WorldWideScience

Sample records for forage palm opuntia

  1. Application of bootstrap method for evaluation of the average concentration of Radium-226 in forage palm (Opuntia spp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cleomacio Miguel da; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Vieira, Jose Wilson; Leoterio, Dilmo Marques da Silva [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioecologia (RAE)], E-mail: cleomaciomiguel@yahoo.com.br; Amaral, Ademir [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia

    2007-07-01

    The distribution of natural radionuclides in samples from typically anomalous environments has generally a great significant asymmetry, as a result of outlier. For diminishing statistic fluctuation researchers, in radioecology, commonly use geometric mean or median, once the average has no stability under the effect of outliers. As the median is not affected by anomalous values, this parameter of central tendency is the most frequently employed for evaluation of a set of data containing discrepant values. On the other hand, Efron presented a non-parametric method the so-called bootstrap that can be used to decrease the dispersion around the central-tendency value. Generally, in radioecology, statistics procedures are used in order to reduce the effect results of the presence of anomalous values as regards averages. In this context, the present study had as an objective to evaluate the application of the non-parametric bootstrap method (BM) for determining the average concentration of {sup 226}Ra in cultivated forage palms (Opuntia spp.) in soils with uranium anomaly on the dairy milk farms, localized in the cities of Pedra and Venturosa, Pernambuco-Brazil, as well as discussing the utilization of this method in radioecology. The results of {sup 226}Ra in samples of forage palm varied from 1,300 to 25,000 mBq.kg{sup -1} (dry matter), with arithmetic average of 5,965.86 +- 5,903.05 mBq.kg{sup -1}. The result obtained for this average using BM was 5,963.82 +- 1,202.96 mBq.kg{sup -1} (dry matter). The use of BM allowed an automatic filtration of experimental data, without the elimination of outliers, leading to the reduction of dispersion around the average. As a result, the BM permitted reaching a stable arithmetic average of the effects of the outliers. (author)

  2. Palma Forrageira (Opuntia Fícus- Indica Mill como alternativa na alimentação de ruminantes (Forage Palm (Opuntia Fícus- Indica Mill as alternative in ruminant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cavalcante Félix da Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumoA exploração pecuária na região Nordeste éprejudicada pelas constantes secas eirregularidade das chuvas, causando assim,uma baixa produtividade de seu rebanho.Considerando essa má distribuição dechuvas, é necessária a busca de alimentosalternativos e mais baratos, como a palmaforrageira. A palma forrageira sem espinhonão é nativa do Brasil. No Nordeste do Brasilsão encontrados três tipos distintos depalma: gigante, redonda e miúda. Essaforrageira apresenta alta produção dematéria seca por unidades de área, é umaexcelente fonte de energia, rica emcarboidratos não fibrosos e nutrientesdigestíveis totais. Porém, a palma apresentabaixo teor de fibra em detergente neutro,necessitando sua associação a uma fonte defibra que apresente alta efetividade. Assim,torna-se possível a associação da palma comalimentos de baixo custo, permitindoprodução de leite e manutenção em níveisbastante próximos aos obtidos com alimentosde maior valor comercial. Com isso, estarevisão tem por objetivo demonstrar aeficiência da utilização da palma forrageira naalimentação de ruminantes. AbstractAnimal exploration in Northeast region isimpaired by constant droughts and rainirregularity, causing low herd productivity.Considering this bad rain distribution it isnecessary to search alternative and cheaperfeed, as forage palm. The forage palmwithout thorn is not native of Brazil. In BrazilNortheast there are three distinct types ofpalm: giant, round and small. This forageshows high dry matter production per unit ofarea, is an excellent energy source, rich innon fiber carbohydrates and total digestiblenutrients. However, palm shows low neutraldetergent fiber content, being necessary itsassociation to a fiber source that shows higheffectively. Thus, it become possible toassociate palm to low cost feed, allowing milkproduction and supporting in levels near tothat obtained with greater commercial feed.This review has the objective of

  3. Genetic variability of Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera, Dactylopiidae) on forage cactus in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D M P; do E S Mergulhão, A C; de Medeiros, L V; Figueiredo, M V B; Burity, H A

    2013-10-30

    The carmine cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae is a key pest in productive fields of forage cactus in Pernambuco, Brazil. Species identification by means of molecular markers assists in understanding the genetic profile, underpins morphological characterization, and supports the monitoring of populations in integrated management programs designed to control this pest. We evaluated the genetic variability of natural populations of D. opuntiae. Genetic variability was analyzed with ISSR and RAPD primers in 24 populations from 12 municipalities of Pernambuco State in Brazil. Morphological characterization confirmed that D. opuntiae was the only cochineal species present in all samples. Nine ISSR primers and six RAPD produced a total of 62 and 58 polymorphic fragments, respectively. Both types of markers showed an average genetic similarity of 80% regardless of the geographic origin of samples. The low genetic variability demonstrates a high degree of relatedness among these D. opuntiae populations.

  4. Study of carbohydrates present in the cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (fodder palm), according to age and season

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Maria de Oliveira Ribeiro; Nicácio Henrique da Silva; José Luiz de Lima Filho; Júlio Zoe de Brito; Maria da Paz Carvalho da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Types and content of carbohydrates were evaluated by chemical (spectrophotometric assay) and physicochemical (Thin Layer Chromatography - TLC and High Performance Liquid Chromatography - HPLC) methods in some Opuntia ficus-indica varieties according to age and season. The samples comprised four varieties of palm (giant, copena F1, clone 20, and round palm). The results demonstrated that the four varieties of palm contain a good quantity of neutral and acid sugars in both summer and winter sea...

  5. Study of carbohydrates present in the cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (fodder palm, according to age and season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Maria de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Types and content of carbohydrates were evaluated by chemical (spectrophotometric assay and physicochemical (Thin Layer Chromatography - TLC and High Performance Liquid Chromatography - HPLC methods in some Opuntia ficus-indica varieties according to age and season. The samples comprised four varieties of palm (giant, copena F1, clone 20, and round palm. The results demonstrated that the four varieties of palm contain a good quantity of neutral and acid sugars in both summer and winter seasons. However, samples collected in the summer presented a higher content of carbohydrates specially glucose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose. The tertiary cladode (old cladode presented almost the double content of sugar found in the quaternary cladodes (young cladodes. Pectic polysaccharides were sequentially extracted with water at 60 ºC, and EDTA at 60 ºC solution resulting in Water-Soluble Pectin (WSP and a Chelating-Soluble Pectin (CSP respectively. Galacturonic acid was detected in the fractions WSP and CSP. However, the fraction CSP presented the highest content of sugar acid.

  6. The influence of agricultural system, stand structural complexity and landscape context on foraging birds in oil palm landscapes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azhar, Badrul; Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; Fischer, Joern; Manning, Adrian; Mcelhinny, Chris; Zakaria, Mohamed; Marsden, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    .... Understanding the ecological processes that underpin functional diversity of birds in oil palm E laeis guineensis landscapes is important because different foraging guilds are likely to be influenced...

  7. Selection of Cactus Pear Forage (Opuntia spp.) and (Nopalea spp.) Genotypes resistant to the Carmine Cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae cockerell, 1929) in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Since 2001, the giant cactus pear (O. ficus-indica) has been decimated by carmine cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell, 1929), considered a potentially devastating pest. The objective of this research was to select genotypes resistant of cactus pear to the carmine cochineal. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Protection of Lagoa Seca Experimental Station owned by the Agricultural Research Corporation of Paraiba-EMEPA-PB, during the months of February to July 2009. We...

  8. Selection of Cactus Pear Forage (Opuntia spp. and (Nopalea spp. Genotypes resistant to the Carmine Cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae cockerell, 1929 in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Batista Lopes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001, the giant cactus pear (O. ficus-indica has been decimated by carmine cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell, 1929, considered a potentially devastating pest. The objective of this research was to select genotypes resistant of cactus pear to the carmine cochineal. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Protection of Lagoa Seca Experimental Station owned by the Agricultural Research Corporation of Paraiba-EMEPA-PB, during the months of February to July 2009. We evaluated 22 genotypes of cactus pear (Opuntia spp. and Nopalea spp.. Of each genotype were selected five cladodes, standardized in relation to the physiological state (age of the cladodes. They were divided into four quadrants, where one in every five of them were applied “toothpicks” infested with the insect colonies, a total of 20 colonies/cladodes. Weekly cladodes of the infested genotypes were inspected to evaluate the growth of old colonies and the emergence of new colonies. This procedure took 60 days. The results showed that the genotypes Palma ornamental (Opuntia stricta,, X-Italiana, Palma Gigante, F5, F8, F11, V12, IPA-Clone 20, Orelha-de-onça (Opuntia sp., Redonda, Branco São Pedro, Formosa, Lingua-de-vaca and Gigantona are susceptible to the carmine cochineal. Already the genotypes Baiana or Alagoana, Palma Doce or Miúda Orelha-de-elefante-africana, Orelha-de-elefante-mexicana, Orelha-de-onça (Nopalea sp. and Palma Azul are resistant to the carmine cochineal.

  9. The effects of forest conversion to oil palm on ground-foraging ant communities depend on beta diversity and sampling grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wendy Y; Foster, William A

    2015-08-01

    Beta diversity - the variation in species composition among spatially discrete communities - and sampling grain - the size of samples being compared - may alter our perspectives of diversity within and between landscapes before and after agricultural conversion. Such assumptions are usually based on point comparisons, which do not accurately capture actual differences in total diversity. Beta diversity is often not rigorously examined. We investigated the beta diversity of ground-foraging ant communities in fragmented oil palm and forest landscapes in Sabah, Malaysia, using diversity metrics transformed from Hill number equivalents to remove dependences on alpha diversity. We compared the beta diversities of oil palm and forest, across three hierarchically nested sampling grains. We found that oil palm and forest communities had a greater percentage of total shared species when larger samples were compared. Across all grains and disregarding relative abundances, there was higher beta diversity of all species among forest communities. However, there were higher beta diversities of common and very abundant (dominant) species in oil palm as compared to forests. Differences in beta diversities between oil palm and forest were greatest at the largest sampling grain. Larger sampling grains in oil palm may generate bigger species pools, increasing the probability of shared species with forest samples. Greater beta diversity of all species in forest may be attributed to rare species. Oil palm communities may be more heterogeneous in common and dominant species because of variable community assembly events. Rare and also common species are better captured at larger grains, boosting differences in beta diversity between larger samples of forest and oil palm communities. Although agricultural landscapes support a lower total diversity than natural forests, diversity especially of abundant species is still important for maintaining ecosystem stability. Diversity in

  10. Palma Forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em Substituição à Silagem de Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench na Alimentação de Vacas Leiteiras Replacement of Forage Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill for Sorghum Silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in the Dairy Cows Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmir Lima Wanderley

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, alimentadas com rações contendo diferentes níveis (0, 12, 24 e 36% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em substituição à silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. Foram utilizadas oito vacas distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4x4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 21 dias, sendo 14 destinados à adaptação dos animais às rações e sete para coleta. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, em kg/dia, % de PV e em relação ao peso metabólico (g/kg0,75, e matéria orgânica e carboidratos totais, expressos em kg/dia, não foram influenciados pela adição de palma na ração, apresentando valores médios de 20,18; 3,41; 167,80; 18,86; e 14,85, respectivamente. O consumo de carboidratos não-fibrosos, em kg/dia, aumentou, e os de fibra em detergente neutro, em kg/dia e % de PV, fibra em detergente ácido; proteína bruta e extrato etéreo, expressos em kg/dia, diminuíram linearmente com a inclusão de palma na ração. O consumo de sódio não foi influenciado pela adição de palma na ração, com valor médio de 29,45g/dia. Os consumos de potássio e magnésio aumentaram e o de fósforo diminuiu linearmente com a adição de palma na ração. Não houve efeito da inclusão de palma sobre a produção de leite com e sem correção para 3,5% de gordura, cujos valores médios foram de 25,01 e 26,97kg/dia, respectivamente. O teor de gordura do leite foi influenciado de forma quadrática, sendo o teor máximo estimado em 4,08%, com 20,51% de palma na ração. A conversão alimentar aumentou linearmente com a inclusão de palma.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of lactating Holstein cows fed diet with different replacement levels (0, 12, 24 and 36% of forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill for sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. Eight cows were assigned to a two 4x4 latin

  11. Palma Forrageira (Opuntia Fícus- Indica Mill como alternativa na alimentação se ruminantes (Forage Palm (Opuntia Fícus- Indica Mill As Alternative In Ruminant Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cavalcante Félix da Silva

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A exploração pecuária na região Nordeste é apresenta baixo teor de fibra em prejudicada pelas constantes secas e detergente neutro, necessitando sua irregularidade das chuvas, causando assim, associação a uma fonte de fibra que uma baixa produtividade de seu rebanho. apresente alta efetividade. Assim, torna-se Considerando essa má distribuição de possível a associação da palma com chuvas, é necessária a busca de alimentos alimentos de baixo custo, permitindo alternativos e mais baratos, como a palma produção de leite e manutenção em níveis forrageira. A palma forrageira sem espinho bastante próximos aos obtidos com não é nativa do Brasil. No Nordeste do alimentos de maior valor comercial. Com Brasil são encontrados três tipos distintos isso, esta revisão tem por objetivo de palma: gigante, redonda e miúda. Essa demonstrar a eficiência da utilização da forrageira apresenta alta produção de palma forrageira na alimentação de matéria seca por unidades de área, é uma ruminantes. excelente fonte de energia, rica em carboidratos não fibrosos e nutrientes

  12. THE EFFECT OF INCREASING LEVEL OF PALM KERNEL MEAL AND COPRA MEAL ON DIET TO THE MICROBIAL PROTEIN PRODUCTION IN THE RUMEN OF STEERS FED LOW QUALITY FORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARSETYO MARSETYO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The effect of increasing the level of palm kernel meal (PKM and copra meal (CM supplementation on the diet to the microbial crude protein (MCP production, efficiency of microbial protein production (eMCP in the rumen and rumen fluid conditions of Brahman crossbred steers given low quality forage based diet has been studied. Ten steers (243?b6.5 kg were allocated to two supplement types diets (PKM and CM. The experimental design included two incomplete 5x5 Latin Squares, each with three runs, for three months. Each run consisted of a 14 d adaptation and 7 d collection period. Steers received Green panic grass hay ad libitum with one of five levels of PKM or CM (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% of body weight (W per day (d. MCP production responded linearly (P<0.05 with increasing PKM or CM intakes. eMCP and rumen NH3-N concentration (taken at 3 and 24 h after feeding responded quadratically (P<0.05 with increasing PKM or CM intakes. It was concluded that supplementation of both PKM and CM up to level of 1.0% W/day resulted in significant increase in MCP production and eMCP in the rumen. These increases were partly due to the increasing of the concentration of rumen NH3-N in the rumen as a result of increasing supplement intakes.

  13. COMPORTAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE PALMA (Opuntia ficus-indica l. SUBMETIDAS À FERMENTAÇÃO E SECAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Marie Macedo Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The forage cactus is cultivated of extensive form as a producing species of fruits and fodder plant in many countries. The extensive culture if bases on the vegetative propagation, that is preferred, had its easiness. The propagation for seeds can come to be a useful tool for ends of genetic improvement, then, in this work forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica L. seeds were submitted to different fermentation periods (0; 24; 48; 72 and 96 hours and were dried or not, before sowing. It was evaluated the physiological quality of the seeds through the determination of the moisture content, emergence percentage and speed of seedling emergency. It was used an entirely randomized experimental design 5x2 (period of fermentation and drying. The practical one of the fermentation is efficient in the elimination of the sarcotesta in palm seeds, occurring bigger vigor in the seeds without drying and submitted the 55 hours of fermentation, as well as, the drying of the seeds, after the first periods of fermentation promotes reduction of the physiological quality, with reflected right-handers in the vigor.

  14. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  15. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Camacho, R; Roman-Ramos, R

    1979-01-01

    Nopal (Opuntia sp.) has been traditionally used by the Mexican population for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this work is to describe effects produced by directly liquified nopal and extracts from this plant in healthy and pancreatectomized rabbits. Preliminary results allow us to conclude that Opuntia streptacantha, Lemaire, has hypoglycemic properties when orally administered, in animals with experimentally induced diabetes as well as in healthy ones with physiologic hyperglycemia.

  16. Palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton (Cynodon spp em dietas de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação. 1. Digestibilidade = Forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill and urea in replacement of tifton hay (Cynodon spp in lactating Holstein cows diet. 1. Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Valéria de Araújo Cavalcanti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0%; 12,5%; 25%; 37,5%; e 50% de palma forrageira e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica(DAMO, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da proteína bruta (DAPB, dos carboidratos totais (DACHOT e dos carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas, com peso médio de 480 kg e produção média de leite de 20 kg/dia, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5x5. As DAMS, DAMO, DACHOT e DACNF aumentaram, aDAFDN diminuiu linearmente e a DAPB não foi influenciada com o aumento dos níveis de palma e uréia na dieta. Os nutrientes digestíveis totais de mantença, a energia digestível de lactação, energia metabolizável de lactação e energia líquida de lactação aumentaram à medida que eram incluídas palma e uréia na dieta.The effect of five levels forage cactus and urea (0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% in replacement of tifton hay in lactating Holstein cows diets, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, crude protein (ADCP, total carbohydrates (ADTC and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC were evaluated. Five Holstein cows weighing on average 480 kg and with an average milk yield of 20 kg of milk/day were used in a 5x5 Latin square design. The DM, OM, TC and NFC apparent digestibility increased while NDF apparent digestibility decreased linearly and the CP apparent digestibility was not affected by the inclusion of forage cactus and urea. The total digestible nutrients of maintenance,digestible energy of lactation, metabolizing energy of lactation and liquid energy of lactation increased as the forage cactus and urea levels increased.

  17. Proliferação e enraizamento in vitro de brotos de palma forrageira - Opuntia ficus-indica (L. MILL - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1641 Proliferation and rooting in vitro of buds of palm grass Opuntia ficusindica (L. MILL - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1641

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Paiva Campos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular da Universidade Federal do Ceará com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do 6- benzilaminopurina (BAP e do ácido indolacético (AIA na proliferação e no enraizamento in vitro de brotos da palma forrageira. Os explantes foram incubados no meio de cultura com sais e vitaminas MS, suplementados com 5% de sacarose, 0,8% de ágar e pH 5,85. Para a proliferação, os brotos foram inoculados em placas de Petri contendo o meio de cultura em diferentes concentrações de BAP. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial de 10 x 3, com 3 repetições. No enraizamento, os brotos foram inoculados no meio de cultura contendo diferentes concentrações de AIA. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial de 10 x 3, com 3 repetições. Concluiu-se que os melhores protocolos para a proliferação e o enraizamento de brotos foram, respectivamente, BAP 1,00mg/L e AIA 5,00mg/LThe work was carried out in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department of Ceará Federal University. The aim was to evaluate the effects of 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP and indolacetic acid (IAA on proliferation and rooting ,em>in vitro of buds of palm grass. The samples were incubated in the culture environment with salts, vitamins MS, 5% of sucrose, 0.8% of agar and pH of 5.85. For the proliferation, the buds were inoculated in Petri plates, and the culture environment was contained in different BAP concentrations. The experimental delineation was entirely randomly in an arrangement factorial of 10 x 3 and three replications. In the rooting, the buds were inoculated in the culture environment and they had different concentrations of indoacetic acid (IAA. Results showed that the best protocols for proliferation and buds of rooting were, respectively: BAP to 1.00mg/L and IAA to 5.00mg/L

  18. Efeito da adubação e do uso de nematicida na composição química da palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill Fertilization and nematicide effects on the chemical composition of cactus forage cv. "Gigante"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Maria Teles

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Zootecnia da UFRPE, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação e de nematicida na composição da palma forrageira cv. gigante, com sintoma de amarelecimento. Para o plantio utilizaram-se cladódios de cor amarela de palma (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill. Cv. Gigante provenientes da Estação Experimental de Caruaru - IPA, onde foi observado o amarelecimento das plantas. Os tratamentos constaram da presença e ausência de macronutrientes, micronutrientes e de nematicida, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para teores de matéria seca, de K, de Ca e de Mg. Para teores de N, de P e de S, a análise de variância revelou diferença significativa. A média geral para teores de MS, N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S foi de 7,29; 1,19; 0,17; 3,31; 1,84; 0,59 e 0,17%, respectivamente. A adição de micronutrientes e de nematicida não influenciou os resultados obtidos para teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Os teores de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio foram superiores nos cladódios mais jovens da planta. Os nutrientes nitrogênio, fósforo e enxofre foram os únicos que influenciaram a composição química.This experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the Animal Science Department/UFRPE and aimed to evaluate the fertilization and nematicide effects on the chemical composition of cactus forage cv. "Gigante" suffering chlorotic symptoms. Chlorotic cladodes of Cactus forage cv. "Gigante" were used as planting material and they were collected at the Caruaru Experimental Station/IPA in the same location where those symptoms were previously observed. The treatments tested the presence or absence of macronutrients, micronutrients, and nematicide. A completely randomized block design was used and the treatments were replicated four times. No significant differences were found for dry matter

  19. Inclusão de cama de frango em dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill para vacas mestiças em lactação: 1. Consumo e produção Broiler litter in forage cactus based diets (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill for lactating crossbred cows: 1. Nutrients intake and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carla dos Santos Magalhães

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de diferentes níveis de cama de frango (aproximadamente 0; 10; 20 e 30% na matéria seca (MS de dietas contendo palma forrageira, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura, uréia e farelo de algodão, fornecidas na forma de ração completa, sobre o consumo de nutrientes e a produção de leite de vacas mestiças e verificar o tempo necessário para adaptação dos animais às dietas. Foram utilizadas oito vacas 5/8 Holandês-Gir, após pico de lactação, com produção média de 15 kg de leite/dia e 420 kg de peso vivo, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4 x 4 simultâneos, com quatro períodos, quatro animais e quatro níveis de cama de frango na ração. Os consumos de matéria seca, proteína bruta, fibras em detergente neutro e ácido, carboidratos totais e não-fibrosos e matéria orgânica apresentaram comportamento quadrático significativo, enquanto os consumos de matéria mineral e extrato etéreo aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão de cama de frango nas dietas. A produção de leite, com e sem correção para 4% de gordura, o teor e a produção de gordura e a eficiência alimentar não foram influenciadas pelo incremento de cama de frango nas dietas. O período de adaptação dos animais às dietas pode ser reduzido para sete dias.This work was carried to evaluate the effect of diferents of broiler litter inclusion (approximately 0, 10, 20 and 30%, in dry matter base with 45% forage cactus associaded to sugar cane bagasse, urea and cotonsead meal, in total diet form, on nutrient intake and milk yield and to evaluate the time necessary to adaptation of the animals to diets. Eigth lactating 5/8 crossbred Holstein/Gir cows with 420 kg of LW and production of 15 kg/day, were assigned to tratament sequences in a replicated 4X4 latin square with four periods, four animals and four levels of broiler chiken in the ration. The intakes of dry matter, neutral

  20. Inclusão de cama de frango em dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill para vacas mestiças em lactação: 2. Digestibilidade aparente Inclusion of broiler litter in forage cactus based diets (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill for lactating crossbred cows: 2. Apparent digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carla dos Santos Magalhães

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de matéria seca (DAMS, de matéria orgânica (DAMO, de proteína bruta (DAPB, de extrato etéreo (DAEE, de carboidratos totais (DACHOT e não-fibrosos (DACNF e de fibras em detergente neutro (DAFDN e ácido (DAFDA foram determinados para avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de inclusão de cama de frango (0; 10; 20 e 30% na base da matéria seca, associados à 45% de palma forrageira, bagaço de cana de açúcar in natura, uréia e farelo de algodão, utilizando-se a fibra indigestível em detergente ácido (FDAi como indicador interno para estimar a produção de matéria seca fecal. O valor energético observado para as dietas foi comparado com o predito segundo equações propostas pelo NRC (2001. Foram utilizadas oito vacas 5/8 holando-zebu com produção média de 15 kg de leite/dia e 420kg de peso vivo, após pico de lactação, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4 x 4 simultâneos, com quatro períodos, quatro animais e quatro níveis de cama de frango na ração. Não foi observado efeito significativo do aumento do nível de cama de frango na dieta sobre DAMS, DAMO, DAEE, DACHOT e DAFDN. Entretanto, a DAPB e a DACNF diminuíram linearmente. As equações propostas pelo NRC (2001 para estimativa dos teores de nutrientes digestíveis totais das dietas superestimaram os valores observados.The coeficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, crude protein (ADCP, ether extract (ADEE, total carboidrates (ADTCHO, nonfiber carboidrates (ADNFC, neutral (ADNDF and acid detergent fiber (ADADF, were determined to evaluate the effect of diferents inclusions of broiler litter (0, 10, 20 and 30% in dry matter basis, with 45% forage cactus associaded to sugar cane bagasse, urea and cottonsead meal, using the method of indigestible acid detergent fiber as intern indicator to estimate fecal dry matter production. The dietary observed energy value were compared to the

  1. Chemical composition of volatiles from Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia prolifera growing on Catalina Island, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the cladodes of Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia prolifera growing wild on Santa Catalina Island, California, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Terpenoids were the dominant class of volatiles in O. littoralis, with the two main components being the furanoid forms of cis-linalool oxide (10.8%) and trans-linalool oxide (8.8%). Fatty acid-derived compounds dominated the essential oil of O. ficus-indica with linoleic acid (22.3%), palmitic acid (12.7%), lauric acid (10.5%) and myristic acid (4.2%) as major fatty acids. O. prolifera oil was composed of 46.6% alkanes and the primary hydrocarbon component was heptadecane (19.2%). Sixteen compounds were common to all the three Opuntia species.

  2. Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract improves endoplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... We reported in this paper the requirement of the extract of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) for regulating unfolded protein .... capacity. MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... ascorbic acid, betalains, betacyanins, flavonoid fraction ...

  3. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ponce, Herson Antonio; Martínez-Saldaña, María Consolación; Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800 mg/kg/day, orally) were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20 mmol/L APAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF. PMID:27782042

  4. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herson Antonio González-Ponce

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP-induced acute liver failure (ALF is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800mg/kg/day, orally were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20mmol/LAPAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF.

  5. Nutritional value of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes from Portuguese ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, A M; Pitacas, F.I.; Reis, C.G.; Blasco, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as a forage for ruminants has been very important in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. O. ficus-indica cladodes can be fed to small ruminants especially in periods of the year when there is low quality and quantity of pasture. In Mediterranean regions like South of Portugal during the rainy season the availability of pasture is quantitatively and qualitatively satisfactory, but in critical times of the year the shortage and low nutr...

  6. Systematyc notes and a Detailed description of Opuntia ficus-indica (L) Mill. (CACTACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Antonio Reyes-Agüero; J. Rogelio Aguirre-Rivera; Hernández, Héctor M.

    2005-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica is the cactus species with the highest economic importance worldwide. It is cultivated for its fruits, forage, or as host of the cochineal insect, but only in México their young cladodes are consumed as vegetables. The main goals of this study were: a) to integrate systematic notes about its common nomenclature, origin, reproductive biology and ploidy levels of O. ficus-indica; b) to present a complete botanical description based on specimens collected in north-central Mé...

  7. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of seeds oils and fruit juice of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Opuntia Dillenii from Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi, Z.; Ramdani, M.; Tahri, M.; Rmili, R.; Elmsellem, H.; El Mahi, B.; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    This study provides basic information on the mineral composition of the seeds and antioxidant activity in seeds oils and fruit juices of cactus belonging to two species Opuntia ficus indica and Opuntia dillenii, from Morocco (Oujda), in order to evaluate the nutritional value of the Opuntia extracts. Minerals determined from dry seeds of Opuntia ficus indica and Opuntia dillenii were: calcium 480.93 and 408.28; phosphorus 1417.59 and 970.15; potassium 304.51 and 201.96; magnesium: 316.59 and ...

  8. Chemical analysis of nutritional content of prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at varied ages in an organic harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Urbiola, Margarita I; Pérez-Torrero, Esther; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2011-05-01

    Opuntia ficus indica, also known as prickly pads, are an important part of the human diet and are also used as forage for livestock. This is an interesting vegetable due the environmental conditions in which it grows and its resistance to climatic extremes; however, little is known about its nutritional properties, especially in the later stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of organic prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at differing stages of growth maturity. Chemical proximate analysis and mineral constituent analysis at different maturation stages were carried out in this investigation. As a result, older prickly pads were found to be an important source of nutritional components such as calcium.

  9. Chemical Analysis of Nutritional Content of Prickly Pads (Opuntia ficus indica at Varied Ages in an Organic Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. Rodríguez-García

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus indica, also known as prickly pads, are an important part of the human diet and are also used as forage for livestock. This is an interesting vegetable due the environmental conditions in which it grows and its resistance to climatic extremes; however, little is known about its nutritional properties, especially in the later stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of organic prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica at differing stages of growth maturity. Chemical proximate analysis and mineral constituent analysis at different maturation stages were carried out in this investigation. As a result, older prickly pads were found to be an important source of nutritional components such as calcium.

  10. Chemical Analysis of Nutritional Content of Prickly Pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at Varied Ages in an Organic Harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Pérez-Torrero, Esther; Rodríguez-García, Mario E.

    2011-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica, also known as prickly pads, are an important part of the human diet and are also used as forage for livestock. This is an interesting vegetable due the environmental conditions in which it grows and its resistance to climatic extremes; however, little is known about its nutritional properties, especially in the later stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of organic prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at differing stages of growth maturity. Chemical proximate analysis and mineral constituent analysis at different maturation stages were carried out in this investigation. As a result, older prickly pads were found to be an important source of nutritional components such as calcium. PMID:21655119

  11. Forage cactus in diets of confined dairy cattle: performance and economic viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Mercês Alves Aguiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of forage in the diet on performance of crossbred heifers 3/4 Holstein-Zebu and economic viability. Twenty four heifers with initial body weight of 163.00 ± 18 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with four diets and six replications, were used. We used sorghum silage, concentrate and increasing levels of forage in the diet (0, 200, 400 and 600 g kg-1. Regarding the performance of heifers, there was no difference in height at withers, thoracic perimeter and feed conversion among diets. The average daily weight gain decreased with the concentration from 0.00 to 600.00 g kg-1 dietary palm. The final body weights ranged from a quadratic function of palm levels. Dry matter (%BW, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (%BW and crude protein intake decreased with the palm levels. Neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients intakes were quadratically influenced by forage palm levels. Dry matter and crude protein did not differ among diets. Total digestible nutrients decreased with the inclusion of forage palm. The inclusion forage palm up to 400 g kg-1 provided better performance. For economic viability, the internal rate of return shows that diet with 400 g kg-1 forage palm resulted most satisfactory and its was more viable for a producer and investor, with return rate of 3 15% per month.

  12. Digestibilidade e absorção aparentes em vacas da raça holandesa alimentadas com palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica mill em substituição à silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. moench Apparent digestibility and absorption od holstein cows fed diets with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica mill in replacement of sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulciene Karla Bezerra de Andrade

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0, 12, 24 e 36% de palma forrageira em substituição à silagem de sorgo, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação, sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica (DAMO, da proteína bruta (DAPB, do extrato etéreo (DAEE, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (DAFDA, dos carboidratos totais (DACHT e dos carboidratos não-fibrosos (DACNF, o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT e os coeficientes de absorção aparente de cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, potássio (K e sódio (Na. Foram utilizadas oito vacas, com peso médio de 590 kg e produção média de leite de 27 kg/dia, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos simultâneos (4x4, sendo quatro animais, quatro períodos e quatro níveis de inclusão de palma na ração. A inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta influenciou a digestibilidade aparente de todos os nutrientes, sendo descrito por função quadrática. Foi possível estimar por intermédio desta função um teor máximo de NDT de 77,43% para utilização de 16,51% de palma na dieta. O aumento nos teores de CNF e a redução da FDN das rações foram responsáveis pelo comportamento quadrático na digestibilidade dos nutrientes. As absorções aparentes de Ca, P e Na foram influenciadas quadraticamente com o aumento dos níveis de palma na ração, enquanto o K aumentou linearmente. A relação Ca:P que proporcionou a melhor absorção desses elementos minerais foi de 1,9:1.It was evaluated the effect of four levels forage cactus in replacement of sorghum silage, in diets of lactating Holstein cows, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, crude protein (ADCP, ether extract (ADEE, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF and acid (ADADF, total carbohydrates (ADTCH and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC, content of total digestible nutrients (TDN and apparent absorption of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P

  13. Pleurotus opuntiae (Durieu et Lév.) Sacc. (higher Basidiomycetes) and other species related to Agave and Opuntia plants in Mexico-taxonomy, distribution, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Marcelo; Guzmán, Gastón; Guzmán-Dávalos, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Pleurotus opuntiae is an important mushroom from xerophytic temperate regions of Mexico, as parasite or saprobe on Agave and Opuntia. Discussions on the taxonomic relationships of P opuntiae with P djamor, P. agaves, P. levis, and P. yuccae are presented, of which P. agaves is a synonym of P. opuntiae, and P. yuccae is a synonym of P. djamor. This latter and P levis are close species of P. opuntiae. The traditional uses of P opuntiae and P. djamor as food and remedy for several health problems, and also to get a traditional alcoholic drink from the Agave, are also considered.

