in global meat exportation because of its exclusively pasture-raised bovine herds. Guinea grass also has potential uses in bioenergy production due to its elevated biomass generation through the C4 photosynthesis pathway. We generated approximately 13 Gb of data from Illumina sequencing of P. maximum leaves. Four different genotypes were sequenced, and the combined reads were assembled de novo into 38,192 unigenes and annotated; approximately 63% of the unigenes had homology to other proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Functional classification through COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses showed that the unigenes from Guinea grass leaves are involved in a wide range of biological processes and metabolic pathways, including C4 photosynthesis and lignocellulose generation, which are important for cattle grazing and bioenergy production. The most abundant transcripts were involved in carbon fixation, photosynthesis, RNA translation and heavy metal cellular homeostasis. Finally, we identified a number of potential molecular markers, including 5,035 microsatellites (SSRs and 346,456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the complete leaf transcriptome of P. maximum using high-throughput sequencing. The biological information provided here will aid in gene expression studies and marker-assisted selection-based breeding research in tropical grasses.

  1. Evaluation of the relationship of sowing qualities and yielding properties of millet seed (Panicum meliaceum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. П. Полторецький

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination and analysis of relationship of sowing qualities and yield properties of millet seed (Panicum meliaceum L. to be formed by the action of predecessors and conditions of mineral nutrition in the context of unstable moistening in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. Methods. Mathematico-statistical ones (correlation, regression. Results. The use of correlation pleiades method allowed to analyze multifactor relations of sowing qualities and yield properties of millet seed and establish that there was a direct correlation relationship of medium strength (r = 0.52 ± 0.01 between yielding of maternal and millet plants of the first seed progeny. It was found that maternal plants yielding is strongly correlated with laboratory and technological indicators of seed quality that interrelated through integrated quality parameter of seed material (r = 0.56 ± 0.01 and millet output (r = 0.98 ± 0.00. Integrated quality parameter as well as each of the studied laboratory parameters of seed material quality taken separately have a high-level (r = 0.87…0.96 ± 0.00 effect on the formation of grain yield of the first seed progeny plants. Such physical and technological parameters of the quality of maternal plants yield as a content of protein and fat in seed, seed weight, its uniformity can directly, and millet output, thousand-grain weight and hull content – indirectly indicate peculiarities of forming future grain yield of plants of the first seed progeny. Conclusions. The use of the correlation pleiades method allows to analyze objectively the sowing qualities of millet seed and predict the yield properties in the next generation.

  2. Physiological Evaluation of Alkali-Salt Tolerance of Thirty Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guofu; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Xunzhong; Yao, Fengjiao; Huang, Yan; Ervin, Erik H; Zhao, Bingyu

    2015-01-01

    Soil salt-alkalization is a major limiting factor for crop production in many regions. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season C4 perennial rhizomatous bunchgrass and a target lignocellulosic biofuel species. The objective of this study was to evaluate relative alkali-salt tolerance among 30 switchgrass lines. Tillers of each switchgrass line were transplanted into pots filled with fine sand. Two months after transplanting, plants at E5 developmental stage were grown in either half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution with 0 mM Na+ (control) or half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution with 150 mM Na+ and pH of 9.5 (alkali-salt stress treatment) for 20 d. Alkali-salt stress damaged cell membranes [higher electrolyte leakage (EL)], reduced leaf relative water content (RWC), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (Tr). An alkali-salt stress tolerance trait index (ASTTI) for each parameter was calculated based on the ratio of the value under alkali-salt stress and the value under non-stress conditions for each parameter of each line. Relative alkali-salt tolerance was determined based on principal components analysis and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and their ASTTI values. Significant differences in alkali-salt stress tolerance were found among the 30 lines. Lowland lines TEM-SEC, Alamo, TEM-SLC and Kanlow were classified as alkali-salt tolerant. In contrast, three lowland lines (AM-314/MS-155, BN-13645-64) and two upland lines (Caddo and Blackwell-1) were classified as alkali-salt sensitive. The results suggest wide variations exist in alkali-salt stress tolerance among the 30 switchgrass lines. The approach of using a combination of principal components and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and related ASTTI is feasible for evaluating alkali-salt tolerance in switchgrass.

  3. Efecto de la altura de poda en Leucaena leucocephala y su influencia en el rebrote y rendimiento de Panicum maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Bacab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las prácticas importantes de manejo en los sistemas de Leucaena leucocephala asociada con pastos tropicales, como Panicum maximum, es la poda; en la actualidad se continúan los estudios para determinar los efectos de esta práctica en el componente arbóreo y herbáceo. Por todo ello, en el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto de tres alturas de poda en Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham y su influencia en la pastura asociada (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El estudio se realizó en la época poco lluviosa del año (marzo a mayo de 2010, se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Al inicio del experimento se asignaron los tratamientos (alturas de poda de 20, 40 y 60 cm sobre el nivel del suelo para Leucaena leucocephala. En el caso de Panicum maximum, se realizó una poda a 5 cm sobre el nivel del suelo en todas las parcelas experimentales. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que la poda de la leguminosa a 40 y 60 cm permitió obtener brotes de mayor talla, sin afectar a la gramínea asociada. De igual manera, al incrementar la altura de poda, la leguminosa presentó mayor rendimiento y proporción de forraje comestible; sin embargo, se afectó negativamente a la pastura asociada. Ante ello, considerándose el aspecto animal, se recomienda no reducir la altura de poda de Leucaena leucocephala a menos de 40 cm, ya que se reduce significativamente el rendimiento y la proporción de forraje comestible de esta leguminosa, el cual es de mayor calidad para la alimentación animal.

  4. Rendimiento y calidad de semilla de pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq.) cv. Tanzania usando la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4

    OpenAIRE

    Bertín Maurilio Joaquín Torres; Miguel Angel Moreno Carrillo; Santiago Joaquín Cancino; Alfonso Hernández Garay; Jorge Pérez Pérez; Armando Gómez Vázquez

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 en el rendimiento y calidad de semilla en Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El experimento se realizó durante el 2001 en Tejupilco, Estado de México. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron, T1=testigo, T2=4 mg L-1 de ingrediente activo (i.a.) aplicados al inicio de antesis, T3=4 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis, T4=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis, T5=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados ante...

  5. Rendimiento y calidad de semilla de pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq.) cv. Tanzania usando la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Torres, Bertin Maurilio; Moreno Carrillo, Miguel Angel; Joaquín Cancino, Santiago; Hernández Garay, Alfonso; Pérez Pérez, Jorge; Gómez Vázquez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 en el rendimiento y calidad de semilla en Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El experimento se realizó durante el 2001 en Tejupilco, Estado de México. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: T1=testigo; T2=4 mg L-1 de ingrediente activo (i.a.) aplicados al inicio de antesis; T3=4 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis; T4=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis; T5=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados ante...

  6. Ingestion et digestibilité in vivo du Panicum maximum associé à trois compléments: tourteau de Jatophra curcas, tourteau de coton Gossypium hirsutum et Euphorbia heterophylla chez le cobaye Cavia porcellus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'G.D.V. Kouakou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Intake and the in vivo Digestibility of Panicum maximum Associated with Three Supplements: Jatophra curcas Cake, Gossypium hirsutum Cake and Euphorbia heterophylla (Euph in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. The intake and the in vivo digestibility of Panicum maximum associated with three supplements: Jatropha curcas cake, Gossypium hirsutum cake and Euphorbia heterophylla (Euph in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus L. pigs, its association with Panicum maximum could be popularized wherever its abundance has been reported. In order used weed Euphorbia heterophylla in guinea pigs diet, comparative study of the intake and the in vivo digestibility of four treatments, Panicum maximum (Pan, Panicum maximum and Gossypium hirsutum cake (Pancoton, Panicum maximum and Euphorbia heterophylla (Paneuph and Panicum maximum and Jatropha curcas cake (Panjatro, in male guinea pigs were conducted in Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast. The means of the intake (g DM/d were 64.8 ± 12.5; 74.3 ± 12.9; 73.7 ± 17.8 and 69.1 ± 12.3 respectively for Pan, Pancoton, Paneuph and Panjatro. Pancoton and Paneuph were significantly better ingested than Pan and Panjatro. Euphorbia heterophylla was significantly better ingested than the other two supplements (P< 0.05 and the mean daily weight gain with its association with Panicum maximum of 3.1 ± 0.6 g/d. The rate of substitution of Panicum maximum by Euphorbia heterophylla was nearly to one (1. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC for dry (68.0 ± 10.5% and organic matter (84.1 ± 5.2% of Paneuph were significantly higher (P< 0.05 than the ADC's for the other three treatments. Given the nutritional value of Euphorbia heterophylla in guinea pigs, its association with Panicum maximum could be popularized wherever its abundance has been reported.

  7. Characterization of effluent from food processing industries and stillage treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. and Panicum maximum (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Noukeu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effluents from 11 food processing industries from various sectors were characterized through analysis of physical and chemical parameters. In general, effluents pHs are between 4.07 and 7.63. Lead (Pb2+ and cadmium (Cd+ concentrations range from 0.083 to 1.025 mg/l and 0.052–0.158 mg/l respectively. The biodegradability of the effluent is very low. The principal component analysis (PCA grouped industries according to their organic matter levels; thus, stillage, livestock, molasses and sugar refinery effluents show some similarities, as well as confectionery, oil mill, dairy and brewery effluents. Forms of nitrogen measured show low levels of nitrites (NO2−, high levels of nitrates (NO3−, ammonium (NH4+ and Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN. Among these effluents, a treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes and Panicum maximum was applied to stillage effluent from Fermencam distillery. The results show that Panicum maximum and Eichhornia crassipes reduce pollutant loads of Fermencam's wastewater.

  8. The complex subcellular distribution of satellite panicum mosaic virus capsid protein reflects its multifunctional role during infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Dong; Omarov, Rustem T.; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) depends on its helper Panicum mosaic virus for replication and movement in host plants. The positive-sense single-stranded genomic RNA of SPMV encodes a 17-kDa capsid protein (CP) to form 16-nm virions. We determined that SPMV CP accumulates in both cytosolic and non-cytosolic fractions, but cytosolic accumulation of SPMV CP is exclusively associated with virions. An N-terminal arginine-rich motif (N-ARM) on SPMV CP is used to bind its cognate RNA and to form virus particles. Intriguingly, virion formation is dispensable for successful systemic SPMV RNA accumulation, yet this process still depends on an intact N-ARM. In addition, a C-terminal domain on the SPMV CP is necessary for self-interaction. Biochemical fractionation and fluorescent microscopy of green fluorescent protein-tagged SPMV CP demonstrated that the non-cytosolic SPMV CP is associated with the cell wall, the nucleus and other membranous organelles. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a satellite virus CP not only accumulates exclusively as virions in the cytosol but also is directed to the nucleolus and membranes. That SPMV CP is found both in the nucleus and the cell wall suggests its involvement in viral nuclear import and cell-to-cell transport

  9. A non-flowering green panic grass (Panicum maximum var. trichoglume) obtained through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivashankar, G.; Mahishi, D.M.; Kulkarni, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: Suppression of flowering has many advantages in a forage crop. Such genotypes are not only expected to give more yield but also to be more nutritious. Non-flowering plants also remain fresh and green for a longer period in the field compared to the flowering types. Green panic (Panicum maximum var. trichoglume) is a high yielding, nutritious, fast growing and drought tolerant grass that has a potential to grow even under partial shade conditions. However, the major drawback of this grass is that it flowers early and profusely, with the result that most of the nutrients are diverted towards panicle formation. With an objective to suppress the panicle initiation a mutation breeding programme was taken up. Seeds of green panic grass were subjected to gamma ray treatment with doses of 40, 50 and 60 krad. From the large spectrum of variation observed for flowering habit quite a few non-flowering plants were isolated and of these the one from 40 krad treatment was prominent. This non-flowering plant yielded more green foliage than the flowering type and recorded an increase to the extend of 10.5% and 22.5% in monthly and bi-monthly harvests respectively. The increase in green foliage yield was directly attributable to an increase in the number of tillers and concomitant reduction in culm weight. Unlike in the flowering types the mutant had more accumulation of dry matter in the leaves rather than the stem. Further nutritional analysis of leaves showed that the non-flowering plant is superior with 6.04% crude protein which represents 100% increase over that of flowering type. The calcium content (0.5%) was also double and the moisture content (11.70%) was higher in the non-flowering plant. The crude fibre content was reduced by 2%. Inhibition of flowering is a common feature in mutagen treated material, but it is seldom inherited. In sugarcane non-arrowing mutants have been induced with advantage to increase the sugar content (Walker and Sisodia, 1969). The

  10. Effects of light intensity on growth, anatomy and forage quality of two tropical grasses (Brachiaria brizantha and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deinum, B.; Sulastri, R.D.; Zeinab, M.H.J.; Maassen, A.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of light intensity on growth, histology and anatomy, and nutritive value were studied in seedlings of two shade tolerant species: Brachiaria brizantha and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume. They were studied under greenhouse conditions in pots with sandy soil and sufficient N and cut after a

  11. Queilite angular traumática em eqüinos associada à ingestão de Panicum maximum Angular cheilitis in horses associated with ingestion of Panicum maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Diomedes Barbosa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Uma condição com aumento da fenda bucal de eqüinos por lesão na comissura labial foi estudada. Este aumento tinha extensão variável e era uni ou bilateral. Na mucosa da bochecha da comissura labial exposta havia pequenas erosões. Durante a mastigação havia perda de pequena quantidade de capim e saliva pela fenda bucal aumentada. Os animais apresentavam bom estado nutricional. O exame histopatológico de tecido retirado da comissura labial revelou epidermite superficial. Nas quatro propriedades onde se verificou o problema, constatou-se que os eqüinos eram mantidos em sistema extensivo de criação em pastagem de Panicum maximum (variedades Tanzânia, Mombaça, Tobiatã e Colonião, com folhas maduras, altas, lignificadas e de bordos cortantes. De acordo com os dados epidemiológicos, com os achados clínicos e histopatológicos, concluí-se que essas lesões foram causadas pela ação cortante das folhas de Panicum maximum, associada à forma de apreensão da pastagem alta e mastigação pelos eqüinos.A condition with enlargement of the oral cleft in horses was studied. The enlargement of varied extension was uni or bilateral. The cheek mucosa of the labial commissure showed slight erosions. During chewing there was loss of small amounts of grass and saliva through the oral cleft. The affected horses were in good nutritional condition. Histopathological studies of tissues obtained by biopsia, revealed a superficial epidermitis. The pastures consisted of Panicum maximum grass (varieties Tanzânia, Mombaça, Tobiatã and Colonião which was mature, tall, lignified, with leaves of cutting edges. Based on epidemiological, clinical and histopathological data, it was concluded that the lesions were caused by the hard grass, favored by the way horses pull the tall grass and chew it.

  12. The Effect of Trichoderma on Heavy Metal Mobility and Uptake by Miscanthus giganteus, Salix sp., Phalaris arundinacea, and Panicum virgatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata J. Kacprzak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of land application of biomaterials based on two strains of Trichoderma fungus on phytoremediation processes was studied. Six metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni were analysed in soil and soil leachate as well as in plant tissues. The translocation index (Ti and metal bioconcentration factors (BCF calculated for the inoculated plants were increased compared to the noninoculated control, except for Pb and Salix sp. Simultaneously, the mobilisation of metals in soil solution as an effect of biomaterials was noted. The highest values of Ti—339% (for Cr, 190% (for Ni, and 110% (for Cu—were achieved for the combination Miscanteus giganteus and Trichoderma MSO1. The results indicated that the application of fungus has positive effects on increasing the biomass, soil parameters (C, N, and P, and solubility of heavy metals in soil and therefore in enhancing phytoextraction for Miscanthus giganteus L., Panicum virgatum L., Phalaris arundinacea L., and Salix sp.

  13. CINÉTICA DE DEGRADABILIDAD in vitro DE CUATRO VARIEDADES DE Panicum maximum COSECHADAS A CUATRO EDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Humberto Avellaneda Cevallos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la degradabilidad in vitro de la materia seca (MS de las hojas, tallos y planta completa de cuatro variedades de pasto Guinea (Panicum maximum: Común, Tanzania, Enano y Tobiata en cuatro edades de cosecha (21, 42, 63 y 84 d. Se evaluó la composición química de las variedades. Para la digestibilidad in vitro, se empleó la primera fase de la técnica de Tilley y Terry, para lo cual se extrajo líquido ruminal de dos bovinos Brown Swiss canulados a rumen. Se evaluaron seis periodos de incubación (3, 6, 12, 24, 48 y 72 h. Para la cinética de degradación in vitro, se aplicó un diseño de bloques completos al azar (DBCA, utilizando a la corrida (2 como criterio de bloqueo y repetición; se usó una incubadora DaisyII 200 y una bolsita de degradabilidad por corrida. Se observó que la mejor degradabilidad in vitro se presenta en los primeros estadios fenológicos, y que las hojas demuestran mayores características nutricionales, seguida de la planta completa y tallos. Se demostró que las diferencias en degradabilidad no están fuertemente asociadas con la variedad de Panicum maximum, sino más bien con la edad de cosecha. Por lo que se concluye, que la degradabilidad in vitro de las variedades de pasto Guinea, difieren en función del estado de madurez de la planta.

  14. Imbalanced carbon-for-phosphorus exchange between European arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and non-native Panicum grasses-A case of dysfunctional symbiosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáčová, Veronika; Slavíková, Renata; Konvalinková, Tereza; Hujslová, Martina; Gryndlerová, Hana; Gryndler, Milan; Püschel, David; Jansa, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, May 2017 (2017), s. 48-55 ISSN 0031-4056 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11224; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-19191S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Arbuscular mycorrhiza * Panicum * Plant biomass Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2016

  15. Effet de Panicum maximum sur la productivité des femelles primipares durant le cycle de reproduction chez le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danho, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Panicum maximum on Productivity of Primiparous Females during Reproduction Cycle in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. In Ivory Coast, Guinea pigs reared for meat (Cavia porcellus L. are mainly fed with Panicum maximum. To assess the effect of the latter during pregnancy and lactation (RC of these animals, primiparous dams were fed ad libitum, Panicum maximum alone during the RC (MOD1 or associated with pellets for rabbits during lactation (MOD2, or associated with pellets for rabbits during the last part of the pregnancy period and the lactation (MOD3, or associated with pellets for rabbits during the entire RC (MOD4. The number of corpora lutea per female was 1.3 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.0 respectively for MOD1 and MOD4. No pre-embryonic mortality was recorded. The mean weight of the young guinea pigs of MOD1 (54.7 ± 10. g was only 55% of that of MOD4 (98.6 ± 13.6 g. At weaning, the average weight gain of young guinea pigs of MOD1 (40.5 ± 22.2 g represented a third of those obtained with other diets that did not significantly differ. At the end of RC, the weight gain of dams was 17 ± 13.3% for MOD1 compared to 50% for MOD2, MOD3 and MOD4. Feeding Panicum maximum alone induces chronic malnutrition which in turn is responsible of the low ovulation rate and reduced growth in guinea pig breeding.

  16. Influence of salicylic and succinic acids on antioxidant enzymes activity, heat resistance and productivity of Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnichenko N.N.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of treatment of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. seeds with the solutions of salicylic and succinic acids on the heat resistance of plantlets and activity of antioxidant enzymes – superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase – in them have been investigated. In the micro-field experiment the influence of these acids on the millet yield was estimated. The action of salicylic (10 μM and succinic (1 mM acids caused the increase of plantlets resistance to the damaging heating that expressed in the rise of relative quantity of survived plantlets in 5 days after heating at the temperature of 47°С and in the reduced content of lipid peroxidation product malonic dialdehyde during the poststress period. The increase of activity of SOD, catalase and peroxidase took place in millet plantlets under the influence of salicylic and succinic acids. The increase of productivity of millet grain under the action of salicylic and succinic acids on 13,3-52,0 and 6,4-38,8% respectively depending on weather conditions in the field experiments was noted.

  17. Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and Its Potential for Cultivation in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiyaremye, Cedric; Matanguihan, Janet B; D'Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Ganjyal, Girish M; Whiteman, Michael R; Kidwell, Kimberlee K; Murphy, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L. ) is a warm season grass with a growing season of 60-100 days. It is a highly nutritious cereal grain used for human consumption, bird seed, and/or ethanol production. Unique characteristics, such as drought and heat tolerance, make proso millet a promising alternative cash crop for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States. Development of proso millet varieties adapted to dryland farming regions of the PNW could give growers a much-needed option for diversifying their predominantly wheat-based cropping systems. In this review, the agronomic characteristics of proso millet are discussed, with emphasis on growth habits and environmental requirements, place in prevailing crop rotations in the PNW, and nutritional and health benefits. The genetics of proso millet and the genomic resources available for breeding adapted varieties are also discussed. Last, challenges and opportunities of proso millet cultivation in the PNW are explored, including the potential for entering novel and regional markets.

  18. Allelopathic Potential of Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) on Perennial Ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Junfeng; An, Yu; Ma, Yongqing; Ichizen, Nobumasa

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated allelopathy and its chemical basis in nine switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) accessions. Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) were used as test species. Undiluted aqueous extracts (5 g plant tissue in 50 ml water) from the shoots and roots of most of the switchgrass accessions inhibited the germination and growth of the test species. However, the allelopathic effect of switchgrass declined when extracts were diluted 5- or 50-fold. Seedling growth was more sensitive than seed germination as an indicator of allelopathic effect. Allelopathic effect was related to switchgrass ecotype but not related to ploidy level. Upland accessions displayed stronger allelopathic potential than lowland accessions. The aqueous extract from one switchgrass accession was separated into phenols, organic acids, neutral chemicals, and alkaloids, and then these fractions were bioassayed to test for allelopathic potential. Alkaloids had the strongest allelopathic effect among the four chemical fractions. In summary, the results indicated that switchgrass has allelopathic potential; however, there is not enough evidence to conclude that allelopathic advantage is the main factor that has contributed to the successful establishment of switchgrass on China’s Loess Plateau.

  19. Risk of Soil Recontamination Due to Using Eleusine coracana and Panicum maximum Straw After Phytoremediation of Picloram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Alex Favaro; Pires, Fábio Ribeiro; Chagas, Kristhiano; de Oliveira Procópio, Sergio; Oliveira, Marcelo Antonio; Cargnelutti Filho, Alberto; Belo, Alessandra Ferreira; Egreja Filho, Fernando Barboza

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the herbicidal activity of picloram on the biomass of the remediation plants Eleusine coracana and Panicum maximum after cultivation in a soil contaminated with this herbicide. These species were grown in three soils, differentiated based on texture (clayish, middle, and sandy, with 460, 250, and 40 g kg(-1) of the clay, respectively), previously contaminated with picloram (0, 80, and 160 g ha(-1)). After 90 days, the plants were harvested and an extract was produced by maceration of leaves and stems of these plants. It was applied to pots containing washed sand, comprising a bioassay in a growth chamber using soybean as a bioindicator for picloram. Soil and plant samples were analyzed by HPLC. The results showed the presence of picloram or metabolites with herbicidal activity in the shoots of E. coracana and P. maximum at phytotoxic levels with regard to soybean plants, indicating that they work only as phytoextractors and that the presence of straw on the soil surface can promote recontamination within the area. It is not recommended to cultivate species susceptible to picloram in areas where it was reported remediation by E. indica and P. maximum and still present residues of these species.

  20. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Broomcorn Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) Cultivars and Landraces in China Based on Microsatellite Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minxuan; Xu, Yue; He, Jihong; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Yinyue; Lu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), one of the first domesticated crops, has been grown in Northern China for at least 10,000 years. The species is presently a minor crop, and evaluation of its genetic diversity has been very limited. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 88 accessions of broomcorn millet collected from various provinces of China. Amplification with 67 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers revealed moderate levels of diversity in the investigated accessions. A total of 179 alleles were detected, with an average of 2.7 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.043 to 0.729 (mean = 0.376) and 0.045 to 0.771 (mean = 0.445), respectively. Cluster analysis based on the unweighted pair group method of mathematical averages separated the 88 accessions into four groups at a genetic similarity level of 0.633. A genetic structure assay indicated a close correlation between geographical regions and genetic diversity. The uncovered information will be valuable for defining gene pools and developing breeding programs for broomcorn millet. Furthermore, the millet-specific SSR markers developed in this study should serve as useful tools for assessment of genetic diversity and elucidation of population structure in broomcorn millet. PMID:26985894

  1. Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [es

  2. Efeito do hexazinone isolado e em mistura na eficiência fotossintética de Panicum maximum Effect of hexazinone applied alone and in combination on the photosynthetic efficiency of Panicum maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Girotto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a velocidade e intensidade de ação do hexazinone isolado e em mistura com outros inibidores do fotossistema II, através da eficiência fotossintética de Panicum maximum em pós-emergência. O ensaio foi constituído de seis tratamentos: hexazinone (250 g ha-1, tebuthiuron (1,0 kg ha-1, hexazinone + tebuthiuron (125 g ha-1 + 0,5 kg ha-1, diuron (2.400 g ha-1, hexazinone + diuron (125 + 1.200 g ha-1, metribuzin (1.440 g ha-1, hexazinone + metribuzin (125 + 720 g ha-1 e uma testemunha. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, as plantas foram transportadas para casa de vegetação sob condições controladas de temperatura e umidade, onde ficaram durante o período experimental, sendo realizadas as seguintes avaliações: taxa de transporte de elétrons e análise visual de intoxicação. A avaliação com o fluorômetro foi realizada nos intervalos de 1, 2, 6, 24, 48, 72, 120 e 168 horas após a aplicação, e as avaliações visuais, aos três e sete dias após a aplicação. Os resultados demonstraram diferença nos tratamentos, enfatizando a aplicação do diuron, que reduziu lentamente o transporte de elétrons comparado com os outros herbicidas e, em mistura com hexazinone, apresentou efeito sinérgico. Verificou-se com o uso do fluorômetro a intoxicação antecipada em plantas de P. maximum após a aplicação de herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II de forma isolada e em mistura.This work aimed to evaluate the speed and intensity of action of hexazinone applied alone and in combination with other photo-system II inhibitors on the photosynthetic efficiency of Panicum maximum in post-emergence. The assay consisted of six treatments: hexazinone (250 g ha-1, tebuthiuron (1.0 kg ha-1, hexazinone + tebuthiuron (125 g ha-1+ 0.5 kg ha-1, diuron (2,400 g ha-1, hexazinone + diuron (125 + 1,200 g ha-1, metribuzin

  3. Produção de forragem do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 pastejado em diferentes alturas Forage production of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 grazed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este experimento, avaliar a massa de forragem (MF, massa de lâmina verde (MLV, massa de colmo + bainha verde (MCV, massa de material morto (MMM, massa de forragem verde (MFV, relação folha/colmo (F/C, taxa de acúmulo de massa seca (TAMS, acúmulo de massa de forragem (AMF, índice de área foliar (IAF, porcentagem de solo descoberto (SD e porcentagem de solo coberto com liteira (SCL em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 manejada em quatro alturas do dossel forrageiro (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm. O método de pastejo utilizado foi o de lotação contínua e taxa de lotação variável, com novilhos da raça Nelore com peso médio de 340 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com duas repetições e realizaram-se cinco avaliações. MLV, MCV, MMM, MFV, MF, IAF, TAMS e AMF aumentaram com o avanço da altura do dossel, sendo que a porcentagem de SD, SCL e material morto diminui em pastos mais altos. O manejo do capim-Tanzânia nas alturas de 40 e 60 cm, apresentou as melhores respostas de composição morfológica, garantindo boa oferta de folhas, de cobertura do solo e taxa de acúmulo de massa seca. As alturas de 20 e 80 cm não devem ser recomendadas para o manejo do capim-Tanzânia quando o objetivo for produção com qualidade e quantidade.This experiment was conducted out to evaluate the forage mass (FM, green leaf lamina mass (GLLM, green stem + leaf sheath mass (GSSM, mass of dead material (MDM, green forage mass (GMF, total forage mass (TFM, leaf/stem ratio (L/S, dry matter accumulation rate (DMAR, leaf area index (LAI, % of bare soil (BS and litter cover percentage (LCP in Tanzaniagrass pasture (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 managed at four different sward heights (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm. The grazing method was the continuous stocking with variable stocking rate, and the grazing animals were Nellore steers with average weight of 340 kg. The completely

  4. Producción de semilla de guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en un sistema intensivo de ceba de ganado vacuno Seed production of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. in an intensive cattle fattening system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Oquend

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo Pardo sialítico del subtipo Cambisol cálcico, localizado en la Empresa Pecuaria «Calixto García», en la provincia de Holguín, se estudio la producción de semilla de guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en un sistema intensivo de ceba de ganado vacuno, en condiciones de riego. Los tratamientos fueron cinco varieda­des del pasto guinea: A Común; B Likoni; C Mombasa; D Tanzania; y E Tobiatá. Los siguientes métodos se consideraron a su vez como subtratamientos: 1 Siembra con semilla gámica; 2 Plantación por macollas; y 3 Por vía de trasplante. La carga se mantuvo ajustada a 2 UGM/ha. En la producción de semillas existieron interacciones favorables entre los métodos de siembra y las variedades: semilla gámica-guinea Likoni; maco­lla-guinea Mombasa, Tanzania y Tobiatá; trasplante-guinea Común. En todo el sistema de explotación se obtuvo un aporte adicional superior a los $1 000/ha por concepto de producción de semilla, sin afectar la producción animal, en la que se obtuvieron ganancias superiores a los 800 g/animal/día y producciones pro­medio de 46 212 t de carne en pie por ciclo de ceba. Se considera factible la producción de semilla del pasto guinea en sistemas intensivos de ceba de ganado vacuno.On a sialitic Brown soil of the calcic Cambisol subtype, located at the «Calixto García» Livestock Production Enterprise, in the Holguín province, the production of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. was studied in an intensive cattle fattening system, with irrigation. The treatments were five varieties of Guinea grass: A Common; B Likoni; C Mombasa; D Tanzania; and E Tobiatá. The following methods were considered, in turn, sub-treatments: 1 Seeding with gamic seed; 2 Planting with tillers; and 3 Transplanting. The stocking rate remained adjusted at 2 animals/ha. In seed production there were favorable interactions between the planting methods and the varieties: gamic seed-Guinea grass Likoni; tiller-Guinea grass

  5. Aislamiento e identificación de cepas de Azospirillum sp. en pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. del Valle del Cesar Isolation and identification of Azospirillum sp. in Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. of the Valle del Cesar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M Cárdenas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de factores ambientales del Valle del Cesar y el manejo agronómico del pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq., sobre la población bacteriana del género Azospirillum en medios de cultivo semisólidos NFb y LGI, para lo cual se utilizó un diseño experimental en parcelas divididas con un arreglo factorial de 2 (épocas climáticas: lluvia y sequía x 2 (manejos agronómicos: agroecólogico y extractivo x 3 (muestras analizadas: suelo rizosférico, raíces y hojas. Los resultados no revelaron diferencias estadísticas significativas, lo que indica que esta bacteria puede mantener su población en condiciones de estrés por diferentes mecanismos fisiológicos. A partir de estas muestras se obtuvieron 16 aislamientos pertenecientes al género Azospirillum, a los cuales se les evaluó su actividad de reducción de acetileno como indicador de la fijación biológica de nitrógeno y su capacidad en la producción de compuestos indólicos como promotores del crecimiento vegetal. Se seleccionaron las cepas SRGM2, SRGM3 y SRGM4 obtenidas de muestras de suelo rizosférico de pasto guinea de la Estación Experimental Motilonia de Corpoica, municipio Agustín Codazzi, departamento del Cesar. Estos aislamientos se caracterizaron molecularmente por el gen 16S rRNA y según el análisis BLAST en la base de datos del GenBank y presentaron 93% de similitud con A. lipoferum (SRGM2 y SRGM3 y 94% con A. brasilense (SRGM4.The effect of environmental factors of the Valle del Cesar and the agronomic management of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq., on the bacterial population of the Azospirillum genus in semisolid NFb and LGI culture media was evaluated, for which an experimental design was used in divided plots with a 2 (climatic seasons: rainy and dry x 2 (agronomic managements: agroecological and extractive x 3 (analyzed samples: rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves factorial arrangement. The results did not reveal significant statistical

  6. Rendimiento y calidad de semilla de pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania usando la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertín Maurilio Joaquín Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 en el rendimiento y calidad de semilla en Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El experimento se realizó durante el 2001 en Tejupilco, Estado de México. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron, T1=testigo, T2=4 mg L-1 de ingrediente activo (i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis, T3=4 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis, T4=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis, T5=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis y T6=12 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados únicamente al inicio de antesis. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar, con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó el rendimiento de semilla total (RST, rendimiento de semilla pura (RSP, número de panículas m-2, longitud de panícula, semillas producidas y cosechadas por panícula, peso de 1,000 semillas y germinación. Se detectaron diferencias (P0.05 entre tratamientos. Se concluye que la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 incrementó el rendimiento de semilla de P. maximum cv. tanzania, independientemente de la concentración y momento de aplicación. La calidad de la semilla, no fue afectada por ninguno de los tratamientos evaluados.

  7. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. Genotypes Differ between Coastal Sites and Inland Road Corridors in the Northeastern US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Ecker

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. is a North American grass that exhibits vast genetic diversity across its geographic range. In the Northeastern US, local switchgrass populations were restricted to a narrow coastal zone before European settlement, but current populations inhabit inland road verges raising questions about their origin and genetics. These questions are important because switchgrass lines with novel traits are being cultivated as a biofuel feedstock, and gene flow could impact the genetic integrity and distribution of local populations. This study was designed to determine if: 1 switchgrass plants collected in the Long Island Sound Coastal Lowland coastal Level IV ecoregion represented local populations, and 2 switchgrass plants collected from road verges in the adjacent inland regions were most closely related to local coastal populations or switchgrass from other geographic regions. The study used 18 microsatellite markers to infer the genetic relationships between 122 collected switchgrass plants and a reference dataset consisting of 28 cultivars representing ecotypes, ploidy levels, and lineages from North America. Results showed that 84% of 88 plants collected in the coastal plants were most closely aligned with the Lowland tetraploid genetic pool. Among this group, 61 coastal plants were similar to, but distinct from, all Lowland tetraploid cultivars in the reference dataset leading to the designation of a genetic sub-population called the Southern New England Lowland Tetraploids. In contrast, 67% of 34 plants collected in road verges in the inland ecoregions were most similar to two Upland octoploid cultivars; only 24% of roadside plants were Lowland tetraploid. These results suggest that cryptic, non-local genotypes exist in road verges and that gene flow from biofuels plantations could contribute to further changes in switchgrass population genetics in the Northeast.

  8. Identification and overexpression of a Knotted1-like transcription factor in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. for lignocellulosic feedstock improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegi eWuddineh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High biomass production and wide adaptation has made switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. an important candidate lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. One major limitation of this and other lignocellulosic feedstocks is the recalcitrance of complex carbohydrates to hydrolysis for conversion to biofuels. Lignin is the major contributor to recalcitrance as it limits the accessibility of cell wall carbohydrates to enzymatic breakdown into fermentable sugars. Therefore, genetic manipulation of the lignin biosynthesis pathway is one strategy to reduce recalcitrance. Here, we identified a switchgrass Knotted1 transcription factor, PvKN1, with the aim of genetically engineering switchgrass for reduced biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. Gene expression of the endogenous PvKN1 gene was observed to be highest in young inflorescences and stems. Ectopic overexpression of PvKN1 in switchgrass altered growth, especially in early developmental stages. Transgenic lines had reduced expression of most lignin biosynthetic genes accompanied by a reduction in lignin content suggesting the involvement of PvKN1 in the broad regulation of the lignin biosynthesis pathway. Moreover, the reduced expression of the Gibberellin 20-oxidase (GA20ox gene in tandem with the increased expression of Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox genes in transgenic PvKN1 lines suggest that PvKN1 may exert regulatory effects via modulation of GA signalling. Furthermore, overexpression of PvKN1 altered the expression of cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthetic genes and increased sugar release efficiency in transgenic lines. Our results demonstrated that switchgrass PvKN1 is a putative ortholog of maize KN1 that is linked to plant lignification and cell wall and development traits as a major regulatory gene. Therefore, targeted overexpression of PvKN1 in bioenergy feedstocks may provide one feasible strategy for reducing biomass recalcitrance and simultaneously improving plant growth characteristics.

  9. Ecological aspects study of replacement intercropping patterns of Soybean (Glycine max L. and Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudarz Ahmadvand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping is considered for increasing and stability of yield in per unit. In order to study the effects of soybean (Glycine max L. and millet (Panicum miliaceum L. replacement intercropping on agronomic traits, diversity of weeds and soil biological activity, an experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Agricultural Faculty, of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2014. The experiment was carried out as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The replacement intercropping series consisted of monoculture of soybean, monoculture of millet, 75% soybean+ 25% millet, 50% soybean+ 50% millet and 25% soybean+ 75% millet. The results showed that the highest seed yield of 219.8 and 171.9 gm-2 belonged to monoculture of soybean and monoculture of millet, respectively. Intercropping reduced maximum leaf area index of soybean and millet but leaf chlorophyll content of soybean and millet were increased. The highest number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant in soybean and panicle number per plant in millet were obtained in 50S:50M ratio. Mean soil respiration rate in intercropping treatments was 4 and 8 % higher than the monoculture of soybean and millet, respectively. Intercropping patterns of 50S:50M and 25S:75M were successful in reducing weed plant density and diversity in comparison with soybean monoculture. Results showed that in all intercropping treatments, land equivalent ratio was more than one. Maximum value of land equivalent ratio (2.20 was achieved in 50S:50M treatment. Soybean and millet intercropping at different levels of replacement, didn’t have actual yield loss. Calculating the aggressivity showed that millet was more dominate than soybean. The maximum relative crowding coefficient of soybean was observed in 75S:25M, however that of millet was obtained in 25S:75M and 50S:50M intercroppings indicating that millet is more competitor than soybean.

  10. Performance and nematode infection of ewe lambs on intensive rotational grazing with two different cultivars of Panicum maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R L D; Bueno, M S; Veríssimo, C J; Cunha, E A; Santos, L E; Oliveira, S M; Spósito Filha, E; Otsuk, I P

    2007-05-01

    The daily live weight gain (DLWG), faecal nematode egg counts (FEC), and packed cell volume (PCV) of Suffolk, Ile de France and Santa Inês ewe lambs were evaluated fortnightly for 56 days in the dry season (winter) and 64 days in the rainy season (summer) of 2001-2002. The animals were distributed in two similar groups, one located on Aruana and the other on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum), in rotational grazing system at the Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa city (SP), Brazil. In the dry season, 24 one-year-old ewe lambs were used, eight of each breed, and there was no difference (p > 0.05) between grasses for DLWG (100 g/day), although the Suffolk had higher values (p < 0.05) than the other breeds. In the rainy season, with 33 six-month-old ewe lambs, nine Suffolk, eight Ile de France and 16 Santa Inês, the DLWG was not affected by breed, but it was twice as great (71 g/day, p < 0.05) on Aruana as on Tanzânia grass (30 g/day). The Santa Inês ewe lambs had the lowest FEC (p < 0.05) and the highest PCV (p < 0.05), confirming their higher resistance to Haemonchus contortus, the prevalent nematode in the rainy season. It was concluded that the best performance of ewe lambs on Aruana pastures in the rainy season is probably explained by their lower nematode infection owing to the better protein content of this grass (mean contents 11.2% crude protein in Aruana grass and 8.7% in Tanzania grass, p < 0.05) which may have improved the immunological system with the consequence that the highest PCV (p < 0.05) observed in those animals.

  11. NEW STRAIN PRODUCERS OF BIOBUTANOL. III. METHODS OF INCREASED BUTANOL ACCUMULATION FROM BIOMASS OF SWITCHGRASS Panicum virgatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigunova O. O.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to enlarge accumulation of butanol from switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. biomass using strains-producers obtained from grounds and silts of Kyiv lakes. The objects of the study were strains of C. acetobutylicum ІМВ B-7407 (IFBG C6H, Clostridium acetobutylicum IFBG C6H 5М and Clostridium tyrobutyricum IFBG C4B from the "Collections of microbial strains and lines of plants for food and agricultural biotechnology" of the Public Institution "Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics" of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Gas chromatography was used to determine the alcohol concentration at the stage of solvent synthesis. To determine the effect of butanol precursors during cultivation, butyric, lactic and acetic acids were used. Optimization of processing parameters, which was based on the needs of cultures, allowed us to increase the yield by 20 and 50% for the initial and mutant strain respectively. Using synthetic precursors (such as lactic, butyric and acetic acid during cultivation increased total concentration of butanol by 1.7 times. To optimize the process, a study was carried out using acetone- butyl grains. Using of acetone-butyl grains in concentrations up to 60% does not affect the synthesis of butanol by C. acetobutylicum IFBG C6H 5M. Increasing the concentration of grains led to decrease in accumulation of butanol. Almost double increase in accumulation of the target product (butanol was achieved using two-stage fermentation and/or precursors of synthesis. It was shown the possibility of using acetone-butyl grains in fermentation. As a result the mass fraction of the waste was reduced.

  12. Interactive effects of aluminum, phosphorus and mycorrhizae on growth and nutrient uptake of Panicum virgatum L. (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslowsky, S D; Boener, R E

    1989-01-01

    The effects of Al on Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), a widespread perennial grass, were determined in relation to factors which might interact with Al in the soil. Plants were grown for 8 weeks in sand culture and were treated with 3 Al levels (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 mM), 2 P levels (0.065, 0.161 mM), 2 inoculum types (vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) inoculum or VAM-free soil inoculum) and 2 inoculum sources (a high Al forest in NY or a low Al forest in Ohio) in a factorial design. Plant growth decreased with increasing Al and increased with increasing P, but the Al effect was less at high P than low P. VAM-inoculated plants outgrew non-VAM plants, especially at low and medium Al levels. Total P and Ca uptake decreased with increasing Al concentration, especially at low P levels. VAM inoculation did not result in increased P uptake at any Al level though VAM plants took up significantly more Ca than non-VAM plants at any Al level. VAM plants had lower tissue Al concentrations and took up less Al than non-VAM plants; Al uptake increased with increasing soil Al in non-VAM plants but not in VAM plants. Plants given inoculum from the high Al site had significantly lower tissue Al than plants given the low Al site inoculum, regardless of VAM status. We conclude that the presence of a VAM infection, moderate levels of soil P, and the source of the inoculum can reduce the effects of soluble Al. We discuss potential physiological and edaphic mechanisms by which Al may be immobilized and Ca availability increased in the presence of VAM fungi and other soil microflora.

  13. Comportamiento de 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum Jacq. bajo condiciones de pastoreo en un suelo de mediana fertilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Machado

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el comportamiento de 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum en suelos de mediana fertilidad. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones y parcelas de 20 m². Las rotaciones (pastoreo racional simulado se efectuaron entre 60 y 70 días (época de seca y entre 32 y 40 días (época de lluvia. Se detectó una aceptable variabilidad entre tratamientos (70,7 %. Los indicadores más variables fueron: la disponibilidad, el porcentaje de utilización, el porcentaje de hojas y la altura de las plantas. Se aplicó un análisis de conglomerados y se formaron dos grupos: tipos gigantes (grupo 1 y tipos medianos (grupo 2. Los tratamientos del grupo 1 alcanzaron una disponibilidad media de 5,0 t MS/ha/rotación y superaron en 0,7 t MS/ha/rotación a los del grupo 2. Sin embargo, estos últimos mostraron menores síntomas de clorosis (34,0 %, fueron más tolerantes a los microorganismos patógenos (25,0 % y menos afectados por la sequía (42,0 %, y presentaron mayor vigor (3,8 como media de los tres años. Se concluye que en la variabilidad tuvieron un papel fundamental la disponibilidad, la altura, el porcentaje de hojas y el porcentaje de utilización. El resto de los indicadores fue relativamente poco variable, pero también permitió enjuiciar el comportamiento de estos materiales. Se recomiendan los tipos medianos CIH-6, SIH-810 y CIH-22 como variedades precomerciales para condiciones similares a las aquí utilizadas, e incluir el tipo gigante SIH-759 en ensayos en los que se emplee el corte o el pastoreo con mayor intensidad

  14. Etude de production et de caracterisation de biocharbons de panic erige (Panicum virgatum L.) obtenus par pyrolyse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon, Guillaume

    This research aimed at the production of biomass char under pyrolytic conditions, targeting biochar as soil amendment, while also considering its application as biocoal, either for bioenergy or subsequent upgrading. The production of biomass char was performed using two bench-scale, batch-type, fixed-bed reactors, each with an operating capacity of 1 and 25 gw.b. /batch, respectively. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been used for the tests. Production conditions studied implied temperatures of 300, 400 and 500 °C with short residence times (2.5 and 5 min). As well, the effect of using CO2 as vector gas has been compared to a common inert environment of N2. The effects of the previously mentioned parameters were correlated with some important physicochemical characteristics of biomass char. Analyses were also performed on complementary pyrolytic products (bio-oil and gas). The biomass char extraction was performed using a Soxhlet and dichloromethane was used as extracting solvent. The extracts were then characterized by GC-MS thus allowing the identification of several compounds. Specific pyrolysis conditions used at 300 °C - N2 with the 1 g/batch reactor, such as high heating rates as well as high convection conditions, presented advantegeous biomass char yields and properties, and, possible torrefaction process productivity improvement (in comparison to reported literature, such as Gilbert et al. [2009]). The char extracts as well as the bio-oils analysis (also performed using GC-MS), all generated from the 25 g/batch reactor, showed major differences among the compounds obtained from the CO2 and N2 environments, respectively. Several compounds observed in the char extracts appeared less concentrated in the CO2 environment vs N2, for the same reaction temperatures. As an example, at 400 °C, furfural was found only in char extracts from N2 environment as compared to the CO2 environment. Among all studied conditions (for both reactors), only naphthalene and

  15. Timpanismo gastrointestinal em equídeos alimentados com Panicum maximum com alto conteúdo de amido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciane M. Souza

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Timpanismo intestinal agudo em cavalos e mulas introduzidos em pastagens de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, cv. Massai e cv. Mombaça são relatados na região norte do Brasil, durante o período das chuvas. As causas são desconhecidas, porém, tem sido sugerido que estão associados a um maior armazenamento de carboidratos não fibrosos na gramínea. Este trabalho teve por objetivos realizar um levantamento epidemiológico dos surtos de cólicas ocorridos no Estado de Rondônia, assim como contribuir com o estudo da ação dos carboidratos de P. maximum na ocorrência da doença. Para isso foram realizadas visitas em 10 propriedades que apresentaram casos da enfermidade. Em duas propriedades foram introduzidos equinos no mês de março e foram coletadas amostras de pastagens para a determinação de energia digestiva, lisina, matéria seca, carboidratos solúveis em água, carboidratos solúveis em éter, carboidratos não fibrosos, fibra de detergente neutra, fibra de detergente ácido, lignina, amido, gordura e proteína bruta. Essas determinações foram realizadas, também, em amostras de pastagens de P. maximum de outras propriedades onde não estavam ocorrendo cólicas e das pastagens de Cynodon dactylon de onde provinham os equinos. Os resultados mostraram que os surtos de cólica ocorrem na época de chuva, quando as pastagens estão rebrotando com uma morbidade de 31,6%, e letalidade de 86,1%. As análises bromatológicas mostraram uma diferença significativa nas concentrações de amido (P=0,0072 do P. maximum que causou cólica (8,3 % e 9,2%, quando comparado com o P. maximum das outras propriedades (0,9% e 4,3% e com o Tifton, utilizado previamente na alimentação dos mesmos equinos (0,2% e 0,8%. Em outra fazenda a doença foi reproduzida experimentalmente em um equino, no mês de março administrando P. maximum cortado contendo 6,5% de amido. A mesma pastagem não causou cólica quando foi administrada a equinos entre os

  16. Producción y calidad del forraje diferido de Panicum coloratum L. en dos periodos de diferimiento y tres momentos de defoliación Production and quality of Panicum coloratum L. deferred forage with two deferred period and three times of defolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Steinberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas pecuarios de las áreas subtropicales de la Argentina utilizan en invierno forrajes diferidos, provenientes del crecimiento acumulado en verano de gramíneas megatérmicas o pasturas naturales. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la producción de materia seca, porcentajes de hojas, tallos, proteína bruta, fibra detergente neutra, fibra detergente ácida, cenizas y digestibilidad del diferido de Panicum coloratum cv Verde. Se evaluaron dos periodos de diferimiento: diferido total (DT, forraje acumulado desde el rebrote en primavera y diferido parcial (DP, forraje acumulado desde un corte a fines de diciembre y ambos con tres oportunidades de defoliación: temprano (mayo; intermedio (julio y tardío (agosto. DT produjo más materia seca, pero con alta proporción de tallos, mayor cantidad de fibra y menor porcentaje de proteínas y cenizas; mientras que DP presentó menos tallos y más hojas y como consecuencia mayor porcentaje de proteínas y cenizas. Se concluye que P. coloratum es un recurso adecuado para diferir, sólo si se lo utiliza con un período corto de diferido y momentos tempranos de uso, ya que presenta un nivel mínimo de proteína suficiente para satisfacer los requerimientos de los animales sin la necesidad de realizar suplementación nitrogenada y valores superiores al 55% de digestibilidad.During winter the livestock production systems in subtropical areas of Argentina use deferred forage of native pasture or warm season grasses from the cumulative growth of the summer. The aim of this study was to determine dry matter production and percentage of leaves, stems, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ash and digestibility of deferred forage of Panicum coloratum cv Verde. Two deferred periods were evaluated: total deferred (TD, forage accumulated since the spring regrowth and partial deferred (PD, forage accumulated from a cut in late December, and both with three cut dates: early (May

  17. Production of ethanol from lepthochloa fusca L. (kallar grass) and panicum maximum using cellulases from trichoderma SSP and cultures of saccharomyces carlsbergensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajoka, M.I.; Malik, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Saline sodic soils have been used for production of biomass using salt tolerant grass, kallar grass followed by lesser tolerant plants, namely, sasbania aculeata or Panicum maximum or to provide biomass throughout the year for it utilization for microbial conversion. These substrates have been utilized to produce single cell protein and cellases or hemicellulases. The enzyme titer obtained after growth of cellulomonas biazotea on kallar grass could saccharify wheat straw ad bagasse for subsequent conversion to ethanol but kallar grass itself was saccharified to lesser extent, however, enzyme titres from different fungi could saccherify the biomass produced on saline lands to monomeric sugars. In these studies, the enzyme titre from Trichoderma spp. were used for saccharification purpose. (author)

  18. Análise de repetibilidade de caracteres forrageiros de genótipos de Panicum maximum, avaliados com e sem restrição solar Repeatability analysis of forage traits of Panicum maximum genotypes evaluated under natural and attenuated solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o número de medições necessárias à predição do desempenho de cinco genótipos de Panicum maximum Jacq. Os genótipos (Gatton, Vencedor, Mombaça, Tanzânia e Tobiatã foram avaliados sob os sistemas de cultivo com e sem restrição solar, na Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária, situada em Tupanciretã - Rio Grande do Sul. No sistema de cultivo com restrição solar, os genótipos foram avaliados sob um bosque de eucalipto. Em cada uma das oito medições (cortes, foram avaliadas a matéria seca total, matéria seca de folhas, matéria seca de colmo, matéria seca folha + colmo, altura de planta e relação matéria seca folha/colmo. As estimativas dos coeficientes de repetibilidade foram obtidas por três métodos - análise da variância, componentes principais e análise estrutural. Concluiu-se que os oito cortes possibilitaram selecionar genótipos superiores em relação a todas as características, com 80% de exatidão no prognóstico de seu valor real.The objective of this study was to determine how many evaluations were necessary to predict the performance of Panicum maximum Jacq. genotypes. The genotypes Gatton, Vencedor, Mombaça, Tanzânia, and Tobiatã were evaluated under natural and attenuated solar radiation at the Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Tupanciretã, RS. Attenuated solar radiation was obtained when plants were grown in Eucalyptus woods. Genotypes in both crop systems were evaluated eight times. Total dry matter production, leaf, stem, and leaf plus stem dry matter, plant height and index of leaf and stem dry matter were recorded each evaluation time. Repeatability estimations were obtained through variance, structural, and principal component analysis. In conclusion, eight evaluations permit to select superior Panicum maximum genotypes, considering all characteristics, with 80% accuracy of the real value.

  19. Uso de efluentes da carcinicultura na irrigação de Panicum maximum cvs. Tanzânia e Mombaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Rodrigues de Miranda

    Full Text Available Resumo O trabalho objetivou avaliar as alterações químicas do solo e a produção de duas cultivares de capim Panicum maximum Jacq. (Tanzânia e Mombaça, em resposta à irrigação com o efluente da carcinicultura em águas interiores e comparar os resultados com os obtidos com a irrigação convencional, utilizando água de rio. O experimento foi realizado em uma fazenda de criação de camarão, em Russas-CE. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em um esquema fatorial 2 (cultivares de capim x 2 (tipos de água utilizada na irrigação. Em quatro cortes do capim foram avaliadas as variáveis de produção: altura, produtividade de matéria seca e porcentagem de matéria seca. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. Foram analisados, antes e após a aplicação dos tratamentos, os seguintes atributos químicos do solo: pH, condutividade elétrica do extrato saturado (CEes, porcentagem de sódio trocável (PST, matéria orgânica, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Na+. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste de t , com nível de significância de 5%. A irrigação com o efluente da carcinicultura não aumentou nem reduziu, significativamente, a produção de matéria seca das duas cultivares de Panicum maximum, em comparação com a irrigação com a água do rio Jaguaribe. Após 14 meses de cultivo, o solo irrigado com o efluente apresentou níveis significativamente maiores (p < 0,05 de Na+, CEes e PST em relação ao solo irrigado com a água do rio Jaguaribe.

  20. Efectos del forraje diferido como cobertura de invierno en el crecimiento primaveral de las gramíneas tropicales Chloris gayana y Panicum coloratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Imaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina, en un experimento en macetas a aire libre (condiciones de luz y temperatura naturales se evaluó el efecto del forraje diferido como cobertura invernal en 2 gramíneas tropicales C4 (Chloris gayana y Panicum coloratum. Plantas adultas fueron extraídas de un establecimiento ganadero, trasplantadas a macetas en un jardín experimental y después de crecer durante 111 días (2 de Febrero al 23 de Mayo sometidas a los tratamientos: (1 control [sin remoción del forraje diferido de otoño (DF]; y (2 remoción del forraje diferido de otoño (DFR a 15 cm del suelo. Se utilizaron 10 repeticiones por tratamiento y una planta por maceta (unidad experimental. Las plantas fueron cosechadas el 27 de Septiembre (después del invierno y nuevamente en Noviembre para medir la biomasa del rebrote primaveral en los estratos superior (>15 cm e inferior (<15 cm sobre el suelo, láminas, vainas y estolones. Se realizó un análisis alométrico para dilucidar la incidencia del estrés por frio y se registraron la temperatura del aire, la humedad relativa y la ocurrencia de heladas. Las plantas con forraje diferido alcanzaron una mayor biomasa (55‒80% que aquellas con remoción del forraje. Panicum coloratum mostró un ajuste significativo entre la biomasa total y la biomasa de los diferentes estratos para ambos tratamientos, mostrando buena tolerancia al estrés por frio. Por otro lado, C. gayana mostró  falta de ajuste de la biomasa y un mayor estrés por la remoción del forraje, mientras que las plantas sin remoción presentaron menor daño por frío y un mayor ajuste. La cobertura invernal del forraje diferido podría mejorar la productividad y supervivencia de estas especies forrajeras cuando son utilizadas en sistemas pastoriles templados. Estos resultados preliminares deben ser evaluados en condiciones de campo durante un mayor número de años, considerando diferentes estrategias de pastoreo. Palabras clave: Cobertura

  1. Influência do oeríodo de cultivo de Panicum maximum (cultivar Tanzânia na fitorremediação de solo contaminado com picloram Influence of Panicum maximum cultivation period on phytoremediation of soil contaminated with picloram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Carmo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tempo de cultivo de Panicum maximum (cultivar Tanzânia sobre a fitorremediação de solo contaminado com picloram. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação no período de setembro de 2006 a fevereiro de 2007. Os fatores foram compostos pela combinação entre quatro períodos de cultivo da espécie vegetal Panicum maximum (cultivar Tanzânia (0, 60, 80 e 100 dias e três doses do picloram (0, 80 e 160 g ha-1, totalizando 12 tratamentos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repetições. Como substrato utilizaram-se amostras de solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. Após o tempo estabelecido de atuação da espécie fitorremediadora, efetuou-se a semeadura das espécies bioindicadoras da presença do picloram: tomate e soja. As espécies bioindicadoras demonstraram alta sensibilidade à presença do picloram no solo, sendo inviável o cultivo dessas culturas em áreas contaminadas com esse herbicida sem a execução de algum procedimento remediador. O cultivo prévio de Tanzânia por 60 dias garantiu crescimento inicial satisfatório das plantas de soja e tomate quando a contaminação inicial não foi maior que 80 g ha-1 de picloram. Acima desse valor, a fitorremediação ocorrida proporcionou menor crescimento das plantas de soja e tomate, sendo necessário maior tempo de descontaminação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of cultivation time of Panicum maximum (cv. Tanzania on phyto-remediation of soil contaminated with picloram. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions from September 2006 to February 2007, using euthroferric Red Latosol samples as substrate for plant growth. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, with treatments in a 4 x 3 factorial scheme. The treatments comprised twelve combinations of

  2. DESEMPENHOS TÉCNICOS E ECONÔMICOS DA CONSORCIAÇÃO DE MILHO COM FORRAGEIRAS DOS GÊNEROS Panicum E Brachiaria EM SISTEMA DE INTEGRAÇÃO LAVOURA-PECUÁRIA TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF CORN INTERCROPPED WITH Panicum AND Brachiaria FORAGE IN CROP-LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alessandro Chioderoli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a produtividade de grãos e os resultados econômicos de modalidades do cultivo de milho com forrageiras dos gêneros Panicum e Brachiaria, na integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP, sob sistema plantio direto (SPD. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 2007/2008, no município de Selvíria, MS, em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por oito modalidades de cultivo do milho consorciado, simultaneamente e por ocasião da adubação nitrogenada de cobertura com os capins Tanzânia, Mombaça, Marandu e Ruziziensis, além do seu cultivo sem consórcio. A análise dos custos operacionais foi baseada nos preços de insumos e operações e a receita bruta no preço médio de venda do milho, no Estado de São Paulo. O decréscimo dos valores da relação custo/benefício e os melhores retornos econômicos, obtidos em função dos maiores índices de margem de contribuição, determinaram as modalidades de cultivo mais viáveis. Os capins Mombaça e Marandu, consorciados, simultaneamente, ao milho, reduziram a produtividade de grãos, em relação ao milho cultivado sem o consórcio. Com relação aos benefícios técnico-econômicos, visando à utilização em sistemas de ILP, o consórcio mais recomendado é o de milho com capim Tânzania, principalmente no cultivo simultâneo. No entanto, resultados técnico-econômicos a longo prazo, com diferentes preços e produtividades, devem ser avaliados

  3. Comparative Analysis of End Point Enzymatic Digests of Arabino-Xylan Isolated from Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L of Varying Maturities using LC-MSn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bowman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., SG is a perennial grass presently used for forage and being developed as a bioenergy crop for conversion of cell wall carbohydrates to biofuels. Up to 50% of the cell wall associated carbohydrates are xylan. SG was analyzed for xylan structural features at variable harvest maturities. Xylan from each of three maturities was isolated using classical alkaline extraction to yield fractions (Xyl A and B with varying compositional ratios. The Xyl B fraction was observed to decrease with plant age. Xylan samples were subsequently prepared for structure analysis by digesting with pure endo-xylanase, which preserved side-groups, or a commercial carbohydrase preparation favored for biomass conversion work. Enzymatic digestion products were successfully permethylated and analyzed by reverse-phase liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (RP-HPLC-MSn. This method is advantageous compared to prior work on plant biomass because it avoids isolation of individual arabinoxylan oligomers. The use of RP-HPLC- MSn differentiated 14 structural oligosaccharides (d.p. 3–9 from the monocomponent enzyme digestion and nine oligosaccharide structures (d.p. 3–9 from hydrolysis with a cellulase enzyme cocktail. The distribution of arabinoxylan oligomers varied depending upon the enzyme(s applied but did not vary with harvest maturity.

  4. Comparison of two organic fertilizers along with Zn and B elements on concentration, uptake of nutrients and some growth parameters in millet (Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nezhad hoseini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of two organic fertilizers along with zinc and boron elements on some growth parameters, concentration and uptake of nutrients in millet (Panicum miliaceum L. by using factorial based on randomized completely block design with three replications in Qaen region, Iran. The main treatments were municipal solid waste compost and cow manure (each at 0 and 25 t.ha-1 and sub treatments were elements of Zn (0, 50 kg.ha-1 and B (0, 10 kg.ha-1 using their respective ZnSO4 and H3BO3 salts. Results showed that treatments interaction had significant effects on total dry matter yield, number of tillers per plant and plant height of Millet. The highest total dry matter production was achieved by interaction of cow manure along with Zn and B elements. Concentrations of N, Fe, Zn, B and Cu in plant were increased significantly by treatments interaction effects compared to control. Interaction effect of organic fertilizers with B (in the absence of Zn enhanced plant B concentration significantly, whereas, interaction of organic fertilizers with Zn (in the absence of B decreased B concentration in plant. The highest plant uptake of N, P, K, Zn, and B was observed in plots with cow manure and Zn and B elements.