  14. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Ponce, Herson Antonio; Consolacion Martinez-Saldana, Maria; Rosa Rincon-Sanchez, Ana; Teresa Sumaya-Martinez, Maria; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juarez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients

  15. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio Gonzalez-Ponce, Herson; Consolacion Martinez-Saldana, Maria; Rosa Rincon-Sanchez, Ana; Teresa Sumaya-Martinez, Maria; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juarez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients

  16. Phylogeny of Korean Opuntia spp. based on multiple DNA regions

    OpenAIRE

    SRIKANTH, KRISHNAMOORTHY; WHANG, SUNG SOO

    2015-01-01

    Although Opuntia species are of high agronomic value in Korea, the taxonomic position of Korean Opuntia species has never been investigated. The taxonomic position of Korean Opuntia spp. Within the tribe Opuntieae was examined based on DNA sequence analysis of matK, trnL-F, atpB-rbcl, and ITS regions. The total amplified sequence length was 2977 bp; only 18 parsimonious informative sites were present, even though they belonged to different species. A phylogenetic tree using both the maximum l...

  17. Compostos bioativos de Opuntia ficus indica

    OpenAIRE

    Semedo, Ana Catarina Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Controlo da Qualidade e Toxicologia dos Alimentos, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Farmácia, 2012 A espécie Opuntia, da família Cactaceae, originária das altas montanhas vulcânicas do México (Centro e Sul), tem vindo a ser cada vez mais, alvo de estudos. Pensa-se que os compostos fenólicos já identificados nesta espécie podem ser responsáveis pela atividade antioxidante, anti-inflamatória, hipoglicemiante, anticancerigena e neuroprotectiva, entre outras, atribuídas a...

  18. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    María del Socorro Santos Díaz; Ana-Paulina Barba de la Rosa; Cécile Héliès-Toussaint; Françoise Guéraud; Anne Nègre-Salvayre

    2017-01-01

      Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity...

  19. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region.

  20. Dispersal speed of datylopius opuntiae on giant cactus pear (opuntia fícus- indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique de Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The insect Dactylopius opuntiae (cochineal carmine has become an important pest to giant cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica in several counties of the micro regions of Carirí Ocidental, Serra do Teixeira and Piancó, where the attack of the insect is so intense that it obliges farmers to eradicate crops. This research aimed to quantify the dispersal speed of D. opuntiae under field conditions, as a premise for the implementation of tactics of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM. The experiment was carried out at the Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, in Lagoa Seca County, state of Paraiba. Dispersion quantification was conducted in three rows of giant cactus pear each with ten plants, the first being selected to perform the artificial infestation (initial. Three evaluations was carried out in three rows and counted the average number of colonies arising from the initial infestation. Medium comparison of was made by Tukey test at 5% probability, using the application ASSISTAT 7.5 Beta. For the aspect of dispersion within each plant, it was observed that the artificially infested cladodes began to be colonized for 8 days after infection and subsequently at 15, 21, 28, 35 and 42 and 50 days, noting that equally the first, second and third rows were also colonized, showing thus the dispersal speed of the insect pest.

  1. Pseudocercospora opuntiae sp. nov., the causal organism of cactus leaf spot in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayala-Escobar, V.; Jesús Yáñez-Morales, de M.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudocercospora opuntiae is newly described from Opuntia spp. from Mexico, where it causes a serious disease of this host. Although P. opuntiae is morphologically similar to other members of the genus with pigmented conidia and conidiophores, and unthickened, not darkened conidiogenous scars, DNA s

  2. CRESCIMENTO VEGETATIVO DE Opuntia ficus-indica EM DIFERENTES ESPAÇAMENTOS DE PLANTIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO PAULO DE FARIAS RAMOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to evaluate the vegetative growth, the chemical composition, the rain use efficiency and to determine the green and dry matter production of cactus forage cv. Italian (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill., depending on planting spacing. The research was carried out at (EMEPA, in Soledade- Pb, from April 2007 to June 2008. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four repetitions. In order to evaluate crop under the four planting spacing (1 x 1; 1 x 0.5; 2 x 1; 2 x 0.5 m we measured plant height, number of cladodes per plant, and the order, length, width, perimeter, thickness and area of cladodes. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.05 on any of the growth variables evaluated, except for plant height and cladode width. The cactus pear showed low levels of fibrous carbohydrates, and planting spacing influenced levels of neutral detergent fiber. The phytomass production per area and rain use efficiency by cactus pear increased with increases in planting densities, with higher values observed for the spacing of 1 x 0.5 m; resulting in a greater quantity of forage produced per area and per unit of rain.

  3. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Etre, A.Y

    2003-11-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions.

  4. Indonesia's palm oil subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald F.

    1996-01-01

    Debate on Indonesia's palm oil policy was stimulated by a sharp increase in cooking oil prices in 1994-95 and a resulting increase in the export tax rate on crude palm oil. Palm oil has been one of the fastest growing subsectors in Indonesia. Using a quantitative model, the author analyzes the effect of government policies, including the export tax, buffer stock operations by the BULOG (the national logistics agency), and directed sales from public estates. The author acknowledges the export ...

  5. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  6. Vanglateenistuse enesekaitsekoolitus / Henri Palm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Vanglateenistus korraldab Tartus, Tallinnas ja Jõhvis enesekaitsekoolitusi gümnaasiumiõpilastele. Jakob Westholmi abiturient Henri Palm on osalenud treeningutel osalenud kolm aastat ning jagab kogemusi

  7. Vanglateenistuse enesekaitsekoolitus / Henri Palm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Vanglateenistus korraldab Tartus, Tallinnas ja Jõhvis enesekaitsekoolitusi gümnaasiumiõpilastele. Jakob Westholmi abiturient Henri Palm on osalenud treeningutel osalenud kolm aastat ning jagab kogemusi

  8. Palm oil and palm olein frying applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Razali

    2005-01-01

    Several million tones of palm oil and palm olein are used annually in the world for frying. This paper will discuss their frying performances in three major applications - industrial production of potato chips/crisps, industrial production of pre-fried frozen French fries and in fast food outlets. In the first study, about four tones of potato chips were continuously fried 8 hours a day and five days a week. The palm olein used (with proper management) performed well and was still in excellent condition and usable at the end of the trial. This was reflected in its low free fatty acid (FFA) content of around 0.23%, peroxide value of 4 meq/kg, anisidine value of 16, low polar and polymer contents of 10% and 2%, respectively, induction period (OSI) of 21 hours and high content of tocopehrols and tocotrienols of 530 ppm even after >1900 hours. In the second study in which an average 12 tones pre-fried frozen French fries were continuously fried a day for 5 days a week, palm oil performed excellently as reflected by its low FFA of 0.34%, food oil sensor reading of 1.1, low polar and polymer contents of 17% and 2.8%, respectively, over the 12 days of trial. In the third study in which palm shortening, palm oil and palm olein were simultaneously used to intermittently fry chicken parts in the laboratory simulating the conditions in fast food outlets, the three frying oils also performed very satisfactorily as reflected by their reasonably low FFA of 180 degrees C, and polar and polymer contents of <25% and <6%, respectively, after 5 days of consecutive frying. All the quality indicators did not exceed the maximum discard points for frying oils/fats in the three applications, while the fried food product was well accepted by the in-house train sensory panel using a-nine point hedonic score.

  9. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Heng Li; Qingxia Yuan; Xianjiao Zhou; Fuhua Zeng; Xiangyang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP). Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2–4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP) was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5–10 month-old materials (O-ODP) (18.97% ± 0.58%). The extracted ODP w...

  10. 仙人掌(Opuntia dillenii Haw.)保健饮料%On Opuntia dillenii Haw. Health Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁佩芳; 吴祖芳

    2000-01-01

    The extraction conditions of opuntia dillenii haw. in the process of opuntia dillenii Haw. health beverage production and the primary qualitative analysis of the extract is studied. It is shown that it contains the flavonoid. The selections of colour protective agent and stabilizer are also discussed.%研究了仙人掌(Opuntia dillenii Haw.)保健饮料生产过程中仙人掌汁的浸提条件,并对其浸提液进行了定性检验,结果表明其中含有黄酮类化合物.同时对护色剂和稳定剂的选择进行了探讨,最后确定了仙人掌保健饮料的配方和生产工艺.

  11. The palm family (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadot, Sophie; Alapetite, Elodie; Baker, William J.

    2016-01-01

    the amazing diversity of sexual expression in palms with a view to proposing scenarios to explain the evolution of this character, drawing on the numerous advances that have been made over the last 20 years in palm systematics, ecology, developmental biology, phylogenetics and genomics. We provide an overview...

  12. Palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton (Cynodon spp em dietas de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação. 1. Digestibilidade - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.638 Forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill and urea in replacement of tifton hay (Cynodon spp in lactating Holstein cows diet. 1. Digestibility - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.638

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Sherlânea Chaves Veras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0; 12,5; 25; 37,5; e 50% de palma forrageira e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica (DAMO, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da proteína bruta (DAPB, dos carboidratos totais (DACHOT e dos carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas, com peso médio de 480 kg e produção média de leite de 20 kg/dia, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5x5. As DAMS, DAMO, DACHOT e DACNF aumentaram, a DAFDN diminuiu linearmente e a DAPB não foi influenciada com o aumento dos níveis de palma e uréia na dieta. Os nutrientes digestíveis totais de mantença, a energia digestível de lactação, energia metabolizável de lactação e energia líquida de lactação aumentaram à medida que eram incluídas palma e uréia na dieta.The effect of five levels forage cactus and urea (0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% in replacement of tifton hay in lactating Holstein cows diets, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, crude protein (ADCP, total carbohydrates (ADTC and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC were evaluated. Five Holstein cows weighing on average 480 kg and with an average milk yield of 20 kg of milk/day were used in a 5x5 Latin square design. The DM, OM, TC and NFC apparent digestibility increased while NDF apparent digestibility decreased linearly and the CP apparent digestibility was not affected by the inclusion of forage cactus and urea. The total digestible nutrients of maintenance, digestible energy of lactation, metabolizing energy of lactation and liquid energy of lactation increased as the forage cactus and urea levels increased.

  13. Quality of Opuntia robusta and its use in development of mayonnaise-like product

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardino-Nicanor, Aurea; Hinojosa-Hernández, Emma Noemí; Juárez-Goiz, José Mayolo Simitrio; Montañez-Soto, José Luis; Ramírez-Ortiz, María Eugenia; González-Cruz, Leopoldo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Opuntia robusta parenchyma and mucilage as foodstuffs. Solute absorption of Opuntia robusta parenchyma was studied, mucilage was used to develop a mayonnaise-like product as substitute emulsifier alternative to egg yolk and oil substitute. Shelf life of mayonnaise-like product was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that oxalate calcium crystal were present in the Opuntia robusta parenchyma and mucilage with druses morphology; whereas...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and... derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted...

  15. Richness of endophytic fungi isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (Cactaceae) and preliminary screening for enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, J D P; Santos, M G S; Svedese, V M; Lima, D M M; Fernandes, M J S; Paiva, L M; Souza-Motta, C M

    2012-05-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (forage cactus) is farmed with relative success in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast for commercial purposes, particularly as forage and food. Endophytic microorganisms are those that can be isolated inside plant tissues and can be a new source to production of enzymes with different potentialities. The objective of this study was to describe the richness of endophytic fungi from O. ficus-indica and to detect the capacity of these species to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Forty-four endophytic fungi species were isolated. Among them, the most commonly found were Cladosporium cladosporioides (20.43%) and C. sphaerospermum (15.99%). Acremonium terricola, Monodictys castaneae, Penicillium glandicola, Phoma tropica and Tetraploa aristata are being reported for the first time as endophytic fungi for Brazil. The majority of isolated fungi exhibited enzymatic potential. Aspergillus japonicus and P. glandicola presented pectinolytic activity. Xylaria sp. was the most important among the other 14 species with positive cellulase activity. All 24 isolates analysed were xylanase-positive. Protease was best produced by isolate PF103. The results indicate that there is a significant richness of endophytic fungi in O. ficus-indica, and that these isolates indicate promising potential for deployment in biotechnological processes involving production of pectinases, cellulases, xylanases and proteases.

  16. Accumulation of silicon in cacti native to the United States: characterization of silica bodies and cyclic oligosiloxanes in Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia stricta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Waddell, Emanuel A; Setzer, William N

    2014-06-01

    Four different cactus species growing in the United States, Stenocereus thurberi growing in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, Opuntia littoralis and Opuntia ficus-indica, growing on Santa Catalina Island, California, and Opuntia stricta, growing in northern Alabama, were examined for the presence of silica bodies (opaline phytoliths). Silica bodies were found in all four of these cactus species, parallelepiped-shaped crystals in S. thurberi, and starburst-shaped crystalline structures in the three Opuntia species. In addition, the essential oils of the four cactus species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. To our surprise, S. thurberi, O. littoralis, and O. ficus-indica (but not O. stricta) essential oils contained cyclic oligosiloxanes. To our knowledge, cyclic oligosiloxanes have not been previously found as essential oil components.

  17. Global oil palm suitability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pirker, J.; Mosnier, A

    2015-01-01

    The palm oil boom of recent years has brought about both positive - economic development - and negative impacts - deforestation, habitat losses and increased GHG emissions - in the main producer countries in South-East Asia. As global demand for palm oil is still increasing, governments of developing and emerging countries increasingly promote oil palm cultivation as a major contributor to economic development, but there are concerns about the potential negative impacts of oil palm expansion ...

  18. Phytochemical, antioxidant, antiviral and cytotoxic evaluation of Opuntia dillenii flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Arthanari Saravana Kumar; Mani Ganesh; Mei Mei Peng; Jang Hyun Tae

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia dillenii used in Asian traditional medicine especially in China. We here report on the investigation of the phytochemical content, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of methanolic extract of O. dillenii flowers. The antioxidant activity was measured with the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging method. In the antiviral and cytotoxic assay we used different viruses in different cell lines. In antioxidant assay, the DPPH assay exhibited potent antioxid...

  19. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M.; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosph...

  20. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) as a Holographic Material

    OpenAIRE

    Santa Toxqui-López; Ana L. Padilla-Velasco; Arturo Olivares-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and ex...

  1. Clinical Observation of Opuntia Dillenii Tablet in Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵湘; 杨君超; 童钟杭; 周永列; 张文海; 戚世伟; 袁国荣

    2002-01-01

    @@ From June to September 1998, we selected Opuntia dillenii tablet (ODT) made from Opuntia dillenii Haw, to make a four-week clinical observation on thirty type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The study proved that this medicine could improve the glycometabolism of DM patients effectively and avoid the early impairment of renal function of diabetic neuropathy, and it is reported as follows.

  2. Opuntia Extract Reduces Scar Formation in Rabbit Ear Model: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Quan; Huang, Chunlan; You, Chuangang; Ma, Shaolin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the effect of Opuntia stricta H (Cactaceae) extract on suppression of hypertrophic scar on ventral surface wounds of rabbit ears. Full thickness skin defection was established in a rabbit ear to simulate hypertrophic scar. Opuntia extract was sprayed on the wounds in the experimental group, and normal saline was used in the control group. After the wounds healed with scar formation, the hypertrophic scar tissue was harvested on days 22, 39, and 54 for histological analysis. The expression of type I and type III collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that the scar of the control group is more prominent compared with the opuntia extract group. The expression of type I collagen in the opuntia extract group was lower than the control group, while type III collagen in opuntia extract group gradually increased and exceeded control group. The expression of MMP-1 decreased in the opuntia extract group, while the control group increased over time, but the amount of MMP-1 was much higher than that in the control group on day 22. In conclusion, opuntia extract reduces hypertrophic scar formation by means of type I collagen inhibition, and increasing type III collagen and MMP-1.T he novel application of opuntia extract may lead to innovative and effective antiscarring therapies.

  3. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Yuan, Qingxia; Zhou, Xianjiao; Zeng, Fuhua; Lu, Xiangyang

    2016-11-24

    Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP). Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2-4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP) was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5-10 month-old materials (O-ODP) (18.97% ± 0.58%). The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb). Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia) was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  4. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP. Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2–4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5–10 month-old materials (O-ODP (18.97% ± 0.58%. The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb. Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  5. Dispersal of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae, a biological control agent of Opuntia stricta (Haworth. Haworth. (Cactaceae in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Foxcroft

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control efforts, the introduction of Cactoblastis cactorum and attempted releases of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell into the expanding infestation of Opuntia stricta in the Skukuza region of the Kruger National Park (KNP have had limited suc- cess in preventing the spread and densification of 0. stricta. To boost the biological control component, a new strain of D. opuntiae was introduced into KNP during 1997. The new strain established readily and has destroyed large clumps of plants in the vicin- ity of the release site. A large-scale redistribution programme with D. opuntiae is now needed to exploit this biological control agent to the full. In order to match the frequency of manual releases with the natural rates of spread of the insects, surveys were conducted under field conditions to determine the dispersal abilities ofD. opuntiae, with regard to rate and direction of movement. Dispersal of D. opuntiae was found to be slow and restricted and that the insects need to be redistributed by placing them onto plants at approximately 10 m intervals to ensure that they become quickly and evenly distributed on the weed. This information will be crucial in the revision of the integrated management plan for 0. stricta in the KNP, in integrating the cochineal and other control mechanisms.

  6. Foraging Experiences with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Helen Ross

    1976-01-01

    Provided are foraging experiences and wild foods information for utilization in the urban school curriculum. Food uses are detailed for roses, dandelions, wild onions, acorns, cattails, violets and mints. (BT)

  7. Modelagem matemática para a descrição da cinética de secagem do fruto da palma (Opuntia fícus indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a secagem em camada fina do fruto da palma (Opuntia fícus indica nas temperaturas de 50, 60 e 70 °C em estufa com circulação forçada de ar. Foram empregados os modelos matemáticos de Aproximação da difusão, Logaritmico, Midilli e Page. Como critério de avaliação utilizou-se o coeficiente de determinação e o desvio quadrático médio (. Mediante os resultados obtidos observou-se que o aumento da temperatura diminuiu o tempo de secagem do fruto. Dentre os modelos aplicados o Logarítmico apresentou os maiores valores de coeficiente de determinação R² e os menores valores de DQM para a faixa de temperatura e espessura estudadas.Mathematical modeling for description of the pulp drying kinetics of palm fruit (Opuntia fícus indica  Abstract: This work was developed with the aimed of to study ing the thin layer drying of palm fruit pulp oiti at temperatures of 122, 140 and 158 °Fahrenheit in an oven with forced air circulation. For the representation of the drying kinetics of thin-layer were used mathematical  models of the diffusion approximation, logarithmic, and Midilli Kucuk and Page, and as a criterion for evaluating these we used the coefficient of determination and the deviation quadratic mean (DQM. From tThe results obtained showed that the increase in temperature decreases the drying time of the palm fruit. Among the models applied to Logarithmic the had the highest R2 values and lower values of DQM for the temperature and layer thickness range studied. 

  8. Dietary cladode powder from wild type and domesticated Opuntia species reduces atherogenesis in apoE knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoby-Salom, Sandra; Guéraud, Françoise; Camaré, Caroline; de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina Barba; Rossignol, Michel; Santos Díaz, María del Socorro; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intake of Opuntia species may prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to characterize the biological antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia species and to investigate whether Opuntia cladodes prevent the development of atherosclerosis in vivo, in apoE(-)KO mice. The effects of the two Opuntia species, the wild Opuntia streptacantha and the domesticated Opuntia ficus-indica, were tested on the generation of intra- and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and kinetics of the LDL oxidation by murine CRL2181 endothelial cells and on the subsequent inflammatory signaling leading to the adhesion of monocytes on the activated endothelium and the formation of foam cells. Opuntia species blocked the extracellular ROS (superoxide anion) generation and LDL oxidation by CRL2181, as well as the intracellular ROS rise and signaling evoked by the oxidized LDL, including the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFκB, the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion molecules, and the adhesion of monocytes to CRL2181. In vivo, Opuntia significantly reduced the formation of atherosclerotic lesions and the accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in the vascular wall of apoE-KO mice, indicating that Opuntia cladodes prevent lipid oxidation in the vascular wall. In conclusion, wild and domesticated Opuntia species exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties which emphasize their nutritional benefit for preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  10. Preliminary studies of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia dillenii aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loro, J F; del Rio, I; Pérez-Santana, L

    1999-11-01

    Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw is a cactus that belongs to the family Opuntiae. Lyophilized aqueous extract of the fruits of the plant, used in Canarian traditional medicine for gastrointestinal and bronchial troubles, was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in rats and mice. The Opuntia dillenii extract (100-400 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited, in a dose-related manner, carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. A dose-dependent action was obtained against chemical (writhing test) and thermic (hot plate test) stimuli, respectively, with doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg.

  11. Genome sizes and ploidy levels in Mexican cactus pear species Opuntia (Tourn.) Mill. series Streptacanthae Britton et Rose, Leucotrichae DC., Heliabravoanae Scheinvar and Robustae Britton et Rose

    OpenAIRE

    Segura, S.; Scheinvar, L.; Olalde, G.; Leblanc, Olivier; Filardo, S.; Muratalla, A.; Gallegos, C.; Flores, C. (C.)

    2007-01-01

    The ploidy levels and amounts of DNA of 23 Opuntia species from Mexico were determined by flow cytometry. Four different ploidy levels (2n = 2x, 2n = 4x, 2n = 6x, 2n = 8x) with 2C-DNA amount ranging from 4.17 pg (Opuntia incarnadilla Griffiths) to 6.53 pg (Opuntia heliabravoana Scheinvar) were determined among the samples analyzed. Polyploidy is widespread (93%) among these Opuntia species. Opuntia helia-bravoana Scheinvar was the sole diploid species. Opuntia leucotricha DC. (2C = 5.71 pg), ...

  12. Beneficios para la salud de los frutos de Opuntia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Obón De Castro, José María; Castellar Rodríguez, María Rosario Lourdes; Díaz García, Miriam Cristina; Lozano Berna, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    El género Opuntia spp. ofrece una gran variedad de frutos con un gran potencial en componentes bioactivos. Son muchos los beneficios para la salud que se han descrito en la medicina tradicional: tratamiento de la diabetes, reducción de los niveles de colesterol y la presión arterial,tratamiento de úlceras y quemaduras, ami-inflamatorio y mejora de dolores reumáticos, tratamiento del dolor y asma. Los principales componentes bioactivos de los frutos son betala[nas, carofenoides, polifeno...

  13. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röll, A.; Niu, F.; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D.

    2015-10-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25-year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12-year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of 2 years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day-1 in a 2-year old to 2.5 mm day-1 in a 12-year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Comparing sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2-year old stand and 53 % in the 12-year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g., from the soil, the ground vegetation and from trunk

  14. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Röll

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25 year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12 year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of two years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day−1 in a 2 year old to 2.5 mm day−1 in a 12 year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Confronting sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2 year old stand and 53 % in the 12 year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g. from the soil, the ground

  15. Palm webOS

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    A Note from the Author and from O'Reilly Media about what this bookdoes--and doesn't--do: Palm webOS is a brand new platform and represents a very different type ofoperating system where the web runtime is used as the basis for the UI andApplication model. Palm and O'Reilly felt that it was important to have abook available to help developers get a basic understanding of the new Palmplatform at the time that the SDK was released; this timing played a majorrole in the content and structure of the book. Ideally this book would have been a complete reference of the new platformbut that wasn't

  16. Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Firmino de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

  17. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a recently developed nature-inspired optimization algorithm, which is based on the foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. Up to now, BFO has been applied successfully to some engineering problems due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. However, BFO possesses a poor convergence behavior over complex optimization problems as compared to other nature-inspired optimization techniques. This paper first analyzes how the run-length unit parameter of BFO controls the exploration of the whole search space and the exploitation of the promising areas. Then it presents a variation on the original BFO, called the adaptive bacterial foraging optimization (ABFO, employing the adaptive foraging strategies to improve the performance of the original BFO. This improvement is achieved by enabling the bacterial foraging algorithm to adjust the run-length unit parameter dynamically during algorithm execution in order to balance the exploration/exploitation tradeoff. The experiments compare the performance of two versions of ABFO with the original BFO, the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO and a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA on four widely-used benchmark functions. The proposed ABFO shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  18. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  19. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosphate [K4P2O8] and potassium chloride [KCl]. The SEM images indicate that calcite crystals grow to dipyramidal, octahedral-like, prismatic, and flower-like structures; meanwhile, calcium-magnesium bicarbonate structures show rhombohedral exfoliation and calcium oxalate monohydrate is present in a drusenoid morphology. These calcium carbonate compounds have a great importance for humans because their bioavailability. This is the first report about the identification and structural analysis of calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate in nopal cladodes, as well as the presence of magnesium oxide, potassium peroxydiphosphate and potassium chloride in these plants. The significance of the study of the inorganic components of these cactus plants is related with the increasing interest in the potential use of Opuntia as a raw material of products for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  20. Desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill., em diferentes substratos, após micropropagação in vitro = The development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L mill., in different substrates, after in vitro micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José Alves Peixoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, em diferentes substratos, utilizaram-se plantas micropropagadas nas seguintes etapas: indução, crescimento, multiplicação e enraizamento dos brotos. Após o enraizamento, asplântulas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, usando-se os seguintes substratos: solo não adubado, solo adubado de acordo com análise de solo, solo + pó de coco (1:1 e 2:1, solo + esterco de bovino (1:1 e 2:1, solo + bioadubo (1:1 e 2:1, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. As plântulas possuíam entre 1 a 2 cm de comprimento e foram enterradas a dois terços no solo. Semanalmente, foram medidas as alturas das plantas e contado o número de brotações. Verificou-se diferença significativa ao nível de 5% de probabilidade pelo Teste t quando comparados os efeitos dos diferentes substratos. Conclui-se que deve-se utilizar o substrato à base de esterco bovino na aclimatização da palma forrageira.The study aimed to evaluate the development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, in different substrates, using micropropagated plants in the following stages: induction, growth, multiplication and bud rooting. After rooting, seedlings were acclimatized in greenhouse, by means of the following potting mixture: unfertilized soil, fertilized soil according to soil analysis, soil + coconut dust (1:1 and 2:1, soil + bovine manure (1:1 and 2:1, soil + biofertilizer (1:1 and 2:1, randomly applied with four replications. The seedlings had between 1 and 2 cm of length and were planted two thirds under the soil. There were weekly measures of the plants’ height and the number of shoots. Significant difference to the level of 5% of probability for test was verified when comparing the effects of different substrates. Results show that the potting mixture must be based onbovine manure in the acclimatization of palm grass.

  1. Redesigning forages with condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximizing protein content in forages and minimizing protein loss during silage fermentation and rumen digestion are concerns for livestock and dairy producers. Substantial amounts of forage protein undergo proteolysis (breakdown) during the ensiling process and during rumen fermentation, transforme...

  2. Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Fruit Extract as Natural Indicator in Acid-Base Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    In routine experiments synthetic indicators are the choice of acid base titrations. But there are some limitations like environmental pollution, availability and higher cost which leads to search for natural compounds as an acid base indicator was started. The present work highlights theexploit of the methanolic and aqueous extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica plants as a natural acid base indicator in acid base titrations. Opuntia ficus indica plant was identified and fruits were was...

  3. Effect of fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill on mast cell degranulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sanjay P.; Sheth, N. R.; Suhagia, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The presence of potentially active nutrients and their multifunctional properties make prickly pear a perfect candidate for the production of phytopharmaceutical products. Among the numerous Opuntia species, bioactive compounds have been isolated and characterized primarily from Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia polycantha, Opuntia stricta, Opuntia dilleni for various medicinal properties. Objective: Based on the traditional use of prickly pear for enhancement of immune function, the objective of the present study to evaluate the effect of prickly pear on mast cell degranulation function. Materials and Methods: The Opuntia fruit juice (OFJ) (10-200 μl/ml) were studied for the effect on sensitized rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation induced by immunological (egg albumin), and nonimmunological (compound 48/80) stimuli and compared with that of the reference standard, sodium cromoglycate and ketotifen (10 μg/ml). Results and Conclusion: The OFJ exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) concentration dependent inhibition of mast cell degranulation. The IC50 value of OFJ was found 12.24 and 18 μl/ml for immunological and nonimmunological induced mast cell degranulation, respectively. The betacyanin is an active principle compound in prickly pear that may responsible for mast cell stabilizing action. PMID:25883521

  4. Effect of fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill on mast cell degranulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of potentially active nutrients and their multifunctional properties make prickly pear a perfect candidate for the production of phytopharmaceutical products. Among the numerous Opuntia species, bioactive compounds have been isolated and characterized primarily from Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia polycantha, Opuntia stricta, Opuntia dilleni for various medicinal properties. Objective: Based on the traditional use of prickly pear for enhancement of immune function, the objective of the present study to evaluate the effect of prickly pear on mast cell degranulation function. Materials and Methods: The Opuntia fruit juice (OFJ (10-200 μl/ml were studied for the effect on sensitized rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation induced by immunological (egg albumin, and nonimmunological (compound 48/80 stimuli and compared with that of the reference standard, sodium cromoglycate and ketotifen (10 μg/ml. Results and Conclusion: The OFJ exhibited significantly (P < 0.001 concentration dependent inhibition of mast cell degranulation. The IC 50 value of OFJ was found 12.24 and 18 μl/ml for immunological and nonimmunological induced mast cell degranulation, respectively. The betacyanin is an active principle compound in prickly pear that may responsible for mast cell stabilizing action.

  5. Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

  6. African palm ethno-medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of the State and University Libraries of Aarhus, National Library of Denmark and Copenhagen University Libraries, Harvard University Libraries, and the Mertz Library. Information about ethno-medicinal uses of palms was extracted and digitized in a database. Additionally, we used an African palm distribution...... database to compute the proportion of palm species that have been used for medicinal purposes in each country. Results We found 782 medicinal uses mentioned in 156 references. At least 23 different palm species (some remained unidentified) were used medicinally in 35 out of Africa׳s 48 countries. The most...... be directed at the central African region, because palm species richness (and plant species richness in general) is particularly high in this area, and only few ethno-botanical studies available have focused on this region. Conclusion The wide time span covered by our database (3500 years) shows that African...

  7. Making Palm Print Matching Mobile

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Li; Chian, Cheng Shao

    2009-01-01

    With the growing importance of personal identification and authentication in todays highly advanced world where most business and personal tasks are being replaced by electronic means, the need for a technology that is able to uniquely identify an individual and has high fraud resistance see the rise of biometric technologies. Making biometric based solution mobile is a promising trend. A new RST invariant square based palm print ROI extraction method was successfully implemented and integrated into the current application suite. A new set of palm print image database captured using embedded cameras in mobile phone was created to test its robustness. Comparing to those extraction methods that are based on boundary tracking of the overall hand shape that has limitation of being unable to process palm print images that has one or more fingers closed, the system can now effectively handle the segmentation of palm print images with varying finger positioning. The high flexibility makes palm print matching mobile ...

  8. Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

    2003-01-01

    The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health.

  9. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  10. Reproducción de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homóptera: Dactylopiidae) Reproduction of wild cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Por sus características, la cochinilla silvestre ofrece perspectivas de aprovechamiento como fuente de carmín y para el mejoramiento genético de la grana fina. Por lo anterior, se estableció una multiplicación y crianza de cochinilla silvestre, proveniente de la zona árida del norte de México para caracterizarla, utilizando como hospedero a Opuntia megacantha Salm Dyck. Los resultados indican que la especie silvestre pertenece al género-especie Dactylopius opuntia. Se determinó la presencia d...

  11. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica as a Holographic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Toxqui-López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm. We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  12. Cactus (Opuntia dillenii Grahm) stem: a new source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, V.K. (Dept. of Applied Physics, V.R.C.E., Nagpur (India)); Joshi, A.M. (Dept. of Applied Physics, V.R.C.E., Nagpur (India))

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has been fabricated using cactus stem as an electrolyte. The electrolyte was a stem (phylloclade) of Opuntia dillenii from the family Cactaceae. A thin slice (1 x 1 x 0.5 cm) of the stem was cut and sandwiched between copper and zinc electrodes. A study of the discharge characteristics reveals that, at a current drain of 100 [mu]A, the cell gives an optimum energy density of 175 mWh kg[sup -1]. The power generated by these cells is sufficient to run piezoelectric buzzer and a LCD calculator for a few hours. This work opens up a new interdisciplinary area for physicists, botanists and electrochemists. (orig.)

  13. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process.

  14. Nocardioides opuntiae sp. nov., isolated from soil of a cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Dong; Seong, Chi Nam

    2014-06-01

    A novel high G+C actinobacterium, designated strain OS1-21(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a cactus (Opuntia fiscus-indica var. sanboten) and the taxonomic status was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain OS1-21(T) were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-endospore-forming, non-motile rods; colonies of the cells were circular, translucent, smooth and moderate yellow in colour. LL-Diaminopimelic acid was the diagnostic diamino acid in cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) 2-OH, 10-methyl C(17 : 0), 10-methyl C(18 : 0) and C(17 : 1)cis9. The polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 73.7 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic neighbours were Nocardioides panacihumi Gsoil 616(T) (98.7% sequence similarity) and Nocardioides terrae VA15(T) (97.8%), followed by Nocardioides marinus CL-DD14(T) (97.1%). DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain OS1-21(T) with the type strains of the closest phylogenetic neighbours were low (<16.0%). Combined data of polyphasic taxonomic analyses revealed that the organism could be assigned to a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides opuntiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OS1-21(T) ( = KCTC 19804(T) = NBRC 107915(T)).

  15. Opuntia in Mexico: identifying priority areas for conserving biodiversity in a multi-use landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Illoldi-Rangel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: México is one of the world's centers of species diversity (richness for Opuntia cacti. Yet, in spite of their economic and ecological importance, Opuntia species remain poorly studied and protected in México. Many of the species are sparsely but widely distributed across the landscape and are subject to a variety of human uses, so devising implementable conservation plans for them presents formidable difficulties. Multi-criteria analysis can be used to design a spatially coherent conservation area network while permitting sustainable human usage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Species distribution models were created for 60 Opuntia species using MaxEnt. Targets of representation within conservation area networks were assigned at 100% for the geographically rarest species and 10% for the most common ones. Three different conservation plans were developed to represent the species within these networks using total area, shape, and connectivity as relevant criteria. Multi-criteria analysis and a metaheuristic adaptive tabu search algorithm were used to search for optimal solutions. The plans were built on the existing protected areas of México and prioritized additional areas for management for the persistence of Opuntia species. All plans required around one-third of México's total area to be prioritized for attention for Opuntia conservation, underscoring the implausibility of Opuntia conservation through traditional land reservation. Tabu search turned out to be both computationally tractable and easily implementable for search problems of this kind. CONCLUSIONS: Opuntia conservation in México require the management of large areas of land for multiple uses. The multi-criteria analyses identified priority areas and organized them in large contiguous blocks that can be effectively managed. A high level of connectivity was established among the prioritized areas resulting in the enhancement of possible modes of plant dispersal as well as

  16. Economics of alternative palm oil processing technologies in Imo State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of alternative palm oil processing technologies in Imo State. ... This study was designed to analyse the costs and returns of alternative palm oil processing ... Output of Palm oil and consequently net returns would increase if palm oil ...

  17. for palm kernel oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    OEE), ... designed (CRD) experimental approach with 4 factor levels and 2 replications was used to determine the effect of kernel .... palm kernels in either a continuous or batch mode ... are fed through the hopper; the screw conveys, crushes,.

  18. [PALME--Arrival in Reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M; Weihrauch, L; Schäfer, R

    2015-09-01

    PALME is an emotion-centred parental training for single mothers and their children based on attachment theory. It was designed for the prevention of maternal depression and its long-term effects on the mother-child relation and the infant's development. Using the example of the PALME programme, inherent and external factors are demonstrated which can contribute to the successful transfer of prevention programmes into psychosocial care and other practice areas.

  19. PALM: a Parallel Dynamic Coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenin, A.; Morel, T.

    2008-12-01

    In order to efficiently represent complex systems, numerical modeling has to rely on many physical models at a time: an ocean model coupled with an atmospheric model is at the basis of climate modeling. The continuity of the solution is granted only if these models can constantly exchange information. PALM is a coupler allowing the concurrent execution and the intercommunication of programs not having been especially designed for that. With PALM, the dynamic coupling approach is introduced: a coupled component can be launched and can release computers' resources upon termination at any moment during the simulation. In order to exploit as much as possible computers' possibilities, the PALM coupler handles two levels of parallelism. The first level concerns the components themselves. While managing the resources, PALM allocates the number of processes which are necessary to any coupled component. These models can be parallel programs based on domain decomposition with MPI or applications multithreaded with OpenMP. The second level of parallelism is a task parallelism: one can define a coupling algorithm allowing two or more programs to be executed in parallel. PALM applications are implemented via a Graphical User Interface called PrePALM. In this GUI, the programmer initially defines the coupling algorithm then he describes the actual communications between the models. PALM offers a very high flexibility for testing different coupling techniques and for reaching the best load balance in a high performance computer. The transformation of computational independent code is almost straightforward. The other qualities of PALM are its easy set-up, its flexibility, its performances, the simple updates and evolutions of the coupled application and the many side services and functions that it offers.

  20. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  1. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  2. The Dynamics of Foraging Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, G. William

    2009-03-01

    We experimentally study the foraging of small black ants, Formicinae lasius flavus, in order to describe their foraging behavior mathematically. Individual ants are allowed to forage on a two-dimensional surface in the absence of any food sources. The position of the ant as a function of time is determined using a high-resolution digital camera. Analysis of the average square displacements of many ants suggests that the foraging strategy is a non-reversing random walk. Moreover, the ants do not retrace their steps to return home but instead continue the random walk until it brings them back near their starting point.

  3. Collective foraging in heterogeneous landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Kunal

    2013-01-01

    Animals foraging alone are hypothesized to optimize the encounter rates with resources through L\\'evy walks. However, the issue of how the interactions between multiple foragers influence their search efficiency is still not completely understood. To address this, we consider a model to study the optimal strategy for a group of foragers searching for targets distributed heterogeneously. In our model foragers move on a square lattice containing immobile but regenerative targets. At any instant a forager is able to detect only those targets that happen to be in the same site. However, we allow the foragers to have information about the state of other foragers. A forager who has not detected any target walks towards the nearest location, where another forager has detected a target, with probability $\\exp{\\left(-\\alpha d\\right)}$, where $d$ is the distance and $\\alpha$ is a parameter. The model reveals that neither overcrowding ($\\alpha\\to 0$) nor independent searching ($\\alpha\\to\\infty$) is beneficial for the gr...

  4. Breeding tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Jank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.

  5. Anatomical, chemical, and biochemical characterization of cladodes from prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestra, Giovanna; Parker, Mary L; Bennett, Richard N; Robertson, Jim; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Narbad, Arjan; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2009-11-11

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes represent the green stem of the plant and are generally used as animal feed or disposed of in landfills. The present work investigated the anatomical and chemical composition of Opuntia cladodes, which form the basis of their pharmacological effects. Glucose and galacturonic acid were the main sugars of Opuntia cladodes, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of mainly kaempherol and isorhamnetin glycosides (glucoside and rhamnoside). The presence of high amounts of calcium oxalate crystals was demonstrated by light microscopy on fresh and lyophilized cladodes. No antimicrobial activity was observed even after enzymatic treatment. O. ficus-indica cladodes may retain material tightly associated with cell-wall components, and this property will have the potential to greatly reduce the bioavailability of bioactive compounds.

  6. Spatial memory in foraging games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerster, Bryan E; Rhodes, Theo; Kello, Christopher T

    2016-03-01

    Foraging and foraging-like processes are found in spatial navigation, memory, visual search, and many other search functions in human cognition and behavior. Foraging is commonly theorized using either random or correlated movements based on Lévy walks, or a series of decisions to remain or leave proximal areas known as "patches". Neither class of model makes use of spatial memory, but search performance may be enhanced when information about searched and unsearched locations is encoded. A video game was developed to test the role of human spatial memory in a canonical foraging task. Analyses of search trajectories from over 2000 human players yielded evidence that foraging movements were inherently clustered, and that clustering was facilitated by spatial memory cues and influenced by memory for spatial locations of targets found. A simple foraging model is presented in which spatial memory is used to integrate aspects of Lévy-based and patch-based foraging theories to perform a kind of area-restricted search, and thereby enhance performance as search unfolds. Using only two free parameters, the model accounts for a variety of findings that individually support competing theories, but together they argue for the integration of spatial memory into theories of foraging.

  7. THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINES FROM THE CACTUS OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and structure of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica spines were characterised in bending and by means of x-ray diffraction. Using spruce wood cell walls for reference, the modulus of elasticity of Opuntia cactus spines was high in absolute terms, but comparable when specific values were considered, which can be explained by similarities in the cell wall structure of both materials. Differently from the modulus of elasticity, the bending strength of cactus spines was unexpectedly high both in absolute and in specific terms. The unique cellulose-arabinan composite structure of cactus spines, together with high cellulose crystallinity, may explain this finding.

  8. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp.) = Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Agenor Costa Ribeiro Neto; Valéria Louro Ribeiro; Adriana Guim; Mário de Andrade Lira; Ângela Maria Vieira Batista; Maria Caroline de Almeida Cavalcanti

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) e palma Orelhade-elefante (Opuntia sp.). Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma). As observações...

  9. First evidence for the presence of weddellite crystallites in Opuntia ficus indica parenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malainine, Mohamed E; Dufresne, Alain; Dupeyre, Danielle; Vignon, Michel R; Mahrouz, Mostafa

    2003-01-01

    Calcium oxalate crystallites occur very often in the plants tissues and their role is still poorly known. We report here the experimental protocol leading to the isolation of two forms of calcium oxalate crystallites differing in their hydration level in the parenchymal tissues of Opuntia ficus indica (Miller). Whereas the whewellite crystallites are habitual in all Opuntia species, the weddellite form has never been isolated from these species before, which is probably due to their small size (about 1 microm). We have identified these forms using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Palm Fiber Mattress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Qian; Wu, Jia-Yu; Gu, Hao-Wei; Chen, Zong-Yong; Shi, Xiao-Bing; Liao, Ting-Mao; An, Cheng; Yuan, Hong; Liu, Ren-Huai

    2016-05-01

    Palm fiber mattress is increasingly accepted by many families. This study aims at evaluating the mechanical properties of palm fiber mattress. Two experiments were conduct to investigate the Young's modulus of palm fiber mattress in three directions. In addition, finite element models were established to characterize palm fiber mattress under uniform distributed pressure. Finally, results from finite element analysis are presented to illustrate that the thick mattress will stick with human body curve perfectly, which can support vertebral column effectively.

  11. Biodiesel production from palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiatsimkul, P.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Methyl ester was produced from many sources of oil palm products, namely used frying oil, RBD palm oil, degummed and deacidified palm oil, palm stearin and superhard palm stearin. Production process was a conventional transesterification batch process using methanol as reactant and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Production procedure consisted of oil preparation, solvent preparation, reaction step, glycerol separation, washing step and finishing step. Thin layer chromatograph was used to determine the composition of product and nearly 100% methyl ester was obtained at a suitable condition. Molar ratio of oil: methanol was about 1:6, which equal to 20% by weight of methanol. Sodium hydroxide was 0.5-1 %wt. of oil. The production temperature was 60-80ºC, mixing time was only 15-30 minutes and reaction time was 3-4 hours. Many fuel properties of methyl ester were very close to high-speed diesel such as viscosity, density, heating value and boiling point range. Pour point of methyl ester was higher than diesel owing to the high composition of saturated methyl ester that has a high melting point.

  12. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  13. Date palm production and pest management challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, is a monocotyledonous species belong- ing to the palm family (Arecaceae or Palmae) which is perennial and dioecious and cultivated mostly in the arid regions of the world. Date palm is important to the agrarian economy of several countries, with the ability ...

  14. Lichens promote flowering Opuntia fragilis in west-central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.; Bornar, C.R.; Harrington, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.

  15. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire in NIDDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Gordillo, B E; Altamirano, P; Ariza, C R

    1988-01-01

    To assess the hypoglycemic effect of the nopal Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire (O. streptacantha Lem.), three groups of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied. Group one (16 patients) ingested 500 g of broiled nopal stems. Group 2 (10 patients) received only 400 ml of water as a control test. Three tests were performed on group 3 (6 patients): one with nopal, a second with water, and a third with ingestion of 500 g broiled squash. Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 0, 60, 120, and 180 min. After the intake of O. streptacantha Lem., serum glucose and serum insulin levels decreased significantly in groups 1 and 3, whereas no similar changes were noticed in group 2. The mean reduction of glucose reached 17.6 +/- 2.2% of basal values at 180 min in group 1 and 16.2 +/- 1.8% in group 3; the reduction of serum insulin at 180 min reached 50.2 +/- 8.0% in group 1 and 40.3 +/- 12.4% in group 3. This study shows that the stems of O. streptacantha Lem. cause a hypoglycemic effect in patients with NIDDM. The mechanism of this effect is unknown, but an increased insulin sensitivity is suggested.

  16. Phytochemical, antioxidant, antiviral and cytotoxic evaluation of Opuntia dillenii flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthanari Saravana Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia dillenii used in Asian traditional medicine especially in China. We here report on the investigation of the phytochemical content, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of methanolic extract of O. dillenii flowers. The antioxidant activity was measured with the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging method. In the antiviral and cytotoxic assay we used different viruses in different cell lines. In antioxidant assay, the DPPH assay exhibited potent antioxidant abilities with IC50 of 58.7 µg/mL. In antiviral assay, the extract possess strongest antiviral activity against herpes simplex 1(EC50= 25 µg/mL and 2 (EC50= 20 µg/mL, vaccinia (EC50= 100 µg/mL and moderate activity for remaining viruses (EC50= >100 µg/mL. The cytotoxicity effect was evaluated using MTT assay and the results revealed that the extracts exhibited cytotoxicity above the range of 100 µg/mL. Our present reports confirmed that the O. dillenii could be a potential antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in near future.

  17. SASTOJCI KATUSOVOG PLODA (OPUNTIA FICUS INDICA) INKORPORIRANI U DIJETETSKE PROIZVODE KOJI SE KORISTE KAO SUPLEMENTI HRANI ILI OTC

    OpenAIRE

    Blazevska, Zagorka; Cvrk, Ramzija; Aleksovski, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica je vrsta kaktusa koja pripada familiji Cactaceae. Ova familija kaktusa obuhvata oko 200 podvrsta kaktusa koji su rasprostranjeni najviše u Americi. Najčešću kulinarsku primjenu ima Indijska Fig Opuntia (Opuntia ficus indica ), jer se njeni listovi i plodovi koriste kao svježe salate. Plod kaktusa se konzumira zreo u ljetnom periodu. Najviše su rasprostranjeni na zapadnoj hemisferi (Meksiko) i zapadnim dijelovima Amerike, ali mogu se naći i u drugim dijelovima svijeta (Gal...

  18. Attention in Urban Foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm McCullough

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This position paper argues how there has to be much more to smart city learning than just wayshowing, and something better as augmented reality than covering the world with instructions. Attention has become something for many people to know better in an age of information superabundance. Embodied cognition explains how the work-ings of attention are not solely a foreground task, as if attention is something to pay. As digital media appear in ever more formats and contexts, their hybrids with physical form increasing influence how habitual engagement with persistent situations creates learning. Ambient information can just add to the distraction by multitasking, or it can support more favorable processes of shifting among different kinds of information with a particular intent. As one word for this latter process, foraging deserves more consideration in smart city learning

  19. Sustainability in the Malaysian palm oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Choong, CG; McKay, A

    2014-01-01

    With a rapidly growing world population, the demand for palm oil is increasing. In 2010, palm oil accounted for 36.5% of the world's vegetable oil production and it is projected to be the leading vegetable oil in the world by 2016. As the Malaysian palm oil industry is committed to delivering sustainable palm oil products to meet customer demand, this research was to enable identification and prioritisation of areas for improvement. As an example, the Roadmap of Malaysian Palm Oil Industry 20...

  20. 仙人掌(Opuntia dillenii)离体繁殖的初步观察%Preliminary experiment on in vitro propagation of Opuntia dillenii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程磊; 周根余

    2001-01-01

    本文对仙人掌(Opuntia dillenii)的离体培养进行了研究,获得了芽增殖培养基:MS+BA 5mg/L+IBA0.1mg/L.生根培养基为MS,仙人掌的离体繁殖的成功对同属其他植物的快速繁殖具有参考意义.

  1. Two new alpha-pyrones and other components from the cladodes of Opuntia dillenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying Kun; Zhao, Yan Yan; Dou, De Qiang; Xu, Bi Xia; Liu, Ke

    2007-06-01

    The aqueous ethanolic extract from the fresh cladodes of Opuntia dillenii HAW. was found to show anti-inflammatory activity. Two new alpha-pyrones, named opuntioside II (1) and opuntioside III (2), were isolated from the extract together with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  2. Agrobiodiversity of cactus pear (Opuntia, Cactaceae in the Meridional Highlands Plateau of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Reyes-Agüero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is characterized by a remarkable richness of Opuntia, mostly at the Meridional Highlands Plateau; it is also here where the greatest richness of Opuntia variants occurs. Most of these variants have been maintained in homegardens; however, the gathering process which originated these homegardens has been disrupted over the past decades, as a result of social change and the destruction of large wild nopaleras. If the variants still surviving in homegardens are lost, these will be hard to recover, that is, the millenary cultural heritage from the human groups that populated the Mexican Meridional Highland Plateau will be lost forever. This situation motivated the preparation of a catalogue that records the diversity of wild and cultivated Opuntia variants living in the meridional Highlands Plateau. To this end, 379 samples were obtained in 29 localities, between 1998 and 2003. The information was processed through Twinspan. All specimens were identified and preserved in herbaria. Botanical keys and descriptions were elaborated. The catalogue includes information on 126 variants comprising 18 species. There were species with only one variant (Opuntia atropes, O. cochinera, O. jaliscana, O. leucotricha, O. rzedowskii and O. velutina, two (O. durangensis, O. lindheimeri, O. phaeacantha and O. robusta, five (O. joconostle and O. lasiacantha, seven (O. chavena, 12 (O. hyptiacantha and O. streptacantha, 15 (O. ficus-indica, 22 (O. albicarpa, and up to 34 (O. megacantha. Additionally, 267 common cactus pear names were related to those variants.

  3. Quality of Opuntia robusta and its use in development of mayonnaise-like product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino-Nicanor, Aurea; Hinojosa-Hernández, Emma Noemí; Juárez-Goiz, José Mayolo Simitrio; Montañez-Soto, José Luis; Ramírez-Ortiz, María Eugenia; González-Cruz, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Opuntia robusta parenchyma and mucilage as foodstuffs. Solute absorption of Opuntia robusta parenchyma was studied, mucilage was used to develop a mayonnaise-like product as substitute emulsifier alternative to egg yolk and oil substitute. Shelf life of mayonnaise-like product was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that oxalate calcium crystal were present in the Opuntia robusta parenchyma and mucilage with druses morphology; whereas that in the mayonnaise-like product were not observed calcium oxalate crystals, due probably to the product pH is acidic. The heat treatment of parenchyma at 50 °C, 65°Brix, had highest influence on the solute absorption (about 35 %). Results revealed that best mixture was the formulated with 26.79 % oil, 62.50 % mucilage and 10.71 % whey protein. Mucilage was the component showing the highest effect on all textural characteristics of mayonnaise-like product. The storage temperature had highest effect on the textural characteristics of mayonnaise-like product than storage time. With the right combination of mucilage of Opuntia, oil and whey protein, it is possible to develop a low-fat mayonnaise with functional properties similar to those of commercial mayonnaise.

  4. Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Amani; Ncibi, Saida; Taleb, Jihen; Ben Saad, Anouar; Ncib, Sana; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-02-03

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and traditional folk medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced immunotoxicity in rats. The experimental animals consisted of four groups of Wistar rats (5-6 weeks old) of eight each: a control group, a group treated with CPF (10mg/kg), a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100mg/kg), and a group treated with cactus extract then treated with CPF. These components were daily administered by gavage for 30days. After treatment, immunotoxicity was estimated by a count of thymocytes, splenocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow, relative weights of thymus and spleen, DNA aspects, and oxidative stress status in these organs. Results showed that CPF could induce thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, and a decrease in the cell number in the bone marrow. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in elevated levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both spleen and thymus, and also degradation of thymocyte and splenocyte DNA. Consistent histological changes were found in the spleen and thymus under CPF treatment. However, administration of Opuntia ficus indica extract was found to alleviate this CPF-induced damage.

  5. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  6. Palms, peccaries and perturbations: widespread effects of small-scale disturbance in tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queenborough Simon A

    2012-03-01

    -restricted, impact on juvenile plants, most likely on the survival and growth of seedlings and saplings damaged by foraging peccaries. Given the abundance of fruit produced by each palm, the widespread effects of these small-scale disturbances appear, over long time-scales, to cause directional changes in community structure at larger scales.

  7. Antiatherogenic and antitumoral properties of Opuntia cladodes: inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation by vascular cells, and protection against the cytotoxicity of lipid oxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal in a colorectal cancer cellular model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Julia; Camaré, Caroline; Bernis, Corinne; Astello-García, Marizel; de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina Barba; Rossignol, Michel; del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne; Guéraud, Françoise

    2015-09-01

    Opuntia species have been used for thousands of years as a folk medicine in the treatment of diseases. However, the components and protective mechanisms are still unclear. We make the hypothesis that Opuntia species may protect the development of oxidative stress-associated diseases, such as atherosclerosis or colon cancer, via their antioxidant properties. We investigated the protective effect of Opuntia cladode powder against the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) evoked by vascular endothelial cells, an important risk factor for atherosclerosis development, and the toxicity of 4-hydroxynonenal (a major lipid peroxidation product) on normal (Apc +/+) and preneoplastic (Apc min/+) immortalized epithelial colon cells. Various Opuntia species classified according to their degree of domestication, from the wildest (Opuntia streptacantha, Opuntia hyptiacantha, Opuntia megacantha), medium (Opuntia albicarpa), to the most domesticated (Opuntia ficus-indica) were tested. Cladode powders prepared from these Opuntia species significantly inhibited LDL oxidation induced by incubation with murine endothelial cells and the subsequent foam cell formation of RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and cytotoxicity on murine endothelial cells. Moreover, Opuntia cladode powder blocked the promotion of colon cancer development on an in vitro model of colonocytes. It may be noted that the phenolic acid and flavonoids content, the antioxidant capacity, and the protective effect were relatively similar in all the cladode powders from wild (O. streptacantha) and domesticated Opuntia. Altogether, these data confirm the therapeutic potential of Opuntia cladodes in diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life c...

  9. Yield gaps in oil palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, Lotte S.; Wijk, van Mark T.; Slingerland, Maja; Noordwijk, van Meine; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1,

  10. Predation potential of Chilocorus cacti (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to the prickly pear cacti pest Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A; Olvera, H; Rodríguez, S; Barranco, J

    2013-08-01

    Functional response of the predator Chilocorus cacti (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on five densities of Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) female adults was assessed under laboratory conditions. The searching efficiency of C. cacti significantly decreased as prey density increased. The logistic regression for the predator had a negative and significant linear parameter indicating a type II functional response. Non-linear regression for Holling predator equation estimated a handling time of 1.79 ± 0.129 h and attack rate coefficient of 0.1003 ± 0.030. Most of this handling time was because the predator spent a lot of time removing the waxy coating that protects adult females of D. opuntiae. Chilocorus cacti consumes females of D. opuntiae in their reproductive stage; therefore, it could be an effective natural enemy to suppress or regulate low density populations of D. opuntiae, preventing them to reach high densities.

  11. [Gastropods associated with the calcareous alga Halimeda opuntia (Udoteaceae) in Puerto Rico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Soto-Santiago, Francisco J; Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J; Medina-Hernández, Javier R

    2008-12-01

    Gastropod communities associated with the calcareous green alga Halimeda opuntia are described and compared for two Puerto Rico coral reefs: one in the northeast with front tradewinds (windward zone) and one in the southwest (leeward zone). We analyzed the content of 21 lots (2432 g) of H. opuntia from leeward zone and 15 lots (2448 g) from the windward zone. In total we recovered 526 gastropods (prosobranchs) classified in 54 taxa. Thirteen species of gastropods represented 79.6% of the community. Differences between species richness and mean density values were not significant (p > 0.100). Forty species were identified from leeward and thirty one (31) species from windward. Gastropod mean density was 13.9/100 g of algae in leeward and 7.6/100 g in windward. Significant differences were found for the Simpson Diversity Index (0.91 in the leeward and 0.82 in the windward community; t = 3.44, alpha = 0.005). We found no correlation between the weight of the algae and the frequency of the gastropods (R2 = 0.0893 in leeward, 0.0249 windward and 0.0923 for both). The relationship between species composition in lots of windward and leeward study sites was explored via polar ordination and no segregation was found. When compared, the gastropod communities found in H. opuntia collected in coral reefs in Puerto Rico were more similar within them than any other communities found in other genera of seaweed and in other environments. Our results agree with the hypothesis that H. opuntia offers the interstitial community a protected microhabitat from water movement impact. H. opuntia creates more homogenous conditions than those of the habitat where we found the algae.

  12. Long-term response of Caribbean palm forests to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel Lugo; J.L. Frangi

    2016-01-01

    We studied the response of Prestoea montana (Sierra Palm, hereafter Palm) brakes and a Palm floodplain forest to hurricanes in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Over a span of 78 years, 3 hurricanes passed over the study sites for which we have 64 years of measurements for Palm brakes and 20 years for the Palm floodplain forest. For each stand, species...

  13. EXTRACCIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN QUÍMICA Y REOLÓGICA DE HIDROCOLOIDE DE OPUNTIA SPINULIFERA CON PERSPECTIVAS DE ADITIVO EN LA INDUSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

    OpenAIRE

    VARGAS RODRÍGUEZ, LORENA

    2012-01-01

    The hydrocolloid at cladodes of Opuntia, is a molecule of secondary metabolism, it´s little known about their physical and chemical properties. The study developed in this work contributes to reassess the genus Opuntia (prickly pear) as a source for obtaining from additive at the food industry. In this work were established a methodology of extraction, which involved the optimization of several parameters of the raw material stage to extract. The Opuntia spinulifera was selected due to their ...

  14. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Power, Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Betacyanins of the Peel and Pulp of Three Tunisian Opuntia Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila; Guyot, Sylvain; Sotin, Hélène; Ayadi, Malika

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms) and Opuntia stricta have been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified...

  15. Factors affecting forage stand establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulc R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

  16. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404

  17. Social influences on the acquisition of sex-typical foraging patterns by juveniles in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Ilaria; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2005-04-01

    Foraging traditions in primates are becoming the subject of increasing debate. Recent evidence for such a phenomenon was recently provided for wild Cebus capucinus [Fragaszy & Perry, 2003]. To better understand the bases of animal traditions, one should examine intrapopulation behavioral variability and the influence of social context on within-group transmission of specific foraging patterns. We studied the variability of foraging patterns across age and sex classes, and the proximity patterns of juveniles to adults of both sexes in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus) living in the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. Foraging activity was examined for a period of 9 months in terms of proportions of focal samples devoted to foraging on certain food targets, microhabitats, and supports, and using specific foraging patterns. Proximity analyses were performed to reveal patterns of association between juveniles and adults. Sex differences in foraging behavior were present and overrode age differences. Overall, males ate more animal foods, foraged more for invertebrates on woody microhabitats (especially large branches), palms, and epiphytes, and used lower and larger supports than females. Females ate more fruits, foraged more on leaves and bamboo microhabitats, and used smaller supports than males. Juveniles were similar to adults of the same sex in terms of food targets, foraging substrates, and choice of supports, but were less efficient than adults. Proximity patterns indicated that juvenile males stayed in close spatial association with adult males and preferentially focused their "food interest" on them. This phenomenon was less evident in juvenile females. The degree to which juveniles, especially males, showed some of the sex-typical foraging patterns correlated positively with their proximity to adults of the same sex. These findings suggest that the acquisition of foraging behaviors by juvenile males is socially biased by their closeness to

  18. Does greed help a forager survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, U.; Redner, S.; Bénichou, O.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the role of greed on the lifetime of a random-walking forager on an initially resource-rich lattice. Whenever the forager lands on a food-containing site, all the food there is eaten and the forager can hop S more steps without food before starving. Upon reaching an empty site, the forager comes one time unit closer to starvation. The forager is also greedy—given a choice to move to an empty or to a food-containing site in its local neighborhood, the forager moves preferentially toward food. Surprisingly, the forager lifetime varies nonmonotonically with greed, with different senses of the nonmonotonicity in one and two dimensions. Also unexpectedly, the forager lifetime in one dimension has a huge peak for very negative greed where the forager is food averse.

  19. Implementation of Palm Print Biometric Identification System Using Ordinal Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Personal identification is one of the most important requirements in all e-commerce and criminal detection applications. In this framework, a novel palm print representation method, namely orthogonal line ordinal features, is proposed. The palm print registration, feature extraction, palm print verification and palm print recognition modules are designed to manage the palm prints and the palm print database module is designed to store their palm prints and the person details in the database. The feature extraction module is proposed to extract the ordinal measurements for the palm prints. The verification module is designed to verify the palm print with the personal identification record. The recognition module is proposed to find out the relevant person associated with the palm print image. The proposed palm print recognition scheme uses the intensity and brightness to measure the ordinal measurement. The ordinal measures are estimated for the 4 x 4 regions of the palm print images.

  20. The palms of South America: diversity, distribution and evolutionary history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an inventory of South American palms including 457 species and 50 genera. The distribution of palms within seven phytogeographical entities is analyzed. Factors which influence the evolution of palms in South America are discussed.

  1. Agronomic, morphogenic and structural characteristics of Marandu grass in silvopastoral systems composed of babassu palm and grass monoculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Cláudia Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the agronomic, morphogenic and structural characteristics of palisadegrass (Urochloa brizantha in silvopastoral systems (SSP’s composed of babassu palms (Attalea speciosa and grass monoculture in the Pre-Amazon region of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. The study followed a completely randomized design, with the arrangement in split plots with six replicates for the evaluation of agronomic characteristics and 30 repetitions for the morphogenic and structural characteristics. The plots were divided into pasture environments with different palm densities (monoculture, 80, 131, 160 palms.ha-¹, and the subplots were divided into the different seasons (rainy and dry. Total forage production was affected (P 0.05 by pastoral system during the rainy season, but in the dry period, higher responses were obtained in SSPs. Overall, SSPs with 80 palms.ha-¹ favored the agronomic characteristics of pastures. Morphogenic and structural characteristics were favored by increasing palm densities. Leaf senescence and duration were not affected by the system.

  2. Global Biogeography and Diversification History of Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, William J.; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kissling, W. Daniel

    of clades and species richness is highly structured, suggestive of complex, differentiated patterns of evolutionary drivers. Macroecological studies show that palm species richness is globally contingent on climatic variables typical of the humid tropics, while island palm floras are also influenced by area......Recent biogeographic and ecoinformatic studies of palms provide a global context for the spatio-temporal evolution of palms and the tropical rain forests that they inhabit. Palms display high rain forest niche conservatism, with >90% of species occurring in this biome. The global distribution...... and habitat heterogeneity variables. Incorporation of phylogenetic evidence reveals strong imprints of in situ diversification in the Neotropics and on islands, of biotic interchange, and of forest loss in Africa. We inferred an origin for palms in the mid-Cretaceous of Laurasia, which is significant for our...

  3. Physical and chemical composition and in situ degradability of macauba palm cake and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Patrícia Barros Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Macauba palm coconuts are rich in essential nutrients for animal feed formulation and after oil extraction, a large amount of residual biomass is produced, which must be used rationally to environmental preservation. This study aimed to determine the nutritional value of macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata, cake and leaves, for its physical and chemical composition, dry matter (DM in vitro digestibility (IVD and in situ degradability. The test of in situ degradability was done using three rumen fistulated cattle. Analytical determinations were performed in the laboratory of Animal Nutrition of Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa-SP, Brazil. Six replicates were used for each analytical determination and were calculated the standard error. Macauba cake chemically assessed showed a low protein content (CP 4.5% and high content of acid detergent fibre (ADF 39.7% and average levels of neutral detergent fibre (NDF 52.5%. ADF and NDF were the macauba palm cake majority fractions compared NDF and ADF (respectively of cocoa cake (37.6 and 45.5%, sunflower cake (28.2 and 38.4%, corn meal (11.3 and 20.2% and peanut cake (15.4 and 21.0. Macauba palm leaves had a good protein content (12.0% and fiber content comparable to tropical grass of good nutritional value. They can be used with no restriction on ruminants’ diets. The macauba palm cake high levels of lignin (16.5% justify the low dry matter IVD percentage (48%, while the leaves had 58%.of IVD. Macauba leaves total digestible nutrients (TDN 59.0% is similar to TDN usually observed for forages. Macauba cake can be considered (TDN = 64.0% similar to energetic food, due to the fat content (6.4%, however the high content of lignin (16.5% can limit its consumption. Macauba palm cake showed high ruminal degradability of DM and CP (fraction a = 51.3 and 59.9, respectively, while macauba palm leaves hah low solubility of DM and CP (fraction a = 3.18 and 5.28, respectively. Thus, the higher CP macauba leaves

  4. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzherbert, E.B.; Struebig, M.J.; Morel, A.; Danielsen, F.; Brühl, C.A.; Donald, P.F.; Phalan, B.