  5. Phytoremediation of biosolids from an end-of-life municipal lagoon using cattail (Typha latifolia L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeke, Nicholson N; Hassan, Adenike O; Zvomuya, Francis

    2017-03-04

    Land spreading of biosolids as a disposal option is expensive and can disperse pathogens and contaminants in the environment. This growth room study examined phytoremediation using switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and cattail (Typha latifolia L.) as an alternative to land spreading of biosolids. Seedlings were transplanted into pots containing 3.9 kg of biosolids (dry wt.). Aboveground biomass (AGB) was harvested either once or twice during each 90-day growth period. Switchgrass AGB yield was greater with two harvests than with one harvest during the first 90-day growth period, whereas cattail yield was not affected by harvest frequency. In the second growth period, harvesting frequency did not affect the yield of either plant species. However, repeated harvesting significantly improved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake by both plants in the first period. Phytoextraction of P was significantly greater for switchgrass (3.9% of initial biosolids P content) than for cattail (2.8%), while plant species did not have a significant effect on N phytoextraction. The trace element accumulation in the AGB of both plant species was negligible. Phytoextraction rates attained in this study suggest that phytoremediation can effectively remove P from biosolids and offers a potentially viable alternative to the disposal of biosolids on agricultural land.

  6. Effect of Removal of Woody Biomass after Clearcutting and Intercropping Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum with Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda on Rodent Diversity and Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based feedstocks have long been considered viable, potential sources for biofuels. However, concerns regarding production effects may outweigh gains like carbon savings. Additional information is needed to understand environmental effects of growing feedstocks, including effects on wildlife communities and populations. We used a randomized and replicated experimental design to examine initial effects of biofuel feedstock treatment options, including removal of woody biomass after clearcutting and intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, on rodents to 2 years post-treatment in regenerating pine plantations in North Carolina, USA. Rodent community composition did not change with switchgrass production or residual biomass removal treatments. Further, residual biomass removal had no influence on rodent population abundances. However, Peromyscus leucopus was found in the greatest abundance and had the greatest survival in treatments without switchgrass. In contrast, abundance of invasive Mus musculus was greatest in switchgrass treatments. Other native species, such as Sigmodon hispidus, were not influenced by the presence of switchgrass. Our results suggest that planting of switchgrass, but not biomass removal, had species-specific effects on rodents at least 2 years post-planting in an intensively managed southern pine system. Determining ecological mechanisms underlying our observed species associations with switchgrass will be integral for understanding long-term sustainability of biofuels production in southern pine forest.

  7. Phytoextraction of contaminated urban soils by Panicum virgatum L. enhanced with application of a plant growth regulator (BAP) and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderholt, Matthew; Vogelien, Dale L; Koether, Marina; Greipsson, Sigurdur

    2017-05-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination in soil represents a threat to human health. Phytoextraction has gained attention as a potential alternative to traditional remediation methods because of lower cost and minimal soil disruption. The North American native switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was targeted due to its ability to produce high biomass and grow across a variety of ecozones. In this study switchgrass was chemically enhanced with applications of the soil-fungicide benomyl, chelates (EDTA and citric acid), and PGR to optimize phytoextraction of Pb and zinc (Zn) from contaminated urban soils in Atlanta, GA. Exogenous application of two plant hormones was compared in multiple concentrations to determine effects on switchgrass growth: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and Gibberellic Acid (GA 3 ), and one PGR benzylaminopurine (BAP), The PGR BAP (1.0 μM) was found to generate a 48% increase in biomass compared to Control plants. Chemical application of citric acid, EDTA, benomyl, and BAP were tested separately and in combination in a pot experiment in an environmentally controlled greenhouse to determine the efficacy of phtyoextraction by switchgrass. Soil acidification by citric acid application resulted in highest level of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in plants foliage resulting in severe phytotoxic effects. Total Pb phytoextraction was significantly highest in plants treated with combined chemical application of B + C and B + C + H. Suppression of AMF activities by benomyl application significantly increased concentrations of Al and Fe in roots. Application of benomyl reduced AMF colonization but was also shown to dramatically increase levels of septa fungi infection as compared to Control plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selection and validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum using quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Gimeno

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum has received a lot of attention as a forage and bioenergy crop during the past few years. Gene expression studies are in progress to improve new traits and develop new cultivars. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR has emerged as an important technique to study gene expression analysis. For accurate and reliable results, normalization of data with reference genes is essential. In this work, we evaluate the stability of expression of genes to use as reference for qRT-PCR in the grass P. virgatum. Eleven candidate reference genes, including eEF-1α, UBQ6, ACT12, TUB6, eIF-4a, GAPDH, SAMDC, TUA6, CYP5, U2AF, and FTSH4, were validated for qRT-PCR normalization in different plant tissues and under different stress conditions. The expression stability of these genes was verified by the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. Differences were observed after comparison of the ranking of the candidate reference genes identified by both programs but eEF-1α, eIF-4a, CYP5 and U2AF are ranked as the most stable genes in the samples sets under study. Both programs discard the use of SAMDC and TUA6 for normalization. Validation of the reference genes proposed by geNorm and NormFinder were performed by normalization of transcript abundance of a group of target genes in different samples. Results show similar expression patterns when the best reference genes selected by both programs were used but differences were detected in the transcript abundance of the target genes. Based on the above research, we recommend the use of different statistical algorithms to identify the best reference genes for expression data normalization. The best genes selected in this study will help to improve the quality of gene expression data in a wide variety of samples in switchgrass.

  9. Etude comparative de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe de guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée aux feuilles et tiges de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (régime Panipo) ou à l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (régime Paneuph) chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) et le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kouakou, NGDV.; Kouba, M.; Thys, E.

    2016-01-01

    Digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (Panipo diet) or poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (Paneuph diet) in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) and in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.). A comparative study of in vivo digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (Panipo diet) or with poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L.)...

  10. Densidade e qualidade dos estratos de forragem do capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. Cv. Tanzânia-1 manejado em diferentes alturas, sob pastejo Density bulk and quality of Tanzania grass layers (Panicum maximum Jacq.cv. Tanzania-1, at different heights in grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 e 78 cm do pasto sobre a qualidade de forragem e estrutura do perfil do capim-Tanzânia, (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia – 1 (Poaceae. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore sob pastejo com carga animal variável, por meio da técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A densidade de matéria seca total (DMT aumentou com o avanço no período experimental, enquanto a densidade de matéria seca de lâminas (DML não foi influenciada pelo período e pela altura do pasto. O estrato superior da pastagem foi a porção de maior qualidade, apresentando maior DML e maior teor de PB. Os estratos inferiores apresentaram menor qualidade, devido à maior DMT e menor DML, acarretando em maiores valores de FDA e FDN e menores teores de PB. O conteúdo de minerais das lâminas foi superior aos colmos, mantendo-se inalterado com relação aos estratos da pastagem.The effect of different sward heights (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 and 78 cm on forage quality and profile structure Tanzania grass, Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania – 1 (Poaceae is provided. Nelore steers were used in grazing at variable stocking rates with put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. Total dry matter bulk densitity (TDMD increased during experimental period, while the leaf blade dry matter bulk density (LDMD was not influenced by period on by sward height. The upper layers had the best quality with higher LDMD and CP levels. Lower layers had the worst quality, due the higher TDMD and lower LDMD. This fact caused higher ADF and NDF levels and lower CP levels. Leaf blade mineral content was higher than that of stem, and remained unaltered in relation to the different layers.

  11. Valor nutritivo do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzânia-1 manejado em alturas de pastejo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.205 Nutritive value of tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 handled in different pasture heights - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.205

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas do pasto (24cm e 26cm; 43cm e 45cm; 52cm e 62cm; 73cm e 78cm e períodos de avaliação (28, 56, 84 e 112 dias em capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1 nos teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, Ca, P, K e Mg nas porções lâmina e colmo. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore (em pastejo contínuo com taxa de lotação variável pela técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com 2 repetições. O aumento na altura de manejo provocou redução dos teores de PB e aumento dos níveis de FDA e FDN nas lâminas e nos colmos. As melhores alturas de manejo, de acordo com os resultados relativos à qualidade da forragem, variaram de 40cm e 60cm.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different pasture heights (24cm and 26cm; 43cm and 45cm; 52cm and 62cm; 73cm and 78cm and sampling periods (28, 56, 84 and 112 days in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1 on content of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVMD, Ca, P, K and Mg on leaf blade and stem part. Nelore steers were used (in continuous grazing with variable stocking rates, using put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. The increments on the pasture height decreased CP content and increased ADF and NDF contents, both to the leaf blade and to the stems. The leaf blade quality was also influenced by different sampling times. The best pasture management height according to forage quality were between 40cm to 60cm.

  12. Production and bromatologic composition of grass-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq., submitted to different sources and doses of acidity corrective / Produção e composição bromatológica da forragem do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq., submetidos a diferentes fontes e doses de corretivo de acidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maximino Fernandes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried in protected (greenhouse atmosphere, in University of Engineering, UNESP of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the objective of evaluating sources (limestone and calcium silicate slag and doses (0,0 – 0,5 – 1,0 – 1,5 – 2,0 times the recommended dose of corrective in the bromatologic composition, tillering and production of dry matter of the grass mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. The lineation was completely randomized design, with four repetitions. It was evaluated the tiller number, the production of dry matter, the gross protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The corrective influenced the tillering in almost all of the countings. The limestone provided larger production of dry matter in the doses of 1,5 and 2,0 times the recommended dose. The bromatologic composition of the forage was not influenced by the corrective and doses.O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido (estufa, na Faculdade de Engenharia, UNESP de Ilha Solteira, com o objetivo de avaliar fontes (calcário e escória silicatada e doses (0,0 – 0,5 – 1,0 – 1,5 – 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada de corretivos na composição bromatológica, perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Avaliou-se o número de perfilhos, a produção de matéria seca e os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA. Os corretivos influenciaram o perfilhamento em quase todas as contagens. O calcário proporcionou maior produção de matéria seca nas doses de 1,5 e 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada. A composição bromatológica da forragem não foi influenciada pelos corretivos e doses utilizadas.

  13. Strategic control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation on beef cattle grazed in Panicum maximum grasses in a subtropical semi-arid region of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Nicolás; Signorini, Marcelo L; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to test the efficacy of strategic control methods of Rhipicephalus microplus infestation on beef cattle grazed in Panicum maximum grasses in northwestern Argentina. Also, an analysis to discern how the R. microplus population was distributed amongst cattle was also performed to determine if partial selective treatment or cull the small proportion of more heavily infested animals are feasible options to control this tick. The strategic scheme of treatments was designed to act on the small 1st generation of R. microplus in early spring and prevent in that way the appearance of the annual peak of abundance of R. microplus in summer and autumn. Animals of the group 1 were treated with ivermectin 3.15% on day 0 (25th September 2015), with fluazuron on day 32 (27th October 2015) and with fipronil on day 75 (9th December 2015). Animals of group 2 formed the control group. The overall effect of the treatments was positively significant. The number of ticks observed on the control group was significantly higher than the number of ticks observed on the treated group in all post-treatment counts (Pcattle in all counts was adjusted to the negative binomial distribution, but a temporal variation in the tick aggregation levels associated to changes in tick abundance was found. The higher the abundance of R. microplus, the lower the aggregation. It was found that the steers (15.8% of the total number of animals evaluated) belonging to the high infestation group accounted for 23.0% of the total ticks. The strategic control method evaluated during this study provides a remarkable overall effect against R. microplus because it significantly reduces the tick infestation on cattle with only three applications of acaricides in one-year period. The analyses of tick distribution amongst cattle suggest that partial selective treatment and culling do not represent feasible methods to control R. microplus infestation on cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Downregulation of the UDP-arabinomutase gene in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. results in increased cell wall lignin while reducing arabinose-glycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Duran Willis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. is a C4 perennial prairie grass and a lignocellulosic biofuels feedstock. Saccharification and biofuel yields are inhibited by the plant cell wall’s natural recalcitrance against enzymatic degradation. Plant hemicellulose polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans structurally support and crosslink other cell wall polymers. Grasses have predominately Type II cell walls that are abundant in arabinoxylan, which comprise nearly 25% of aboveground biomass. A primary component of arabinoxylan synthesis is uridine diphosphate (UDP linked to arabinofuranose (Araf. A family of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase/reversible glycosylated polypeptides (UAM/RGPs catalyze the interconversion between UDP-arabinopyranose (UDP-Arap and UDP-Araf. In switchgrass we knocked down expression of the endogenous PvUAM1 gene via RNAi to investigate its role in cell wall recalcitrance in the feedstock. PvUAM1 encodes a switchgrass homolog of UDP-arabinose mutase, which converts UDP-Arap to UDP-Araf. Each transgenic line contained between one to at least seven T-DNA insertions, resulting in some cases, a 95% reduction of native PvUAM1 transcript in stem internodes. Transgenic plants had increased pigmentation in vascular tissues at nodes, but were otherwise morphologically similar to non-transgenics. There was decreased cell wall-associated arabinose in leaves and stems by over 50%, but there was an increase in cellulose in these organs. In addition, there was a commensurate change in arabinose side chain extension. Cell wall lignin composition was altered with a concurrent increase in lignin content and transcript abundance of lignin biosynthetic genes in mature tillers. Enzymatic saccharification efficiency was unchanged in the transgenic plants relative to the control, but had increased glucose in cell walls. The increased glucose detected in stems and leaves indicates that attenuation of PvUAM1 expression might have downstream effects on starch

  15. Composição química do capim-Mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça adubado com diferentes fontes de fósforo sob pastejo = Chemical composition of Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça fertilized with different phosphorus on grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Jacobs Dias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a composição química do Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça, adubado com 140 kg ha-1 de P2O5 com diferentes fontes de fósforo, sob pastejo, no período de dezembro de 2002 a abril de 2003, com intervalo de coleta a cada 28 dias. Tratamentos: 1- termofosfato magnesiano YoorinÒ; 2-fosfato natural GafsaÒ; 3-superfosfato simples + superfosfato triplo (SS + ST; e 4-testemunha. Os teores de proteína bruta na lâmina foliar (PBf e colmo (PBc, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HCEL, lignina (LIG, extrato etéreo (EE, cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, cinzas e carboidratos não-estruturais (CNE, não foram influenciados pela adubação fosfatada. As variáveis PBc, FDNf, FDNc, LIGf, LIGc, CELf, CELc, NIDAf, EEf, EEc, Caf, Cac, Pf, Pc, CINZAc, CNEc, apresentaram efeito do período de coleta. Não ocorreu diferença nacomposição química da forragem do capim-Mombaça em função das fontes de fósforo utilizadas na adubação da pastagem. As variações qualitativas foram de baixa magnitude.This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça. Grassland was fertilized with 140 kg ha-1 of P2O5 from different phosphorus sources on grazing, in December, 2002, until April, 2003, with a collection interval of every 28 days. Treatments: 1-YoorinÒ magnesium thermophosphate; 2-GafsaÒ natural phosphate; 3-simple superphosphate + triple superphosphate (SS + TS and 4-control. Leaf (lCP and stem (sCP crude protein, acid detergent fiber nitrogen (ADFN, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose (CEL, hemicellulose (HEM, lignin (LIG, ether extract (EE, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, ash (A and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC were not influenced by phosphated fertilization. The variables sCP, lNDF, sNDF, sLIG, lLIG, sCEL, lCEL, lADFN, sEE, lEE, lCa, sCa, lP, sP, sA and s

  16. Avaliação de três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob pastejo: composição da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal Evaluation of three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. under grazing: diet composition, dry matter intake and animal weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Amarante Brâncio

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. submetidos a pastejo rotativo foram avaliados ao longo do ano, antes e após o período de pastejo, quanto à composição botânica e química da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal. Os tratamentos constituíram em: 1 cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, 2 cv. Tanzânia + 100 kg/ha de N, 3 cv. Mombaça + 50 kg/ha de N, e 4 cv. Massai + 50 kg/ha de N. As dietas selecionadas pelos animais na cv. Massai tenderam a apresentar os menores valores de digestibilidade e proteína bruta e os maiores de fibra em detergente neutro, enquanto na cv. Mombaça as dietas continham, em geral, maiores teores de sílica. Os animais selecionaram, em média, 92,4% de folhas verdes, independentemente do tratamento e da época de amostragem. Os animais consumiram semelhantes quantidades de forragem nos diversos tratamentos, apresentando, em média, consumos de 1,9; 2,8; 3,4; e 2,3 kgMS/100kgPV, respectivamente, em junho, setembro e novembro de 1998 e março de 1999. Os piores resultados quanto ao ganho de peso por animal foram verificados na cv. Massai, mas, devido a sua alta capacidade de suporte na época chuvosa, superou a cv. Mombaça e cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, em termos de ganho de peso por área. A participação de folhas, a altura do pasto, o teor de proteína bruta da dieta selecionada pelos animais e o tamanho de bocado foram os fatores que mais influenciaram positivamente o ganho de peso animal.Three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. were evaluated by measuring the botanical and chemical composition of the diet, and the dry matter intake and weight gain of the animal under rotational grazing, before and after a period of grazing. The treatments were: 1 v. Tanzânia + 50 kg N/ha, 2 v. Tanzânia + 100 kg N/ha, 3 v. Mombaça + 50 kg N/ha, and 4 v. Massai + 50 kg N/ha. Of the diets selected by the animals, v. Massai tended to show lower values for digestibility and crude protein, and higher values

  17. Cambios en la estructura, la población y la composición de 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum sometidas a pastoreo CIAT-184 Changes in the structure, population and composition of 19 Panicum maximum accessions under grazing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar los cambios y la tendencia de indicadores relacionados con la estructura, la población y la composición en 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum cuando fueron sometidas a condiciones de pastoreo simulado. Las rotaciones se hicieron cada 32-40 días en el periodo lluvioso y 60-70 días en el poco lluvioso, con intensidad de pastoreo de 80-135 UGM/ha/día (los dos primeros años y 120-160 UGM/ha/día (tercer año. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Aunque en todos los tratamientos disminuyó la relación vástagos vivos/vástagos muertos, este cociente fue superior a uno, por lo que el ritmo de sustitución de vástagos fue favorable. En el 84,2% de los tratamientos se incrementó el número de macollas con relación a el estatus inicial. El porcentaje de arvenses aumentó con las rotaciones, pero ninguno de los tratamientos alcanzó un estado de deterioro avanzado. En este indicador se destacaron los tipos gigantes CIH-13, SIH-697, CIH-3, CC-1146 y SIH-10, con valores que variaron entre 4,6 y 14,1%, así como los tipos medianos CIH-15 y Tardío pequeño, con 10 y 12,3%, respectivamente. Se concluye que el germoplasma evaluado mostró valores adecuados, en función de los indicadores relacionados con la estructura de la macolla, la población y el porcentaje de invasión de las especies arvenses, aunque se identificó un alto contraste entre los tipos gigantes y medianos y dentro de estos grupos. Se sugiere analizar el resto de los indicadores productivos y con ello determinar los tipos más sobresalientes, sobre la base de los resultados en todos los indicadores incluidos.The objective of this work was to characterize the changes and trend of indicators related to the structure, population and composition in 19 Panicum maximum accessions under simulated grazing conditions. The rotations took place every 32-40 days in the rainy season and 60-70 days in the dry season, with

  18. Descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: III. Influencia de la densidad y diversidad de la macrofauna asociada Litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: III. Influence of density and diversity of the associated macrofauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala y su relación con la densidad y la diversidad de la macrofauna asociada, se realizó este experimento en la EEPF «Indio Hatuey». Esta se determinó como la pérdida de biomasa a través del tiempo, con relación al peso inicial. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags. Se escogieron al azar cuatro bolsas a los 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 y 210 días de situadas en el pastizal. En cada fecha de recolección, a la hojarasca remanente de cada bolsa se le determinó la población de macrofauna (organismos con diámetro mayor que 2 mm mediante la separación manual, y se calculó el valor promedio de la densidad (individuos/m², así como la abundancia proporcional (% para cada taxón. Se utilizó el análisis de correlación y regresión para conocer la interrelación entre las variables y los modelos de mejor ajuste. De acuerdo con los resultados se concluye que las condiciones de humedad y temperatura que genera el árbol en este sistema, así como la calidad de su hojarasca, posibilitan la presencia de una diversa y estable fauna asociada a las bolsas, la cual influyó en el proceso de descomposición.The trial was conducted at the EEPF «Indio Hatuey» in order to determine the litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala and its relation to the density and diversity of the associated macrofauna. It was determined as biomass loss through time, with regards to initial weight. For the study of the decomposition dynamics the litter bag method was used. Four bags were randomly chosen 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 days after being placed in the pastureland. In each collection date, to the remnant litter of each bag, the macrofauna (organisms with diameter higher than 2 mm population was

  19. Descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: I. Influencia de su composición química Litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: I. Influence of their chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la descomposición de la hojarasca y su relación con la composición química de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala en un sistema silvopastoril, se realizó este experimento en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey". La descomposición de la hojarasca se determinó como la pérdida de biomasa a través del tiempo, con relación al peso inicial. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags. En cada especie se presentó un patrón diferente de descomposición de la hojarasca; la tasa promedio de descomposición de la hojarasca en leucaena fue mayor que en la guinea. En ambas especies se encontró una rápida pérdida de peso durante los primeros 30 días y después el proceso fue más lento. Este comportamiento puede estar relacionado con la composición química de los pastos, pues el porcentaje de biomasa perdida de la hojarasca de L. leucocephala presentó una mayor correlación con las concentraciones del contenido celular, la relación lignina/nitrógeno, la celulosa y el Nt. Se observó una dependencia significativa y negativa de la hojarasca de P. maximum con las concentraciones de la FND y la hemicelulosa; mientras que se relacionó de forma positiva con las de N-FND y la relación lignina/nitrógenoWith the objective of determining the litter decomposition and its relationship to the chemical composition of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala in a silvopastoral system, this trial was conducted at the EEPF «Indio Hatuey». Litter decomposition was determined as biomass loss through time, with regards to initial weight. For studying the decomposition dynamics, the method of litter bags was used. In each species a different litter decomposition pattern appeared; the average litter decomposition rate was higher in leucaena than in Guinea grass. Rapid weight loss was found in both species during the first 30 days and afterwards the process was slower

  20. Descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: II. Influencia de los factores climáticos Litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: II. Influence of climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala y su relación con algunos factores del clima, se realizó este experimento en la EEPF «Indio Hatuey». La descomposición de la hojarasca se determinó como la pérdida de biomasa a través del tiempo, con relación al peso inicial. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags; se registró diariamente el comportamiento de la temperatura media, la humedad relativa, la precipitación y los días con lluvias, en la estación metereológica situada a 1 km del área experimental. Se utilizó el análisis de correlación y regresión para conocer la interrelación entre las variables y los modelos de mejor ajuste. Se consideró, como variables independientes, los factores climáticos estudiados, y como variable dependiente el porcentaje de biomasa perdida. De forma general, los resultados demostraron que el comportamiento de la descomposición de la hojarasca, tanto en la guinea como en la leucaena, estuvo relacionado con los factores climáticos que prevalecieron durante el período experimental y, por tanto, es posible explicar este proceso en ambos pastizales a partir de la acción conjunta de la temperatura, la humedad relativa y la precipitación.With the objective of determining the litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala and its relationship to some climate factors, this trial was conducted at the EEPF «Indio Hatuey». Litter decomposition was determined as the loss of biomass through time, with regards to initial weight. For studying the decomposition dynamics the method of litter bags was used; the performance of mean temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and days with rain, was daily recorded at the meteorological station located 1 km away from the experimental area. . The

  1. Efecto residual de dos rocas fosfóricas puras y parcialmente aciduladas, comparadas con SFT, sobre la aprovechabilidad del P por Panicum maximum L., en un oxisol de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo M. Doris

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Panicum maximum L. se sembró, en condiciones de invernadero, en un Oxisol de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia, 18 meses después de la aplicación de las fuentes (rocas fosfóricas de Pesca - Colombia y Sechura - Perú crudas y aciduladas al 20 % con H3 P04, en dosis de 25, 50 Y 100 ppm de P. La roca fosfórica Sechura cruda y parcialmente acidulada junto con SFT, tuvieron el mejor efecto residual sobre el rendimiento y captación de P y mantuvieron los más altos niveles de P asimilable en el suelo al final del ensayo. Con las dosis superiores se obtuvo un nivel más alto de P asimilable en el suelo y mayor absorción de P por la planta.In order to study the residual effect of the Pesca (Colombia and Sechura (Perú phosphate rocks, both crude and acidulated in 20 % by H3P04, comparatively with SFT, Panicum rnaximum L. was planted under glasshouse conditions, in an Oxisol from the Eastern plains of Colombia, 18 months after sources application, with rates of 25. 50 and 100 ppm of P. Crude and partially acidulated Sechura phosphate rock, together with TSP, had the best residual effect on yield and P absorption and had the highest available P levels in the soil at the end of the trial. The highest available P level in the soil and P uptake by the plant was obtained with higher P rates.

  2. Atributos químicos e físicos de um argissolo cultivado com Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. IPR-86 Milênio, sob lotação rotacionada e adubado com nitrogênio Chemical and physical attributes in an anfisol cultivated with Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. IPR-86 Milênio, under rotational stocking and fertilized with nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sarmento

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação dos atributos químicos e físicos do solo é necessária em estudos que exploram intensivamente os sistemas de pastejo. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar as variações nos atributos físicos e químicos de um Argissolo cultivado com capim-milênio, sob pastejo, no intervalo compreendido entre outubro/2001 e maio/2002, no quinto ano de aplicação sucessiva das seguintes doses de N: 0, 150, 300 e 450 kg ha-1. Após os cinco anos de aplicação de 450 kg ha-1 de N, o teor de MO aumentou em 5 g dm-3, o que resultou em aumento da CTC. No período de outubro/2001 a maio/2002 houve diminuição nos valores de pH e de V com a aplicação de N. A densidade do solo variou pouco com a adubação nitrogenada; a percentagem de microporos aumentou e a de macroporos diminuiu na camada de 0-5 cm com o aumento das doses de N, mas a porosidade total permaneceu constante; e a resistência à penetração, quando o solo apresentava 90 g kg-1 de água, não foi afetada pelas doses de N e não foi restritiva ao crescimento das plantas.It is necessary to evaluate the soil physical and chemical attributes in studies that explore grazing systems intensively. In this work the variation in physical and chemical attributes of an Alfissol cultivated with Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. IPR-86 Milênio under grazing were evaluated from October 2001 to May 2002, in the fifth year of consecutive N application at rates of 0, 150, 300, and 450 kg ha-1. After five successive applications of 450 kg ha-1 N, the OM content increased 5 g dm-3, which resulted in CEC increase. From October 2001 to May 2002 the pH and basis saturation degree decreased with the increasing N rates. The range in soil density with N fertilization was small; the micropore percentage increased and the macropore percentage decreased in the 0-5 cm layer with increasing N rates, but the total porosity remained constant; and the soil penetration resistance at 90 g ha-1 of water was not

  3. Composión trófica de la comunidad insectil en dos agroecosistemas ganaderos con Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de wit y Panicum maximum Jacq. Trophic composition of the insect community in two livestock production agroecosystems with Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de wit and Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Alonso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de definir los principales grupos funcionales en la comunidad de insectos presentes en dos áreas compuestas por la asociación de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Perú y Panicum maximum cv. Likoni (un sistema silvopastoril y un campo de semilla, respectivamente, ambas localizadas en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", se muestrearon cada 15 días, durante tres años, las hojas, las inflorescencias y las legumbres de la leguminosa y el follaje de la gramínea, para colectarlos. La clasificación de los grupos se realizó a partir de: la identificación de cada especie insectil, la información que ofrece la literatura acerca de su hábito principal de alimentación y las observaciones realizadas en el campo. Con estos elementos se definieron los fitófagos y los benéficos, y como subgrupos de estos últimos: los depredadores, los parasitoides, los polinizadores, los descomponedores de la materia orgánica, los coprófagos y los micófagos. En total se identificaron 113 especies de insectos, 63 con hábitos fitófagos y los 50 restantes benéficos. En el estrato arbóreo se encontraron 88 especies, 49 fitófagas (56% y 39 benéficas (44%; y 103 en el herbáceo, 59 insectos fitófagos (57% y 44 benéficos (43%; 78 especies coincidieron en los dos estratos. Se destaca que en ambos predominaron los depredadores y los parasitoides de los órdenes Hymenoptera, Coleoptera y Diptera, tales como: Cycloneda sanguinea limbifer Casey, Coccinella maculata (De Geer, Chilocorus cacti Linnaeus, Conura sp., Pimpla marginella (Brullé y Rogas sp. Se concluye que la estructura y función de la comunidad de insectos mostró un número relativamente mayor de insectos fitófagos con respecto a los benéficos; sin embargo, fue importante el predominio de los enemigos naturales, responsables de la actividad reguladora de las poblaciones de fitófagos, a las que mantienen por debajo del umbral de daño económico en el cultivo de la

  4. Respostas morfológicas do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 irrigado à intensidade de desfolha sob lotação rotacionada Morphological responses of irrigated Tanzaniagrass (Panicum Maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 to grazing intensity under rotational stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Carneiro Leão de Mello

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando quantificar respostas morfológicas de dosséis de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 sob três intensidades de pastejo, lotação rotacionada e irrigação, foi conduzido um experimento em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram três intensidades de pastejo, representados pelas quantidades de massa seca verde residual pós-pastejo (T1=1000; T2=2500 e T3=4000 kg MSV/ha. Durante oito ciclos de pastejo (rebrotas de 33 dias após três dias de pastejo em cada ciclo, foram realizadas avaliações de altura média do dossel, índice de área foliar (IAF, interceptação luminosa (IL e ângulos foliares médios, em quatro dias dentro do período de rebrota (1, 11, 22 e 33 dias após a saída dos animais. A análise de correlações parciais indicou correlações entre altura e IL, bem como entre IAF e IL. Com o progresso da estação de pastejo, da primavera-verão para outono-inverno, houve reduções nos valores de IAF médio. Valores médios de IAF crítico (95% IL de 3,6 (T1, 4,0 (T2 e 4,5 (T3, foram alcançados por volta do 22º dia das rebrotas. A maior intensidade de pastejo (menor resíduo alterou a estrutura da pastagem no que diz respeito à arquitetura do dossel, evidenciada pela redução nos ângulos foliares médios (folhas mais horizontais ao longo das estações, com plantas passando a interceptar mais luz por unidade de área foliar. Os IAFs críticos medidos sugerem a necessidade de períodos de descanso menores que 33 dias em pastos de capim-Tanzânia, quando submetido a pastejo intensivo sob lotação rotacionada e irrigação.The objective of this research was to quantify morphological responses of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 under three grazing intensities in an irrigated, rotationally stocked setting. Treatments consisted of three grazing intensities represented by three post-graze forage masses (T1=1,000; T

  5. Impacts of Panicum maximum Jacq. invasion and its manual weeding on the wood plant regeneration in the understory of a restoration site Efeitos da invasão por Panicum maximum Jacq. e do seu controle manual sobre a regeneração de plantas lenhosas no sub-bosque de um reflorestamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ribeiro de Andrade

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Responsible for considerable annual losses of biodiversity in natural ecosystems, invasive alien species cause important conservation problems, leading native species to local extinction. This study examined the relationship among the coverage of Guinea-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq., its manual weeding and the woody plant diversity of a restoration site. The site is a reforestation created using native species but due to spacing and species composition grass still dominates its understory more than 17 years after. Preliminary results showed that it is a barrier to the establishment of native species. In this study, we established 20 plots of 5m x 5m divided into two treatments, control and removal of P. maximum, to investigate the impact of manual weeding on the understory in a period of 90 days. Grass cover and canopy openness were also recorded. The grass cover had negative correlation with the abundance of plants, with the species richness and abundance of tree species. Canopy openness had a negative influence on the species richness, on abundance and richness of tree species, but not showed correlation with P. maximum. After grass removal, both abundance of seedling and species richness had no significant differences, so the manual weeding did not cause a negative impact in short time on the regeneration of the understory due to accidental native plant uprooting. However, a positive impact is expected only after a longer period of observation, after successive removals of invasive herbaceous and increased chance of colonization of the area by regenerating seedlings.Responsáveis por perdas anuais consideráveis na biodiversidade dos ecossistemas naturais, as espécies exóticas invasoras causam sérios problemas à conservação, levando muitas espécies à extinção local. Este estudo analisou o efeito da cobertura de capim-colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq. no sub-bosque de um reflorestamento dominado há mais de 17 anos por essa gram

  6. INTERAÇÃO DO CALCÁRIO E DO SILICATO DE CÁLCIO E MAGNÉSIO COM GESSO AGRÍCOLA NO DESENVOLVIMENTO RADICULAR DE Panicum maximum JACQ. CV. CAPIM MOMBAÇA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Faúla Aguiar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar o efeito das correções do solo efetuadas com calcário e silicato de cálcio e magnésio no desenvolvimento radicular de Panicum maximum Jacq. Cultivar capim Mombaça. Foi adotado delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5, sendo estudado em quatro blocos o efeito de duas fontes de corretivo e cinco métodos de aplicação, além da testemunha. Nas análises onde foi observada significância estatística, realizou-se teste de Tukey a 5,0% de probabilidade. A unidade experimental é constituída por colunas de tubos de PVC de 15 centímetros de diâmetro por 60 cm de altura, dividida em seis anéis de 10 centímetros, totalizando 44 unidades. Depois de secas em estufa com circulação forçada de ar a 65 ºC até atingir peso constante as raízes foram pesadas em balança de precisão. O T2 resultou em maior incremento de massa seca. O crescimento radicular na faixa de 0 a 20 cm se mostrou superior às faixas de 20 a 40 e 40 a 60 cm.

  7. TERMINAÇÃO DE BOVINOS BRANGUS INTEIROS E CASTRADOS COM CANA-DEAÇÚCAR (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM OU SILAGEM DE CAPIM MOMBAÇA (PANICUM MAXIMUM CV MOMBAÇA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Diniz dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake, weight gain, feed:gain ratio, carcass quality and economic viability of using fresh sugar cane and mombaça grass silage in Brangus castrated and intact males on termination. We used 140 Brangus cattle, with an average of 21 months and 355 kg live weight, identified and randomly assigned to treatments: T1, 37 intac males and T2, 37 castrated animals receiving both fresh sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum crushed;T3, 33 intact males and T4, 33 castrated animals, both fed mombaça grass silage (Panicum maximum cv mombaça. For economic evaluation, it was estimated the production costs of bulky coming from the farm costs, expenses concentrates, diesel, hand labor, equipment maintenance and control of 46 Colloquium Agrariae, v. 10, n.1, Jan-Jun. 2014, p.45-54. DOI: 10.5747/ca.2014.v10.n1.a099 parasites were also considered. The final weight of the entire animal was higher (P <0.05 than castrated animals. And feed conversion was higher in castrated animals, indicating that the bulls were more efficient in converting food into weight gain. The higher net revenue observed in intact males (mombaça is justified by the greater weight gain and lower diet costs. Animals that received diet with mombaça grass silage had greater economic feasibility of that received diet with sugar cane.

  8. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on survival and growth of perennial grasses in lignite overburden in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Call, C.A.; Davies, F.T.

    1988-12-01

    Seedlings of sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), and kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) were inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi (Glomus fasciculatum and Gigaspora margarita) in a containerized system and transplanted into lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas, U.S.A. After three growing seasons without cultural inputs, plants inoculated with VAM fungi had greater survival percentages, basal diameters, and above-ground biomass than noninoculated plants. Inoculated plants had higher levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in above-ground biomass than noninoculated plants. Root colonization percentages of inoculated plants remained fairly stable while noninoculated plants showed low levels of colonization over the 3-year study period. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae enhanced the survival and growth of the 3 grass species by making effective use of limited resources in the lignite overburden. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Ação do flúor dissolvido em chuva simulada sobre a estrutura foliar de Panicum maximum jacq. (colonião e Chloris gayana kunth. (capim-rhodes - Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Alba Lucilvânia Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Panicum maximum e Chloris gayana foram submetidas à chuvas simuladas com soluções de fluoreto de potássio (15mg ml-1 com objetivo de identificar as injúrias causadas pelo flúor (F-, como poluente atmosférico, na estrutura da lâmina foliar e fornecer subsídios para a seleção de características diagnósticas a serem utilizadas na bioindicação. Os principais sintomas foram clorose e necrose, principalmente no ápice e margens das lâminas. Nos cortes transversais, quatro tipos de alterações causadas pelo flúor são relacionadas: redução do número, tamanho e arranjo dos cloroplastos; necrose dos tecidos principalmente nas margens das folhas; erosões na superfície da folha e hipertrofia das células. Em C. gayana, no entanto, não foram observadas as alterações nos cloroplastos e os outros sintomas foram bem mais discretos que em P. maximum. A ocorrência de compostos fenólicos foi registrada pela coloração com fucsina em todas as regiões da lâmina onde foram observadas lesões. Ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura foi observado o achatamento e formação de concavidades nas paredes externas das células. Este experimento confirma a maior sensibilidade de P. maximum ao flúor e revela algumas características anatômicas de C. gayana que, entre outros fatores, podem estar contribuindo para a maior resistência desta espécie a este poluente.

  10. Etude comparative de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe de guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq. associée aux feuilles et tiges de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (régime Panipo ou à l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (régime Paneuph chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. et le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouakou, NGDV.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (Panipo diet or poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Paneuph diet in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. and in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. A comparative study of in vivo digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (Panipo diet or with poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Paneuph diet was conducted involving 16 rabbits and 16 weaned guinea pigs fed ad libitum. Paneuph was significantly better ingested (P0.05 for guinea pigs. Poison milk was better ingested than the leaves and stems of sweet potato (P0.05. The ADC of DM, OM and MAT of Paneuph exceeded 80% and were higher than those of Panipo in rabbits and guinea pigs (P<0.05. Based on the results obtained, the effects of the distribution of the Guinea grass associated with the poison milk during rabbits growing have to be further studied before recommending this new diet to farmers in areas where poison milk and Guinea grass are present and rabbit breeding enough developed.

  11. Fatores limitantes ao crescimento do capim-Tanzânia em um sistema agrossilvipastoril com eucalipto, na região dos Cerrados de Minas Gerais Factors limiting the growth of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia-1 in an agrosilvopastoral system with eucalypt, in the Cerrados of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um estudo em um sistema agrossilvipastoril, constituído por Eucalyptus urophylla e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia-1, para verificar a hipótese de que existiam outros fatores, além da baixa disponibilidade de luz, interferindo no crescimento normal da gramínea, quatro anos após sua introdução no sistema. O estudo consistiu de um ensaio de adubação NPK a campo, adotando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos no arranjo fatorial 2³, com duas doses de nitrogênio (0 e 100 kg/ha de N, fósforo (0 e 70 kg/ha de P2O5 e potássio (0 e 100 kg/ha de K2O. A gramínea não respondeu ao P nem ao K, embora os teores originais de P e K disponíveis no solo fossem baixos. A adubação nitrogenada dobrou a taxa de acumulação de matéria seca do sub-bosque, mostrando que o crescimento da gramínea estava sendo restringido pela baixa disponibilidade de N no solo. A elevada resposta à adubação nitrogenada mostrou que o sombreamento não era o único fator limitando a produtividade do sub-bosque, e, também, que as plantas estabelecidas do capim-tanzânia não estavam sendo afetadas negativa e significativamente por substâncias alelopáticas produzidas pelo eucalipto.A study was conducted in an agrosilvopastoral system, constituted by Eucalyptus urophylla and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia-1, to verify the hypothesis that there were other factors, besides the low light availability, affecting the normal growth of the grass, four years after its introduction in the system. A NPK fertilization field trial was carry out, using the randomized block design, with the treatments in the 2³ factorial outline, with two doses of nitrogen (0 and 100 kg/ha of N, phosphorus (0 and 70 kg/ha of P2O5 and potassium (0 and 100 kg/ha of K2O. The grass did not respond to P nor K fertilization, in spite of the low original P and K availability in the soil. However, with the application of nitrogen the rate of herbage

  12. Productivity and agronomics characteristics of Panicum maximum and Brachiária brizanta cultured in two of soil class of Tocantins state (Oxisol and Entsoil, conditioned in different water supply. Desenvolvimento e produtividade dos capins mombaça e marandu cultivadas em dois solos típicos do Tocantins com diferentes regimes hídricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Alves de Almeida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive and agronomic parameters of Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça and the Brachiária brizanta cv. Marandú grown in Oxisoil, and Entsoil under different water schemes. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in EMVZ - School of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia / Federal University of Tocantins, campus of Araguaína, TO. The completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement (2x4x2, which consisted of two forage species, four levels of water (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the capacity of field, two types of soils, with four repetitions, making 62 experimental units. The production of dry mass of Forage (MSF was linear behavior increasing in line with the increase in the percentage of moisture, for the two cultivars in two production cycles, the two types of soil, being that the clay soil in both cultivars returned relative superiority in comparison with the sandy soil. The mean width of leaves are not differentiated (P>0.05 in three major schemes in two cultivars. The same is observed for size of leaves to Mombaça grass, and for the two major Marandú. There was no (P> 0.05 for comparing stem diameter of the largest schemes. In the measures of time it was observed that plants were higher humidity in two largest (P<0.05. To the greatest number of tillers were higher humidity and is differentiated (P <0.05, while the Mombaça had many in first round. The biggest tillering in both genders occurs in water schemes not stress, and positively influence the characteristics productive, as well as in agronomic stressful when compared to schemes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os parâmetros produtivos e agronômicos do Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça e do Brachiária brizanta cv. Marandú cultivados em Argissolo Vermelho eutroférrico, e Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico sob diferentes regimes hídricos. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na EMVZ – Escola de Medicina Veterin

  13. Grass and forb species for revegetation of mixed soil-lignite overburden in East Central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skousen, J.G.; Call, C.A. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Sciences)

    Ten grasses and seven forbs were seeded into mixed soil-lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas and monitored for establishment and growth over a 3-year period without fertilization. Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and kleingrass (P. coloratum) developed monotypic stands with sufficent density, aerial cover, and aboveground biomass to stabilize the mixed soil-lignite overburden surface by the end of the first growing season. Plant mortality eliminated buffelgrass and green sprangletop stands by the end of the third growing season. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) developed a satisfactory stand by the end of the third growing season, while Oldworld bluestem (Bothriochloa X Dicanthium), yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) established at a slower rate. Cover and biomass measurements from an adjacent, unfertilized stand of Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) were compared with those of seeded grasses throughout the study. Partidge pea (Cassia fasciculata) established rapidly and had the greatest cover and biomass of all seeded forbs by the end of the first growing season. Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis), and western indigo (Indigofera miniata) developed adequate stands for surface stabilization by the end of the third growing season, while faseanil indigo (Indigofera suffruticosa), virgata lespedeza (Lespedeza virgata), and awnless bushsunflower (Simsia calva) showed slower establishment. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Influence of growth stage on fermentative characteristics of Panicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p4324129

    Official Methods of Analysis (15th ed.) ... Forage management from a nutritionist perspective. ... Edwards, R.A., Greenhalgh, J.F.D. & Morgan, C.A., 2002. Animal Nutrition. 6th ed. Pearson ... Statistical Analysis Systems User's Guide Version 8.2.

  15. Anti-nutrient components of guinea grass ( Panicum maximum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... A true measure of forage quality is animal ... The anti-nutritional contents of a pasture could be ... nutrient factors in P. maximum; (2) assess the effect of nitrogen ..... 3. http://www.clemson.edu/Fairfield/local/news/quality.

  16. An evaluation of Panicum maximum cv. Gatton: 3. The partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    quantify the partial digestion of organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in sheep .... number of publications have indicated that stage of maturity, as well as level of intake, could have an effect on digestion in the .... large proportion of N in mature pasture is associated with cell walls. This may ...

  17. Molecular markers linked to apomixis in Panicum maximum Jacq.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... The objective of this work was to identify molecular markers linked to apomixis in ... Four RAPD markers linked to apomixis were identified and mapped in this .... Data analysis. The amplification of the potential markers was analyzed as binary, with 1 for presence and 0 for absence of the marker. The binary.

  18. Assessment of the phytoremediation potential of Panicum maximum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obvious signs of phyto-toxicity however appeared in plants exposed to 120 ppm Pb2+ and Cd2+ at day twenty-three, suggesting that P. maximum may be a moderate metal accumulator. Keywords: phytoremediation, heavy metals, uptake, tissues, accumulator. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(19), 1979-1984 ...

  19. Glycaemic response of proso millet-based (Panicum miliaceum) products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Matthew B; Ferenc, Agota; Smolkova, Katarina; Lazier, Alexander; Tucker, Amy; Seetharaman, Koushik; Wright, Amanda; Duizer, Lisa M; Ramdath, D Dan

    2017-11-01

    The glycaemic response of millet foods and the effect of processing are not known. Therefore, decorticated proso millet was used to produce four types of common food products (biscuits, couscous, porridge and an extruded snack). Postprandial blood glucose response of these products (all containing 50 g of total starch) was compared to the same foods produced with refined corn, in a crossover human study with 12 healthy male participants (age 26.3 ± 3.8 yr; BMI 23.3 ± 2.8 kg/m 2 ). Capillary blood samples were collected and glycaemic response was determined; differences were assessed using repeat measures ANOVA. Overall, the mean (±SEM) incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (mmol min/l) of the proso millet products was different from the corn products, but individual products (couscous = 66.7 ± 11.6, biscuit = 82.6 ± 13.7, extrudate = 198.7 ± 20.9, porridge = 40.1 ± 5.8) were not significantly lower (couscous = 43.5 ± 5.8, biscuit = 102.0 ± 10.3, extrudate = 198.7 ± 20.9, porridge = 52.2 ± 8.1) (p > .05). Glycaemic response of the products was not dependent on the grain type, but rather product matrix.

  20. Damages caused by Bipolaris maydis in Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia Dano causado por Bipolaris maydis em Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Franzener

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the damage caused by Bipolaris maydis in the quantity and quality of the Tanzania grass production. Tanzania grass plants were cultivated in pots of PVC tubes (50 cm of height x 15 cm of diameter containing a mixture of soil and sand (3:1. The plants were inoculated with spore pathogen suspension containing 102, 104 and 106 conidia/mL to obtain different levels of disease. Severity and number of tillers were evaluated weekly. After four weeks, it were evaluated the weight of the fresh matter of leaves (FM, percentage of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The disease reduced significantly the plant tillering and FM after the second evaluation (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o dano causado por Bipolaris maydis (helmintosporiose na quantidade e qualidade da produção do capim Tanzânia. Plantas de capim Tanzânia foram cultivadas em vasos de tubos de PVC (50 cm de altura x 15 cm de diâmetro contendo mistura solo/areia (3:1. As plantas foram inoculadas com suspensões de esporos do patógeno com diferentes concentrações (102, 104 e 106 conídios/mL, visando obter gradiente de severidade de manchas foliares. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais da severidade e do número de perfilhos. Após quatro semanas avaliou-se o peso da matéria fresca de folhas (MF, porcentagem de matéria seca (PMS, de proteína bruta (PB, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA. A doença reduziu significativamente o perfilhamento e MF a partir da segunda avaliação (P < 0,05. Não houve correlação significativa entre as variáveis PMS, FDA e área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. No entanto, houve correlação positiva (P < 0,01 e negativa (P < 0 ,05 entre PB e FDN, respectivamente, com a AACPD, como possível resultado da atividade do patógeno. Estes resultados indicam que B. maydis inibe o desenvolvimento do capim Tanzânia e promove alteração na qualidade da forragem.

  1. PRODUTIVIDADE DE CAPIM-MOMBAÇA (Panicum maximum, COM DIFERENTES DOSES DE BIOFERTILIZANTE / MOMBAÇA GRASS PRODUCTIVITY (Panicum maximum, WITH DIFFERENT DOSES OF BIOFERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simonetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo verificar a influência da aplicação do dejeto de bovino leiteiro tratados em biodigestores anaeróbios, na forma de biofertilizante, sobre a produtividade da capim Mombaça, em condições de sequeiro.  O trabalho foi conduzido no Instituto de Biotecnologia – IBIOTEC, pertencente à UNIARA, Araraquara – SP. Para obtenção do biofertilizante, foi feita a diluição dos dejetos em água e armazenado em um biodigestor modelo indiano de fibra de vidro com capacidade útil de 1000 L, instalado no referido instituto. As fertilizações foram feitas a lanço após cada rebaixamento das parcelas. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições, com diferentes doses do biofertilizante, sendo: 0; 50m³; 100m³ e 200m³/ha-1.  As variáveis avaliadas foram: altura, produção por hectare (matéria seca e matéria verde, e qualidade bromatológica. Foram observados que os tratamentos que receberam a maior dosagem de biofertilizante, apresentaram maiores valores para produtividade Matéria Seca, Matéria Verde e teor de proteína. Conclui-se que a aplicação de biofertilizante é benéfico ao sistema de pastagem, porém suas doses devem ser estudadas e a sua resposta na produção pode obtidas a longo prazo.

  2. Accuracy of Genomic Prediction in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. Improved by Accounting for Linkage Disequilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume P. Ramstein

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass is a relatively high-yielding and environmentally sustainable biomass crop, but further genetic gains in biomass yield must be achieved to make it an economically viable bioenergy feedstock. Genomic selection (GS is an attractive technology to generate rapid genetic gains in switchgrass, and meet the goals of a substantial displacement of petroleum use with biofuels in the near future. In this study, we empirically assessed prediction procedures for genomic selection in two different populations, consisting of 137 and 110 half-sib families of switchgrass, tested in two locations in the United States for three agronomic traits: dry matter yield, plant height, and heading date. Marker data were produced for the families’ parents by exome capture sequencing, generating up to 141,030 polymorphic markers with available genomic-location and annotation information. We evaluated prediction procedures that varied not only by learning schemes and prediction models, but also by the way the data were preprocessed to account for redundancy in marker information. More complex genomic prediction procedures were generally not significantly more accurate than the simplest procedure, likely due to limited population sizes. Nevertheless, a highly significant gain in prediction accuracy was achieved by transforming the marker data through a marker correlation matrix. Our results suggest that marker-data transformations and, more generally, the account of linkage disequilibrium among markers, offer valuable opportunities for improving prediction procedures in GS. Some of the achieved prediction accuracies should motivate implementation of GS in switchgrass breeding programs.

  3. Croissance pré-sevrage des cobayes nourris au Panicum maximum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de ce travail est donc d'améliorer l'alimentation de ces animaux à travers la diversification des sources de protéine de la ration. Pour cet essai, 48 femelles ont préalablement été mises en croisement avec 8 mâles pendant une période de 31 jours selon un dispositif factoriel de quatre lots comptant 12 femelles ...

  4. An evaluation of Panicum maximum cv. Gatton: 2. The influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional value of the pasture in summer was high enough to meet at least the maintenance requirements of sheep in all stages of maturity evaluated. The nutritional value of the young and medium mature autumn pasture was also high enough to meet at least the maintenance requirements, but at the mature stage ...

  5. Dry matter yield and Carbon partitioning in the aboveground part of switchgrass ( panicum virgatum l.) germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkutė, B.; Lemežien ė, N.; Cesevičienė, J.; Liaudanskienė, I., E-mail: brone@lzi.lt [Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr. (Lithuania)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon (C) accumulated in biomass can be converted into usable forms of energy like methane, bioethanol or solid fuel. Understanding the partitioning of aboveground biomass and C plays an important role in optimizing its pre-treatment technologies. Our objectives were to determine dry matter yield (DMY) and C partitioning in switch grass germplasm. Plants were sampled at heading (HS) and seed filling (SFS) stages. The biomass of the SFS-sampled plants was separated into leaves (blades+sheaths), stems, and panicles. C content was determined by dry combustion. C yield per plant (CY) at HS ranged from 25.9 to 171 g (37.3 g on average for plants in the first harvest year, and 147 for those in the second harvest year), at SFS CY varied within a range of 79.8 ‒ 295g and averaged 119 and 252g depending on the year of growth. DMY was a weighted factor for such results. At SFS, DMY of stems accounted on average for 46.3%, leaves for 40.5%, and panicles for 13.2% of the aboveground biomass of whole plant with respective C concentrations of 462, 439 and 459 g kg -1 DM. (author)

  6. An evaluation of biomass yield stability of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, N.; Piscioneri, I.; Pignatelli, V.

    2003-01-01

    The present work deals with evaluation of the adaptation and biomass production of various switchgrass cultivars (upland and lowland type) in Southern Italy. A field trial was established in 1998 with 15 switchgrass varieties in ENEA Trisaia (Matera). The experiment was conducted for four years (1998-2001). During each growing period, a series of measurements were taken. At the end of each growing season, a final harvest was made in order to estimate the fresh and dry matter yields of the different varieties. The mean dry matter yield was recorded at a maximum (12.36 t/ha) in the third year, and it fluctuated from 5.63 (9005439) to 26.08 (SL 93-3) t/ha. The crop yields tend to stabilize from the fourth year of its cultivation. In fact, the yield recorded for this year was reduced to 10.27 t/ha, averaged over all the varieties

  7. Development of non-lodging mutants through gamma irradiation in little millet (Panicum sumatrense Roth.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirmalakumari, A.; Muthiah, A.R.; Senthil, N.; Souframanien, J.

    2009-01-01

    The little millet is widely cultivated as a millet crop across India, China, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Western Burma. Being the first crop to be harvested in the season, it produces the much needed food grain among the tribals and is the staple food for millions in many parts of the world. It is resilient and can adjust to diverse growing environments differing in soil, rainfall and weather. The grain is a good source of nutrients. Variability in a population decides the scope for selection particularly when it is controlled more by genetic factors rather than by environment. The grain yield of millet and macromutants for high productive tillering, ear head length, compactness, bold grain and non lodging of little millet can be improved through gamma rays. The experimental materials consisted of M6 mutants of CO 3 and CO (samai) 4 varieties irradiated with 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 Gray of gamma rays from 60 Co, source at BARC, Mumbai and conducted at Millet Breeding Station, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India. From M6 generation finally six best non- lodging mutants were selected and subjected to multilocation trials for studying their stability. (author)

  8. Genome-size Variation in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum: Flow Cytometry and Cytology Reveal Rampant Aneuploidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise E. Costich

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass ( L., a native perennial dominant of the prairies of North America, has been targeted as a model herbaceous species for biofeedstock development. A flow-cytometric survey of a core set of 11 primarily upland polyploid switchgrass accessions indicated that there was considerable variation in genome size within each accession, particularly at the octoploid (2 = 8 = 72 chromosome ploidy level. Highly variable chromosome counts in mitotic cell preparations indicated that aneuploidy was more common in octoploids (86.3% than tetraploids (23.2%. Furthermore, the incidence of hyper- versus hypoaneuploidy is equivalent in tetraploids. This is clearly not the case in octoploids, where close to 90% of the aneuploid counts are lower than the euploid number. Cytogenetic investigation using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH revealed an unexpected degree of variation in chromosome structure underlying the apparent genomic instability of this species. These results indicate that rapid advances in the breeding of polyploid biofuel feedstocks, based on the molecular-genetic dissection of biomass characteristics and yield, will be predicated on the continual improvement of our understanding of the cytogenetics of these species.

  9. MicroRNA expression analysis in the cellulosic biofuel crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum under abiotic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiling Sun

    Full Text Available Switchgrass has increasingly been recognized as a dedicated biofuel crop for its broad adaptation to marginal lands and high biomass. However, little is known about the basic biology and the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression in switchgrass, particularly under stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of salt and drought stress on switchgrass germination, growth and the expression of small regulatory RNAs. The results indicate that salt stress had a gradual but significant negative effect on switchgrass growth and development. The germination rate was significantly decreased from 82% for control to 36% under 1% NaCl treatment. However, drought stress had little effect on the germination rate but had a significant effect on the growth of switchgrass under the severest salinity stress. Both salt and drought stresses altered the expression pattern of miRNAs in a dose-dependent manner. However, each miRNA responded to drought stress in a different pattern. Salt and drought stress changed the expression level of miRNAs mainly from 0.9-fold up-regulation to 0.7-fold down-regulation. miRNAs were less sensitive to drought treatment than salinity treatment, as evidenced by the narrow fold change in expression levels. Although the range of change in expression level of miRNAs was similar under salt and drought stress, no miRNAs displayed significant change in expression level under all tested salt conditions. Two miRNAs, miR156 and miR162, showed significantly change in expression level under high drought stress. This suggests that miR156 and miR162 may attribute to the adaption of switchgrass to drought stress and are good candidates for improving switchgrass as a biofuel crop by transgenic technology.

  10. Phenotypic Responses of Twenty Diverse Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L. Accessions to Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Habiyaremye

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, little research has been conducted on the phenotypic responses of proso millet to drought and deficit irrigation treatments in the dryland wheat-based cropping systems of the Palouse bioregion of the U.S. The objectives of this study were to evaluate critical agronomic traits of proso millet, including emergence, plant height, days to heading, days to maturity, and grain yield, with and without supplemental irrigation. Twenty diverse proso millet accessions, originating from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Morocco, the former Soviet Union, Turkey, and the United States, were grown in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments under organic conditions in Pullman, WA, from 2012 to 2014. Irrigation was shown to significantly improve emergence and increase plant height at stem extension and to hasten ripening of all the varieties, whereas heading date was not affected by irrigation in two of the three years tested. Irrigation resulted in higher mean seed yield across all varieties, with ‘GR 665’ and ‘Earlybird’ performing best under irrigation. Seed yield was highest in ‘GR 658’ and ‘Minsum’ in the non-irrigated treatment, suggesting the importance of identification and utilization of varieties adapted to low rainfall conditions. The highest yielding varieties in irrigated systems are unlikely be the highest yielding in dryland systems. Our results suggest that millet has potential as a regionally novel crop for inclusion in traditional dryland cropping rotations in the Palouse ecosystem, thereby contributing to increased cropping system diversity.

  11. Genomic Characterization of Interspecific Hybrids and an Admixture Population Derived from Panicum amarum × P. virgatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Heffelfinger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass ( L. and its relatives are regarded as top bioenergy crop candidates; however, one critical barrier is the introduction of useful genetic diversity and the development of new cultivars and hybrids. Combining genomes from related cultivars and species provides an opportunity to introduce new traits. In switchgrass, a breeding advantage would be achieved by combining the genomes of intervarietal ecotypes or interspecific hybrids. The recovery of wide crosses, however, is often tedious and may involve complicated embryo rescue and numerous backcrosses. Here, we demonstrate a straightforward approach to wide crosses involving the use of a selectable transgene for recovery of interspecific [ cv. Alamo × Ell var or Atlantic Coastal Panicgrass (ACP] F hybrids followed by backcrossing to generate a nontransgenic admixture population. A nontransgenic herbicide-sensitive (HbS admixture population of 83 FBC progeny was analyzed by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS to characterize local ancestry, parental contribution, and patterns of recombination. These results demonstrate a widely applicable breeding strategy that makes use of transgenic selectable resistance to identify and recover true hybrids.

  12. Development of In Vitro Systems for Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) - Final Report for 1992 to 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, B.V.

    2003-01-16

    Our project began on July 1, 1992, with the objective of developing systems that could be used in biotechnological approaches to switchgrass improvement. Within six months after initiation of the project, we had worked out protocols in which plants could be regenerated from callus cultures through both organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Documentation for both modes of regeneration was provided in our progress reports and in publications. One thousand regenerated plants were established in the field during the first year. We found that Alamo (lowland type) was much more amenable to in vitro culture, and plants could be regenerated much more easily than from Cave-in-Rock (upland type). During the first three years of the project, we studied the influence of genotype, culture medium components, explant type, etc., on regeneration. As mentioned, we found that the lowland cultivars Alamo and Kanlow were much easier to regenerate than upland cultivars, such as Trailblazer, Blackwell, and Cave-in-Rock. For callus induction, we initially used mature caryopses, young leaf tissue, and portions of seedlings. We were successful in inducing callus and regenerating plants from all explants. Two other systems developed during the 4th to 6th year period of the project included multiple shoot formation initiated from germinated seedlings and regenerable suspension cultures. The latter were initiated from embryogenic calluses produced from in vitro developed inflorescences. An important factor for producing multiple shoots was the presence of thidiazuron in the medium. The shoots could be easily rooted and numerous plantlets produced. The last 3 to 4 years of the project focused on anther and microspore culture experiments to produce haploid plants and on genetic transformation. Although thousands of putative haploid plants were produced from a few anthers, they were very weak and difficult to keep alive. Chromosome counts revealed the gametic number in cells where it was possible to count chromosomes. The isolated microspore culture experiments were not successful.