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This article explores the impacts of oil palm expansion on biodiversity and tropical deforestation. Oil palm plantations support substantially less biodiversity than natural forest or even other tree crops. Because regions with favorable conditions for oil palm plantations tend to be areas of critical importance for biodiversity, the rising international demand for vegetable oils and biofuels could prompt further wide-scale tropical deforestation and large losses of bi...

  5. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  6. Microbial degradation of palm (Elaeis guineensis) biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle Lutz; Max Chavarría; María Laura Arias; Mata-Segreda, Julio F.

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of biodegradation of palm-derived fatty methyl and ethyl esters (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel) by a wild-type aerobic bacterial population was measured at 20 °C, as the rate of oxygen uptake by a manometric technique. The methyl and ethyl biodiesels were obtained by potassium-hydroxide catalysed transesterification of palm oil, respectively. The bacterial flora included the genera Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. The rate of oxygen uptake for palm biod...

  7. Enhancement of Palm residues (Phoenix canariensis for a potential use in ruminant feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sperandio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of biological residues from numerous fellings of palms (Phoenix canariensis infested by red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier in central Italy and around the Mediterranean basin, has created an important disposal problem. This issue could provide a further use by introducing it as a food in diet of ruminants, beyond that represented by the use as fuel in biomass power plants for heating or electrical energy. The shredded material of palm can be employed to animal nutrition, resulting in interest for the feed industry and livestock sector. Analysis, carried out on samples of shredded palm, made using a chipper machine modified to obtain a product of small size (according to the phytosanitary measures of Lazio Region: n. 390, June 5, 2007, showed an high water content (79% and therefore a not easy conservation. A conservation technique could be dehydration, in order to make product as flour, pellets, to introduce in unifeed together with the other compounds of the diet (forage, concentrates, etc.. Given the high water content, the dehydration process causes a very high production cost. About nutritional value, analysis showed 0.65 UF/ kg on dry matter basis, higher than the straw and hay of stable grass in an advanced stage of maturation (0.20 to 0.30 UF/kg. These values are similar to a good hay obtained from mixed grass. As consequence it is possible to use shredded palm as part of energy of the ruminants diet. Is still not clear which component allows the achievement of this value, probably derives in small part by the lipid component and largely by the fibrous component. Moreover data showed that the presence of fatty acid precursors of CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid such as oleic acid and linoleic acid, is much higher than the values of Italian pastures. Utilization of these fatty acids in animal diets improves quality of the final products (milk, cheese, meat. The possibility of introducing shredded palm in ruminants

  8. Commercially available alternatives to palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Nils

    2016-04-01

    Since several years there has been a demand for food products free of palm oil, noticeable in the Western European market. Alternatives based on liquid oils, fully hydrogenated fats, and exotic fats like shea and sal etc., have been developed by the research groups of several specialty oils and fats suppliers. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of those products and compares them to similar products based on palm oil. It is also discussed how reasonable the replacement of palm products would be, since sustainable and 3-MCPD/glycidolester-reduced palm based specialty oils are also available on the market.

  9. Reproducción de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homóptera: Dactylopiidae Reproduction of wild cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Flores-Hernández

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Por sus características, la cochinilla silvestre ofrece perspectivas de aprovechamiento como fuente de carmín y para el mejoramiento genético de la grana fina. Por lo anterior, se estableció una multiplicación y crianza de cochinilla silvestre, proveniente de la zona árida del norte de México para caracterizarla, utilizando como hospedero a Opuntia megacantha Salm Dyck. Los resultados indican que la especie silvestre pertenece al género-especie Dactylopius opuntia. Se determinó la presencia de partenogénesis en hembras. La duración de los estadios biológicos depende del sexo del insecto; el adulto hembra permaneció durante 38.4 días y 4.2 días para machos, los primeros estadios ninfales fueron similares en duración (18.1-19.8 días. El ciclo biológico de las hembras fue de 77 días mientras que el de los machos fue de 43 días. Para las hembras se estimó un periodo de preoviposición de 18.8 días, manteniéndose en oviposición durante 21 días con un promedio de 131 insectos por hembra. La proporción sexual hembras: machos fue 1:1. El tipo de reproducción fue predominantemente sexual, aunque hubo hembras partenogénicas. Este es el primer reporte de Dactylopius opuntiae como cochinilla silvestre asociada a la zona árida del noreste de México, específicamente en el Bolsón de Mapimí, Durango, México.Wild cochineal has characteristics that offer advantage as a source of carmine and for fine cochineal improvement. To characterize wild cochineal, we initiated a breeding effort raising wild cochineal from the arid zone of the north oh Mexico, using as a host organism Opuntia megacantha Salm dick. The results indicate that the wild specie is Dactylopius opuntiae. The presence of parthenogenesis in females was determined. The duration of ontogenetic stages depends on the sex of the insect. The adult female lasted 38.4 days and 4.2 days for males, the first stage nymphs were similar in duration (18-19.8 days. The complete

  10. Substituição total do milho e parcial do feno do capim-tifton por palma forrageira em dietas para vacas em lactação. Produção, composição do leite e custos com alimentação Effects of replacing corn and Tifton hay with forage cactus on milk production and composition of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de dietas com teores crescentes de palma forrageira sobre a produção, a composição do leite e o perfil dos ácidos graxos do leite de vacas holandesas em lactação. Os animais (583 ± 7,07 kg foram alimentados com dietas formuladas com diferentes níveis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia fícus indica Mill em substituição total ao milho (Zea mays L. e em substituição parcial ao feno de capim-tifton (Cynodon spp. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 x 5. Cada período experimental teve duração de 17 dias, dez para adaptação dos animais à dieta e sete para coleta de dados. A produção de leite, total (kg/dia e corrigida para 3,5% de gordura (kg/dia, o teor de gordura (% e a produção de gordura (kg/dia do leite (20,65; 19,76; 3,73 e 0,745, respectivamente não foram influenciados pela introdução de palma nas dietas. O perfil de ácidos graxos da gordura do leite não foi influenciado (quanto aos ácidos cáprico, láurico, mirístico, linoléico, linolênico e araquídico pelos níveis de palma na dieta, entretanto, houve aumento linear dos ácidos de cadeia intermediária (palmítico e palmitoléico e tendência inversa para os ácidos esteárico e oléico. A inclusão de palma forrageira em substituição ao milho e parte do feno de capim-tifton para vacas holandesas em lactação não influenciou a produção e a composição do leite, exceto a concentração dos ácidos graxos de cadeia longa, que apresentou comportamento linear decrescente.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of replacing Tifton hay and corn with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill on milk production and composition and milk fatty acid profile in lactating Holstein cows. Animals averaged 583 ± 7.07 kg of body weight in the beginning of the trial and were fed diets containing (% of DM: 0, 12.0, 25.0, 38.0 or 51

  11. Contribution to the characterization of Opuntia spp. juices by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, A; Ferreira, J P; Semedo, C; Serra, T; Duarte, C M M; Bronze, M R

    2016-11-01

    Opuntia spp. fruits are considered as health promoting foods due to the diversity of bioactive molecules found in these fruits. The composition in organic acids, flavonols and betalains in the Opuntia ficus-indica juice from a region of Portugal was accomplished for the first time by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source operating in negative and positive mode. The methodology used allowed the detection of 44 compounds, from which 32 were identified. Isorhamnetin derivatives were the dominant flavonol glycosides. A total of 9 betalains including 6 betaxanthins and 3 betacyanin were also detected in the fruit juice samples and indicaxanthin, betanin and isobetanin were the major pigments. Phenolic acid and phenylpyruvic acid derivatives were also identified. To our knowledge, it is the first time derivative compounds from piscidic acid, phenolic compounds and betalains are characterized in cactus pear juice using a single LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method.

  12. Phenolic Profiles, Phytchemicals and Mineral Content of Decoction and Infusion of Opuntia ficus-indica Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Imene; Ennouri, Monia; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ben Amira, Amal; Attia, Hamadi

    2015-12-01

    Opuntia flowers are a natural source of biologically active compounds and they have been used as medicinal plant for a long time. Despite the various uses reported for the decoction and infusion of these flowers, their characterization has been discarded. In this study, the decoction and infusion prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica were analyzed with respect to their content in minerals and phytochemicals in order to evaluate its nutritional characteristics. The obtained data proved that these preparations are a rich source of minerals mainly K and Ca. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed that they have important polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins contents with the infusion that presented the highest polyphenol levels. LC-MS analyses of decoction and infusion allowed the characterization of 20 phenolic compounds. It is mainly identified by the presence of flavonols glycosides.

  13. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive.

  14. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory action of Opuntia elatior Mill fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opuntia elatio Mill is a xerophytic plant with potentially active nutrients. It is traditionally appreciated for its pharmacological properties; however, the scientific information on this plant is insufficient. Objective: The present study evaluates the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory action of prickly pear. Materials and Methods: Writhing and tail-immersion tests were carried out to evaluate analgesic action, while the carrageenan-induced paw edema and neutrophil adhesion tests were conducted in Albino wistar rats to assess anti-inflammatory action. Results: ED 50 values of the fruit juice in writhing, tail immersion, and paw edema test were 0.919, 2.77, and 9.282 ml/kg, respectively. The fruits of Opuntia produced analgesic and anti-inflammatory action in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: The results establish the folklore use of prickly pear may be due to the presence of betacyanin and/or other phenolic compounds.

  15. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  16. Foraging task specialisation and foraging labour allocation in stingless bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Frouke Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    Social bees collect nectar and pollen from flowering plants for energy of the adult bees and for feeding the larvae in the colony. The flowering patterns of plants imply that periods of high food availability are often followed by periods of meagre foraging conditions. Being dependent on such a dyna

  17. Analgesic Potential of Opuntia dillenii and Its Compounds Opuntiol and Opuntioside Against Pain Models in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Faheema Siddiqui; Lubna Abidi; Lubna; Ching Fidelis Poh; Sabira Naqvi; Shaheen Faizi; Ahsana Dar Farooq

    2016-01-01

    Opuntia dillenii (Nagphana) traditionally used against inflammation and also possess analgesic effect. Thus in the present study analgesic properties of O. dillenii cladode methanol extract, its fractions obtained via vacuum liquid chromatography along with isolated α-pyrones, opuntiol and its glucoside, opuntioside were analyzed. The acetic acid-induced writhes were reduced by O. dillenii test agents with opuntioside being most effective (IC 50 26 ± 0.9 mg/kg) and equipotent to diclofenac an...

  18. Taurine is absent from amino components in fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market.

  19. Volatile constituents and polyphenol composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill from Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    jihane OUMATOU; Saadia ZRIRA; Petretto, Giacomo L.; Bouchta SAIDI; Mariaelena SALARIS; Giorgio PINTORE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the extraction and the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total phenolic compounds of three Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., species from Morocco, namely Dellahia, Aissa and Shoul. The VOCs were extracted with Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) associated to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antioxidant compounds in extracts were determined by liquid- Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The study allowed the identifi...

  20. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Marilena Antunes-Ricardo; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.; Carlos Martínez-Vitela; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on d...

  1. Perspectivas de utilização da figueira-da-india no Alentejo : caracterização de Opuntia sp. no litoral alentejano e na Tapada da Ajuda e estudo da instalação de um pomar

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, José Carlos Ramalhinho

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica - Instituto Superior de Agronomia A description of the different species of wild Opuntia in the Alentejo’s coastal area and in the Tapada da Ajuda (Lisbon) based on the morphological, phenological and physical-chemical description of the plants and fruits is made. The identified species were the Opuntia leucotricha DC., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia monacanta (Willd.) Haw., Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Muehlenpf.) Backeb. and Opuntia ficus-indi...

  2. Microscale Mechanism of Age Dependent Wetting Properties of Prickly Pear Cacti (Opuntia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Jordan, Jacob S; Linder, Rubin; Woods, Erik T; Sun, Xiaoda; Kemme, Nicholas; Manning, Kenneth C; Cherry, Brian R; Yarger, Jeffery L; Majure, Lucas C

    2016-09-13

    Cacti thrive in xeric environments through specialized water storage and collection tactics such as a shallow, widespread root system that maximizes rainwater absorption and spines adapted for fog droplet collection. However, in many cacti, the epidermis, not the spines, dominates the exterior surface area. Yet, little attention has been dedicated to studying interactions of the cactus epidermis with water drops. Surprisingly, the epidermis of plants in the genus Opuntia, also known as prickly pear cacti, has water-repelling characteristics. In this work, we report that surface properties of cladodes of 25 taxa of Opuntia grown in an arid Sonoran climate switch from water-repelling to superwetting under water impact over the span of a single season. We show that the old cladode surfaces are not superhydrophilic, but have nearly vanishing receding contact angle. We study water drop interactions with, as well as nano/microscale topology and chemistry of, the new and old cladodes of two Opuntia species and use this information to uncover the microscopic mechanism underlying this phenomenon. We demonstrate that composition of extracted wax and its contact angle do not change significantly with time. Instead, we show that the reported age dependent wetting behavior primarily stems from pinning of the receding contact line along multilayer surface microcracks in the epicuticular wax that expose the underlying highly hydrophilic layers.

  3. Removal of chromium and toxic ions present in mine drainage by Ectodermis of Opuntia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Hector [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon interseccion Paseo Tollocan S/N, C.P. 50120, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Urena-Nunez, Fernando [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P.18-1027, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, C.P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bilyeu, Bryan [University of North Texas, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 305310, Denton, TX 76203-5310 (United States); Barrera-Diaz, Carlos [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon interseccion Paseo Tollocan S/N, C.P. 50120, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: cbarrera@uaemex.mx

    2006-08-25

    This work presents conditions for hexavalent and trivalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions using natural, protonated and thermally treated Ectodermis of Opuntia. A removal of 77% of Cr(VI) and 99% of Cr(III) can be achieved. The sorbent material is characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, before and after the contact with the chromium containing aqueous media. The results obtained from the characterization techniques indicate that the metal ion remains on the surface of the sorbent material. The percentage removal is found to depend on the initial chromium concentration and pH. The Cr(VI) and Cr(III) uptake process is maximum at pH 4, using 0.1 g of sorbent per liter of aqueous solution. The natural Ectodermis of Opuntia showed a chromium adsorption capacity that was adequately described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Finally, an actual mine drainage sample that contained Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe Zn, Ni and Pb was tested under optimal conditions for chromium removal and Ectodermis of Opuntia was found to be a suitable sorbent material. The use of this waste material for the treatment of metal-containing aqueous solutions as well as mine drainage is effective and economical.

  4. Desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill., em diferentes substratos, após micropropagação in vitro - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.659 The development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L mill., in different substrates, after in vitro micropropagation - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.659

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Silva Souto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, em diferentes substratos, utilizaram-se plantas micropropagadas nas seguintes etapas: indução, crescimento, multiplicação e enraizamento dos brotos. Após o enraizamento, as plântulas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, usando-se os seguintes substratos: solo não adubado, solo adubado de acordo com análise de solo, solo + pó de coco (1:1 e 2:1, solo + esterco de bovino (1:1 e 2:1, solo + bioadubo (1:1 e 2:1, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. As plântulas possuíam entre 1 a 2 cm de comprimento e foram enterradas a dois terços no solo. Semanalmente, foram medidas as alturas das plantas e contado o número de brotações. Verificou-se diferença significativa ao nível de 5% de probabilidade pelo Teste t quando comparados os efeitos dos diferentes substratos. Conclui-se que deve-se utilizar o substrato à base de esterco bovino na aclimatização da palma forrageira.The study aimed to evaluate the development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, in different substrates, using micropropagated plants in the following stages: induction, growth, multiplication and bud rooting. After rooting, seedlings were acclimatized in greenhouse, by means of the following potting mixture: unfertilized soil, fertilized soil according to soil analysis, soil + coconut dust (1:1 and 2:1, soil + bovine manure (1:1 and 2:1, soil + biofertilizer (1:1 and 2:1, randomly applied with four replications. The seedlings had between 1 and 2 cm of length and were planted two thirds under the soil. There were weekly measures of the plants’ height and the number of shoots. Significant difference to the level of 5% of probability for test was verified when comparing the effects of different substrates. Results show that the potting mixture must be based on bovine manure in the acclimatization of palm grass.

  5. Biology of the Mangrove Palm, Nypa fruticans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.

    The Southeast Asian mangrove palm Nypa fruticans Wurmb occurs in large, monospecific stands in estuaries and along rivers. It is the only member of the subfamily Nypoideae, which derived early in palm evolution and is known from a fossil record extending back in time at least 70 millions years...

  6. 揭密 Palm OS Cobalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    PalmSource公司于去年年底宣布向许可商提供Palm OS Cobalt,Palm OS Cobalt就是大家所谈论的Palm OS6操作系统。那么Palm OS6到底有什么新的特性?到底是何方神圣?能不能在争夺日益激烈的掌上设备操作系统中取得优势?在大家对Palm OS Cobalt盼望、猜测和充满疑问的时候,《数码·移动通讯》整理了一些读者们最感觉兴趣问题,通过越洋电话对Palm Source公司Palm OS Cobalt产品经理John Cook先生进行了独家专访,以下就是此次越洋电话专访的内容。

  7. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  8. A Palynological study in cocoid palms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, W.; Wessels Boer, J.G.

    1967-01-01

    Because the palm family is almost entirely tropical with many species of a very great size, it has attracted only a few botanists to study them. As a consequence palms are poorly represented in herbaria and little understood in almost every respect. Notably their taxonomy is in a very poor condition

  9. Phylogeny and palm diversity across scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Baker, William J.

    Palms lend themselves to exploring approaches at the intersection of ecology and phylogenetics. They are taxonomically diverse, often key functional components of ecosystems, and form complex assemblages of different co-existing life-forms. Recent advances in palm phylogenetics, including a dated...

  10. Execution Plans for Cyber Foraging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø

    2008-01-01

    Cyber foraging helps small devices perform heavy tasks by opportunistically discovering and utilising available resources (such as computation, storage, bandwidth, etc.) held by larger, nearby peers. This offloading is done in an ad-hoc manner, as larger machines will not always be within reach. ...

  11. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzherbert, Emily B; Struebig, Matthew J; Morel, Alexandra; Danielsen, Finn; Brühl, Carsten A; Donald, Paul F; Phalan, Ben

    2008-10-01

    Oil palm is one of the world's most rapidly increasing crops. We assess its contribution to tropical deforestation and review its biodiversity value. Oil palm has replaced large areas of forest in Southeast Asia, but land-cover change statistics alone do not allow an assessment of where it has driven forest clearance and where it has simply followed it. Oil palm plantations support much fewer species than do forests and often also fewer than other tree crops. Further negative impacts include habitat fragmentation and pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions. With rising demand for vegetable oils and biofuels, and strong overlap between areas suitable for oil palm and those of most importance for biodiversity, substantial biodiversity losses will only be averted if future oil palm expansion is managed to avoid deforestation.

  12. Palm Vein Verification Using Gabor Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohsin Al-Juboori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm vein authentication is one of the modern biometric techniques, which employs the vein pattern in the human palm to verify the person. The merits of palm vein on classical biometric (e.g. fingerprint, iris, face are a low risk of falsification, difficulty of duplicated and stability. In this research, a new method is proposed for personal verification based on palm vein features. In the propose method, the palm vein images are firstly enhanced and then the features are extracted by using bank of Gabor filters. Then Fisher Discriminated Analysis (FDA is used to reduce the dimension of the features vectors. For vein pattern verification, this work uses Nearest Neighbors method. The EER of the proposed method is 0.2335%.

  13. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  14. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation on amended palm press fibre waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bola

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... In the process of extraction of palm oil from oil palm fruit, biomass materials such as palm ... America and Europe, they are still being hunted for in forests and ..... potency of oil palm plantation wastes for mushroom production.

  15. Co-occurrence and community assembly in Amazonian palms (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Kristiansen, Thea

    Palms (Arecaceae) are a distinctive, diverse and ecologically important element of tropical rainforest. Often numerous palm species co-occur locally in "palm communities" that span all strata of the forest. In South America, the palm family has a centre of diversity in the western Amazon basin...

  16. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-12-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber.

  17. Does logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture alter functional diversity in a biodiversity hotspot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, F A; Edwards, D P; Larsen, T H; Hsu, W W; Benedick, S; Chung, A; Vun Khen, C; Wilcove, D S; Hamer, K C

    2014-01-01

    Forests in Southeast Asia are rapidly being logged and converted to oil palm. These changes in land-use are known to affect species diversity but consequences for the functional diversity of species assemblages are poorly understood. Environmental filtering of species with similar traits could lead to disproportionate reductions in trait diversity in degraded habitats. Here, we focus on dung beetles, which play a key role in ecosystem processes such as nutrient recycling and seed dispersal. We use morphological and behavioural traits to calculate a variety of functional diversity measures across a gradient of disturbance from primary forest through intensively logged forest to oil palm. Logging caused significant shifts in community composition but had very little effect on functional diversity, even after a repeated timber harvest. These data provide evidence for functional redundancy of dung beetles within primary forest and emphasize the high value of logged forests as refugia for biodiversity. In contrast, conversion of forest to oil palm greatly reduced taxonomic and functional diversity, with a marked decrease in the abundance of nocturnal foragers, a higher proportion of species with small body sizes and the complete loss of telecoprid species (dung-rollers), all indicating a decrease in the functional capacity of dung beetles within plantations. These changes also highlight the vulnerability of community functioning within logged forests in the event of further environmental degradation. PMID:25821399

  18. Does logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture alter functional diversity in a biodiversity hotspot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, F A; Edwards, D P; Larsen, T H; Hsu, W W; Benedick, S; Chung, A; Vun Khen, C; Wilcove, D S; Hamer, K C

    2014-04-01

    Forests in Southeast Asia are rapidly being logged and converted to oil palm. These changes in land-use are known to affect species diversity but consequences for the functional diversity of species assemblages are poorly understood. Environmental filtering of species with similar traits could lead to disproportionate reductions in trait diversity in degraded habitats. Here, we focus on dung beetles, which play a key role in ecosystem processes such as nutrient recycling and seed dispersal. We use morphological and behavioural traits to calculate a variety of functional diversity measures across a gradient of disturbance from primary forest through intensively logged forest to oil palm. Logging caused significant shifts in community composition but had very little effect on functional diversity, even after a repeated timber harvest. These data provide evidence for functional redundancy of dung beetles within primary forest and emphasize the high value of logged forests as refugia for biodiversity. In contrast, conversion of forest to oil palm greatly reduced taxonomic and functional diversity, with a marked decrease in the abundance of nocturnal foragers, a higher proportion of species with small body sizes and the complete loss of telecoprid species (dung-rollers), all indicating a decrease in the functional capacity of dung beetles within plantations. These changes also highlight the vulnerability of community functioning within logged forests in the event of further environmental degradation.

  19. Differential larval settlement responses of Porites astreoides and Acropora palmata in the presence of the green alga Halimeda opuntia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K.; Sneed, J. M.; Paul, V. J.

    2016-06-01

    Settlement is critical to maintaining coral cover on reefs, yet interspecific responses of coral planulae to common benthic macroalgae are not well characterized. Larval survival and settlement of two Caribbean reef-building corals, the broadcast-spawner Acropora palmata and the planulae-brooder Porites astreoides, were quantified following exposure to plastic algae controls and the green macroalga Halimeda opuntia. Survival and settlement rates were not significantly affected by the presence of H. opuntia in either species. However, ~10 % of P. astreoides larvae settled on the surface of the macroalga, whereas larvae of A. palmata did not. It is unlikely that corals that settle on macroalgae will survive post-settlement; therefore, H. opuntia may reduce the number of P. astreoides and other non-discriminatory larvae that survive to adulthood. Our results suggest that the presence of macroalgae on impacted reefs can have unexpected repercussions for coral recruitment and highlight discrepancies in settlement specificity between corals with distinct life history strategies.

  20. The polysaccharide and low molecular weight components of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes: Structure and skin repairing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Schiraldi, Chiara; D'Agostino, Antonella; Izzo, Elisabetta; Rizza, Luisa; Bonina, Andrea; Bonina, Francesco; Lanzetta, Rosa

    2017-02-10

    The Opuntia ficus-indica multiple properties are reflected in the increasing interest of chemists in the identification of its natural components having pharmaceutical and/or cosmetical applications. Here we report the structural elucidation of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage that highlighted the presence of components differing for their chemical nature and the molecular weight distribution. The high molecular weight components were identified as a linear galactan polymer and a highly branched xyloarabinan. The low molecular weight components were identified as lactic acid, D-mannitol, piscidic, eucomic and 2-hydroxy-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-butanoic acids. A wound healing assay was performed in order to test the cicatrizing properties of the various components, highlighting the ability of these latter to fasten dermal regeneration using a simplified in vitro cellular model based on a scratched keratinocytes monolayer. The results showed that the whole Opuntia mucilage and the low molecular weight components are active in the wound repair.

  1. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  2. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp.) - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4684

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Louro Ribeiro; Mário de Andrade Lira; Adriana Guim; Ângela Maria Vieira Batista; Maria Caroline de Almeida Cavalcanti; Agenor Costa Ribeiro Neto

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill) e palma Orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp.). Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma). As observaçõe...

  3. Potential Oil Palm Industry Development in Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasdi Syahza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of Indonesia’s main commodities that play a role in the growth of the national economy. It has a considerable contribution in generating foreign exchange and employment. Development of Indonesia’s CPO processing industry and its derivatives is in line with the growth of plantation area and production of oil palm as a source of raw materials. Until 2011, Indonesia’s oil palm plantation area reached 2,103,175 ha with an FFB production of 36,809,252 tons. Meanwhile, oil palm mill (OPM processing capacity was 30,019,200 tons only. The analysis showed the regional carrying capacity (RCC was 1.584. Each FFB should be processed in less than 8 hours or RCC for OPM must be smaller than 1 (RCC, 1. Higher production of oil palm plantations in Riau is the potency to increase the OPM. The results of calculations by land development and farm productivity, Riau region is still lacking of 16 OPM units with a capacity of 60 tons / hour or identical to 21 OPM units at a capacity of 45 tons / hour. The deficiency in OPM impacts the price and income of oil palm farmers in rural areas. High demand for OPM in Riau is a business opportunity for investors to develop an OPM and industry of products derived from oil palm.

  4. American palm ethnomedicine: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balslev Henrik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many recent papers have documented the phytochemical and pharmacological bases for the use of palms (Arecaceae in ethnomedicine. Early publications were based almost entirely on interviews that solicited local knowledge. More recently, ethnobotanically guided searches for new medicinal plants have proven more successful than random sampling for identifying plants that contain biodynamic ingredients. However, limited laboratory time and the high cost of clinical trials make it difficult to test all potential medicinal plants in the search for new drug candidates. The purpose of this study was to summarize and analyze previous studies on the medicinal uses of American palms in order to narrow down the search for new palm-derived medicines. Methods Relevant literature was surveyed and data was extracted and organized into medicinal use categories. We focused on more recent literature than that considered in a review published 25 years ago. We included phytochemical and pharmacological research that explored the importance of American palms in ethnomedicine. Results Of 730 species of American palms, we found evidence that 106 species had known medicinal uses, ranging from treatments for diabetes and leishmaniasis to prostatic hyperplasia. Thus, the number of American palm species with known uses had increased from 48 to 106 over the last quarter of a century. Furthermore, the pharmacological bases for many of the effects are now understood. Conclusions Palms are important in American ethnomedicine. Some, like Serenoa repens and Roystonea regia, are the sources of drugs that have been approved for medicinal uses. In contrast, recent ethnopharmacological studies suggested that many of the reported uses of several other palms do not appear to have a strong physiological basis. This study has provided a useful assessment of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data available on palms.

  5. Cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Engelmann, Florent

    2017-08-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a tropical plant, is the leading source of edible oil. This review deals with the cryopreservation of oil palm as a way to preserve this important tropical germplasm. Somatic embryos have been the most popular source of material for cryopreservation as they are propagules that are effectively produced during micropropagation. In contrast, fewer studies exist on the cryopreservation of pollen, zygotic embryos, seeds, kernels and embryogenic cell suspensions. This review highlights the ideal protocols, in detail, in a bid to offer guidance for further advances in oil palm cryopreservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Elaboração e caracterização físico-química e microbiológica da farinha da palma (Opuntia fícusindica Mill em diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Severo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Palma forrageira (Opuntia fícusindica Mill é uma cactácea originária do México, porém bastante cultivada na região semiárida do nordeste. Na alimentação humana, geralmente, são usados em preparações culinárias os brotos de palma, os frutos in natura ou processados. Uma das maneiras de diversificar o uso da palma forrageira seriam a secagem e sua transformação em farinhas para incorporação em diversos produtos. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade físico-química e microbiológica da farinha. As amostras foram coletadas na zona rural e transportadas para o laboratório do Centro Vocacional e Tecnológico /UFCG – Campus Pombal – PB, as mesmas foram desidratadas até a total retirada da umidade em estufa de circulação de ar nas seguintes temperaturas: 70, 80 e 90 °C, posteriormente passaram por um liquidificador industrial, em seguida por um moinho de facas para a obtenção da farinha. Após a obtenção foram realizadas as análises microbiológicas e analises físico-químicas. O emprego na alimentação humana, a palma forrageira é um grande potencial produtivo do Semiárido com alternativas sustentadas de desenvolvimento.Preparation and physical chemistry and microbiological characterization of flour palm ( Opuntia fícusindica Mill at different temperaturesAbstract: The Spineless cactus ( Opuntia fícusindica Mill is a cactaceous originally from Mexico, but rather grown in semi-arid region of the northeast. For human consumption, generally, they are used in culinary preparations the palm shoots, os frutos in natura ou processados. One way to diversify the use of cactus would be drying and processing into meal for incorporation into various products. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the physical - chemical and microbiological quality of the flour. The samples were collected in the countryside and transported to the laboratory and Technological Vocational Center / UFCG - Campus

  7. Starvation dynamics of a greedy forager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, U.; Redner, S.; Bénichou, O.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a greedy forager that moves by random walking in an environment where each site initially contains one unit of food. Upon encountering a food-containing site, the forager eats all the food there and can subsequently hop an additional S steps without food before starving to death. Upon encountering an empty site, the forager goes hungry and comes one time unit closer to starvation. We investigate the new feature of forager greed; if the forager has a choice between hopping to an empty site or to a food-containing site in its nearest neighborhood, it hops preferentially towards food. If the neighboring sites all contain food or are all empty, the forager hops equiprobably to one of these neighbors. Paradoxically, the lifetime of the forager can depend non-monotonically on greed, and the sense of the non-monotonicity is opposite in one and two dimensions. Even more unexpectedly, the forager lifetime in one dimension is substantially enhanced when the greed is negative; here the forager tends to avoid food in its local neighborhood. We also determine the average amount of food consumed at the instant when the forager starves. We present analytic, heuristic, and numerical results to elucidate these intriguing phenomena.

  8. Foraging currencies, metabolism and behavioural routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental issue in foraging theory is whether it is possible to find a simple currency that characterizes foraging behaviour. If such a currency exists, then it is tempting to argue that the selective forces that have shaped the evolution of foraging behaviour have been understood. We review previous work on currencies for the foraging behaviour of an animal that maximizes total energy gained. In many circumstances, it is optimal to maximize a suitably modified form of efficiency. We show how energy gain, predation and damage can be combined in a single currency based on reproductive value. We draw attention to the idea that hard work may have an adverse effect on an animal's condition. We develop a model of optimal foraging over a day when a forager's state consists of its energy reserves and its condition. Optimal foraging behaviour in our model depends on energy reserves, condition and time of day. The pattern of optimal behaviour depends strongly on assumptions about the probability that the forager is killed by a predator. If condition is important, no simple currency characterizes foraging behaviour, but behaviour can be understood in terms of the maximization of reproductive value. It may be optimal to adopt a foraging option that results in a rate of energy expenditure that is less than the rate associated with maximizing efficiency.