  13. An evaluation of Panicum maximum cv. Gatton: 2. The influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Saliva was removed through a ..... Solubility of the protein of tropical pasture species and the rate of digestion in the rumen. Anim. .... utilization of metabolizable energy and apparent absorption of amino acids in sheep given spring- and.

  14. Mycorrhizal symbiosis induces plant carbon reallocation differently in C-3 and C-4 Panicum grasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáčová, Veronika; Slavíková, Renata; Zemková, L.; Konvalinková, Tereza; Procházková, V.; Šťovíček, V.; Hršelová, Hana; Beskid, Olena; Hujslová, Martina; Gryndlerová, Hana; Gryndler, M.; Püschel, David; Jansa, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 425, 1-2 (2018), s. 441-456 ISSN 0032-079X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11224; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-19191S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : C-13 labelling * Carbon (C) allocation * Mycorrhizal symbiosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.052, year: 2016

  15. Effects of Nursery Pro-Conditioning on Panicum hemitomon and Sagittaria lancifolia Used for Wetland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.R. Pezeshki; P.H. Anderson; R.D. DeLaune

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine nursery protocols for production of planting stocks used in wetland mitigation projects. Two commercial soil mixtures were tested along with waterlogging, fertilization, and combination treatments. Two marsh species, Punicum hemitomon and Sagittaria lancifolia, were subjected to a two-phase study. During Phase I, watering and...

  16. Genetic diversity among proso millet (Panicum miliaceum biotypes assessed by AFLP technique Diversidade genética entre biótipos de proso millet (Panicum miliaceum revelada pela técnica de AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Karam

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP technique was used to access genetic diversity between three domestic and nine wild proso millet biotypes from the United States and Canada. Eight primer combinations detected 39 polymorphic DNA fragments, with the genetic distance estimates among biotypes ranging from 0.02 to 0.04. Colorado-Weld County black seeded and Wyoming-Platte County were the most distinct biotypes according to the dissimilarity level. A UPGMA cluster analysis revealed two distinct groups of proso millet without any geographic association. Six weed biotypes exhibiting some characters of cultivated plants were grouped together with domesticated biotypes of proso millet while the three typical wild phenotypes were clearly clustered into another group according to AFLP markers.A técnica de AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism foi empregada para acessar a diversidade genética entre três biótipos domesticados e nove biótipos selvagens de proso millet dos Estados Unidos e do Canadá. Oito combinações de primers detectaram 39 fragmentos polimórficos de DNA, e a estimativa da distância genética entre os biótipos variou de 0,02 a 0,04. Colorado-Weld County de sementes pretas e Wyoming-Platte County foram os biótipos mais distintos de acordo com o índice de dissimilaridade. A análise de cluster por UPGMA revelou dois grupos distintos de proso millet mas sem nenhuma relação geográfica. Seis biótipos selvagens que exibiam algumas características de plantas cultivadas foram agrupados juntamente com os biótipos domesticados de proso millet, enquanto os três fenótipos tipicamente selvagens formaram outro grupo distinto por marcadores AFLP.

  17. Evaluation of the grass-tanzania ("Panicum maximum" using multivariate analyses Avaliação do capim-tanzânia ("Panicum maximum" por meio de métodos de análise multivariada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Mauro Santos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted with objective of evaluating the tanzania grass, using mult-trait procedures: discriminant function analysis and principal components analysis. The variables were: dry matter of leaf (DML, dry matter of the plant (DMP, nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, magnesium (Mg, calcium (Ca and potassium (K in the aerial part and in the root of the grass, during the rain period. The plants were fertilized with four doses of N as bovine manure (0, 60, 120, 180 kg/ha. Main components analysis was capable to reduce the 15 original variables to 6 principal components, which the most important variables were calcium at root, potassium at leaf, potassium at plant, magnesium at leaf, phosphorous at leaf and phosphorous at root. The discriminant analysis had difficulties in classifying the fertilizer dose, especially related to the levels 60, 120 e 180 kg/ha.Foi realizado um experimento com objetivo de avaliar o capim-tanzânia, por meio da técnica de análise multivariada: análise discriminante e análise de componentes principais. As variáveis avaliadas foram: matéria seca foliar (MSF, matéria seca da planta (MSP, nitrogênio (N, fósforo (P, magnésio (Mg e cálcio (Ca na parte aérea e na raiz, da gramínea, realizados no período das chuvas (primavera/verão. As plantas foram adubadas com quatro doses de N na forma de chorume bovino (0, 60, 120, 180 kg/ha. A análise de componentes principais foi capaz de reduzir o número de variáveis originais de 15 para seis componentes principais, sendo que as variáveis mais importantes foram cálcio na raiz (CaR, potássio na folha (KF, potássio na planta (KP, magnésio na folha (MgF, fósforo na folha (PF e fósforo na raiz (PR. A análise discriminante encontrou dificuldades em classificar quanto à dose de adubo, principalmente em relação às doses 60, 120 e 180 kg/ha.

  18. Autotetraploidia e número cromossómico em uma cultivar de Panicum maximum Jacq. (Gramineae / Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Creuci Maria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento citológico e em especial o nível de ploidia de uma cultivar de P. maximum, denomi­nada Tanzânia, que, na realidade, é um ecótipo selvagem de origem africana. Foi empregada a metodologia convencional para estudos meióticos. As inflorescências foram fixadas em álcool acético 3:1 por 24 horas, transferidas para álcool a 70% e conservadas sob refrigeração. A técnica de esmaga­mento foi usada no preparo das lâminas. O corante foi o carmim propiônico a 1%. Foi considerado um mínimo de 200 células por planta. De forma geral, anormalidades meióticas ocorreram em 20% das células mães de pólen analisadas. Em todas as plantas avaliadas, o número de cromossomos observado nas diacineses foi 36. Entre 109 diacineses onde se realizou a contagem do número de cromossomos e se verificou os tipos de associações cromossômicas, 99 apresentaram multivalentes, com predomínio de tetravalentes. Tal ocorrência indica autotetraploidia, onde 2n=4x=36.

    Palavras-chave: associações cromossômicas multivalentes, autotetraplóide, cv. Tanzânia, número cromossômico.

  19. Repeatability, number of harvests, and phenotypic stability of dry matter yield and quality traits of Panicum maximum jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte Fernandes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of superior forage genotypes is based on agronomic traits assayed in repeated measures. The questions are how repeatable the performance of individual genotypes is and how many harvests are needed to select the best genotypes. The objectives were to estimate repeatability coefficients of dry matter yield (DMY and forage quality, their phenotypic stability and the number of harvests needed for an accurate selection. Two randomized complete block design experiments data with 24 genotypes each, undergoing 12 and 16 harvests, over a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively, were used. The DMY repeatability estimates ranged from 0.42 to 0.55, suggesting a low heritability. The mean numbers of repeated measures were 5 and 7 harvests for 0.80 and 0.85 accuracy, respectively. The inclusion of the first two harvests negatively affects the estimates. Repeatability for quality traits ranged from 0.30 to 0.69, indicating low to moderate heritability.

  20. FORMULASI PANGAN DARURAT BERBENTUK FOOD BARS BERBASIS TEPUNG MILLET PUTIH (Panicum milliaceum L. DAN TEPUNG KACANG MERAH (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Baskara Katri Anandito

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain a formula emergency food in the form food bars made from white millet flour and red bean flour. Foodbars made with Intermediate Moisture Food (IMF technology with wet dyeing technique. This study used completely randomized design (CRD, which consists of a single factor, namely the variation formula white millet flour and red bean flour. The results showed that the formula food bars with the highest level of consumer acceptance in the composition of 15 g of white millet flour, red bean flour 10 g, 2 g sugar, 10 g margarine, milk full cream 13 g, 6.043 g and the addition of water. In 100 g of food bars contained water, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and caloric value a respectively of 16.45%, 1.45%, 10.99%, 35.39%, 42.26%, 0 , 81 and 233.80 kcallbar. Keywords: Emergency food, food bars, red bean flour, white millet flour   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh formula pangan darurat berbentuk food bars berbahan dasar tepung millet putih dan tepung kacang merah. Food bars dibuat dengan teknologi Intermediate Moisture Food (IMF dengan teknik pencelupan basah. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL yang terdiri dari satu faktor yaitu variasi formula tepung millet putih dan tepung kacang merah (15:10; 12,5:12,5; 10:15. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa formula food bars dengan tingkat penerimaan konsumen tertinggi pada komposisi tepung millet putih 15 g, tepung kacang merah 10 g, gula halus 2 g, margarine 10 g, susu full cream 13 g, dan penambahan air 6,043 g. Dalam 100 g food bars terkandung air, abu, protein, lemak, karbohidrat nilai a  dan kalori berturut-turut sebesar 16,45%,1,45%, 10,99%, 35,39%, 42,26%, 0,81 dan 233,80 kkallbar. Kata kunci: Food bars, pangan darurat, tepung kacang merah, tepung millet putih

  1. Functional Characterization of NAC and MYB Transcription Factors Involved in Regulation of Biomass Production in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqin Zhong

    Full Text Available Switchgrass is a promising biofuel feedstock due to its high biomass production and low agronomic input requirements. Because the bulk of switchgrass biomass used for biofuel production is lignocellulosic secondary walls, studies on secondary wall biosynthesis and its transcriptional regulation are imperative for designing strategies for genetic improvement of biomass production in switchgrass. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of a group of switchgrass transcription factors, including several NACs (PvSWNs and a MYB (PvMYB46A, for their involvement in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis. PvSWNs and PvMYB46A were found to be highly expressed in stems and their expression was closely associated with sclerenchyma cells. Overexpression of PvSWNs and PvMYB46A in Arabidopsis was shown to result in activation of the biosynthetic genes for cellulose, xylan and lignin and ectopic deposition of secondary walls in normally parenchymatous cells. Transactivation and complementation studies demonstrated that PvSWNs were able to activate the SNBE-driven GUS reporter gene and effectively rescue the secondary wall defects in the Arabidopsis snd1 nst1 double mutant, indicating that they are functional orthologs of Arabidopsis SWNs. Furthermore, we showed that PvMYB46A could activate the SMRE-driven GUS reporter gene and complement the Arabidopsis myb46 myb83 double mutant, suggesting that it is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis MYB46/MYB83. Together, these results indicate that PvSWNs and PvMYB46A are transcriptional switches involved in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis, which provides molecular tools for genetic manipulation of biomass production in switchgrass.

  2. Radiosensibility curve with 60 Co in guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) cv. 'K-249'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajonchere, G.; Mesa, A.R.; Prieto, M.; Sánchez-Quiroz, E.

    1995-01-01

    In order to select the adequate radiosensibility criterion and useful dosis were studied the effects of gamma radiation on the embryogenic callus of guinea cv. K-249. The application dosages were 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400 Gy and the measures evaluated were: increase of fresh mass of the callus in fresh medium, number of shoots, plantlets and total by callus and by gram of callus in regeneration medium. It was determined that the curves shaped with the number of shoots, plantlets and total by callus and by gram of callus were more radiosensible than that shoped with increase of fresh mass of the callus; as criterion of radiosensibility in this cultivar the total number of shoots and plantlets from gram of callus was selected for it's simplicity and veracity as much as in the evaluation and in the results. The useful dosis that determined one GR 10, 20, 50 and 70 percent were 16, 20, 29 and 160 Gy respectively. Albino shoots were also observed whose values were randomizely showed and it was observed albinism in 0 dosis. (author) [es

  3. A Survey of Viral Diseases of Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Geun Min

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout year 2015 to 2016, 101 proso millet and 200 sorghum samples were collected from five provinces in South Korea. The samples were subjected to paired-end RNA sequencing and further analyzed by RT-PCR. The results indicated that Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV was detected from sorghum collected in Gyeongsang province. The other four viruses, including RBSDV, Rice stripe virus (RSV, Barley virus G (BVG, and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV, were detected from proso millet. Among four viruses, both RSV and RBSDV were identified high frequency from proso millet collected from Gyeongsang province. Otherwise, BVG was nearly equally identified from five provinces, suggesting that the virus was supposedly widespread nationwide. RBSDV was first identified from both proso millet and sorghum in South Korea. The other virus annotated CYDV identified proso millet was shown to have relatively low identities compared to CYDV previously reported, suggesting that the virus might be new member of Polerovirus.

  4. Perfil alimentario y plan de pastoreo para la producción lechera con pasturas Panicum maximum Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez Delgado, Jimny Yoel

    2017-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal Se condujo un experimento con el objetivo de diseñar perfiles alimentarios de vacas doble propósito al pastoreo en pasturas de PanicummaximumJacq., asociado con árboles nativos de Acacia macracanthaen la Unidad Agropecuaria San Antonio, provincia de Jaén, región Cajamarca. La toma de datos y colección de muestras se realizaron en las épocas seca, inicio de lluvias y lluviosa. Se instalaron 14 excluid...

  5. Effect of drought stress on leaf soluble sugar content, leaf rolling index and relative water content of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad javad seghatol eslami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available With respect to water shortage in arid and semi- arid regions, the study about drought stress effects on crop plants and selection of resistance cultivars, are among the most important goals in the agricultural researches. In order to examine drought stress effects on millet, an experiment was conducted in Birjand and Sarbisheh, simultaneously. In this experiment, five irrigation treatments (well-watered, drought stress in vegetative stage, in ear emergence stage, in seed filling stage and in vegetative and seed filling stage and five proso millet genotypes (Native, K-C-M.2, K-C-M.4, K-C-M.6 and K-C-M.9 were compared in a split plot design along with three replications. Drought stress increased grain protein content, leaf rolling index and soluble sugars concentration and decreased seed germination and leaf RWC. Although seed protein content and germination percentage of genotypes were not significantly different, there were some differences among leaf rolling index, RWC and soluble sugar content of these genotypes. The results of this study indicated that leaf sugar content, RWC and leaf rolling index can not be considered as the only parameters for selection of high yield genotypes. Therefore, it is recommended that some other factors should also be used apart from the above mentioned ones.

  6. Formulation of Emergency Food in Biscuit-Form Made From Proso Millet Flour (Panicum miliaceum) and Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) -Tempeh Flour Koya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandito, R. B. K.; Kurniawan, S. R.; Nurhartadi, E.; Siswanti

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is a natural disaster-prone country. Food availability appears as the post-disaster main problem. Emergency food is an effort to overcome it. An ideal emergency food is expected to have a complete nutritional composition. Fulfilling macronutrient needs, proso millet flour and snakehead fish-tempeh flour koya were being used in this research. The objective of this research was to determine the formulation of emergency food in biscuit form made from proso millet flour and snakehead fish-tempeh flour koya based on its sensory, chemical and physical properties. This research was using a completely randomized design with one factor affecting. The variations of proso millet flour and snakehead fish-tempeh flour koya composition were 100:0 ; 80:20 ; 60:40 ; and 40:60. All treatments were carried out sensory evaluation using hedonic test, proximate analysis, calories analysis using bomb calorimetry methods. and physical analysis using texture profile analyzer. The compensatory model was used to determine the best formula based on all parameters. The result indicated that the best biscuit formula had compositions of proso millet flour 80% and snakehead fish-tempeh flour koya 20%. It had a brownish color, not-strong-fishy aroma, a strong-enough bitter aftertaste and crunchy texture. Chemical analysis showed that its moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate and total calories content were 1,146%; 4,827%; 12,536%; 26,325%; 56,312% and 5,033 kcal/gram, respectively. The physical analysis shows that its hardness and fracturability values were 8,037 N and 2,403 N, respectively.

  7. Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Pearl Millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and Red Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tavassoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Center of Zabol University during 2007 cropping season. The experiment was split plot, based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main factors consisted of unfertilized (control (F1, recommended fertilizer (F2, recommended manure (F3, half of recommended manure + half of recommended fertilizer (F4 and sub factors were cropping of millet (I1, 75% millet + 25% bean (I2, 50% millet + 50% bean(I3, 25% millet + 75% bean (I4 and sole crop of bean (I5. Results showed that were for these tow species the highest grain and dry matter yield and harvest index (HI obtained from half of recommended manure + half of recommended fertilizer treatment. However, fertilizer treatments did not have significant effect on 1000-seeds weight. Highest land equivalence ratio (LER for grain and dry matter yield was achieved from half of recommended manure + half of recommended fertilizer treatment. The highest crude protein (CP, P and K content in each of the forage crops obtained from recommended fertilizer treatment. Interrace culture different ratios treatments, for millet the highest grain and dry matter yield and P and K content achieved from sole cropping. While highest harvest index (HI, 1000-seeds weight and CP content in millet forage obtained from their intercroppings. Highest bean values for all traits in achieved from its sole cropping. Furthermore, highest LER for dry matter and grain obtained from 25% millet + 75% bean treatment.

  8. FITODEPURACIÓN DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DOMESTICAS CON POACEAS: Brachiaria mutica, Pennisetum purpureum y Panicum maximunEN EL MUNICIPIO DE POPAYÁN, CAUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANI HERNÁN PALTA-PRADO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El asentamiento Brisas de San Isidro del Municipio de Popayán no presenta sistema de colección de aguas servidas, las cuales son vertidas directamente sobre la Quebrada Lame, ocasionando contaminación por la carga orgánica y detergentes provenientes del uso doméstico. El objetivo fue evaluar diferentes especies de gramíneas, buscando una alternativa de manejo de las aguas residuales domésticas con plantas útiles en la alimentación animal. Para tal fin se establecieron humedales artificiales bajo un diseño de muestreo temporal y un arreglo factorial de bloques al azar. Se tomaron las muestras de agua residual (pH, oxígeno disuelto (OD, concentración de CO2, demanda biológica oxigeno (DBO, demanda química oxigeno (DQO, conductividad, amonio (NH4+, nitratos (NO3-, fosfatos (PO4 y nitritos (NO2- y Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigeno (DBO5 cada quince días durante seis meses. El análisis estadístico, se realizó por medio de una ANOVA comparando los tratamientos expuestos y una prueba posthoc de Tuckey. El análisis de varianza, mostro diferencias estadísticas significativas para los parámetros oxígeno disuelto (OD, demanda química oxigeno (DQO, amonio (NH4+, nitratos (NO3-, nitritos (NO2- y coliformes totales; evidenciando que los mejores tratamientos fueron B. mutica y P. maximun

  9. Model optimization of cadmium and accumulation in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.): potential use for ecological phytoremediation in Cd-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanzhen; Gu, Muyu; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Yafang; Cui, Jian; Gao, Wei; Gui, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Soil pollution with heavy metals is an increasingly serious threat to the environment, food security, and human health. Therefore, it is urgent to develop economic and highly efficient soil restoration technology for environmental improvement; phytoremediation is an option that is safe, has low cost, and is environmentally friendly. However, in selecting hyperaccumulators or tolerant plants, theories and operation technologies for optimal restoration should be satisfied. In this study, the switchgrass growth response and performance of phytoextraction under the coupling effect of Cd and pH were investigated by evaluating seed germination, seedling growth, and the Cd content in the plant to evaluate the potential use of switchgrass as a phytoremediation plant in cadmium contaminated soil. This study conducted three sets of independent experiments with five levels of Cd concentrations, including two orthogonal matrix designs of combining Cd with pH values. The results showed that switchgrass was germinated well under all treatments (Cd concentration of 0-500 μM), but the seedling growth was significantly affected by Cd and pH, as shown by multivariate regression analyses. Hormesis was found during the growth of switchgrass plants exposed to low Cd concentrations under hydroponic conditions, and switchgrass plants were capable of developing with a Cd concentration of 100-175 μM and pH of 4.1-5.9. Mild acidic conditions can enhance the ability of Cd to accumulate in switchgrass. Switchgrass was moderately tolerant to Cd and may be used as a phytoremediation plant for Cd-contaminated soils in the future. Our results also suggest that hormetic effects should be taken into consideration in the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils. We discuss the physiological and biochemical mechanisms contributing to the effective application of the plant for the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  10. Índices morfogênicos e de crescimento durante o estabelecimento e a rebrotação do capim-Mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq. Morphogenic traits and growth indices during the establishment and regrowth of Mombaçagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Miranda Gomide

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar as características morfogênicas e os índices de crescimento do capim-Mombaça, um ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação. Estudou-se o desenvolvimento das plantas em três crescimentos: o crescimento seminal de estabelecimento (C1, o da brotação após corte ao 16º dia (C2 e 37º dia (C3 do crescimento de estabelecimento. As variáveis estimadas foram: índices de crescimento [taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR, taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL e razão de área foliar (RAF], e os índices morfogênicos [taxa de aparecimento foliar (TApF, taxa de alongamento foliar (TAlF, taxa de expansão da área foliar e taxa de senescência foliar]. Colheitas foram feitas ao longo do desenvolvimento das plantas em cada crescimento considerado: 13, 20, 27, 42, 55, 69 e 83 dias após emergência (C1; 0, 3, 6, 10, 17, 24, 38, 52 e 66 dias após o corte aos 16 dias (C2 e 0, 1, 3, 7, 21, 35, 49, 63 e 77 dias após o corte aos 37 dias (C3. Foram observadas três repetições (vasos, segundo delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Altos valores de TAL, RAF e TCR foram observados no início do crescimento seminal (C1 das plantas, caindo assintoticamente com o avanço da idade. O corte aos 37 dias de idade comprometeu o crescimento das plantas expresso em seus valores de TApF, a TAlF e a taxa de expansão da área foliar, RAF, TAL e TCR, sendo observados valores negativos para estes dois últimos índices, nos primeiros dias de brotação. A baixa demanda respiratória e a alocação de fotoassimilados para o crescimento foliar garantiram às plantas cortadas aos 16 dias, balanço positivo de carbono, possibilitando sua rápida recuperação.A trial was carried out in green-house to estimate morphogenic traits and growth indices of Mombaçagrass development. Three growths were considered: the seminal, establishment growth (G1 and the regrowths following a clipping taken on the 16th (G2 and 37th (G3 days of the seminal growth. The variables assessed were the growth indices: relative growth rate (RGR, net assimilation rate (NAR, leaf area ratio (LAR, and the rates of leaf appearance, elongation, expansion and senescence. Accordingly, harvests were taken at the ages of: 13, 20, 27, 42, 55, 69 and 83 day of the seminal growth (G1; 0, 3, 6, 10, 17, 24, 38, 52 and 66 day of the 2nd regrowth (G2 and 0, 1, 3, 7, 21, 35, 49, 63 and 77 day of the 3rd growth (G3. There were three replications (pots per treatment in a completely randomized design. Figures for NAR, LAR and RGR were high during early seminal growth but declined assynthotically as plant aged. Initial values for these indices were higher in the seminal growth as compared to the 2 regrowths. Cutting taken on the 37th day of the seminal growth hindered the initial growth of the plants regarding leaf appearance and elongation rates, LAR, NAR and RGR. The latter two indices which had negative values during early regrowth, were recovered by the 16th regrowth day.

  11. Duração do período de descanso e crescimento do dossel de Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sob lotação intermitente Duration of rest period and canopy growth of Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça under intermittent stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno José Duarte Cândido

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento do dossel do capim-Mombaça foi analisado sob lotação intermitente com três períodos de descanso (PD, tratamentos definidos em função do tempo necessário para a expansão de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 novas folhas por perfilho e período de pastejo de seis dias. A área experimental foi dividida em cinco ou seis piquetes por tratamento. Utilizaram-se cinco novilhos mestiços (holandês x zebu por tratamento, como animais de prova, além de outros, como animais de equilíbrio, que foram adicionados, quando necessário, para garantir índice de área foliar (IAF residual de 2,0, ao final do 6(0 dia de cada período de pastejo. O estudo constou de duas fases de crescimento: 1 após roçada de uniformização, no início da estação de pastejo e 2 após alguns ciclos de pastejo, sob efeito dos três PDs. Os piquetes receberam adubação em cobertura de N, P2O5 e K2O, na dose de 50; 12,5 e 50 kg/ha, no início dos crescimentos 1 e 2. A intervalo médio de seis dias, durante 45 dias, estimaram-se a intercepção da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (RFA, o IAF e a massa seca de forragem verde (MSFV. Aos dados de MSFV e de área foliar foram ajustados polinômios de segundo grau em função da idade, a partir dos quais foram estimados os valores instantâneos de biomassa e IAF e, a partir destes, as taxas de crescimento relativo (TCR e de assimilação líquida (TAL e a razão de área foliar (RAF, para cada idade. A intercepção da RFA pelo dossel evoluiu assintoticamente, alcançando valores máximos entre 95 e 98%, enquanto os valores de IAF e MSFV experimentaram incrementos ainda na faixa de estabilidade da intercepção da RFA. Os valores de TCR, TAL e RAF exibiram evolução assintótica decrescente. A grande proporção de colmo do dossel, ao final do PD mais longo, favoreceu a TCR e a TAL.The canopy growth of Mombaçagrass was assessed under intermittent stocking with three rest periods, characterized by the time required for the expansion of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 new leaf blades per tiller, after grazing periods of six days. The experimental area was divided into five or six paddocks per treatment. Five crossbreed (Holstein x Zebu steers were randomly assigned to each treatment. Extra steers were also used to achieve residual leaf area index of about 2.0, by the end of each grazing period. Two Growth phases were considered: 1 after standardization cut at the beginning of the growing season, and 2 after some grazing cycles had taken place, under the effects of the experimental rest periods. The paddocks received broadcast fertilization of N, P2O5 and K2O (50, 12.5 and 50 kg/ha in the beginning of the growth phases 1 and 2. Photo synthetically active radiation (PAR interception, leaf area index (LAI and green forage dry mass (GFDM were assessed over 45 days of regrowth, at six day intervals. Second order polynomials were adjusted to GFDM and LAI data, as a function of canopy ages. From these equations, instantaneous values of GFDM and LAI were estimated, from which it was derived the instantaneous values of relative growth rate (RGR and net assimilation rate (NAR, respectively for each canopy age. PAR interception by the canopy increased in an asymptotic manner, reaching critical values of 95 - 98%, while LAI and GFDM values increased in the stability range of PAR interception. The growth indices RGR, NAR and LAR showed decreasing asymptotic evolution. The great proportion of stem in end of the longest rest period favored the decrease in RGR and NAR values.

  12. Características Morfogênicas e Acúmulo de Forragem do Capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia em Dois Resíduos Forrageiros Pós-Pastejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Rodrigo Amorim

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Centro Nacional de Gado de Corte da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa Gado de Corte. Foram avaliadas as características morfogênicas de folhas e perfilhos, acúmulo de matéria seca verde e índices de crescimento do capim-tanzânia em dois resíduos forrageiros pós-pastejo (Resíduo alto -- RA 3,6 t de MS/ha e Resíduo baixo -- RB 2,3 t de MS/ha, até os 35 dias após o pastejo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados completos com os tratamentos no esquema de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. Para a dinâmica de perfilhamento houve diferença entre resíduos somente no aparecimento de novos perfilhos basilares. A taxa de aparecimento de novos perfilhos, tanto basilares quanto aéreos, decresceu linearmente com os dias de rebrotação após o pastejo. As taxas de alongamento e senescência de folhas não diferiram entre resíduos e tipos de perfilho. Em contrapartida, a duração de alongamento foliar foi menor no resíduo baixo e no perfilho novo, porém produzindo folhas com menor comprimento final. Houve interação entre resíduo e tipo de perfilho para a taxa de aparecimento de folhas, com maiores valores para o resíduo baixo no perfilho novo e remanescente. O acúmulo de matéria seca verde não diferiu entre resíduos, sendo, em média, 61,4 e 47,9 kg/ha.dia, nos resíduos baixo e alto, respectivamente. A taxa de crescimento relativo e o índice de área foliar não apresentaram diferenças entre resíduos forrageiros, porém apresentaram comportamento inverso em função dos dias após o pastejo.

  13. Degradabilidad ruminal in vitro de ensilajes de pasto saboya (Panicum maximum jacq. con diferentes niveles de inclusión de cáscara de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis sims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Barrera-Álvarez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar la composición y degradabilidad ruminal in vitro de la materia seca, materia orgánica y materia inorgánica de los ensilajes de pasto saboya con los tratamientos T1: Pasto saboya 90%+cáscara de maracuyá 10%; T2: Pasto saboya 80%+cáscara de maracuyá 20%; T3: Pasto saboya 70%+cáscara de maracuyá 30% y T4: Pasto saboya 60%+cáscara de maracuyá 40%. Se utilizó el método de microensilaje (silos PVC de 3 kg de capacidad provistos de una válvula bunsen y mecanismo de extracción de efluentes y la técnica de degradación in vitro con el sistema de incubación DAISY II, empleando el líquido ruminal de bovinos brahman de 500±25 kg de peso promedio. Se aplicó un Diseño Completamente al Azar con seis repeticiones. El nivel de inclusión de maracuyá mejoró el contenido de nutrientes en el ensilaje, incrementando la materia orgánica, la proteína bruta y la grasa bruta y disminuyendo las fracciones de fibra. La degradabilidad de la materia seca, materia orgánica y materia inorgánica fue superior (p

  14. Productivity of seed agrocenosis of common millet (Panicum miliaceum L. at varying so­ ing w terms and techniques under the conditions of Right- Bank Forest-Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. П. Полторецький

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to improve the techno­logy of growing high-quality seeds of millet broomcorn by means of the optimization of sowing terms and methods, aimed at increasing its productivity and improving seed qualities under conditions of unstable moistening of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Scientific literature review indicates the study of the influence of these technology elements on the formation of sowing qualities and crop capacity of millet seeds has been of schematic and occasional nature. The issue has not been studied in this region condition at all, that is why the research has considerable significance and novelty. Analysis, observations and calculations were done by means of conventional methods. Research results indicate that under conditions of unstable moistening of the southern part of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine the highest yield of Slobozhanske and Lana varieties was reached at sowing in drills – 39.2 and 41.0 metric centners per hectare, respectively. That was 2.4 and 3.9 metric centners per hectare increase against the wide-row sowing. In the years with optimal hydrothermal conditions maximum seed productivity of millet broomcorn at the level of 4.24 to 4.79 metric tons per hectare (Slobozhanske variety and 4.53 to 5.28 metric tons per hectare (Lana variety was observed at postponing the sowing terms to the third decade of May. If atypical for the region hydrothermal conditions (drought or excessive moistening are forecasted du­ ring the vegetation period of millet, the highest productivity is provided by sowing in the second decade of May. Early sowing in the first decade of May causes decrease in yield at the level of 0.14 to 0.48 metric tons per hectare (Slobozhanske variety and 0.14 to 0.48 metric tons per hectare (Lana variety; if the sowing is postponed to the first decade of June, the yield increases by 0.31 to 0.77 and 0.39 to 0.84 metric tons per hectare, respectively. Early spring and summer sowing using ordinary drill method contribute to the formation of the highest qua­ lity of seeds – the overall quality index was the highest at the level of 97,9 to 98,5% (Slobozhanske variety and 98,3 to 100,0% (Lana variety.

  15. Pascagoula Harbor, Mississippi, Feasibility Report on Improvement of the Federal Deep-Draft Navigation Channel. Volume 1. Main Report and Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    cerifera) and stands of Cogongrass, locally known as ’Jap Grass’ ( Imperata cylindrica) and torpedo grass (Panicum repens). The lower southeastern-most...dominated by wax myrtle and sea myrtle with stands of Cogongrass, locally known as ’Jap Grass’ ( Imperata cylindrica) and torpedo grass (Panicum repens

  16. Assessment Of Local Tropical Plants For Phytoremediation Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panicum maximum) and Water Leaf (Talinum triangulare) local plants under normal environmental conditions in remediating soil contaminated with a Nigerian crude oil sample. Composite soil sample obtained by mixing equal weight in ...

  17. Cloning and in silico analysis of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... RESEARCH ARTICLE. Cloning and in .... enzyme kinetic characterization studies of Panicum virga- .... Total RNA was extracted from stem using Trizol reagent ..... β-sheet (extended strand) were the main elements of PpCAD.

  18. Alimentation des lapins (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) à base de Azolla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabbits fed with the diet supplemented with Panicum maximum had an ... sustainable aquaculture production is that obtained with rabbit manures from the R3 diet ..... performance of three fish species. .... Organic Fertilizers used in the Urban.

  19. The effect of Acacia Karroo supplementation and thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bathesh

    2012-08-14

    Aug 14, 2012 ... 2Animal Sciences Programme, North West University, P. Bag X2046, Mmabatho North West ... communal rangelands in South Africa and is preferred by goats. ... species on the farm are A. karroo, Themeda triandra, Panicum.

  20. Diversité floristique et dégré d\\'infestation par les mauvaises herbes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative floristic analysis shows that the more frequent species are Chromolaena odorata, Panicum laxum, Pouzolzia guineensis, Solanum erianthum, Lapotea aestuens, Spigelia anthelmia and Mariscus cylindristachyus and the weeds that more cause damage are Chromolaena odorata, Euphorbia heterophylla, ...

  1. Potential values of some non-leguminous browse plants as dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    Babayemi and Bamikole, 2006) of three West African dwarf (WAD) goats that were previously fed Panicum maximum with Gliricidia sepium and compounded feed consisting of 20% corn, 20% wheat bran, 25% corn bran, 20% ...

  2. Modelling of excess noise attnuation by grass and forest | Onuu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , guinea grass (panicum maximum) and forest which comprises iroko (milicia ezcelea) and white afara (terminalia superba) trees in the ratio of 2:1 approximately. Excess noise attenuation spectra have been plotted for the grass and forest for ...

  3. Nutrient uptake of ornamental plants exposed to arsenic in hydroponic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic-based agro-chemicals have contaminated considerable acreage on turf-farms, orchards, and around horticultural production structures. A study was undertaken to evaluate iris (Iris virginica), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Tithonia rotundiflora, Coreopsis lanceolata, Sunflower (Helianthus an...

  4. Review of Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn): A power house of health benefiting nutrients

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Chandra; Satish Chandra; Pallavi; A.K. Sharma

    2016-01-01

    The bulk of the world's millet crop is produced by India, Nigeria, Niger, Mali, Burkina Faso, Chad, and China. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn), little millet (Panicum sumatrense Roth ex Roem. & Schult.), foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauvois) and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) are most commonly found species among various millet varieties. In India, finger millet occupy the largest area under cultivation among the small millets. Finger millet stands unique among ...

  5. Población de nematodos en forrajes tropicales en dos rangos de altura en el cantón de San Carlos, Alajuela

    OpenAIRE

    WingChing-Jones, Rodolfo; Salazar Figueroa, Luís

    2011-01-01

    Se caracterizó la población de nematodos fitoparásitos presente en los pastos Sorgo negro (Sorghum almus), Camerún (Pennisetum purpureum var Camerun), King grass (Pennisetum purpureum var King grass), Tanzania (Panicum maximum var Tanzania), Brizantha (Brachiaria brizantha), Toledo (Brachiaria brizantha var Toledo), Estrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis), Mombaza (Panicum maximum var Mombaza), Ratana (Ischaemum ciliare) y la leguminosa maní forrajero (Arachis pintoi) en la localidad de San C...

  6. Novedades corológicas para la flora valenciana [New records for the flora of the Valencian Community (E of Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Villalba, Manuel Benito; Martínez Azorín, Mario; Camuñas, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Se discuten algunos aspectos corológicos o taxonómicos sobre plantas novedosas para alguna de las tres provincias de la Comunidad Valenciana, en concreto: Achillea filipendulina, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Gaura lindheimeri, Ornithogalum divergens y Panicum maximum. Some chorological and taxonomical features are commented on Achillea filipendulina, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Gaura lindheimeri, Ornithogalum divergens y Panicum maximum. They are new or little known for the re...

  7. تأثیر دور آبیاری و کود نیتروژن بر صفات مورفولوژیکی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ارزن (Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    امین محمدی

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available مقدمه ایران با میانگین سالانه 240 میلیمتر بارندگی در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک جهان طبقه بندی شده است. تبخیر و تعرق بالا و محدودیت منابع آبی مهمترین عوامل محیطی موثر در کاهش عملکرد گیاهان در ایران هستند.  همچنین کمبود نیتروژن بر تقسیم مواد فتوسنتزی در بخشهای رویشی و زایشی گیاه موثر بوده و می­تواند رشد و عملکرد گیاهان را تحت تاثیر قرار دهد. از اینرواین با توجه به اهمیت و نقش­های متفاوت آب و نیتروژن در فرآیندهای حیاتی گیاهان، تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی اثر دور آبیاری و کاربرد کود نیتروژن بر صفات مورفولوژیکی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد  ارزن دانه­ ای در بیرجند انجام شد. مواد و روش­ها این تحقیق به صورت کرت­های خرد شده بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بیرجند در سال 1388 انجام شد. کرت­های اصلی دور آبیاری در سه سطح (7، 14 و 21 روز و کرت­های فرعی  کاربرد کود نیتروژن در پنج سطح (شاهد یا عدم مصرف کود، 50 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار، محلول­پاشی+ کاربرد 50 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار ، 100 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار و محلول­پاشی + کاربرد 100 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار در نظر گرفته شد. بافت خاک مزرعه آزمایشی لومی و اسیدیته­ آن برابر 8 و هدایت الکتریکی 4.49 میلی­موس بر سانتیمتر بود و میزان کربن آلی ، میزان کل نیتروژن و مقدار فسفر و پتاسیم قابل دسترس خاک در عمق 30-0 سانتی متر خاک به ترتیبا 0.32 درصد، 0.08 درصد، 16.4 و 501 پی­ پی­ ام بود. در پایان تجزیه و تحلیل داده­ها توسط نرم­افزار آماری MSTAT-C انجام گردید و مقایسه میانگین­ ها با استفاده از آزمون چنددامنه ­ای دانکن در سطح 5 درصد صورت گرفت. نتایج و بحث نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که دور آبیاری به طور معنی­ داری صفات ارتفاع بوته، مساحت برگ پرچم، تعداد خوشه در متر مربع، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک را تحت تاثیر قرار داد. همچنین ارتفاع بوته، مساحت برگ پرچم، تعداد خوشه در متر مربع و عملکرد دانه به طور معنی­داری تحت تاثیر سطوح نیتروژن قرار گرفت و اثر متقابل دور آبیاری و نیتروژن تنها بر وزن هزار دانه ارزن معنی­دار بود. مقایسه میانگین­ها بیانگر آن است که با افزایش دور آبیاری از 7 به 21 روز، ارتفاع بوته، مساحت برگ پرچم، تعداد خوشه در متر مربع، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک به ترتیب 36.8، 33.6، 32.9، 18.58، 44.4 و 40.1 درصد کاهش یافت. همچنین کاربرد 50 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به همراه محلول­پاشی این کود باعث افزایش 20.40، 21.9، 47.8 و 52.3 درصدی به ترتیب ارتفاع بوته، مساحت برگ پرچم، تعداد خوشه در متر مربع و عملکرد دانه نسبت به تیمار عدم کاربرد نیتروژن گردید. به نظر می­رسد تنش کمبود آب با توجه به اثرات آن بر فتوسنتز، تنفس، جذب یون­ها، متابولیسم عناصر غذایی و هورمون­ها، رشد سلولی در ساقه و برگ و در نتیجه شاخص سطح برگ را کاهش داده و همچنین باعث کاهش طول دوره گلدهی و پر شدن دانه ­ها می­گردد که در نهایت کاهش عملکرد دانه و اجرای آن را به دنبال دارد. احتمالا کاهش سطح برگ یک روش سازگاری گیاه برای شرایط کمبود آب و بقا از طریق کاهش سطح تعرق کننده است. به علاوه با افزایش کاربرد نیتروژن، سطح فتوسنتزکننده گیاه و تولید مواد فتوسنتزی افزایش یافته و بنا براین عملکرد دانه افزایش یافت.    ­نتیجه ­گیری به طور کلی نتایج تحقیق حاضر نشان داد که کمبود آب و نیتروژن عمدتا از طریق کاهش تعداد خوشه در متر مربع باعث کاهش معنی­دار عملکرد اقتصادی ارزن گردید. در نهایت نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که برای دستیابی به بیشترین عملکرد ارزن در منطقه بیرجند، تیمار دور آبیاری 7 روز و کاربرد 50 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به همراه محلول­پاشی این کود قابل توصیه می­باشد.

  8. In Vitro Pepsin Digestibility of Cooked Proso Millet ( Pancium miliaceum L.) and Related Species from Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Paridhi; Jia, Shangang; Li, Aixia; Holding, David Richard; Santra, Dipak; Rose, Devin Jerrold

    2018-06-20

    Thirty-three accessions of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) with different countries of origin were screened for their pepsin digestibility after cooking to identify samples with high digestibility. The pepsin digestibility of all samples ranged from 26 to 57% (average 32%). There were no apparent differences in protein profiles (SDS-PAGE) of samples with the lowest, intermediate, and highest digestibilities. However, LC-MS/MS analysis revealed a negative correlation between pepsin digestibility and peptides that matched to high molecular weight proteins (24 kDa) from Panicum hallii with regions of contiguous hydrophobic amino acids. Low digestibility upon cooking was also observed for other species from the Panicum genus, such as little millet, switchgrass and panicgrass, which suggests a unique inherent property of the genus. The obtained results from this study may form a basis for in-depth analysis of proso proteins that may help in developing new cultivars with higher digestibility upon cooking.

  9. Impacts des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des eaux sur la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mart.) and Panicum maximum (Jacq.). Water Resources and Industry, 16: 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wri.2016.07.001. Priso RJ, Dibong SD, Tchinda-Metagne C,. Taffouo VD, Ndongo D, Amougou A. 2010. Impacts des eaux polluées sur la.

  10. 7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... antidotale Retz. Panicgrass, green—Panicum maximum Jacq. var. trichoglume Robyns Pea, field—Pisum sativum L.... Chard, Swiss—Beta vulgaris L. subsp. cicla (L.) Koch Chicory—Cichorium intybus L. Chives—Allium....) Laterrade Cowpea—Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Cress, garden—Lepidium sativum L. Cress...

  11. Fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of low moisture silage made from mature bermudagrass (C. dactylon) and switchgrass (P. virgatum) in mixture with alfalfa (M. sativa) or treated with urea and plantain (Musa AAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Farm in Lexington, Kentucky between October and November, 2009 to evaluate the effect of different percentages of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as mixtures in switchgrass (Panicum virgatus) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silage...

  12. Production and supply logistics of switchgrass as an energy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season (C4), perennial grass that is native to the tallgrass ecoregion of North America (Figure 1). Historically, switchgrass has been used for summer forage, hay, ensiling, or in conservation plantings. At the end of the 20th century, switchgrass was de...

  13. vARIATIONS MENSUELLES DURANT TROIS ANNÉES DU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Université .... ont reçu une alimentation à base de pâturage de. Panicum maximum avec ... Variations mensuelles durant trois années du nombre de spermatozoïdes par éjaculat et des paramètres de spermocytogramme du sperme de bélier ...

  14. Plant mortality and natural selection may increase biomass yield in switchgrass swards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important candidate for bioenergy feedstock production, prompting significant efforts to increase the number of breeding programs and the output of those programs. The objective of this experiment was to determine the potential utility of natural selection for...

  15. Genome assembly of the fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and transcriptome analysis during early stages of infection on American wild rice (Zizania palustris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochliobolus miyabeanus causes a severe, yield-reducing leaf spot disease on rice (Oryza sativa) and two North American specialty crops, American wildrice (Zizania palustris) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Despite the importance of the pathogen in wildrice, little is known about mechanisms of p...

  16. Effects of cutting frequency and fertilizer-N application on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N rates on growth and production of guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq). The experiment was conducted in Nsukka, Nigeria. Treatments comprised four levels of fertilizer N (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg N ha- 1) and four cutting intervals (3, 6, ...

  17. Modeling phosphorus capture by plants growing in a multi-species riparian buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NST 3.0 mechanistic nutrient uptake model was used to explore phosphorus (P) uptake to a depth of 120 cm over a 126-d growing season in simulated buffer communities composed of mixtures of cottonwood (Populus deltoids Bartr.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and smooth brome (Bromis inermis L...

  18. Reproductive 'and . LactatioD' Perfo~ance of.Crossbred Dairy Cattle .

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Panicum spp, ... ferent ages (Galukande et aI., 1962), Attempts to rainfall varies between 800 and 2000mm. The .... group and dlstnct: ('l.Y)lm = lOteractIon etween ...... 0.1. \\\\.t". _t-J. , J.'':''':' ......... J ~.J,.~J 11 •• < :I ,,'J, .. ~."J".:"'.\\)jj. R eprod u ced.

  19. Haematology and faecal parasitic load of West African Dwarf goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematology and faecal parasitic load of West African Dwarf goats fed Panicum maximum supplemented with wheat offal. ... Total White Blood Cell (TWBC), L and N. There was an increased post-trial hematological over pre-trial hematological parameters for PCV, N and M while a decrease was observed for L in animals ...

  20. Impacts of managing perennial grasses in the northern Midwest United States for bioenergy on soil organic C and nitrous oxide emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the USA perennial grasses [e.g., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman)] are proposed as cellulosic feedstock. Perennial grasses are often touted as being low input and as having a C-neutral foot print, but managing them as bioenergy feedstock means addin...

  1. Effects of enzyme Additive on Nutrient intake, Digestibility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in sixteen yearling cattle fed Panicum maximum hay supplemented with concentrate diet in which an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme, ROXAZYME G2® (which consist of Cellulase, hemicellulase and beta glucanase) was included at 0, 50, 100 and 150mg/kg.

  2. Oryctolagus cuniculus L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mars 2016 ... heterophylla) associated to Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) Lam. in semi-intensive ... une stratégie de réduction du coût de l'alimentation des lapins ..... gain in guinea pigs fed diets containing different fiber sources.

  3. Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... dans l'alimentation des lapins (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) dont la récolte non contrôlée des ... Effect of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with ..... fed to Guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa.

  4. Efficient Methods of Estimating Switchgrass Biomass Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is being developed as a biofuel feedstock for the United States. Efficient and accurate methods to estimate switchgrass biomass feedstock supply within a production area will be required by biorefineries. Our main objective was to determine the effectiveness of in...

  5. Determining switchgrass biomass supplies for cellulosic biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is being developed into a bioenergy crop for use in temperate regions of the USA. Information on spatial and temporial variation for stands and biomass yield among and within fields in large agroecoregions is not available. A reliable feedstock supply will be essent...

  6. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of animal manures on chemical composition of silage produced from Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) two - years post application. The plots were established in June 2010 during this period, animal manures from cattle dung, swine waste, poultry droppings and small ...

  7. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the nutrient content of Panicum maximum-Moringa ... Journal Home > Vol 42, No 2 (2015) > ... Tannin concentrations in these diets were below the 6.00g/100g toxic level for small ruminants.

  8. Hybridization of downregulated-COMT transgenic switchgrass lines with field selected switchgrass for improved biomass traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been produced for improved cell walls for biofuels. Downregulated caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) switchgrass produced significantly more biomass and biofuel than the non-transgenic progenitor line. In the present study we sought to further...

  9. Sustainable Production of Switchgrass for Biomass Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 grass native to the North American tallgrass prairies, which historically extended from Mexico to Canada. It is the model perennial warm-season grass for biomass energy. USDA-ARS in Lincoln, NE has studied switchgrass continuously since 1936. Plot-scale rese...

  10. Topsoil thickness and harvest management influence switchgrass production and profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an attractive dual use forage and/or biomass crop option for eroded or marginal soils where corn (Zea mays L.) grain production often is not profitable. Topsoil thickness, especially above soils with a claypan, relates to crop productivity and nutrient removal an...

  11. Predicted harvest time effects on switchgrass moisture content, nutrient concentration, yield, and profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production costs change with harvest date of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a result of nutrient recycling and changes in yield of this perennial crop. This study examines the range of cost of production from an early, yield-maximizing harvest date to a late winter harvest date at low moisture...

  12. Effect of short-duration overnight cattle kraaling on grass production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... grass species, such as Urochloa mosambicensis and Panicum maximum, were more abundant in abandoned kraal sites than the surrounding vegetation. We conclude that shortduration overnight cattle kraaling improves grass quality and biomass. Keywords: biomass, crude protein, diversity, fibre, nutrient hotspots ...

  13. Utility of remote sensing-based surface energy balance models to track water stress in rain-fed switchgrass under dry and wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of remote sensing-based surface energy balance (SEB) models to track water stress in rain-fed switchgrass has not been explored yet. In this paper, the theoretical framework of crop water stress index (CWSI) was utilized to estimate CWSI in rain-fed switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) usin...

  14. A Multipurpose Toolkit to Enable Advanced Genome Engineering in Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Tomáš; Curtin, S.J.; Gil-Humanes, J.; Čegan, Radim; Kono, T.J.Y.; Konecna, E.; Belanto, J.J.; Starker, C.G.; Mathre, J.W.; Greenstein, R.L.; Voytas, D.F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2017), s. 1196-1217 ISSN 1040-4651 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : crispr /cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis * zinc-finger nucleases * panicum-virgatum l. Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 8.688, year: 2016

  15. Répartition et valorisation des macrophytes envahissantes dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 avr. 2016 ... showed that 2 species (Eichhornia crassipes and Panicum maximum) were the most represented. Sorensen ... d'E. crassipes apparaît comme un danger à juguler. (Karim et ... déséquilibre et la diminution voire l'extinction de.

  16. Switchgrass harvest time management can impact biomass yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a dedicated energy crop native to much of North America. While high-biomass yield is of significant importance for the development of switchgrass as a bioenergy crop, nutrient content in the biomass as it relates to biofuel conversion efficiency is also critical...

  17. Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in vitro gas production and preference of Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum. ... It is concluded that in order to optimize DM intake farmers should consider the type of grasses and their age at harvest particularly for Muturu. Pelleting improves ...

  18. Effect of anhydrous magnesium sulphate fertilizer and cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of anhydrous magnesium sulphate fertilizer on Panicum maximum yield and chemical composition of the resultant herbage harvested at 3, 4 and 5 weeks of age was investigated. The treatments were labeled T1 to T6. T1 was fertilized and harvested at 3 weeks cutting interval, T2 was fertilized and harvested at 4 ...

  19. Biomass and leaf-level gas exchange characteristics of three African savanna C4 grass species under optimum growth conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantlana, K.B.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Arneth, A.; Grispen, V.; Bonyongo, C.M.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.; Lloyd, J.

    2009-01-01

    C4 savanna grass species, Digitaria eriantha, Eragrostis lehmanniana and Panicum repens, were grown under optimum growth conditions with the aim of characterizing their above- and below-ground biomass allocation and the response of their gas exchange to changes in light intensity, CO2 concentration

  20. Seasonal and inter-annual photosynthetic response of representative C4 species to soil water content and leaf nitrogen concentration across a tropical seasonal floodplain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantlana, K.B.; Arneth, A.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Wohland, P.; Wolski, P.; Kolle, O.; Lloyd, J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the seasonal and inter-annual variation of leaf-level photosynthetic characteristics of three C4 perennial species, Cyperus articulatus, Panicum repens and Imperata cylindrica, and their response to environmental variables, to determine comparative physiological responses of plants

  1. Influence de la date de semis et de la fertilisation inorganique sur le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 avr. 2014 ... sont la désorganisation complète de la structure agricole, le manque de matériel .... digitatum, Eleusine indica, Tithonia diversifolia,. Panicum maximum ..... effects on electro-chemical properties of. Ferralsols in the Upper ...

  2. Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of West African Dwarf goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the performance and nutrient digestibility of twenty (20) growing West African Dwarf bucks, aged 4-6 months weighing between 6.50 9.00kg were fed varying levels of Gmelina arborea leaves and Panicum maximum as a basal diet for 56 days. The results showed that dry matter ...

  3. Transmission of Switchgrass mosaic virus by Graminella aureovitatta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass mosaic virus (SwMV) was identified in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and was proposed as a new marafivirus based on its genome sequence and comparison with its closest relative, Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), a type member of the genus, Marafivirus. MRFV only infects maize (Zea mays) an...

  4. Millet manuring as a driving force for the Late Neolithic agricultural expansion of north China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xin; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Zhang, Phengcheng

    2018-01-01

    in Chinese archaeology. Here we present an isotopic dataset for archaeological foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and common millet (Panicum miliaceum) grains as well as associated faunal remains (both domesticated and wild) from seven sites in the Baishui Valley of north China, in order to find direct...

  5. Notes on the genus Digitaria, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1934-01-01

    Some years ago I had the opportunity to study more extensively a very interesting group of grasses, belonging to what is now accepted as a distinct genus, the genus Digitaria, formerly belonging as a subgenus to the genus Panicum. As to living plants of this group I was familiar with two european

  6. Studies of heavy metal contents and microbial composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the heavy metal content and microbial composition of rhizosphere of Panicum maximum obtained from some auto mechanic workshops in Benin City, Nigeria. The grass was uprooted and soil sample was taken from its rhizosphere. The sample were labeled appropriately and immediately transported ...

  7. 1938-IJBCS-Article-Ismaïla Toko Imorou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Deux espèces abondantes. Autres espèces caractéristiques. G1 : Loudetiopsis ambiens et Panicum phragmitoides. Dépressions marécageuses. Gleyosols. Argileuse. 50 et 70 cm Savanes herbeuses. Hyparrhenia rufa,. Loudetia arundinacea. Aspilia paludosa,. Hyparrhenia rufa. G2 : Anchomanes welwitschii et Berlinia.

  8. Environmental Assessment Addressing the Emerald Breeze Resort, Santa Rosa Island, Fort Walton Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-11

    Road construction and maintenance activities have introduced and spread cogon grass (Imperata cylindrical) and torpedo grass (Panicum repens) to...Chinese tallow, or popcorn tree (Triadica sebifera), cogon grass , Japanese climbing fern (Lygodium japonicum), Chinese privet/hedge (Ligustrum sinense...stormwater wetlands, wildlife habitat swales, grassed filter strips)  Runoff pretreatment practices (e.g., catch basins, in-line storage, manufactured

  9. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Headwater Slope Wetlands on the Mississippi and Alabama Coastal Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    sourwood Bignonia capreolata crossvine Panicum virgatum switchgrass Callicarpa americana American beautyberry Persea borbonia redbay Calystegia sepium...sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana), loblolly-bay (Gordonia lasianthus), redbay ( Persea borbonia), and swamp bay ( Persea palustris) make up a significant...com- munity model. The Society of American Foresters (Eyre 1980) recognizes a “Sweetbay- Swamp Tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora)-Redbay” forest

  10. Gas exchange and stand-level estimates of water use and gross primary productivity in an experimental pine and switchgrass intercrop forestry system on the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janine M. Albaugha; Jean-Christophe Domeca; Chris A. Maier; Eric B. Sucre; Zakiya H. Leggett; John S. King

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing interest in using switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a biofuel, there are limiteddata on the physiology of this species and its effect on stand water use and carbon (C) assimilationwhen grown as a forest intercrop for bioenergy. Therefore, we quantified gas exchange rates of switch-grass within intercropped plots and in pure switchgrass plots during...

  11. Répartition et valorisation des macrophytes envahissantes dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Littoral (Cameroon) threatened by invasive macrophytes, an ecological study highlighting the ... The floristic inventory showed that 2 species (Eichhornia crassipes and Panicum ... This plant can thus be used for biogas or compost production ... Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2); Zimbabwe (12).

  12. Greenhouse gas fluxes and root productivity in a switchgrass and loblolly pine intercropping system for bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliza Shrestha; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm; Eric B. Sucre; Zakiya H. Leggett

    2015-01-01

    This study is part of a larger collaborative effort to determine the overall environmental sustainability of intercropping pine (Pinus taeda L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), both of which are promising feedstock for bioenergy production in the Lower Coastal Plain in North Carolina.

  13. Establishment of Trees for Sand Settlement in a Completely Desertified Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasr Al-amin, N.K.; Stigter, C.J.; El-Tayeb Mohammed, A.

    2006-01-01

    In a desertified source area of drifting sand encroaching on parts of the Gezira Irrigation Scheme in Central Sudan, sand settlement by trees was envisaged. Establishment, survival and growth of Acacia tortilis, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Prosopis juliflora, Salvadora persica and Panicum turgidum were

  14. Allelopathic effect of meskit ( Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC) aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoinhibitory effect of Prosopis juliflora aqueous extracts on tropical crops were tested under laboratory conditions. Maize, Cotton, and forage grasses (Rodus and Panicum) were used as test plants. Litter fall and under canopy soils were tested for checking allelopathic effects under natural conditions. All the extracts ...

  15. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science - Vol 31, No 1 (1998)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen distribution in the milk and blood of Bunaji (White Fulani) cattle fed broiler-litter-based concentrate diets as supplement to Panicum maximum (Jacq) hay · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... The nutritive value of raw Mucuna pruriens (var. utilis) for broiler finishers · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  16. Degradation of Crude Protein in Groundnut Cake, Guinea Grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three West African dwarf rams fitted with rumen cannula, were used in a completely randomized design for degradation of crude protein (CP) of groundnut cake (GNC), Panicum maximum, rumen epithelial scraping (RES), and diets containing increasing levels of RES. Concentrate diets were formulated such that 0% (A), ...

  17. The water quality and quantity effects of biofuel operations in pine plantations of the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Nettles; M. Youssef; J. Cacho; J. Grace; Z. Leggett; E. Sucre

    2011-01-01

    Working alongside operational trials, a comprehensive research programme was developed to evaluate sustainability, life-cycle analysis, soil productivity, wildlife, and water resource impacts. The hydrology field studies consist of three sets of forested watersheds, each with mid-rotation pine reference, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) interplanted, typical...

  18. Nitrous oxide emission and soil carbon sequestration from herbaceous perennial biofuel feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and renewable, domestic fuels are needed in the United States. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman) are potential bioenergy feedstocks that may meet this need. However, managing perennial grasses for feedstock requires nitro...

  19. Search Results | Page 103 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of commercial chakli and developed little millet (Panicum sumatrense) chakli [appendix 3 of the joint technical final report (October 2010 - March 2013)]. Many of the products which were traditionally prepared in home or by food service establishments are now channeled through ...

  20. Soil organic matter fractions in loblolly pine forests of Coastal North Carolina managed for bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan J. Minick; Brian D. Strahm; Thomas R. Fox; Eric B. Surce; Zakiya H. Leggett

    2015-01-01

    Dependence on foreign oil continues to increase, and concern over rising atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases has intensified research into sustainable biofuel production. Intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) between planted rows of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) offers an opportunity to utilize inter-row space that typically contains herbaceous and...

  1. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  2. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  3. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  4. Patogenicidade de Helminthosporium oryzae a algumas espécies de gramíneas Pathogenicity of Helminthosporium oryzae against some grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Artigiani Filho

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Helminthosporium oryzae é um patógeno do arroz. Devido a sua variabilidade patogênica, foi investigada a possibilidade deste fungo infectar outras gramíneas. Através de inoculação artificial, ficou demonstrada a capacidade deste patógeno provocar infecção em aveia, cana, centeio, sorgo, trigo, Brachiaria decumbens e Panicum maximum. Assim, estas espécies vegetais podem ser consideradas potenciais hospedeiros do fungo na natureza.Helminthosporium oryzae is a rice pathogen. Due to its variability in pathogenicity, the possibility of this fungus Infecting other grasses was investigated. The capacity of this pathogen was demonstrated to be able to infect oat, sugar-cane, rye, sorghum, wheat, Brachiaria decumbens and Panicum maximum through artificial inoculations. Therefore, those plant species can be considered potencial hosts for the fungus in nature.

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03338-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) 486099E06.x1 486 - leaf primordia cDNA library fr... 155 1e-33 1 ( FL885969 ) CCGN6504.b1 CCGN Panicum virgatum eti...( CF272843 ) EST3049 Zea mays sperm cell cDNA library Zea mays... 105 1e-18 1 ( FE623651 ) CBYY4925.g1 CBYY Panicum virgatu...22B2F04.f1 BG01 - normalized library Leymus ... 266 1e-90 2 ( EX580446 ) HDP26H23w HDP Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare... 2 ( EX571824 ) HDP35N10T HDP Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare cDNA... 287 5e-90 2 ( CV056143 ) BNEL14D8 Barley EST endosperm library... rachis EST library... 161 2e-35 1 ( AU173547 ) Oryza sativa Japonica Group cDNA, parti

  6. NEW DATA ADDITION TO THE ROMANIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPREA ADRIAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of seven plant taxa are presented in this paper, some of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (e. g. Cenchrus longispinus, Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale; Panicum miliaceum subsp. agricolum; Robinia neomexicana, while other taxa are mentioned for the first time in the flora of some historical provinces (e. g. Oenothera parviflora L. in Oltenia, or. Setaria faberi R. A. W. Herrm. in Moldavia; other taxa are newly identified in the flora of various counties (e. g. Reynoutria × bohemica in Bihor, Sălaj, Cluj, Caraş-Severin, Vâlcea, Prahova, and Bacău counties; Reynoutria sachalinensis in Caraş-Severin County.

  7. Effects of partial replacement of corn grain with lactose in calf starters on ruminal fermentation and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegusa, A; Inouchi, K; Ueno, M; Inabu, Y; Koike, S; Sugino, T; Oba, M

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of partial replacement of dry ground corn with lactose in calf starters on dry matter intake, growth rate, ruminal pH, and volatile fatty acid profile. Sixty Holstein bull calves were raised on a high plane of nutrition program until 55 d of age. Calves were fed texturized calf starters containing 30.1% steam-flaked grains and lactose at 0 (control), 5, or 10% (n = 20 for each treatment) on a dry matter basis. All calves were fed treatment calf starters ad libitum from d 7 and kleingrass hay from d 35. Ruminal pH was measured continuously immediately after weaning (d 55-62) for 15 calves (n = 5 per treatment), and 3 wk after weaning (d 77 to 80) for the other 45 calves (n = 15 per treatment). Dry matter intake, growth performance, and ruminal pH variables were not affected by treatment. However, according to Spearman's correlation coefficient (r s ) analyses, lactose intake was positively correlated with dairy minimum ruminal pH (r s = 0.306) for the data collected from d 77 to 80. Similarly, hay intake was not affected by treatment, but positively correlated with daily mean (r s = 0.338) and maximum ruminal pH (r s = 0.408) and negatively correlated with duration pH lactose than control (35.3 vs. 40.2%) for ruminal fluid collected on d 80; however, molar ratio of butyrate was not affected by treatment. These results indicate that lactose inclusion in calf starters up to 10% of dry matter might not affect dry matter intake and growth performance of calves, but that greater lactose and hay intake might be associated with higher ruminal pH. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  8. Alimentation des lapins ( Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) à base de Azolla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les systèmes intégrés de production constituent l'une des voies essentielles pour une agriculture durable. Cette étude a pour but d'évaluer l'effet d'une alimentation à base de Azolla filiculoïdes, Elaeis guineensis, Ipomoea aquatica et Panicum maximum sur les performances zootechniques des lapins et le potentiel nutritif ...

  9. Effects of varying dietary zinc levels on energy and nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters determined were dry matter intake (DMI), energy utilization and nitrogen utilization. The mean±SE of Panicum maximum, Andropogon gayanus, Pennisetum purpureum, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium, contained 31.2±5.0; 29.1± 3.0;34.6± 6.0; 45.0± 5.0 and 47.1± 4.0mg Zn/kg DM respectively.

  10. Reclamation status of a degraded pasture based on soil health indicators.

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS, C. A. dos; KRAWULSKI, C. C.; BINI, D.; GOULART FILHO, T.; KNOB, A.; MEDINA, C. C.; ANDRADE FILHO, G.; NOGUEIRA, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Pasture degradation is a concern, especially in susceptible sandy soils for which strategies to recover them must be developed. Microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators are useful in the guindace of soil management practices and sustainable soil use. We assessed the success of threePanicum maximum Jacq. cultivars in the reclamation of a pasture in a sandy Typic Acrudox in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, based on soil health indicators. On a formerly degraded p...

  11. Central Radar System, Over-the-Horizon Backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-09

    Magnolia virginiana Switchgrass Panicum virgatum FAC+ Tall mannagrass Glyceria grandis OBL Water fern Salvinia spp. and Marsilea vestita OBL Water...boxelder, (Acer negundo), oaks (Quercus spp.), willows (Salix spp.), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana ), plum (Prunus spp.), and russian olive (Elaeagnus...maintenance of the power lines may be required to trim or prune trees which may interfere with the lines. With the exception of the pole sites, the only

  12. The Contemporary Land Mammals of Egypt (Including Sinai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-15

    dactylifera), Tamarix nilotica, and mats of Imperata cylin- drica and Juncus rigidus. The last, together with T nilotica, choke the salty stream bed of Wadi...bipinnata and Imperata cylindrical occur along the canal banks. Marshy areas are dominated byJuncus rigidus and Phragmites australis. Alhagi mannifera...mannifera and stands of Panicum turgidum, Imperata cylindrica, and l)esmostachya bi- pinnata occur on the deeper sand sheets. Trees (Maerua crassifolia

  13. Prairie revegetation of a strip mine in Illinois: fifteen years after establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, E.A.; Anderson, R.C.; Rodgers, C.S. [Illinois State University, Normal, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-01

    The long-term success of prairie planting on a former strip mine in northeastern Illinois was investigated. The site was reclaimed and planted with prairie species in the 1970s. Total biomass increased over time, largely as a result of an increase in biomass of non-prairie species. Biomass of prairie species remained unchanged because of an increase in Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) offsetting decreases in Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass).

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Réduction des coûts alimentaires des lapins (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) par la distribution de l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla (L.) Klotz. & Garcke) associée à l'herbe de Guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq.) Lam... Abstract PDF · Vol 101 (2016) - Articles Effet d'un aliment commercial de poules pondeuses sur la teneur ...

  15. Competition for pulsed resources: an experimental study of establishment and coexistence for an arid-land grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankju-Borzelabad, Mohammad; Griffiths, Howard

    2006-07-01

    In arid environments, episodically-pulsed resources are important components of annual water and nutrient supply for plants. This study set out to test whether seedlings have an increased capacity for using pulsed resources, which might then improve establishment when in competition with older individuals. A second aim was to determine whether there is a trade-off in competitive strategies when resources are supplied continuously at low concentrations, or as pulses with pronounced inter-pulse periods. A glasshouse experiment used a target-neighbour design of size-asymmetric competition, with juveniles of Panicum antidotale (blue panicgrass) introduced into contrasting densities of adult plants. Stable isotopes of nitrogen were used for measuring plant resource uptake from pulses, and tolerance to inter-pulse conditions was assessed as the mean residence time (MRT) of nitrogen. A higher root/shoot ratio and finer root system enhanced the capacity of juveniles to use resources when pulsed, rather than when continuously supplied. Higher resource uptake during pulses improved the establishment of juvenile Panicum in mixed cultures with older individuals. However, a trade-off was observed in plant strategies, with juveniles showing a lower MRT for nitrogen, which suggested reduced tolerance to resource deficit during inter-pulse periods. Under field conditions, higher utilization of pulsed resources would lead to the improved seedling establishment of Panicum adjacent to "nurse" plants, whereas mature plants with well-developed roots, exploiting a greater soil volume, maintain more constant resource uptake and retention during inter-pulse periods.

  16. PRODUKSI DAN KUALITAS HIJAUAN PAKAN PADA LAHAN PASCA TAMBANG DI KABUPATEN KARANGASEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Suarna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The side-effect of sand mining was disappearing of biomass which caused of land degradation. A study has been carried out to obtain the model legume association with superior grass plants that are adaptive to repair post-mining land on dry land. This research was desgined in association patern between grasses and legumes with manure application, using 8 combination of grasses herbaceous and tree legumse with 3 replications. This research was conducted at Sebudi village, Karangasem district. Panicum maximum var. Trichoglum, Paspalum atratum, Centrocema pubescens, and Clitoria ternatea were used for grasses and legumes respectively. Observed variables were quality and forage production. The results of this research showed that almost all association can be implemented at dryland, and association patern between Panicum and Paspalum with Clitoria gave extra biomass. This association also showed great potential to improve land quality. The quality and production of grasses were greatly influenced by the association of legumes. Panicum and Paspalum associated with both Clitoria or Centrocema gave highest yield. Various of manure showed a non significant difference on quality and production of grass associated with tree legumes, although it tend to increase both of growth and production of grasses.

  17. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

  18. Fungos e nematoides associados a sementes de forrageiras tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Mallmann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a incidência de fungos e nematoides em sementes de Brachiaria sp. e Panicum maximum produzidas nos estados de Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, Mato Grosso (MT, Goiás (GO, Minas Gerais (MG e São Paulo (SP. Os principais fungos encontrados nas sementes foram Bipolaris sp., Curvularia sp. e Phoma sp.. As menores incidências destes fungos foram encontradas nas sementes das cultivares BRS Piatã e Xaraés de Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, oriundas dos estados de GO, MG e MS, respectivamente. As cultivares Marandu e BRS Piatã, provenientes das várias regiões, apresentaram elevada ocorrência de Aphelenchoides sp. e Ditylenchus sp.. Sementes da cultivar Humidicola, de Brachiaria humidicola, produzidas em MS e SP, não apresentaram associação com nematoides. As sementes de Panicum maximum cv. Massai e cv. Mombaça apresentaram maiores incidências de Bipolaris sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium sp. e Phoma sp., bem como de Aphelenchoides sp. e Ditylenchus sp., especialmente nas sementes produzidas em MT. Alguns dos patógenos encontrados são agentes causais de doenças de grande importância em forrageiras, a exemplo de Bipolaris sp., causando a mancha foliar do Panicum, de alta severidade em Tanzânia, proporcionando sérios comprometimentos da sustentabilidade das pastagens.

  19. Land use and vegetation cover on native symbionts and interactions with cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz C. F. Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia are important components of agroecosystems and they respond to human interference. The objective of this study was to investigate native communities of those microorganisms in soil collected under the native forest, four pastures (Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, Arachis pintoi and Stylosanthes guianensis and a fallow soil after maize cultivation, in interaction with cowpea (Vigna unguculata. The cowpea grew in a greenhouse until flowering. They were randomly distributed depending on soil, in five replications. The lowest mycorrhizal fungi sporulation and mycorrhizal root colonization occurred under the Panicum and forest soil. In the soils under forest and Stylosanthes, the cowpea did not exhibit nodules and grew less. Among the anthropized areas, the effect was variable, with stimulus to the multiplication and symbiosis of these microorganisms, except in areas of Panicum and Stylosanthes. When the native vegetation is substituted by pasture or farming, the mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia proliferation predominate. However, the effect and its magnitude depends on the grown plant species, with reflects on the plant species in succession, such as the cowpea.

  20. Non-targeted Colonization by the Endomycorrhizal Fungus, Serendipita vermifera, in Three Weeds Typically Co-occurring with Switchgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Ray

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serendipita vermifera (=Sebacina vermifera; isolate MAFF305830 is a mycorrhizal fungus originally isolated from the roots of an Australian orchid that we have previously shown to be beneficial in enhancing biomass yield and drought tolerance in switchgrass, an important bioenergy crop for cellulosic ethanol production in the United States. However, almost nothing is known about how this root-associated fungus proliferates and grows through the soil matrix. Such information is critical to evaluate the possibility of non-target effects, such as unintended spread to weedy plants growing near a colonized switchgrass plant in a field environment. A microcosm experiment was conducted to study movement of vegetative mycelia of S. vermifera between intentionally inoculated switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. and nearby weeds. We constructed size-exclusion microcosms to test three different common weeds, large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L., Texas panicum (Panicum texanum L., and Broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla L., all species that typically co-occur in Southern Oklahoma and potentially compete with switchgrass. We report that such colonization of non-target plants by S. vermifera can indeed occur, seemingly via co-mingled root systems. As a consequence of colonization, significant enhancement of growth was noted in signalgrass, while a mild increase (albeit not significant was evident in crabgrass. Migration of the fungus seems unlikely in root-free bulk soil, as we failed to see transmission when the roots were kept separate. This research is the first documentation of non-targeted colonization of this unique root symbiotic fungus and highlights the need for such assessments prior to deployment of biological organisms in the field.

  1. Évaluation des apports nutritionnels et énergétiques des fourrages verts dans l’alimentation des aulacodes (Thryonomys swinderianus en Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Kouadio ETTIAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate the physicochemical and energetic quantity of succulent and sweet taste forage grasses, Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae incorporated in the feed of grasscutters growing (GG, fattening (FG and maintenance (MG. This study is set to determine the chemical and energetic composition of three levels of green fodder (50, 75 and 85% incorporated into the diets of grasscutters and compare it to nutrient intake and energy consumption of feed resources used normally in the ration by farmers. The three experimental diets were: 75% fodder and 25% of food complement (diet T25; 50% of fodder and 50% of food complement (diet T50; 85% of fodder and 15% of food complement (diet T15. The results showed that the green fodder used contains important sources of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and minerals. Dry matter content of Panicum maximum (13.4 to 22.9% and Pennisetum purpureum (10.9 to 18.6% provide energy needs as calories needed of grasscutters. Food ingredients consisting of minerals and organic matter provide the energy potential in the form of calories for maintenance and production feed needs of grasscutters. A positive and highly significant effect (p<0.01 of the T15 was observed. These results suggest that the nutritional and energy values consumed can be used for grasscutters growing (GG, fattening (GF and maintenance (GM.The intake of energy and functional foods into a controlled diet stimulates the appetite of farmed animals. Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum grasses that were used as a substitute for the main staple feed, and which are highly sought after in the natural environment by grasscutters, are recommended for grasscutter raising. Green forages with succulent sweet-tasting stems, incorporated into food rations as 15% of food supplements, are more stable and perform better in food rations for grasscutters. Active nutrients are balanced, varied, moderate and necessary for the proper

  2. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  3. Moringa oleifera leaf extract: An innovative priming tool for rangeland grasses

    OpenAIRE

    NOUMAN, Wasif; SIDDIQUI, Muhammad Tahir; BASRA, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) is rich in amino acids, ascorbate, zeatin, minerals, and many other compounds known for their growth-promoting potential. This study was planned to explore the potential of MLE as a seed priming agent to increase the germination rate and plant vigor of 3 range grasses, i.e. Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum antidotale, and Echinochloa crusgalli. The priming strategies used were hydropriming, CaCl2, PEG-8000 (-1.1 M Pa), MLE (concentrate; 1:10, 1:20, 1:30, and 1:40...

  4. Genetic transformation of switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yajun; Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a highly productive warm-season C4 species that is being developed into a dedicated biofuel crop. This chapter describes a protocol that allows the generation of transgenic switchgrass plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calluses induced from caryopses or inflorescences were used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) was used as the selectable marker and hygromycin was used as the selection agent. Calluses resistant to hygromycin were obtained after 5-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown switchgrass plants were regenerated about 6 months after callus induction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  5. New records of Brazilian cicadas including the description of a new species (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea, Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Allen F

    2008-01-01

    A new species of Proarna Stål is described from southern Brazil. Proarna gianucai sp. nov. is distinguished by its coloration and genitalia. The species inhabits coastal dune environments and is associated with the perennial grass Panicum racemosum (P. Beauv.) Spreng. Adults are active from December to March. The first records of Carineta durantoni Boulard, Carineta gemella Boulard, Carineta pilifera Walker, Fidicina christinae Boulard & Martinelli, Fidicina torresi Boulard & Martinellli, Fidicinoides determinata (Walker), Fidicinoides distanti (Goding), Fidicinoides glauca (Goding), Majeorona truncata Goding, and Zammara columbia Distant for Brazil are provided. The new species and new records bring the total cicada diversity of Brazil to 146 species.

  6. EFEITO DO PROBIÓTICO PROENZIME® NO PESO DE BOVINOS DA RAÇA NELORE CRIADOS EM REGIME DE PASTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mandelli Terrassi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of probiotic Proenzime ®, added to the mineral salt, the weight of cattle kept on pasture. We used 30 animals, males Nelore (Bos indicus at approximately 10 months of age in Panicum maximum supplemented with mineral salt (CG, n = 15 animals and mineral salt added probiotic (GT = 4 g probiotic / day, n = 15 animals. The animals of the TG were linear and significant increase (P <0.01 in weight over the GC. Therefore, adding probiotic, mineral salt increases the weight in Nelore cattle raised on pasture.

  7. Vascular flora of the Upper Paraná River floodplain Flora vascular da planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC. Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to update the floristic inventory found in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Floristic surveys were performed from February 2000 through March 2008, as part of the Brazilian Long-Term Ecological Research Program (PELD/CNPq -Site 6. The material collected was identified from 774 species, 442 genera, and 116 families. The ten families with high species richness were Leguminosae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae, Solanaceae, Sapindaceae, and Orchidaceae, which contributed to 46.1% of the total number of species. Genera with high richness were Solanum, Cyperus, Panicum, Eugenia, Tillandsia, Serjania, Casearia, and Polygonum, which together contributed to 10.2% of the total number of species. These data, combined with information published in 1997, recorded 955 species, 575 genera, and 128 families. These organisms were from several riparian environments and were distributed as herbs, shrubs, trees, climbers and epiphytes. Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Ricinus communis, and Urochloa decumbens are considered weeds due to the wide distributions determined for these species. The results presented herein suggest the need to further investigate the control of these potential weed species.Com o objetivo de ampliar os conhecimentos sobre a flora da planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná, foram conduzidos inventários florísticos no período de fevereiro de 2000 a março de 2008, incluídos no Programa Brasileiro de Pesquisas Ecológicas de Longa Duração (PELD/CNPq - Sítio 6. O material coletado foi identificado em 774 espécies, 442 gêneros e 116 famílias. As dez famílias de maior riqueza de espécies foram Leguminosae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae, Solanaceae, Sapindaceae e Orchidaceae, que juntas reuniram 46,1% do total do número de espécies. Os gêneros com maior riqueza de espécies foram Solanum, Cyperus, Panicum, Eugenia

  8. Transport biofuel yields from food and lignocellulosic C{sub 4} crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijnders, L. [IBED University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    In the near future, the lignocellulosic C{sub 4} crops Miscanthus and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) are unlikely to outcompete sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in net energetic yearly yield of transport biofuel ha{sup -1}. This holds both for the thermochemical conversion into liquid hydrocarbons and the enzymatic conversion into ethanol. Currently, Miscanthus and switchgrass would also not seem able to outcompete corn (Zea mays) in net energetic yearly yield of liquid transport biofuel ha{sup -1}, but further development of these lignocellulosic crops may gradually lead to a different outcome. (author)

  9. Basic chromosome numbers and polyploid levels in some South African and Australian grasses (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Spies

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers of 46 specimens of grasses, involving 24 taxa from South Africa and Australia, have been determined during the present study. For the first time chromosome numbers are given for Eragrostis sarmentosa (Thunb. Trin. (n = 20. Panicum aequinerve Nees (n = 18,  Digitaria argyrograpta (Nees Stapf (n = 9 and D. maitlandii Stapf & C.E. Hubb. (n = 9. Additional polyploid levels are described for Diplachne fusca (L. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. (n = 10 and Digitaria diagonalis (Nees Stapf var.  diagonalis (n = 9. B-chromosomes were observed in several different specimens. The presence of B-chromosomes often results in abnormal chromosomal behaviour during meiosis.

  10. Radiophosphorous in vitro incorporation by rumen microorganisms in different inoculum proportions; Incorporacao in vitro do radiofosforo pelos microorganismos ruminais em diferentes proporcoes do inoculo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral Filho, Sergio Luiz Salomon; Gobbo, Sarita Priscila; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Machado, Mariana de Carvalho; Nozella, Eduardo Fernando; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Estimation of rumen microbial population activity is an important parameter on feed evaluation. Increases on microbial population have a positive correlation with increases on protein supply for ruminant animal. In vitro methodology is based on relationships between {sup 32} P and N incorporation for the rumen microorganisms. The objective of this paper was to test different types of inoculum in {sup 32} P microbial incorporation technique. Treatments were two different types of inoculum (rumen content), where one of them has only liquid phase and the other has 50% liquid and 50% solid phase. Five different feedstuffs were used as substrate (corn grain, maize silage, soybean meal, alfalfa hay and Panicum grass). The incubation was done in plastics tubes containing 1 g of substrate, buffer solution (4ml), 16ml of inoculum and 25{mu}l of {sup 32} P-labelled phosphate solution (3700 Bq). Nitrogen incorporation (N{sub i}) into microbial mass was between 2,9 to 13,6 mg of N{sub i}, g DM{sup -1}. Treatments did not differ statistical (P>0,05), but treatments and substrate interaction was significant (P<0,05) for Panicum grass. Results did not demonstrated advantage to use solid phase in {sup 32} P technique, however significant interaction suggest more studies with roughages. (author)

  11. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goron, Travis L; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed "orphan cereals." Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa.

  12. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Luc Goron

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana, foxtail millet (Setaria italica, kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum, proso millet (Panicum miliaceum, barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp., and little millet (Panicum sumatrense. Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed orphan cereals. Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers (e.g. nutritional quality which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa.

  13. Perennial pastures for marginal farming country in southern Queensland. 2. Potential new grass cultivar evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Silcock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trials in the Condamine-Balonne basin, Australia, compared 11 promising perennial pasture grass accessions (4 Bothriochloa, 2 Cenchrus, 2 Urochloa and 1 each of Digitaria, Eragrostis and Panicum species against the best similar commercial cultivars on the basis of ease of establishment from seed, persistence once established, forage yield and ease of seed production.  Accessions sown at a site were determined by prior experience with them on a range of soils.  High quality seed was relatively easy to produce for both Urochloa species and for Eragrostis curvula CPI 30374 but problematic for the Bothriochloa spp.  Once established, all accessions persisted for 3–5 years and most were well grazed, but adequate establishment was sometimes a problem with Panicum stapfianum and Bothriochloa ewartiana.  The dry matter yield ratings of the non-commercial lines were similar to those of the commercial equivalents of the same species.  While agronomically valuable, none of the promising new grasses was considered worthy of commercialization at this point because their strengths did not warrant the setting up of a seed-production business in competition with current commercial enterprises.  Long-standing cultivars such as Gayndah buffel and Nixon sabi grass continued to exhibit their superior pasture qualities.Keywords: Herbicide tolerance, persistence, forage yield, establishment ease, commercialization, seed production.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(315-26

  14. Doses and application seasons of potassium on soybean crop in succession the cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Ferreira Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K is the second nutrient that is required in larger amounts by soybean crop. With the use of high doses of that nutrient and increase of no-tillage areas in last years, some changes occurred in ways of this nutrient application, as well as the introduction of cover crops in the system for straw formation. Due those facts, the aim with this work was to study doses and times of potassium application for soybean sowed as succession for cover crops in no-tillage system, in a clayey Distrofic Red Latosol, in cerrado region. The experimental design was a randomized block with treatments arranged in 3x3x5 factorial scheme, with the following factors, cover crops: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum and Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum and a control (fallow area, rates of K2O (0, 50 e 100 kg ha-1 and K2O application forms (100% in the cover crops; 100% at sowing of soybean; 100% in topdressing in soybean; 50% at sowing cover crops + 50% at soybean sowing; 50% at soybean sowing + 50% in topdressing in the soybean with four replicates. The Pennisetum glaucum as soybean predecessor crop yields higher dry matter content than the Panicum miliaceum in a short period of time. In clay soil with high content of potassium there was no response to the applied potassium levels. Full doses of potassium maintenance fertilization can be applied in the predecessor cover crop, at sowing or topdressing in soybean crop.

  15. Apomixis y su importancia en la selección y mejoramiento de gramineas forrajeras tropicales. Revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián R. Quero Carrillo

    2010-01-01

    Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum y Urochloa, entre otros. Las especies apomícticas contienen individuos diploides y poliploides conformando "complejos agámicos", donde las barreras reproductivas quedan delimitadas por la apomixis y el nivel de ploidía, lo que tiene impacto en su aprovechamiento. Individuos diploides mantienen la sexualidad activa y estos son raros fuera del centro de origen de especie. Los individuos poliploides son apomícticos y los individuos sexuales poliploides pueden inducirse en el laboratorio, lo que permite obtener descendencia híbrida. La riqueza genética, originada del centro de diversidad es la base para superar problemas productivos y de estabilidad ecológica: producción durante la sequía, fijación de nitrógeno, calidad, resistencia a plagas y enfermedades; como se ha demostrado en casos exitosos en Brachiaria, Panicum y Cenchrus. Los avances en investigación sobre apomixis han elucidado su biología y diversas técnicas para su manejo. Sin embargo, el impacto de estos avances en la investigación sobre forrajes en México, promueve la recapitulación sobre el aprovechamiento de recursos genéticos y el interés en la generación de híbridos para las necesidades de producción en pastoreo extensivo en México.

  16. Cereals for the semi-arid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, J.M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The region of semi-arid tropics is the most famine prone area of the world. This region with nearly one billion people extends across some 20 million square kilometres. Major domesticated cereals adapted to semi-arid regions are sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Several minor cereals are grown as speciality crops, or harvested in the wild in times of severe drought and scarcity. Important in the African Sahel are the fonios Digitaria iburua Stapf, D. exilis (Kapist) Stapf and Brachiaria deflexa (Schumach). C.E. Hubbard. These species are aggressive colonizers and are commonly encouraged as weeds in cultivated fields. Sown genotypes differ from their close wild relatives primarily in the lack of efficient natural seed dispersal. The fonios lend themselves to rapid domestication. Several wild cereals extend well beyond the limits of agriculture into the Sahara. Commonly harvested are the perennial Stipagrostis pungens and Panicum turgidum, and the annual Cenchrus biflorus (kram-kram). Kram-kram yields well under extreme heat and drought stress, and holds promise as a domesticated cereal. Sauwi millet (Panicum sonorum) is promising cereal in arid northwestern Mexico. (author). 31 refs

  17. Effect of pre- and post-heading waterlogging on growth and grain yield of four millets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asana Matsuura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Panicum miliaceum, Panicum sumatrense, Setaria glauca, and Setaria italica were raised in polyvinylchloride tubes filled with soil to determine interspecific differences in waterlogging tolerance and the effect of pre- and post-heading waterlogging on growth and grain yield. Four treatments were conducted including control (no-waterlogging stress during growth. Pre-heading waterlogging treatment was initiated 17 days after sowing to heading (TC. Post-heading waterlogging treatment was initiated heading till harvest (CT. Waterlogging treatment was initiated 17 days after sowing to harvesting (TT. The grain yield of P. miliaceum, S. glauca, and S. italica decreased 16, 18, and 4%, while that of P. sumatrense increased 210% under TT treatment and this showed P. sumatrense had most waterlogging tolerance. The grain yield was more affected under TC treatment in S. italica and P. miliaceum. However, there was not significant differences the grain yield between TC and CT treatment in P. sumatrense and S. glauca. Total dry weight, total root dry weight, number of crown root, and the proportion of lysigenous aerenchyma of P. sumatrense were significantly higher than those of other millets at harvesting. Plant growth rate, total root dry weight, number of crown root, and the proportion of lysigenous aerenchyma of P. sumatrense were significantly higher than those of other millets at heading. These results suggest that P. sumatrense exhibits waterlogging tolerance by enhancing root growth characterized by a high proportion of lysigenous aerenchyma in the crown root.

  18. Review of Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn: A power house of health benefiting nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Chandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of the world's millet crop is produced by India, Nigeria, Niger, Mali, Burkina Faso, Chad, and China. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn, little millet (Panicum sumatrense Roth ex Roem. & Schult., foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L. P. Beauvois and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L. are most commonly found species among various millet varieties. In India, finger millet occupy the largest area under cultivation among the small millets. Finger millet stands unique among the cereals such as barley, rye and oats with higher nutritional contents and has outstanding properties as a subsistence food crop. It is rich in calcium (0.34%, dietary fiber (18%, phytates (0.48%, protein (6%–13% minerals (2.5%–3.5%, and phenolics (0.3%–3%. Moreover, it is also a rich source of thiamine, riboflavin, iron, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and other essential amino acids. The abundance of these phytochemicals enhances the nutraceutical potential of finger millet, making it a powerhouse of health benefiting nutrients. It has distinguished health beneficial properties, such as anti-diabetic (type 2 diabetes mellitus, anti-diarrheal, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, antitumerogenic (K562 chronic myeloid leukemia, atherosclerogenic effects, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

  19. PRINCIPAIS PLANTAS DANINHAS QUE INFESTAM AS CULTURAS DE ALGODÃO, ARROZ, CAFÉ, MILHO, SOJA E PASTAGENS NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS MAIN WEEDS THAT INFEST COTTON, RICE, COFFEE, MAIZE, SOYBEAN, AND PASTURES IN THE GOIÁS STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Albertoni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    No presente trabalho foi realizado o levantamento das plantas daninhas nas culturas de algodão, arroz, café, milho, soja e nas pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens, Hyparrhenia rufa, Panicum maximum e Brachiaria humidicola em 65 municípios de 12 microrregiões do Estado de Goiás, entre janeiro de 1980 e julho de 1981, num total de 275 observações para 59 espécies de plantas daninhas identificadas.

    A survey was made of weeds found in cotton, rice, corn and soybean fields and coffee plantations, and also in pastures composed of the following grasses: Brachiaria decumbens, Hyparrhenia rufa, Panicum maximum and Brachiaria humidicola. The study was carried out between January 1980 and July 1981, in a total of sixty-five counties within twelve micro-regions in the State of Goiás. Fifty-nine of known species of weeds were identified in a total of two-hundred and seventy-nine observations.

  20. Pasture research in the wet and dry tropics of Nigeria with particular reference to isotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adegbola, A.A.; Adepoju, A.

    1983-01-01

    Pasture research in western Nigeria, which typifies the wet and dry tropics of Nigeria, is discussed fully. Interest in pasture research in the area was kindled in 1930 with the introduction of Cynodon nlemfuensis var. robusta, but systematic work did not start until the 1950s. Early agronomic studies centred on easy means of establishing the adapted species from cuttings, sprigs or seeds. The most important species in the dry tropics is Andropogon gayanus, while in the wet tropics it is Panicum maximum. Later, investigations on yield of dry matter, intervals and height of cutting and response to fertilizer applications were carried out. Radioactive fertilizer 32 P- and 15 N-urea were also used to study the yield response of pasture to fertilizer application and to determine the percentage uptake of nutrients by plants. The results of such trials in different locations in the area are discussed extensively. Also, 32 P was used to determine the depth of active absorption of the root system of Andropogon gayanus and Panicum maximum, thus establishing their rooting pattern. (author)

  1. Phytotoxicity Study on Bidens sulphurea Sch. Bip. as a Preliminary Approach for Weed Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Bruna P; Nepomuceno, Mariluce P; Varela, Rosa M; Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Alves, Pedro L C A; Macías, Francisco A

    2017-06-28

    Farmers of the Franca region in Brazil observed that Bidens sulphurea was able to eliminate the Panicum maximum weed, which infected coffee plantations, without affecting the crop. In an effort to determine if the inhibitory effects observed were due to the presence of phytotoxic compounds from leaves and roots, a biodirected isolation and spectroscopic characterization has been carried out. The leaf dichloromethane and root acetone extracts were the most active, and the former appeared to be more phytotoxic to the target species, including four weeds. A total of 26 compounds were isolated from leaves and roots, and four of them are described here for the first time. The major compounds in the leaf extract are the sesquiterpene lactones costunolide, reynosin, and santamarine, and these showed marked inhibition. Amaranthus viridis and Panicum maximum were the most sensitive species of the weeds tested. These three phytotoxic lactones were also evaluated on A. viridis and P. maximum under hydroponic conditions. A. viridis was the most affected species with the three lactones, and santamarine was the most phytotoxic compound on both. This is the first time that the phytotoxicity of sesquiterpene lactones has been evaluated on hydroponic culture. The work described here is a preliminary approach for the use of B. sulphurea for weed control in agriculture, both as a cover crop and by use of its components as natural herbicide leads.

  2. The effect of drought stress on morphological and physiological characteristics of millets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza khazaeii

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of drought stress on morphological and physiological characteristics of millets, a field experiment was arranged in a randomised complete block as a split-plot design with three replication during 2004 growing season at Reasearch Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Irrigation intervals (weekly interval, 14-day interval and three types of millet (Pennisetum glaceum , Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum were allocated to main and sub plots, respectively. Results showed that, grain yield, panicle weight, grain weight, number of tillers, number of fertile tillers, panicle harvest index, leaf area and percentage of nitrogen leaf was not affected by water stress treatments. Although, type of millets had significiant effect on these traits. Exposure of plants to water stress led to noticeable decreases in plant height for all three cultivars. In this experiment, grain yield, plant height, panicle weight, grain weight, panicle harvest index and percentage of nitrogen of Panicum miliaceum was lowest, also Pennisetum glucum had relatively highest grain leaf yield, panicle weight, leaf area and percentage of leaf nitrogen and had favorable production potential in semi-arid tropical regions.

  3. The 'Big bang' in the Early Iron Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medović Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Early Iron Age granaries of Tell Gradina upon Bosut exploded in a fire inferno in the 8th century B.C. The result of this catastrophe is 2-5 cm thick layer with mixed carbonized seeds and fruits. Recently, eight samples were taken from Gradina's profile for archaeobotanical analysis. The goal was to obtain basic information on land use and on major crops and weeds of that period. The most abundant were cereals, followed by millets, pulses and oil/fibre plants. The dominant cereals were einkorn (Triticum monococcum and hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare vulgare. Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum was also very important. Pulses were represented with six and oil/fibre plants with three species. Among weeds and ruderals, most common are rye brome (Bromus secalinus, fat hen (Chenopodium album, darnel ryegrass (Lolium temulentum, hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis and corncockle (Agrostemma githago.

  4. Efeito da temperatura de pré-secagem na digestibilidade e nos fracionamentos da proteína e do carboidrato em gramíneas tropicais

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Augusto Ayres Araújo de

    2006-01-01

    Amostras de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania foram coletadas na época seca do ano. Após a separação botanica dos componentes morfológicos de lamina foliar, colmo e matéria morta, as amostras foram submetidas a temperaturas de pré-secagem de 55º e 65ºC. Foi realizada análise bromatológica para determinação das frações protéicas e de carboidratos e do valor da digestibilidade in vitro da matéria organica (DIVMO). Houve aumento no...

  5. Short Communication: Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, F.M. Jr.; Carneiro, R.F.V.; Leite, L.F.C.; Araujo, A.S.F.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality. (Author)

  6. CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOGÉNICAS Y SU INFLUENCIA EN EL RENDIMIENTO DEL PASTO MOMBAZA, COSECHADO A DIFERENTES INTERVALOS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ramírez Reynoso

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el flujo de tejidos y rendimiento por corte del pasto Mombaza (Panicum maximum Jacq., cosechado a tres intervalos de corte (IC: 3, 5 y 7 semanas, durante un año, en las épocas de sequía (10-nov-2006 a 09-jun-2007 y lluvias (10-jun a 06-nov-2007. Los tratamientos (IC se distribuyeron en 12 parcelas de 17.5 m2, mediante un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. El IC de 3 semanas promedió mayor tasa de aparición de hojas (0.185 hojas tallo-1 d-1 durante el estudio (P

  7. Rendimento, composição e análise sensorial do queijo minas frescal fabricado com leite de vacas mestiças alimentadas com diferentes volumosos Yield, composition and sensory analysis of Minas cheese made with milk from crossbred cows fed different roughages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Cristina dos Santos Guimarães Martins

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade físico-química e sensorial e o perfil de ácidos graxos do queijo minas frescal produzido com o leite de vacas mestiças alimentadas com dietas contendo quatro volumosos: canade-açúcar, silagem de sorgo, silagem de girassol e pastagem de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia. Foram avaliados o rendimento, a composição físico-química e o perfil de ácidos graxos. Também foi realizada a análise sensorial do queijo minas frescal e da composição físico-química do leite. Utilizaram-se oito vacas mestiças 1/2 Holandês/Gir, com período de lactação de 180 ± 12 dias, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com quatro animais, quatro dietas e quatro períodos. Os períodos foram de 18 dias, sendo 15 dias de adaptação e três dias de coletas de dados. Após o processamento do queijo, foi feita análise microbiológica, físico-química e posteriormente análise sensorial. Amostras do queijo foram congeladas e analisadas quanto ao perfil de ácidos graxos. O teor de gordura do queijo foi maior para as dietas com cana-de-açúcar e silagem de girassol em relação à silagem de sorgo e ao pasto de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, que não diferiram entre si. O queijo produzido a partir do leite de vacas alimentadas com silagem de girassol apresentou melhor perfil de ácidos graxos e índices de qualidade nutricional, maior proporção e melhor perfil de ácidos graxos insaturados. O rendimento do queijo foi igual para todas as dietas, independentemente do volumoso utilizado em sua composição. O queijo produzido com o leite de vacas alimentadas com silagem de girassol tem maior preferência pelos julgadores no teste de análise sensorial, especialmente quanto ao atributo aparência.The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical-chemical and sensory quality and fatty acid profile of Minas cheese produced from milk from crossbred cows fed diets with four roughages (sugar cane

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15849-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s8-b09 She01 Saruma henryi cDNA clone sh... 44 6e-06 4 ( FL643435 ) TS24-B1 Reticulitermes flavipes symbiont library...m root (H) Panicum... 34 0.21 2 ( BU887392 ) R058G12 Populus root cDNA library Populus tremul...rium in... 44 0.41 2 ( ED537812 ) KBrB131C18F KBrB, Brassica rapa BamHI BAC library... 44 0.42 2 ( CJ458666 ) Macaca fascicul... Pop... 44 0.001 2 ( BU886436 ) R045D12 Populus root cDNA library Populus tremula... 44 0.001 2 ( CV131402 ) L2P05c10 Popul...us flower cDNA library Populus tric... 44 3e-10 4 ( DN774213 )

  9. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Schmutz, Jeremy; Wang, Hao; Percifield, Ryan; Hawkins, Jennifer; Pontaroli, Ana C; Estep, Matt; Feng, Liang; Vaughn, Justin N; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; Hellsten, Uffe; Deshpande, Shweta; Wang, Xuewen; Wu, Xiaomei; Mitros, Therese; Triplett, Jimmy; Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chu-Yu; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Wang, Lin; Li, Pinghua; Sharma, Manoj; Sharma, Rita; Ronald, Pamela C; Panaud, Olivier; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Brutnell, Thomas P; Doust, Andrew N; Tuskan, Gerald A; Rokhsar, Daniel; Devos, Katrien M

    2012-05-13

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ∼400-Mb assembly covers ∼80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  10. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L [ORNL; Schmutz, Jeremy [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Wang, Hao [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Percifield, Ryan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Hawkins, Jennifer [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Pontaroli, Ana C. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Estep, Matt [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Feng, Liang [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Vaughn, Justin N [ORNL; Grimwood, Jane [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Jenkins, Jerry [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lindquist, Erika [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hellsten, Uffe [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wang, Xuewen [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Wu, Xiaomei [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Mitros, Therese [University of California, Berkeley; Triplett, Jimmy [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita [Oklahoma State University; Wang, Lin [Cornell University; Li, Pinghua [Cornell University; Sharma, Manoj [University of California, Davis; Sharma, Rita [University of California, Davis; Ronald, Pamela [University of California, Davis; Panaud, Olivier [Universite de Perpignan, Perpignan, France; Kellogg, Elizabeth A. [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Brutnell, Thomas P. [Cornell University; Doust, Andrew N. [Oklahoma State University; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Rokhsar, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Devos, Katrien M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ~400-Mb assembly covers ~80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  11. The complete chloroplast genome of an irreplaceable dietary and model crop, foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an important food and fodder crop in the family Poaceae, is first reported in this study. The genome consists of 1 35 516 bp containing a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 21 804 bp separated by a large single-copy (LSC) region and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 79 896 bp and 12 012 bp, respectively. Coding sequences constitute 58.8% of the genome harboring 111 unique genes, 71 of which are protein-coding genes, 4 are rRNA genes, and 36 are tRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated foxtail millet clustered with Panicum virgatum and Echinochloa crus-galli belonging to the tribe Paniceae of the subfamily Panicoideae. This newly determined chloroplast genome will provide valuable information for the future breeding programs of valuable cereal crops in the family Poaceae.

  12. Data on the genome-wide identification of CNL R-genes in Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ethan J; Nepal, Madhav P

    2017-08-01

    We report data associated with the identification of 242 disease resistance genes (R-genes) in the genome of Setaria italica as presented in "Genetic diversity of disease resistance genes in foxtail millet ( Setaria italica L.)" (Andersen and Nepal, 2017) [1]. Our data describe the structure and evolution of the Coiled-coil, Nucleotide-binding site, Leucine-rich repeat (CNL) R-genes in foxtail millet. The CNL genes were identified through rigorous extraction and analysis of recently available plant genome sequences using cutting-edge analytical software. Data visualization includes gene structure diagrams, chromosomal syntenic maps, a chromosomal density plot, and a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree comparing Sorghum bicolor , Panicum virgatum , Setaria italica , and Arabidopsis thaliana . Compilation of InterProScan annotations, Gene Ontology (GO) annotations, and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) results for the 242 R-genes identified in the foxtail millet genome are also included in tabular format.

  13. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The {approx}400-Mb assembly covers {approx}80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  14. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  15. Estabelecimento de gramíneas forrageiras tropicais perenes simultaneamente com as culturas de milho e soja no Norte do RS Perennial tropical forage grasses establishment simultaneously with soybean and maize in northern of RS state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Mariani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternativas econômicas para compor sistemas de produção são indispensáveis para a sustentabilidade de sistemas agrícolas, pecuários ou sistemas integrados. Objetivou-se avaliar a viabilidade técnica do consórcio das culturas produtoras de grãos, soja e milho, com Urochloa brizantha e Panicum maximum no Norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As forrageiras foram semeadas simultaneamente às culturas produtoras de grãos, na entrelinha, e isoladas. Foram utilizadas as cultivares 'Marandu' (braquiária, 'Mombaça' e 'Aruana' (panicum e como testemunha o milheto (Pennisetum americanum. Foram avaliados rendimento de grãos das culturas, seus componentes e o acúmulo de massa seca (MS. O acúmulo de MS das forrageiras isoladas Mombaça e Aruana foi superior às demais, com acúmulo médio de 6.515 e 5.778kg ha-1, respectivamente. No consórcio com o milho, o acúmulo médio de MS das forrageiras foi 2.380kg ha-1, sem diferença significativa entre as espécies, mas, com soja, o maior acúmulo ocorreu para Marandu (3.040kg ha-1. Não houve diminuição no rendimento de grãos da soja e do milho com a presença das forrageiras, porém, para colheita mecânica da soja, serão necessários estudos adicionais. O consórcio de milho com as gramíneas forrageiras tropicais perenes é alternativa viável para o Norte do RS.Economic alternatives to compose production systems are essential to the sustainability of farming systems, livestock or integrated systems. The objective was to evaluate the viability of intercropping grain crops, soybean and maize, with Urochloa brizantha and Panicum maximum in northern of Rio Grande do Sul. The forages were sown simultaneously with grain crops, in the inter-line, and in monoculture. We used 'Marandu' (brachiaria, 'Mombaça' and 'Aruana' (panicum and millet (Pennisetum americanum as a control. Crop yield and their components and accumulation of dry matter (DM were evaluated. The DM accumulation of 'Aruana' and 'Momba

  16. Dynamique d'infestation de la forêt classée de Sanaimbo par les adventices à partir des agro-écosystèmes environnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touré, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of Infestation in the Sanaimbo Protected Forest by Weeds from Surrounding Agro-ecosystems. The infestation dynamics of the Sanaimbo Protected Forest by weeds was evaluated with the aim to quantify the impact of weeds on the original flora of this locality. Floristic and phytosociological surveys samples were carried out on plots located inside and outside the forest. The frequency and proportion of biological types is different in plots located outside and within the classified forest. Chromolaena odorata (L. King & H.E. Robins has a high degree of infestation whatever the plot location. Euphorbia heterophylla L., Ageratum conyzoides L. and Panicum laxum Sw. show high levels of infestation in the plots out of the forest and start invading slowly the plots within the forest.

  17. Fungos aeróbios no intestino grosso de borregos e de ovelhas criados em pastagens tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.S. Freitas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi populations were evaluated in large intestine from sheep raised in the North of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples were from 39 Santa Inês crossbred ewes and 30 lambs raised on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, both supplemented with mineral mixtures. The clinical specimens were directly collected from rectal ampoule with sterile swabs. The development of fungal mycelium was observed in all lamb samples and positive cultures were observed in 34 ewe specimens (87.2%. After microculture of 40 colonies from lambs, 34 isolates of the genus Aspergillus, three of Paecilomyces spp., one Acremonium sp., and one Trichoderma sp. were identified. Out of the 39 isolates from ewes, 15 Paecilomyces spp., 11 Aspergillus spp., 11 Malbranchea spp., and one Onychocola sp. were identified. The results showed the predominance of the genus Aspergillus in the lambs, while the genus Paecilomyces, Malbranchea, and Aspergillus were predominant, in ewes.

  18. Cover crops affecting levels of ammonium and nitrate in the soil and upland rice developmentPlantas de cobertura afetando os níveis de nitrato e amônio no solo e o desenvolvimento do arroz de terras altas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Stephan Nascente

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems (NTS increases the levels of organic matter and could increase the nitrogen content of the soil, contributing to reduce fertilizers costs. The knowledge of these processes is fundamental for deciding whether cover crops can be effectively incorporated into the agricultural production system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cover crop species on the levels of nitrate and ammonium in the soil in early upland rice development, as well upland rice yield. A field experiment was performed and treatments consisted of growing rice on five cover crops (Panicum maximum, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha, millet and fallow in an NTS and two control treatments (Brachiaria brizantha and fallow under a conventional tillage system, CTS, (one plowing and two disking. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with three replications. The soil samples were collected during a period of six weeks (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days in relation to upland rice sowing. The cover crops Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum and Brachiaria ruziziensis in the NTS and B. brizantha fallow incorporated into the CTS favored higher levels of nitrate in the soil. In contrast, B. brizantha and fallow in the CTS and millet and P. maximum in the NTS favored the buildup of high levels of ammonium in the soil. The treatments under the plowed cover crops millet and fallow allowed for a higher upland rice yield. The tillage system and nature of the cover crops could be used to achieve the desired levels and forms of nitrogen in soil. O uso de plantas de cobertura no sistema plantio direto (SPD aumenta os níveis de matéria orgânica e pode ajudar a aumentar os teores de nitrogênio no solo contribuindo para reduzir os custos de fertilizantes. O conhecimento desse processo é fundamental para que as plantas de cobertura possam ser efetivamente incorporadas aos sistemas de produção agrícola. O

  19. Heavy metals concentration and distribution in soils and vegetation at Korle Lagoon area in Accra, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosu-Mensah, Benedicta Yayra; Addae, Emmanuel; Yirenya-Tawiah, Dzidzo

    2017-01-01

    The call for reclamation of land around Korle Lagoon in Accra, Ghana, where burning of E-waste and cultivation of vegetables takes place, make risk assessment of heavy metal contaminations important. This study aimed at evaluating the levels and risk of heavy metal contamination in soils...... and vegetation around the Korle lagoon area in Accra. Geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor and pollution load index were determined to assess the risk of contamination. The levels and distribution of nine heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Zn, Sn, Ni, Cu and Cr) in soil (0 – 20 cm) and common vegetation (Panicum...... was significantly different (p burning of e-waste should be enforced and animals...

  20. Kinetics Investigation on Mushroom Tyrosinase Inhibition of Proso Millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum is rich in nutritive components and is widely used as a human food, feed and forage for animals, and fuel. This study investigated the effect of a proso millet extract on the inhibition of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanogenesis. High performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the proso millet extract contained phenolic tyrosinase inhibitors, such as syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. The extract had an IC50 for inhibition of tyrosinase activity of 14.02 mg/mL. A Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plot showed that the proso millet extract functioned as a mixed competitive and noncompetitive inhibitor. Proso millet has potential as a tyrosinase inhibitor that may have applications in the cosmetics industry.

  1. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VJ. Pott

    Full Text Available This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river flood, some primary data are presented for the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park and associated Acurizal Preserve, analysing the floristic similarity among aquatic vegetation types. We comment on problems of conservation and observe that Panicum elephantipes Nees is one of the few natives to compete with the invasive Urochloa arrecta (Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz Morrone & Zuloaga.

  2. Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Cardozo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality.

  3. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somleva, Mariya N.; Snell, Kristi D.; Beaulieu, Julie; Peoples, Oliver P.; Garrison, Bradley; Patterson, Nii

    2013-07-16

    Transgenic plants, plant material, and plant cells for synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates, preferably poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (also referred to a as PHB) are provided. Preferred plants that can be genetically engineered to produce PHB include plants that do not normally produce storage products such as oils and carbohydrates, and plants that have a C.sub.4 NAD-malic enzyme photosynthetic pathway. Such plants also advantageously produce lignocellulosic biomass that can be converted into biofuels. An exemplary plant that can be genetically engineered to produce PHB and produce lignocellulosic biomass is switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L. A preferred cultivar of switchgrass is Alamo. Other suitable cultivars of switchgrass include but are not limited to Blackwell, Kanlow, Nebraska 28, Pathfinder, Cave-in-Rock, Shelter and Trailblazer.

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05047-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( FC248291 ) CAGH5240.fwd CAGH Nematostella vectensis Nemve La... 42 4e-10 4 ( FL973986 ) CCHY11996.g1 CCHY Panicum virgatum cal...3f09.y2 TBN95TM-SSFH Strongyloides stercoralis... 40 1e-04 2 ( FM992692 ) Candida dubliniensis CD36 chromoso...ynana_abdomen_nosize Bicyclus anyn... 50 0.10 1 ( GD193438 ) G1045P3111FM5.T1 Aplysia californica Pooled...3J15-MGRbd1. 44 6.5 1 ( CK149624 ) CsmgEST00052 Culicoides sonorensis female serum-f... 44 6.5 1 ( CI528724 ) Oryza sativa Japonica...ficus YJ016 DNA, ch... 63 6e-09 CP001071_944( CP001071 |pid:none) Akkermansia muciniphila ATCC BAA..

  5. Phytotoxic potential of Drimys brasiliensis Miers for use in weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni Anese

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the phytotoxicity potential of leaf and root extracts of Drimys brasiliensis on the germination and seedling growth of Panicum maximum and Euphorbia heterophylla and its influence on metaxylem cell size in the seedling roots of the latter specie. The leaf and root extracts were fractionated by partition chromatography, and the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions obtained from each organ were evaluated at different concentrations for phytotoxic activity in several bioassays. In seedling growth tests, we compared the effects of these fractions with the herbicide oxyfluorfen. The hexane fraction of the root extracts showed a higher inhibitory potential on the germination and growth of weeds and reduced the average size of the metaxylem cells of E. heterophylla roots by more than 50%.The inhibitory effects of the root hexane fraction on seedling growth was similar to the herbicide, indicating that D. brasiliensis is a possible alternative form of control for the weed species examined.

  6. The grasses (Poaceae) of the Colombian Guyana: analyses on their composition, richness, endemism, and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Canas, Diego

    2010-01-01

    The checklist of grasses from Colombian Guyana is presented. In all, 152 species, 69 genera, and six subfamilies were recorded. Thus, in the Colombian Guyana is represented the 18.7 and 43.7% of the species and genera of Colombian grasses, respectively. The subfamilies with the highest number of species were Panicoideae (110 species/46 genera), Chloridoideae (21/9), and Bambusoideae (11/9). The most diverse genera were Paspalum (19 species), Panicum (16), Axonopus (14), Eragrostis (9), and Digitaria (8). Nineteen species are introduced and naturalized in the Colombian Guyana, which represent 12.5% of the agrostological flora for the Colombian Guyana. There were 8 endemic species (5.3% of Colombian Guayanan grasses). In addition, some species are reported for the first time for Colombian flora (belonging to Axonopus, Cyphonanthus, Gymnopogon, and Paspalum), and some species are new to science (belonging to Axonopus, Digitaria, Eragrostis, and Sacciolepis). On the other hand, some preliminary biogeographical aspect are analyzed.

  7. Plant growth inhibition by soluble salts in sewage sludge-amended mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C.S.; Anderson, R.C. [Illinois State University, Normal, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1995-07-01

    The growth response of prairie switchgrass {ital Panicum virgatum}L was compared in strip mine spoil amended with various levels of anaerobically digested waste-activated sewage sludge (0, 56, 111, 222, or 333 dry Mg ha{sup -1}) and commercial fertilizer, pure sludge, and glasshouse soil. Plants were grown in a growth chamber and substrates were maintained at field capacity during the study. Soluble salt concentrations of the substrates increased linearly as a function of sludge amendment and were within the range known to inhibit the growth of many plant species at the high levels of sludge application. There was, however, a linear response of biomass production to increasing levels of sludge amendment. Maintaining substrates at field capacity apparently prevented the high concentration of soluble salts from inhibiting plant growth. The increased biomass yield associated with sludge application was likely due to the increased availability of inorganic nutrients associated with sludge amendment. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Effect of grazing system and the grass species on the pasture infestation and on the nematode gastrointestinal parasitism in beef cattle Efeito de sistema de pastejo e de espécies forrageiras na contaminação da pastagem e no parasitismo por nematóides gastrintestinais em bovinos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Bianchin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available During two years, the infestation of infecting larvae on grazing grass and the level of gastrointestinal nematodes in beef cattle, in the region of the Brazilian Cerrado, were monitored. In the first study, parasitological variables were investigated on pasture of Panicum maximum cv Mombaça, under continuous or rotational grazing, with four (36 resting days and 12 occupation days and ten paddocks (36 resting days and 4 occupation days. In the second study, these variables were evaluated with different forage species (Panicum maximum cv Mombaça, Braquiaria brizantha cv Marandu and Cynodon spp. (Tifton 85, under rotational grazing on eight paddocks (28 resting days and 4 occupation days. In the first study, and only in the first year, the infestation of pasture with infecting larvae was lower (P<0.05 in the rotation system with ten divisions. For the remaining observations of both studies, there were no significant effects of grazing systems and grass species on the fecal egg count and the number of infecting larvae in the pasture. These results indicated that, in the conditions the studies were carried out, the pasture resting for 36 days was insufficient to decrease the EPF and the infestation of pasture.Durante dois anos, acompanhou-se a infestação das pastagens por larvas infectantes e o nível de parasitismo por nematódeos gastrintestinais em bovinos de corte, na região do Cerrado. No primeiro estudo as variáveis parasitológicas foram acompanhadas em pastagens de Panicum maximum cv Mombaça, submetidas ao pastejo continuo e ao rotacionado, com 4 (36 dias de descanso e 12 dias de ocupação e 10 piquetes (36 dias de descanso e 4 dias de ocupação. No segundo estudo, essas variáveis foram avaliadas com diferentes espécies forrageiras (Panicum maximum cv Mombaça, Braquiaria brizantha cv Marandu e Cynodon spp (Tifton 85, sob pastejo rotacionado em 8 piquetes (28 dias de descanso e 4 dias de ocupação. No primeiro estudo, e apenas no

  9. Multi-farm economic analysis of perennial energy crops in Central Greece, taking into account the CAP reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lychnaras, Vassilis; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses farm level economic impacts of biomass production from perennial crops including Arundo donax L. (arundo), Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) and Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon). Regional biomass supply curves are estimated with a dynamic, multi-farm, mathematical programming model. Micro-economic data for the model are generated from farm surveys covering 52 farms containing a total of 400 parcels, in Central Greece. The study also examines the potential effects of the Common Agricultural Policy reform in 2003 on regional biomass supply. Simulations show that the policy reform toward decoupled subsidies lowers the cost of biomass between 15 and 25 euro per tonne. Switchgrass appears to be the most attractive option, followed by cardoon and miscanthus. Due to high specific machinery cost, arundo is never preferred. Relative to the agricultural policy setting of Agenda 2000, the biomass potential increases more for farms of small economic size and farms with a higher share of cotton. (author)

  10. Multi-farm economic analysis of perennial energy crops in Central Greece, taking into account the CAP reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychnaras, Vassilis [Centre for Planning and Economic Research, 11, Amerikis str., 106 72 Athens (Greece); Schneider, Uwe A. [Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, University of Hamburg, KlimaCampus Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 55, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    This study analyses farm level economic impacts of biomass production from perennial crops including Arundo donax L. (arundo), Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) and Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon). Regional biomass supply curves are estimated with a dynamic, multi-farm, mathematical programming model. Micro-economic data for the model are generated from farm surveys covering 52 farms containing a total of 400 parcels, in Central Greece. The study also examines the potential effects of the Common Agricultural Policy reform in 2003 on regional biomass supply. Simulations show that the policy reform toward decoupled subsidies lowers the cost of biomass between 15 and 25 euro per tonne. Switchgrass appears to be the most attractive option, followed by cardoon and miscanthus. Due to high specific machinery cost, arundo is never preferred. Relative to the agricultural policy setting of Agenda 2000, the biomass potential increases more for farms of small economic size and farms with a higher share of cotton. (author)

  11. Summer feeding ecology of Great Pampa-finches, Embernagra platensis at Laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Ferman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assemble data on the summer feeding ecology of the Great Pampa-finch, Embernagra platensis at the Laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to explore the differences related to the dietary patterns for each sex between winter and summer when possible. The stomach contents of 43 birds were analyzed. The animal fraction was composed of Hymenoptera (45.1%, Coleoptera (32.4%, Lepidoptera (6.0%, Araneae (5% and Orthoptera (3.2%. The application of the index of relative importance (IRI resulted in 1490.4 for Coleoptera, 428.5 for Hymenoptera and 162.5 for Lepidoptera caterpillars. The vegetal fraction consisted of Triticum aestivum (26.9%, Cyperaceous (25%, Poaceae (Gramineae (19.3% and Panicum sp. (11.2%. The IRI values were 893.8 for Triticum aestivum, 174.5 for Gramineae, 126.5 for Panicum sp. and 112.8 for Scirpus sp. The food niche width was 0.33 for both sexes; the diversity index resulted in 1.06 for females and 1.33 for males and specific diversity ranged from 1.87 to 2.84. A canonical component analysis (CCA was performed on environmental and morphometric variables, and a Monte Carlo test confirmed the canonical correlations. A t-test showed that some birds harmonized with a logarithmic model and some with a geometric curve. During the summer, Embernagra platensis ingests Hymenoptera and Coleoptera more often than seeds, suggesting that two biological mechanisms could be taking place in this bird.O objetivo deste estudo foi reunir dados referentes à ecologia alimentar do Sabiá-do-banhado, Embernagra platensis, na laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina, e explorar as diferenças relacionadas aos padrões dietéticos para cada sexo entre inverno e verão, quando possível. O conteúdo estomacal de 43 pássaros foi analisado. A fração animal foi composta por Hymenoptera (45,1%, Coleoptera (32,4%, Lepidoptera(6,0%, Araneae (5% e Orthoptera (3,2%. A aplicação do índice de importância relativa (IRI

  12. Between China and South Asia: A Middle Asian corridor of crop dispersal and agricultural innovation in the Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Chris J; Murphy, Charlene; Roberts, Rebecca; Lucas, Leilani; Silva, Fabio; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2016-10-01

    The period from the late third millennium BC to the start of the first millennium AD witnesses the first steps towards food globalization in which a significant number of important crops and animals, independently domesticated within China, India, Africa and West Asia, traversed Central Asia greatly increasing Eurasian agricultural diversity. This paper utilizes an archaeobotanical database (AsCAD), to explore evidence for these crop translocations along southern and northern routes of interaction between east and west. To begin, crop translocations from the Near East across India and Central Asia are examined for wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) from the eighth to the second millennia BC when they reach China. The case of pulses and flax ( Linum usitatissimum ) that only complete this journey in Han times (206 BC-AD 220), often never fully adopted, is also addressed. The discussion then turns to the Chinese millets, Panicum miliaceum and Setaria italica , peaches ( Amygdalus persica ) and apricots ( Armeniaca vulgaris ), tracing their movement from the fifth millennium to the second millennium BC when the Panicum miliaceum reaches Europe and Setaria italica Northern India, with peaches and apricots present in Kashmir and Swat. Finally, the translocation of japonica rice from China to India that gave rise to indica rice is considered, possibly dating to the second millennium BC. The routes these crops travelled include those to the north via the Inner Asia Mountain Corridor, across Middle Asia, where there is good evidence for wheat, barley and the Chinese millets. The case for japonica rice, apricots and peaches is less clear, and the northern route is contrasted with that through northeast India, Tibet and west China. Not all these journeys were synchronous, and this paper highlights the selective long-distance transport of crops as an alternative to demic-diffusion of farmers with a defined crop package.

  13. Variation of Soluble Solids Concentration During the Day in Three Pastures During the Dry Season in the Middle River Sinú Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiro Suárez Paternina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of soluble solids at different times of the day in three tropical pastures. The experiment was conducted at the Research Center Turipaná of Colombian Agricultural Research Corporation, located in Cereté, Colombia. During January and February of 2011, we assessed the concentration of soluble solids in three fertirrigated pastures: Panicum maximum, Cynodon nlemfuensis and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II, in an intensive model of meat production at different sampling times 7:00 and 10:00 a. m., 1:00 and 4:00 p.m. The statistical design of the experiment consisted of a block design completely randomized three-factor under 3*3*4 (pasture*stocking*time and three replicates for each evaluation day. An analysis of variance and differences were statistically significant when the means were separated by Tukey test (p<0.05. The analysis found highly significant differences (p<0.01 in the concentration of soluble solids in different pastures, in all periods of the day evaluated, with the cultivar Mulato II that presented the highest values with 9.19 %, followed by Cynodon nlemfuensis and Panicum maximum with 8.27 % and 7.07 %, respectively. The soluble solids concentration varied during the day and between pastures. The time periods close to noon —10:00 a. m. and 1:00 p. m.— presented the highest concentrations of soluble solids in all pastures; this can be used as a tool for paddock rotation.