  9. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  10. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnia, Jundika C.; Sachin V. Jangam; Saad Akhtar; Agus P. Sasmito; Mujumdar,Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet) which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further...

  11. Modulation of human lipids and lipoproteins by dietary palm oil and palm olein: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, K

    1997-03-01

    Several human clinical trials have now evaluated palm oil's effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins. These studies suggest that palm oil and palm olein diets do not raise plasma TC and LDL-cholesterol levels to the extent expected from its fatty acid composition. With maximum substitution of palm oil in a Western type diet some coronary heart disease risk factors were beneficially modulated: HDL2-cholesterol was significantly increased while the apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio was beneficially lowered by palm oil. Comparison of palm olein with a variety of monounsaturated edible oils including rapeseed, canola, and olive oils has shown that plasma and LDL-cholesterol were not elevated by palm olein. To focus these findings, specific fatty acid effects have been evaluated. Myristic acid may be the most potent cholesterol raising saturated fatty acid. Palmitic acid effects were largely comparable to the monounsaturated oleic acid in normolipidaemic subjects while trans fatty acids detrimentally increased plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein Lp(a) and lowered the beneficial HDL-cholesterol. Apart from these fatty acids there is evidence that the tocotrienols in palm oil products may have a hypocholesterolaemic effect. This is mediated by the ability of the tocotrienols to suppress HMG-CoA reductase. These new findings on palm oil merit a scientific reexamination of the classical saturated fat-lipid hypothesis and its role in lipoprotein regulation.

  12. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  13. Occurrence and identification of the etiologic agents of plant diseases in cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. in the semi-arid region of Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Evelyne Franco de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cactus forage (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill., intensely cultivated in dry regions of northeast Brazil, although well adapted to the harsh semi-arid climate is affected by major problems such as pests and diseases, responsible for significant losses in production. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and diversity of the etiologic agents of diseases of cactus cultivated in 38 municipalities in the semi-arid region of Paraiba. The analyses were conducted and processed at the Laboratory of Phytopathology of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, in Areia - PB. Starting from sick cladodes isolations, multiplications and identifications of the found microorganisms were made. The identification of the microorganisms was achieved through observations of the macro and micromorphological characteristics of the cultures and tests of Gram and pathogenicity. Great incidence and diversity of microorganisms was verified in the cacti researched, but the highest occurrence was mainly that of fungus. The fungi of widest occurrence were: Scytallidium lignicola, Alternate tenuis, Macrophomina phaseolina, Cladosporium cladosporides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. opuntiarum, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus niger, Nigrospora sphaerica, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Exserohilum turcicum, Pestalotia pitospora, Rhizopus stolonifer, Rhizoctonia solani and Sphaceloma protearum. A bacterium was also detected that was suspected to belong to the Erwinia sp. strain. Satisfaction of the Postulates of Koch proved the infectious nature of the detected microorganisms. High occurrence of the fungus S. lignicola, an agent of scale rot disease in 100% of the places researched, was observed. This fact is of great concern, since the progression of the disease can cause significant losses in production.

  14. Occurrence and identification of the etiologic agents of plant diseases in cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. in the semi-arid region of Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Evelyne Franco de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cactus forage (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill., intensely cultivated in dry regions of northeast Brazil, although well adapted to the harsh semi-arid climate is affected by major problems such as pests and diseases, responsible for significant losses in production. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and diversity of the etiologic agents of diseases of cactus cultivated in 38 municipalities in the semi-arid region of Paraiba. The analyses were conducted and processed at the Laboratory of Phytopathology of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, in Areia – PB. Starting from sick cladodes isolations, multiplications and identifications of the found microorganisms were made. The identification of the microorganisms was achieved through observations of the macro and micromorphological characteristics of the cultures and tests of Gram and pathogenicity. Great incidence and diversity of microorganisms was verified in the cacti researched, but the highest occurrence was mainly that of fungus. The fungi of widest occurrence were: Scytallidium lignicola, Alternate tenuis, Macrophomina phaseolina, Cladosporium cladosporides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. opuntiarum, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus niger, Nigrospora sphaerica, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Exserohilum turcicum, Pestalotia pitospora, Rhizopus stolonifer, Rhizoctonia solani and Sphaceloma protearum. A bacterium was also detected that was suspected to belong to the Erwinia sp. strain. Satisfaction of the Postulates of Koch proved the infectious nature of the detected microorganisms. High occurrence of the fungus S. lignicola, an agent of scale rot disease in 100% of the places researched, was observed. This fact is of great concern, since the progression of the disease can cause significant losses in production.

  15. Eero Palm arhitekt / intervjueerinud Kristjan Prii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Eero, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Eero Palm arhitektiks saamisest, oma töödest, tööprotsessist, enda eramust, küsimustest, mida arhitekt peab lahendama objekti luues, kompromissidest, arengutest ehitusturul. Loetletud Eero Palmi töid

  16. Phylogeny and palm diversity across scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Baker, William J.

    Palms lend themselves to exploring approaches at the intersection of ecology and phylogenetics. They are taxonomically diverse, often key functional components of ecosystems, and form complex assemblages of different co-existing life-forms. Recent advances in palm phylogenetics, including a dated...... genus-level supertree covering all genera, allow new insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes that underlie this diversity. We used phylogenetic information and species distribution data to study the mechanisms behind diversity, composition, and structure of palm assemblages on different...... spatial scales. Among others, we ask the following questions: To what extent can niche conservatism explain large-scale distribution patterns? Which assembly mechanisms are responsible for palm community composition on different spatial scales? What is the role of phylogenetic history for spatial patterns...

  17. Eero Palm arhitekt / intervjueerinud Kristjan Prii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Eero, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Eero Palm arhitektiks saamisest, oma töödest, tööprotsessist, enda eramust, küsimustest, mida arhitekt peab lahendama objekti luues, kompromissidest, arengutest ehitusturul. Loetletud Eero Palmi töid

  18. Mexican Fan Palm - Orange Co. [ds350

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007...

  19. Boron toxicity in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaratnam, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    Potted oil palms were treated with fertilizer of borate-46 at several concentrations and the plants were observed for boron toxicity effects. Toxicity symptoms were apparent at high rates but not at rates equivalent to typical Malaysian soils.

  20. Present and future position of palm oil industry in Malasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Akio

    1988-04-20

    This paper introduces the present and future problems on the palm oil industry in Malaysia. The author was dispatched as an expert to the Malaysia Palm Oil Laboratory which is a governmental investigation organization. The cultivation area of oil palms were increased with the production of palm oil in 1990 - 1985. The oil mills produce average 20,000 tons/year of raw palm oil. 38 refining factories of the approved 75 factories are in work. The treatment capability of raw palm oil is 8.86 million tons/year. The palm oil is a solid vegetable oil at room temperature. For use the palm oil is fractionated into liquid palm olein, solid palm stearin, and palm oil with an intermediate melting point. About 90% of palm oil is edible. The leaves contain about 0.49% of alpha-tocopherol. The future problems to be solved lie in that the palm oil is improved to have a high liquid content, the production cost is reduced, and new uses for the palm oil are developed. (15 tabs, 37 refs)

  1. A new model for the calcification of the green macro-alga Halimeda opuntia (Lamouroux)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizemann, André; Meyer, Friedrich W.; Westphal, Hildegard

    2014-12-01

    Halimeda opuntia is a cosmopolitan marine calcifying green alga in shallow tropical marine environments. Besides Halimeda's contribution to a diverse habitat, the alga is an important sediment producer. Fallen calcareous segments of Halimeda spp. are a major component of carbonate sediments in many tropical settings and play an important role in reef framework development and carbonate platform buildup. Consequently the calcification of H. opuntia accounts for large portions of the carbonate budget in tropical shallow marine ecosystems. Earlier studies investigating the calcification processes of Halimeda spp. have tended to focus on the microstructure or the physiology of the alga, thus overlooking the interaction of physiological and abiotic processes behind the formation of the skeleton. By analyzing microstructural skeletal features of Halimeda segments with the aid of scanning electron microscopy and relating their occurrence to known physiological processes, we have been able to identify the initiation of calcification within an organic matrix and demonstrate that biologically induced cementation is an important process in calcification. For the first time, we propose a model for the calcification of Halimeda spp. that considers both the alga's physiology and the carbon chemistry of the seawater with respect to the development of different skeletal features. The presence of an organic matrix and earlier detected external carbonic anhydrase activity suggest that Halimeda spp. exhibit biotic precipitation of calcium carbonate, as many other species of marine organisms do. On the other hand, it is the formation of micro-anhedral carbonate through the alga's metabolism that leads to a cementation of living segments. Precisely, this process allows H. opuntia to contribute substantial amounts of carbonate sediments to tropical shallow seas.

  2. Young Daughter Cladodes Affect CO2 Uptake by Mother Cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIMIENTA-BARRIOS, EULOGIO; ZAÑUDO-HERNANDEZ, JULIA; ROSAS-ESPINOZA, VERONICA C.; VALENZUELA-TAPIA, AMARANTA; NOBEL, PARK S.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Drought damages cultivated C3, C4 and CAM plants in the semi-arid lands of central Mexico. Drought damage to Opuntia is common when mother cladodes, planted during the dry spring season, develop young daughter cladodes that behave like C3 plants, with daytime stomatal opening and water loss. In contrast, wild Opuntia are less affected because daughter cladodes do not develop on them under extreme drought conditions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the number of daughter cladodes on gas exchange parameters of mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica exposed to varying soil water contents. • Methods Rates of net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content and relative water content were measured in mature mother cladodes with a variable number of daughter cladodes growing in spring under dry and wet conditions. • Key Results Daily carbon gain by mother cladodes was reduced as the number of daughter cladodes increased to eight, especially during drought. This was accompanied by decreased mother cladode relative water content, suggesting movement of water from mother to daughter cladodes. CO2 assimilation was most affected in phase IV of CAM (late afternoon net CO2 uptake) by the combined effects of daughter cladodes and drought. Rainfall raised the soil water content, decreasing the effects of daughter cladodes on net CO2 uptake by mother cladodes. • Conclusions Daughter cladodes significantly hasten the effects of drought on mother cladodes by competition for the water supply and thus decrease daily carbon gain by mother cladodes, mainly by inhibiting phase IV of CAM. PMID:15567805

  3. In Vitro Propagation of Three Moroccan Prickly Pear Cactus Opuntia and Plant Establishment in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissam EL FINTI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia is one of the most widespread cacti, primarily due to their edible fruit and vegetable mass used as feed. The high demand for young plants of Opuntia made it necessary to find a rapid method of multiplication of the cactus, the safest method consisting in vitro micropropagation of species belonging to this genus. With aim of large production of plant material, a propagation system of three important prickly pear cactus cultivar (Opuntia ficus-indica in Morocco was developed. Segments of healthy young cladode (containing one areole were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS containing adenine sulfate (40 mg/1, monosodium phosphate (50 mg/l, sucrose (50 g/l, phytagel (0.3% and benzyladenine (BA at 22.2 μM, to start the process of micropropagation. In vitro-developed shoots from areoles were used as secondary explants to induce shoot development in the MS medium with 5 mg/l of BA. All of the three studied cultivars showed an important multiplication rate in this medium. ‘Sidi Ifni M’ (‘Moussa’ cultivar shows the greatest number of shoots followed by ‘Sidi Ifni A’ (‘Aissa’ and ‘Delahia’ 17.26, 14.12 and 12.13 respectively. Rooting of in vitro-generated shoots was achieved most efficiently on half-strength MS basal medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA or IAA. Rooting frequencies were in the range from 95 to 100% and the highest mean number of root (19.1 was obtained with IBA for ‘Delahia’ cultivar. All micropropagated plants were transferred to greenhouse and all of them survived acclimatization process and showed good overall growth.

  4. 仙人掌的化学成分研究%Chemical constituents from Opuntia dillenii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王政; 丘鹰昆

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究仙人掌Opuntia dillenii的化学成分.方法 采用多种色谱手段进行分离纯化,应用多种波谱技术对分得的化合物进行结构鉴定.结果 从仙人掌肉质茎的80%乙醇提取物中分离得到5个化合物,分别鉴定为6R*-9,10-dihydroxy-4-megastigmen-3-one (1)、(-)-丁香脂素-4-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(2)、琥珀酸(3)、(E)-阿魏酸甲酯(4)和D-酒石酸(5).结论化合物1为新化合物,命名为仙人掌酮,化合物2为首次从本属植物中分离得到.%To investigate the chemical constituents from Opuntia dillenii. Methods The chemical constituents of O. dillenii were isolated and purified by various column chromatographies. Structures were identified by their physicochemical characteristics and spectral features. Results Five compounds were isolated from the 80% ethanol extract in the cladodes of O. dillenii and identified as 6R -9, 10-dihydroxy-4-megastigmen-3-one (1), (-)-syringaresinol-4-0-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), succinic acid (3), (E)-ferulic acid methyl ester (4), and D-tartaric acid (5). Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound named opuntione. Compound 2 is isolated from the plants of Opuntia Mill.for the first time.

  5. Autonomous Biological Control of Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactyliiopidae) in a Prickly Pear Plantation With Ecological Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rodríguez, J A; González-Machorro, E; Villegas González, A A; Rodríguez Ramírez, M L; Mejía Lara, F

    2016-04-07

    It is broadly known that the conservation of biological diversity in agricultural ecosystems contributes to pest control. This process was studied in a prickly pear plantation (Opuntia megacanthaandOpuntia ficus-indica) located in central Mexico. No insecticides have been used on this plantation since 2000, and local farmers believe that the presence of different species of insects limits the growth of the wild cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiaeCockerell), which is one of the main pests in this crop. From August 2012 to November 2013, we estimated the number of cochineal per stem in the plantation and determined its spatial distribution pattern. In order to identify signs of population regulation, we obtained histograms of the frequency distribution of the size of the clusters and determined if distribution is adjusted to a power function (power law). We identified the cochineal predators and determined the correlation in their abundances. The greater abundance of cochineal occurred between summer and autumn while the minimum value was recorded in spring. The frequency distribution of the cochineal clusters had a high level of adjustment to a power function, suggesting the presence of population regulation processes. Six species that prey on cochineal were identified.Laetilia coccidivoraandHyperaspis trifurcatawere the most active and their abundance was significantly correlated with the abundance of cochineal. We found that the probability of extinction of these insects in a cladode increases with its density, since the density and predator activity also increased. It is likely that, under these conditions, the cochineal have established an autonomous control.

  6. Useful palms (Arecaceae near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Balslev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the uses of 64 species of palms in 28 villages in Departamento de Loreto, Peru. There, the palms are of great use as food (Bactris gasipaes, Mauritia flexuosa, Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, for fiber production (Astrocaryum chambira, Aphandra natalia, for construction of houses (Euterpe precatoria, Iriartea deltoidea,Socratea exorrhiza, thatching (many species of Attalea, Lepidocaryum tenue and for many medicinal purposes (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua.

  7. Biology of the Mangrove Palm, Nypa fruticans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.

    The Southeast Asian mangrove palm Nypa fruticans Wurmb occurs in large, monospecific stands in estuaries and along rivers. It is the only member of the subfamily Nypoideae, which derived early in palm evolution and is known from a fossil record extending back in time at least 70 millions years...... of the biology of Nypa fruticans and discuss its reproductive ecology from an evolutionary and management planning perspective....

  8. Commercially available alternatives to palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Since several years there has been a demand for food products free of palm oil, noticeable in the Western European market. Alternatives based on liquid oils, fully hydrogenated fats, and exotic fats like shea and sal etc., have been developed by the research groups of several specialty oils and fats suppliers. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of those products and compares them to similar products based on palm oil. It is also discussed how reasonable the replacement of...

  9. Cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, J. A. T.; Engelmann, Florent

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a tropical plant, is the leading source of edible oil. This review deals with the cryopreservation of oil palm as a way to preserve this important tropical germplasm. Somatic embryos have been the most popular source of material for cryopreservation as they are propagules that are effectively produced during micropropagation. In contrast, fewer studies exist on the cryopreservation of pollen, zygotic embryos, seeds, kernels and embryogenic cell suspensions....

  10. Etiología de un síndrome fungoso y viral en cladodios de nopal verdura (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Barrera, Berenice

    2011-01-01

    El cultivo de nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) presenta diversas enfermedades de importancia económica asociadas a hongos y virus. Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron: a) detectar la ocurrencia de infecciones latentes del agente causal de la mancha negra, Pseudocercospora opuntiae (Po), mediante estudios histológicos y evaluar la implicación sinergética de Colletotrichum sp. (C) en la infección de P.opuntiae, y b) demostrar la naturaleza etiológica viral asociada a manchas cloróticas anula...

  11. Infestation and dispersal speed of dactylopius opuntiae cockerell on giant cactus pea, 1896 in the State Of Paraíba, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In 2001 was introduced in the State of Paraíba, the exotic pest Dactylopius opuntiae, commonly known as carmine cochineal, which already undertaken the cultivation of the giant cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) in more than fifty cities. This study aimed to evaluate the infestation and dispersal speed of D. opuntiae at the field conditions, to establish a level of pest control. The research was performed in a field of giant cactus pear with twelve months cropped, artificially infested with t...

  12. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibragimov Abdulla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011, to encourage more downstream investments and production of refined palm oil products. Under the revised export duty structure, crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil are cheaper for downstream activities in Indonesia. The new structure is expected to reduce Malaysia’s competitiveness in the world market as its export duty is relatively higher. A high export duty results in high price of crude palm oil which is the raw material for processed palm oil. The research questions are: (i What are the likely future trends of crude palm oil exports under the new crude palm oil export duties? Will it increase, reduce or stabilize? (ii What are the likely future trends of processed palm oil exports? Will it increase exponentially, stabilize or reduce? To answer these questions, a system dynamics model was developed for the Malaysian palm oil. Application of the system dynamics model provides a framework to understand the feedback structure and how changes in variables impact the behavior of the palm oil industry. This research suggests that with low crude palm oil export duties crude palm oil domestic price, profitability of plantation owners, immature crop, mature crop, total planted area, production and exports of crude palm oil increase, however exports of processed palm oil decrease.

  13. ESTUDIO DE LA ADSORCION DE CROMO HEXAVALENTE COMO BIOMATERIAL LA ECTODERMIS DE OPUNTIA

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el fenómeno de adsorción química como una opción viable en el tratamiento de aguas residuales que contiene disueltos iones metálicos, específicamente se aborda el estudio del Cromo Hexavalente, el cual se puso en contacto con el biomaterial de Ectodermis de Opuntia. Dicho biomaterial se puso en contacto con soluciones de dicho elemento solo y formando un complejo coloreado con la difenilcarbazida (DFC), esto con la finalidad de estudiar el comportamiento de la ads...

  14. Hypotensive activity, toxicology and histopathology of opuntioside-I and methanolic extract of Opuntia dillenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Rubeena; Ahmad, Mohammad; Azmat, Aisha; Ahmad, Syed Iqbal; Faizi, Zareen; Abidi, Lubna; Faizi, Shaheen

    2005-10-01

    Methanolic extract of Opuntia dillenii cladodes and its pure compound alpha-pyrone glycoside, opuntioside-I showed potent hypotensive activity in normotensive rats. Both the extract and opuntioside-I showed comparable effect of 44-54% fall in Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MABP) at the dose of 10 mg/kg. No mortality was observed in rats even at the doses of 1000 mg/kg/d and 900 mg/kg/d per oral of extract and opuntioside-I respectively. However, histopathology revealed adverse effects of high doses on liver and spleen of the experimental animals.

  15. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic Activity of Opuntia dillenii Haw Fruit Juice in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Inas Z. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Opuntia dillenii Haw fruit is used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible curative role of O. dillenii fruit juice using the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The nutritive value of the edible portion of the fruit was also assessed. Results: The results showed that O. dillenii fruit is a rich source of fiber, carbohydrates, vitamins B1, B2 and C, in addition to the minerals, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ca, and Mg. Biological...

  16. Isolation and characterization of a reserve protein from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchoa A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae. This protein has a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of this protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is Asp-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Glu-Gln-Arg.

  17. Antimicrobial Activities of Opuntia Extracts%仙人掌浸提液的抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁佩芳

    2001-01-01

    Effective components of opuntia were extracted by using two different solvent. In the mean time the antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and heat stability were studied. It is shown that extracts of opuntia had a notable inhibiting microorganism activity, but they are not effective to Aspergillus niger. 95 percent of ethanol extracts of opuntia has a stronger inhibiting activity than water extracts. The MIC for every kind of microorganism is respectively as follows: Proteus valgaris and E. coli, 0.125 g/mL, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Penicillium sp., 0.25 g/mL, Rhodotorula sp.Saccharomyces cerevisiae,0.50g/mL.In addition, extracts of opuntia were excellent in heat stability, it still shows a strong antiseptic power after a treatment of 121 ℃ ,30 min.%用2种不同的溶剂浸提仙人掌茎中的有效成分,对其进行抑菌作用、最低抑菌浓度及其热稳定性的研究。结果表明:2种浸提液对多种供试微生物均有较明显的抑制作用,但对黑曲霉的抑制效果不明显;仙人掌的95%乙醇浸提液的抑菌效果优于水浸提液。仙人掌乙醇浸提液的最小抑菌质量浓度分别为:变形杆菌、大肠杆菌0.125 g/mL,枯草芽孢杆菌、蜡状芽孢杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、青霉0.25 g/mL,赤酵母、啤酒酵母0.50 g/mL,而且,其热稳定性好,经121℃、30 min湿热灭菌处理仍具有较强的抗菌效力。

  18. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp. = Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agenor Costa Ribeiro Neto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma Orelhade-elefante (Opuntia sp.. Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de 5 min. por um período de 24h. Os consumos de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergenteácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos foram menores (p 0,05 sobre o tempo gasto comalimentação e eficiência de alimentação. O tempo gasto com ruminação foi maior para a dieta com palma Gigante, consequentemente os animais da dieta com palma Orelha-de-elefante permaneceram mais tempo em ócio. Comparando as espécies caprina e ovina, verificou-se que aeficiência de ruminação, tanto de MS quanto de FDN, foi maior para a espécie ovina. Os animais gastaram mais tempo ruminando deitados do que em pé, mas não foi verificada diferença quanto ao lado escolhido para deitarem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.. Twenty crossbred animals – 10 sheep and 10 goats – were used. They were lodged in a collective shed, contained individually with ropes, distributed using a completely randomized design, and treated with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (2 animal species and 2 varieties of cactus. Behavioralobservations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24-hour period. Dry matter, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake were reduced (p 0.05 on feeding time and feeding efficiency. The time spent with

  19. PERSISTENCIA DE Salmonella Typhimurium EN NOPAL VERDURA (Opuntia ficus-indica)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Hernández Anguiano; Mateo Vargas Hernández; Carlos A. Eslava Campos; Cristóbal Chaidez Quíroz; Jitu Patel; Patricia Landa Salgado

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se evaluó la capacidad de S. entérica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) para persistir en cladodios de nopal verdura (Opuntia ficus-indica) y en suelo, así como determinar si las plantas responden a inoculaciones con la bacteria, y comparar dicha respuesta entre diferentes cladodios (cladodios madre, secundarios in planta, y secundarios cortados). S. Typhimurium persistió en suelo y tejido de nopal hasta por 14 d. La capacidad de la bacteria para persistir en el tejido depe...

  20. Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y N; Choo, Y; Lee, Y C; Moon, Y I; Kim, S D; Choi, J W

    2001-02-01

    Three varieties of methyl citrate and 1-methyl malate were isolated from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Makino through in vitro bioassay-guided isolation for the inhibition on monoamine oxidase(MAO). The IC50 values for MAO-B of 1-monomethyl citrate, 1,3-dimethyl citrate, trimethyl citrate and 1-methyl malate were 0.19, 0.23, 0.61 and 0.25 mM, respectively. However, on MAO-A, their inhibitions showed only marginal activity.

  1. Developing Cyber Foraging Applications for Portable Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the Locusts cyber foraging framework. Cyber foraging is the opportunistic use of computing resources available in the nearby environment, and using such resources thus fall into the category of distributed computing. Furthermore, for the resources to be used efficiently......, parallel computing techniques must also be employed. Distributed and parallel computing are two concepts that are both notoriously known for being very hard for developers to grasp. Because of this one might think that techniques such as cyber foraging would have a hard time surviving outside of research...... environments. In this paper a framework is presented that has special focus on making cyber foraging accessible for all developers....

  2. Visual Foraging With Fingers and Eye Gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Thornton, Ian M; Smith, Irene J; Chetverikov, Andrey; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-03-01

    A popular model of the function of selective visual attention involves search where a single target is to be found among distractors. For many scenarios, a more realistic model involves search for multiple targets of various types, since natural tasks typically do not involve a single target. Here we present results from a novel multiple-target foraging paradigm. We compare finger foraging where observers cancel a set of predesignated targets by tapping them, to gaze foraging where observers cancel items by fixating them for 100 ms. During finger foraging, for most observers, there was a large difference between foraging based on a single feature, where observers switch easily between target types, and foraging based on a conjunction of features where observers tended to stick to one target type. The pattern was notably different during gaze foraging where these condition differences were smaller. Two conclusions follow: (a) The fact that a sizeable number of observers (in particular during gaze foraging) had little trouble switching between different target types raises challenges for many prominent theoretical accounts of visual attention and working memory. (b) While caveats must be noted for the comparison of gaze and finger foraging, the results suggest that selection mechanisms for gaze and pointing have different operational constraints.

  3. U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  4. U.S. DAIRY FORAGE RESEARCH CENTER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  5. European Policies towards Palm Oil - Sorting Out some Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Pehnelt, Gernot; Vietze, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of palm oil and its sustainability from different perspectives. We consider the role of palm oil within the GHG context. We discuss the impact of palm oil on biodiversity and analyse how palm oil can contribute to economic growth and development in tropical countries. Finally, based on this analysis, we assess the current concerns about and politics towards palm oil with special focus on the EU. Palm oil is a low-energy and low-fertilizer crop that offers much hig...

  6. Evolution and Floral Development in Wax Palms (Ceroxylon) and Vegetable Ivory Palms (Tribe Phytelepheae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Stauffer, Fred W.; Balhara, Manju;

    To most palm systematists it came as a surprise when molecular evidence pointed to a sister group relationship between the tribe Ceroxyleae in the subfamily Ceroxyloideae and the Phytelephantoid palms formerly referred to a subfamily of their own, now placed in the tribe Phytelepheae. Here we com...

  7. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  8. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivati

  9. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  10. Sulphated galactopyran derived from Gracilaria opuntia, a marine macroalgae restores the antioxidant metabolic enzymes during STZ induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Rayapu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the effect of sulphated galactopyran fraction isolated from Gracilaria opuntia (G. opuntia (FM4 in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods: In vitro antioxidant assays of FM4 were estimated by DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl free radical and Nitric oxide free radical activities. FM4 was purified and characterized by 1H-NMR spectra and FTIR as sulphated galactopyran. Diabetes was induced intraperitonially by single dose of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight. FM4 was administrated orally (80, 100, 125 mg/kg BW to diabetic rats for 60 days. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, lipid peroxidase (LPx, glutathione reduced (GSH, vitamin-C (VIT-C and vitamin-E (VIT-E levels were estimated. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug. Results: Our results demonstrated that the aqueous extract of G. opuntia possess free radical scavenging activity. During FM4 fraction treatment (100 mg/kg BW, the SOD, GPx, CAT, GST, GSH, VIT-C and VIT-E levels were significantly (P < 0.05 increased, and the LPx levels were decreased in different organs such as liver, kidney, brain and pancreas of diabetic rats. Conclusions: The sulphated galactopyran fraction of the marine macroalgae (G. opuntia possesses the antioxidant activity which might help in the prevention of oxidative damage that occurs during diabetes.

  11. Current management efforts against Cactoblastis cactorum as a pest of North American prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...

  12. Rearing a native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on artificial diet and Opuntia cladodes: Preliminary comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared several biological parameters of native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis, reared on an artificial versus the natural diet of Opuntia spp. cladodes. Results suggest that the current artificial diet developed for mass rearing C. cactorum can provide nutritional value for the rear...

  13. Growing Opuntia (cactus) and Brassica species for the long-term remediation of selenium-contaminated soil under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying alternative crops for planting in Se-containing agricultural soils of western central California will depend upon the plants’ ability to tolerate high salt and boron (B) conditions. Multi-year field studies were conducted on Se-laden soils with different cactus clones (Opuntia-ficus indi...

  14. Analysis of the community structure of yeasts associated with the decaying stems of cactus. II.Opuntia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starmer, W T; Phaff, H J

    1983-10-01

    A survey was made of yeast species associated with the decaying pads of 3 prickly pear cacti (Opuntia phaeacantha, O. ficus-indica, andO. lindheimeri) in Arizona and Texas. Yeast communities from 12 localities were compared among localities, amongOpuntia species, and with previous data on yeast communities associated with columnar cacti. The results indicate thatOpuntia necroses contain relatively more yeast species with broader physiological abilities in their communities than columnar necroses. It is argued that differences in chemistry of the opuntias and columnar forms in concert with the insect vectors specific for these cacti account for the differences in yeast community structure. It is further hypothesized that the differences in yeast community structure have been important in the evolution and maintenance of species diversity forDrosophila species which live in the decaying stems or cladodes of various cacti. Most of the yeast community evolution in the cacti is postulated to have proceeded by evolution in situ and not by additions and replacements from outside of the system.

  15. Interactions between shoal size and conformity in guppy social foraging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Day, R.L.; Macdonald, T.; Brown, C.; Laland, K.N.; Reader, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have established that shoaling fish forage more effectively in large than small groups. We investigated how shoal size affects the foraging efficiency of laboratory populations of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, exposed to different foraging tasks. Experiment 1

  16. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  17. Optimized Monitoring of Production of Cellulose Nanowhiskers from Opuntia ficus-indica (Nopal Cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Vieyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs has grown significantly because they are useful for a wide range of applications. Additional advantage in their design requires that they meet the following characteristics: nontoxicity, abundance, sustainability, renewability, and low cost. To address these requirements, nanowhiskers were prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica (nopal cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Monitoring the process of CNWs preparation is necessary to ensure maximum yield and purity of the end product. In this study, the cellulose preparation was monitored by analyzing microscopic morphology by SEM; the purity degree was determined by fluorescence microscopy as a novel and rapid technique, and FTIR spectroscopy was used for confirmation. The additional parameters that monitored the process were the crystallinity index by X-ray diffraction and the size of the particle by dynamic light scattering (DLS. Nopal cellulose was found to be comparable to commercial microcrystalline cellulose. The use of Opuntia ficus-indica is a viable alternative for the production of highly pure CNWs and the strategy to supervise the preparation process was rapid.

  18. Antioxidant, antibacterial and in vivo dermal wound healing effects of Opuntia flower extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Imene; Bardaa, Sana; Mzid, Massara; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Rebaii, Tarak; Attia, Hamadi; Ennouri, Monia

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica flowers are used for various medicinal purposes. The aims of the present investigation were to evaluate biological properties of O. ficus-indica flowers extracts and to investigate its antioxidant and antibacterial activities and its ability to enhance wound healing. The wound healing activity of the mucilaginous and methanol extracts of O. ficus-indica flowers were assessed using excision wound model in rats. After thirteen days of treatment by both extracts, a beneficial effect on cutaneous repair was observed as assessed by the acceleration of wound contraction and remodeling phases. Histopathological studies of the granulation tissue indicated that the derma is properly arranged with the Opuntia flowers extract, compared with the control group. The mucilage extract was more effective than the methanol extract, but both showed significant results compared with the control. Such investigation was supported by the efficiency of the methanolic and mucilage extract as antimicrobial and antioxidant. Indeed, the extracts showed a potential antioxidant activity determined by different test systems, namely DPPH radicals scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching assay and metal chelating activity and exhibited significant antibacterial activity against almost all tested bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diversity of unavailable polysaccharides and dietary fiber in domesticated nopalito and cactus pear fruit (Opuntia spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Trejo, Carlos; Arroyo-Peña, V Baruch; Sánchez Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz; Balois Morales, Rosendo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify mucilages, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose of nopalitos (edible, as vegetable, young cladodes of flat-stemmed spiny cacti) of most consumed Mexican cultivars, and sweet and acid cactus pear fruits of Opuntia spp. The hypothesis is that, regardless of their unavailable polysaccharides diversity, nopalitos and cactus pear fruits are rich sources of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Twelve cultivars of Opuntia spp. were used. Nopalitos had a significant variation in structural polysaccharides among the cultivars: mucilages (from 3.8 to 8.6% dry matter (DM)) averaged near a half of pectins content (from 6.1 to 14.2% DM) and tightly bound hemicelluloses (from 2.2 to 4.7% DM), which were the less abundant polysaccharides, amounted 50% of the loosely bound hemicelluloses (from 4.3 to 10.7% DM). Acid fruits (or 'xoconostle') had significantly higher unavailable polysaccharides content than sweet fruit, and contain similar proportions than nopalitos. Unavailable polysaccharides represent a high proportion of dry tissues of nopalitos and cactus pear fruits, composition of both of these soluble and insoluble polysaccharides (total dietary fiber) widely vary among cultivars without an evident pattern. Nopalitos and cactus pear fruit can be considered an excellent source of dietary fiber.