  14. Interspecific differences in growth response and tolerance to the antibiotic sulfadiazine in ten clonal wetland plants in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Xu, Huilian; Sun, Yingbo; Huang, Lili; Zhang, Peixia; Zou, Chunping; Yu, Bo; Zhu, Genfa; Zhao, Chaoyi

    2016-02-01

    Pollution caused by residual antibiotics is a worldwide environmental issue. Antibiotic residues often occur in aquatic ecosystems, posing threats to the health of aquatic organisms. The effects of antibiotic residues on the growth of crop plants and on human health are reasonably well known. However, less is known about antibiotic effects on wetland plants. Therefore, we studied the response and tolerance of ten clonal wetland plants grown in soil spiked with sulfadiazine at 10 mg kg(-1) (an environmentally relevant concentration) and 100 mg kg(-1). At 10 mg kg(-1), ramet number was the least affected trait, while root number was the most affected among plant species. Plant shoot and total biomass were reduced in all species except in Cyperus malaccensis var. brevifolius and Panicum repens. Chlorophyll content was reduced in Alocasia macrorrhiza, Saururus chinensis, and Commelina diffusa. In general, Panicum paludosum and C. malaccensis var. brevifolius showed the least reduction of growth parameters, whereas growth of both A. macrorrhiza and S. chinensis was severely reduced. At 100 mg kg(-1), negative responses occurred in all species. Comprehensive tolerance analysis revealed that P. paludosum and C. malaccensis var. brevifolius were the species most resistant to sulfadiazine. These species are potential candidates for sulfadiazine polluted wetland restoration. A. macrorrhiza and S. chinensis were the most susceptible species and they should be protected from sulfadiazine pollution. Relative plant shoot biomass and height were the most useful indicators for evaluating plant tolerance to sulfadiazine. Plant tolerance to sulfadiazine was associated with the differences of plants in height and shoot biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ingestion volontaire et digestibilité apparente d'une ration à base de la farine de graines de Mucuna pruriens var. utilis complétée de fourrages chez les lapins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboh, AB.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Volontary Ingestion and Apparent Digestibility of a Ration Based on Mucuna pruriens var. utilis Seeds Flour Completed with Forage on Rabbits. Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (mucuna detoxified seeds flour is used as a vegetable protein source, in a basal diet of fifteen growing rabbits divided in five groups of tree. Each rabbit received per day a fixed quantity of basal diet (130.5 g DM, but as only feed (RP for control group; plus 40.5 g DM of Panicum maximum forage and, 60 g DM of one of the four experimental legumes of Aeschynomene histrix (RH, Mucuna pruriens (RFM, Stylosanthes scabra Secca (RS and Tridax procumbens (RT for the others groups. The experiment conducted in Benin has lasted 26 days, split in 19 days for diet adaptability and 7 days for data collection. Voluntary daily feed intake varied from 28 to 42 g/kg of dry mater (DM of live weight (LW for basal diet and from 10.5 to 18 g DM/kg of LW for Panicum maximum. Green forage consumption of Aeschynomene histrix, Mucuna pruriens and Stylosanthes scabra were higher compared to the one of Tridax procumbens (P< 0.01. The supply of green forage to basal diet has increased the total daily feed intake that is about 67 to 89 g DM/kg of LW and 26 to 39 g DM/day for dung production.Water intake is higher for rabbit fed with RP diet. Feed resource RFM but also RS and RH have been digestible with 70%, 61% and 54% DM. They gave high weight gain of 30-22 g/day.

  16. STRAW DEGRADATION AND NITROGEN RELEASE FROM COVER CROPS UNDER NO-TILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANO STEPHAN NASCENTE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Culturas de cobertura são usadas para cobrir o solo e também podem liberar nitrogênio para o solo durante a mineralização. No entanto, é necessário identificar espécies que combinem liberação rápida de nutri- entes com maior persistência da palhada na superfície do solo. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a degrada- ção da palha e a liberação de nitrogênio por culturas de cobertura sob plantio direto. O experimento de campo foi conduzido durante dois anos no verão (2008/2009 e 2009/2010 na região do Cerrado do Brasil. O delinea- mento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso no esquema fatorial. Os tratamentos foram a combinação de cinco plantas (quatro espécies de plantas de cobertura 1- Panicum maximum, 2- Brachiaria ruziziensis, 3- Brachiaria brizantha e 4- Pennisetum glaucum [milheto] e pousio como controle com seis épocas de avaliação (seis pri- meiras semanas após a aplicação de glifosato nessas plantas de cobertura. Entre as espécies avaliadas, Penise- tum glaucum e pousio tiveram rápida degradação da palhada e liberação de nitrogênio. As culturas de cobertura Panicum maximum, Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria ruziziensis se destacaram na produção de biomassa e na quantidade de nitrogênio nas suas palhadas, mas apresentaram baixos coeficientes de degradação e persistiram por mais tempo na superfície do solo em relação a Pennisetum glaucum e pousio.

  17. Gene capture from across the grass family in the allohexaploid Elymus repens (L.) Gould (Poaceae, Triticeae) as evidenced by ITS, GBSSI, and molecular cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecký, David

    2010-06-01

    Four accessions of hexaploid Elymus repens from its native Central European distribution area were analyzed using sequencing of multicopy (internal transcribed spacer, ITS) and single-copy (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSSI) DNA in concert with genomic and fluorescent in situ hybridization (GISH and FISH) to disentangle its allopolyploid origin. Despite extensive ITS homogenization, nrDNA in E. repens allowed us to identify at least four distinct lineages. Apart from Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum, representing the major genome constituents, the presence of further unexpected alien genetic material, originating from species outside the Triticeae and close to Panicum (Paniceae) and Bromus (Bromeae), was revealed. GBSSI sequences provided information complementary to the ITS. Apart from Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum, two additional gene variants from within the Triticeae were discovered: One was Taeniatherum-like, but the other did not have a close relationship with any of the diploids sampled. GISH results were largely congruent with the sequence-based markers. GISH clearly confirmed Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum as major genome constituents and further showed the presence of a small chromosome segment corresponding to Panicum. It resided in the Hordeum subgenome and probably represents an old acquisition of a Hordeum progenitor. Spotty hybridization signals across all chromosomes after GISH with Taeniatherum and Bromus probes suggested that gene acquisition from these species is more likely due to common ancestry of the grasses or early introgression than to recent hybridization or allopolyploid origin of E. repens. Physical mapping of rDNA loci using FISH revealed that all rDNA loci except one minor were located on Pseudoroegneria-derived chromosomes, which suggests the loss of all Hordeum-derived loci but one. Because homogenization mechanisms seem to operate effectively among Pseudoroegneria-like copies in this species, incomplete ITS homogenization in our samples

  18. Crescimento micelial de dois isolados de Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler, em resíduos ligninocelulósicos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3622 Mycelial growth of two isolated strains of Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler in lignocellulose residue - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3622

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Schunck da Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de verificar o crescimento micelial de dois isolados, 42 e 47, de Lentinula edodes, utilizaram-se os substratos: serragens de Eucalyptus sp., de Grevillea robusta e de Melia azedarach; resíduo de algodão e folhas de Panicum maximum em diferentes composições e suplementados com farelos de soja e de arroz. Verificou-se crescimento micelial por meio de medidas do raio avaliadas pela Análise de Dados Longitudinais. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à analise estatística (Manova. O crescimento foi significativamente diferente ao longo do tempo e este influenciou marcadamente o comportamento dos isolados nos diferentes resíduos. Observaram-se quatro padrões de comportamento para o isolado 42 e cinco, para o 47. As serragens de Eucalyptus sp. e de G. robusta mostraram-se as mais propícias ao crescimento dos dois isolados de L. edodes, confirmando ser essa espécie essencialmente de hábito lignícola.With the purpose of verifying the mycelial growth of two isolated strains of Lentinula edodes – 42 and 47 –, the following substrates were used: sawdusts of Eucalyptus sp., Grevillea robusta and Melia azedarach; cotton residue and leaves of Panicum maximum, in different compositions and complemented with crumbs of soy and rice. Mycelial growth was verified through radius measurements as evaluated by Longitudinal Data Analysis. The obtained data was submitted to statistical analysis (Manova. The growth was significantly different along time, and this influenced remarkably the behavior of the isolated strains in the different residues. Four patterns of behavior were observed for isolate 42, and five for number 47. The sawdusts of Eucalyptus sp. and of G. robusta proved to the most favorable for growing the two isolates of L. edodes, confirming this species to be essentially lignous.

  19. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  20. POBLACIÓN DE NEMATODOS EN FORRAJES TROPICALES EN DOS RANGOS DE ALTURA EN EL CANTÓN DE SAN CARLOS, ALAJUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo WingChing-Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la población de nematodos fitoparásitos presente en los pastos Sorgo negro (Sorghum almus, Camerún (Pennisetum purpureum var Camerun, King grass (Pennisetum purpureum var King grass, Tanzania (Panicum maximum var Tanzania, Brizantha (Brachiaria brizantha, Toledo (Brachiaria brizantha var Toledo, Estrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis, Mombaza (Panicum maximum var Mombaza, Ratana (Ischaemum ciliare y la leguminosa maní forrajero (Arachis pintoi en la localidad de San Carlos, Alajuela, de junio a noviembre del 2003. Se tomaron 5 muestras compuestas de suelo y de las raíces contenidas en el volumen de suelo para los forrajes evaluados, excepto para el pasto King grass, el Ratana y el Maní forrajero, en donde el número de muestras compuestas fue de 10 para cada material. Los nematodos Pratylenchus sp., Helicotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp., Criconemella sp., se identificaron en 8 de los pastos y en la leguminosa evaluada. El género Psilenchus sp., solo se presentó en el pasto Tanzania, mientras que el género Xiphinema sp., en los forrajes Tanzania, Brizantha, Ratana y en el maní forrajero. El género Paratylenchus sp., se contabilizó con los forrajes Tanzania, Brizantha y Ratana. En el pasto Toledo, Camerún y en el maní forrajero se observó Hemicycliophora sp. En cambio, Meloidogyne sp., se encontró en los pastos Brizantha y Ratana. Los nematodos no fitoparásitos se identificaron en los 9 pastos y la leguminosa evaluada.

  1. ESTABLISHMENT AND EVALUATION OF SWITCHGRASS ON RECLAIMED MINE SOIL [English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, David; Shankle, Brandon; Oswalt, Ernest; Duckworth, Jeremy; Sanborn, Judd; Buell, Rebecca; Roberson, Bill

    2010-06-30

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native warm season perennial grass that has productive potential of up to 20 Mg ha-1 of biomass and it persists for decades when harvested once per year. Switchgrass provides excellent ground cover and soil stabilization once established and contributes to soil sequestration of new carbon. Slow establishment on newly reclaimed soil, however, provides for significant erosive opportunities thereby requiring initial soil stabilization with a cover crop. Several planting options were evaluated on two topsoil substitute soils. The planting options included: 1) an existing stand of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) that was killed with glyphosate followed by disking in red oxidized topsoil substitute and prime farmland topsoil respread in 2007, 2) red oxidized topsoil substitute was seeded directly with switchgrass, 3) browntop millet (Panicum ramosum) was established with switchgrass, 4) or switchgrass was established in senescing browntop millet or wheat without tillage. Switchgrass was successfully established into a bermudagrass sod that had been killed with herbicides and disked as well as into a senescing stand of browntop millet or wheat. Significant soil erosion occurred on the disked area in 2008 leading to considerable repair work followed by planting wheat. Disked areas that did not erode had an excellent stand of switchgrass with 23.3 plants m-2 in November, 2008. Eroded areas replanted in April, 2009 into senescing wheat had 46 plants m-2 by July, 2009. The area planted directly into newly respread soil in May, 2009 was eroded severely by a 75 mm thunderstorm and was repaired, disked and replanted to switchgrass and browntop millet. Switchgrass seeded with browntop millet had a sparse switchgrass stand and was replanted to switchgrass in August, 2009. Rainfall volumes from August, 2009 to October, 2009 totaled 750 mm, but new erosion damage in areas successfully planted to switchgrass has been minimal.

  2. Alien plant species (ephemerophytes in Romensko-Poltavsky Geobotanical District, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvirna Tetyana S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on ephemerophytes of the alien portion of the flora of the Romensko-Poltavsky Geobotanical District (north-eastern Ukraine. It is a detailed study of this group of plants, conducted for the first time in the Ukraine. The checklist of alien vascular plants contains 345 species, of which 27 species are ephemerophytes (or 8%: Adonis aestivalis, A. annua, Papaver albiflorum, Urtica cannabina, Gypsophila perfoliata, Atriplex micrantha, Chenopodium × preissmannii, Ch. × thellungii, Rumex longifolius, Sisymbrium polymorphum, Euphorbia humifusa, Malus sylvestris, Onobrychis viciifolia, Astrodaucus orientalis, Datura tatula, Solanum schultesii, Lindernia procumbens, Melampyrum cristatum, Helianthus annuus, Petasites spurius, Xanthium ripicola × Xanthium albinum, Echinochloa tzvelevii, Panicum capillare, Panicum capillare L. subsp. barvipulvinatum, Phalaris canariensis, Setaria ×ambigua, Sorghum halepense. The basis of this work is original data of the author obtained during field studies, and a critical study of the literature, archival, cartographic materials and herbarium collections, and the use of classical methods of botanical classification. Complex research of this group of plants was conducted and as a result of these investigations the following characteristics were established: a predominance of kenophytes of Mediterranean origin in this group, species of arid areas, cosmopolitan species with a diffuse type of space structure, therophytes, herbaceous monocarpic plants, mesotrophes, heliophytes and xeromesophytes, with an insignificant degree of impact on native plant communities and with a limited distribution within the study region. The combination of these results indicates that ephemerophytes comprise a temporary, unstable component of the flora of this region of the Ukraine. The paper provides maps of the distribution of these 27 species.

  3. Atividade de fosfatases em gramíneas forrageiras em resposta à disponibilidade de fósforo no solo e à altura de corte das plantas Phosphatase activity in forage grasses as influenced by soil phosphorus availability and plant cutting height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flancer Novais Nunes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência de utilização de um nutriente, expressa pela relação entre a biomassa produzida e a quantidade absorvida, é uma importante característica adaptativa das plantas, particularmente daquelas cultivadas em solos com baixa disponibilidade desse nutriente. Maior eficiência de utilização de P (EUP é conferida pela maior taxa de remobilização de P, que consiste na translocação desse nutriente para regiões de maior demanda metabólica na planta. Maiores taxas de remobilização têm sido associadas a maiores atividades das enzimas: fosfatase ácida (APase e ribonuclease (RNase. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a atividade dessas enzimas em plantas de Brachiaria decumbens, pouco exigente, e de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, mais exigente em P, cultivadas em solos que receberam diferentes doses desse nutriente e submetidas a diferentes alturas de corte. O ensaio foi realizado em casa de vegetação, utilizando amostra do horizonte B de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo argiloso. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação fatorial das duas gramíneas, das doses de 100, 200 e 500 mg dm-3 de P e das três alturas de corte: sem corte e corte a 15 e 30 cm a partir da superfície do solo para Brachiaria; e sem corte e corte a 20 e 40 cm para Panicum. As unidades experimentais consistiram de vasos com 10 dm³ de solo, com 10 plantas. Os resultados indicaram que não houve diferença significativa na produção de biomassa das duas gramíneas, mas a adição de P propiciou maior produção e maior teor desse nutriente na parte aérea de ambas. As plantas submetidas a cortes mais severos apresentaram menor produção e maiores teores de P na parte aérea. Ocorreu efeito negativo das doses de P na atividade da APase e da RNase nas duas forrageiras. As plantas cultivadas com a menor dose de P apresentaram maior atividade dessas enzimas e maior EUP. A atividade de ambas as fosfatases decresceu com a idade das plantas. No tratamento com o corte mais

  4. ACUMULAÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES EM FOLHAS DE MILHETO E DOS CAPINS BRAQUIÁRIA E MOMBAÇA NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION IN LEAVES OF MILLET, BRACHIARIA AND GUINEAGRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Joaquim Braga Pereira Braz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O milheto (Pennisetum glaucum e os capins braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e mombaça (Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça são importantes gramíneas cultivadas nos solos sob cerrados, da região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, utilizadas principalmente para pastoreio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a acumulação dos nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn e Fe nas folhas dessas gramíneas, em função dos dias após a emergência da planta. O experimento foi conduzido em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, na Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. Os tratamentos foram testados em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em parcelas de 6,0 m de largura e 20 m de comprimento. No plantio foram usados 400 kg/ha de adubo da fórmula comercial 5-30-15. O plantio foi feito em dezembro de 2001 e, durante o ciclo das culturas, foram feitas nove amostragens de folhas para análise química, em diferentes períodos, tomados em dias após emergência. De posse da massa seca e da concentração dos nutrientes calcularam-se as respectivas acumulações no limbo foliar das três gramíneas. Fez-se o ajuste dos dados de acumulação do nutriente (Y, em função de dias após a emergência, por um modelo exponencial quadrático: Y= a exp(bx + cx2. O milheto foi a gramínea que mais acumulou nutrientes no limbo foliar e em menor tempo, seguido pelos capins mombaça e braquiária. Entre os macronutrientes, as maiores acumulações foram as de N e as de K, e as menores, as de P. Entre os micronutrientes, o ferro foi o elemento que apresentou maior acúmulo no limbo foliar das três gramíneas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Gramíneas; nutrição mineral; Brachiaria brizantha; Pennisetum glaucum; Panicum maximum.

    Millet (

  5. ADUBAÇÃO NITROGENADA EM CAPIM-MOMBAÇA: PRODUÇÃO, EFICIÊNCIA DE CONVERSÃO E RECUPERAÇÃO APARENTE DO NITROGÊNIO NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON MOMBAÇAGRASS: YIELD, CONVERSION EFFICIENCY AND APPARENT RECOVERY OF NITROGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huberto José Klimann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a produção de massa seca mensal (PMSM, total (PMST, do período das águas (PMSA e da seca (PMSS e acumulada (PMSac, além da eficiência de conversão de nitrogênio (ECAN e recuperação aparente do nitrogênio (RAN em pastagem de capim-mombaça, submetida a doses de nitrogênio. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelas doses 0, 100, 300 e 500 kg/ha de nitrogênio na forma de sulfato de amônio. A PMSM apresentou oscilações em todas as doses de nitrogênio no decorrer dos meses de experimentação. As maiores PMST, PMSA e PMSS em função das doses de nitrogênio ajustaram-se ao modelo de regressão linear (primeiro ano e PMSS (no segundo ano, e para o segundo ano a PMST e a PMSA ajustaram-se ao polinômio de segundo grau, não apresentando resposta significativa em doses acima de 455,80 e 438,00 kg/ha. Doses crescentes de nitrogênio causaram significativa produção de massa seca, tanto no período das águas como da seca, porém diminuíram a ECAN e a RAN, ocasionando perdas de nitrogênio do ecossistema da pastagem para o ambiente. Nos dois anos de experimentação a dose média de nitrogênio de 307 kg/ha foi a que revelou a maior eficiência de conversão da adubação pelo capim-mombaça.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Fertilização de nitrogenada, manejo, Panicum maximum, sulfato de amônio. The objective of this research was to evaluate the monthly (MDMP and total (TMDP dry mass prduction, as well as the mass production durig rainy (DMPR and dry (DMPD seasons and accumulated dry mass production (ADMY, also, nitrogen nitrogen conversion efficiency (NCE and nitrogen apparent recovery (NAR in Mombaça-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. pasture, submitted to nitrogen doses. The treatments were constituted by doses of 0, 100, 300 and 500 kg/ha of nitrogen as ammonium sulfate. The MDMP oscillated in all applied nitrogen doses along the months of experiments. The largest TDMP, MDMP and DMPD, as affected

  6. Estudo fitoquímico e alelopático do extrato de caule de sucupira-branca (Pterodon emarginatus Phytochemistry and allelophatic study of Pterodon emarginatus stem extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Hernández-Terrones

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia é um dos fenômenos pouco estudados no Cerrado. Trata-se de uma ocorrência natural, resultante da liberação de substâncias capazes de estimular ou inibir o desenvolvimento de outras plantas. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a ação alelopática de extratos da sucupira-branca (Pterodon emarginatus sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento da raiz e parte aérea do capim-colonião (Panicum maximum. Bioensaios de germinação realizados em placas de Petri comprovaram que o extrato metanólico do tronco dessa planta, a 150 ppm, inibiu 83% do desenvolvimento da raiz, 75% da parte aérea e 30% da germinação de sementes de capim-colonião. Em casa de vegetação, os resultados de inibição foram de 83% para a parte aérea, 80% para a raiz e 63% para a germinação, mas somente na concentração de 400 ppm. Frações do extrato metanólico bruto obtidas por cromatografia de coluna cromatográfica não reproduziram os resultados de inibição obtidos inicialmente. A fração mais ativa (diclorometano/clorofórmio foi analisada por CG/EM. Ela é constituída fundamentalmente por substâncias alifáticas de cadeia longa: fitol (13,5%, ácido oléico (12,8%, linoleiladato de metila (10,9% e ácido palmítico (6,9%. Foram detectados, também, os compostos 1,2,4-trimetil e isopropilbenzenos (12,2% e as cetonas isoméricas isopropenilmetilcetona e 3-penten-2-ona (7,3%. Três compostos desconhecidos também se destacaram: um de baixa massa molar (98 Da, 13,5% e dois de massa molar elevada (13,6%.Allelopathy is one of the natural phenomena little studied in the cerrado. It is the result of the release of substances capable of stimulating or inhibiting the growth of other plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the allelophatic action of the white sucupira (Pterodon emarginatus stem extract on the germination and development of colonião grass (Panicum maximum under germination, root and aerial part development of coloni

  7. Produção Arbórea e Animal em Sistema Silvipastoril com Acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii Trees and Animal Production in a Silvipastoral System with Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelia Maria de Souza Castilhos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho dos componentes arbóreo e animal em um sistema silvipastoril (SSP com acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild e gramíneas perenes de verão, foi conduzido um trabalho em convênio com a empresa Seta S.A., na unidade da Fepagro em Tupanciretã, RS, no período de outubro de 1995 a maio de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi um bifatorial (espécie forrageira e densidade arbórea inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. As espécies forrageiras (EF avaliadas foram capim annoni (Eragrostis plana, braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha e capim gatton (Panicum maximum cv. Gatton nos quatro primeiros anos, e capim gatton, capim aruana (P. maximum cv. Aruana e capim pangola (Digitaria diversinervis para os demais anos. As densidades arbóreas (DA testadas foram de 1.667, 1.000, 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1. Com 1.667 árvores.ha-1 houve maior rendimento de madeira em todas as avaliações, não diferindo de 1.000 árvores/ha-1 a partir do quinto ano. A produtividade animal foi mais elevada em DA de 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1, sendo respectivamente 229 e 223 kg.ha-1 de peso vivo. Aos sete anos de implantação da acácia negra, o volume de madeira foi de 166; 143; 86 e 51 m3.ha-1, respectivamente, nas densidades arbóreas de 1.667; 1.000; 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1. Para que haja um equilíbrio entre produção arbórea e animal, SSPs com densidades arbóreas entre 1.000 e 833 árvores.ha-1 apresentam-se como alternativas viáveis para os produtores rurais.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.39

    A silvopastoral study consisting of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild and tropical perennial grasses was developed at the Fepagro Research Unity in Tupanciretã, RS, in collaboration with Seta Group, from October 1995 until May 2003, with the objective of evaluating trees and animal (beef cattle performances. The experiment was a bifactorial completely randomized design (forage specie and arboreal density with two

  8. Atributos do solo sob pastagens em sistema de sequeiro e irrigado Soil attributes under pasture system with and without irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A pecuária é uma das atividades econômicas mais importantes da região do cerrado, sendo que o sucesso dessa atividade é dependente do sistema de manejo e de gramíneas forrageiras adaptadas às condições edafoclimáticas da região. Objetivou-se, neste tabalho, avaliar os atributos do solo em áreas sob pastagens com capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia e braquiarão [Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex A. Rich. Stapf. cv. Marandu], em sistema de sequeiro e irrigado no município de Rio Verde, GO. O experimento foi instalado no Centro Tecnológico Comigo, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico típico, em 16 parcelas com 450m² cada. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos completamente casualisados, referindo-se aos quatro tratamentos: capim-Tanzânia e braquiarão com e sem irrigação, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas análises de atributos físicos (estabilidade de agregados e químicas (pH, cálcio, magnésio, potássio, fósforo, acidez potencial, capacidade de troca catiônica, saturação por bases e conteúdo de matéria orgânica. Os atributos químicos variaram em ambas as profundidades, decorrentes principalmente da ação da calagem e adubação do solo independente da ausência ou presença de irrigação. Os tratamentos com capim-Tanzânia e braquiarão sem irrigação apresentaram os maiores teores de matéria orgânica e tiveram os maiores valores do diâmetro médio geométrico (DMG. A maior porcentagem dos agregados ficou retida na peneira de > 2,0mm de malha. A irrigação não afetou a produção de massa seca do capim-Tanzânia e braquiarão.The livestock production is one of the most important economic activities in the Brazilian savanna and its success depends on the management system used as well as the use of grasses adapted to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the region. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the soil attributes under pasture with Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum

  9. An African grassland responds similarly to long-term fertilization to the Park Grass experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ward

    Full Text Available We compared the results of a long-term (65 years experiment in a South African grassland with the world's longest-running ecological experiment, the Park Grass study at Rothamsted, U.K. The climate is warm and humid in South Africa and cool and temperate in England. The African grassland has been fertilized with two forms of nitrogen applied at four levels, phosphorus and lime in a crossed design in 96 plots. In 1951, about 84% of plant cover consisted of Themeda triandra, Tristachya leucothrix and Setaria nigrirostris. Currently, the dominant species are Panicum maximum, Setaria sphacelata and Eragrostis curvula, making up 71% of total biomass. As in the Park Grass experiment, we found a significant (additive interaction effect on ANPP of nitrogen and phosphorus, and a (marginally significant negative correlation between ANPP and species richness. Unlike the Park Grass experiment, there was no correlation between ANPP and species richness when pH was included as a covariate. There was also a significant negative effect of nitrogen amount and nitrogen form and a positive effect of lime on species richness and species diversity. Soil pH had an important effect on species richness. Liming was insufficient to balance the negative effects on species richness of nitrogen fertilization. There was a significant effect of pH on biomass of three abundant species. There were also significant effects of light on the biomass of four species, with only Panicum maximum having a negative response to light. In all of the abundant species, adding total species richness and ANPP to the model increased the amount of variance explained. The biomass of Eragrostis curvula and P. maximum were negatively correlated with species richness while three other abundant species increased with species richness, suggesting that competition and facilitation were active. Consistent with the results from the Park Grass and other long-term fertilization experiments of grasslands

  10. Composição e distribuição da vegetação herbácea em três áreas com fisionomias distintas na Praia do Peró, Cabo Frio, RJ, Brasil Composition and distribution of herbaceous vegetation in three areas of different aspect in Praia do Peró, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zorat Cordeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A composição e a distribuição da vegetação herbácea da Praia do Peró foram caracterizadas em três áreas com topografias e fisionomias distintas, pelo método de parcelas. As três áreas são ocupadas pela comunidade psamófila-reptante, visualmente dividida em duas regiões: frontal, com espécies estoloníferas e suculentas, e posterior, com predomínio de espécies graminóides. Foram amostradas 38 espécies, das quais Paspalum maritimum Trim, Ipomoea imperati (Vahl. Griseb, Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. Sweet, Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth e Panicum racemosum (Beauv. Spreng. alcançaram os maiores valores de importância (VI. A topografia do ambiente, intimamente relacionada com a dinâmica de ondas de maré e tempestades, com aporte de areia oriunda dos ventos e das marés e com a ação antrópica, não influencia a distribuição das espécies vegetais encontradas, sendo considerada apenas como um componente influente na paisagem, estabelecido em conjunto com a comunidade vegetal, sendo esta última fortemente determinada pela distância em que se encontra em relação ao mar.The composition and the distribution of herbaceous vegetation of Praia do Peró were characterized in three areas with different topographic and aspect, by using the method of quadrats. The three areas are occupied by the creeping-psamophyte community, being visually divided into two regions: frontal, with stolonipherae and succulent species, and posterior, with predominance of grass species. Thirty-eight species were sampled, from which Paspalum maritimum Trim, Ipomoea imperati (Vahl. Griseb, Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. Sweet, Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth and Panicum racemosum (Beauv. Spreng. attained the highest values of importance (VI. The topography, intimately related with the dynamics of tidal waves and storms, with the deposit of sand brought by the winds and tides, and with the human action, doesn't influence the distribution of the vegetal species found

  11. Monitoramento de problemas com plantas aquáticas e caracterização da qualidade de água e sedimento na UHE Mogi-Guaçu Monitoring problems with aquatic plants and characterization of water and sediment quality at UHE Mogi-Guaçu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Cavenaghi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na UHE Mogi-Guaçu, pertencente à AES Tietê S.A. Levantamento de plantas aquáticas e amostragem de água e sedimento foram realizados em julho de 2001 (estação seca, novembro de 2001 (início da estação chuvosa e março de 2002 (final da estação chuvosa. Foram feitas 846 análises de água e 516 de sedimento, avaliando-se 47 características da água e 41 do sedimento. Espécies marginais e flutuantes foram as principais infestantes do reservatório, merecendo destaque as espécies Brachiaria subquadripara, Eichornia crassipes, Polygonum lapathifolium, Panicum rivulare, Salvinia auriculata e Pistia stratiotes. A turbidez e conseqüente baixa transmissão de luz pela coluna d'água impossibilitaram o desenvolvimento de plantas submersas. Teores de fósforo e nitrogênio encontrados tanto na água quanto no sedimento mostraram-se suficientes para suportar o crescimento de plantas aquáticas. A ocorrência de plantas marginais e flutuantes estava associada ao intenso processo de sedimentação observado no reservatório.This research was carried out at the Mogi Guaçu reservoir owned by AES Tiete. Assessment of aquatic plants and water and sediment sampling were carried out in July 2001 (dry season, November 2001 (start of rainy season and March 2002 (end of rainy season. A total of 846 water and 516 sediment analyses were performed, with 47 water and 41 sediment characteristics being evaluated. Marginal and floating species were the main weeds in the reservoir, the most outstanding being Brachiaria subquadripara, Eichornia crassipes, Polygonum lapathifolium, Panicum rivulare, Salvinia auriculata and Pistia stratiotes. Turbidity and low light transmission by water column made the growth of the submerged plants impossible. Phosphorus and nitrogen concentration both in the water and sediment was adequate to support aquatic plant growth. The occurrence of marginal and floating plants was associated with the intense

  12. Caracterização do capim Mombaça em diferentes alturas de pastejo em sistema de consorcio com babaçu e monocultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Odilon Dias Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar as características agronômicas, estruturais e massa de raiz do Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça em diferentes condições de pastejo dentro do mesmo pasto em sistema de monocultivo e integrado pastagem-floresta (consorciado com palmeiras de babaçu. Foram realizadas avaliações nos meses de dezembro de 2012 a fevereiro de 2013. Os sistemas foram mantidos sob pastejo contínuo com ovinos (média de 20 kg de peso vivo durante todo período de avaliação. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, sendo: parcelas os sistemas e subparcelas as alturas de pastejo, com 3 ciclos de coleta. A presença da palmeira do babaçu influenciou a produtividade de massa seca da parte aérea em sistema consorciado devido a diminuição no perfilhamento da gramínea ocasionado pelo estresse do sombreamento. A produção de massa seca de raiz decresceu sendo influenciada pelo sombreamento e pela intensidade de pastejo nas alturas avaliadas, ocorrendo diminuição à medida que decresceu a altura da gramínea. O sistema de monocultivo teve melhores resultados para as mesmas alturas em todos os parâmetros avaliados em comparação com o sistema consorciado, onde número de perfilhos, produção de matéria seca (MS da parte aérea, índice de área folear (IAF, % de MS foram maiores em sistema de monocultivo independente das alturas avaliadas. O sombreamento natural das palmeiras de babaçu influenciou negativamente as características produtivas e estruturais do Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça, alterando dessa forma a arquitetura da gramínea e diminuindo sua capacidade produtiva.

  13. Levantamento de plantas aquáticas no reservatório de Salto Grande, Americana-SP Aquatic plant survey in Salto Grande reservoir in Americana-SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a frequência relativa e o nível de infestação de cada espécie da flora aquática presente no reservatório de Salto Grande, Americana-SP. O levantamento e a identificação das plantas aquáticas foram realizados percorrendo-se as margens do reservatório em uma embarcação. Ao longo dele foram estabelecidos 20 pontos de avaliação, sendo todos eles fotografados e georreferenciados. Foram atribuídos valores de 0 a 100% tanto para as espécies presentes como para os espaços livres de macrófitas aquáticas que eventualmente pudessem ocorrer dentro dos pontos amostrados. Com os dados referentes ao número de indivíduos e pontos avaliados, foi determinada a frequência relativa de cada espécie. Foram identificadas 13 espécies em todo o reservatório, sendo 12 vasculares e uma de alga-verde (Chlorella spp.. Entre as espécies vasculares, nove eram plantas emersas flutuantes, as quais poderiam estar ou não ancoradas no leito do reservatório: Alternanthera philoxeroides, Brachiaria subquadripara, Cyperus difformis, Echinochloa polystachia var. spectabilis, Eichhornia crassipes, Panicum rivulare, Pistia stratiotes, Salvinia auriculata e Typha angustifolia. Outras três espécies foram encontradas somente em solo firme alagado: Aeschynomene sensitiva, Hedychium coronarium e Mimosa pigra.The objectives of this work were to determine the relative frequency and infestation level of each species present in the Salto Grande Reservoir in Americana-SP. The survey and identification of the aquatic plants were carried out in the Salto Grande reservoir on a boat. Twenty evaluation sites were established along the reservoir, photographed and geo-referenced. Values from 0 to 100% were assigned for both the species present and for the aquatic plants that could possibly occur within the sampled sites. Based on the number of individuals and points evaluated, the relative frequency of each species was determined

  14. Efeito inibidor dos extratos hidroalcóolicos de coberturas mortas sobre a germinação de sementes de cenoura e alface Inhibitory effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of five plant species used as mulches on germination of lettuce and carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio L. M. de Souza

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter a prospecção fitoquímica e avaliar o efeito inibitório dos extratos hidroalcóolicos de capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora, capim-jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa, capim-colonião (Panicum maximum, mucuna (Mucuna aterrima e serrapilheira de bambu (Bambuza spp., sobre a germinação de sementes de alface e cenoura. O teste de germinação foi conduzido sobre papel umedecido com extrato das espécies citadas diluídos em 25, 50, 75 e 100 % (v/v, e água destilada. Avaliou-se a porcentagem de final e o índice de velocidade de germinação. O índice de velocidade de germinação e a porcentagem de germinação de sementes de cenoura e alface, reduziram significativamente nas diluições de 50 a 100 % (v/v em relação as demais diluições e ao controle. O extrato de mucuna apresentou significativamente maior efeito inibidor em comparação com os demais extratos testados, principalmente sobre a germinação de sementes de alface. A prospecção fitoquímica indicou a presença de classes de substâncias com potencial alelopático.Studies were undertaken to evaluate the inhibitory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from dry mass of plant species used as mulches: Melinis minutiflora, Hyparrhenia rufa, Panicum maximum, Mucuna aterrima and bamboo leaves (Bambuza spp.. The inhibitory activity was measured on germination tests of lettuce and carrot seeds. Five extract concentrations of each species were used: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % (v/v. The rate of speed germination and percentage of germination of both species decreased significatly in function of the extract concentrations in the range from 50 to 100 % (v/v. Mucuna aterrima extract was significatly more inibitory than the other extracts, mainly for lettuce seeds. Bioassays with extracts showed the presence of several groups of alleopathic compounds.

  15. Aspectos clínicos, parasitológicos e produtivos de ovinos mantidos em pastagem de capim-aruana irrigado e adubado com diferentes doses de nitrogênio = Clinical, parasitological and productive evaluation of lambs under pasture of Aruana grass irrigated and fertilized with different doses of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maia Nogueira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho objetivou avaliar os aspectos clínicos, parasitológicos e produtivos de cordeiros mestiços mantidos em pastejo rotativo de Panicum maximum cv. Aruana adubado com quatro doses de nitrogênio (75, 275, 475 e 675 kg ha-1 ano-1. Foram utilizados 18 cordeiros portratamento, perfazendo um total de 72 animais. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: ganho médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso total (GPT, taxa de lotação (TxL, produção total de carne, contagem do número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e coprocultura. A vermifugação dos animais foi realizada de acordo com a coloração da mucosa ocular comparada por meio do cartão Famacha©. Foi verificado que tanto o GMD quanto o GPT foram maiores (p This work aimed to evaluate clinical, parasitological and productive parameters of crossbred lambs under a rotational grazing system of Panicum maximum cv. Aruana grass fertilized with four doses of nitrogen (75, 275, 475 and 675 kg ha-1 year-1. Eighteen lambs were used per treatment, totaling 72 animals. The following parameters were evaluated: daily weight gain (DWG, total weight gain (TWG, stocking rate (SR, meat production, number of fecal eggs per gram (EPG and coproculture. Deworming was accomplished according to conjunctiva color compared using the Famacha© card. DWG and TWG were greater (p < 0.05 in the animals under pasture fertilized with 75 kg ha-1 year-1. However, SR and EPG were greater (p < 0.05 in the animals kept in pastures with 675 kg ha-1 year-1. There were no significant differences among nitrogen levels for the different colors of ocular mucosa or the number of animals dewormed. A prevalence of 80.0 to 93.0% of Trichostrongylus sp. was found. The deworming based on the evaluation of conjunctiva color did not reduce EPG into desirable levels for any of fertilized doses of nitrogen. The nitrogen dose of 475 kg ha-1 year-1 in Aruana grass allowed greater productive performance per hectare.

  16. Elementos biológicos na configuração do território do rio Doce Biological elements in the River Doce's territory configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruf Salmen Espindola

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available No médio rio Doce, entre 1930 e 1960, as terras de floresta foram ocupadas pela agricultura e pecuária. No início as culturas agrícolas encontraram condições favoráveis para se expandir, mas não suficientes para se consolidar, antes de dar lugar à pecuária, como é comum na história da agricultura brasileira. As terras cobertas pela floresta foram tomadas pelo capim-colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq. var. maximum num ritmo maior que o avanço da atividade humana. A gramínea africana encontrou condições excepcionais para se alastrar, dadas pelo relevo, pelo clima e pelo manejo praticado por agricultores e fazendeiros. As suas características biológicas favoreceram o avanço das pastagens. O capim-colonião não diminui a força dos elementos socioeconômicos, marcados por relações de poder em que o fazendeiro levava nítida vantagem, mas entender sua biologia contribui para a compreensão da configuração do território do rio Doce.At the middle Doce river , between 1930 and 1960, the forest lands had been occupied by agriculture and cattle raising. First, the agricultural cultures had found favorable conditions to enlargement, but not enough for consolidating itself, before giving place to cattle, as it is common in the history of Brazilian agriculture. The lands covered by the forest had been invaded by the capim-colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq. var. maximum in a bigger rhythm than the advance of the human activity. The African grassy found very good conditions to spreading (the relief, the climate and the practices of the farmers. Its biological characteristics had favored the advance of the grass. The capim-colonião does not diminished the force of the socioeconomics elements, marked for power relations where the farmer took clear advantage, but understand its biological aspects contributes for the understanding of the configuration of the territory of the river Doce.

  17. Seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência sobre capim-colonião e efeito na qualidade das sementes: effects on seed germination Selectivity of herbicides applied in post-emergence on grass forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R.C. Trigueiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência sobre plantas de Panicum maximum, cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça, e os seus efeitos na qualidade das sementes. Os tratamentos testados (em g ha-1 foram: diclofopmethyl (284, ametryne (1.250, propanil (3.600, chlorimuron-ethyl (15, nicosulfuron (50, bentazon (720 e atrazine (3.000, além de uma testemunha sem aplicação de herbicidas. Foram instalados dois experimentos a campo, um para cada cultivar, no delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, e um em laboratório, no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 16 repetições. O nicosulfuron foi o herbicida que mais causou injúrias visuais e redução de massa seca de plantas em ambos os cultivares. No cultivar Mombaça, todos os herbicidas reduziram a produção de sementes, mas não afetaram a germinação. Para o cultivar Tanzânia, todos os herbicidas foram seletivos, não afetando a produção e a qualidade fisiológica.This study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of some herbicides applied in post-emergence on Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia and Mombaça and their effect on seed quality. The treatments tested in g ha-1 were: diclofop-methyl at 284, ametryn at 1.250, propanyl at 3.600, chlorimuron-ethyl at 15, nicosulfuron at 50, bentazon at 720 and atrazine at 3.000, and a control plot without herbicide application. Two field trials, one to each cultivar, were carried out in a randomized complete block design, with 4 replications and one laboratory trial was carried out in a randomized complete design, with 16 replications. Nicosulfuron showed the highest levels of visual damage and largest plant dry matter reduction in both cultivars. All the herbicides showed seed production decrease in Mombaca but did not affect seed germination. All the herbicides were selective to cultivar Tanzania, with no damages to plant production and physiological quality.

  18. Efecto de la suplementación con residuos de destilería del maíz en el comportamiento de novillas en una asociación de gramínea y leucaena Effect of supplementation with corn distillery residues on the performance of heifers in an association of grass and leucaena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sánchez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con residuos de destilería del maíz en el comportamiento de novillas, en una asociación de gramínea y leucaena. El estudio se realizó en un área de la Estación Experimental "Indio Hatuey", en el municipio de Perico, provincia de Matanzas, Cuba. La especie de pasto predominante fue Panicum maximum cv. Likoni y como leguminosa Leucaena leucocephala. Se estudiaron 18 novillas, distribuidas en un diseño completamente aleatorizado en tres grupos de seis animales; el grupo control no recibió suplementación (A y los otros dos grupos se suplementaron con residuos de destilería del maíz en un 10% (B y 20% (C de los requerimientos de proteína con relación al peso vivo. Se determinó la composición química, la disponibilidad de materia seca, la ganancia de peso vivo, la infestaci��n parasitaria y el hematocrito. Al analizar las ganancias diarias por tratamiento se encontraron diferencias significativas (PThe objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with corn distillery residues on the performance of heifers in an association of grass and leucaena. The study was conducted in an area of the Experimental Station "Indio Hatuey" , Perico municipality, Matanzas province, Cuba. The prevailing pasture species was Panicum maximum cv. Likoni and as legume, Leucaena leucocephala. Eighteen heifers, distributed in a completely randomized design in three groups of six animals, were used; the control group did not receive supplementation (A, and the other two groups were supplemented with corn distillery residues in 10% (B and 20% (C of the protein requirements with regards to live weight. The chemical composition, dry matter availability, live weight gain, parasite infestation and hematocrit were determined. When analyzing the daily gain per treatments, significant differences (P<0,05 were found and the highest values were obtained in treatment C

  19. Bananeiras consorciadas com leguminosas herbáceas perenes utilizadas como coberturas vivas Banana plants intercropped with perennial herbaceous legumes used as living mulches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Azevedo Espindola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de bananeiras consorciadas com as leguminosas herbáceas perenes - amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides e siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. Os tratamentos-controle consistiram em vegetação espontânea com predomínio de Panicum maximum, e vegetação espontânea com adubação nitrogenada das bananeiras. Também foi avaliado o desenvolvimento vegetativo das bananeiras. Entre as coberturas avaliadas, a vegetação espontânea e o cudzu tropical apresentaram produções maiores de biomassa; o cudzu tropical proporcionou valores maiores para quantidades de N acumulado e derivado da fixação biológica. As leguminosas amendoim forrageiro, cudzu tropical e siratro proporcionaram desenvolvimento vegetativo mais rápido nas bananeiras consorciadas. Cudzu tropical e siratro promoveram maiores valores de peso dos cachos e das pencas. O uso das leguminosas avaliadas resulta em aumento da porcentagem de cachos colhidos e redução do tempo de colheita, além de proporcionar maior produtividade, quando comparado ao uso de vegetação espontânea.The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield of banana plants intercropped with the perennial herbaceous legumes forage groundnut (Arachis pintoi, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides and siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. The control treatments were spontaneous vegetation (mainly Panicum maximum and spontaneous vegetation plus nitrogen fertilizer application to banana plants. The vegetative growth of banana plants was also evaluated. Among the treatments, spontaneous vegetation and tropical kudzu promoted the highest dry matter productions; tropical kudzu had the highest amounts of accumulated and fixed N. Forage groundnut, tropical kudzu and siratro promoted the fastest vegetative growth for banana plants in this intercropped system. Tropical kudzu and siratro promoted the highest values for bunch weight and

  20. Plantas úteis para revestimento do solo: II - Gramíneas de porte médio e grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Aires de Alencar

    1952-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results have been obtained on the development of 11 types of grasses with average height varying from 0.70 to 1.15 m and from 11 other types with average height from 1.30 to 5.00 m. From plots with an area of 25 m², from the collection of useful plants of the Soil Conservation Department of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, one sample of the plants was taken for each plot the sampled area being of 0,50 and 1.00 m², for the grasses of medium and large size, respectively. The above-ground parts of the plants were cut at the heights of 80, 26, 8, 2 and 0 cm (ground level respectively and determinations were made of the weight and volume of each portion of the plants under investigation. The results obtained are presented in tables 1 to 3. The underground parts of the grasses were studied in the same areas where the aerial parts were cut. Blocks of soil were taken with depths of 2, 8, 26 and 80 cm. The underground portions of the plants in each block were separated by the dry method, using wire screen, their weight and volume being determined (table 1 to 3. The soil particles holding capacity of each species of grass was determined by adding to the weight of the above-ground part at the lowest cut (block Aa the weight of the underground portion found at the first block (block Ba, table 2 and 3. It has been observed that among the medium sized grasses the capim chorão (Eragrostis curvula Nees var. valida Stapf, capim de boi (Setaria poiretiana Kunth, capim Araguai (Paspalum fasdculatum Willd. and capim de planta (Panicum purpurascens Raddi and among the taller grasses the capim sempre-verde (Panicum maximum Jacq. var. gongylodes, capim elefante Merker, Napier and AxB (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. as well as capim vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash, seem to be more promissing for holding the soil particles and more useful for soil conservation purposes.

  1. Medicinal flora of the Cholistan desert: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmeed, M.; Ashraf, M.; Nawaz, T.; Naz, N.; Ahmad, M.S.A.; Al-Quriany, F.; Younis, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Cholistan desert can be divided into two distinct regions on the basis of topography, soil type and texture, and vegetation structure: the northern Lesser Cholistan and southern Greater Cholistan. The desert is characterized by large saline compacted areas with alluvial clay, sandy ridges and dunes, and semi-stabilized to frequently shifting dunes. The climate is subtropical, harsh, hot and arid, and influenced by seasonal monsoons. Vegetation cover on the sand dunes is comprised by a few tussock-forming grasses including Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum turgidum and Lasiurus scindicus, along with perennial shrubs Calligonum polygonoides, Leptadenia pyrotechnica and Aerva javanica. Interdunal flats are dominated by grasses, mainly Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Sporobolus ioclados, Panicum antidotale, and Ochthochloa compressa, and tall shrubs Calligonum polygonoides and Capparis decidua. Vegetation of saline patches is specific, dominated by halophytes mainly belonging to family Chenopodiaceae (Amaranthaceae). Many plants of the Cholistan desert, including Neurada procumbens, Aerva javanica, Capparis decidua, Cleome brachycarpa, Dipterygium glaucum, Gisekia pharnacioides, Suaeda fruticosa, Achyranthes aspera, Aerva javanica, Alhagi maurorum, Calotropis procera, Capparis decidua, Zaleya pentandra, Mollugo cerviana, Ziziphus mauritiana, Boerhavia procumbens, Cressa cretica and Crotalaria burhia, are frequently used by the local inhabitants to cure chronic and acute diseases. A variety of medicinally important chemical compounds have been extracted and identified from the plants of the Cholistan desert, including terpenes and triterpenoids, sterols and steroids, phenolics, flavonoids, gums and resins, quinones, anthocyanidines, saponins, antioxidants and fatty acids. Habitat degradation, intensive agricultural practices and over exploitation of resources pose a serious threat to the diversity of ethno botanically important plant species. Allopathic medicines are generally

  2. Desempenho de Espécies Florestais e Pastagens em Sistemas Silvipastoris no Estado do Pará Performance of Tree Species and Pastures in Silvopastoral Systems in the State of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Braga Calandrini de Azevedo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Propor modelos alternativos de uso-da-terra que sejam econômicos e ecologicamente sustentáveis tem sido um grande desafio da pesquisa agrícola na Amazônia. Os sistemas silvipastoris (SSPs têm sido considerados promissores para integrar o cultivo arbóreo nos sistemas pecuários e recuperar pastagens degradadas da Amazônia. Em Paragominas, Estado do Pará, foram estudados nove sistemas silvipastoris constituídos da combinação binária das espécies florestais paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum, tatajuba (Bagassa guianensis e eucalipto (Eucalyptus tereticornis, plantadas em faixas de 6 m de largura, afastadas de 12 m, com as pastagens capim braquiarão (Brachiaria brizantha, capim quicuio da amazônia (B. humidicola, e capim colonião (Panicum maximum e em capim dictioneura (B. dictyoneura, plantadas nas entre-faixas. O sistema de manejo se caracterizava por ser rotacionado com 14 dias de permanência e 42 dias de descanso, e foi avaliado no período de agosto de 1990 a novembro de 1991. As melhores interações foram paricá e capim braquiarão e eucalipto e capim braquiarão.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.57

    Proposing economic and ecological land-use alternatives has been a great challenge for agricultural research in the Brazilian Amazon. The silvopastoral systems (SPS are promising to integrate trees in the livestock production system and reclaim degraded pastures in the Amazon region. In Municipality of Paragominas, State of Pará, nine SPS composed by combination of three tree species (Schizolobium amazonicum, Bagassa guianensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis, planted in 6 m-lane, spaced by 12 m – and three pastures (Brachiaria brizantha, B. humidicola and Panicum maximum / dictioneura B. dictyoneura, planted in the inter-lane space. Steers grazed the one-hectare experimental parcels simulating a rotational grazing system with 14 days - grazing period and 42 days – rest period, and was evaluated during August 1990 to

  3. Formas de aplicação de calcário nos teores de minerais da forragem do capim-tanzânia Forms of limestone application on mineral contents on forage of tanzania grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Magalhães de Souza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a qualidade da forragem do capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia 1, em função de doses, formas de aplicação e granulometrias de calcário, foi conduzido um experimento em área do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras-UFLA, Lavras-MG, constituído por doze tratamentos, com quatro repetições. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso no esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2, sendo três saturações por bases (40%, 60% e 80%, incorporado ou não ao solo e dois calcários com PRNT de 88,15% e 107,73%. As variáveis foram avaliadas em três cortes a cada 42 dias. Em geral, os teores de P e K diminuíram com o aumento das doses de calcário. Os teores de Ca e Mg aumentaram com o aumento das doses dos corretivos. Os melhores resultados ocorreram na saturação de 60% e a incorporação tornou mais eficiente o uso dos corretivos.With objective of evaluate the dry matter (DM production, density, weight and height of tillers and leaf/stem ratio of tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania 1 in function of levels, placement and grainy lime an experiment was carried out in the field of Animal Science Department of Federal University of Lavras-UFLA, Lavras, MG. The experiment was constituted by twelve treatments in four replications. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block, in factorial scheme 3 x 2 x 2, with three base saturations (40%, 60% and 80%, lime placement, either on the surface of the soil or incorporated and two limestones with diferent LTRN (lime's total relative neutralization- 88.15 and 107.73%. Three cuts were realized at each 42 days. Over all treatments tested the P and K contents shown reduction with the increase of limestone. The results also shown that Ca and Mg contents increase with doses of lime. The better results occurred in the saturation of 60% and de incorporation was more efficient at liming.

  4. NITROGEN CONTENT AND DRY-MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF GUINEA AND SABI GRASSES AS INFLUENCED BY TREE LEGUME CANOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Lagaligo Amar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A research study was undertaken to study the grass layer across a mini landscape dominated by tree legume Albizia lebbeck to explore the nutritional differences of two introduced grasses, guinea grass (Panicum maximum and sabi grass (Urochloa mosambicensis, paying particular attention to the presence or absence of tree legume canopy of Albizia lebbeck. The two grass species showed a tendency to replace the native spear grass (Heteropogon contortus; their dominance was more or less complete under tree canopies but was increasing in open areas between trees. Nutritional differences were examined by nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility. For comparison, Heteropogon contortus, a native species only found in the open, was included in the nutritional determination using the same methods as the guinea and sabi grasses. The quality parameters of the pasture species were statistically compared (LSD, P=0.05. The quality of herbage was different between the species. Urochloa mosambicensis was better than Panicum maximum. In the open, sabi grass has higher N content (0.62% than guinea grass (0.55%, but they were similar when grown under the canopy (0.69% and 0.72%, respectively. Sabi grass has consistently higher dry matter digestibility (41.39% and 36.83%, respectively under the canopy and in the open, than guinea grass (27.78% and 24.77%. These two species are much higher in both N concentration and dry matter digestibility than the native spear grass. The native species has contained 0.28% N, and 17.65% digestible dry matter. The feeding values of herbage were influenced by the canopy factor. Both guinea and sabi grasses have better quality when grown under the tree canopies than in between canopies. Nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility of the guinea grass under canopy were, 0.72% and 27.78%, respectively, significantly higher than those from the open area, 0.55% and 24.77%. Similarly, herbage of sabi grass under canopy has 0

  5. Characterization of tropical forage grass development pattern through the morphogenetic and structural characteristics Caracterização do padrão de desenvolvimento de gramíneas forrageiras tropicais por meio das características morfogênicas e estruturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlindo Santos Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out with the objective to evaluate growth pattern of tropical forage grass under free growth by using morphogenetic and structural characteristics with the expectation of using this study for forage grass evaluation protocol. The experimental area was established with two cultivars of Panicum maximum Jacq. (Mombaca and Aruana, a hybrid cultivar of P. maximum Jacq. and P. Infestum BRA-7102 (Massai, two cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha (A. Rich. Stapf (Marandu and Xaraes and Molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora Beauv. and jaragua grass (Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees Stapf.. The grasses were planted in 1.0-m² experimental units with 24 plants arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Growth pattern of the grasses was evaluated through mass development, tiller mortality, development stage and leaf longevity. Development patterns differed significantly among groups of grasses, indicating that the same available resources can be used in different manners by grasses from the same genus and/or species.Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o padrão de desenvolvimento de gramíneas forrageiras tropicais em crescimento livre por meio das características morfogênicas e estruturais, com expectativa de uso desse estudo no protocolo de avaliação de gramíneas forrageiras. A área experimental foi estabelecida com dois cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. (Mombaça e Aruana, um cultivar híbrido de P. maximum Jacq. e P. infestum BRA-7102 (Massai, dois cultivares de Brachiaria brizantha (A. Rich. Stapf (Marandu e Xaraés e com os capins gordura (Melinis minutiflora Beauv. e jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees Stapf.. As gramíneas foram plantadas em unidades experimentais de 1,0 m² com 24 plantas arranjadas em delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. O padrão de desenvolvimento das gramíneas foi avaliado por meio do desenvolvimento de massa, da mortalidade de

  6. Avaliação de gramíneas forrageiras na região sul de Minas Gerais Evaluation of forage grasses for the south region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton de Andrade Botrel

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos na região do sul de Minas Gerais para avaliar o potencial de gramíneas forrageiras. No experimento 1 foram avaliadas as seguintes espécies, consideradas de baixa exigência nutricional: Andropogon gayanus, Kunt; Brachiaria brizantha, Stapf; Brachiaria decumbens, Stapf; Brachiaria ruziziensis, Germain Evrard; Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweickt e Melinis minutiflora, Beauv. No experimento 2 foram avaliadas as gramíneas consideradas de média e alta exigência nutricional, a saber: Setaria sphacelata (Schum. Moss; Hemarthria altissima (Poir. Stapf; Chloris gayana, Kunt; Cynodon nlemfuensis, Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis; Hyparrhenia rufa, (Ness Stapf. e as cultivares de Panicum maximum, Jacq.: Tobiatã, Green Panic e Makueni. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Os níveis de calagem e de adubação para estabelecimento e manutenção foram diferenciados para os dois experimentos. Cada espécie foi avaliada nos seguintes aspectos: produção de forragem e teor de proteína bruta no período da seca e das chuvas e cobertura vegetal do solo. As gramíneas do experimento 1 que se destacaram na maioria dos aspectos avaliados foram: B. brizantha, B. decumbens, A. gayanus enquanto que no experimento 2 as espécies que apresentaram maior potencial forrageiro foram: S. sphacelata, P. maximum cv. Tobiatã.experiments were undertaken in the South region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to evaluate the yield potential of forage grasses. In experiment 1, the following species, considered as having low nutritional requirements, were evaluated: Andropogon gayanus, Kunt; Brachiaria brizantha, Stapf; Brachiaria decumbens, Stapf; Brachiaria ruziziensis, Germain Evrard; Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweickt and Melinis minutiflora, Beauv. In experiment 2, the species considered as having medium and high nutritional requirements, that is: Setaria sphacelata (Schum.; Hemarthria altissima

  7. Patogênese, sinais clínicos e patologia das doenças causadas por plantas hepatotóxicas em ruminantes e eqüinos no Brasil Pathogenesis, clinical signs and pathology of diseases caused by hepatotoxic plants in ruminants and horses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar A. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas que causam lesões hepáticas em ruminantes e eqüinos constituem um grupo importante de plantas tóxicas no Brasil. Em geral essas plantas podem ser divididas em três grandes grupos: plantas que causam necrose hepática aguda; plantas que causam fibrose hepática; e plantas que causam fotossensibilização. Em algumas dessas plantas os princípios tóxicos já foram identificados. Das plantas que causam necrose hepática aguda, os carboxiatractilosídeos estão presentes em Cestrum parqui e Xanthium cavanillesi. Os alcalóides pirrolizidínicos estão presentes nas plantas que causam fibrose hepática (Senecio spp., Echium plantagineum, Heliotropum spp. e Crotalaria spp.. Das plantas que causam fotossensibilização hepatógena são conhecidos os furanossesquiterpenos em Myoporum spp., triterpenos em Lantana spp., e saponinas esteroidais em Brachiaria spp. e Panicum spp. O quadro clínicopatológico dessas intoxicações e o mecanismo geral da insuficiência hepática, incluindo meios de diagnóstico, são descritos neste artigo de revisão.Plants causing hepatic lesions in ruminants and horses constitute one important group of poisonous plants in Brazil. These plants can be placed in three major groups: plants causing acute liver necrosis; plants causing liver fibrosis; and plants causing hepatogenous photosensitization. For some of these plants the toxic principles are known. Cestrum parqui and Xanthium cavanillesi that cause acute liver necrosis contain carboxy-atractylosides. Senecio spp., Crotalaria spp., and Echium plantagineum that cause liver fibrosis contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids. As for the group of plants causing hepatogenous photosensibilization, Myoporum spp. contain furanosesquiterpenes, Lantana spp contain triterpenes, and Brachiaria spp. and Panicum spp. contain steroidal saponins. The clinical and pathologic features of the toxicosis caused by these phytotoxins, general mechanisms of production for the production of

  8. Consumo e valor nutritivo de alimentos utilizados para Bicudo-verdadeiro (“Sporophila maximiliani” Consumption and nutritive value of feedstuffs used for great-billed seed finch (“Sporophila maximiliani”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Regina de Moraes Garcia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um estudo para determinar o consumo e o valor nutritivo do alpiste comum (Phalaris Canariensis L., arroz (Oryza Sativa L., painço verde (Panicum Miliaceum L. e capim-arroz (Echinochloa Spp para Bicudo-verdadeiro (Sporophila maximiliani. Foram utilizadas 24 fêmeas adultas com idade média de dois anos, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos, três repetições e duas aves por unidade experimental. Foi utilizado o método de coleta total de excretas para determinar os coeficientes de metabolização aparente da matéria seca, proteína e energia, assim como os valores de energia metabolizável aparente e corrigida para o balanço de nitrogênio. Não houve diferença nos consumos, com média de 3,55±0,11 gramas de alimento/ave/dia. O arroz apresentou os melhores valores para os coeficientes de metabolização da matéria seca (90,57% e da energia (90,55%. Os coeficientes de metabolização da proteína não diferiram entre os alimentos. Os melhores valores de energia metabolizável foram obtidos para o alpiste (3.612kcal/EM kg e o capim-arroz (3.509kcal/EM kg.An experiment was carried out to determinate the nutritive value and consumption of canary grass (Phalaris canariensis L., rice (Oryza sativa L., proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp for the Great-billed Seed Finch (Sporophila maximiliani. Twenty four adult females averaging two years of age were assigned to a completely randomized design with four treatments, three replicates and two birds per pen. Fecal output was used to determine dry matter, protein and energy metabolizable coefficients, and also the values of apparent metabolizable energy and corrected by nitrogen. No differences were observed in consumption, with 3.55±0.11g of feedstuff/birds/day. Rice provided the best values for metabolization coefficients of dry matter (90.57% and energy (90.55%. No differences were observed for protein

  9. Desenvolvimento e validação de um modelo preditor do desempenho de novilhos de corte sob suplementação em pastagens tropicais Development and validation of a performance predictive model of beef steers supplemented in tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Avilio Ocampos Olmedo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Um modelo de simulação foi desenvolvido e validado com o objetivo de conhecer e predizer o desempenho produtivo de bovinos machos castrados com diferentes pesos e idades iniciais mantidos sobre pastagens cultivadas Panicum sp. e Brachiaria sp. em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. O modelo incluiu relações diretas entre os dois componentes principais (animal e forragem e relações indiretas entre outros dois componentes (clima e solo. O componente animal incluiu: consumo de matéria seca de forragem, consumo de suplemento, carga animal, peso e idade inicial dos animais, biótipo (peso adulto e peso ao nascimento e exigências de energia para mantença e produção animal (ganho de peso. O componente forragem incluiu: crescimento, senescência, digestibilidade e disponibilidade. Os resultados obtidos com o modelo foram comparados a dados experimentais obtidos da literatura em condições semelhantes e indicaram baixo (35% erro percentual de estimação. O modelo possibilita avaliar determinadas estratégias nutricionais e, desta forma, auxilia em decisões que dependem do ganho de peso dos animais e das condições da pastagem no decorrer do tempo.A simulation model was developed and validated with the objective of evaluating and predicting the productive performance of steers with different weights and initial ages kept on Panicum sp. or Brachiaria sp. cultivated pastures in tropical and subtropical regions. The model established the direct relationships between two main components (animal and fodder plant and two indirect components (climate and soil. The animal component included: intake of forage dry matter, supplement intake, stocking rate, initial weight and age of the animals, biotype (adult weight and weight at birth, energy requirement for maintenance and production (live weight gain. The forage components included: growth, senescence, digestibility and availability. The results obtained with the model were compared to those

  10. Perfil de n-alcanos em cinco espécies de plantas forrageiras tropicais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i3.1207 Profile of n-alkanes in five species of plants tropical forages - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i3.1207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ferriani Branco

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar o perfil de n-alcanos em espécies de gramíneas (Brachiaria brizantha, Cynodon dactylon e Panicum maximum e leguminosas (Arachis pintoi e Glycine wightii. Foram identificados e quantificados por meio de cromatografia gasosa, os n-alcanos C24 a C35, sendo C32 e C34 padrões internos. As concentrações dos n-alcanos nas diferentes espécies e respectivas frações (lâminas foliares, colmos porções superior e inferior e matéria morta para gramíneas; folhas, caule porção superior e inferior e matéria morta para leguminosas foram submetidas à análise de variância e teste de média (Tukey. Nos períodos de primavera e inverno, para a maioria das espécies e frações, há predomínio dos n-alcanos de cadeia ímpar. Houve maior concentração de C29, C31 e C33 na primavera, C27, C28, C29, C30 e C31, no verão e C27, C29, C31 e C33 no invernoThis experiment aimed to study the profile of n-alkanes in tropical grasses species (Brachiaria brizantha, Cynodon dactylon and Panicum maximum and legumes (Arachis pintoi and Glycine wightii. They were identified and quantified, through gas cromatography, the n-alkanes C24 to C35, being the alkanes C32 and C34 internal indices. The n-alkanes concentrations in the different species and respective fractions (leaf blade, stem higher and lower portion and dead matter for grasses; leaves, stem higher portion, stem lower portion and dead matter for legumes were submitted to variance analysis and mean test (Tukey. For most of the species and fractions, there is prevalence of odd chain n-alkanes during springtime and winter. There was larger concentration of the alkanes C29, C31 and C33 in springtime, C27, C28, C29, C30 and C31 in summer and C27, C29, C31 and C33 in winter

  11. Estrutura de duas formações vegetais do cordão externo da restinga de Marambaia, RJ Structure of two plant communities on Marambaia barrier island, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Tavares de Menezes

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizadas duas formações vegetais, psamófila-reptante e arbustiva de Palmae, no cordão arenoso externo da restinga de Marambaia (RJ com base na posição topográfica, na fisionomia e na estrutura, utilizando-se o método de parcelas. Embora as duas formações sejam visualmente distintas, há uma zona de transição entre elas. Das 23 espécies amostradas na formação psamófila-reptante, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Ipomoea imperati, Allagoptera arenaria, Sporobolus virginicus, Remirea marítima e Panicum racemosum despontaram com maiores valores de importância (VI. A formação halófila dominada por Blutaparon portulacoides, típica de outras restingas no litoral brasileiro, não foi identificada devido ao intenso dinamismo da faixa entre o mar e a primeira linha de cristas praiais estabilizadas. A formação arbustiva de Palmae é dominada por Allagoptera arenaria, com 56% do VI total, dentre as 64 espécies amostradas. As duas formações são dominadas por geófitas rizomatosas.Two plant communities (creeping psamophyte and palm scrub are described from the outer Marambaia beach ridge, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, based on topography, vegetation physiognomy, and structure. Although the two communities can be distinguished visually, they are joined by a transition zone. Ipomoea pes-caprae, Ipomoea imperati, Remirea maritima, Allagoptera arenaria, Sporobolus virginicus, and Panicum racemosum were the most important species sampled in the creeping psammophyte community out of a total of 23. The halophyte community reported for other sandy coastal plains in Brazil was not observed at Marambaia due to the intense wave action on this beach. The palm scrub community was dominated by Allagoptera arenaria (56% of total importance value out of a total of 64 species. Rhizome-geophytes dominate both communities.

  12. A geospatial suitability model for drought-tolerant switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S. M.; Kelly, M.

    2011-12-01

    A perennial grass native to the North America, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been targeted by the USDA as a model mass bioenergy crop to replace petroleum energy products and meet policy demands. Although highly water use efficient, as a warm-season crop, switchgrass requires a significant amount of water during the growing season (April -September). However, locations that have highly reliable water availability are also ideal for profitable food crops (e.g. corn and soy growing regions) and food competition is a significant concern in regards to biofuel crops being grown on productive agricultural lands. Drier, marginal lands (lands on which normal agricultural crops are difficult to cultivate) are therefore potentially ideal locations to grow biofuel crops to ensure that food competition is not an issue. Genetics scientists at UC Davis are in the process of developing a modified variety of switchgrass that can withstand extended periods of drought while not substantially affecting overall yield. As this product is being developed, it is important to identify the potential geographical niche for this new drought-tolerant variety of switchgrass. This project introduces a geospatial approach that utilizes both physical and economic variables to identify ideal geographic locations for this innovative crop.

  13. Inside out: high-efficiency plant regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Rong; Cen, Hui-Fang; Yan, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Yun-Wei; Zhang, Wan-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Selection of pre-embryogenic callus from a core structure from mature seed-derived callus is the key for high-efficiency plant regeneration and transformation of switchgrass different cultivars. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified as a dedicated biofuel crop. For its trait improvement through biotechnological approaches, we have developed a highly efficient plant regeneration and genetic transformation protocol for both lowland and upland cultivars. We identified and separated a pre-embryogenic "core" structure from the seed-derived callus, which often leads to development of highly regenerative type II calluses. From the type II callus, plant regeneration rate of lowland cultivars Alamo and Performer reaches 95%, and upland cultivars Blackwell and Dacotah, 50 and 76%, respectively. The type II callus was also amenable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transformation efficiency of 72.8% was achieved for lowland cultivar Alamo, and 8.0% for upland cultivar Dacotah. PCR, Southern blot and GUS staining assays were performed to verify the transgenic events. High regenerative callus lines could be established in 3 months, and transgenic plants could be obtained in 2 months after Agrobacterium infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on successful plant regeneration and recovery of transgenic plants from upland switchgrass cultivars by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The method presented here could be helpful in breaking through the bottleneck of regeneration and transformation of lowland and upland switchgrass cultivars and probably other recalcitrant grass crops.

  14. Energy potential and greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy cropping systems on marginally productive cropland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty R Schmer

    Full Text Available Low-carbon biofuel sources are being developed and evaluated in the United States and Europe to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Current and potential biofuel production systems were evaluated from a long-term continuous no-tillage corn (Zea mays L. and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. field trial under differing harvest strategies and nitrogen (N fertilizer intensities to determine overall environmental sustainability. Corn and switchgrass grown for bioenergy resulted in near-term net greenhouse gas (GHG reductions of -29 to -396 grams of CO2 equivalent emissions per megajoule of ethanol per year as a result of direct soil carbon sequestration and from the adoption of integrated biofuel conversion pathways. Management practices in switchgrass and corn resulted in large variation in petroleum offset potential. Switchgrass, using best management practices produced 3919±117 liters of ethanol per hectare and had 74±2.2 gigajoules of petroleum offsets per hectare which was similar to intensified corn systems (grain and 50% residue harvest under optimal N rates. Co-locating and integrating cellulosic biorefineries with existing dry mill corn grain ethanol facilities improved net energy yields (GJ ha-1 of corn grain ethanol by >70%. A multi-feedstock, landscape approach coupled with an integrated biorefinery would be a viable option to meet growing renewable transportation fuel demands while improving the energy efficiency of first generation biofuels.

  15. Bio-remediation of Pb and Cd polluted soils by switchgrass: A case study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Kalpana; Sharma, Satyawati; Monti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the present study bioremediation potential of a high biomass yielding grass, Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), along with plant associated microbes (AM fungi and Azospirillum), was tested against lead and cadmium in pot trials. A pot trial was set up in order to evaluate bioremediation efficiency of P. virgatum in association with PAMs (Plant Associated Microbes). Growth parameters and bioremediation potential of endomycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Azospirillum against different concentrations of Pb and Cd were compared. AM fungi and Azospirillum increased the root length, branches, surface area, and root and shoot biomass. The soil pH was found towards neutral with AMF and Azospirillum inoculations. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) for Pb (12 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (10 mg kg(-1)) were found to be 0.25 and 0.23 respectively and translocation index (Ti) was 17.8 and 16.7 respectively (approx 45% higher than control). The lower values of BCF and Ti, even at highest concentration of Pb and Cd, revealed the capability of switchgrass of accumulating high concentration of Pb and Cd in the roots, while preventing the translocation of Pb and Cd to aerial biomass.

  16. Long-term hydrologic effects on marsh plant community structure in the southern Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, David E.; Loftus, W.F.; Bass, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    Although large-scale transformation of Everglades landscapes has occurred during the past century, the patterns of association among hydrologic factors and southern Everglades freshwater marsh vegetation have not been well-defined. We used a 10-year data base on the aquatic biota of Shark Slough to classify vegetation and describe plant community change in intermediate- to long-hydroperiod Everglades marshes. Study area marsh vegetation was quantitatively grouped into associations dominated by 1) Cladium jamaicense, 2) a group of emergents including Eleocharis cellulosa, Sagittaria lancifolia, and Rhyncospora tracyi, 3) taxa associated with algal mats (Utricularia spp. and Bacopa caroliniana), and 4) the grasses Panicum hemitomon and Paspalidium geminatum. During the decade evaluated, the range of water depths that characterized our study sites approached both extremes depicted in the 40-year hydrologic record for the region. Water depths were near the long-term average during the mid-1980s, declined sharply during a late 1980s drought, and underwent a prolonged increase from 1991 through 1995. Overall macrophyte cover varied inversely with water depth, while the response of periphyton was more complex. An ordination analysis, based on plant species abundance, revealed that study area vegetation structure was associated with hydrologic patterns. Marsh plant community structure showed evidence of cyclic interannual variation corresponding to hydrologic change over the decade evaluated. Lower water depths, the occurrence of marl substrates, and high periphyton cover were correlated. These factors contributed to reduced macrophyte cover in portions of the study area from which water had been diverted.

  17. Détermination de la cellulose, des hémicelluloses, de la lignine et des cendres dans diverses cultures lignocellulosiques dédiées à la production de bioéthanol de deuxième génération

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and ash contents in various lignocellulosic crops for second generation bioethanol production. Various green energy crops are available for the production of renewable energy vectors such as second generation bioethanol. The efficiency of the energy recovery potential of these lignocellulosic crops depends on the crop husbandry, their content of main components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, ash and on the second generation bioethanol production process. The lignocellulosic crops investigated in this study are miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus J.M.Greef & Deuter ex Hodk. & Renvoize, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb., fiber sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, fiber corn (Zea mays L., "cocksfoot-alfalfa" mixture (Dactylis glomerata L. – Medicago sativa L., comfrey (Symphytum officinale L., jerusalem artichoke (aerial part (Helianthus tuberosus L. and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.. The samples came from different energy crop trials and their content in cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was quantified using the Van Soest method. The ash content has also been quantified. The lignocellulosic crops with the best theoretical potential to produce second generation bioethanol based on their biochemical composition (with a yield of 100% for the hydrolysis and the fermentation of cellulose and hemicelluloses are in decreasing order miscanthus, switchgrass, fescue, fiber sorghum, fiber corn and hemp. On one hand, these crops are composed of high amounts of cellulose and hemicelluloses and, on the other hand, the lignin and ash concentration are low. A principal component analysis showed that commeniloïd monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous lignocellulosic crops formed two differentiated categories.

  18. Accelerated development in Johnsongrass seedlings (Sorghum halepense) suppresses the growth of native grasses through size-asymmetric competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinning, Susanne; Meckel, Heather; Reichmann, Lara G; Polley, H Wayne; Fay, Philip A

    2017-01-01

    Invasive plant species often dominate native species in competition, augmenting other potential advantages such as release from natural enemies. Resource pre-emption may be a particularly important mechanism for establishing dominance over competitors of the same functional type. We hypothesized that competitive success of an exotic grass against native grasses is mediated by establishing an early size advantage. We tested this prediction among four perennial C4 warm-season grasses: the exotic weed Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparius) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). We predicted that a) the competitive effect of Johnsongrass on target species would be proportional to their initial biomass difference, b) competitive effect and response would be negatively correlated and c) soil fertility would have little effect on competitive relationships. In a greenhouse, plants of the four species were grown from seed either alone or with one Johnsongrass neighbor at two fertilizer levels and periodically harvested. The first two hypotheses were supported: The seedling biomass of single plants at first harvest (50 days after seeding) ranked the same way as the competitive effect of Johnsongrass on target species: Johnsongrass critical mechanism by which exotic invasive species displace functionally similar native species and alter the functional dynamics of native communities.

  19. Application of wood chips for soil mulching in the cultivation of ornamental grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henschke Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of the soil. Mulching plays an important role in the maintenance of green spaces. Organic materials are still sought for the preparation of mulches. Recently interest in wood chips has grown. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mulching with pine and birch chips on the contents of phenolic compounds in the soil, as well as on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses – Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth. Lag. ex Griffiths, Panicum virgatum L. and Pennisetum alopecuroides L. The content of phenolic compounds in the soil steadily increased from spring to autumn. Mulching led to a substantial increase in the level of phenolic compounds. In the first year of cultivation more phenolic compounds were released by chips of pine than birch, while in the second year this difference did not occur. Mulching had a negative impact on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses, especially in the first year of cultivation. Ornamental grass sensitivity to the substances released from mulches decreased with the age of the plants and was dependent on the species – Bouteloua gracilis was found to be particularly sensitive.

  20. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.; Ivanova, N.; D' haeseleer, P.; Lowry, S.; Sapra, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.; Hugenholtz, P.

    2009-11-15

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  1. Mapping grasslands suitable for cellulosic biofuels in the Greater Platte River Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Gu, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are an important component in the development of alternative energy supplies, which is needed to achieve national energy independence and security in the United States. The most common biofuel product today in the United States is corn-based ethanol; however, its development is limited because of concerns about global food shortages, livestock and food price increases, and water demand increases for irrigation and ethanol production. Corn-based ethanol also potentially contributes to soil erosion, and pesticides and fertilizers affect water quality. Studies indicate that future potential production of cellulosic ethanol is likely to be much greater than grain- or starch-based ethanol. As a result, economics and policy incentives could, in the near future, encourage expansion of cellulosic biofuels production from grasses, forest woody biomass, and agricultural and municipal wastes. If production expands, cultivation of cellulosic feedstock crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus species), is expected to increase dramatically. The main objective of this study is to identify grasslands in the Great Plains that are potentially suitable for cellulosic feedstock (such as switchgrass) production. Producing ethanol from noncropland holdings (such as grassland) will minimize the effects of biofuel developments on global food supplies. Our pilot study area is the Greater Platte River Basin, which includes a broad range of plant productivity from semiarid grasslands in the west to the fertile corn belt in the east. The Greater Platte River Basin was the subject of related U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated research projects.

  2. Switchgrass Cultivar/Ecotype Selection and Management for Biofuels in the Upper Southeast USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, David J.; Wolf, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass indigenous to the eastern USA, has potential as a biofuels feedstock. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars under different environments and management treatments. Four cultivars of switchgrass were evaluated from 2000 to 2001 under two management regimes in plots established in 1992 at eight locations in the upper southeastern USA. Two management treatments included 1) a single annual harvest (in late October to early November) and a single application of 50 kg N/ha/yr and 2) two annual harvests (in midsummer and November) and a split application of 100 kg N/ha/yr. Biomass yields averaged 15 Mg/ha/yr and ranged from 10 to 22 Mg/ha/yr across cultivars, managements, locations, and years. There was no yield advantage in taking two harvests of the lowland cultivars (Alamo and Kanlow). When harvested twice, upland cultivars (Cave-in-Rock and Shelter) provided yields equivalent to the lowland ecotypes. Tiller density was 36% lower in stands cutting only once per year, but the stands appeared vigorous after nine years of such management. Lowland cultivars and a one-cutting management (after the tops have senesced) using low rates of applied N (50 kg/ha) are recommended. PMID:25105170

  3. An exploration of common reed (Phragmites australis bioenergy potential in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vaičekonytė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In North America, reed (Phragmites australis is typically considered to be a weed although it provides important ecosystem services. Small, sparse, patchy or mixed reedbeds are more suitable as habitat for many species than extensive dense reedbeds, whose habitat functions can be enhanced by the selective removal of biomass. We propose that above-ground reed biomass could be harvested for bioenergy, at the same time improving habitat for biodiversity by thinning or fragmenting the more extensive reedbeds. Biofuel pellets manufactured from reeds harvested at Montréal (Canada had moisture content 6.4 %, energy content 16.9 kJ g-1 (dry mass, ash content 3.44 %, and chloride content 1962 ppm. Thus, reed as a material for fuel pellet manufacture is similar to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, which is commonly cultivated for that purpose and requires higher inputs than harvested wild reed. We discuss these findings in the context of environmental considerations and conclude that the bioenergy potential of reed could most expediently be realised in North America by combining material harvested from the widespread spontaneously occurring reedbeds with organic waste from other sources to create mixed biofuels. However, reeds with high levels of chlorine, sulphur or metals should not be burned to avoid air pollution or equipment damage unless these problems are mitigated by means of appropriate season of harvest, equipment, combustion regime, or use of a mixed feedstock.

  4. Inoculation and inter-cropping of legumes in established grass for increasing biomass of fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, M.A.; Hussain, N.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock sector has become very important component of agriculture sector in the world due to variety of dairy and meat products and high income to the farmers. In Pakistan, this vast resource faces many crucial challenges like low quality and high priced feed and fodder and limited chances of increasing area under fodders due to competition for food crops. Intercropping (33%, 50% and 67%) of Panicum maximum grass and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) coupled with inoculation was studied under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Intercropping significantly increased tillering of grass. Seed inoculation of legumes also gave maximum tillers. The grass and legumes biomass without any treatment were recorded as 7.09 and -18.17 t ha, respectively, during two years of study. Mixed fodder -1 production increased to 11.62, 13.6 and 14.13 t ha with 33%, 50% and 67% intercropping, respectively. Respective values of biomass were -1 observed as 13.18, 13.70 and 17.87 t ha when combined with inoculation. Intercropping of grass and legumes 67% with inoculation was assessed as the best treatment. The increases were computed as 304%, 230%, 132%, and 60% over grass alone in the first, second, third and fourth crops while respective increases were 101%, 151%, 165% and 74% over monoculture legumes. (author)

  5. GRAMÍNEAS TROPICALES EN EL ENGORDE DE CUYES MEJORADOS SEXADOS (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus EN LA ZONA DE LA MANÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Sánchez Laiño

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación de gramíneas tropicales en el engorde de cuyes en la zona de La Maná. La misma que persiguió los siguientes objetivos: Incrementar los índices productivos en cuyes (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus peruanos mejorados bajo el efecto del consumo del pasto saboya (Panicum maximun Jack, hojas de maíz (Zea mays y caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L en la zona de La Maná, y determinar la rentabilidad de los tratamientos. Se utilizaron 48 cuyes peruanos mejorados sexados de 35 días de edad con un peso promedio de 305 g. Se aplicó un arreglo factorial 2 (sexo x 3 (gramíneas con cuatro repeticiones, dentro de un (DBCA. Para las comparaciones entre medidas se utilizó la prueba de Tukey al 0.05% de probabilidad. Para obtener la rentabilidad de los tratamientos se utilizó la Relación Beneficio–Costo. Se evaluó el: consumo de gramíneas (g, consumo de alimento (g, ganancia de peso (g, conversión alimenticia, peso vivo (g y rendimiento a la canal (%. Los cuyes machos presentaron el mayor (P0.05 no se vio afectado por el efecto del consumo de gramíneas. La mayor rentabilidad la registraron los cuyes machos alimentados con hoja de maíz + balanceado (52.4%.

  6. Soil physical and hydrological properties under three biofuel crops in Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, Catherine; Lal, Rattan [The Ohio State Univ., School of Environment and Natural Resources, Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, Columbus, OH (United States); Schmitz, Matthias [Rheinische Friedrich/Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn, Steinmann Institut fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie, Bonn (Germany); Wullschleger, S. [The Oakridge National Lab., Oakridge, TN (United States)

    2012-10-15

    While biofuel crops are widely studied and compared for their energy and carbon footprints, less is known about their effects on other soil properties, particularly hydrologic characteristics. Soils under three biofuel crops, corn (Zea mays), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and willow (Salix spp.), were analyzed seven years after establishment to assess the effects on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), penetration resistance (PR), water-holding capacity, and infiltration characteristics. The PR was the highest under corn, along with the lowest associated water content, while PR was 50-60 % lower under switchgrass. In accordance with PR data, surface (0-10 cm) bulk density also tended to be lower under switchgrass. Both water infiltration rates and cumulative infiltration amounts varied widely among and within the three crops. Because the Philip model did not fit the data, results were analyzed using the Kostiakov model instead. Switchgrass plots had an average cumulative infiltration of 69 cm over 3 hours with a constant infiltration rate of 0.28 cm min{sup -1}, compared with 37 cm and 0.11 cm min{sup -1} for corn, and 26 cm and 0.06 cm min{sup -1} for willow, respectively. Results suggest that significant changes in soil physical and hydrologic properties may require more time to develop. Soils under switchgrass may have lower surface bulk density, higher field water capacity, and a more rapid water infiltration rate than those under corn or willow.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogeny, and Expression Analysis of ARF Genes Involved in Vegetative Organs Development in Switchgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs have been reported to play vital roles during plant growth and development. In order to reveal specific functions related to vegetative organs in grasses, an in-depth study of the ARF gene family was carried out in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., a warm-season C4 perennial grass that is mostly used as bioenergy and animal feedstock. A total of 47 putative ARF genes (PvARFs were identified in the switchgrass genome (2n = 4x = 36, 42 of which were anchored to the seven pairs of chromosomes and found to be unevenly distributed. Sixteen PvARFs were predicted to be potential targets of small RNAs (microRNA160 and 167. Phylogenetically speaking, PvARFs were divided into seven distinct subgroups based on the phylogeny, exon/intron arrangement, and conserved motif distribution. Moreover, 15 pairs of PvARFs have different temporal-spatial expression profiles in vegetative organs (2nd, 3rd, and 4th internode and leaves, which implies that different PvARFs have specific functions in switchgrass growth and development. In addition, at least 14 pairs of PvARFs respond to naphthylacetic acid (NAA treatment, which might be helpful for us to study on auxin response in switchgrass. The comprehensive analysis, described here, will facilitate the future functional analysis of ARF genes in grasses.

  8. The PIN1 family gene PvPIN1 is involved in auxin-dependent root emergence and tillering in switchgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijie Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; family Poaceae is a warm-season C4 perennial grass. Tillering plays an important role in determining the morphology of aboveground parts and the final biomass yield of switchgrass. Auxin distribution in plants can affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes, including the regulation of shoot and root branching, plant resistance and biological yield. Auxin transport and gradients in plants are mediated by influx and efflux carriers. PvPIN1, a switchgrass PIN1-like gene that is involved in regulating polar transport, is a putative auxin efflux carrier. Neighbor-joining analysis using sequences deposited in NCBI databases showed that the PvPIN1gene belongs to the PIN1 family and is evolutionarily closer to the Oryza sativa japonica group. Tiller emergence and development was significantly promoted in plants subjected toPvPIN1 RNA interference (RNAi, which yielded a phenotype similar to that of wild-type plants treated with the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid. A transgenic approach that inducedPvPIN1 gene overexpression or suppression altered tiller number and the shoot/root ratio. These data suggest that PvPIN1plays an important role in auxin-dependent adventitious root emergence and tillering.

  9. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Allgaier

    Full Text Available Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, approximately 10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  10. Influence of cover crops on citrus crops on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi development in the Colombian piedmont Oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Javier Monroy L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with grassand legume cover crops established on Oxisol soils in the Colombian piedmont (Meta were identified morphologically and the ability to colonize was evaluated. The experimental area consisted of cover crops Arachispintoi (CIAT 18744, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Toledo, B. dictyoneura cv. Llanero, Desmodium ovalifolium c v. Maquenque, Panicum maximum (CIAT 36000, Paspalumnotatum, and a chemical control (Glyphosate and mechanical control established in the rows in a Valencia orange grove. The experiment followed a complete randomized block design (8 cover crops and three replications, evaluated during the wet and dry seasons. Rhizosphere soil and grass and legumes roots were sampled in order to identified AMF and quantify the number of spores and the percentage of colonization. A total of 26 species were identified, including Acaulosporascrobiculata, A. morrowiae and, Scutellospora heterogama, which accounted for over 65% of the population. Thepercentage of root colonization ranged between 47% and 94% with spore counts between 63 and 300/100 g of dry soil. Cover crops with the highest colonization percentage and AMF diversity were B. brizantha, B. dictyoneura and P. notatumin their respective order. Glyphosate and mechanical control had a negative influence on the sporulation and colonization of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the root system

  11. Root-Zone Glyphosate Exposure Adversely Affects Two Ditch Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndsay E. Saunders

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate, one of the most applied herbicides globally, has been extensively studied for its effects on non-target organisms. In the field, following precipitation, glyphosate runs off into agricultural ditches where it infiltrates into the soil and thus may encounter the roots of vegetation. These edge-of-field ditches share many characteristics with wetlands, including the ability to reduce loads of anthropogenic chemicals through uptake, transformation, and retention. Different species within the ditches may have a differential sensitivity to exposure of the root zone to glyphosate, contributing to patterns of abundance of ruderal species. The present laboratory experiment investigated whether two species commonly found in agricultural ditches in southcentral United States were affected by root zone glyphosate in a dose-dependent manner, with the objective of identifying a sublethal concentration threshold. The root zone of individuals of Polygonum hydropiperoides and Panicum hemitomon were exposed to four concentrations of glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured, and the ratio of aboveground biomass to belowground biomass and survival were quantified. The findings from this study showed that root zone glyphosate exposure negatively affected both species including dose-dependent reductions in chlorophyll content. P. hydropiperdoides showed the greatest negative response, with decreased belowground biomass allocation and total mortality at the highest concentrations tested.

  12. Cultivation of the culinary-medicinal Lung Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél. (Agaricomycetideae) on grass plants in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zeng-Chin; Wu, Kuan-Jzen; Wang, Jinn-Chyi; Lin, Chorng-Horng; Wu, Chiu-Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of the culinary-medicinal Lung Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius, on the stalks of three grass plants, i.e., Panicum repens, Pennisetum purpureum, and Zea mays were investigated. The effects of various combinatorial substrates on mushroom mycelial growth and yield calculated as biological efficiency (BE) were determined. Among 9 experimental substrates, the most suitable substrate for mycelial growth was 45ZMS:45S, followed by 45PRS:45S; their mycelial growth rates were obviously quicker than that of the control substrate. The BEs of all the experimental substrates respectively containing P. repens stalk, P. purpureum stalk and Z. mays stalk were higher than that of the control (39.55%) during the 2.5 months of cultivation period. The best substrate in terms of BE was 60ZMS:30S (58.33%), followed by 45PRS:45S (57.16%), 45ZMS:45S (49.86%), and 30ZMS:60S (47.20%). Based on the BE of the tested substrates, Z mays stalk appeared to be the best alternative material for the production of P. pulmonarius.

  13. Maize, switchgrass, and ponderosa pine biochar added to soil increased herbicide sorption and decreased herbicide efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Sharon A; Krack, Kaitlynn K; Bruggeman, Stephanie A; Papiernik, Sharon; Schumacher, Thomas E

    2016-08-02

    Biochar, a by-product of pyrolysis made from a wide array of plant biomass when producing biofuels, is a proposed soil amendment to improve soil health. This study measured herbicide sorption and efficacy when soils were treated with low (1% w/w) or high (10% w/w) amounts of biochar manufactured from different feedstocks [maize (Zea mays) stover, switchgrass (Panicum vigatum), and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)], and treated with different post-processing techniques. Twenty-four hour batch equilibration measured sorption of (14)C-labelled atrazine or 2,4-D to two soil types with and without biochar amendments. Herbicide efficacy was measured with and without biochar using speed of seed germination tests of sensitive species. Biochar amended soils sorbed more herbicide than untreated soils, with major differences due to biochar application rate but minor differences due to biochar type or post-process handling technique. Biochar presence increased the speed of seed germination compared with herbicide alone addition. These data indicate that biochar addition to soil can increase herbicide sorption and reduce efficacy. Evaluation for site-specific biochar applications may be warranted to obtain maximal benefits without compromising other agronomic practices.

  14. Agricultural activities of the malayali tribal for subsistence and economic needs in the mid elevation forest of pachamalai hills, eastern ghats, Tamil nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anburaja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to study the Agricultural activities of the Malayali Tribal for Subsistence and Economic needs in the mid elevation forest of Pachamalai Hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil nadu. About 8 percent of the Indian population belongs to a category listed as “Scheduled Tribes” enumerated in the Schedule to Article 342 of the Constitution of India. Tribal people has been seen to be strongly associated with the forests, hills and remote areas, practicing a unique life style, having a unique set of cultural and religious beliefs. For millennia, tribal communities have lived in forests and survived on hunting and gathering. However, with growing population and resource pressure, it is now witnessing that a rise in livelihoods based on settled farming. In the study area, cereals are the major crop cultivated for their edible grains. The tribal people living in the hills tops of the study area were cultivated 11 major agricultural crops. They are, Eleusine coracana, Panicum miliare, Oryza sativa (verity I (Mara Nellu, Oryza sativa (verity II, Manihot esculenta, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Sesamum orientale, Paspalum sp, Pennisetum americanum and Setaria italica. Among them, Paspalum sp gives the maximum yield with 655 kg acre-1.

  15. Modeling Phosphorus Capture by Plants Growing in a Multispecies Riparian Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The NST 3.0 mechanistic nutrient uptake model was used to explore P uptake to a depth of 120 cm over a 126 d growing season in simulated buffer communities composed of mixtures of cottonwood (Populus deltoids Bartr., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., and smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss. Model estimates of P uptake from pure stands of smooth brome and cottonwood were 18.9 and 24.5 kg ha−1, respectively. Uptake estimates for mixed stands of trees and grasses were intermediate to pure stands. A single factor sensitivity analysis of parameters used to calculate P uptake for each cover type indicated that Imax, k, ro, and Lo were consistently the most responsive to changes ranging from −50% to +100%. Model exploration of P uptake as a function of soil depth interval indicated that uptake was highest in the 0–30 cm intervals, with values ranging from 85% of total for cottonwood to 56% for switchgrass.

  16. Compétition entre mauvaises herbes et culture cotonnière : influence du nombre de sarclages sur la biomasse et le rendement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahanchédé, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Weed Competition in Cotton Crop : Effect of Hoe-Weeding on Biomass and Yield. A hoe-weeding experiment was conducted in 1996, to evaluate the impact of weeds interference on biomass and cotton yield in Sekou (south of Benin. The most common and abundant weeds observed are : Cyperus rotundus, Celosia trygina, Synedrella nodiflora, Commelina benghalensis, Croton lobatus and Panicum maximum. When weeds were left to grow during ail the season, they reduced significantly the biomass (dry matter weight of cotton by 42 %, 47 % and 58 % respectively in comparison with crop weeded 1 ; 2 or 5 times. But there is no significant difference between the biomass of the weeded plots. Although no effect on biomass was visible at 7 weeks after sowing, it appears later in the season that the number of hoeing affected the cotton yield. A possible explanation is that the weeds had removed sufficient quantifies of nutrients from the sol to deprive the cotton of these nutrients when required later in the season.

  17. Growing C4 perennial grass for bioenergy using a new Agro-BGC ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Vittorio, A. V.; Anderson, R. S.; Miller, N. L.; Running, S. W.

    2009-12-01

    Accurate, spatially gridded estimates of bioenergy crop yields require 1) biophysically accurate crop growth models and 2) careful parameterization of unavailable inputs to these models. To meet the first requirement we have added the capacity to simulate C4 perennial grass as a bioenergy crop to the Biome-BGC ecosystem model. This new model, hereafter referred to as Agro-BGC, includes enzyme driven C4 photosynthesis, individual live and dead leaf, stem, and root carbon/nitrogen pools, separate senescence and litter fall processes, fruit growth, optional annual seeding, flood irrigation, a growing degree day phenology with a killing frost option, and a disturbance handler that effectively simulates fertilization, harvest, fire, and incremental irrigation. There are four Agro-BGC vegetation parameters that are unavailable for Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), and to meet the second requirement we have optimized the model across multiple calibration sites to obtain representative values for these parameters. We have verified simulated switchgrass yields against observations at three non-calibration sites in IL. Agro-BGC simulates switchgrass growth and yield at harvest very well at a single site. Our results suggest that a multi-site optimization scheme would be adequate for producing regional-scale estimates of bioenergy crop yields on high spatial resolution grids.

  18. Effects of flooding on the spatial distribution of soil seed and spore banks of native grasslands of the Pantanal wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Carla de Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTo better understand the role that flooding plays in shaping plant communities of native floodable grasslands of the Pantanal and to characterize the spatial distribution of plants, we present the results of a survey of soil seed and spore banks using the seedling emergence method. We hypothesized that terrain subjected to the deepest and longest flooding should have higher propagule abundance and richness. The species composition and distribution of seeds and spores in the soil were assessed at five sites using three sampling positions at each according to inundation intensity. In each sample position 2cm-thick soil samples were collected in quadrats to a depth of 10cm. Litter was also collected as an independent layer. Sample monitoring in the greenhouse resulted in the emergence of 5489 seedlings, or 6353 propagules.m-2. Both the litter layer and the deepest soil layer had low abundances. A total of forty-four morphospecies (16 families were recorded. Both seedling abundance and species richness were concentrated in the more floodable center sections. Isoetes pedersenii, Eleocharis minima, Sagittaria guayanensis, Rotala mexicana, Eleocharis plicarhachis, and Panicum laxum were the most abundant species. The species composition and spatial distribution of the propagule bank suggests that flooding plays a crucial role in seasonal vegetation dynamics in Pantanal wetlands, mediated by the ability of the soil to host seeds and spores during dry season.

  19. EFEITO DA ADUBAÇÃO SILICATADA SOBRE GRAMÍNEAS FORRAGEIRAS E CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICAS DO SOLO EFFECT OF SILICON FERTILIZER ON FORAGE GRASSES AND SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Soares de Freitas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho avaliou o efeito da aplicação superficial de doses de silicato de cálcio sobre a produção de matéria seca e as concentrações de Si na parte aérea, assim como os atributos químicos do solo em pastagem degradada de gramíneas forrageiras, cultivadas em casa-de-vegetação. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5x2, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos por cinco doses de silicato de cálcio (0 kg ha-1, 500 kg ha-1, 1.000 kg ha-1, 1.500 kg ha-1 e 2.000 kg ha-1 e duas gramíneas forrageiras (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça. Foram realizados dois cortes, aos 45 e 95 dias após a semeadura, sendo quantificada a produção de massa seca da parte aérea e as concentrações foliares de Si absorvido pelas plantas, além dos valores de pH, Ca, P, Al e V no solo, após a colheita das gramíneas. A aplicação de silicato de cálcio resultou em maior absorção de silício, tanto na cv. Marandu como na cv. Mombaça. A produção de massa seca da cv. Marandu não diferiu da cv. Mombaça. O silicato de cálcio aumentou o pH e a saturação por bases do solo e reduziu o teor de alumínio.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Brachiaria brizantha; Panicum maximum; silício; corretivo de acidez

  20. Blood Parameters and Toxicity of Chromium Picolinate Oral Supplementation in Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Braz, ShélidaVasconcelos; Marçola, Tatiana Guerrero; McManus, Concepta; Caldeira, Denise Ferreira; Campeche, Aline; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Paim, Tiago Prado; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Louvandini, Helder

    2015-11-01

    The effects of oral supplementation of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on various blood parameters and their possible toxicity on the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, and testis were investigated. Twenty-four Santa Inês (SI) lambs were treated with four different concentrations of CrPic (six animals/treatment): placebo, 0.250, 0.375, and 0.500 mg CrPic/animal/day for 84 days. The basal diet consisted of hay Panicum maximum cv Massai and concentrate. Blood and serum were collected fortnightly for analysis. On day 84, the animals were euthanized, and histopathological analysis in the liver, kidney, heart, lung, and testis was made. The liver and kidney were also submitted to electronic microscopy analysis. Differences between treatments (P plasm protein (day 56 and day 84), and triglycerides (day 70). There was no statistically significant relationship between Cr supplementation and histopathology findings, although some animals treated with supplementary Cr showed morphological changes in the liver, kidney, and testis. Thus, the effectiveness of supplementation with Cr remains in doubt as to its physiological action and toxicity in sheep.

  1. SIMPANAN KARBON DAN KANDUNGAN NUTRISI BEBERAPA SPESIES RUMPUT TROPIS ASAL PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT RAKYAT DI KABUPATEN SAROLANGUN PROPINSI JAMBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Martaguri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grasses are known as part of palm plantation ecology and has benefits as source of ruminant feed. Besides, it is believed to have ability as Carbon Storage. However, to what extent the grass can be capable as Carbon Storage and what are the species that can be best fitted as Carbon Storage are still questionable especially for those that are grown on plantation. Thus, investigation was carried out to identify tropical grasses grown under palm plantation coverage that can be functioned as Carbon Storage as well as to determine its nutrition contents. Due to having many traditional plantations, Pauh District of Sarolangon Jambi was opted as observation area. From there, samples were taken randomly from plots and sub-plots that were pre-created. Grass samples are grouped into three groups; leave, stem and root, and taken to laboratory for analysis. Among those that were observed, Panicum brevifolium, Axonopus compressus, Centotheca longilamina, Centotheca longilamina ohwi and Schleria sumatrensis were shown their capability as carbon storage. However, those are carbon storage capable have slightly different in carbon and nitrogen contents, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF and Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF analysis and almost the same in fiber fractions.

  2. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on biomass yield and quality in large fields of established switchgrass in southern Iowa, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, Roque [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Texas A and M University, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States); Charles Brummer, E. [Center for Applied Genetic Technologies, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Lee Burras, C.; Moore, Kenneth J.; Barker, Michael F. [Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Molstad, Neil E. [USDA-NRCS Hawaii Resource Office, 101 Aupuni Street Suite 229, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a potential biofuel crop in the midwestern United States. The objective of this experiment was to test the effect of nitrogen application on biomass dry matter yield and fiber and mineral concentrations in large field plots in Lucas and Wayne counties in southern Iowa. Two established switchgrass fields with a previous history of limited management were evaluated from 1998 through 2002. Nitrogen was applied in the spring at rates of 0, 56, 112, and 224 kg N ha{sup -1}, and a single biomass harvest was made in autumn. Biomass production averaged across locations and N levels increased by 3.6 mg ha{sup -1} between 1998 and 2002 to 6.5 mg ha{sup -1}. Nitrogen improved yields, with the response declining as N levels increased. The highest yield throughout the experiment was 8.5 mg ha{sup -1} at the Lucas location in 2002. Changes in fiber and mineral concentrations did not follow any trend over years but were likely due to differences in harvest date among years. Nitrogen fertilization had no meaningful effect on the quality of the biofuel produced. This study clearly shows that nitrogen application and proper agronomic management can substantially increase the yield of established switchgrass fields over time without affecting the quality of the feedstock. As this experiment was conducted in large plots using commercial farm machinery, the results should be broadly applicable to real world situations. (author)

  3. Improving Bioenergy Crops through Dynamic Metabolic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Faraji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enormous advances in genetics and metabolic engineering have made it possible, in principle, to create new plants and crops with improved yield through targeted molecular alterations. However, while the potential is beyond doubt, the actual implementation of envisioned new strains is often difficult, due to the diverse and complex nature of plants. Indeed, the intrinsic complexity of plants makes intuitive predictions difficult and often unreliable. The hope for overcoming this challenge is that methods of data mining and computational systems biology may become powerful enough that they could serve as beneficial tools for guiding future experimentation. In the first part of this article, we review the complexities of plants, as well as some of the mathematical and computational methods that have been used in the recent past to deepen our understanding of crops and their potential yield improvements. In the second part, we present a specific case study that indicates how robust models may be employed for crop improvements. This case study focuses on the biosynthesis of lignin in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum. Switchgrass is considered one of the most promising candidates for the second generation of bioenergy production, which does not use edible plant parts. Lignin is important in this context, because it impedes the use of cellulose in such inedible plant materials. The dynamic model offers a platform for investigating the pathway behavior in transgenic lines. In particular, it allows predictions of lignin content and composition in numerous genetic perturbation scenarios.

  4. Overexpression of AtLOV1 in Switchgrass alters plant architecture, lignin content, and flowering time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. is a prime candidate crop for biofuel feedstock production in the United States. As it is a self-incompatible polyploid perennial species, breeding elite and stable switchgrass cultivars with traditional breeding methods is very challenging. Translational genomics may contribute significantly to the genetic improvement of switchgrass, especially for the incorporation of elite traits that are absent in natural switchgrass populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we constitutively expressed an Arabidopsis NAC transcriptional factor gene, LONG VEGETATIVE PHASE ONE (AtLOV1, in switchgrass. Overexpression of AtLOV1 in switchgrass caused the plants to have a smaller leaf angle by changing the morphology and organization of epidermal cells in the leaf collar region. Also, overexpression of AtLOV1 altered the lignin content and the monolignol composition of cell walls, and caused delayed flowering time. Global gene-expression analysis of the transgenic plants revealed an array of responding genes with predicted functions in plant development, cell wall biosynthesis, and flowering. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first report of a single ectopically expressed transcription factor altering the leaf angle, cell wall composition, and flowering time of switchgrass, therefore demonstrating the potential advantage of translational genomics for the genetic improvement of this crop.

  5. Simultaneous Downregulation of MTHFR and COMT in Switchgrass Affects Plant Performance and Induces Lesion-Mimic Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT-deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants. Another unexpected finding was that the double MTHFR/COMT downregulated plants showed a novel lesion-mimic leaf phenotype. Molecular analyses revealed that the lesion-mimic phenotype was caused by the synergistic effect of MTHFR and COMT genes, with MTHFR playing a predominant role. Microarray analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative and defense responses. The results demonstrated the lack of additive effects of MTHFR and COMT on lignification. Furthermore, this research revealed an unexpected role of the two genes in the modulation of lesion-mimic cell death as well as their synergistic effects on agronomic performance.

  6. Mineral concentrations of forage legumes and grasses grown in acidic soil amended with flue gas desulfurization products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA). Beltsville Agricultural Research Center West

    2003-07-01

    Considerable quantities of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are generated when coal is burned for production of electricity, and these products have the potential to be reused rather than discarded. Use of FGDs as soil amendments could be important in overall management of these products, especially on acidic soils. Glasshouse studies were conducted to determine shoot concentrations of calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), sodium (Na), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), orchardgrass (Dacrylis glomerata), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) grown in acidic (pH 4) soil (Typic Hapludult) amended with various levels of three FGDs and the control compounds CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4}. Shoot concentrations of Ca, S, Mg, and B generally increased as levels of soil applied FGD increased. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu were lower in shoots, especially when soil pH was high ({gt}7). Shoot concentrations of the trace elements Mo, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb were not above those reported as normal for foliage. Overall concentrations of most minerals remained near normal for shoots when plants were grown in FGD amended acidic soil.

  7. Research and Technology Development for Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kausch, Albert [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Rhodes, Richard [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States)

    2017-05-02

    This research adds to the understanding of switchgrass genetics and the increasing of biomass relevant to production of bioenergy. Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., and its related species are well known as potential bioenergy crops since the early 1990s. There are global economic, political, US national security and environmental pressures to increase renewable biofuel production and utilization to offset gasoline and diesel fuel use and climate change, especially in the liquid fuel transportation sector. To realize the potential of bioenergy crops, rapid genetic improvement of the most promising perennial grass feedstocks, such as switchgrass, are anticipated by current genomics, association genetics, marker assisted breeding, hybrid plant development, advanced tissue culture, conventional genetics and other approaches to increase yield, processability, and regional adaptation. The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated are demonstrated by several publications, presentations and patents produced as an outcome and deliverable of this research. This project is of a broad benefit to the public not only through the dissemination of this information but also to the development of new methods which will be applied to future bioenergy crop improvement as well as other crops.

  8. Transformation of Food Habits through Promotion of Under-Utilized Cereals in High Hills of Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koirala, Pramod; Bajracharya, Keshari; Chalise, Ananda

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Malnutrition is a persistent social setback in Nepal. High hills in Nepal is considered as the headquarter of the malnourished people as it holds almost the twice of stunted children than the national average. Food insecurity is the major causes of malnutrition as there is low agriculture production followed by difficult terrain and poor road connectivity. Nevertheless, there are several types of locally produced cereals that are under-utilized because of the traditional food-habit of eating rice. In order to bring a change in local food habit by the high-hill residents, attempts were made in processing of under-utilized cereals. Six different cereals were processed into super flour, porridge, cookies, flakes and traditional sweets for which locally accessible home level processing technology was used. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica), Porso Millet (Panicum miliaceum), Buck Wheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), Amaranth (Amaranth caudatus) and Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare) were processed into diverse products that suit to the local taste. The processing steps were standardized and laboratory analysis was carried out. It was then distributed to local development partners through trainers' training. Now, local people have started processing and consuming these products. It is anticipated that processed products promotion helps in solving food insecurity to some extent, and contributes in reducing malnutrition for the children below two. (author)

  9. Integrated energy, environmental and financial analysis of ethanol production from cellulosic switchgrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, Erika; Tilley, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol production from cellulosic sources such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) requires the use of natural resources, fossil fuels, electricity, and human-derived goods and services. We used emergy accounting to integrate the ultimate amount of environmental, fossil fuel, and human-derived energy required to produce ethanol from switchgrass. Emergy is the total amount of energy of one form required directly and indirectly to make another form of energy. Forty-four percent of required emergy came from the environment either directly or embodied in purchased goods, 30% came from fossil fuels either directly or embodied in purchased goods, and 25% came from human-derived services indirectly. Ethanol production per petroleum use (emergy/emergy) was 4.0-to-1 under our Baseline Scenario, but dropped to 0.5-to-1 under a scenario that assumed higher input prices, lower conversion efficiencies and less waste recycling. At least 75% of total emergy was from non-renewable sources. Energy 'hidden' in indirect paths such as goods and services was 65% of the total. Cellulosic-ethanol is not a primary fuel source that substitutes for petroleum because its production relies heavily on non-renewable energy and purchased inputs. It is a means for converting natural resources to liquid fuel. (author)

  10. Molecular characterization, ecology, and epidemiology of a novel Tymovirus in Asclepias viridis from Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byoung-Eun; Feldman, Tracy S; Ali, Akhtar; Wiley, Graham; Muthukumar, Vijay; Roe, Bruce A; Roossinck, Marilyn; Melcher, Ulrich; Palmer, Michael W; Nelson, Richard S

    2012-02-01

    Native virus-plant interactions require more understanding and their study will provide a basis from which to identify potential sources of emerging destructive viruses in crops. A novel tymovirus sequence was detected in Asclepias viridis (green milkweed), a perennial growing in a natural setting in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TGPP) of Oklahoma. It was abundant within and frequent among A. viridis plants and, to varying extents, within other dicotyledonous and one grass (Panicum virgatum) species obtained from the TGPP. Extracts from A. viridis containing the sequence were infectious to a limited number of species. The virus genome was cloned and determined to be closely related to Kennedya yellow mosaic virus. The persistence of the virus within the Oklahoma A. viridis population was monitored for five successive years. Virus was present in a high percentage of plants within representative areas of the TGPP in all years and was spreading to additional plants. Virus was present in regions adjacent to the TGPP but not in plants sampled from central and south-central Oklahoma. Virus was present in the underground caudex of the plant during the winter, suggesting overwintering in this tissue. The RNA sequence encoding the virus coat protein varied considerably between individual plants (≈3%), likely due to drift rather than selection. An infectious clone was constructed and the virus was named Asclepias asymptomatic virus (AsAV) due to the absence of obvious symptoms on A. viridis.

  11. Production et coûts des semences utilisées pour l'amélioration des jachères et des aménagements antiérosifs : "Le cas des zones de savane du Nord Cameroun"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugué, P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds Production for Fallow and Anti-Erosion Management : "The Case of the Savannah Areas in North Cameroon". The maintenance of cultivated soils' fertility in North Cameroon relies on the extension of the techniques of water erosion control and improved legume crop fallows. These innovations require that seeds must become available to farmers. These seeds are legume seeds (Calopogonium mucunoides, Stylosanthes hamata, Mucuna pruriens, Cajans cajan or perennial grasses (Panicum maximum, Andropogon gayanus, Cenchrus ciliaris. On station research has developed the techniques of seeds production which can be introduced in the farmer's environment on the one hand, and on the other hand can be used to evaluate the cost of legumes seeds production. Depending on the species, the total price of seeds production varies from 250 to 1160 FCFA/kg (0, 5 U$ to 2 U$/kg. Based on these prices, it seems possible in the first step to diffuse these seeds varieties. The diffusion of the vegetal material depends firstly on the interest that farmers attach to techniques of soil restauration which are proposed to them. If they adopt these innovations, they can easily produce seeds that they need after been trained to the techniques developed by research.

  12. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical Framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nichols, Dr Jeff A [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A global energy crop productivity model that provides geospatially explicit quantitative details on biomass potential and factors affecting sustainability would be useful, but does not exist now. This study describes a modeling platform capable of meeting many challenges associated with global-scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed an analytical framework for bioenergy crops consisting of six major components: (i) standardized natural resources datasets, (ii) global field-trial data and crop management practices, (iii) simulation units and management scenarios, (iv) model calibration and validation, (v) high-performance computing (HPC) simulation, and (vi) simulation output processing and analysis. The HPC-Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (HPC-EPIC) model simulated a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), estimating feedstock production potentials and effects across the globe. This modeling platform can assess soil C sequestration, net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, nonpoint source pollution (e.g., nutrient and pesticide loss), and energy exchange with the atmosphere. It can be expanded to include additional bioenergy crops (e.g., miscanthus, energy cane, and agave) and food crops under different management scenarios. The platform and switchgrass field-trial dataset are available to support global analysis of biomass feedstock production potential and corresponding metrics of sustainability.

  13. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences} [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Wang, Dali [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL; Kang, Shujiang [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary global assessments of the deployment potential and sustainability aspects of biofuel crops lack quantitative details. This paper describes an analytical framework capable of meeting the challenges associated with global scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed a modeling platform for bioenergy crops, consisting of five major components: (i) standardized global natural resources and management data sets, (ii) global simulation unit and management scenarios, (iii) model calibration and validation, (iv) high-performance computing (HPC) modeling, and (v) simulation output processing and analysis. A case study with the HPC- Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (HPC-EPIC) to simulate a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and global biomass feedstock analysis on grassland demonstrates the application of this platform. The results illustrate biomass feedstock variability of switchgrass and provide insights on how the modeling platform can be expanded to better assess sustainable production criteria and other biomass crops. Feedstock potentials on global grasslands and within different countries are also shown. Future efforts involve developing databases of productivity, implementing global simulations for other bioenergy crops (e.g. miscanthus, energycane and agave), and assessing environmental impacts under various management regimes. We anticipated this platform will provide an exemplary tool and assessment data for international communities to conduct global analysis of biofuel biomass feedstocks and sustainability.

  14. De novo generation of helper virus-satellite chimera RNAs results in disease attenuation and satellite sequence acquisition in a host-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, J D; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2018-01-15

    Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) is a helper RNA virus for satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and a satellite virus (SPMV). Here, we describe modifications that occur at the 3'-end of a satRNA of PMV, satS. Co-infections of PMV+satS result in attenuation of the disease symptoms induced by PMV alone in Brachypodium distachyon and proso millet. The 375 nt satS acquires ~100-200 nts from the 3'-end of PMV during infection and is associated with decreased abundance of the PMV RNA and capsid protein in millet. PMV-satS chimera RNAs were isolated from native infections of St. Augustinegrass and switchgrass. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the chimeric RNAs clustered according to the host species from which they were isolated. Additionally, the chimera satRNAs acquired non-viral "linker" sequences in a host-specific manner. These results highlight the dynamic regulation of viral pathogenicity by satellites, and the selective host-dependent, sequence-based pressures for driving satRNA generation and genome compositions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptation of C4 Bioenergy Crop Species to Various Environments within the Southern Great Plains of USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As highly productive perennial grasses are evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks, a major consideration is biomass yield stability. Two experiments were conducted to examine some aspects of yield stability for two biofuel species: switchgrass (Panicum vigratum L. and Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg. Biomass yields of these species were evaluated under various environmental conditions across the Southern Great Plains (SGP, including some sites with low soil fertility. In the first experiment, measured yields of four switchgrass ecotypes and Mxg varied among locations. Overall, plants showed optimal growth performance in study sites close to their geographical origins. Lowland switchgrass ecotypes and Mxg yields simulated by the ALMANAC model showed reasonable agreement with the measured yields across all study locations, while the simulated yields of upland switchgrass ecotypes were overestimated in northern locations. In the second experiment, examination of different N fertilizer rates revealed switchgrass yield increases over the range of 0, 80, or 160 kg N ha−1 year−1, while Mxg only showed yield increases between the low and medium N rates. This provides useful insights to crop management of two biofuel species and to enhance the predictive accuracy of process-based models, which are critical for developing bioenergy market systems in the SGP.

  16. Base-line data on everglades soil-plant systems: elemental composition, biomass, and soil depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, B.G.; Schemnitz, S.D.; Gamble, J.F.; Sartain, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Plants and soils from plots in the Everglades Wildlife Management Area, Conservation Area 3, were examined. Chemical composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Sr, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, and Si) of most plant and soil digests was determined. Cladium jamaicense was the predominant plant species contributing to biomass in all plots except the wet prairie, where Rhynchospora sp. and Panicum hemitomon were most common. The biomass of dead C. jamaicense was greater than that of the living plants in unburned saw-grass plots. The burned saw grass, muck burn, and wet prairie were characterized by a large number of plant species per square meter but smaller average biomass production than the unburned saw-grass locations. Levels of Cu, Mn, Ca, Mg, K, and N in C. jamaicense differed significantly across locations. Highly significant differences in elemental composition existed between plant species. Concentrations of several elements (particularly Zn, Ca, Mg, P, and N) were low in live C. jamaicense compared with other plant species. Cesium-137 levels ranged from 670 to 3100 pCi/kg in sandy and in organic soils, respectively. Polygonum had a 137 Cs level of 11,600 pCi/kg. Dead C. jamaicense indicated a rapid leaching loss of 137 Cs from dead tissue

  17. Scenarios of bioenergy development impacts on regional groundwater withdrawals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation increases agricultural productivity, but it also stresses water resources (Huffaker and Hamilton 2007). Drought and the potential for drier conditions resulting from climate change could strain water supplies in landscapes where human populations rely on finite groundwater resources for drinking, agriculture, energy, and industry (IPCC 2007). For instance, in the North American Great Plains, rowcrops are utilized for livestock feed, food, and bioenergy production (Cassman and Liska 2007), and a large portion is irrigated with groundwater from the High Plains aquifer system (McGuire 2011). Under projected future climatic conditions, greater crop water use requirements and diminished groundwater recharge rates could make rowcrop irrigation less feasible in some areas (Rosenberg et al. 1999; Sophocleous 2005). The Rainwater Basin region of south central Nebraska, United States, is an intensively farmed and irrigated Great Plains landscape dominated by corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) production (Bishop and Vrtiska 2008). Ten starch-based ethanol plants currently service the region, producing ethanol from corn grain (figure 1). In this study, we explore the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a drought-tolerant alternative bioenergy feedstock, to impact regional annual groundwater withdrawals for irrigation under warmer and drier future conditions. Although our research context is specific to the Rainwater Basin and surrounding North American Great Plains, we believe the broader research question is internationally pertinent and hope that this study simulates similar research in other areas.

  18. Tenor of macro nutrients and dry matter productivity of covering crops in function of the potassium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of the system of direct sowing it is necessary the formation of a straw layer in the surface of the soils. In this sense, some species of grass can be used for that goal, besides; those plants can act in the recycling for the accumulation of nutrients in the aerial part, and its readiness for the subsequent culture. The potassium is one of the most accumulated nutrients for many of those plants. The objective of this work was to quantify the macronutrients tenor and the productivity of dry matter of Penisetum glaucum L. and Panicum miliaceum L. under different potassium doses. A blocks at random design, with the treatments disposed in factorial 3x2, was used, being the factors: covering cultures (P.glaucum and P. miliaceum and potassium doses (0; 50 and 100 kg ha-1 of K2 O, with four repetitions. The matter dries was evaluated and the tenors of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S in them, at 50 days after sowing covering cultures. P.glaucum produced larger dry matter content and tenor of N, K and Mg in the aerial part, independently of the K dose applied, while the tenor of P decreased with the application of high dose of K in the soil. The application of K influenced on the tenors of Ca and S in the two covering cultures, nevertheless P.glaucum accumulated higher tenor of those macronutrients in the absence of application of K.

  19. Forage production and growing goats’ response under silvopastoral systems based on Guazuma ulmifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Crescentia cujete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rodríguez Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grass monoculture, besides being unnatural to goat’s natural eating habits, exhibits low forage production during the dry season, with negative impacts on animal productivity. This research aimed to determine the productive advantages of silvopastoral system arrangements in goat production. A completely randomized design with repeated measurements through time was used. Six treatments were evaluated: kikuyina grass monoculture (Bothriochloa pertusa and guinea grass monoculture (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania as control groups; guacimo (Guazuma ulmifolia based silvopastoral arrangement; calabash (Crescentia cujete based silvopastoral arrangement; lead tree (Leucaena leucocephala based silvopastoral arrangement; and a mixed based silvopastoralarrangement (guacimo, calabash and leucaena. The information was processed with analysis of variance. The results showed increased forage production in silvopastoral arrangements vs. Bothriochloa pertusa monoculture. The greater increase in height (p <0.05 at 9-14 months of age, was obtained with the leucaena silvopastoral arrangement. All silvopastoral arrangements showed forage yield advantages compared to B. pertusa. The higher dry matter production of guinea grass is highlighted. Overall weight gain of the growing goats was low; nevertheless, a differential response between treatments was observed. Silvopastoral arrangements had the highest (p <0.05 weight gain (22.5 to 33.6 g/animal per day relative to the guinea grass monoculture (13.2 g/animal per day. The growing goats had higher percentages of estrus and pregnancy in the mixed system (66.7% and those based on guacimo (66.7% and on lead tree (55.6%.

  20. Are Agrofuels a conservation threat or opportunity for grassland birds in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bruce A.; Rice, Robert A.; Ribic, Christine; Babcock, Bruce A.; Landis, Douglas A.; Herkert, James R.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Fontaine, Joseph J; Doran, Patrick J.; Schemske, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, government-mandated growth in the production of crops dedicated to biofuel (agrofuels) is predicted to increase the demands on existing agricultural lands, potentially threatening the persistence of populations of grassland birds they support. We review recently published literature and datasets to (1) examine the ability of alternative agrofuel crops and their management regimes to provide habitat for grassland birds, (2) determine how crop placement in agricultural landscapes and agrofuel-related land-use change will affect grassland birds, and (3) identify critical research and policy-development needs associated with agrofuel production. We find that native perennial plants proposed as feedstock for agrofuel (switchgrass, Panicum virgatum, and mixed grass—forb prairie) have considerable potential to provide new habitat to a wide range of grassland birds, including rare and threatened species. However, industrialization of agrofuel production that maximizes biomass, homogenizes vegetation structure, and results in the cultivation of small fields within largely forested landscapes is likely to reduce species richness and/or abundance of grassland-dependent birds. Realizing the potential benefits of agrofuel production for grassland birds' conservation will require the development of new policies that encourage agricultural practices specifically targeting the needs of grassland specialists. The broad array of grower-incentive programs in existence may deliver new agrofuel policies effectively but will require coordination at a spatial scale broader than currently practiced, preferably within an adaptive-management framework.