  20. Opuntia ficus indica extract protects against chlorpyrifos-induced damage on mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncibi, Saida; Ben Othman, Mahmoud; Akacha, Amira; Krifi, Mohamed Naceur; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2008-02-01

    This original study investigates the role of Opuntia ficus indica (cactus) cladodes extract against liver damage induced in male SWISS mice by an organophosphorous insecticide, the chlorpyrifos (CPF). Liver damage was evaluated by the measure of its weight and the quantification of some biochemical parameters, such as alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), phosphatase alkaline (PAL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cholesterol and albumin in serum by spectrophotometric techniques. The experimental approach lasted 48 h and consisted of 6 treatments of six mice each one; (1) control, (2) 10 mg/kg (b.w) CPF, (3) 10mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 100 mg/kg (b.w) cactus, (4) 150 mg/kg (b.w)CPF, (5) 150 mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 1.5 g/kg cactus, (6) 1.5 g/kg cactus. Both chlorpyrifos and cactus were administrated orally via gavages. Our results showed that CPF affects significantly all parameters studied. However, when this pesticide was administrated associated to cactus, we noticed a recovery of all their levels. In the other hand, cactus alone did not affect the studied parameters. These results allow us to conclude firstly that CPF is hepatotoxic and secondly that Opuntia ficus indica stem extract protects the liver and decreases the toxicity induced by this organophosphorous pesticide.

  1. A Process of Recovery of a Natural Yellow Colourant from Opuntia Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Fernández-López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the development of a processing scheme to obtain a water-soluble natural yellow colourant from Opuntia fruits for application in food, paying special attention to the extraction procedure. Edible yellow Opuntia fruits grown in Murcia (Spain were homogenized and extracted with ethanol, water, or ethanol/water (60:40 solvents. Pigment extract was chemically characterized and individual pigments were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, UV-VIS spectrophotometry, and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. A sequential extraction procedure was determined as follows: homogenization, stirring, centrifugation, filtration and concentration. The highest betaxanthin content per kg of fresh pulp (0.68 mmol of indicaxanthin was obtained from the hydroalcoholic extract, and moreover, this solvent minimized the presence of mucilage and pectins, which are substances not desired in dye extracts. A concentrated pigment extract was obtained under rotary evaporation at 35 °C and reduced pressure (6 kPa, with a betaxanthin concentration (expressed as indicaxanthin of 0.27 g/L, and CIELAB values of L*=92.7, a=–0.8 and b*=68.5. The individual pigment HPLC analysis with photodiode array and mass spectral detection revealed that proline-betaxanthin (indicaxanthin was clearly dominant, while all other betalains were present in comparatively low quantities. The pigment stability was checked at 4 and 25 °C. Kinetics analyses indicate that the betaxanthin degradation pattern can be approximated as pseudo-first-order kinetics.

  2. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods.

  3. Foraging behaviour by parasitoids in multiherbivore communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, de M.; Dicke, M.; Poelman, E.H.

    2013-01-01

    Parasitoid foraging decisions are often affected by community characteristics such as community diversity and complexity. As part of a complex habitat, the presence of unsuitable hosts may affect foraging behaviour of parasitoids. First, unsuitable herbivores may affect the localization of patches w

  4. Increased carrying capacity with perennial forage kochia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrying capacity can be increased on grass-dominated rangeland pastures by including perennial forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) as one of the plant components. The objectives of the study reported here were to compare the differences of traditional winter pastures versus pastures with forage kochi...

  5. Optimal forager against ideal free distributed prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, József; Cressman, Ross; Xu, Fei; Varga, Zoltan; Cabello, Tomás

    2015-07-01

    The introduced dispersal-foraging game is a combination of prey habitat selection between two patch types and optimal-foraging approaches. Prey's patch preference and forager behavior determine the prey's survival rate. The forager's energy gain depends on local prey density in both types of exhaustible patches and on leaving time. We introduce two game-solution concepts. The static solution combines the ideal free distribution of the prey with optimal-foraging theory. The dynamical solution is given by a game dynamics describing the behavioral changes of prey and forager. We show (1) that each stable equilibrium dynamical solution is always a static solution, but not conversely; (2) that at an equilibrium dynamical solution, the forager can stabilize prey mixed patch use strategy in cases where ideal free distribution theory predicts that prey will use only one patch type; and (3) that when the equilibrium dynamical solution is unstable at fixed prey density, stable behavior cycles occur where neither forager nor prey keep a fixed behavior.

  6. Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residues. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Keywords: Palm kernel shell; Mesocarp fibre; Briquette; Biomass solid fuel; proximate analysis.

  7. Factors affecting oil palm production in Ondo state of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    Regression analysis showed that only two of the variables; level of education ... were predicted to have significant relationship with the yield of oil palm. ..... Table 5: Multiple Regression analysis of factors affecting oil palm production in.

  8. Health promoting effects of phytonutrients found in palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, R; Selvaduray, K R; Nesaretnam, K; Radhakrishnan, A K

    2010-08-01

    The oil palm tree, Elaeis guineesis, is the source of palm oil, otherwise known as the "tropical golden oil". To date, Malaysia and Indonesia are the leading producers of palm oil. Palm oil is widely used for domestic cooking in Malaysia. Palm oil is a rich source of phytonutrients such as tocotrienols, tocopherol, carotene, phytosterols, squalene, coenzyme Q10, polyphenols, and phospholipids. Although the phytonutrients constitute only about 1% of its weight in crude palm oil, these are the main constituents through which palm oil exhibits its nutritional properties. Among the major health promoting properties shown to be associated with the various types of phytonutrients present in palm oil are anti-cancer, cardio-protection and anti-angiogenesis, cholesterol inhibition, brain development and neuro protective properties, antioxidative defence mechanisms, provitamin A activity and anti-diabetes.

  9. development of motorized development of motorized oil palm fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Cameroon, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Malaysia and. Indonesia. Nigeria used .... of the oil palm fruits relevant to their behaviour ..... industrial raw material development as well as food security ... industry, local consumption and for export. Oil palm.

  10. Pollination mechanisms in palms – a synoecological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn

    More than 60 pollination ecological studies have been conducted on palms since Henderson’s almost 25 year old review of palm pollination. Most studies are aut-ecological studies that provide a detailed snapshot of the pollination of a limited number of palm individuals of the same species....... They confirm that most palm inflorescences offer a loose framework for the interaction between the palms and their insect visitors. The pollinators are typically weevils (superfamily Curculionidea), rove beetles (family Staphylinidae), sweat bees (family Halictidae), stingless bees (tribe Meliponini, family...... Apidae), and flies (order Diptera). Less is known about variations in the composition of the visiting insect fauna across the geographic range of a given palm species. A number canopy studies have contributed to our understanding of palms in broader palm-pollinator networks and provided insight...

  11. Co-occurrence and community assembly in Amazonian palms (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Kristiansen, Thea

    Palms (Arecaceae) are a distinctive, diverse and ecologically important element of tropical rainforest. Often numerous palm species co-occur locally in "palm communities" that span all strata of the forest. In South America, the palm family has a centre of diversity in the western Amazon basin...... where palms abound in all major habitats. Using a dataset including >340,000 palm individuals in 430 transects, we analysed species richness, compositional turnover, and phylogenetic structure of palm assemblages in this region. We found a strong relationship of alpha-diversity and species turnover...... on phylogenetic assemblage structure. The results indicate that multiple drivers interact to determine palm diversity patterns in lowland rainforests. A major future challenge is adding the effect of plant-plant, plant-animal, and plant-pathogen interactions to the equation....

  12. Rehabilitation of Degraded Rangeland in Drylands by Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) Plantations: Effect on Soil and Spontaneous Vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Souad Neffar; Haroun Chenchouni; Arifa Beddiar; Noureddine Redjel

    2013-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid lands, the spiny prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) is an outstanding plant for soil conservation and restoration. To determine the role of Opuntia ficus-indica on vegetation recovery process in desertified areas of Southern Tebessa (Northeast Algeria), we investigated the effect of prickly pear plantation age and some soil properties (grain size, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and CaCO3 equivalents) on native ...

  13. Universality classes of foraging with resource renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupeau, M.; Bénichou, O.; Redner, S.

    2016-03-01

    We determine the impact of resource renewal on the lifetime of a forager that depletes its environment and starves if it wanders too long without eating. In the framework of a minimal starving random-walk model with resource renewal, there are three universal classes of behavior as a function of the renewal time. For sufficiently rapid renewal, foragers are immortal, while foragers have a finite lifetime otherwise. In the specific case of one dimension, there is a third regime, for sufficiently slow renewal, in which the lifetime of the forager is independent of the renewal time. We outline an enumeration method to determine the mean lifetime of the forager in the mortal regime.

  14. Foraging in groups affects giving-up densities: solo foragers quit sooner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthey, Alexandra J R; Banks, Peter B

    2015-07-01

    The giving-up density framework is an elegant and widely adopted mathematical approach to measuring animals' foraging decisions at non-replenishing artificial resource patches. Under this framework, an animal should "give up" when the benefits of foraging are outweighed by the costs (e.g., predation risk, energetic, and/or missed opportunity costs). However, animals of many species may forage in groups, and group size is expected to alter perceived predation risk and hence influence quitting decisions. Yet, most giving-up density studies assume either that individuals forage alone or that giving-up densities are not affected by group foraging. For animals that forage both alone and in groups, differences in giving-up densities due to group foraging rather than experimental variables may substantially alter interpretation. However, no research to date has directly investigated how group foraging affects the giving-up density. We used remote-sensing cameras to identify instances of group foraging in two species of Rattus across three giving-up density experiments to determine whether group foraging influences giving-up densities. Both Rattus species have been observed to vary between foraging alone and in groups. In all three experiments, solo foragers left higher giving-up densities on average than did group foragers. This result has important implications for studies using giving-up densities to investigate perceived risk, the energetic costs of searching, handling time, digestion, and missed opportunity costs, particularly if groups of animals are more likely to experience certain experimental treatments. It is critically important that future giving-up density studies consider the effects of group foraging.

  15. Image Fusion Techniques for Multispectral Palm Image Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Rajashree Bhokare; Deepali Sale; Dr. (Mrs. ) M. A. Joshi; Dr. M. S. Gaikwad

    2013-01-01

    We proposed the multispectral image enhancement through image fusion by combining the data from the multiple spectrum to address the problem of accuracy and make the system robust against spoofing and to improve the accuracy of recognition, using more discriminating of palm images. Palm line features are clearer in the blue and green bands while red band can reveal some palm vein structure. The NIR band can show the palm vein structure as well as partial line information. Image fusion improve...

  16. Palms and Palm Communities in the Upper Ucayali River Valley - a Little-Known Region in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea;

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region and its palms are inseparable. Palms make up such an important part of the rain forest ecosystem that it is impossible to imagine the Amazon basin without them. Palms are visible in the canopy and often fill up the forest understory. Palms – because of their edible fruits...... – are cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little......-explored corner of the western Amazon basin, the upper Ucayali river valley. There, we encountered 56 different palms, 18 of which had not been registered for the region previously, and 21 of them were found 150–400 km beyond their previously known limits....

  17. Species Diversity and Growth Forms in Tropical American Palm Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Kahn, Francis; Millán, Betty;

    2011-01-01

    To advance our understanding of the processes that govern the assembly of palm communities and the local coexistence of numerous palm species, we here synthesize available information in the literature on species diversity and growth-form composition in palm communities across the Americas. Ameri...

  18. Contemporary land-use transitions: The global oil palm expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette

    The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of o...

  19. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  20. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  1. Comparison of Acoustic Characteristics of Date Palm Fibre and Oil Palm Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyaa Abd ALRahman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated and compared the acoustic characteristics of two natural organic fibres: date palm fibre and oil palm fibre, these materials eligible for acoustical absorption. During the processing stage, both fibre sheets are treated with latex. The two fibres are compressed after latex treatment Circular samples (100 mm in diameter and 28 mm, based on the measurement tube requirements are cut out of the sheets. The density of the date palm fibre sheet is 150 kg/m3 for a 50 mm thickness and 130 kg/m3 for a 30 mm thickness. In contrast, the density of oil palm fibre is 75 kg/m3 for a 50 mm thickness and 65 kg/m3 for a 30 mm thickness. An impedance tube was used to test the thicknesses of both samples based on international standards. The results show that the date palm fibre exhibits two Acoustic Absorption Coefficient (AAC peaks: 0.93 at 1356 Hz and 0.99 at 4200-4353 Hz for the 50-mm-thick sample. In contrast, the 30-mm-thick sample has a single AAC peak of 0.83 at 2381.38-2809.38 Hz. However, the 50-mm-thick oil palm fibre has an AAC peak of 0.75 at 1946.88-2178.13 Hz and the 30-mm-thick oil palm fibre has an acoustic absorption coefficient peak 0.59 at 3225-3712.5 Hz. Thus, the date palm fibre has a higher acoustic absorption coefficient for high and low frequencies than does oil palm fibre. Both fibres are promising for use as sound absorber materials to protect against environmental noise pollution.

  2. Exploratory Study of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Muthusamy, K.; Z. Nur Azzimah

    2014-01-01

    In Malaysia, issue of environmental pollution resulting from disposal of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) which is a by-product from palm oil mill has initiated research to incorporate this waste in Oil Palm Shell (OPS) lightweight aggregate concrete production. The current study investigates the effect of palm oil fuel ash content as partial cement replacement towards compressive strength OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Several OPS lightweight aggregate concrete mixes were produced by replacing ...

  3. The effect of red palm olein and refined palm olein on lipids and haemostatic factors in hyperfibrinogenaemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Susanna C; Pieters, Marlien; Oosthuizen, Welma; Jerling, Johann C; Bosman, Magdalena J C; Vorster, Hester H

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological effects of red palm olein (RPO). The effects of red palm olein and palm olein (POL) compared to sunflower oil (SFO), on lipids, haemostatic factors and fibrin network characteristics in hyperfibrinogenaemic volunteers were investigated. Fifty-nine free-living, hyperfibrinogenaemic volunteers participated in this randomized, controlled, single blind parallel study. After a 4-week run-in, during which subjects received sunflower oil products, they were paired and randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups receiving products containing 25 g/day ( approximately 12% of total energy intake) of either red palm olein, palm olein or sunflower oil for another 4 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, blood samples and dietary intakes were measured before run-in, and before and after intervention. The differences in changes in total serum cholesterol response between palm olein and red palm olein (+0.59 vs. +0.18 mmol/l; p=0.053), and between palm olein and sunflower oil (+0.59 vs. -0.003 mmol/l; p palm olein-and sunflower oil-groups also differed significantly (+0.42 vs. -0.11 mmol/l; p palm olein group compared to the palm olein-and sunflower oil-groups. No effects were found in other haemostatic variables. Palm olein and red palm olein had no independent effect on fibrin network characteristics. In conclusion, compared to palm olein, red palm olein had less detrimental effects on the lipid profile and decreased tissue plasminogen activator antigen. Studies in larger groups are advised for confirmation of results, elucidation of mechanisms and effects of nonglyceride constituents of red palm oil (PO).

  4. On palms, bugs, and Chagas disease in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Lima, Marli M; Sarquis, Otília; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Martín, María; Calzada, José; Saldaña, Azael; Monteiro, Fernando A; Palomeque, Francisco S; Santos, Walter S; Angulo, Victor M; Esteban, Lyda; Dias, Fernando B S; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Bar, María Esther; Gottdenker, Nicole L

    2015-11-01

    Palms are ubiquitous across Neotropical landscapes, from pristine forests or savannahs to large cities. Although palms provide useful ecosystem services, they also offer suitable habitat for triatomines and for Trypanosoma cruzi mammalian hosts. Wild triatomines often invade houses by flying from nearby palms, potentially leading to new cases of human Chagas disease. Understanding and predicting triatomine-palm associations and palm infestation probabilities is important for enhancing Chagas disease prevention in areas where palm-associated vectors transmit T. cruzi. We present a comprehensive overview of palm infestation by triatomines in the Americas, combining a thorough reanalysis of our published and unpublished records with an in-depth review of the literature. We use site-occupancy modeling (SOM) to examine infestation in 3590 palms sampled with non-destructive methods, and standard statistics to describe and compare infestation in 2940 palms sampled by felling-and-dissection. Thirty-eight palm species (18 genera) have been reported to be infested by ∼39 triatomine species (10 genera) from the USA to Argentina. Overall infestation varied from 49.1-55.3% (SOM) to 62.6-66.1% (dissection), with important heterogeneities among sub-regions and particularly among palm species. Large palms with complex crowns (e.g., Attalea butyracea, Acrocomia aculeata) and some medium-crowned palms (e.g., Copernicia, Butia) are often infested; in slender, small-crowned palms (e.g., Euterpe) triatomines associate with vertebrate nests. Palm infestation tends to be higher in rural settings, but urban palms can also be infested. Most Rhodnius species are probably true palm specialists, whereas Psammolestes, Eratyrus, Cavernicola, Panstrongylus, Triatoma, Alberprosenia, and some Bolboderini seem to use palms opportunistically. Palms provide extensive habitat for enzootic T. cruzi cycles and a critical link between wild cycles and transmission to humans. Unless effective means to

  5. Amerindian names of Colombian palms (Palmae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marmolejo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A glossary of 1276 Amerindian names or name variants of palms is presented, representing at least 121 species in 64 aboriginal languages of Colombia. The species with documented names in the largest number of languages are Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua, Mauritia flexuosa,Euterpe precatoria, andAstrocaryum chambira, which are five of the most used palms in South America. The languages with the largest number of named species are uitoto (48, tikuna (47, muinane (43, siona (34, sikuani (31 and miraña (30. These figures reflect the detailed studies carried out with these ethnic groups, besides the palm diversity of their territories and their knowledge about it. The names are presented in three separate lists –arranged by species, by language, and a global list of names that includes references for each individual record.

  6. Characteristic Drying Curve of Oil Palm Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifa Puspasari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The drying of crushed oil palm fronds was studied in a fluidized bed dryer assisted with mechanical agitation at different inlet air temperature, superficial air velocity, bed loading and agitation speed. The drying kinetics of the fibers under various drying conditions could be described by a single characteristic drying curve. A combined exponential and power law model is proposed to represent the characteristic drying curve which described both the increasing rate and the falling rate periods. The proposed model is also tested for drying kinetics of oil palm empty fruit bunch from previous researcher. It was found that the characteristic curve for both oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunch fibers has similar shape and that the proposed model is acceptable for describing the complete drying characteristics of the fibers.

  7. Effect of adding mucilage from Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia atropes to raw milk on mesophilic aerobic bacteria and total coliforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ortiz-Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la adición de mucílago líquido y deshidratado de Opuntia ficus-indica y Opuntia atropes a la leche cruda sobre el crecimiento de bacterias mesófilas aerobias y coliformes totales. Las muestras de leche cruda de vacas Holstein de un sistema de producción familiar se adicionaron con mucílago líquido o deshidratado de O. ficus-indica u O. atropes en concentraciones de 0.5, 1.0 y 2.0%. En las muestras se midió el crecimiento de bacterias mesófilas aerobias y coliformes totales. Los resultados se analizaron mediante los modelos de efectos fijos y las comparaciones entre grupos se realizaron por el método de medias de mínimo cuadrados. En general, las cuentas bacterianas para mesófilas aerobias y coliformes totales disminuyeron (P < 0,05 cuando se adicionó mucilago a la leche cruda al 0,5%, independientemente de la especie o de la forma física (deshidratado o líquido. Se observó disminución de cuentas bacterias para mesófilas aerobias (P < 0.05 cuando se adicionó mucílago deshidratado de O. ficus indica (Log10 2.6 UFC mL-1 y O. atropes (Log10 2,7 UFC mL-1 en concentración de 0.5%, respectivamente. Mientras que el grupo Control (leche cruda sin adición de mucílago contenía Log10 3.6 UFC mL-1 de mesófilas aerobias. La mejor respuesta para coliformes totales se observó con el mucílago deshidratado de O. ficus-indica (Log10 3.0 UFC mL-1 y mucílago líquido de O. atropes (Log10 2,7 UFC mL1, ambos adicionados al 1%. El mucílago deshidratado o líquido de O. ficus-indica y O. atropes reducen el contenido microbiano de la leche cruda.

  8. A study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J. Y.; Ng, W. P. Q.; Law, K. H.

    2017-06-01

    In the past decades, palm industry is booming due to its profitable nature. An environmental concern regarding on the palm industry is the enormous amount of waste produced from palm industry. The waste produced or palm biomass is one significant renewable energy source and raw material for value-added products like fiber mats, activated carbon, dried fiber, bio-fertilizer and et cetera in Malaysia. There is a need to establish the palm biomass industry for the recovery of palm biomass for efficient utilization and waste reduction. The development of the industry is strongly depending on the two reasons, the availability and supply consistency of palm biomass as well as the availability of palm biomass processing facilities. In Malaysia, the development of palm biomass industry is lagging due to the lack of mature commercial technology and difficult logistic planning as a result of scattered locality of palm oil mill, where palm biomass is generated. Two main studies have been carried out in this research work: i) industrial study of the feasibility of decentralized and centralized palm biomass processing in Sarawak and ii) development of a systematic and optimized palm biomass processing planning for the development of palm biomass industry in Sarawak, Malaysia. Mathematical optimization technique is used in this work to model the above case scenario for biomass processing to achieve maximum economic potential and resource feasibility. An industrial study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak has been carried out to evaluate the optimality of centralized processing and decentralize processing of the local biomass industry. An optimal biomass processing strategy is achieved.

  9. Sexual segregation in foraging giraffe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mramba, Rosemary Peter; Mahenya, Obeid; Siyaya, Annetjie; Mathisen, Karen Marie; Andreassen, Harry Peter; Skarpe, Christina

    2017-02-01

    Sexual segregation in giraffe is known to vary between savannas. In this study, we compared sexual segregation in giraffe in one nutrient-rich savanna, the Serengeti National Park, one nutrient-poor, Mikumi National Park, and one medium rich savanna, Arusha National Park, (from here on referred to just by name) based on effects of sexual size dimorphism and related hypotheses. Data were collected in the wet and dry seasons, by driving road transects and making visual observations of browsing giraffe. Additional data were collected from literature (plant chemistry; mammal communities). There was a noticeable difference in browsing by females and males and in browsing between the three savannas. Females browsed a higher diversity of tree species in Serengeti whereas males browsed a higher diversity in Arusha, while the diversity of species browsed in Mikumi was high and about the same in both sexes. Females selected for high concentrations of nitrogen and low concentrations of tannins and phenolics compared to males in Serengeti but selection in Mikumi was more complex. Males browsed higher in the canopy than females in all sites, but the browsing height was generally higher in Serengeti than Mikumi and Arusha. Season had an effect on the browsing height independent of sex in Mikumi, where giraffes browsed higher in the dry season compared to the wet season. Males spent more time browsing per tree compared to females in all three sites; however, browsing time in Mikumi was also affected by season, where giraffes had longer browsing bouts in the wet season compared to the dry season. We suggest that sexual differences in forage requirement and in foraging interacts with differences in tree chemistry and in competing herbivore communities between nutrient rich and nutrient poor savanna in shaping the sexual segregation.

  10. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC ...

  11. Open palm technique in Dupuytren's disease treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carpi Malta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of the open palm technique for the treatment of Dupuytren's disease. METHOD: The authors used the technique described by McCash. Twelve patients (13 hands were surgically treated, between october 2002 and september 2011. RESULTS: The wounds healed in a medium of 25 days (variation of 17 to 30 days. There were no complications, such as infection, haematoma formation, skin necrosis, residual edema. CONCLUSION: The open palm technique remains a safe alternative for the treatment of Dupuytren's disease, with satisfactory results and low risk of complications.

  12. Lichen nitidus of palms and soles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Vijay

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen nitidus occurs uncommonly on the palms and soles and has an unusual morphology at these sites. Two patients who presented with lesions on the palms and soles are reported. The first patient had rough papules with prominent keratotic plugs. In the second patient, the lesion was an irregular plaque with peripheral papules showing keratotic plugs. Both patients had typical lesions elsewhere on the body. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. Awareness of this variant will help in prompt recognition of the condition.

  13. Treatment of Palm Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.

    2005-01-01

    The timing and methods of treatment of palm burns in children vary widely. From January 2002 to November 2004, 492 children with burns - 125 of them with hand burns or other body burns - were hospitalized and treated at the N.I. Pirogov Clinic for Burns and Plastic Surgery in Bulgaria. Fifty-four children (for a total of 73 burned hands) presented isolated palm burns.Twenty-two hands were operated on. In this review we present the incidence, causes, treatment methods, functional results, and ...

  14. Ecosystem functions of oil palm plantations - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C.; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M.; Corre, Marife D.; Faust, Heiko; Hess, Bastian; Knohl, Alexander; Kreft, Holger; Meijide, Ana; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Otten, Fenna; Pe'er, Guy; Steinebach, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in the last decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. Howev-er, research on the impacts of oil palm agriculture is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview ex-ists. Here, we address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosys-tem functions in oil palm plantations. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those ...

  15. By-products of palm oil extraction and refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yew-Ai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the utilisation of by-products resulting from the extraction and refining of palm oil. It summarises research by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB directed at producing zero waste from the palm oil industry. MPOB regards by-products of the palm oil industry not as waste but resources. It will be evident that by-products from the palm oil industry can be and have been used extensively and that the research carried out is relevant to both the milling and refining sectors.

  16. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2015-01-01

    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by

  17. Harvester ants use interactions to regulate forager activation and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Bala, Ashwin; Merrell, Andrew; Queirolo, Jovel; Stumpe, Martin C; Holmes, Susan; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-07-01

    Social groups balance flexibility and robustness in their collective response to environmental changes using feedback between behavioural processes that operate at different timescales. Here we examine how behavioural processes operating at two timescales regulate the foraging activity of colonies of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, allowing them to balance their response to food availability and predation. Previous work showed that the rate at which foragers return to the nest with food influences the rate at which foragers leave the nest. To investigate how interactions inside the nest link the rates of returning and outgoing foragers, we observed outgoing foragers inside the nest in field colonies using a novel observation method. We found that the interaction rate experienced by outgoing foragers inside the nest corresponded to forager return rate, and that the interactions of outgoing foragers were spatially clustered. Activation of a forager occurred on the timescale of seconds: a forager left the nest 3-8 s after a substantial increase in interactions with returning foragers. The availability of outgoing foragers to become activated was adjusted on the timescale of minutes: when forager return was interrupted for more than 4-5 min, available foragers waiting near the nest entrance went deeper into the nest. Thus, forager activation and forager availability both increased with the rate at which foragers returned to the nest. This process was checked by negative feedback between forager activation and forager availability. Regulation of foraging activation on the timescale of seconds provides flexibility in response to fluctuations in food abundance, whereas regulation of forager availability on the timescale of minutes provides robustness in response to sustained disturbance such as predation.

  18. Optimal Foraging by Birds: Experiments for Secondary & Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecor, Keith W.; Lake, Ellen C.; Wund, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Optimal foraging theory attempts to explain the foraging patterns observed in animals, including their choice of particular food items and foraging locations. We describe three experiments designed to test hypotheses about food choice and foraging habitat preference using bird feeders. These experiments can be used alone or in combination and can…

  19. A review on studies in forage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Wenxing; YANG Xiaobo; QI Meiying

    2007-01-01

    A review is made of the achievements in the collection,conservation,and genetic diversity of forage germplasm resources;methods and goals for forage breeding;and development and utilization of forage in China.The current problems based on the researches in forage are analyzed,and some suggestions are put forward.

  20. Experimental Wing Damage Affects Foraging Effort and Foraging Distance in Honeybees Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Higginson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bees acquire wing damage as they age, and loss of wing area affects longevity and behaviour. This may influence colony performance via effects on worker behaviour. The effects of experimental wing damage were studied in worker honeybees in observation hives by recording survivorship, how often and for how long bees foraged, and by decoding waggle dances. Mortality rate increased with both age and wing damage. Damaged bees carried out shorter and/or less frequent foraging trips, foraged closer to the hive, and reported the profitability of flower patches to be lower than did controls. These results suggest that wing damage caused a reduction in foraging ability, and that damaged bees adjusted their foraging behaviour accordingly. Furthermore, the results suggest that wing damage affects the profitability of nectar sources. These results have implications for the colony dynamics and foraging efficiency in honeybees.

  1. Quality assessment of palm products upon prolonged heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai

    2008-01-01

    Extending the frying-life of oils is of commercial and economic importance. Due to this fact, assessment on the thermal stability of frying oils could provide considerable savings to the food processors. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of five palm products mainly palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein, double-fractionated palm olein, red palm olein and palm-based shortening during 80 hours of heating at 180 degrees C were investigated. Heating properties of these products were then compared with that of high oleic sunflower oil, which was used as reference oil. The indices applied in evaluating the quality changes of oils were free fatty acid, smoke point, p-anisidine value, tocols, polar and polymer compounds. Three palm products i.e. palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein and double-fractionated palm olein were identified to be the most stable in terms of lower formation of free fatty acid, polar and polymer compounds as well as preserving higher smoke point and tocols content compared to the other three oils. The low intensity of hydrolytic and oxidative changes due to prolonged heating, suggests that these palm products are inherently suitable for frying purposes.

  2. From rainforest to oil palm plantations: Shifts in predator population and prey communities, but resistant interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Konopik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat change can dramatically alter biotic communities in tropical landscapes. Species that persist in human dominated landscapes are therefore likely to modify the way they interact. Although human impacts on community composition are relatively well studied, changes in species interactions are less well documented. Here we assess how logging of rainforest and conversion to oil palm plantations affects the populations of the ant-specialist giant river toad (Phrynoidis juxtaspera, and the availability and composition of its ant prey. We measured canopy cover as an estimate for the degree of disturbance and found that toad abundance decreased with increasing disturbance, and that retaining riparian vegetation should therefore help conserve this species. Both abundance and species richness of local ground-foraging ants increased with disturbance, and ant community composition was altered. Despite these changes, composition of ants consumed by toads was only weakly affected by habitat change, with the exception of the invasive yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes, which was positively selected in oil palm plantations. This suggests that predator–prey interactions can be mostly maintained with habitat disturbance despite shifts in the community composition of potential prey, and even that some predators are capable of exploiting new prey sources in novel ecosystems.

  3. Worker honey bee pheromone regulation of foraging ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiw, Tanya

    The evolution of sociality has configured communication chemicals, called primer pheromones, which play key roles in regulating the organization of social life. Primer pheromones exert relatively slow effects that fundamentally alter developmental, physiological, and neural systems. Here, I demonstrate how substances extracted from the surface of foraging and young pre-foraging worker bees regulated age at onset of foraging, a developmental process. Hexane-extractable compounds washed from foraging workers increased foraging age compared with controls, whereas extracts of young pre-foraging workers decreased foraging age. This represents the first known direct demonstration of primer pheromone activity derived from adult worker bees.

  4. Quitting time: When do honey bee foragers decide to stop foraging on natural resources?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael eRivera; Matina eDonaldson-Matasci; Anna eDornhaus

    2015-01-01

    Honey bee foragers may use both personal and social information when making decisions about when to visit resources. In particular, foragers may stop foraging at resources when their own experience indicates declining resource quality, or when social information, namely the delay to being able to unload nectar to receiver bees, indicates that the colony has little need for the particular resource being collected. Here we test the relative importance of these two factors in a natural setting, ...

  5. Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw cladode mucilage: Physico-chemical, rheological and functional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalegowda, Pavithra; Chauhan, Attar Singh; Nanjaraj Urs, Shashirekha Mysore

    2017-02-10

    The yield of mucilage extracted from cladodes of Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw in aqueous medium was 6.2%. The neutral sugar comprised of arabinose (38.80%), galactose (33.00%), rhamnose (15.70%), xylose (5.10%), and glucose (5.10%). The mucilage showed pseudo plastic behavior with good swelling index (20%), water holding capacity (g water/g dry sample; 4±0.10) and micrometric properties. In addition, mucilage presented intrinsic viscosity of 3.7 dL/g with average molecular weight of 1.9×10(3)kDa. The FTIR and NMR spectra of extracted mucilage showed characteristic polysaccharide nature. Further, the mucilage exhibited anti-obesity property through lipase inhibition. These findings could highlight that isolated mucilage could be exploited as an additive in food and pharmaceutical sector.