  1. Effects of processing phases on the quality of massai grass seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Faria de Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Massai grass is an important tropical forage grass. The harvested seeds upon being received by the company, are found to be contaminated with impurities which are removable by processing machines. This procedure is necessary to produce seeds of a quality level within standards established for commercialization and sowing purposes. The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of processing phases on the physical and physiological quality of massai grass (Panicum maximum x P. infestum, cv. Massai seeds for commercialization purposes. Seeds were sampled before processing and after leaving the air and screen machine (upper and intermediary screens and bottom; first gravity table (drift, upper and intermediate spouts; treating machine; and second gravity table (upper, intermediate, and lower spouts. Seeds were evaluated as to water content, physical (purity and 1,000 seeds weight and physiological quality (germination, first count of germination, seedling vigor classification, accelerated aging, seedling emergence in the field, speed of emergence index, and primary root length, shoot length. Massai grass seeds had their physical and physiological qualities improved when they were processed by an air and screen machine and a gravity table. Seeds from the intermediate discharge spout of the first gravity table, after going through the air and screen machine, are those of with highest physiological potential. The seeds of this species do not need to be processed to fit the germination and purity standards when the national market is the goal.

  2. Plot-size for 15N-fertilizer recovery studies by tanzania-grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martha Junior, Geraldo Bueno; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Corsi, Moacyr

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of the N dynamics in pasture ecosystems can be improved by studies using the 15 N tracer technique. However, in these experiments it must be ensured that the lateral movement of the labeled fertilizer does not interfere with the results. In this study the plot-size requirements for 15 N-fertilizer recovery experiments with irrigated Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania was determined. Three grazing intensities (light, moderate and intensive grazing) in the winter, spring and summer seasons were considered. A 1 m 2 plot-size, with a grass tussock in the center, was adequate, irrespective of the grazing intensity or season of the year. Increasing the distance from the area fertilized with 15 N negatively affected the N derived from fertilizer (Npfm) recovered in herbage.The lowest decline in Npfm values were observed for moderate and light grazing intensities. This fact might be explained by the vigorous growth characteristics of these plants. Increasing the grazing intensity decreased the tussock mass and, the smaller the tussock mass, the greater was the dependence on fertilizer nitrogen. (author)

  3. Beneficios de la cobertura muerta para el cultivo del tomate (Solanumlycopersicum L. en Sancti Spíritus, Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolima Peña Calzada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar la utilización de biomasa vegetal como cobertura muerta del suelo en el cultivo del tomate. Se realizaron dos experimentos en dos agroecosistemas y se utilizó como cobertura biomasa vegetal de ambas fincas. Los experimentos fueron montados en bloque al azar con tres y cuatro repeticiones. El experimento 1 constó de tres tratamientos, uno cubierto con guinea (PanicummaximaPers., otro con junco de laguna (ScirpuslacustrisL. y un Control. En el 2 se aplicaron cuatro tratamientos, uno cubierto con restos de cosecha de arroz (Oryza sativa L. otro con guinea (Panicum máxima, otro con hojas de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L. y un Control. Se realizaron mediciones de temperatura de suelo durante 8 semanas, a las 8:00 horas a las 11:00 horas a las 14:00 horas y 17:00 horas. Además se evaluaron las características morfoagronómicas del cultivo (número de frutos por planta, diámetro y masa de los mismos y el rendimiento productivo. Las características morfoagronómicas mostraron los mejores resultados en los tratamientos cubiertos. Los rendimientos en ambos experimentos fueron estadísticamente superiores donde se utilizó la cobertura del suelo.

  4. Using Plants for the Bioremediation (Phyto-remediation) of Chromium-Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; Al-Salama, Y.J.

    2003-01-01

    A trial was made to study the use of hyper accumulator plant species to extract Cr out of contaminated soils. Three soils (A,B, and C) were selected in this experiment, Soil A: Polluted soil from El-Gabal El-Asfer farm. (subjected to sewage effluent irrigation for more than 75 years). Soil B: Polluted soil from Bahtem area (subjected to sewage effluent irrigation for more than 30 years). Soil C: Polluted soil from Mostorud area (irrigated with contaminated water for more than 30 years due to direct discharge of industrial wastewater to irrigation water canals). Four Kg of each air-dried surface soil sample (0-20 cm) were packed in plastic containers in three replicates. Four plant species tested in this study namely, Sorghum (Sorghum Vulgar L.), Clover (Trifolium Pretense L.), Panikum (Panicum antidotal) and Canola (Brassica Napous.); were grown on each tested soil in a complete randomized block experimental design. Plant shoots were harvested every 60 days (three cuts) for sorghum, clover and panikum. In case of canola plants, the shoots were harvested after 60 days (vegetative stage) and 85 days(fruiting stage). The roots of all species were collected after the final cut. Initial and final soil samples were taken for Cr analyses using neutron activation analyses technique (NAA)

  5. Energy Potential and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Bioenergy Cropping Systems on Marginally Productive Cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, Marty R.; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Varvel, Gary E.; Follett, Ronald F.; Mitchell, Robert B.; Jin, Virginia L.

    2014-01-01

    Low-carbon biofuel sources are being developed and evaluated in the United States and Europe to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Current and potential biofuel production systems were evaluated from a long-term continuous no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) field trial under differing harvest strategies and nitrogen (N) fertilizer intensities to determine overall environmental sustainability. Corn and switchgrass grown for bioenergy resulted in near-term net greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions of −29 to −396 grams of CO2 equivalent emissions per megajoule of ethanol per year as a result of direct soil carbon sequestration and from the adoption of integrated biofuel conversion pathways. Management practices in switchgrass and corn resulted in large variation in petroleum offset potential. Switchgrass, using best management practices produced 3919±117 liters of ethanol per hectare and had 74±2.2 gigajoules of petroleum offsets per hectare which was similar to intensified corn systems (grain and 50% residue harvest under optimal N rates). Co-locating and integrating cellulosic biorefineries with existing dry mill corn grain ethanol facilities improved net energy yields (GJ ha−1) of corn grain ethanol by >70%. A multi-feedstock, landscape approach coupled with an integrated biorefinery would be a viable option to meet growing renewable transportation fuel demands while improving the energy efficiency of first generation biofuels. PMID:24594783

  6. Towards uncovering the roles of switchgrass peroxidases in plant processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron eSaathoff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous perennial plants selected as potential biofuel feedstocks had been understudied at the genomic and functional genomic levels. Recent investments, primarily by the U.S. Department of Energy, have led to the development of a number of molecular resources for bioenergy grasses, such as the partially annotated genome for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., and some related diploid species. In its current version, the switchgrass genome contains 65,878 gene models arising from the A and B genomes of this tetraploid grass. The availability of these gene sequences provides a framework to exploit transcriptomic data obtained from next generation sequencing platforms to address questions of biological importance. One such question pertains to discovery of genes and proteins important for biotic and abiotic stress responses, and how these components might affect biomass quality and stress response in plants engineered for a specific end purpose. It can be expected that production of switchgrass on marginal lands will expose plants to diverse stresses, including herbivory by insects. Class III plant peroxidases have been implicated in many developmental responses such as lignification and in the adaptive responses of plants to insect feeding. Here, we have analyzed the class III peroxidases encoded by the switchgrass genome, and have mined available transcriptomic datasets to develop a first understanding of the expression profiles of the class III peroxidases in different plant tissues. Lastly, we have identified switchgrass peroxidases that appear to be orthologs of enzymes shown to play key roles in lignification and plant defense responses to hemipterans.

  7. Toxicity of coal fly ash (CFA) and toxicological response of switchgrass in mycorrhiza-mediated CFA-soil admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoyemi, Olushola M; Dzantor, E Kudjo

    2017-10-01

    Increasing support for the use of Coal fly ash (CFA) in agriculture has necessitated a better understanding of the effects of the CFA in various cropping schemes. Experiments were conducted to assess mutagenic response of a mutant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (TA100) to varying concentrations of CFA-water extracts, determine oxidative stress in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) at varying levels of CFA-soil admixtures, and evaluate mycorrhiza-mediated modulation of oxidative stress responses of CFA-grown switchgrass. The TA100 exposed to 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% (w/v) CFA-water extracts elicited significant (p CFA-soil admixtures at 7.5% and 15% (w/w) significantly (p CFA/soil). Under the same conditions, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased by 75.9% and 66.9%. In contrast to the antioxidant enzyme activities, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) an indicator of lipid peroxidation increased significantly (p CFA-soil admixtures with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Rhizophaga clarus enhanced the activities of both SOD and GPx in the switchgrass, while it significantly (p CFA (at concentrations considered to be non-mutagenic against TA100) as soil amendment produced concentration-dependent oxidative stress responses in switchgrass; however, inoculation of the CFA-soil admixtures with AMF significantly modulated the oxidative stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic variation, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Switchgrass with ISSR, SCoT and EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yan, Haidong; Jiang, Xiaomei; Wang, Xiaoli; Huang, Linkai; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Xinquan; Zhang, Lexin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate genetic variation, population structure, and the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD), 134 switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) samples were analyzed with 51 markers, including 16 ISSRs, 20 SCoTs, and 15 EST-SSRs. In this study, a high level of genetic variation was observed in the switchgrass samples and they had an average Nei's gene diversity index (H) of 0.311. A total of 793 bands were obtained, of which 708 (89.28 %) were polymorphic. Using a parameter marker index (MI), the efficiency of the three types of markers (ISSR, SCoT, and EST-SSR) in the study were compared and we found that SCoT had a higher marker efficiency than the other two markers. The 134 switchgrass samples could be divided into two sub-populations based on STRUCTURE, UPGMA clustering, and principal coordinate analyses (PCA), and upland and lowland ecotypes could be separated by UPGMA clustering and PCA analyses. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed an average r 2 of 0.035 across all 51 markers, indicating a trend of higher LD in sub-population 2 than that in sub-population 1 ( P  < 0.01). The population structure revealed in this study will guide the design of future association studies using these switchgrass samples.

  9. Correlations between hematological, parasitological patterns and animal performance of sheep supplemented with protected fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Alves Costa Afonso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of populations of gastrointestinal parasites resistant to antihelmintics has led to seeks new alternatives its control. Stimulation of natural immunity by means of animal nutrition has shown promising results in controlling nematodes in sheep. The addition of protected fat sources, containing essential fatty acids, may be an alternative due to many effects, among them, regulation of immunity expression and regulation of the inflammatory response by immune effectors. The aim of this study was to estimate correlations between haematological and parasitological patterns, animal performance through weight and body condition, under the influence of protected fat in ewes. Fifty Santa Ines sheep, in the final third of pregnancy or postpartum, in paddocks of Panicum maximum, received, individually, 200 g per day of concentrate, isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, with or without the addition of protected fat. In general, except for total leukocytes and eosinophils, almost all of Pearson correlation coefficients of other variables were significant. However, the protected fat, in the amount offered, had no antihelmintic effect.

  10. Anthracnose disease of switchgrass caused by the novel fungal species Colletotrichum navitas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Jo Anne; Beirn, Lisa A; Cortese, Laura M; Bonos, Stacy A; Clarke, Bruce B

    2009-12-01

    In recent years perennial grasses such as the native tallgrass prairie plant Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) have taken on a new role in the North American landscape as a plant-based source of renewable energy. Because switchgrass is a native plant, it has been suggested that disease problems will be minimal, but little research in this area has been conducted. Recently, outbreaks of switchgrass anthracnose disease have been reported from the northeastern United States. Incidences of switchgrass anthracnose are known in North America since 1886 through herbarium specimens and disease reports, but the causal agent of this disease has never been experimentally determined or taxonomically evaluated. In the present work, we evaluate the causal agent of switchgrass anthracnose, a new species we describe as Colletotrichum navitas (navitas=Latin for energy). Multilocus molecular phylogenetics and morphological characters show C. navitas is a novel species in the falcate-spored graminicolous group of the genus Colletotrichum; it is most closely related to the corn anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola. We present a formal description and illustrations for C. navitas and provide experimental confirmation that this organism is responsible for switchgrass anthracnose disease.

  11. The phytoremediation potential of heavy metals from soil using Poaceae energy crops: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa PRELAC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a method that use plants which can remove or stabilize pollutants in the environment. The aim of the polluted area remediation is to return ecosystems into original condition. Phytoremediation is a green technology used for a wide range of pollutants as well as on various lands, low costs and reduced environment impacts. Energy crops are relatively new in this field of researches and insufficiently explored. However, the results so far show their potential in heavy metal removal. The aim of this research was to examine the available literature and determine the phytoremediation potential of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc from the soil using Arundo donax, Miscanthus x giganteus, Panicum virgatum, Pennisetum purpureum, Sida hermaphrodita and Sorghum x drummondii. According to the researches conditions, studied energy crops are reccomended in heavy metals phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, stabilization and accumulation. Still, those plants accumulate higher concentrations of heavy metals in the rhizosphere which makes them heavy metals excluders since heavy metals are not translocated into the plants' shoot system and favorable in the implementation of rhizofiltration as well.

  12. Tracking 800-year-old Shipments: An Archaeological Investigation of the Mado Shipwreck Cargo, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkoo; Moon, Whan Suk

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines cargo from an 800-year-old shipwreck and discusses its implications in relation to the exchange networks and maritime transportation of the Goryeo period (A.D. 918-1392) in Korea. In 2007, two local fishermen fortuitously discovered porcelain vessels from a Goryeo-period shipwreck off the mid-western coast of the Korean peninsula. Underwater excavation conducted by the National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (NRIMCH) revealed that the ship was carrying a myriad of cargoes destined for Gaegyeong, the capital of the Goryeo dynasty. Excavation indicates that the main body of the cargo was porcelain vessels produced in the southern part of the peninsula. Archaeobotanical investigation of the wreck deposits revealed that the ship was carrying crops such as rice ( Oryza sativa L.), broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) bound for the capital. Among the recovered objects were 73 wooden cargo tags with Chinese letters. These tags, equivalent to the modern day air bill, contained detailed information about the senders, recipients, and shipped goods. These findings indicate that during the Goryeo period maritime transportation played an important role in the interpersonal exchange of products over long distances.

  13. Induced Phytoextraction of Lead Through Chemical Manipulation of Switchgrass and Corn; Role of Iron Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Deayne M; Deocampo, Daniel M; El-Mayas, Hanan; Greipsson, Sigurdur

    2015-01-01

    The effects of combined chemical application of benomyl, ethylenedianinetetraacetate (EDTA), and iron (Fe) (foliar and root) on lead (Pb) phytoextraction by switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and corn (Zea mays) was examined. Switchgrass was grown in Pb-contaminated urban topsoil with the following treatments: (C) Control, (B) benomyl, (E) EDTA, (F) foliar-Fe, (BE) benomyl + EDTA, (BF) benomyl + foliar-Fe, (FE) foliar-Fe + EDTA, (BFE) benomyl + foliar-Fe + EDTA. Corn was grown in sand-culture supplemented with Pb (500 mg kg(-1)) with the following treatments: (C) control, (B) benomyl, (E) EDTA, (F) root-Fe, (BE) benomyl + EDTA, (BF) benomyl + root-Fe, (FE) root-iron + EDTA, and, (BFE) benomyl + root-Fe + EDTA. All treatments were replicated three times and pots were arranged in a completely randomized design. Plants were analyzed for element concentration (Fe, Zn, P, and Pb) using either inductively coupled plasma (argon) atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Iron supplementation (foliar and root) affected Pb-translocation in plants. Foliar-Fe treatment increased translocation ratio of Pb (TF-Pb) significantly compared to other treatments with the exception of plants treated with benomyl and BF. Root-Fe treatment in combination with EDTA (FE) increased TF-Pb significantly compared to other treatments. Phytoextraction was improved by the combined chemical application; plants treated with BFE treatment increased Pb-total-phytoextraction by 424% compared to Control plants.

  14. Effects of Fe plaque and organic acids on metal uptake by wetland plants under drained and waterlogged conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Deng, H; Wong, M H

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to assess the role of Fe plaque in metal uptake and translocation by different wetland plants and examine the effects of organic acids on metal detoxification in wetland plants. It was found that although exposed to a similar level of metals in rhizosphere soil solution, metal uptake by shoots of Cypercus flabelliformis and Panicum paludosum was greatly reduced, consequently leading to a better growth under flooded than under drained conditions. This may be related to the enhanced Fe plaque in the former, but due to the decreased root permeability in the latter under anoxic conditions. The Fe plaque on root surface has potential to sequester metals and then reduce metal concentrations and translocation in shoot tissues. However, whether the Fe plaque acts as a barrier to metal uptake and translocation may also be dependent on the root anatomy. Although metal tolerance in wetland plants mainly depends upon their metal exclusion ability, the higher-than-toxic-level of metal concentrations in some species indicates that internal metal detoxification might also exist. It was suggested that malic or citric acid in shoots of P. paludosum and C. flabelliformis may account for their internal detoxification for Zn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plot-size for {sup 15}N-fertilizer recovery studies by tanzania-grass; Tamanho da parcela para estudos de recuperacao de fertilizante-{sup 15}N por capim-tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Junior, Geraldo Bueno [EMBRAPA Cerrados, Planaltina, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: gbmartha@cpac.embrapa.br; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis], e-mail: pcotrive@cena.usp.br; Corsi, Moacyr [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Zootecnia], e-mail: moa@esalq.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The understanding of the N dynamics in pasture ecosystems can be improved by studies using the {sup 15}N tracer technique. However, in these experiments it must be ensured that the lateral movement of the labeled fertilizer does not interfere with the results. In this study the plot-size requirements for {sup 15}N-fertilizer recovery experiments with irrigated Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania was determined. Three grazing intensities (light, moderate and intensive grazing) in the winter, spring and summer seasons were considered. A 1 m{sup 2} plot-size, with a grass tussock in the center, was adequate, irrespective of the grazing intensity or season of the year. Increasing the distance from the area fertilized with {sup 15}N negatively affected the N derived from fertilizer (Npfm) recovered in herbage.The lowest decline in Npfm values were observed for moderate and light grazing intensities. This fact might be explained by the vigorous growth characteristics of these plants. Increasing the grazing intensity decreased the tussock mass and, the smaller the tussock mass, the greater was the dependence on fertilizer nitrogen. (author)

  16. LYOPHILIZATION EFFECT ON PRODUCTIVITY OF BUTANOL-PRODUCING STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Tigunova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of lyophilization effect on the productivity of butanol-producing strains was the aim of our research. For this purpose we used butanol-producing strains; technical glycerol; biomass of switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. Lyophilization was performed using a lyophilization-drying. The effect of the protective medium on residual moisture of freezedrying cultures suspensions depending on the concentration of glucose and sucrose was studed. It was shown that the lowest residual moisture was attained by using glucose and sucrose in amount of 10% and if the samples of freeze-drying bacteria had been saved for one month at 4 οC the productivity did not decrease. As temperature preservation was increased the productivity of the cultures was gradually decreased and it was greatly reduced at 30 οC. So the protective medium composition was optimized for lyophilization of butanol-producing strains as follows: sucrose 10.0%; gelatin 10.0%; agar 0.02%. It was shown that the preservation of samples of freeze-drying bacteria for six months at a temperature of 4 οC did not affect the productivity of strains. It was found that cultures could use glycerol as a carbon source for butanol accumulation before lyophilization.

  17. Complete genome sequence of switchgrass mosaic virus, a member of a proposed new species in the genus Marafivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agindotan, Bright O; Gray, Michael E; Hammond, Rosemarie W; Bradley, Carl A

    2012-09-01

    The complete genome sequence of a virus recently detected in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was determined and found to be closely related to that of maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), genus Marafivirus, family Tymoviridae. The genomic RNA is 6408 nucleotides long. It contains three predicted open reading frames (ORFs 1-3), encoding proteins of 227 kDa, 43.9 kDa, and 31.5 kDa, compared to two ORFs (1 and 2) for MRFV. The complete genome shares 76 % sequence identity with MRFV. The nucleotide sequence of ORF2 of this virus and the amino acid sequence of its encoded protein are 49 % and 77 % identical, respectively, to those of MRFV. The virus-encoded polyprotein and capsid protein aa sequences are 83 % and 74-80 % identical, respectively, to those of MRFV. Although closely related to MRFV, the amino acid sequence of its capsid protein (CP) forms a clade that is separate from that of MRFV. Based on the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) sequence-related criteria for delineation of species within the genus Marafivirus, the virus qualifies as a member of a new species, and the name Switchgrass mosaic virus (SwMV) is proposed.

  18. Vegetation development in a sand dune ten years after restoration, Parque Municipal das Dunas da Lagoa da Conceição, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rosa Zanin Zanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation cover of a sand dune was surveyed ten years after the improvement of a restoration project that utilized seed sowing, seedling planting and seedling transplantation from an adjacent area with watering in the first months. On the upper part of the restored dune, the vegetation was sparse (53% but more developed than that of the adjacent control area (34%, both presenting herbaceous/subshrub physiognomy with predominance of Panicum racemosum. On the slope of the restored dune, a shrub vegetation developed, presenting a percentage cover (90% similar to that of the control area (100%. Dodonaea viscosa was the dominant species on this restored face. The establishment of arboreal and shrub species seedlings on the upper dune was good. In part, this improved the species richness, but contributed to dissimilarity between this area and the control site.  A lower species richness was presented on the slope and the similarity to the control area was even lower. Plants introduced by sowing and seedling transplantation showed success and contributed to the similarity with the adjacent vegetation. Seedlings of arboreal and shrub plants survived on the upper dune. These species are represented in a more developed stage of succession, differing from the adjacent control area.

  19. The effect of biochar and its interaction with the earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus on soil microbial community structure in tropical soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Paz-Ferreiro

    Full Text Available Biochar effects on soil microbial abundance and community structure are keys for understanding the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and organic matter turnover, but are poorly understood, in particular in tropical areas. We conducted a greenhouse experiment in which we added biochars produced from four different feedstocks [sewage sludge (B1, deinking sewage sludge (B2, Miscanthus (B3 and pine wood (B4] at a rate of 3% (w/w to two tropical soils (an Acrisol and a Ferralsol planted with proso millet (Panicum milliaceum L.. The interactive effect of the addition of earthworms was also addressed. For this purpose we utilized soil samples from pots with or without the earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus, which is a ubiquitous earthworm in tropical soils. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA measurements showed that biochar type, soil type and the presence of earthworms significantly affected soil microbial community size and structure. In general, biochar addition affected fungal but not bacterial populations. Overall, biochars rich in ash (B1 and B2 resulted in a marked increase in the fungi to bacteria ratio, while this ratio was unaltered after addition of biochars with a high fixed carbon content (B3 and B4. Our study remarked the contrasting effect that both, biochar prepared from different materials and macrofauna, can have on soil microbial community. Such changes might end up with ecosystem-level effects.

  20. Microbial community analysis of switchgrass planted and unplanted soil microcosms displaying PCB dechlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L; Mattes, Timothy E

    2015-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose potential risks to human and environmental health because they are carcinogenic, persistent, and bioaccumulative. In this study, we investigated bacterial communities in soil microcosms spiked with PCB 52, 77, and 153. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was employed to improve overall PCB removal, and redox cycling (i.e., sequential periods of flooding followed by periods of no flooding) was performed in an effort to promote PCB dechlorination. Lesser chlorinated PCB transformation products were detected in all microcosms, indicating the occurrence of PCB dechlorination. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis showed that PCB spiking, switchgrass planting, and redox cycling affected the microbial community structure. Putative organohalide-respiring Chloroflexi populations, which were not found in unflooded microcosms, were enriched after 2 weeks of flooding in the redox-cycled microcosms. Sequences classified as Geobacter sp. were detected in all microcosms and were most abundant in the switchgrass-planted microcosm spiked with PCB congeners. The presence of possible organohalide-respiring bacteria in these soil microcosms suggests that they play a role in PCB dechlorination therein.

  1. Dechlorination of PCBs in the rhizosphere of switchgrass and poplar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meggo, Richard E.; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Hu, Dingfei

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77, and 153) singly and in mixture were spiked and aged in soil microcosms and subsequently planted with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) or poplar (Populus deltoids x nigra DN34). The planted reactors showed significantly greater reductions in PCB parent compounds when compared to unplanted systems after 32 weeks. There was evidence of reductive dechlorination in both planted and unplanted systems, but the planted microcosms with fully developed roots and rhizospheres showed greater biotransformation than the unplanted reactors. These dechlorination products accounted for approximately all of the molar mass of parent compound lost. Based on the transformation products, reductive dechlorination pathways are proposed for rhizospheric biotransformation of PCB 52, 77, and 153. This is the first report of rhizosphere biotransformation pathways for reductive dechlorination in marginally aerobic, intermittently flooded soil as evidenced by a mass balance on transformation products. -- Highlights: •Soil was spiked and aged and then planted with poplar and switchgrass. •Planted microcosms showed significant reductive dechlorination and greater biotransformation than unplanted reactor. •Rhizospheric reductive dechlorination pathways are proposed. -- This study provides insight into rhizospheric transformation of PCBs

  2. Chemical composition of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr. Quél., substrates and residue after cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Sueli Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of Pleurotus pulmonarius was carried out on different substrate: cotton waste (A leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (B and leaves of Panicum maximum Jacq. (C. The mushroom had a varied chemical composition; nevertheless they contained a good composition for to be used as a good source of protein for human kind. The results showed the higher protein content (29.19% and fibre (9.0% for the mushroom that were cultivated on cotton peel. The substrate composition and the residue composition after the mushroom harvest were: Protein for the substrate "A" (10.63% and 9.35%, "B" (7.87% and 4.24% and "C" (7.55% and 5.90 %; Lipids "A" (4.17% and 2.03%, "B"(2.77% and 3.20% and "C" (0.91% and 2.05%; Fibres "A" (49.02% and 37.02%, "B" (28.40% and 23.26% and "C" (37.50% and 26.66% respectively. The substrate "A" showed 0.048% of iron and "C" 0.14% of magnesium, 0.31% of potassium and 0.26% of calcium. In the substrate "B" the quantity of the minerals were very low in comparison to the other substrates. The residues after the harvest of mushroom could be used as fertiliser or as complement in the composition for animal feed.

  3. Comparação de substratos com diferentes quantidades de carboidratos solúveis utilizando a técnica in vitro semi-automática de produção de gases Comparison among substrates with different soluble carbohydrates concentration using the in vitro semi-automatic gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.T. Nogueira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a diferença entre a produção de gases (PG e a degradação da matéria seca (DMS para substratos com diferentes quantidades de carboidratos solúveis avaliados pela técnica in vitro de produção de gases. Foram utilizados cinco substratos (cana-de-açúcar, silagem de milho, capim-colonião, milho em grão e ração comercial para vacas em lactação antes e após a retirada parcial dos carboidratos solúveis (lavados. A PG foi maior e a DMS menor para o material lavado. A concentração de carboidratos solúveis influenciou os resultados obtidos pela técnica de produção de gases.The difference between the gas production (GP and the dry matter degradation (DMD of substrates with different amounts of soluble carbohydrates using the in vitro gas production technique was studied. Five substrates (sugarcane, maize silage, Panicum maximum grass, corn grain, 20% CP commercial lactating cow ration and soybean meal and the same substrates with part of its soluble carbohydrate removed (washed materials were evaluated. The GP was higher and DMD was lower for washed materials than for the original materials. The carbohydrate concentration affects the results of the gas production technique.

  4. Composição florística das plantas daninhas na cultura de guaraná (Paullinia cupana, no estado do Amazonas Floristic composition of weeds in guarana (Paullinia cupana crop in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.F. Albertino

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da composição da flora de plantas daninhas de uma área ou de uma região agrícola é importante, por identificar a diversidade de espécies e contribuir para recomendação de estratégias de manejo a serem empregadas nos sistemas agrícolas. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar a composição florística de plantas daninhas em plantios de guaraná em cinco municípios (Coari, Iranduba, Maués, Presidente Figueiredo e Urucará do Estado do Amazonas. As plantas daninhas foram amostradas em áreas de produtores desses municípios e identificadas por classe, família e espécie. Foram coletados 14.707 indivíduos, distribuídos em 40 famílias e 87 espécies, das quais 70 eram Dicotiledôneas, 13 Monocotiledôneas e quatro Pteridófitas. As Dicotiledôneas apresentaram maior número de família e as Monocotiledôneas de indivíduos. As Pteridófitas ocorreram de forma inexpressiva em todos os municípios. As famílias Poaceae e Asteraceae apresentaram maior número de espécies. Panicum pilosum foi a espécie com maior número de indivíduos, freqüência, densidade e índice de valor de importância. Panicum laxum sobressaiu em Urucará e Iranduba; Scleria malaleuca, em Coari; e Chamaesyce hirta, em Maués. Homolepis aturensis, Paspalum conjugatum e Spermacoce capitata ocorreram nos cinco municípios. Em Maués foi encontrada a maior diversidade de espécies, e em Coari, o maior número de indivíduos. O maior índice de similaridade foi entre Iranduba e Presidente Figueiredo (45%, e o menor, entre Iranduba e Coari (21,43%.The study of the floristic composition of weeds of an area or agricultural region is important since it identifies the diversity of species and provides management strategies to be used under various agricultural system conditions. The objective of this work was to identify the floristic composition of weeds occurring in guaraná crops in five counties (Coari, Iranduba, Maués, Presidente Figueiredo and

  5. Tillering dynamics of Tanzania guinea grass under nitrogen levels and plant densities - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i4.13382

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of nitrogen levels (N and plant density (D on the tillering dynamics of Tanzania guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with 12 treatments and two replicates in a factorial scheme (4 × 3 with four levels of N (0, 80, 160 or 320 kg ha-1 N and three plant densities (9, 25, and 49 plant m-². Higher number of tillers was observed in the treatment with 9 plants m-² and under higher levels of N, especially in the second and third generations. Still, the N influenced quadratically the appearance rate of basal and total tillers, which were also affected by plant density and interaction N × D. However, the appearance rate of aerial tiller was not influenced by factors evaluated. The mortality rate of total tiller was influenced quadratically by the nitrogen levels and plant densities. The mortality rate of basal tiller responded quadratically to plant density, whereas the mortality rate of aerial tiller increased linearly with fertilization. Pastures with low or intermediate densities fertilized with nitrogen, presented a more intense pattern of tiller renewal.

  6. Data on the genome-wide identification of CNL R-genes in Setaria italica (L. P. Beauv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan J. Andersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We report data associated with the identification of 242 disease resistance genes (R-genes in the genome of Setaria italica as presented in “Genetic diversity of disease resistance genes in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.” (Andersen and Nepal, 2017 [1]. Our data describe the structure and evolution of the Coiled-coil, Nucleotide-binding site, Leucine-rich repeat (CNL R-genes in foxtail millet. The CNL genes were identified through rigorous extraction and analysis of recently available plant genome sequences using cutting-edge analytical software. Data visualization includes gene structure diagrams, chromosomal syntenic maps, a chromosomal density plot, and a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree comparing Sorghum bicolor, Panicum virgatum, Setaria italica, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Compilation of InterProScan annotations, Gene Ontology (GO annotations, and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST results for the 242 R-genes identified in the foxtail millet genome are also included in tabular format.

  7. Evaluation of radiation use efficiency and its relationship with dry matter accumulation in three millet species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    behnam kamkar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A factorial arrangement of three millets species (Panicum miliaceum, Pennisetum glaucum, and Setaria italica and two sowing dates with three replications were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the radiation use efficiency and its relationship with dry matter accumulation. Leaf area index was used in daily intervals to calculate daily intercepted radiation. Light extinction coefficient was calculated as the slope of regression line between log transformed fraction of intercepted radiation and leaf area index during growing season. Radiation use efficiency was calculated as the slope of linear regression between cumulative intercepted radiation and cumulative biomass during growing season. Results showed that light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency for proso, pearl and foxtail millets were 0.75, 0.66, 0.57 and 1.43, 1.83, 1.74 g/MJ in terms of total radiation, respectively. Differences in biomass production were not significant between proso and pearl millets. Proso millet had higher intercepted radiation, but lower radiation use efficiency in comparison with pearl millet. Foxtail millet had lower intercepted radiation than proso and pearl millets, but its radiation use efficiency was higher than pearl millet. Total biomass of foxtail millet was lower than other species. Results indicated that proso and pearl millets can produce more biomass than foxtail millet.

  8. Setaria viridis and Setaria italica, model genetic systems for the Panicoid grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pinghua; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2011-05-01

    Setaria italica and its wild ancestor Setaria viridis are diploid C(4) grasses with small genomes of ∼515 Mb. Both species have attributes that make them attractive as model systems. Setaria italica is a grain crop widely grown in Northern China and India that is closely related to the major food and feed crops maize and sorghum. A large collection of S. italica accessions are available and thus opportunities exist for association mapping and allele mining for novel variants that will have direct application in agriculture. Setaria viridis is the weedy relative of S. italica with many attributes suitable for genetic analyses including a small stature, rapid life cycle, and prolific seed production. Setaria sp. are morphologically similar to most of the Panicoideae grasses, including major biofuel feedstocks, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus). They are broadly distributed geographically and occupy diverse ecological niches. The cross-compatibility of S. italica and S. viridis also suggests that gene flow is likely between wild and domesticated accessions. In addition to serving as excellent models for C(4) photosynthesis, these grasses provide novel opportunities to study abiotic stress tolerance and as models for bioenergy feedstocks.

  9. Effect of Foliar Application of Iron, Zinc and Manganese on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Two Varieties of Grain Millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Javadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of foliar application of Fe, Zn and Mn on yield, yield components and protein content of two varieties of grain millet an experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications in research field of Birjand branch, Islamic Azad University at 2010.  In this study two millet varieties including Bastan (Setaria italica and Pishahang (Panicum miliaceum, and six levels of foliar micronutrient fertilizer including control, Fe, Zn, Mn, (Fe+Zn, (Fe+Zn+Mn were investigated. The results indicated that, panicle length, 1000 grain weight and panicle number per m2 were higher in Pishahang than Bastan, but grain yield, number of seeds per panicle, harvest index and protein yield were higher in Bastan. Characteristics such as panicle length, biological yield and harvest index and protein percentage were affected by foliar micronutrient fertilizer but grain yield remained unchanged. Foliar application with (Fe+Zn+Mn increased protein content compared to the control, but it did not affect protein yield. According to the results of this experiment, Bastan millet variety and foliar application of Zn is potent to produce the maximum grain yield, albeit it warrants further studies.

  10. Características estruturais do dossel de pastagens de capim-tanzânia mantidas sob três períodos de descanso com ovinos Canopy structural traits of tanzaniagrass pastures under three resting periods and grazed by sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gregório da Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a estrutura do dossel em pastagem de Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia sob lotação rotativa com três períodos de descanso (PD, definidos de acordo com o tempo para a expansão de 1,5; 2,5 e 3,5 novas folhas por perfilhos ao longo dos ciclos de pastejo. Estimaram-se as produções de massa seca de lâmina verde (MSLV, colmo verde (MSCV, de forragem morta (MSFM e de altura; as relações folha-colmo (F/C, material vivo-morto (MV/MM, no pré e pós-pastejo; as taxas de crescimento da cultura (TCC e acúmulo de forragem (TAC, a densidade populacional de perfilhos (DPP no pré-pastejo e o índice de área foliar residual (IAFr. Com o avançar dos ciclos de pastejo, as diferenças entre os três períodos de descanso para as variáveis altura, produção de MSLV e MSCV foram acentuadas, especialmente no final do período experimental. A quantidade de MSFM se manteve semelhante dentro de cada período de descanso ao longo dos ciclos de pastejo, porém, na média dos ciclos de pastejo, o período de descanso para expansão de 3,5 folhas foi superior. As relações F/C e MV/MM foram maiores nos piquetes mantidos sob os períodos de descanso para expansão de 1,5 e 2,5 folhas em relação ao de 3,5 folhas. Os maiores valores para TCC e TAC foram obtidos nos piquetes mantidos sob períodos de descanso para expansão de 2,5 e 3,5 folhas. A densidade de perfilhos foi maior nos piquetes mantidos sob período de descanso para expansão de 2,5 folhas em relação ao de 3,5 folhas. O período de descanso para expansão de folhas é o mais indicado para o manejo de pastagens de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia com ovinos, pois permite a obtenção de boas produções de folhas em relação aos colmos sem comprometer a densidade populacional de perfilhos. Entretanto, com esse período de descanso, verifica-se aumento da altura pós-pastejo, a qual deve ser controlada por meio de roçada mecânica ou manual.The canopy structural traits of

  11. LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS AFTER EXPLOSIVE AUTOHYDROLYSIS AS SUBSTRATE TO BUTANOL OBTAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigunova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was investigation of the effect of the explosive autohydrolysis on lignocellulosic biomass (saving, switchgrass biomass for consequent use as a substrate to produce biofuels such as butanol. Butanol-producing strains, switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. biomass and its components after autohydrolysis were used in study. The thermobaric pressure pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass was carried out using specially designed equipment. The effect of explosive autohydrolysis on lignocellulosic biomass for further use in producing biofuels using microbial conversion was studied. Components of lignocellulosic biomass were fractionated after undergoing thermobaric treatment. The possibility of using different raw material components after using explosive autohydrolysis processing to produce biobutanol was found. Products of switchgrass biomass autohydrolysis were shown to need further purification before fermentation from furfural formed by thermobaric pretreatment and inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. The ability of strains of the genus Clostridium to use cellulose as a substrate for fermentation was proved. It was found that using explosive autohydrolysis pretreatment to savings allowed boosting the butanol accumulation by 2 times.

  12. Decreasing Fertilizer use by Optimizing Plant-microbe Interactions for Sustainable Supply of Nitrogen for Bioenergy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicklberger, M. F.; Huang, J.; Felix, P.; Pettenato, A.; Chakraborty, R.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential component of DNA and proteins and consequently a key element of life. N often is limited in plants, affecting plant growth and productivity. To alleviate this problem, tremendous amounts of N-fertilizer is used, which comes at a high economic price and heavy energy demand. In addition, N-fertilizer also significantly contributes to rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Therefore, the addition of fertilizer to overcome N limitation is highly undesirable. To explore reduction in fertilizer use our research focuses on optimizing the interaction between plants and diazotrophic bacteria, which could provide adequate amounts of N to the host-plant. Therefore we investigated the diversity of microbes associated with Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), considered as potential energy crop for bioenergy production. Several bacterial isolates with representatives from Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Bacilli were obtained from the roots, leaves, rhizoplane and rhizosphere of these plants. Majority of these isolates grew best with simple sugars and small organic acids. As shown by PCR amplification of nifH, several of these isolates are potential N2-fixing bacteria. We investigated diazotrophs for their response to elevated temperature and salinity (two common climate change induced stresses found on marginal lands), their N2-fixing ability, and their response to root exudates (which drive microbial colonization of the plant). Together this understanding is necessary for the development of eco-friendly, economically sustainable energy crops by decreasing their dependency on fertilizer.

  13. Soil physical and hydrological properties under three biofuel crops in Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, Catherine [Ohio State University; Lal, Dr. Rattan [Ohio State University; Schmitz, Matthias [Rheinsche Friedrich/Wilhelms Universitaet Boon; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    While biofuel crops are widely studied and compared for their energy and carbon footprints, less is known about their effects on other soil properties, particularly hydrologic characteristics. Soils under three biofuel crops, corn (Zea mays), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and willow (Salix spp.), were analyzed seven years after establishment to assess the effects on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), penetration resistance (PR), water-holding capacity, and infiltration characteristics. The PR was the highest under corn, along with the lowest associated water content, while PR was 50-60% lower under switchgrass. In accordance with PR data, surface (0-10 cm) bulk density also tended to be lower under switchgrass. Both water infiltration rates and cumulative infiltration amounts varied widely among and within the three crops. Because the Philip model did not fit the data, results were analyzed using the Kostiakov model instead. Switchgrass plots had an average cumulative infiltration of 69 cm over 3 hours with a constant infiltration rate of 0.28 cm min{sup -1}, compared with 37 cm and 0.11 cm min{sup -1} for corn, and 26 cm and 0.06 cm min{sup -1} for willow, respectively. Results suggest that significant changes in soil physical and hydrologic properties may require more time to develop. Soils under switchgrass may have lower surface bulk density, higher field water capacity, and a more rapid water infiltration rate than those under corn or willow.

  14. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake L Joyce

    Full Text Available Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1 to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2 to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass. Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749-3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  15. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Blake L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G J; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Astatkie, Tess; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-01-01

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749-3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  16. Factors affecting polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation in mesophyll cells of sugarcane and switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear biodegradable polyesters produced by bacteria as a carbon store and used to produce a range of bioplastics. Widespread polyhydroxyalkanoate production in C4 crops would decrease petroleum dependency by producing a renewable supply of biodegradable plastics along with residual biomass that could be converted into biofuels or energy. Increasing yields to commercial levels in biomass crops however remains a challenge. Previously, lower accumulation levels of the short side chain polyhydroxyalkanoate, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), were observed in the chloroplasts of mesophyll (M) cells compared to bundle sheath (BS) cells in transgenic maize (Zea mays), sugarcane (Saccharum sp.), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) leading to a significant decrease in the theoretical yield potential. Here we explore various factors which might affect polymer accumulation in mesophyll cells, including targeting of the PHB pathway enzymes to the mesophyll plastid and their access to substrate. Results The small subunit of Rubisco from pea effectively targeted the PHB biosynthesis enzymes to both M and BS chloroplasts of sugarcane and switchgrass. PHB enzyme activity was retained following targeting to M plastids and was equivalent to that found in the BS plastids. Leaf total fatty acid content was not affected by PHB production. However, when fatty acid synthesis was chemically inhibited, polymer accumulated in M cells. Conclusions In this study, we provide evidence that access to substrate and neither poor targeting nor insufficient activity of the PHB biosynthetic enzymes may be the limiting factor for polymer production in mesophyll chloroplasts of C4 plants. PMID:25209261

  17. Optimizing on-farm pretreatment of perennial grasses for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digman, Matthew F; Shinners, Kevin J; Casler, Michael D; Dien, Bruce S; Hatfield, Ronald D; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Muck, Richard E; Weimer, Paul J

    2010-07-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) were pretreated under ambient temperature and pressure with sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide in separate experiments. Chemical loadings from 0 to 100g (kg DM)(-1) and durations of anaerobic storage from 0 to 180days were investigated by way of a central composite design at two moisture contents (40% or 60% w.b.). Pretreated and untreated samples were fermented to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A in the presence of a commercially available cellulase (Celluclast 1.5L) and beta-glucosidase (Novozyme 188). Xylose levels were also measured following fermentation because xylose is not metabolized by S. cerevisiae. After sulfuric acid pretreatment and anaerobic storage, conversion of cell wall glucose to ethanol for reed canarygrass ranged from 22% to 83% whereas switchgrass conversions ranged from 16% to 46%. Pretreatment duration had a positive effect on conversion but was mitigated with increased chemical loadings. Conversions after calcium hydroxide pretreatment and anaerobic storage ranged from 21% to 55% and 18% to 54% for reed canarygrass and switchgrass, respectively. The efficacy of lime pretreatment was found to be highly dependent on moisture content. Moreover, pretreatment duration was only found to be significant for reed canarygrass. Although significant levels of acetate and lactate were observed in the biomass after storage, S. cerevisiae was not found to be inhibited at a 10% solids loading. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular characterization of biochars and their influence on microbiological properties of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintala, Rajesh; Schumacher, Thomas E; Kumar, Sandeep; Malo, Douglas D; Rice, James A; Bleakley, Bruce; Chilom, Gabriela; Clay, David E; Julson, James L; Papiernik, Sharon K; Gu, Zheng Rong

    2014-08-30

    The tentative connection between the biochar surface chemical properties and their influence on microbially mediated mineralization of C, N, and S with the help of enzymes is not well established. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different biomass conversion processes (microwave pyrolysis, carbon optimized gasification, and fast pyrolysis using electricity) on the composition and surface chemistry of biochar materials produced from corn stover (Zea mays L.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and Ponderosa pine wood residue (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) and determine the effect of biochars on mineralization of C, N, and S and associated soil enzymatic activities including esterase (fluorescein diacetate hydrolase, FDA), dehydrogenase (DHA), β-glucosidase (GLU), protease (PROT), and aryl sulfatase (ARSUL) in two different soils collected from footslope (Brookings) and crest (Maddock) positions of a landscape. Chemical properties of biochar materials produced from different batches of gasification process were fairly consistent. Biochar materials were found to be highly hydrophobic (low H/C values) with high aromaticity, irrespective of biomass feedstock and pyrolytic process. The short term incubation study showed that biochar had negative effects on microbial activity (FDA and DHA) and some enzymes including β-glucosidase and protease. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Dynamic changes in transcriptome and cell wall composition underlying brassinosteroid-mediated lignification of switchgrass suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Xiaolan; Shen, Hui; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Gelineo-Albersheim, Ivana; Mohnen, Debra; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Chen, Xin; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Plant cell walls contribute the majority of plant biomass that can be used to produce transportation fuels. However, the complexity and variability in composition and structure of cell walls, particularly the presence of lignin, negatively impacts their deconstruction for bioenergy. Metabolic and genetic changes associated with secondary wall development in the biofuel crop switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ) have yet to be reported. Our previous studies have established a cell suspension system for switchgrass, in which cell wall lignification can be induced by application of brassinolide (BL). We have now collected cell wall composition and microarray-based transcriptome profiles for BL-induced and non-induced suspension cultures to provide an overview of the dynamic changes in transcriptional reprogramming during BL-induced cell wall modification. From this analysis, we have identified changes in candidate genes involved in cell wall precursor synthesis, cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin formation and ester-linkage generation. We have also identified a large number of transcription factors with expression correlated with lignin biosynthesis genes, among which are candidates for control of syringyl (S) lignin accumulation. Together, this work provides an overview of the dynamic compositional changes during brassinosteroid-induced cell wall remodeling, and identifies candidate genes for future plant genetic engineering to overcome cell wall recalcitrance.

  20. Mineralization of soil organic matter in biochar amended agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintala, R.; Clay, D. E.; Schumacher, T. E.; Kumar, S.; Malo, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Pyrogenic biochar materials have been identified as a promising soil amendment to enhance climate resilience, increase soil carbon recalcitrance and achieve sustainable crop production. A three year field study was initiated in 2013 to study the impact of biochar on soil carbon and nitrogen storage on an eroded Maddock soil series - Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) and deposition Brookings clay loam (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) landscape positions. Three biochars produced from corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were incorporated at 9.75 Mg ha-1 rate (≈7.5 cm soil depth and 1.3 g/cm3 soil bulk density) with a rototiller. The changes in chemical fractionation of soil carbon (soluble C, acid hydrolyzable C, total C, and δ13 C) and nitrogen (soluble N, acid hydrolyzable N, total N, and δ14 N) were monitored for two soil depths (0-7.5 and 7.5 - 15 cm). Soluble and acid hydrolyzable fractions of soil C and N were influenced by soil series and were not significantly affected by incorporation of biochars. Based on soil and plant samples to be collected in the fall of 2015, C and N budgets are being developed using isotopic and non-isotopic techniques. Laboratory studies showed that the mean residence time for biochars used in this study ranged from 400 to 666 years. Laboratory and field studies will be compared in the presentation.

  1. EXPLORATION UNDER SHADE PLANTS OF CASSAVA AND IT’S POTENTIAL AS FORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novia Qomariyah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of forage plants growing among cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is not optimal. Potential for development of integration of both very large and mutually beneficial. Purpose of this study is to explore and identify types of forage that grows in shade of the cassava plant and potential for development as a source of forage. This study took place in March 2014 Month held at IPB Sinar Sari Complex Dramaga. This research method to define area of cassava plants as treatments that cassava plants were planted separately with another crop (monoculture and cassava crops are planted among crops and horticultural crops such as pariah plants, beans, squash and corn (polyculture. Furthermore, observed and forage samples taken were grown in both location and made herbarium and identified its kind. Results: forage crops are grown between cassava monoculture is more diverse than polyculture. Types of forage crops grown on cassava monoculture is Echinochloa colona, Setaria barbata, Family Juncaceae, Cyperus sp., Conjugatum paspalum, Cynodon dactylon, Stenotaphrum secundatum, Axonophus compressus (Swartz P. Beauv, Eleusine indica and Panicum maximum. Types of forage crops grown on cassava polyculture is colona Echinochloa, Setaria barbata, Family Juncaceae, Cyperus sp., Stenotaphrum secundatum, Eleusine indica and Leucaena leucephala.

  2. STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS TANAMAN BAWAH, DAN JENIS-JENIS YANG BERMANFAAT SEBAGAI TANAMAN OBAT DI KAWAASAN HUTAN LINDUNG KALIURANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTOMO SUTOMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Low layer plants as one of component in forest ecosystem today still lack of attention due to the limited information about them. Low layer plants plays an important role in forest ecosystem, and also they are potential to be use as a medicinal plants, genetic resources and other uses that are not yet revealed. For that reason reseach about Low Layer Plants ; Community Structure and Their Use as Medicinal Plants need to be conducted. The objective of this research was to get the information about : (1 Community structure of low layer plants in compartment seven Kaliurang protection forest and (2 Species that are use as a medicinal pants. To fulfill this goal, small plots of 1 x 1 m along forest pathways were made in sampling area. Result showed that as many as 47 species of low layer plants were found in sampling area. There were five main species which has high importance value index : Eupatorium riparium Regel. with importance value index 21,29%, followed by Eleusine indica Gaertn.17,82 % , Oplismenus burmanii Beauv. 14,61 %, Diplazium proliferum 14,04% and Panicum reptans Kunth. 11,27 %. From those 47 species, as many as 10 species are known as a medicinal plants, they are : Melastoma malabathricum L., Physalis angulata Heyne, ex. Wall., Ageratum conyzoides Linn., Elephantopus scaber Linn., Psidium guajava Linn., Justicia gendarussa Linn., Alocasia macrorhiza Schott., Eleusine indica Gaertn., Villebrunea rubescens Bl. and Phyllanthus niruri L.

  3. Role of arthropod communities in bioenergy crop litter decomposition†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangerl, Arthur R; Miresmailli, Saber; Nabity, Paul; Lawrance, Allen; Yanahan, Alan; Mitchell, Corey A; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; David, Mark B; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-10-01

    The extensive land use conversion expected to occur to meet demands for bioenergy feedstock production will likely have widespread impacts on agroecosystem biodiversity and ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. Although arthropod detritivores are known to contribute to litter decomposition and thus energy flow and nutrient cycling in many plant communities, their importance in bioenergy feedstock communities has not yet been assessed. We undertook an experimental study quantifying rates of litter mass loss and nutrient cycling in the presence and absence of these organisms in three bioenergy feedstock crops-miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and a planted prairie community. Overall arthropod abundance and litter decomposition rates were similar in all three communities. Despite effective reduction of arthropods in experimental plots via insecticide application, litter decomposition rates, inorganic nitrogen leaching, and carbon-nitrogen ratios did not differ significantly between control (with arthropods) and treatment (without arthropods) plots in any of the three community types. Our findings suggest that changes in arthropod faunal composition associated with widespread adoption of bioenergy feedstock crops may not be associated with profoundly altered arthropod-mediated litter decomposition and nutrient release. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Midinfrared FT-IR as a Tool for Monitoring Herbaceous Biomass Composition and Its Conversion to Furfural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A semiquantitative analysis by means of midinfrared FT-IR spectroscopy was tuned for the simultaneous determination of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in industrial crops such as giant reed (Arundo donax L. and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.. Ternary mixtures of pure cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were prepared and a direct correlation area/concentration was achieved for cellulose and lignin, whereas indirect correlations were found for hemicellulose quantification. Good correspondences between the values derived from our model and those reported in the literature or obtained according to the official Van Soest method were ascertained. Average contents of 40–45% of cellulose, 20–25% of hemicellulose, and 20–25% of lignin were obtained for different samples of giant reed species. In the case of switchgrass, a content of 36% of cellulose, 28% of hemicellulose, and 26% of lignin was achieved. This analysis was also carried out on giant reed and switchgrass residues after a mild hydrolysis step carried out with dilute hydrochloric acid for the production of furfural with good yield. Reasonable compositional data were obtained, thus allowing an indirect monitoring which helps the optimization of the hydrothermal pretreatment for furfural production from hemicellulose fractions.

  5. Switchgrass biomass energy storage project. Final report, September 23, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.A.; Teel, A.; Brown, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the Chariton Valley RC&D Inc., a USDA-sponsored rural development organization, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Energy Bureau (IDNR-EB), and IES Utilities, a major Iowa energy company, is directed at the development of markets for energy crops in southern Iowa. This effort is part of a statewide coalition of public and private interests cooperating to merge Iowa`s agricultural potential and its long-term energy requirements to develop locally sustainable sources of biomass fuel. The four-county Chariton Valley RC&D area (Lucas, Wayne, Appanoose and Monroe counties) is the site of one of eleven NREL/EPRI feasibility studies directed at the potential of biomass power. The focus of renewable energy development in the region has centered around the use of swithgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.). This native Iowa grass is one of the most promising sustainable biomass fuel crops. According to investigations by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), switchgrass has the most potential of all the perennial grasses and legumes evaluated for biomass production.

  6. Effect of genotype, finishing system, and sex on physiochemical characteristics of goat meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-eight kids of both sexes and five genotypes were used: Alpine, ½ Boer + ½ Alpine (½ BA, ¾ Boer + ¼ Alpine, ½ Anglo-nubian + ½ Alpine and "tricross" (½ Anglo-nubian + ¼ Boer + ¼ Alpine with initial average weight of 14.1 ± 2.5. The objective was to evaluate the effect of genotype, finishing system, and sex on the physiochemical characteristics of goat meat. Finishing systems were: ST1 - kid + dam in pasture and ST2 - weaned kid and feedlot. Kids in ST1 were kept in an area with Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, and after grazing, water and mineral salt/mix were fed ad libitum to the animals. The animals in ST2 were confined in collective pens distributed according to genotypes and received diet with 16% CP and 73% TDN. The values of pH, a* (red content, Cooking Loss (CL, and Ether Extract (EE percentage were influenced by genotype. Values for red content (a* and L* (brightness, CL and percentages of moisture, protein, EE, and ash were influenced by the finishing system. Longissimus dorsi muscle from animals ½ BA exhibited better physiochemical characteristics. For greater tenderness and higher percentages of fat, consumers should choose female kid goat meat.

  7. First molecular and isotopic evidence of millet processing in prehistoric pottery vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Carl; Shoda, Shinya; Breu Barcons, Adrià; Czebreszuk, Janusz; Eley, Yvette; Gorton, Marise; Kirleis, Wiebke; Kneisel, Jutta; Lucquin, Alexandre; Müller, Johannes; Nishida, Yastami; Son, Joon-Ho; Craig, Oliver E.

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of organic residues in pottery vessels has been successful in detecting a range of animal and plant products as indicators of food preparation and consumption in the past. However, the identification of plant remains, especially grain crops in pottery, has proved elusive. Extending the spectrum is highly desirable, not only to strengthen our understanding of the dispersal of crops from centres of domestication but also to determine modes of food processing, artefact function and the culinary significance of the crop. Here, we propose a new approach to identify millet in pottery vessels, a crop that spread throughout much of Eurasia during prehistory following its domestication, most likely in northern China. We report the successful identification of miliacin (olean-18-en-3β-ol methyl ether), a pentacyclic triterpene methyl ether that is enriched in grains of common/broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), in Bronze Age pottery vessels from the Korean Peninsula and northern Europe. The presence of millet is supported by enriched carbon stable isotope values of bulk charred organic matter sampled from pottery vessel surfaces and extracted n-alkanoic acids, consistent with a C4 plant origin. These data represent the first identification of millet in archaeological ceramic vessels, providing a means to track the introduction, spread and consumption of this important crop.

  8. Role of bioinoculants and organic fertilizers in fodder production and quality of leguminous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Seema; Sharma, Satyawati; Vasudevan, Padma

    2011-01-01

    The comparative effect of dual inoculation of native N fixer (Rhizobium) and AM fungi consortia with different organic fertilizers (vermicompost and farm yard manure) on fodder production and quality of two leguminous tree species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de. Wit. and Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.) in silvopastoral system and their impact on the fodder production of un-inoculated Panicum maximum Jacq. under cut and carry system. After three years of plantation maximum tree survival was in L. leucocephala in all the treatments in comparison to S. sesban while fodder production was more in S. sesban for initial two years and in third year it accelerated in L. leucocephala. Dual inoculation with vermicompost significantly improved fodder production, fodder quality and rhizosphere microflora in L. leucocephala but in S. sesban dual inoculation was at par with single inoculation of N fixer, AM fungi and control (without inoculation). The grass production was higher with L. leucocephala for two years while in third year it was more with S. sesban. The association of Rhizobium with AM fungi in L. leucocephala was better than in S. sesban.

  9. Fiber length and pulping characteristics of switchgrass, alfalfa stems, hybrid poplar and willow biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), alfalfa stems (Medicago sativa), second year growth hybrid poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix spp.) were examined to determine fiber characteristics, pulping behavior and paper properties. Alfalfa stems and switchgrass both showed length weighted average fiber length (LWW) of 0.78 mm, a very narrow fiber length distribution and high fines content. Willow and hybrid poplar have lower fines content but a very low average fiber length (0.42 and 0.48 mm LWW). In addition, the four biomass species showed distinctly different chemical compositions. Switchgrass was defibered successfully using Soda and Soda Anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and demonstrated good paper properties. Both fast-growing wood species pulped well using the Kraft process, and showed acceptable tensile strength, but low tear strength. Alfalfa stems reacted very poorly to Soda and Soda AQ pulping but responded well to Kraft and Kraft AQ. Pulps with tensile and tear strength considerably higher than those found for commercial aspen pulps were observed for alfalfa. All four biomass species examined demonstrated low pulp yield. The highest yields were obtained with poplar and switchgrass (around 43%). Considering the short fibers and low yields, all four biomass types will likely only be used in paper manufacturing if they offer considerable economic advantage over traditional pulp wood.

  10. PEROXIDASA DE PLANTAS TROPICALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Yu Sakharov

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la actividad de la peroxidasa (EC 1.11.1.7 en 7 frutos, 13 raíces y 31 hojas de plantas tropicales que crecen en Colombia. Se encontró que la actividad de la peroxidasa varía ampliamente de una especie a otra. Para el fruto de balazos (Monstera deliciosa se encontró que la actividad de la peroxidasa depende del grado de madurez. Por el contrario, la actividad de peroxidasa de las hojas de la palma de botella (Roystonea regia se mantiene constante todo el año. Algunas especies presentaron alta actividad de peroxidasa como la raíz de batata (Ipomoea batatas, las hojas de pasto guinea (Panicum máximum, las de dormidera (Mimosa pigra, las de higuerilla (Riciims communis L. y las de las siguientes palmas: mararai (Aiphanes caríotifolia, de botella (Roystonea regia, dactilera (Phoenix dactylifera y africana (Elaeis guineensis. Además, mediante isoelectroenfoque se hallaron peroxidasas aniónicas (pl 3.4 - 5.6 tanto en la raíz de batata como en las palmas analizadas.

  11. Establishment of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and other microorganisms on a beach replenishment site in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, D M; Will, M E

    1988-02-01

    Beach replenishment is a widely used method of controlling coastal erosion. To reduce erosional losses from wind, beach grasses are often planted on the replenishment sands. However, there is little information on the microbial populations in this material that may affect plant establishment and growth. The objectives of this research were to document changes in the populations of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and other soil microorganisms in replenishment materials and to determine whether roots of transplanted beach grasses become colonized by beneficial microbes. The study was conducted over a 2-year period on a replenishment project in northeastern Florida. Three sampling locations were established at 1-km intervals along the beach. Each location consisted of three plots: an established dune, replenishment sand planted with Uniola paniculata and Panicum sp., and replenishment sand left unplanted. Fungal and bacterial populations increased rapidly in the rhizosphere of beach grasses in the planted plots. However, no bacteria were recovered that could fix significant amounts of N(2). The VAM fungi established slowly on the transplanted grasses. Even after two growing seasons, levels of root colonization and sporulation were significantly below those found in the established dune. There was a shift in the dominant VAM fungi found in the planted zone with respect to those in the established dunes. The most abundant species recovered from the established dunes were Glomus deserticola, followed by Acaulospora scrobiculata and Scutellospora weresubiae. The VAM fungi that colonized the planted zone most rapidly were Glomus globiferum, followed by G. deserticola and Glomus aggregatum.