  6. Two novel C29-5beta-sterols from the stems of Opuntia dillenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianqin; Li, Yanfang; Chen, Zhen; Min, Zhida; Lou, Fengchang

    2006-12-01

    Two novel C29-5beta-sterols, opuntisterol [(24R)-24-ethyl-5beta-cholest-9-ene-6beta,12alpha-diol] (1) and opuntisteroside [(24R)-24-ethyl-6beta-[(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-5beta-cholest-9-ene-12alpha-ol] (2), together with nine known compounds, beta-sitosterol (3), taraxerol (4), friedelin (5), methyl linoleate (6), 7-oxositosterol (7), 6beta-hydroxystigmast-4-ene-3-one (8), daucosterol (9), methyl eucomate (10) and eucomic acid (11), were isolated from the stems of Opuntia dillenii collected in Guizhou Province, China. Their structures were elucidated mainly by spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 were deduced from comparative 1H NMR data of the (S)- and (R)-methoxyphenyl acetate derivatives. Compounds 6-8, 10 and 11 were isolated from O. dillenii for the first time.

  7. Antiinflammatory flavonoids from Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw. flowers growing in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M S; El Tanbouly, N D; Islam, W T; Sleem, A A; El Senousy, A S

    2005-09-01

    Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw. (Family Cactaceae), is used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic and antiinflammatory. The antiinflammatory activity of the alcohol extracts of the flowers, fruits and stems was carried out using the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model. The analgesic effect of the same extracts was evaluated using electric current as a noxious stimulus. The alcohol extract of the flowers revealed the most potent antiinflammatory effect and a pronounced analgesic action at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract using VLC followed by Sephadex and paper chromatography, afforded three flavonoid glycosides, namely, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-arabinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside. Their identification was based on physical, chemical and spectroscopic data.

  8. Mycoflora in Exhumed Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa and Its Possible Role in Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Sánchez-Coronado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The funicular cover of the Opuntia tomentosa seed limits imbibition; germination occurs only when the funicle is weakened or the funicular valve is removed. We investigated the role of fungi in funicular weakening and seed germination. Seeds that had been either buried in one of two sites or stored in the laboratory were germinated with and without a valve. Disinfected or nondisinfected seeds and their naked embryos were cultivated on agar or PDA. None of the 11 identified fungal genera grew on the disinfected control seeds or the embryos. The mycoflora present on disinfected and nondisinfected exhumed seeds suggest that the fungal colonization occurred in the soil and differed between the burial sites. Exhumed seeds with and without a valve germinated in high percentages, whereas only the control seeds without a valve germinated. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the hyphae penetrated, cracked, and eroded the funicular envelope of exhumed seeds.

  9. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiulcerogenic activities of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis flowers extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaiedh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2011-11-01

    The Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis methanolic flowers extract (OMFE) was phytochemical studied, in vitro tested for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, linoleic acid peroxidation assays and in vivo evaluated for its ability to prevent ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The OMFE was rich in polysaccharide, phenolics and flavonoids contents and exhibited a moderate in vitro antioxidant activity when compared with (+)-catechin and ascorbic acid. Pre-treatment with OMFE at oral doses 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer by averting the deep necrotic lesions of the gastric epithelium, by preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation, the oxidation of protein and the DNA fragmentation in gastric mucosa. The antiulcerogenic activity of OMFE might be due to a possible synergistic antioxidant and antihistaminic-like effects.

  11. Green Synthesis of Ag-Cu Nanoalloys Using Opuntia ficus- indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rocha, O.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Hernández-Martínez, A. R.; Gámez-Corrales, R.; Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Britto-Hurtado, R.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Pérez-Rodríguez, A.; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2017-02-01

    Bimetallic Ag/Cu nanoparticles have been obtained by green synthesis using Opuntia ficus- indica plant extract. Two synthesis methods were applied to obtain nanoparticles with core-shell and Janus morphologies by reversing the order of precursors. Transmission electronic microscopy revealed size of 10 nm and 20 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Other small particles with size of up to 2 nm were also observed. Absorption bands attributed to surface plasmon resonance were detected at 440 nm and 500 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Density functional theory predicted a breathing mode type (BMT) located at low wavenumber due to small, low-energy clusters of (AgCu) n with n = 2 to 9, showing a certain correlation with the experimental one (at 220 cm-1). The dependence of the BMT on the number of atoms constituting the cluster is also studied.

  12. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  13. Production of fungal protein by solid substrate fermentation of cactus Cereus peruvianus and Opuntia ficus indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises A. Oliveira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural wastes from cactus Cereus peruvianus and Opuntia ficus indica were investigated for protein production by solid substrate fermentation. Firstly, the polyelectrolytes were extracted and used in water cleaning as auxiliary of flocculation and coagulation. The remaining fibrous material and peels were used as substrate for fermentation with Aspergillus niger. Glucoamylase and cellulase were the main enzymes produced. Amino acids were determined by HPLC and protein by Lowry's method. After 120 hours of fermentation the protein increased by 12.8%. Aspartic acid (1.27%, threonine (0.97%, glutamic acid (0.88%, valine (0.70%, serine (0.68%, arginine (0.82%, and phenylalanine (0.51% were the principal amino acids produced.

  14. Raman bands in Ag nanoparticles obtained in extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarando-Chacon, J.-G.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Vargas-Vazquez, D.; Rodríguez Melgarejo, F.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Mani-Gonzalez, P. G.; Leon-Sarabia, E.; Navarro-Badilla, A.; Ramírez-Bon, R.

    2014-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been obtained in an extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant. The size and distribution of nanoparticles were quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The diameter was estimated to be about 15 nm. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) peaks of silver were observed in these samples. Three Raman bands have been experimentally detected at 83, 110 and 160 cm-1. The bands at 83 and 110 cm-1 are assigned to the silver-silver Raman modes (skeletal modes) and the Raman mode located at 160 cm-1 has been assigned to breathing modes. Vibrational assignments of Raman modes have been carried out based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum mechanical calculation. Structural and vibrational properties for small Agn clusters with 2≤n≤9 were determined. Calculated Raman modes for small metal clusters have an approximation trend of Raman bands. These Raman bands were obtained experimentally for silver nanoparticles (AgNP).

  15. The origins of an important cactus crop, Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae): new molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M Patrick

    2004-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica is a long-domesticated cactus crop that is important in agricultural economies throughout arid and semiarid parts of the world. The biogeographic and evolutionary origins of this species have been obscured through ancient and widespread cultivation and naturalization. The origin of O. ficus-indica is investigated through the use of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of nrITS DNA sequences. These analyses support the following hypotheses: that O. ficus-indica is a close relative of a group of arborescent, fleshy-fruited prickly pears from central and southern Mexico; that the center of domestication for this species is in central Mexico; and that the taxonomic concept of O. ficus-indica may include clones derived from multiple lineages and therefore be polyphyletic.

  16. Ocean acidification alters the calcareous microstructure of the green macro-alga Halimeda opuntia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizemann, André; Meyer, Friedrich W.; Hofmann, Laurie C.; Wild, Christian; Westphal, Hildegard

    2015-09-01

    Decreases in seawater pH and carbonate saturation state ( Ω) following the continuous increase in atmospheric CO2 represent a process termed ocean acidification, which is predicted to become a main threat to marine calcifiers in the near future. Segmented, tropical, marine green macro-algae of the genus Halimeda form a calcareous skeleton that involves biotically initiated and induced calcification processes influenced by cell physiology. As Halimeda is an important habitat provider and major carbonate sediment producer in tropical shallow areas, alterations of these processes due to ocean acidification may cause changes in the skeletal microstructure that have major consequences for the alga and its environment, but related knowledge is scarce. This study used scanning electron microscopy to examine changes of the CaCO3 segment microstructure of Halimeda opuntia specimens that had been exposed to artificially elevated seawater pCO2 of ~650 µatm for 45 d. In spite of elevated seawater pCO2, the calcification of needles, located at the former utricle walls, was not reduced as frequent initiation of new needle-shaped crystals was observed. Abundance of the needles was ~22 % µm-2 higher and needle crystal dimensions ~14 % longer. However, those needles were ~42 % thinner compared with the control treatment. Moreover, lifetime cementation of the segments decreased under elevated seawater pCO2 due to a loss in micro-anhedral carbonate as indicated by significantly thinner calcified rims of central utricles (35-173 % compared with the control treatment). Decreased micro-anhedral carbonate suggests that seawater within the inter-utricular space becomes CaCO3 undersaturated ( Ω micro-anhedral carbonate accretion. Less-cemented segments of H. opuntia may impair the environmental success of the alga, its carbonate sediment contribution, and the temporal storage of atmospheric CO2 within Halimeda-derived sediments.

  17. Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Luan D.; Antonialli-Junior, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Foraging activity may be limited by temperature, humidity, radiation, wind, and other abiotic factors, all of which can affect energy costs during foraging. Ectatomma vizottoi's biology has only recently been studied, and no detailed information is available on its foraging patterns or diet in the field. For this reason, and because foraging activity is an important part of the ecological success of social insects, t...

  18. Governing the palm oil sector through finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramudya, E.P.; Hospes, O.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    By analysing the roles performed by the Indonesian state since 1945 in arranging finance schemes for palm oil development, this article aims to answer two questions: what were these different roles? And to what extent do these roles prioritise or balance economic growth, environmental protection and

  19. PALM KERNEL SHELL AS AGGREGATE FOR LIGHT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of cement, sand, gravel andpalm kernel shells respectively gave the highest compressive strength of ... Keywords: Aggregate, Cement, Concrete, Sand, Palm Kernel Shell. ... delivered to the jOb Slte in a plastic ... structures, breakwaters, piers and docks .... related to cement content at a .... sheet and the summary is shown.

  20. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit.

  1. A palynological study in Geonomoid palms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, W.; Wessels Boer, J.G.

    1966-01-01

    In a previous palynological study in Cocoid palms the present authors (Punt and Wessels Boer, 1966) were able to demonstrate a rather strong but not absolute correlation between the pollen types and the staminate flower types within the genus Attalea in the broad sense. The existence of partly appar

  2. Global Biogeography and Diversification History of Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, William J.; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kissling, W. Daniel

    and habitat heterogeneity variables. Incorporation of phylogenetic evidence reveals strong imprints of in situ diversification in the Neotropics and on islands, of biotic interchange, and of forest loss in Africa. We inferred an origin for palms in the mid-Cretaceous of Laurasia, which is significant for our...

  3. Palm cooling does not improve running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheadler, C M; Saunders, N W; Hanson, N J; Devor, S T

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the BEX Runner palm cooling device during a combination of exercise and environmental heat stress. Twelve subjects completed two randomly ordered time-to-exhaustion runs at 75% VO2max, 30 °C, and 50% relative humidity with and without palm cooling. Time to exhaustion runs started once the warm-up had elicited a core temperature of 37.5 °C. Heart rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, Feeling Scale, and core temperature were recorded at 2-min intervals during each run. Time to exhaustion was longer in control than treatment (46.7±31.1 vs. 41.3±26.3 min, respectively, prate-of-rise of core temperature was not different between control and treatment (0.047 vs. 0.048 °C · min-1, respectively). The use of the BEX Runner palm cooling device during a run in hot conditions did not eliminate or even attenuate the rise in core temperature. Exercise time in hot conditions did not increase with the use of the palm cooling device and time to exhaustion was reduced. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Characterization of Palm Oil as Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorey, Neeraj; Ghosh, Shankha; Srivastava, Priyank; Kumar, Vivek

    2017-08-01

    The various sources of energy from which mechanical energy is obtained are non-renewable and are thus considered to be unsustainable. These sources include the various fossil fuels like the petroleum, coal and the natural gas. The burning of fossil fuels led to the production of the greenhouse gases increasing the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. The adverse effects are the global warming and the ozone layer depletion. In a nation like India, where consumable oils are still transported in, it is advantageous to investigate the likelihood of utilising such non-palatable oils as a part of CI motors which are not by and by used as cooking oil. Palm oil (otherwise called dendê oil, from Portuguese) is a consumable vegetable oil got from the monocarp (ruddy mash) of the product of the oil palms. The major objective is to provide a cheap and effective alternative to diesel. This paper is an exploration of the capability of the palm oil as a practical, modest and effective hotspot for the generation of biodiesel. the paper is based on the characterisation of palm oil compare to diesel.

  5. Simulation of oil palm growth and yield.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraalingen, van D.W.G.; Breure, C.J.; Spitters, C.J.T.

    1989-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented to simulate growth and yield formation of oil palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) in dependence of weather data and plant characteristics. From incoming amounts of light, light interception of the foliage and photosynthetic characteristics of individual leaflets, daily rates

  6. Palm Harvest Impact on Tropical Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

    are managed and we propose sustainable methods to local farmers, governments, NGOs and other interested parties. Finally we study national level mechanism that governs extraction, trade and commercialization of palm products, to identify positive and negative policies in relation to resilience of ecosystems...... the proposal represents 10 universities and research institutions in Europe and northwestern South America....

  7. Simulation of oil palm growth and yield.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraalingen, van D.W.G.; Breure, C.J.; Spitters, C.J.T.

    1989-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented to simulate growth and yield formation of oil palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) in dependence of weather data and plant characteristics. From incoming amounts of light, light interception of the foliage and photosynthetic characteristics of individual leaflets, daily rates

  8. A novel method for the determination of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in Opuntia ficus indica using in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretti, L; Bazzu, G; Serra, P A; Nieddu, G

    2014-03-15

    A simple and rapid method was developed for in vivo simultaneous determination of ascorbic-acid and antioxidant capacity in microdialysates from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. The method is verified in water-stressed plants, as compared with a well-watered test controls. The microdialysis probe construction and insertion procedure was specifically developed to minimise the tissue trauma of the plant and to obtain optimal dialysis performance. Microdialysis was performed using a flow rate of 3 μL/min and the samples were analysed by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection of ascorbic-acid and DPPH-determined antioxidant capacity. Our data indicate exponential decay of the concentrations of the analysed compounds as a function of microdialysis sampling time. Water-stressed Opuntia show decreased ascorbic acid levels and increased the others antioxidants.

  9. Interactions Increase Forager Availability and Activity in Harvester Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Evlyn; Queirolo, Jovel; Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Crow, Sam; Allen, Kelsey; Mathur, Maya B; Gordon, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    Social insect colonies use interactions among workers to regulate collective behavior. Harvester ant foragers interact in a chamber just inside the nest entrance, here called the 'entrance chamber'. Previous studies of the activation of foragers in red harvester ants show that an outgoing forager inside the nest experiences an increase in brief antennal contacts before it leaves the nest to forage. Here we compare the interaction rate experienced by foragers that left the nest and ants that did not. We found that ants in the entrance chamber that leave the nest to forage experienced more interactions than ants that descend to the deeper nest without foraging. Additionally, we found that the availability of foragers in the entrance chamber is associated with the rate of forager return. An increase in the rate of forager return leads to an increase in the rate at which ants descend to the deeper nest, which then stimulates more ants to ascend into the entrance chamber. Thus a higher rate of forager return leads to more available foragers in the entrance chamber. The highest density of interactions occurs near the nest entrance and the entrances of the tunnels from the entrance chamber to the deeper nest. Local interactions with returning foragers regulate both the activation of waiting foragers and the number of foragers available to be activated.

  10. Interactions Increase Forager Availability and Activity in Harvester Ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evlyn Pless

    Full Text Available Social insect colonies use interactions among workers to regulate collective behavior. Harvester ant foragers interact in a chamber just inside the nest entrance, here called the 'entrance chamber'. Previous studies of the activation of foragers in red harvester ants show that an outgoing forager inside the nest experiences an increase in brief antennal contacts before it leaves the nest to forage. Here we compare the interaction rate experienced by foragers that left the nest and ants that did not. We found that ants in the entrance chamber that leave the nest to forage experienced more interactions than ants that descend to the deeper nest without foraging. Additionally, we found that the availability of foragers in the entrance chamber is associated with the rate of forager return. An increase in the rate of forager return leads to an increase in the rate at which ants descend to the deeper nest, which then stimulates more ants to ascend into the entrance chamber. Thus a higher rate of forager return leads to more available foragers in the entrance chamber. The highest density of interactions occurs near the nest entrance and the entrances of the tunnels from the entrance chamber to the deeper nest. Local interactions with returning foragers regulate both the activation of waiting foragers and the number of foragers available to be activated.

  11. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.

  12. Constituents with radical scavenging effect from Opuntia dillenii: structures of new alpha-pyrones and flavonol glycoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yingkun; Chen, Yingjie; Pei, Yupin; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2002-11-01

    The aqueous ethanolic extract from the fresh stems of Opuntia dillenii HAW. showed potent radical scanvenging activity. Three new compounds, opuntioside I, 4-ethoxyl-6-hydroxymethyl-alpha-pyrone, and kaempferol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the extract. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence and the radical scavenging effects of principal constituents were examined.

  13. Opuntia ficus-indica attenuates neuronal injury in in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Shin-Mi; Ha, Hyun-Joo; Moon, Chang-Jong; Shin, Tae-Kyun; Kim, Jung-Mi; Lee, Nam-Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Jang, Kyung-Jin; Wie, Myung-Bok

    2006-03-08

    We examined whether the methanol extract of Opuntia ficus-indica (MEOF) has a neuroprotective action against N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-, kainate (KA)-, and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal injury in cultured mouse cortical cells. We also evaluated the protective effect of MEOF in the hippocampal CA1 region against neuronal damage evoked by global ischemia in gerbils. Treatment of neuronal cultures with MEOF (30, 300, and 1000 microg/ml) inhibited NMDA (25 microM)-, KA (30 microM)-, and OGD (50 min)-induced neurotoxicity dose-dependently. The butanol fraction of Opuntia ficus-indica (300 microg/ml) significantly reduced NMDA (20 microM)-induced delayed neurotoxicity by 27%. Gerbils were treated with MEOF every 24h for 3 days (0.1, 1.0, and 4.0 g/kg, p.o.) or for 4 weeks (0.1 and 1.0 g/kg, p.o.), and ischemic injury was induced after the last dose. Neuronal cell damage in the hippocampal CA1 region was evaluated quantitatively at 5 days after the ischemic injury. When gerbils were given doses of 4.0 g/kg (3 days) and 1.0 g/kg (4 weeks), the neuronal damage in the hippocampal region was reduced by 32 and 36%, respectively. These results suggest that the preventive administration of Opuntia ficus-indica extracts may be helpful in alleviating the excitotoxic neuronal damage induced by global ischemia.

  14. Production and Characterization of Cosmetic Nanoemulsions Containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill Extract as Moisturizing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar de Azevedo Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill extract (FXE were white, homogeneous and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5–6.0; droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI around 0.200 and a zeta potential from −26.71 to −47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  15. Production and characterization of cosmetic nanoemulsions containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill extract as moisturizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renato Cesar de Azevedo; Barreto, Stella Maria de Andrade Gomes; Ostrosky, Elissa Aarantes; da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra; Ferrari, Márcio

    2015-02-02

    This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX) and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica MILL extract (FXE) were white, homogeneus and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5-6.0); droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI) around 0.200 and a zeta potential from -26.71 to -47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  16. Effect of hyaluronic acid and polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes on the metabolism of human chondrocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, A M; Cardile, V; Garufi, F; Puglia, C; Bonina, F; Ronsisvalle, S

    2007-05-04

    Conventional medications in articular disease are often effective for symptom relief, but they can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of the disease. Several natural substances have been shown to be effective as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at relieving the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA), and preliminary evidence suggests that some of these compounds may exert a favourable influence on the course of the disease. In this study, we assay the anti-inflammatory/chondroprotective effect of some lyophilised extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes and of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the production of key molecules released during chronic inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), prostaglandins (PGE(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human chondrocyte culture, stimulated with proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). Further the antioxidant effect of these extracts was evaluated in vitro employing the bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH test). All the extracts tested in this study showed an interesting profile in active compounds. Particularly some of these extracts were characterized by polyphenolic and polysaccharidic species. In vitro results pointed out that the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes were able to contrast the harmful effects of IL-1 beta. Our data showed the protective effect of the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes in cartilage alteration, which appears greater than that elicited by hyaluronic acid (HA) commonly employed as visco-supplementation in the treatment of joint diseases.

  17. The effects of food presentation and microhabitat upon resource monopoly in a ground-foraging ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, T P; Kirksey, S E

    2000-01-01

    In Neotropical wet forests several species of omnivorous, resource-defending ants, live and forage in close proximity to one another. Although the forest floor is heterogeneous in microhabitat and food quantity, little is known about the impact of microhabitat and food variation upon resource monopoly among ants. We investigated how food type and microhabitat influence food monopoly in resource-defending ants in old-growth tropical wet forest in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica. We measured several microhabitat characteristics at 66 points in a 0.5 hectare plot, and baited each point with two categories of tuna bait. These baits were presented in "split" and "clumped" arrangements. We measured the frequency of bait monopoly by a single species, as well as the number of recruited ant foragers at a bait. Out of five common species, two (Wasmannia auropunctata and Pheidole simonsi) more frequently monopolized one bait type over the other, and one (P. simonsi) recruited more ants to the split baits. We then considered the recruitment response by all ant species in the community. We found that the frequency of monopoly, sharing, and the absence of ants at a given point in the rainforest differed with bait type. The frequency of monopoly was associated with microhabitat type in two out of eight microhabitat variables (leaf litter depth and palms); variation in two other types (canopy tree distance and leafcutter ant trails) was associated with changes in forager number. In at least two ant species, food presentation affected monopoly at baits; among all resource-defending ants, the microhabitats where ants foraged for food and the type of food located determined in part the frequency of monopoly and the number of foragers at the food item. These results suggest that the location and presentation of food items determines in part which ant species will utilize the resource.

  18. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions.

  19. Oil palm mapping for Malaysia using PALSAR-2 dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, P.; Qi, C. Y.; Yu, L.; Cracknell, A.

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm is one of the most productive vegetable oil crops in the world. The main oil palm producing areas are distributed in humid tropical areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, western and central Africa, northern South America, and central America. Increasing market demands, high yields and low production costs of palm oil are the primary factors driving large-scale commercial cultivation of oil palm, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Global demand for palm oil has grown exponentially during the last 50 years, and the expansion of oil palm plantations is linked directly to the deforestation of natural forests. Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring expansion of oil palm. However, optical remote sensing images are difficult to acquire in the Tropics because of the frequent occurrence of thick cloud cover. This problem has led to the use of data obtained by synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is a sensor capable of all-day/all-weather observation for studies in the Tropics. In this study, the ALOS-2 (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR-2 (Phased Array type L-band SAR) datasets for year 2015 were used as an input to a support vector machine (SVM) based machine learning algorithm. Oil palm/non-oil palm samples were collected using a hexagonal equal-area sampling design. High-resolution images in Google Earth and PALSAR-2 imagery were used in human photo-interpretation to separate oil palm from others (i.e. cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, water, hard surface and bareland). The characteristics of oil palms from various aspects, including PALSAR-2 backscattering coefficients (HH, HV), terrain and climate by using this sample set were further explored to post-process the SVM output. The average accuracy of oil palm type is better than 80% in the final oil palm map for Malaysia.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY OF IRRIGATED CACTUS PEAR UNDER DIFFERENT CUTTING INTENSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME FERREIRA DA COSTA LIMA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different cutting intensities and years of harvesting on the morphological characteristics and production of fresh (FMP and dry matter (DMP of cactus pear cv. Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill under conditions of irrigation, high planting density and fertilization, with 12 months of regrowth. The experimental was completely randomized in a factorial design (3 × 2 with 12 replicates. The treatments were three cutting intensities (preserving the mother cladode (PMC, primary cladodes (PPC, or secondary cladodes (PSC, and two years of harvesting. The soil was classified as Cambisol Haplicum and the irrigation water was classified as C4S1 (EC 5.25 dS.m-1 density of 50,000 plants ha-1. The research evaluated plant height, number of cladodes per plant (NCP, length, width, perimeter and thickness of the cladodes, cladode area (CA, cladode area index (CAI, FMP and DMP. There was no significant interaction between treatments (P > 0.05 for the variables plant height, NCP, CAI and FMP. The variables related to cladode morphology showed a significant interaction (P < 0.05. The treatment PSC resulted in a greater DMP (P < 0.05 with a mean of 27.17 Mg ha-1 yr-1, compared to PPC (18.58 Mg ha-1 yr-1 or PMC (11.78 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The treatment PSC promoted greater NCP and forage productivity at harvest and can be considered as a management practice for the sustainability of cactus pear cv. Gigante under irrigation. The more important morphological characteristics were also influenced by the lower cutting intensities.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  2. Estimating babassu palm density using automatic palm tree detection with very high spatial resolution satellite images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alessio Moreira; Mitja, Danielle; Delaître, Eric; Demagistri, Laurent; de Souza Miranda, Izildinha; Libourel, Thérèse; Petit, Michel

    2017-05-15

    High spatial resolution images as well as image processing and object detection algorithms are recent technologies that aid the study of biodiversity and commercial plantations of forest species. This paper seeks to contribute knowledge regarding the use of these technologies by studying randomly dispersed native palm tree. Here, we analyze the automatic detection of large circular crown (LCC) palm tree using a high spatial resolution panchromatic GeoEye image (0.50 m) taken on the area of a community of small agricultural farms in the Brazilian Amazon. We also propose auxiliary methods to estimate the density of the LCC palm tree Attalea speciosa (babassu) based on the detection results. We used the "Compt-palm" algorithm based on the detection of palm tree shadows in open areas via mathematical morphology techniques and the spatial information was validated using field methods (i.e. structural census and georeferencing). The algorithm recognized individuals in life stages 5 and 6, and the extraction percentage, branching factor and quality percentage factors were used to evaluate its performance. A principal components analysis showed that the structure of the studied species differs from other species. Approximately 96% of the babassu individuals in stage 6 were detected. These individuals had significantly smaller stipes than the undetected ones. In turn, 60% of the stage 5 babassu individuals were detected, showing significantly a different total height and a different number of leaves from the undetected ones. Our calculations regarding resource availability indicate that 6870 ha contained 25,015 adult babassu palm tree, with an annual potential productivity of 27.4 t of almond oil. The detection of LCC palm tree and the implementation of auxiliary field methods to estimate babassu density is an important first step to monitor this industry resource that is extremely important to the Brazilian economy and thousands of families over a large scale.

  3. Quitting time: When do honey bee foragers decide to stop foraging on natural resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eRivera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Honey bee foragers may use both personal and social information when making decisions about when to visit resources. In particular, foragers may stop foraging at resources when their own experience indicates declining resource quality, or when social information, namely the delay to being able to unload nectar to receiver bees, indicates that the colony has little need for the particular resource being collected. Here we test the relative importance of these two factors in a natural setting, where colonies are using many dynamically changing resources. We recorded detailed foraging histories of individually marked bees, and identified when they appeared to abandon any resources (such as flower patches that they had previously been collecting from consistently. As in previous studies, we recorded duration of trophallaxis events (unloading nectar to receiver bees as a proxy for resource quality and the delays before returning foragers started trophallaxis as a proxy for social need for the resource. If these proxy measures accurately reflect changes in resource quality and social need, they should predict whether bees continue foraging or not. However, neither factor predicted when individuals stopped foraging on a particular resource, nor did they explain changes in colony-level foraging activity. This may indicate that other, as yet unstudied processes also affect individual decisions to abandon particular resources.

  4. Flooding tolerance of forage legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Gustavo G; Colmer, Timothy D

    2016-06-20

    We review waterlogging and submergence tolerances of forage (pasture) legumes. Growth reductions from waterlogging in perennial species ranged from >50% for Medicago sativa and Trifolium pratense to Lotus corniculatus, L. tenuis, and T. fragiferum For annual species, waterlogging reduced Medicago truncatula by ~50%, whereas Melilotus siculus and T. michelianum were not reduced. Tolerant species have higher root porosity (gas-filled volume in tissues) owing to aerenchyma formation. Plant dry mass (waterlogged relative to control) had a positive (hyperbolic) relationship to root porosity across eight species. Metabolism in hypoxic roots was influenced by internal aeration. Sugars accumulate in M. sativa due to growth inhibition from limited respiration and low energy in roots of low porosity (i.e. 4.5%). In contrast, L. corniculatus, with higher root porosity (i.e. 17.2%) and O2 supply allowing respiration, maintained growth better and sugars did not accumulate. Tolerant legumes form nodules, and internal O2 diffusion along roots can sustain metabolism, including N2 fixation, in submerged nodules. Shoot physiology depends on species tolerance. In M. sativa, photosynthesis soon declines and in the longer term (>10 d) leaves suffer chlorophyll degradation, damage, and N, P, and K deficiencies. In tolerant L corniculatus and L. tenuis, photosynthesis is maintained longer, shoot N is less affected, and shoot P can even increase during waterlogging. Species also differ in tolerance of partial and complete shoot submergence. Gaps in knowledge include anoxia tolerance of roots, N2 fixation during field waterlogging, and identification of traits conferring the ability to recover after water subsides.

  5. SE Asian Palms for Agroforestry and Home Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders S. Barfod

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout SE Asia, palms are important in agroforestry systems and homegardens. Most species are used for multiple purposes based on both physical and nutritional properties of the palms. Except for a few commodities of worldwide importance such as palm oil and coconut, many palm products either do not figure in trade statistics, or they are merged with other products in a way, which makes it difficult to assess their importance. Here we focus on these products that are not prominent in national trade statistics and we review their sustainability and economic importance in SE Asia. We rank the most important palms according to their versatility, which is an extremely important property, especially for smallholders who practice subsistence agriculture. We conclude by listing a number of recommendations for future research directions based on experiences from the recently completed EU 7th Framework project (EU-PALMS 2009-2013.

  6. Endemic insular and coastal Tunisian date palm genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehdi-Azouzi, Salwa; Cherif, Emira; Guenni, Karim; Abdelkrim, Ahmed Ben; Bermil, Aymen; Rhouma, Soumaya; Salah, Mohamed Ben; Santoni, Sylvain; Pintaud, Jean Christophe; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique; Hannachi, Amel Salhi

    2016-04-01

    The breeding of crop species relies on the valorisation of ancestral or wild varieties to enrich the cultivated germplasm. The Tunisian date palm genetic patrimony is being threatened by diversity loss and global climate change. We have conducted a genetic study to evaluate the potential of spontaneous coastal resources to improve the currently exploited Tunisian date palm genetic pool. Eighteen microsatellite loci of Phoenix dactylifera L. were used to compare the genetic diversity of coastal accessions from Kerkennah, Djerba, Gabès and continental date palm accessions from Tozeur. A collection of 105 date palms from the four regions was analysed. This study has provided us with an extensive understanding of the local genetic diversity and its distribution. The coastal date palm genotypes exhibit a high and specific genetic diversity. These genotypes are certainly an untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes to improve cultivated germplasm in continental date palm.

  7. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  8. Experimental and numerical evaluations on palm microwave heating for Red Palm Weevil pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Rita; Panariello, Gaetano; Pinchera, Daniele; Schettino, Fulvio; Caprio, Emilio; Griffo, Raffaele; Migliore, Marco Donald

    2017-01-01

    The invasive Red Palm Weevil is the major pest of palms. Several control methods have been applied, however concern is raised regarding the treatments that can cause significant environmental pollution. In this context the use of microwaves is particularly attractive. Microwave heating applications are increasingly proposed in the management of a wide range of agricultural and wood pests, exploiting the thermal death induced in the insects that have a thermal tolerance lower than that of the host matrices. This paper describes research aiming to combat the Red Palm pest using microwave heating systems. An electromagnetic-thermal model was developed to better control the temperature profile inside the palm tissues. In this process both electromagnetic and thermal parameters are involved, the latter being particularly critical depending on plant physiology. Their evaluation was carried out by fitting experimental data and the thermal model with few free parameters. The results obtained by the simplified model well match with both that of a commercial software 3D model and measurements on treated Phoenix canariensis palms with a ring microwave applicator. This work confirms that microwave heating is a promising, eco-compatible solution to fight the spread of weevil. PMID:28361964

  9. Experimental and numerical evaluations on palm microwave heating for Red Palm Weevil pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Rita; Panariello, Gaetano; Pinchera, Daniele; Schettino, Fulvio; Caprio, Emilio; Griffo, Raffaele; Migliore, Marco Donald

    2017-03-01

    The invasive Red Palm Weevil is the major pest of palms. Several control methods have been applied, however concern is raised regarding the treatments that can cause significant environmental pollution. In this context the use of microwaves is particularly attractive. Microwave heating applications are increasingly proposed in the management of a wide range of agricultural and wood pests, exploiting the thermal death induced in the insects that have a thermal tolerance lower than that of the host matrices. This paper describes research aiming to combat the Red Palm pest using microwave heating systems. An electromagnetic-thermal model was developed to better control the temperature profile inside the palm tissues. In this process both electromagnetic and thermal parameters are involved, the latter being particularly critical depending on plant physiology. Their evaluation was carried out by fitting experimental data and the thermal model with few free parameters. The results obtained by the simplified model well match with both that of a commercial software 3D model and measurements on treated Phoenix canariensis palms with a ring microwave applicator. This work confirms that microwave heating is a promising, eco-compatible solution to fight the spread of weevil.