  12. Key factors that influence for seasonal production of Guinea grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Coelho de Araujo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Climate, soil and management are the main drives for growth and production of tropical pastures. Thus, a better understanding of the effects of these factors and their interactions under climate conditions is required to obtain effective management options. Here, we used data from two field trials to research on climate and management interactions on the production seasonality of Panicum maximum Jacq. Treatments included four sampling times (250, 500, 750, and 1000 °C accumulated during eight regrowth period, under irrigated and rainfed conditions and, cuts were made to simulate grazing intensity. All treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications. At each sampling time, basal tillers were sampled to observe meristematic differentiation and were linked with the respective daylength. Soil moisture was determined, and the water availability index (WAI was calculated. The dry matter production (DMP was taken and relative productivity was calculated. Soil moisture was the key seasonal drive in spring-summer and the WAI could be used to adjust the maximum production for that season. The major drive for DMP in fall was the daylength, which was found at 11.81 h. For all seasons, DMP correlated better with the residues in early regrowth phase (r = 0.82 and p < 0.0001 and with degree-days at final regrowth phase (r = 0.73 p < 0.01. Applying these critical values to management guidelines should make Guinea grass DMP more efficient on tropical farms.

  13. Growth Responses of Three Dominant Wetland Plant Species to Various Flooding and Nutrient Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S.; Shaffer, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana is experiencing a greater rate of wetland loss than any other wetland system in the United States. This is primarily due to anthropogenic stressors such as flood control levees, backfilling and development of wetlands, and other hydrologic modifications. Methods employed to mitigate wetland loss include the construction of river diversions and assimilation wetlands, which can provide consistent sources of freshwater influx and nutrients to impounded swamps and marshes. It is well known that prolonged flooding causes strain on wetland plant communities and facilitates or exacerbates wetland degradation. However, because river diversions and assimilation wetlands bring high nutrient loads along with freshwater, there is debate over whether prolonged flooding or high influx of nutrients is the primary cause of stress in river diversion and assimilation wetland discharge areas. This mesocosm experiment addresses this question by isolating the effects of flooding and nutrients on the biomass of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), and cordgrass (Spartina patens) over the course of a growing season. The results of this study provide clarity as to whether flooding stress, high nutrient loads, or both cause a reduction in wetland plant productivity. By evaluating the growth responses of T. distichum, P. hemitomon, and S. patens at varying nutrient regimes, we gain insight on how these more dominant species will react to high nutrient discharges from large river diversions, such as those proposed in Louisiana's 2017 Master Plan.

  14. Khellin and Visnagin, Furanochromones from Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam., as Potential Bioherbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaini, Maria L; Sosa, Gustavo M; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A; Walter, Helmut; Cantrell, Charles L; Carrillo, Nestor J; Dayan, Franck E; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Duke, Stephen O

    2016-12-21

    Plants constitute a source of novel phytotoxic compounds to be explored in searching for effective and environmentally safe herbicides. From a previous screening of plant extracts for their phytotoxicity, a dichloromethane extract of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. was selected for further study. Phytotoxicity-guided fractionation of this extract yielded two furanochromones, khellin and visnagin, for which herbicidal activity had not been described before. Khellin and visnagin were phytotoxic to model species lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and duckweed (Lemna paucicostata), with IC 50 values ranging from 110 to 175 μM. These compounds also inhibited the growth and germination of a diverse group of weeds at 0.5 and 1 mM. These weeds included five grasses [ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyardgrass (Echinocloa crus-galli), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), foxtail (Setaria italica), and millet (Panicum sp.)] and two broadleaf species [morningglory (Ipomea sp.) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti)]. During greenhouse studies visnagin was the most active and showed significant contact postemergence herbicidal activity on velvetleaf and crabgrass at 2 kg active ingredient (ai) ha -1 . Moreover, its effect at 4 kg ai ha -1 was comparable to the bioherbicide pelargonic acid at the same rate. The mode of action of khellin and visnagin was not a light-dependent process. Both compounds caused membrane destabilization, photosynthetic efficiency reduction, inhibition of cell division, and cell death. These results support the potential of visnagin and, possibly, khellin as bioherbicides or lead molecules for the development of new herbicides.

  15. Production of tropical forage grasses under different shading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eduardo Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the forage production of three tropical forage grasses under different shading levels. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, University Unit of Aquidauana (UEMS/UUA, in a soil classified as Ultisol sandy loam texture. The treatments consisted of three grasses species combinations (B. brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisck and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, submitted to four shading levels (0, 30, 50 and 75%, arranged in a completely randomized blocks design in a factorial 3 x 4, with eight replications. After harvest, the plants were separated into shoot and roots for determination of shoot fresh mass (SFM, shoot dry mass (SDM and roots dry mass production. After analysis of variance, the qualitative factor was subjected to comparison of averages by Tukey’s test, and the quantitative factor to analysis of polynomial regression, being interactions appropriately unfolded. It was verified that B. decumbens, by its linearly increasing production of forage and less decrease of root formation, is the most recommended for shading conditions compared to grasses Tanzania and Marandu.

  16. Concentração de cobre e molibdênio em algumas plantas forrageiras do Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Prada

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento sobre as quantidades de cobre e molibdênio contidas em quatro gramíneas - Capim colonião (Panicum maximum, Jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa (Ness Stapf, Pangola (Digitaria decumbens Stent e Angolinha (Eriochloa polystachya (H.B.K. Hitchc - colhidas mensalmente durante um ano, no município de Brasilândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Os valores médios encontrados foram, para o cobre: 4,46 e 3,63 para o capim Colonião, 4,13 e 3,50 para o Jaraguá, 5,21 e 3,65 para o Pangola e 5,10 e 4,09 para o Angolinha, respectivamente na época das "águas" e das "secas". Para o molibdênio, os valores médios encontrados foram de 14,43 e 12,65 para o Colonião, 13,03 e 13,83 para o Jaraguá, 12,33 e 13,20 para o Pangola e 12,45 e 12,88 para o Angolinha, respectivamente nas épocas das "águas" e das "secas". Não houve diferenças consideradas significativas entre capins tanto para o cobre como para o molibdênio, no período de 12 meses de colheita.

  17. Emission of CO2 from energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhollow, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    The production of cellulosic energy crops (e.g., short rotation woody crops and herbaceous crops) make a net contribution of CO 2 to the atmosphere to the extent that fossil-fuel based inputs are used in their production. The CO 2 released from the use of the biomass is merely CO 2 that has recently been removed from the atmosphere by the plant growth process. Fossil inputs used in the production of energy corps include energy invested in fertilizers and pesticides, and petroleum fuels used for machinery operation such as site preparation, weed control, harvesting, and hauling. Fossil inputs used come from petroleum, natural gas, and electricity derived from fossil sources. No fossil inputs for the capital used to produce fertilizers, pesticides, or machinery is calculated in this analysis. In this paper calculations are made for the short rotation woody crop hybrid poplar (Populus spp.), the annual herbaceous crop sorghum (Sorghum biocolor [L.] Moench), and the perennial herbaceous crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). For comparison purposes, emissions of CO 2 from corn (Zea mays L.) are calculated

  18. Tingkat Kesukaan Rusa Bawean (Axis kuhlii terhadap Jenis-Jenis Tumbuhan Bawah di Suaka Margasatwa dan Cagar Alam Pulau Bawean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena Adi Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Level of Food Preference of Bawean Deer (Axis kuhlii on Food Species in Wildlife Sanctuary and Nature Reserve of Bawean Island This research has a background on the importance of food preference of Rusa Bawean (Axis kuhlii. This information can be used to ensure the adequacy of preferred food availability within their habitat. This paper aimed to estimate food preference of Rusa Bawean employing faecal analysis. The technique was selected because it is safe for the animal and is easy in data analysis and interpretation. To achieve the aim, quasi experimental design was applied to 30 vegetation plots and 60 faecal samples. Data was collected during January 2005 and June 2006 in the area of Wildlife Sanctuary and Nature Reserve of Bawean Island. Data was analyzed with chi-square test and food selection index. Result shows Rusa Bawean have preferences on some of food species, and they do not select their food species randomly according to its abundance.  Preferred food species include Kabak-kabakan alas (Brachiaria distachya, Talioar (Panicum cordayum, Gadung (Dioscorea hispida, Andudur (Caryota mitis, Rombok putih (Merremia peltata, Pele (Urena lobata and Kabak-kabakan merah (Ischaemum timorense. Whereas avoided food species include Lating-latingan (Scleria hebecarpa, Ancucu (Pericampylus glaucus, Lambu Merah (Paspalum conjugatum, Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica, Padi-padian (Centotheca lappacea, Lente-lentean (Fimbristylis dichotoma, Taliata (Lygodium circinnatum dan Kayu sape (Symplocos adenophylla.

  19. Ketertarikan Anaxipha longipennis Serville (Orthoptera: Gryllidae terhadap Beberapa Jenis Gulma di Sawah sebagai Tempat Bertelur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Karindah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaxipha longipennis Serville (Orthoptera: Gryllidae is one of the generalist predator in rice habitat that has a potential as a biological control agents of rice leaf folder eggs and small insects such as rice hoppers. Females insert their eggs in plant tissue. The female’s oviposition site is important for the subsequent distribution of the cricket. Oviposition preference on 17 weeds species from rice habitat were tested in a free choice experiment in the laboratory. There was strong evidence to conclude that the cricket preferred certain plant for laying eggs. In free choice experiment nine species of weeds were preferred by A. longipennis for laying their eggs instead of rice. The preferred species were ranked as follows: rice, Monochoria vaginalis, Cyperus rotundus, C. iria, Echinochloa colonum, E. crusgalli, Eleusine indica, Fimbristylis miliacea, Imperata cylindrica, and Limnocharis flava. Whereas Ageratum conyzoides, Alternanthera sessilis, Commelina diffusa, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa chinensis, Ludwigia adscendens, Panicum repens, and Sonchus arvensis were not preferred in free-choice test.

  20. Consommation de quelques graminées tropicales par le cobaye [Cavia porcellus : performances et détermination des surfaces nécessaires à l'entretien d'un cheptel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouonmenioc, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of some Tropical Grass Forages by Guinea-Pigs (Cavia porcellus ; Performances and Determination of Required Areas to Maintain a Flock. In order to develop the mini-livestock sector in the agricultural production systems, investigations have been carried out on five tropical grass forages in the Cameroon forest humid zone in order to show the impact of organic manure on the total biomass production for guinea-pigs feeding. Adequate forages area required to maintain a family size guinea-pigs flock was determined. These various forage species compared in terms of growth showed positive response to guinea pigs manure. Panicum maximum with a 8 weeks regrowth which yielded 5146.7 kg DM/ha (on increase of 1500.8 kg seemed to be the best forage in terms of production. Positive response of these grasses to organic manure from guinea-pigs farming may direct the farmer not to use the manure not only for food and cash cropping, but also to sustain forage production. For a 8 weeks cutting frequency the adequate forage area to maintain a family flock size of 20 animals ranges from 90.8 m2 x2 for Brachiaria ruziziensis to 152.9 m2 x 2 for Trypsacum laxum.

  1. Rehabilitation with pasture after open-cut coal mining at three sites in the Bowen Coal Basin of Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coaldrake, J E

    1978-03-01

    Open-cut coal mining in the Bowen Coal Basin leaves piled heaps of overburden, chiefly of a clayey nature, that have high pH, high salinity, and low contents of phosphorus and nitrogen. It is likely that pastures of introduced sub- tropical species can be used as a first stage in rehabilitating these areas, and possibly to convert them into permanent grazing lands. In field experiments the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela (Buffel grass), Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (Rhodes grass) and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume cv. Petrie (green panic) all showed satisfactory establishment and growth at two sites out of three tested. There was a clear response to superphosphate, with 400 kg/ha proving better over a two-year period than 100 kg/ha. Responses to nitrogen (as ammonium sulphate and as ammonium nitrate) were variable, and there was no response to gypsum and manganese at the one site tested for them. Of three tropical legumes subjected to limited testing only leucaena leucocephala gave encouraging results.

  2. Switchgrass, Bermudagrass, Flaccidgrass, and Lovegrass biomass yield response to nitrogen for single and double harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravindhakshan, Sijesh C.; Epplin, Francis M.; Taliaferro, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been identified as a model dedicated energy crop species. After a perennial grass is established, the major variable costs are for nitrogen (N) fertilizer and harvest. Prior to establishing switchgrass on millions of ha in a particular agro-climatic region, it would be useful to determine switchgrass yield response to N and its response to harvest frequency relative to alternative grass species. The objective of this research is to determine biomass yield response to N for four perennial grass species and to determine the species, N level, and harvest frequency that will maximize expected net returns, given the climate and soils of the U.S.A. Southern Plains. Yield data were produced in an experiment that includes four species (switchgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), and carostan flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum)), four N levels, and two harvest levels. Linear response plateau (LRP), linear response stochastic plateau (LRSP), and quadratic response (QR) functions are estimated. For all combinations of biomass and N prices considered, the optimal species is switchgrass. For most price situations, it is economically optimal to fertilize established stands of switchgrass with 69 kg N ha -1 yr -1 and to harvest once yr -1 after senescence.

  3. Switchgrass, Bermudagrass, Flaccidgrass, and Lovegrass biomass yield response to nitrogen for single and double harvest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravindhakshan, Sijesh C.; Epplin, Francis M. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-6026 (United States); Taliaferro, Charles M. [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been identified as a model dedicated energy crop species. After a perennial grass is established, the major variable costs are for nitrogen (N) fertilizer and harvest. Prior to establishing switchgrass on millions of ha in a particular agro-climatic region, it would be useful to determine switchgrass yield response to N and its response to harvest frequency relative to alternative grass species. The objective of this research is to determine biomass yield response to N for four perennial grass species and to determine the species, N level, and harvest frequency that will maximize expected net returns, given the climate and soils of the U.S.A. Southern Plains. Yield data were produced in an experiment that includes four species (switchgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), and carostan flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum)), four N levels, and two harvest levels. Linear response plateau (LRP), linear response stochastic plateau (LRSP), and quadratic response (QR) functions are estimated. For all combinations of biomass and N prices considered, the optimal species is switchgrass. For most price situations, it is economically optimal to fertilize established stands of switchgrass with 69 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and to harvest once yr{sup -1} after senescence. (author)

  4. OBSERVAÇÕES EPIDEMIOLÓGICAS DE HELMINTOS GASTRINTESTINAIS EM OVELHAS MESTIÇAS MANEJADAS EM PASTAGENS COM DIFERENTES HÁBITOS DE CRESCIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Ovelhas, provenientes do acasalamento de fêmeas Corriedale com machos das raças Bergamácia e Hampshire Down, foram divididas em três grupos e manejadas em piquetes compostos exclusivamente por uma das seguintes espécies de gramíneas: Panicum maximun Jacq., Cynodon dactylon Pers. e Paspalum notatum Flueeg., com o objetivo de avaliar a infecção por helmintos gastrintestinais. A cada 28 dias, durante um período de um ano, foram obtidas informações sobre o número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e realizadas culturas de larvas a partir das amostras de fezes de todos os animais. Os animais que pastejaram Paspalum notatum Flueeg. apresentaram a maior contagem de OPG e não houve diferença estatística (P>0.05 entre os grupos genéticos empregados. O gênero Haemonchus predominou nas culturas de larvas. Foi observada também a influência do mês de coleta sobre o OPG (P<0.05. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Epidemiologia, Haemonchus, OPG, ovinos, Trichostrongylus.

  5. The grasses (Poaceae) of the Colombian guayana: analyses on their composition, richness, endemism, and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canas, Diego Giraldo

    2010-01-01

    The checklist of grasses from Colombian Guayana is presented. In all, 152 species, 69 genera, and six subfamilies were recorded. Thus, in the Colombian Guayana is represented the 18.7 and 43.7% of the species and genera of Colombian grasses, respectively. The subfamilies with the highest number of species were Panicoideae (110 species/46 genera), Chloridoideae (21/9), and Bambusoideae (11/9). The most diverse genera were Paspalum (19 species), Panicum (16), Axonopus (14), Eragrostis (9), and Digitaria (8). Nineteen species are introduced and naturalized in the Colombian Guayana, which represent 12.5% of the agrostological flora for the Colombian Guayana. There were 8 endemic species (5.3% of Colombian Guayanan grasses). In addition, some species are reported for the first time for Colombian flora (belonging to Axonopus, Cyphonanthus, Gymnopogon, and Paspalum), and some species are new to science (belonging to Axonopus, Digitaria, Eragrostis, and Sacciolepis). On the other hand, some preliminary biogeographical aspect are analyzed Flora of Colombia,

  6. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond

  7. Predatory activity of Butlerius nematodes and nematophagous fungi against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predatory activity of the nematode Butlerius spp. and fungal isolates of Duddingtonia flagrans, Clonostachys rosea, Arthrobotrys musiformis and Trichoderma esau against H. contortus infective larvae (L3 in grass pots. Forty-eight plastic gardening pots containing 140 g of sterile soil were used. Panicum spp. grass seeds (200 mg were sown into each pot and individually watered with 10 mL of tap water. Twelve days after seeding, the pots were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=8. Two thousand H. contortus infective larvae (L3 were added to each group. Additionally, the following treatments were established: Group 1 – 2000 Butlerius spp. larvae; group 2 – A. musiformis (1x107 conidia; group 3 – T. esau (1x107 conidia; group 4 – C. rosea (1x107 conidia, group 5 – D. flagrans (1x107conidia and Group 6 – no biological controller (control group. The larval population of H. contortus exposed to Butlerius spp. was reduced by 61.9%. Population reductions of 90.4, 66.7, 61.9 and 85.7% were recorded in the pots containing A. musiformis, T. esau, C. rosea and D. flagrans, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the predatory nematode Butlerius spp. and the assessed fungi display an important predatory activity can be considered suitable potential biological control agents.

  8. Intoxicação por Enterolobium contortisiliquum em bovinos na região Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberio G. Olinda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de fotossensibilização causada por favas de Enterolobium contortisiliquum em bovinos no Estado de Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Os sinais clínicos observados foram hiporexia, prostração, perda de peso, edema generalizado, dermatite e icterícia. Havia anemia e atividades séricas de AST, LDH e GGT elevadas. A concentração sérica de ureia encontrava-se levemente aumentada e creatinina, proteínas séricas e albumina estavam em níveis normais. Na necropsia, o fígado estava aumentado de tamanho e difusamente alaranjado e os rins estavam aumentados de volume e apresentavam estriações esbranquiçadas irregulares entremeadas por áreas escuras na superfície subcapsular. Histologicamente, observou-se na pele, dermatite ulcerativa. No fígado havia vacuolização e necrose de hepatócitos da região centrolobular e ocasionalmente necrose individual de hepatócitos em outras regiões. O rim apresentava nefrose tubular tóxica. O diagnóstico diferencial da intoxicação por E. contortisiliquum na região semiárida deve incluir as intoxicações por Brachiaria spp, Panicum dichotomiflorum e Froelichia humboldtiana, que também causam fotossensibilização.

  9. Tillering dynamics in pastures of guinea grass subjected to grazing severities under intermittent stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Baptaglin Montagner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to analyze the tillering dynamics of the species Panicum maximum cv. Mombaca subjected to three post-grazing heights: residue of 30 cm (30; residue of 50 cm (50; and residue of 50 cm during spring and summer, lowered to 40 cm in the first fall season grazing and to 30 cm in the following grazing cycle, resuming to 50 cm after the first grazing of the following spring season (50-30. Grazings were initiated whenever the swards intercepted 95% of the incident light. The post-grazing heights were allocated in the experimental units in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The density of basal tillers did not vary between the residual heights evaluated. Swards managed with variable residual height (50-30 presented higher rates of appearance and mortality of basal tillers during the summer of 2007, indicating high tiller renovation. Regardless of the post-grazing height evaluated, lower rates of appearance of basal tillers were found in the spring of 2006. The stability index of guinea grass cv. Mombaca was close to 1.0 throughout the experimental period. Swards managed with variable post-grazing present structural changes able to improve the regrowth vigor, which may be important to maximize the use of the forage species in the production system.

  10. Effect of season on the quality of forages selected by sheep in citrus plantations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard K. Adjorlolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the effects of season on chemical composition of forages selected by sheep grazing in a citrus plantation. Forage species growing in a sweet orange (Citrus sinensis plantation were identified and sampled monthly for 2 years. Samples were bulked on monthly basis for chemical analysis. The average dry matter content of the forages increased from the rainy to the dry season but effects of season on the chemical components were inconsistent. Some species, such as Asystasia gangetica, had a higher crude protein concentration in the dry season, whereas for others, such as Panicum repens, the reverse occurred. However, average concentrations of crude protein, detergent fiber and components of fiber for all species for the rainy season were not significantly different from the dry season values. It was concluded that there were differences among forage species in their responses to changing seasons, such that grazing ruminants may select a diet to enable them to meet their nutritional requirements, provided forage biomass is adequate.Keywords: Crop-livestock integration, tree plantations, chemical composition, seasonal effects, forage quality.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2271-277

  11. Simultaneous Downregulation of MTHFR and COMT in Switchgrass Affects Plant Performance and Induces Lesion-Mimic Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijia; Fu, Chunxiang; Gou, Jiqing; Sun, Liang; Huhman, David; Zhang, Yunwei; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ) has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O -methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT -deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants. Another unexpected finding was that the double MTHFR/COMT downregulated plants showed a novel lesion-mimic leaf phenotype. Molecular analyses revealed that the lesion-mimic phenotype was caused by the synergistic effect of MTHFR and COMT genes, with MTHFR playing a predominant role. Microarray analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative and defense responses. The results demonstrated the lack of additive effects of MTHFR and COMT on lignification. Furthermore, this research revealed an unexpected role of the two genes in the modulation of lesion-mimic cell death as well as their synergistic effects on agronomic performance.

  12. Recovery of 15N-urea in soil-plant system of tanzania grass pasture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martha Junior, Geraldo Bueno; Vilela, Lourival; Corsi, Moacyr; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2009-01-01

    The economic attractiveness and negative environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization in pastures depend on the N use efficiency in the soil-plant system. However, the recovery of urea- 15 N by Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania pastures, one of the most widely used forage species in intensified pastoral systems, is still unknown. This experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four treatments (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 of N-urea) and three replications, to determine the recovery of 15 N urea by Tanzania grass. Forage production, total N content and N yield were not affected by fertilization (p > 0.05), reflecting the high losses of applied N under the experimental conditions. The recovery of 15 N urea (% of applied N) in forage and roots was not affected by fertilization levels (p > 0.05), but decreased exponentially in the soil and soil-plant system (p 15 N (kg ha -1 ) in forage and roots (15 to 30 cm) increased with increasing urea doses (p < 0.05). (author)

  13. UTILIZATION OF MEXICAN SUNFLOWER LEAF MEAL-BASED DIETS BY PRE WEANED WEST AFRICAN DWARF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Henry Ekeocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted using 16 West African Dwarf (WAD lambs selected from 16 ewes brought to heat (Oestrus by synchronization and served by 2 rams. The experimental animals were placed at 6 weeks of age and were fed with Panicum maximum plus concentrate diet mixture of Mexican Sunflower Leaves (MSL and Wheat Bran (WB such that 0, 15, 30 and 45% of wheat bran was replaced by weight with MSL gravimetrically in diets A, B, C and D respectively. The experiment lasted for seven weeks. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and routine vaccination and medication were administered. Parameters measured were weight gain, dry matter intake, weaning weight and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR. The Dry Matter Intake - DMI (g/day was highest for lambs on diet C (156.94 followed by B (156.53, A (154.29 and D (152.04 g/day respectively. This increase was numerically higher than observed values for animals on treatments A and B but statistically significant (P0.05. Results from this study showed that 30% MSLM-based diet was acceptable to the pre-weaned lambs as it supported dry matter intake, optimum weight gain, weaning weight and feed conversion ratio before diminishing return sets in.

  14. Bioremediation and phytoremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Patrick; Schulthess, Cristian P; Kuzovkina, Yulia A; Guillard, Karl

    2017-08-03

    Remediation of contaminated soils is often studied using fine-textured soils rather than low-fertility sandy soils, and few studies focus on recontamination events. This study compared aerobic and anaerobic treatments for remediation of freshly introduced used motor oil on a sandy soil previously phytoremediated and bioacclimated (microorganisms already adapted in the soil environment) with some residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination. Vegetated and unvegetated conditions to remediate anthropogenic fill containing residual TPH that was spiked with nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) were evaluated in a 90-day greenhouse pot study. Vegetated treatments used switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). The concentration of aerobic bacteria were orders of magnitude higher in vegetated treatments compared to unvegetated. Nevertheless, final TPH concentrations were low in all saturated soil treatments, and high in the presence of switchgrass. Concentrations were also low in unvegetated pots with fertilizer. Acclimated indigenous microbial communities were shown to be more effective in breaking down hydrocarbons than introducing microbes from the addition of plant treatments in sandy soils. Remediation of fresh introduced NAPLs on pre-phytoremediated and bioacclimated soil was most efficient in saturated, anaerobic environments, probably due to the already pre-established microbial associations, easily bioavailable contaminants, and optimized soil conditions for microbial establishment and survival.

  15. Nutrient-enhanced decomposition of plant biomass in a freshwater wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodker, James E.; Turner, Robert Eugene; Tweel, Andrew; Schulz, Christopher; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    We studied soil decomposition in a Panicum hemitomon (Schultes)-dominated freshwater marsh located in southeastern Louisiana that was unambiguously changed by secondarily-treated municipal wastewater effluent. We used four approaches to evaluate how belowground biomass decomposition rates vary under different nutrient regimes in this marsh. The results of laboratory experiments demonstrated how nutrient enrichment enhanced the loss of soil or plant organic matter by 50%, and increased gas production. An experiment demonstrated that nitrogen, not phosphorus, limited decomposition. Cellulose decomposition at the field site was higher in the flowfield of the introduced secondarily treated sewage water, and the quality of the substrate (% N or % P) was directly related to the decomposition rates. We therefore rejected the null hypothesis that nutrient enrichment had no effect on the decomposition rates of these organic soils. In response to nutrient enrichment, plants respond through biomechanical or structural adaptations that alter the labile characteristics of plant tissue. These adaptations eventually change litter type and quality (where the marsh survives) as the % N content of plant tissue rises and is followed by even higher decomposition rates of the litter produced, creating a positive feedback loop. Marsh fragmentation will increase as a result. The assumptions and conditions underlying the use of unconstrained wastewater flow within natural wetlands, rather than controlled treatment within the confines of constructed wetlands, are revealed in the loss of previously sequestered carbon, habitat, public use, and other societal benefits.

  16. The botanical macroremains from the prehistoric settlement Kalnik-Igrišče (NW Croatia in the context of current knowledge about cultivation and plant consumption in Croatia and neighboring countries during the Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mareković

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the first extensive archaeobotanical research into a Bronze Age site in Croatia. The aim of the study was to reveal what plants were consumed (grown at Kalnik-Igrišče (NW Croatia in the Bronze Age and to realize if the plant diet of the local population differed from that of the inhabitants in neighboring countries. The results show that all plant macrofossils found at Kalnik-Igrišče can be classified into one of four functional groups: cereals, cultivated legumes, useful trees and weeds. As much as 98% of the findings are of cereals and legumes. The most abundant species found are Panicum miliaceum (millet, Hordeum vulgare (barley, Vicia faba (faba bean, Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum (bread wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccon (emmer wheat and Lens culinaris (lentils. The findings from Kalnik-Igrišče do not differ from the findings of neighboring countries, indicating that there were similar diets and agricultural/plant-collecting activities throughout the whole of the studied area (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, Italy, Austria and Hungary.

  17. A review of carbon and nitrogen balances in switchgrass grown for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bransby, D.I.; McLaughlin, S.B.; Parrish, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Increased atmospheric CO 2 caused partly by burning fossil fuels, is assumed to elevate the risk of global warming, while nitrate contamination of surface runoff and groundwater from fertilizer and agricultural wastes constitutes a serious environmental hazard on a regional scale. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown as an energy crop could reduce atmospheric CO 2 accumulation by replacing fossil fuels and sequestering C. It could also improve soil productivity by C sequestration, and reduce NO 3 -1 contamination of water by absorbing N lost from fertilizer and agricultural waste if planted in filter strips on adjacent land. The objective of this study was to assess potential impacts of switchgrass on C and N balances by reviewing and synthesizing information from current literature, unpublished data and on-going research. Replacing fossil fuels with switchgrass, or any other biomass, will have a much greater effect on atmospheric CO 2 than C sequestration. This is because replacing fossil fuels provides a cumulative effect, while C sequestration offers only a one-time benefit. Furthermore, switchgrass will provide net gains in C sequestration only if it replaces annual row crops, but not if it replaces grazed pasture. Nitrogen recovery by switchgrass in an Alabama study was 65.6%, which compares favorably with the 50% recovery frequently quoted as the norm for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). (Author)

  18. Artificial soils from alluvial tin mining wastes in Malaysia--a study of soil chemistry following experimental treatments and the impact of mycorrhizal treatment on growth and foliar chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, David S; Bakar, Baki B; Hill, Steve J

    2012-01-01

    For decades Malaysia was the world's largest producer of Sn, but now the vast open cast mining operations have left a legacy of some 100,000 ha of what is effectively wasteland, covered with a mosaic of tailings and lagoons. Few plants naturally recolonise these areas. The demand for such land for both urban expansion and agricultural use has presented an urgent need for better characterisation. This study reports on the formation of artificial soils from alluvial Sn mining waste with a focus on the effects of experimental treatments on soil chemistry. Soil organic matter, clay, and pH were manipulated in a controlled environment. Adding both clay tailings and peat enhanced the cation exchange capacity of sand tailings but also reduced the pH. The addition of peat reduced the extractable levels of some elements but increased the availability of Ca and Mg, thus proving beneficial. The use of clay tailings increased the levels of macro and micronutrients but also released Al, As, La, Pb and U. Additionally, the effects of soil mix and mycorrhizal treatments on growth and foliar chemistry were studied. Two plant species were selected: Panicum milicaeum and Pueraria phaseoloides. Different growth patterns were observed with respect to the additions of peat and clay. The results for mycorrhizal treatment (live inoculum or sterile carrier medium) are more complex, but both resulted in improved growth. The use of mycorrhizal fungi could greatly enhance rehabilitation efforts on sand tailings.

  19. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanoval, Natalia; Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2011-05-11

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  20. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended.

  1. Tropical forages: morphoanatomy of plants grown in areas with the death of pasture syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ribeiro-Júnior

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Roots and leaves of Panicum maximum Tanzânia, Mombaça and Massai; Urochloa brizantha Piatã, Marandu and Xaraés; Urochloa humidicola Llanero; Urochloa ruziziensis Ruzizienses; Urochloa hybrida Mulato II and Cynodon nlemfuensis Estrela-roxa were analyzed, seeking to identify characters for better adaptation to the environment that may interfere with digestibility of tissue from the point of view of the rumen in cattle. Were planted ten cultivars in a completely randomized blocks with three repetitions. Was collected vegetative material, which histological slides were prepared from middle third of the sections of roots and leaves. Were observed differences (p>0.05 in the roots: higher volume of epidermal cells (28.62 µm and overall diameter (1926.41 µm of Llanero; thicker vascular cylinder (975.09 µm and more protoxylem (42.25 in Estrela-roxa and occurrence of aerenchyma in cultivars Piatã, Mulato II, Xaraés, Massai, Llanero and Estrela-roxa; Were found higher proportions of bulliform cells in the leaves (121.07 µm and thicker leaf mesophyll in U. humidicola Llanero (263.63 µm; higher proportion of sclerenchyma fibers in Xaraés and Marandu; lower results for amount of fibers in P. maximum Massai. We conclude that the cultivars Estrela-roxa, Llanero and Massai have greater adaptability to the environment and better nutritional quality.

  2. Soil oribatid mite communities under three species of legumes in an ultisol in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, M Adetola; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; Correa, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Oribatid mite densities in the topsoil and their activity at the soil surface were monitored under three species of perennial legume cover crops namely, Arachis pintoi, Macroptilium atropupureum and Pueraria phaseoloides, grass (Panicum maximum) and bare plots on three occasions in 1998 and 1999 in a derived savanna zone in Brazil. Both densities and activity at the soil surface were higher in the early but cool dry season in April 1998 than in the early wet but warm season in November 1998 and 1999. Three taxonomic groups of macropyline oribatid mites, namely Nothrus, Archegozetes and Masthermannia as well as a brachypyline taxon, Scheloribates were suggested as possible indicators of effect of legumes on soil biota because their populations increased under the legumes and/or the irresidues. Nothrus in particular increased in abundance more than any other taxon in the presence of residues of A. pintoi. Each legume supported a unique oribatid mite community in terms of species composition and relative abundance. The large numbers of Archegozeres trapped from all the legume and grass plots in April and November 1998 were also attributed to highly conducive conditions provided by the vegetation cover and their residues. The results suggest that the oribatid mite community of the study area was numerically stable as the peak populations of different species were not synchronized. Many taxonomic groups of pycnonotic brachypyline mites were absent. Legume cover crops, especially A. pintoi, and their residues have potential in restoring oribatid mite populations to precultivation levels.

  3. Biomass accumulation and chemical composition of Massai grass intercropped with forage legumes on an integrated crop-livestock-forest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana da Costa Moreno Gama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the use of woody legumes (Albizia lebbeck, Cratylia argentea, Dipteryx Allata (Baru, a Leucaena hybrid (L. leucocephala + L. diversifolia, and Leucaena leucocephalacv. Cunningham and herbaceous legumes (Arachis pintoi intercropped with Panicum maximum cv. Massai, simultaneously implanted in a maize crop. The study made use of a randomized block experimental design with four replications. Assessments of biomass accumulation and forage nutritional value were made after the maize harvest, between June 2008 and October 2010. It was found that the residues of maize provided better growing conditions for Massai grass during the dry season. L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham and the Leucaena hybrid had the highest accumulation of all forage legumes evaluated, and provided the best nutritional value of all the arrangements tested. Of all woody legumes tested in this system, Leucaena was considered feasible for intercropping with Massai grass. The intercrop of perennial woody Baru with maize is not recommended. Albizia lebbeck and Cratylia argentea require further study, especially the yield assessment at different cutting intervals and cutting heights. Arachis pintoi had a low participation in the intercropping, showing greater performance over time, indicating slow thriving in this experimental condition.

  4. Avaliação dos atributos físicos do solo em consórcio de forrageiras e milho em sucessão com soja em região de cerrados Evaluation of soil physical properties in a forage-corn intercropping in succession with soybean in the cerrado region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Zocoler de Mendonça

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de áreas do Cerrado para produção agropecuária aliado ao manejo inadequado tem causado degradação dos solos. Nesse sentido há necessidade da incorporação de sistemas sustentáveis como plantio direto e a integração lavoura-pecuária. Este trabalho objetivou identificar o efeito da sucessão de milho+forrageiras e soja nos atributos físicos do solo. Para tanto foi realizado, em área experimental da Unesp, campus de Ilha Solteira, um ensaio composto do consórcio de milho com quatro forrageiras (Brachiaria brizantha,B. ruziziensis, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia e P. maximum cv. Áries semeadas em três modalidades (na linha de semeadura do milho misturada ao adubo, a lanço simultânea à semeadura do milho e a lanço no estádio V4 do milho e o milho sem consorciação (testemunha. A soja de verão foi implantada sobre os restos culturais dos tratamentos anteriores. Foram realizadas coletas para determinar a macro e microporosidade, porosidade total e densidade do solo em duas épocas de amostragem, após as colheitas do milho e da soja. Pelos resultados, pôde-se concluir que, em regiões de cerrados, a sucessão de culturas utilizada promoveu a melhoria da macroporosidade, porosidade total e densidade do solo, independentemente da utilização de forrageiras em consórcio com milho.The intensive use of Cerrado soils for agricultural production coupled with an inadequate management has resulted in soil degradation. This created the need for the introduction of more sustainable systems such as no-tillage and crop-livestock integration. This study analyzed the effect of succession of corn+forage and soybean on soil physical properties. For this purpose, four forages (Brachiaria brizantha, B. ruziziensis, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, and P. maximum cv. Áries, were sown in an intercropping trial with maize in three modalities (in the corn row mixed with fertilizer; broadcast at corn sowing; and broadcast in corn stage

  5. Desempenho de bovinos em capim-tanzânia adubado com nitrogênio ou consorciado com Estilosantes Performance of beef cattle grazing Tanzania grass fertilized with nitrogen or intercropped with Stylo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóves Cabreira Jobim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com este estudo objetivou-se avaliar a massa seca de forragem e lâminas foliares, ganho médio diário, taxa de lotação e ganho de peso vivo em capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. no período de novembro de 2008 a julho de 2009 sob lotação contínua. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso em parcela subdivididas, com três repetições, e como tratamentos: Tanzânia + Estilosantes Campo Grande; Tanzânia + 75kg/ha de N; Tanzânia + 150kg/ha de N e Tanzânia + 225kg/ha de N, e nas sub-parcelas os períodos do ano: primavera, verão e outono. No verão, a massa seca de forragem e lâminas foliares foram superiores à primavera e outono. O tratamento com 225kg de N apresentou maior massa seca de forragem e massa seca de lâminas foliares no verão e outono. Obteve-se maior ganho médio diário no verão. Na primavera e no verão não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para o ganho médio diário, e no outono o tratamento com 225kg/ha de N foi superior. A taxa de lotação foi semelhante no verão e outono, e menor na primavera. O tratamento com 225kg de N apresentou maior taxa de lotação na primavera e verão. O tratamento com 225kg de N apresentou maior ganho de peso vivo no outono, na primavera e verão o 150 kg de N foi semelhante. A disponibilidade de massa seca de forragem e o desempenho animal proporcionado pelo Estilosantes foram equivalentes à adubação nitrogenada até a dose de 75kg de N.This study aimed to evaluate the dry mass of forage and leaf blade dry mass, average daily gain, stocking rate and live weight gain in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. from November/2008 to July/2009, on continuous stocking. The experimental design was a split-plot arrangement in a randomized blocks design, with three replications and four treatments: Tanzania + Campo Grande Stylo; Tanzania + 75kg/ha of N; Tanzania + 150kg/ha of N and Tanzania + 225kg/ha of N, subplots were the seasons of the year: Spring, Summer and

  6. Matéria orgânica e infiltração da água em solo sob consórcio milho e forrageiras Soil organic matter and water infiltration under maize and forage intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana H Sato

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A infiltração é o processo pelo qual a água penetra no solo através de sua superfície e sua dinâmica pode ser condicionada por diversos fatores, dentre eles os sistemas de manejo do solo adotados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a velocidade de infiltração da água e os teores de matéria orgânica do solo em sistema de consórcio milho e forrageiras. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram estudados os efeitos de cinco tratamentos submetidos ao manejo de plantio direto: 1 Milho Solteiro (Zea mays L. ; 2 Braquiária Humidícola (Brachiaria humidicola; 3 Consórcio Milho e Braquiária Humidícola; 4 Capim Aruana (Panicum maximum cv. Aruana; 5 Consórcio Milho e Capim Aruana. Utilizou-se, para determinação da velocidade de infiltração básica (VIB, o método dos infiltrômetros de cilindros concêntricos. Outros atributos físicos do solo e a matéria orgânica do solo foram avaliados buscando-se associá-los aos valores de VIB encontrados. Os resultados revelaram que sob plantio direto os sistemas apresentaram elevados valores de VIB. O sistema Milho Solteiro apresentou a maior VIB e a inserção de forrageiras nos sistemas provocou redução da VIB; todos os sistemas apresentaram diminuição dos teores de matéria orgânica em profundidade.Infiltration is a process by which water penetrates through the soil by its surface, and its dynamics can be influenced by several factors, among them, the soil management system adopted. The objective of this work was to estimate water infiltration rate and soil organic matter content in maize and forage intercropping systems. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replications. Five treatments under no-tillage management were evaluated: 1 Corn (Zea mays L. , 2 Brachiaria humidicola (Brachiaria humidicola, 3 Corn and Brachiaria humidicola intercropping, 4 Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. Aruana, 5 Corn

  7. Desempenho em Pastagens e Características de Carcaça da 16a Progênie dos Rebanhos Nelore, Guzerá e Caracu de Sertãozinho (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razook Alexander George

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e um machos inteiros dos rebanhos selecionados para peso aos 378 dias (P378, nascidos em 1996, foram terminados em pastagens de Panicum Maximum (Jacq., Panicum Maximum (Jaq cv. Tanzania 1 e Brachiaria brizantha (Hoschst Stapf cv. Marandu na Estação Experimental de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho (SP. As amostras, representando a média de P378 em cada rebanho, foram: 11 animais Nelore Seleção (NeS e 10 para cada um dos grupos Nelore Controle (NeC, Guzerá Seleção (GuS e Caracu (Ca. O abate ocorreu aos 824 dias de idade e condição corporal 7,6, em uma escala de 1 a 9. As médias mínimas e máximas ajustadas, para as principais características, considerando-se todos os grupos, foram: ganho de peso médio diário, 406 (NeC e 501 g (NeS; peso de abate (PAB, 446,8 (NeC e 544,3 kg (NeS ; peso de carcaça (PCAR, 249,8 (NeC e 309,7 kg (NeS; rendimento de carcaça (REND, 54,0 (GuS e 56,3% (NeC e NeS. No corte entre a 9feminine e 11feminine costelas : músculo 59,6 (NeC e 65,2% (Ca; gordura, 15,6 (Ca e 21,4% (NeC; osso, 18,9 (NeC e 20,2% (GuS; espessura de gordura (ESPGOR, 2,0 (Ca e 4,2 mm (NeC; área de olho de lombo (AOL, 65,6 (NeC e 71,1 cmsuperscript two (NeS e Ca; força de cisalhamento (FC, 4,5 (Ca e 6,6 kg (GuS e perdas totais no cozimento (PERDAS, 22,5 (NeC e 24,9% (GuS. A seleção para peso provocou, em NeS, maiores PAB e PCAR, sem interferir no REND, na composição da costela, FC e PERDAS na carne. Houve, porém, menor ESPGOR em relação à NeC. Os animais GuS apresentaram PAB e PCAR intermediários, entre NeS e Ca, e menor REND e os Ca maior proporção de músculo na costela e carne com maior maciez em relação ao Zebu.

  8. Características das fibras musculares de cordeiros nascidos de ovelhas recebendo suplementação proteica no terço inicial da gestação Characteristics of muscle fibers of lambs born from sheep given protein suplementation in the intial third of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Aparecida Santello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 80 ovelhas Santa Inês, com 47,49 ± 3,76 kg de peso vivo, cobertas com reprodutores Dorper e alimentadas com concentrado com 15,20; 22,48; 26,52 e 35,65% de proteína bruta (PB no terço inicial de gestação. As ovelhas, durante o dia, permaneceram em pastagem de capim-aruana (Panicum maximum cv. Aruana. Ao nascimento, foram realizadas biópsias no músculo Semitendinosus esquerdo de cordeiros machos, para avaliar o número e o diâmetro das fibras musculares. Na fase de terminação, os cordeiros foram distribuídos em dois grupos e alimentados com uma dieta controle, contendo 16,18% de proteína bruta (PB e 79,64% nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT, sem grão de girassol; ou com uma dieta contendo 9,10% de grãos de girassol (15,03% de PB e 78,96% de NDT. Não houve efeito da alimentação materna sobre o peso dos cordeiros ao nascimento (4,82 kg, aos 30 dias de idade (9,69 kg e ao desmame (15,38 kg. O sexo influenciou o peso dos cordeiros ao nascimento e ao desmame. O desempenho dos cordeiros na fase de terminação não foi influenciado pela dieta fornecida nessa fase, nem pelo sexo nem pelo manejo alimentar da mãe durante a gestação. Não houve diferença no número (2813,45 nem no diâmetro (13,16 μm das fibras musculares ao nascimento. O teor de PB de dietas para ovelhas no terço inicial da gestação pode ser reduzido, pois essa redução não influencia no diâmetro e número de fibras musculares.It was used 80 Santa Inês ewes with average body weight 47.79 ± 3.76 kg, mated with Dorper rams and fed concentrated diet with 15.20; 22.48; 26.52 and 35.65% crude protein (CP on the initial third of pregnancy. Sheep were kept on aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. Aruana pasture during the day. At birth, biopsy on the left Semitendinosus muscle were done on male lambs to evaluate the number and diameter of muscular fibers. During finishing phase, lambs were distributed in two groups and fed control diet with 16

  9. Compressibilidade de um solo sob sistemas de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado e não irrigado Soil compressibility under non-irrigated and irrigated short duration grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. R. Lima

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O incremento da produtividade das pastagens tem sido associado ao comportamento à compressão dos solos. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: quantificar as curvas de compressão e a pressão de preconsolidação em sistemas de pastejo intensivo rotacionado irrigado e não irrigado. Foram coletadas 96 amostras indeformadas de solo em quatro ciclos sucessivos de pastejo instalado com capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. em um Argissolo Vermelho. Após saturadas com água e equilibradas no potencial (psi: -10 kPa, as amostras foram pesadas e submetidas ao ensaio de compressão uniaxial com a aplicação sucessiva e contínua de pressões de 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000, 1.300 e 1.600 kPa. Os resultados comprovaram a hipótese de que houve diferença na compressibilidade do solo sob os sistemas de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado e não irrigado. A maior compactação inicial verificada no sistema de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado favoreceu o deslocamento das curvas de compressão uniaxial para valores superiores de densidade do solo. A pressão de preconsolidação foi significativamente superior no quarto ciclo de pastejo no sistema de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado em relação ao sistema pastejo rotacionado intensivo não irrigado.Increment in pasture productivity has been associated with the understanding of the soil behavior under compression. The objective of this research was to quantify (a the compression curves and (b the preconsolidation pressure of the soils under non-irrigated and irrigated short duration grazing systems. Ninety-six undisturbed soil samples were taken from the four successive pasture cycles of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. in a Hapludalf. The samples were saturated in water and equilibrated at the matrix potential (psi: -10 kPa and then were weighed and submitted to an uniaxial compression test, applying the following pressures: 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,000, 1,300, and

  10. Comportamiento etológico de bovinos en sistemas silvopastoriles en Chiapas, México Ethological performance of cattle in silvopastoral systems of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Pérez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Agropecuario de Capacitación y Desarrollo Sustentable San Antonio, en el municipio Chiapa de Corzo, Estado de Chiapas, México, se desarrolló esta investigación con el objetivo de determinar el efecto del uso. de árboles forrajeros en el comportamiento etológico de bovinos en condiciones de pastoreo intensivo. Se utiliza­ron 12 toretes encastados (Suizo x Cebú, con un peso vivo promedio de 157±3 kg, en un diseño completamente al azar con dos tratamientos (T1: Sistema silvopastoril y T2: Sistema monocultivo y seis repeticiones. El estrato herbáceo estaba formado por Panicum maximum var. Tanzania, en ambos sitios. Con relación al tiempo que los animales destinaban a la actividad de pastoreo, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre tratamientos. Se observó una menor temperatura durante las horas de la mañana y la tarde en el sistema silvopastoril (23,9 y 26,6°C, en comparación con el sistema en monocultivo (26,4 y 28,1°C. Entre las variables pastoreo y tempera­tura in situ se encontró una correlación negativa en ambos sistemas, pero más marcada en el T2 (R=-0,41166­P=0,0003 que en el T1 (R=-0,28453-P=0,0154. Sin embargo, la tasa de crecimiento mostró diferencias signifi­cativas (PIn the San Antonio Agricultural Center of Training and Sustainable Development, in the Chiapa de Corzo municipality, Chiapas State, Mexico, this study was developed with the objective of determining the effect of the use of forage trees on the ethological performance of cattle under intensive grazing conditions. Twelve young bulls wee used (Swiss x Zebu, with an average live weight of 157±3 kg, in a completely randomized design with two treatments (T1: Silvopastoral system and T2: Monocrop system and six repetitions. The herbaceous stratum was formed by Panicum maximum var. Tanzania, in both sites. Regarding the time the animals destined to the grazing activity, no significant differences were found between treatments. A

  11. Retenção do fósforo de fenos de gramíneas tropicais em ovinos Phosphorus balance in sheep fed on tropical grass hays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Reis

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediu-se a retenção do fósforo de quatro gramíneas tropicais, capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capim-coastcross (Cynodon dactilon e capim-colonião (Panicum maximum, em cinco ovinos por meio de ensaios de balanço de fósforo. O experimento constou de quatro fases, cada uma com duração de 21 dias (14 dias de adaptação à dieta e sete dias de colheita de fezes, totalizando 20 observações. A análise dos dados foi feita por polinômios ortogonais, testando-se os efeitos de tratamento, de período e de animal, e os contrastes foram comparados pelo teste F. A retenção de fósforo foi negativa nos fenos dos capins gordura, braquiária e coastcross e positiva no feno do capim-colonião. Por análise de regressão, a perda fecal do fósforo endógeno foi estimada em 15,5mg/kg PV/dia e o coeficiente médio de retenção foi de 0,37. Pela razão entre o balanço e a ingestão, estimou-se que o consumo de fósforo necessário para alcançar o equilíbrio foi de 44mg/kg PV/dia.One experiment was conducted using five adult sheep fed on four tropical grass hays to determine phosphorus (P retention. The experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days (14 days adaptation and seven days faeces collection. The treatments were: A molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora, B brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens, C coastcross grass (Cynodon dactilon and D Guinea grass (Panicum maximum. Phosphorus concentrations were 0.05%, 0.07%, 0.11% and 0.18% for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. The effects of treatment, period and animal were evaluated by ortogonal polynomials and the contrasts by F test. Negative P balances were produced in treatments A, B and C (-13.05, -9.36 and -8.26mg/kg LW/day, respectively which were not significantly different from each other. Positive P balance of 8.14mg/kg LW/day was produced in treatment D, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than treatments A, B and C. Endogenous losses

  12. Níveis de silicato de cálcio e magnésio na produção das gramídeas Marandu e Tanzânia cultivadas em um Neossolo Quartzarênico Level of calcium and magnesium silicate in the yield of Marandu grass and Tanzania grass cultivated in one Quartzsandy Neosoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Augustus Fortes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da correção da acidez do solo, por meio da aplicação de níveis de silicato de Ca e Mg, na produção das gramíneas Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia-1 cultivadas em solo Neossolo Quartzarênico ortic. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5 com quatro repetições, sendo duas forrageiras e cinco níveis de saturação por bases (V% original, 40, 60, 80 e 100%. Cada unidade experimental correspondeu a um vaso sem furos, com capacidade para 4,0 dm³ de solo, totalizando 40 vasos. Foram avaliadas as produções de MS por corte (PMS e total (PTMS, a altura e o número de perfilhos. Não houve variação entre as gramíneas em altura de perfilhos. O Tanzânia foi superior ao Marandu em PMS e número de perfilhos. Houve aumento linear na PMS, PTMS e altura de perfilhos. Conclui-se que ambas as gramíneas responderam de forma positiva à elevação dos níveis de V%, em PMS, até 54,8%. O Tanzânia produziu mais MS em relação ao Marandu.This study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Soil Science Department at Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG, with the purpose of evaluating the effect of the soil correction acidity, by the application of Ca and Mg silicate levels, in the production of grasses Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia-1 cultivated in Quartzsandy Neosoil ortic. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, in 2 x 5 factorial scheme with four replicates, being two forages and five levels of base saturation (BS%; (original BS, 40, 60, 80 and 100%. Each experimental unit corresponded to a pot with a capacity of 4.0 dm³ of soil, totalizing 40 pots. The dry matter yield (DMY for cut and total (TDMY, height and number of tillers were evaluated. There were

  13. Estabelecimento de leguminosas arbóreas em pastos de capim-marandu e tanzânia Establishment of leguminous trees in marandu and tanzânia pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Francisco Dias

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de mudas sem proteção (de cercas ou estacas de quatro espécies de leguminosas arbóreas e uma mistura eqüitativa dessas espécies, introduzidas em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, na presença de gado. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5, duas gramíneas (marandu e tanzânia e quatro espécies de leguminosas (Mimosa artemisiana, Pseudosamanea guachapele, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Acacia farnesiana e uma mistura dessas espécies, com três repetições. Avaliaram-se: altura da muda, diâmetro do caule, diâmetro da copa, sobrevivência da muda, freqüência de pastejo e ocorrência de formigas. As diferenças estatísticas entre as médias da variável canônica principal, pelo teste de Scott-Knott, indicaram a formação de três agrupamentos, tendo-se destacado o grupo formado pelos tratamentos M. artemisiana e mistura de leguminosas, nos dois pastos, mais E. contortisiliquum e A. farnesiana, nos pastos dos capins marandu e tanzânia, respectivamente. Diferenças entre as médias dos tratamentos relativas a cada variável, calculadas por meio de intervalos de confiança de Bonferroni, mostraram que mudas de M. artemisiana apresentaram maior altura e sobrevivência em pasto de capim-marandu. Mudas dessa leguminosa, sem proteção, são indicadas para ser introduzidas, nas pastagens de capim-marandu da região, na presença do gado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of nonprotected (by fences or pickets seedlings of leguminous tree species and an equitable mix of these species, introduced in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, in the presence of cattle. The experimental design was a completely randomized one, in a 2x5 factorial arrangement, with two grasses (marandu and tanzânia and four leguminous species (Mimosa artemisiana

  14. Composição bromatológica e produção de efluente de silagens de capim-tanzânia sob efeitos do emurchecimento, do tamanho de partícula e do uso de aditivos biológicos Chemical composition and effluent yield of Tanzaniagrass silages affected by wilting, particle size and enzymatic/microbial additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rebouças Santana Loures

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido para se avaliar o efeito do emurchecimento, da redução do tamanho das partículas e da adição de enzimas fibrolíticas (com ou sem inoculante bacteriano Lactobacillus plantarum sobre a composição bromatológica da silagem e a produção de efluente em silagens de capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia. A forragem foi cortada aos 45 dias de crescimento vegetativo e armazenada em silos experimentais (50 L durante 136 dias. O efluente foi coletado e quantificado no 1º, 2º, 7º, 14º, 21º, 60º, 90º e 136º dias de armazenamento. A adição de enzimas fibrolíticas, associadas ou não ao inoculante bacteriano, promoveu redução da fração fibrosa (FDN, FDA, celulose e hemicelulose, que foi mais acentuada nas silagens emurchecidas. Contudo, não houve aumento da digestibilidade in vitro da MS com a adição de enzimas fibrolíticas. Embora tenha havido diferenças no tamanho de partícula, a amplitude alcançada não foi suficiente para provocar alterações significativas na composição química e no efluente das silagens. Observou-se que a quantidade total de efluente produzida foi maior (250L/t forragem ensilada em silagens não-emurchecidas e esporádica nas emurchecidas. A adição de enzimas com ou sem inoculante bacteriano não aumentou as perdas por efluente. Os valores médios de DBO (11.289 mg/L, DQO (36.279 mg/L, DQO/DBO (3, 35, pH (4, 9 e de sólidos totais (34.395 mg/L e sólidos totais fixos (16.533 mg/L foram observados no efluente das silagens não-emurchecidas. As silagens não-emurchecidas apresentaram efluente com elevado potencial poluidor para o meio ambiente.The present trial aimed to evaluate the effects of wilting (wet vs. wilted, particle size reduction (small vs. large and the addition of fibrolytic enzymes (alone vs. combined with Lactobacillus plantarum on the chemical composition and effluent yield of Tanzaniagrass silages (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania

  15. Desempenho de seis gramíneas solteiras ou consorciadas com o Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão e eucalipto em sistema silvipastoril Performance of six tropical grasses alone or associated with Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão and eucalypt in silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este estudo na região dos Cerrados de Minas Gerais, visando avaliar o desempenho de seis gramíneas forrageiras (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, B. brizantha cv. MG-4, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça, Melinis minutiflora e Hyparrhenia rufa, consorciadas ou não com a leguminosa Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão e Eucalyptus sp., em um sistema silvipastoril. As forrageiras foram estabelecidas em parcelas medindo 12 x 10 m, nas entrelinhas do eucalipto, em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, e avaliadas quanto ao grau de cobertura do solo, % de leguminosa e disponibilidade de matéria seca total no sub-bosque, um ano após o estabelecimento, submetidas a pastejos de curta duração. Após dois ciclos de pastejo, houve redução da proporção da leguminosa no consórcio com todas as gramíneas, sendo mais evidente com as mais agressivas (B. brizantha cv. Marandu e B. decumbens, onde ela quase desapareceu. Entretanto, a presença do estilosantes Mineirão favoreceu a produtividade do sub-bosque, quando consorciado com as demais gramíneas. O melhor desempenho produtivo foi obtido pelas gramíneas B. brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens e P. maximum cv. Mombaça; a última principalmente quando consorciada com o estilosantes Mineirão.A study was conducted in the Brazilian Cerrados to evaluate the performance of six tropical forage grasses (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, B. brizantha cv. MG-4, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça, Melinis minutiflora and Hyparrhenia rufa, associated or not with the tropical forage legume Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão, in a silvopastoral system with a clone of Eucalyptus sp. The forages were established in plots of 12 x 10 m, in the interrows of eucalypts, in a randomized block design with three replications. Ground cover, proportion of the legume and total dry matter availability in the understorey were

  16. Produção e contaminação por helmintos parasitos de ovinos, em forrageiras de diferentes hábitos de crescimento - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1824 Production and contamination by sheep parasites helminths in different growth habits grasses - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilice Zundt

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no Centro de Pesquisa do Arenito, Cidade Gaúcha, Paraná, pertencente à Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, nos períodos de verão e inverno. Foram utilizadas 60 ovelhas ½ Bergamácia ½ Corriedale, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em três piquetes de um hectare cada, formados por gramíneas de diferentes hábitos de crescimento: Pensacola (Paspalum notatum, Coast cross (Cynodon dactylon e Tanzânia (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia. O objetivo foi determinar o comportamento de larvas infectantes de endoparasitos de ovinos, no terço superior de gramíneas, ao longo do dia, bem como a disponibilidade de matéria seca das mesmas. Não houve diferença quanto ao comportamento das larvas nas pastagens entre os períodos de verão e inverno e entre as espécies forrageiras. Entretanto, obteve-se resposta linear decrescente do número de larvas no terço superior das plantas em função do período de insolação. Provavelmente houve migração das larvas para as partes mais baixas das plantas ao longo do dia, orientando, assim, a entrada dos ovinos nos piquetes nos horários de maior incidência solar. Não houve diferença na disponibilidade de matéria seca entre os períodos, porém, o Pensacola apresentou menor disponibilidade no inverno (1551 vs 1259kg MS/ha. Todas as forrageiras apresentaram menor teor de proteína bruta no inverno.The experiment was carried out during summer and winter seasons at Centro de Pesquisa do Arenito (Arenito Research Center from Universidade Estadual de Maringá (State University of Maringá in Cidade Gaúcha, Paraná, Brazil. Sixty ½ Bergamacia ½ Corriedale ewes were distributed randomly, allocated in three plots of one hectare each, with grasses of different growth habits: Paspalum notatum, Cynodon dactylon and Panicum maximum. The objective of this research was to evaluate the behavior of infective larvae of ewes in the superior third of the

  17. Aspectos clínicos, parasitológicos e produtivos de ovinos mantidos em pastagem de capim-aruana irrigado e adubado com diferentes doses de nitrogênio - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.9406 Clinical, parasitological and productive evaluation of lambs under pasture of Aruana grass irrigated and fertilized with different doses of nitrogen - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.9406

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherman Garcia Leal de Araújo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho objetivou avaliar os aspectos clínicos, parasitológicos e produtivos de cordeiros mestiços mantidos em pastejo rotativo de Panicum maximum cv. Aruana adubado com quatro doses de nitrogênio (75, 275, 475 e 675 kg ha-1 ano-1. Foram utilizados 18 cordeiros por tratamento, perfazendo um total de 72 animais. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: ganho médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso total (GPT, taxa de lotação (TxL, produção total de carne, contagem do número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e coprocultura. A vermifugação dos animais foi realizada de acordo com a coloração da mucosa ocular comparada por meio do cartão Famacha© Foi verificado que tanto o GMD quanto o GPT foram maiores (p -1 ano-1. Todavia, a TxL e o OPG foram maior (p -1 ano-1. Não houve diferença significativa entre as doses de adubação para os diferentes tons de coloração da mucosa ocular nem para o número de animais vermifugados. Observou-se uma prevalência de 80,0 a 93,0% de larvas de Trichostrongylus sp. A vermifugação baseada na avaliação da mucosa ocular não permitiu a redução do OPG para nenhuma das doses de adubação adotadas. A dose de nitrogênio de 475 kg ha-1 ano-1 promoveu melhor desempenho produtivo por hectare.This work aimed to evaluate clinical, parasitological and productive parameters of crossbred lambs under a rotational grazing system of Panicum maximum cv. Aruana grass fertilized with four doses of nitrogen (75, 275, 475 and 675 kg ha-1 year-1. Eighteen lambs were used per treatment, totaling 72 animals. The following parameters were evaluated: daily weight gain (DWG, total weight gain (TWG, stocking rate (SR, meat production, number of fecal eggs per gram (EPG and coproculture. Deworming was accomplished according to conjunctiva color compared using the Famacha© card. DWG and TWG were greater (p -1 year-1. However, SR and EPG were greater (p -1 year-1. There were no significant differences among nitrogen

  18. Rolado de fachinales y calidad de suelos en el Chaco occidental, Argentina Roller-chopping of shrub-thickets and soil quality in the western Chaco, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Anriquez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la región chaqueña