  10. Synthesis of Transesterified Palm Olein-Based Polyol and Rigid Polyurethanes from this Polyol

    OpenAIRE

    Arniza, Mohd Zan; Hoong, Seng Soi; Idris, Zainab; Yeong, Shoot Kian; Hassan, Hazimah Abu; Din, Ahmad Kushairi; Choo, Yuen May

    2015-01-01

    Transesterification of palm olein with glycerol can increase the functionality by introducing additional hydroxyl groups to the triglyceride structure, an advantage compared to using palm olein directly as feedstock for producing palm-based polyol. The objective of this study was to synthesize transesterified palm olein-based polyol via a three-step reaction: (1) transesterification of palm olein, (2) epoxidation and (3) epoxide ring opening. Transesterification of palm olein yielded approxim...

  11. Sugar palm ethanol. Analysis of economic feasibility and sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Staaij, J.; Van den Bos, A.; Hamelinck, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Martini, E.; Roshetko, J.; Walden, D. [Winrock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This study evaluates whether sugar palm is a suitable crop for biofuels and how production of ethanol from sugar palm in a large-scale setting is sustainable and economically feasible. Key questions are: Are the assumed high yields realistic in practice for sustained periods in largescale plantations?; Can sugar palm indeed compete economically with other crops for biofuels?; What are the effects of large-scale cultivation and processing of sugar palm for the natural environment and the local community? To answer these questions, Ecofys and Winrock have assessed the feasibility of largescale sugar palm cultivation for the production of ethanol using empirical data from existing sugar palm plantings. We analysed two production models to investigate the range of outcomes when varying important parameters: (1) a conservative system, whereby sugar palms are mixed with other crops and (2) an intensive system to explore the theoretical maximum yield when solely focusing on sugar palm. As background, Chapter 2 first describes the process of sugar palm cultivation, the 'tapping' and conversion into ethanol. Chapter 3 describes the data collection by Winrock. It presents an overview of the collected field data and explains the main empirical findings. Chapter 4 elaborates the two production systems and presents the results of the economic analyses (summarized in cash flow diagrams showing the timing of costs and benefits). Chapter 5 analyses the possible sustainability risks and benefits of sugar palm ethanol and investigates the integration possibilities of sugar palm in agro-forestry systems with other crops. Finally, Chapter 6 concludes by evaluating the potential of sugar palm as a source of biofuel and providing recommendations.

  12. Feasibility study of gasification of oil palm fronds

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, S. A.; S. Balamohan; M.N.Z. Moni; S.M. Atnaw; Mohamed, A O

    2015-01-01

    Considering the large and consistent supply, oil palm fronds could be a promising source of biomass energy through gasification. There is very scarce information on the characteristics of oil palm fronds, which is vital in deciding if such biomass is technically suitable for gasification. In the present work, the feasibility of oil palm fronds for biomass gasification is studied. The study is conducted experimentally via standard tests to determine their thermochemical characteristics. Ultim...

  13. Palm oil and the heart:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osaretin; J; Odia; Sandra; Ofori; Omosivie; Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a Pub Med, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in

  14. Evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Alba, Marta; Kabra, Mayank; Branson, Kristin; Mirth, Christen

    2015-03-01

    Drosophilids, like other insects, go through a larval phase before metamorphosing into adults. Larvae increase their body weight by several orders of magnitude in a few days. We therefore hypothesized that foraging behavior is under strong evolutionary pressure to best fit the larval environment. To test our hypothesis we used a multidisciplinary approach to analyze foraging behavior across species and larval stages. First, we recorded several videos of larvae foraging for each of 47 Drosophilid species. Then, using a supervised machine learning approach, we automatically annotated the video collection for the foraging sub-behaviors, including crawling, turning, head casting or burrowing. We also computed over 100 features to describe the posture and dynamics of each animal in each video frame. From these data, we fit models to the behavior of each species. The models each had the same parametric form, but differed in the exact parameters. By simulating larva behavior in virtual arenas we can infer which properties of the environments are better for each species. Comparisons between these inferred environments and the actual environments where these animals live will give us a deeper understanding about the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae.

  15. A sub-canopy structure for simulating oil palm in the Community Land Model (CLM-Palm): phenology, allocation and yield

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.; Roupsard, O.; M. Bernoux; Le Maire, G.; Panferov, O.; Kotowska, M. M.; Knohl, A

    2015-01-01

    In order to quantify the effects of forests to oil palm conversion occurring in the tropics on land–atmosphere carbon, water and energy fluxes, we develop a new perennial crop sub-model CLM-Palm for simulating a palm plant functional type (PFT) within the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). CLM-Palm is tested here on oil palm only but is meant of generic interest for other palm crops (e.g., coconut). The oil palm has monopodial morphology and sequential phenology of around 40 stac...

  16. Oil palm deserves government attention in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, José R.; Goldemberg, José

    2015-07-01

    Englund et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 044002) have recently analyzed biodiesel production from oil palm plantations as one possible way to mitigate climate change while providing cost effective results. They show that data for detailed quantification of biological carbon sequestration is available allowing a high confidence evaluation of positive impacts when oil palm plantation for food and biodiesel production is carried out in degraded, cultivated soil, and also with some varieties of natural vegetation in the Amazon. Nevertheless, economic risk associated with the future price of fossil fuels and uncertainties related with carbon subsidy are barriers. Here we discuss the assumptions under which such controversial proposal is based and suggest further analysis for Brazilian decision makers.

  17. KARAKTERISTIK MINYAK CAMPURAN RED PALM OIL DENGAN PALM KERNEL OLEIN (Characteristics of Oil Blends from Red Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ulfah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of oil blends has been produced from red palm oil (RPO and palm kernel olein (PKOo with seven ratios with a total of 100, namely A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 and G (100:0 v/v investigated with randomized complete block design. The result showed that different of ratio levels RPO and PKOo have some effects on peroxide value, saponification value, melting point, cloud point and β-carotene content from RPO-PKOo oil blends, but has not effect on free fatty acid content. Higher level of PKOo content on formulas oil blends were decreased of saponification value and melting point, but was increased of cloud point. The best of RPOPKOo oil blends has been obtained at ratio 50:50 (v/v, with 459.52 ppm β-carotene, 1.35 meq/kg peroxide value, 0.09 % free fatty acid, 202.60 saponification value, 24.15 oC melting point and 7.15 oC cloud point. Fatty acids composition were 1.24 % capric acid, 29.00 % lauric acid, 10.09 % miristic acid, 23.10 % palmitic acid, 5.84 linoleic acid, 27.30 % oleic acid and 3.43 % stearic acid. Keywords: Red palm oil, palm kernel olein, oil blends, chemical and physical properties ABSTRAK Sifat-sifat minyak campuran yang dihasilkan dari red palm oil (RPO dan palm kernel olein (PKOo dengan tujuh tingkat rasio yang totalnya 100, yaitu A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 dan G (100:0 (v/v dikaji menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap kelompok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio RPO:PKOo mempengaruhi angka peroksida, angka penyabunan, melting point, cloud point dan kadar β-karoten dari minyak campuran RPO-PKOo yang dihasilkan, namun tidak mempengaruhi kadar asam lemak bebas. Peningkatan jumlah PKOo yang ditambahkan dalam minyak campuran RPO-PKOo, akan menurunkan angka penyabunan dan melting point, namun akan menaikkan cloud point. Produk minyak campuran RPO-PKOo terbaik diperoleh pada rasio 50:50 (v/v, dengan kadar β-karoten 459,52 ppm, angka peroksida 1,35 meq

  18. Palm theory for random time changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakiyo Miyazawa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm distributions are basic tools when studying stationarity in the context of point processes, queueing systems, fluid queues or random measures. The framework varies with the random phenomenon of interest, but usually a one-dimensional group of measure-preserving shifts is the starting point. In the present paper, by alternatively using a framework involving random time changes (RTCs and a two-dimensional family of shifts, we are able to characterize all of the above systems in a single framework. Moreover, this leads to what we call the detailed Palm distribution (DPD which is stationary with respect to a certain group of shifts. The DPD has a very natural interpretation as the distribution seen at a randomly chosen position on the extended graph of the RTC, and satisfies a general duality criterion: the DPD of the DPD gives the underlying probability P in return.

  19. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; de Almeida, Arlete Silva; Vieira, Ima C G

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  20. Pollination mechanisms in palms – a synoecological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn

    Apidae), and flies (order Diptera). Less is known about variations in the composition of the visiting insect fauna across the geographic range of a given palm species. A number canopy studies have contributed to our understanding of palms in broader palm-pollinator networks and provided insight...... on the specificity of the visiting insects and the temporal variation in their assemblage at a particular species. Preliminary observations in beetle-pollinated palms suggest that insects similar in size, shape and behaviour may substitute for each another both in space and in time. Hence to compare pollination...

  1. Nutrition & health implications of palm oil in Indian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorunissa

    1995-11-01

    To boost the edible oil production and attain self-sufficiency, one of the long-term strategies undertaken by the Indian government is promotion of palm oil production through oil palm cultivation. Compared to other traditional oils (except coconut oil) used in India, palm oil and palmolein have high saturated fatty acids and low linoleic acid levels. Studies conducted to evaluate the nutritional and health implications of substituting other oils with palmolein show that despite having low linoleic acid, the use of palm oil may not adversely affect the linoleic acid status of Indian population. Substitution of groundnut oil with palmolein in cereal based lactovegetarian diets providing about 30 per cent total fat calories, doubles the saturated fatty acids and reduces by half the linoleic acid content. The effects of this substitution in volunteers from the middle income group did not raise serum cholesterol and aggregability of platelets indicating that palm oil may not produce the deleterious effects associated with saturated fatty acids. The tocols present in palm oil are natural biological antioxidants and can therefore augment the antioxidant potential of Indian diets. Red palm oil is the richest natural source of carotenes which are powerful biological antioxidants. The major carotene in red palm oil is beta-carotene. Therefore, red palm oil can be used to prevent vitamin A deficiency which is widespread in India.

  2. Tha palm family (Arecaceae): a microcosm of sexual system evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadot, Sophie; Alapetite, Elodie; Baker, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Among the 416 angiosperm families, palms (Arecaceae) are striking in possessing almost all possible combinations of hermaphroditic and/or unisexual flowers, making them a particularly interesting subject for studies of the evolution of plant sexuality. The purpose of this review is to highlight...... of the variability of sexual expression in palms, with illustrations of the associated morphological diversity and its significance to reproduction. We discuss the evolution of sexual systems using the most recent phylogenetic framework available for palms. Finally, we review advances made towards unravelling...... the genetic basis of sexual expression in palms. Our survey opens new perspectives for understanding how plant sexuality has evolved in angiosperms as a whole....

  3. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  4. Palm Personal Identification for Vehicular Security with a Mobile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Security certification is drawing more and more attention in recent years; the biometric technology is used in a variety of different areas of security certification. In this paper, we propose a palm image recognition method to identify an individual for vehicular application; it uses palm image as a key for detecting the car owner. We used mobile phone cameras to take palm images and performed a new identification approach by using feature regularization of palm contour. After identification is confirmed, the phone uses Bluetooth/WiFi to connect the car to unlock it. In our evaluation, the experiments show that our approach is effective and feasible.

  5. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimov Abdulla; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; B. K. Bala; Kusairi Mohd Noh; Muhammad Tasrif

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011...

  6. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Salm

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. Th...

  7. Microbial degradation of palm (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Lutz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of biodegradation of palm-derived fatty methyl and ethyl esters (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel by a wild-type aerobic bacterial population was measured at 20 °C, as the rate of oxygen uptake by a manometric technique. The methyl and ethyl biodiesels were obtained by potassium-hydroxide catalysed transesterification of palm oil, respectively. The bacterial flora included the genera Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. The rate of oxygen uptake for palm biodiesel is similar to the quantity observed in the biodegradation of 1.0 mM solutions of simple substrates such as carbohydrates or amino acids.Palm methyl or ethyl biodiesel is subjected to facile aerobic biodegradation by wild-type bacteria commonly present in natural open environments. This result should lessen any environmental concern for its use as alternative fuel, solvent or lubricant. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(1: 59-63.Epub 2006 Mar 31.La cinética de la biodegradación de los ésteres metílicos y etílicos derivados de palma (biodiesel por una población silvestre de bacterias aeróbicas fue medida a 20 °C, como medición manométrica del consumo de oxígeno. Los ésteres metílicos y etílicos se obtuvieron por transesterificación del aceite de palma con metanol y etanol,respectivamente. La flora bacteriana incluyó a los géneros Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter y Enterobacter. Las velocidades de consumo de oxígeno para las muestras de biodiesel fueron similares a lo observado en la biodegradación de disoluciones 1.0 mM de sustratos sencillos solubles en agua, tales como carbohidratos, aminoácidos y albúmina de huevo.

  8. Potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon for transesterification of palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam Nik [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon was developed for transesterification of palm oil. The Central Composite Design (CCD) of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst loading and methanol to oil molar ratio on the production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst. The highest yield was obtained at 64.1 C reaction temperature, 30.3 wt.% catalyst loading and 24:1 methanol to oil molar ratio. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel met the standard specifications. This study proves that activated carbon supported potassium hydroxide is an effective catalyst for transesterification of palm oil. (author)

  9. Palm to finger ulnar sensory nerve conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Davidowich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  10. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-12-29

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  11. Palm Weevil Pheromones - Discovery and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlschlager, A C

    2016-07-01

    Male-produced aggregation pheromones of seven major pest species of weevils in the subfamily Rhynchophorinae have been identified as a closely related set of methyl-branched secondary alcohols. Although the weevils produce only one stereoisomer of these alcohols, no instances of isomeric inhibition have been observed, enabling stereoisomeric mixtures to be used in traps. Addition of fermenting plant material to traps synergizes attraction of weevils to the pheromones. The weevils are large, have long life cycles, and are strong fliers. These characteristics make mass trapping a suitable tactic to add to existing management strategies. When coupled with good phytosanitary practices, mass trapping of Rhynchophorus palmarum at 1 trap/5-ha significantly lowered the incidence of red ring nematode infection vectored by the weevil in commercial oil palm plantations in the Americas. Similarly, trap densities of 1-10 traps/ha have significantly lowered R. ferrugineus infestation of date palm throughout the Middle East. Although management of R. ferrugineus in urban areas is more problematic, trapping is an integral part of most programs aimed at protection of ornamental Canary palms in Europe. Overall, semiochemically-based management of these large weevils is now a mature and usually economically feasible control technology.

  12. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  13. Oil palm genetic improvement and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochard Benoît

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of the oil palm may have a role to play in the sustainability of this crop. Given the criticism aimed at this commodity chain, notably due to the extension of oil palm plantations to the detriment of forests, providing very high-yielding planting material might be a solution, particularly as world demand is continually increasing. This crop is mostly managed by agroindustrialists, but the smallholder sector is developing. It happens that this sector is classed as a sustainable type of agriculture by numerous NGOs, which are also asking plant breeders to take the specificities of smallholdings into consideration. Oil palm genetic improvement takes numerous criteria into account, many of which fit in with sustainable agriculture. For example, this crop is subject to pressure from different pests and diseases. In each case, a genetic hence eco-friendly approach has been taken and, in particular, vascular wilttolerant planting material has been a successfully produced. Moreover, for the future of this crop, planting material needs to be developed that requires fewer inputs, and consideration has to be given to extending this crop in less favourable zones, by developing planting material that consumes less water. Lastly, it is important to disseminate genetically diversified planting material.

  14. Physicochemical Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira P. Olaniyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analyses were carried out on palm kernel oil (Adin and the following results were obtained: Saponification value; 280.5±56.1 mgKOH/g, acid value; 2.7±0.3 mg KOH/g, Free Fatty Acid (FFA; 1.35±0.15 KOH/g, ester value; 277.8±56.4 mgKOH/g, peroxide value; 14.3±0.8 mEq/kg; iodine value; 15.86±4.02 mgKOH/g, Specific Gravity (S.G value; 0.904, refractive index; 1.412 and inorganic materials; 1.05%. Its odour and colour were heavy burnt smell and burnt brown, respectively. These values were compared with those obtained for groundnut and coconut oils. It was found that the physico-chemical properties of palm kernel oil are comparable to those of groundnut and coconut oils except for the peroxide value (i.e., 14.3±0.8 mEq which was not detectable in groundnut and coconut oils. Also the odour of both groundnut and coconut oils were pleasant while that of the palm kernel oil was not as pleasant (i.e., heavy burnt smell.

  15. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Palm Carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puah C. Wei

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of carotenoids from crude palm oil was carried out in a dynamic (flow- through supercritical fluid extraction system. The carotenoids obtained were quantified using off-line UV-visible spectrophotometry. The effects of operating pressure and temperature, flow rate of the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2, sample size of feed used on the solubility of palm carotenoids were investigated. The results showed that the extraction of carotenoids was governed by its solubility in the SC-CO2 and can be enhanced by increasing pressure at a constant temperature or decreasing temperature at a constant pressure. Increasing the flow rate and decreasing the sample size can reduce the extraction time but do not enhance the solubility. Palm carotenoids have very low solubility in SC-CO2 in the range of 1.31 x 10-4 g kg-1 to 1.58 x 10-3 g kg-1 for the conditions investigated in this study. The experimental data obtained were compared with those published by other workers and correlated by a density-based equation as proposed by Chrastil.

  16. Caracterización de la Opuntia ficus-indica para su uso como coagulante natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Villabona Ortíz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Characterization of Opuntia ficus-indica for using as a natural coagulantTítulo corto: Caracterización de Opuntia ficus-indica para coagulante naturalResumenActualmente municipios de la Costa Atlántica Colombiana no cuentan con suministro de agua potable. La aplicación artesanal de la Tuna (Opuntia ficus-indica  como coagulante es una práctica tradicional en comunidades rurales. En esta investigación se realiza la caracterización del tallo de la Tuna que crece de manera silvestre en el departamento de Bolívar, y del polvo extraído de esta planta, con el fin de identificar componentes asociados a su poder coagulante para la remoción de turbidez y de color en aguas crudas. Las pencas de la planta se sometieron a operaciones de corte, pelado, secado, molienda, tamizado y despigmentado para obtener el coagulante. El rendimiento del proceso global fue de 65g de coagulante/Kg de material vegetal. Los resultados indicaron que la penca contiene alto porcentaje de humedad y pequeñas proporciones de saponinas, flavonoides, sales minerales de calcio y hierro; lo cual permitió concluir que estos metabolitos y sales no son los responsables de su poder coagulante debido a las cantidades poco significativas en las que se encuentran. Se consideró que otras especies química tales como el ácido poligalacturónico y compuestos algínicos son realmente los que le confieran la cualidad al biomaterial. También, se evaluó el poder coagulante del material extraído, se analizó el efecto de tres dosis sobre el color, la turbidez y el pH del agua tratada. Los resultados indicaron que tiene la capacidad de remover 50% del color y 70% de turbidez de aguas crudas con alta turbidez inicial, y que no altera significativamente su pH.  Palabras clave: aguas crudas, clarificación, flavonoides, saponinas, turbidez. AbstractCurrently, municipalities in the Colombian Atlantic Coast do not have potable water supply. The implementation

  17. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ajiboye, John A.; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A.; Nwachukwu, Viola A.; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O.; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p 

  18. PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Chiew Wei Puah; Yuen May Choo; Soon Hock Ong

    2013-01-01

    The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of...

  19. A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including p...

  20. Spatiotemporal chemotactic model for ant foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Laurent, Thomas; Kumar, Manish; Bertozzi, Andrea L.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present a generic theoretical chemotactic model that accounts for certain emergent behaviors observed in ant foraging. The model does not have many of the constraints and limitations of existing models for ants colony dynamics and takes into account the distinctly different behaviors exhibited in nature by ant foragers in search of food and food ferrying ants. Numerical simulations based on the model show trail formation in foraging ant colonies to be an emergent phenomenon and, in particular, replicate behavior observed in experiments involving the species P. megacephala. The results have broader implications for the study of randomness in chemotactic models. Potential applications include the developments of novel algorithms for stochastic search in engineered complex systems such as robotic swarms.

  1. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained.

  2. Seasonal Changes in Forage Nutrients and Mineral Contents in Water Resources,Forage and Yak Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎萍

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports results of a study conducted to investigate the concentrations of seven mineral elements in yak blood, forage and water resources around the Qinghai Lake in Qinghai Province in different seasons. Meanwhile, the nutritional compositions of the forage were also surveyed. The results suggest that the mineral elements and the forage nutrients change in a seasonal pattern. In yak blood,the sodium(Na)concentration varies from 0.291 to 0.034 mg/mL,and this is lower than the normal value. In the forage,the ratio calcium(Ca)to phosphorus(P)is 4.06~7.47:1 and potassium(K)to Na 30~27:1. These results indicate that the nutrition of the yak in the area is deficient in Na but high in K. For the withered forage sampled in February,the protein content is only 31.14% of the total protein in the forage growing at puerile stage in June. The severe loss of protein by 68. 9% and decrease of effective nutrients in the wintered forage are considered to be the reasons resulting in the poor condition of yak in winter and spring seasons.

  3. Development and characterization of edible films based on mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, J; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Santillán, Carlos; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2010-08-01

    Mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) was extracted and characterized by its composition and molecular weight distribution. Mucilage film-forming dispersions were prepared under different pHs (3, 4, 5.6, 7, and 8) and calcium concentration (0% and 30% of CaCl(2), with respect to mucilage's weight), and their particle size determined. Mucilage films with and without calcium (MFCa and MF, respectively) were prepared. The effect of calcium and pH on mucilage films was evaluated determining thickness, color, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), and percentage of elongation (%E). The average molecular weight of the different fractions of mucilage was: 3.4 x 10(6) (0.73%), 1 x 10(5) (1.46%), 1.1 x 10(3) (45.79%), and 2.4 x 10(2) Da (52.03%). Aqueous mucilage dispersions with no calcium presented particles with an average size d(0.5) of 15.4 microm, greater than the dispersions with calcium, 13.2 microm. MFCa films showed more thickness (0.13 mm) than the MF films (0.10 mm). The addition of calcium increased the WVP of the films from 109.94 to 130.45 gmm/m(2)dkPa. Calcium and pH affected the mechanical properties of the films; the largest TS was observed on MF films, whereas the highest %E was observed on MFCa films. The highest differences among MF and MFCa films were observed at pHs 5.6 and 7 for TS and at pHs 4 and 8 for %E. No effect of pH and calcium was observed on luminosity and hue angle. Chroma values were higher for MF when compared with MFCa, and increased as pH of the films increased. Practical Application: In this study mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form edible films under different pHs, and with or without the addition of calcium. Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage had the ability to form edible films. In general, it can be considered that mucilage films without modification of pH and without the addition of calcium have the best water vapor barrier properties and tensile strength. Mucilage from nopal

  4. Biomass-based palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve as gas separation adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethupathi, Sumathi; Bashir, Mohammed Jk; Akbar, Zinatizadeh Ali; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been widely recognised as a potential low-cost source for the production of high added value materials and proved to be a good precursor for the production of activated carbons. One of such valuable biomasses used for the production of activated carbons is palm shell. Palm shell (endocarp) is an abundant by-product produced from the palm oil industries throughout tropical countries. Palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve has been widely applied in various environmental pollution control technologies, mainly owing to its high adsorption performance, well-developed porosity and low cost, leading to potential applications in gas-phase separation using adsorption processes. This mini-review represents a comprehensive overview of the palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve preparation method, physicochemical properties and feasibility of palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve in gas separation processes. Some of the limitations are outlined and suggestions for future improvements are pointed out.

  5. Article original Agronomy Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hilaire

    Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera adansonii and its impact on pollination, fruit and .... temperature is about 25°C. ... area before November 15, sugar baby variety of ... abundance, direct observations of the foraging ..... 4 Cane J.H., 2002.

  6. A properly adjusted forage harvester can save time and money

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly adjusted forage harvester can save fuel and increase the realizable milk per ton of your silage. This article details the adjustments necessary to minimize energy while maximizing productivity and forage quality....

  7. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  8. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  9. Minimizing the biodiversity impact of Neotropical oil palm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Prescott, Graham W; Cardenas, Johann S; Castañeda, Pamela González del Pliego; Sánchez, Andrés; Rojas-Murcia, Luis E; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm agriculture is rapidly expanding in the Neotropics, at the expense of a range of natural and seminatural habitats. A key question is how this expansion should be managed to reduce negative impacts on biodiversity. Focusing on the Llanos of Colombia, a mixed grassland-forest system identified as a priority zone for future oil palm development, we survey communities of ants, dung beetles, birds and herpetofauna occurring in oil palm plantations and the other principal form of agriculture in the region--improved cattle pasture--together with those of surrounding natural forests. We show that oil palm plantations have similar or higher species richness across all four taxonomic groups than improved pasture. For dung beetles, species richness in oil palm was equal to that of forest, whereas the other three taxa had highest species richness in forests. Hierarchical modelling of species occupancy probabilities indicated that oil palm plantations supported a higher proportion of species characteristic of forests than did cattle pastures. Across the bird community, occupancy probabilities within oil palm were positively influenced by increasing forest cover in a surrounding 250 m radius, whereas surrounding forest cover did not strongly influence the occurrence of other taxonomic groups in oil palm. Overall, our results suggest that the conversion of existing improved pastures to oil palm has limited negative impacts on biodiversity. As such, existing cattle pastures of the Colombian Llanos could offer a key opportunity to meet governmental targets for oil palm development without incurring significant biodiversity costs. Our results also highlight the value of preserving remnant forests within these agricultural landscapes, protecting high biodiversity and exporting avian 'spill-over' effects into oil palm plantations.

  10. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson eBarcelos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfil the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step towards this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  11. The Potential of Palm Oil Waste Biomass in Indonesia in 2020 and 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, E.; Rivai, M.

    2017-05-01

    During replanting activity in oil palm plantation, biomass including palm frond and trunk are produced. In palm oil mills, during the conversion process of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) into crude palm oil (CPO), several kinds of waste including empty fruit bunch (EFB), mesocarp fiber (MF), palm kernel shell (PKS), palm kernel meal (PKM), and palm oil mills effluent (POME) are produced. The production of these wastes is abundant as oil palm plantation area, FFB production, and palm oil mills spread all over 22 provinces in Indonesia. These wastes are still economical as they can be utilized as sources of alternative fuel, fertilizer, chemical compounds, and biomaterials. Therefore, breakthrough studies need to be done in order to improve the added value of oil palm, minimize the waste, and make oil palm industry more sustainable.

  12. Foraging Behavior of Odontomachus bauri on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Ehmer

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraging behavior and partitioning of foraging areas of Odonomachus bauri were investigated on Barro Colorado Island in Panama. The activity of the ants did not show any daily pattern; foragers were active day and night. The type of prey captured by O. bauri supports the idea that in higher Odontomachus and Anochetus species, the high speed of mandible closure serves more for generating power than capturing elusive prey. Polydomous nests may enable O. bauri colonies to enlarge their foraging areas.

  13. Nitrogen transfer between herbivores and their forage species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjogersten, Sofie; Kuijper, Dries P. J.; van der Wal, Rene; Loonen, Maarten J. J. E.; Huiskes, Ad H. L.; Woodin, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Herbivores may increase the productivity of forage plants; however, this depends on the return of nutrients from faeces to the forage plants. The aim of this study was to test if nitrogen (N) from faeces is available to forage plants and whether the return of nutrients differs between plant species

  14. Blue Oak Canopy Effect on Seasonal Forage Production and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Frost; Neil K. McDougald; Montague W. Demment

    1991-01-01

    Forage production and forage quality were measured seasonally beneath the canopy of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and in open grassland at the San Joaquin Experimental Range. At the March and peak standing crop sampling dates forage production was significantly greater (p=.05) beneath blue oak compared to open grassland. At most sampling dates, the...

  15. Scheduling and development support in the Scavenger cyber foraging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2010-01-01

    Cyber foraging is a pervasive computing technique where small mobile devices offload resource intensive tasks to stronger computing machinery in the vicinity. One of the main challenges within cyber foraging is that it is very difficult to develop cyber foraging enabled applications. An applicati...

  16. A dehydrin-dehydrin interaction: the case of SK3 from Opuntia streptacantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzell eHernandez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrins belongs to a large group of highly hydrophilic proteins known as Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins. It is well know that dehydrins are intrinsically disordered plant proteins that accumulate during the late stages of embryogenesis and in response to abiotic stresses; however, the molecular mechanisms by which their functions are carried out are still unclear. We have previously reported that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing an Opuntia streptacantha SK3 dehydrin (OpsDHN1 show enhanced tolerance to freezing stress. Herein, we show using a split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid system that OpsDHN1 dimerizes. We found that the deletion of regions containing K-segments and the histidine-rich region in the OpsDHN1 protein affects dimer formation. Not surprisingly, in silico protein sequence analysis suggests that OpsDHN1 is an intrinsically disordered protein, an observation that was confirmed by circular dichroism and gel filtration of the recombinantly expressed protein. The addition of zinc triggered the association of recombinantly expressed OpsDHN1 protein, likely through its histidine-rich motif. These data brings new insights about the molecular mechanism of the OpsDHN1 SK3-dehydrin

  17. [Effect of a dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) on blood glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; de León, C; Ariza-Andraca, R; Bañales-Ham, M B; López-Ledesma, R; Lozoya, X

    1989-01-01

    To assess if a dehydrated extract of nopal stems retains the effect on glycemia of the entire nopal stems two experiments were performed. A. Six patients with type II diabetes mellitus in fasting condition received 30 capsules containing 10.1 +/- 0.3 g of the extract, and serum glucose levels were measured hourly from 0 to 180 minutes. B. Six healthy volunteers received 30 capsules with the extract followed by 74 g of dextrose orally. Serum glucose measurements were made in a similar fashion. In each experiment a control test with empty capsules was performed. Nopal extract did not reduce fasting glycemia in diabetic subjects. Nevertheless, the extract diminished the increase of serum glucose which followed a dextrose load. Peak serum glucose was 20.3 +/- 18.2 mg/dl (X +/- SD) lower in the test with nopal than in the control one (P less than 0.025). Dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) did not show acute hypoglycemic effect, although could attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  18. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar as Biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Hernández, Rosa Icela; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela Alejandra; Juárez-Santillán, Luis Felipe; Martínez-Ugalde, Ivan; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Lucho-Constantino, Carlos Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the use of a natural adsorbent like nopal (Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar) for removing cadmium from aqueous solutions with low concentrations of this metal. Two treatments were applied to the cladodes: a dehydration to get dehydrated nopal (DHN) and heating up to 90°C to obtain a thermally treated nopal (TN). After examining the effect of various pH values (2-7), the capacity of each biosorbent was examined in batch sorption tests at different dosages (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 3000 mg L(-1)). The results indicated that adsorption of cadmium to biomass of DHN and TN was highly dependent on pH and biosorbent dosage. The best removal of cadmium (53.3%, corresponding to q e of 0.155 mg g(-1)) was obtained at pH 4.0 by using the TN sorbent. Infrared and Raman spectra confirmed that cadmium removal occurred via adsorption to -OH functional groups.

  19. Experimental binding of lead to a low cost on biosorbent: Nopal (Opuntia streptacantha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miretzky, Patricia; Muñoz, Carolina; Carrillo-Chávez, Alejandro

    2008-03-01

    The use of nopal cladodes (Opuntia streptacantha) as raw material for Pb(2+) biosorption was investigated. Batch experiments were carried out to determine Pb(2+) sorption capacity and the efficiency of the sorption process under different pH, initial Pb(2+) and nopal biomass concentrations. The experimental data showed a good fit to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models. The maximum adsorption capacity for Pb(2+) was 0.14 mmol g(-1) with an efficiency higher than 94% (pH 5.0 and 2.5 g L(-1) nopal biomass). The Pb(2+) kinetics were best described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. The rate constant, the initial sorption rate and the equilibrium sorption capacity were determined. The practical implication of this study is the development of an effective and economic technology in which the nopal biomass did not undergo any chemical or physical pretreatment, which added to nopal abundance in Mexico and its low cost makes it a good option for Pb(2+) removal from contaminated waters.

  20. Fertility suppression in male albino rats by administration of methanolic extract of Opuntia dillenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, V K; Gupta, R S

    2012-05-01

    To control growing world population, there is a need for male contraceptive methods that are comparable to female contraceptives, but due to lack of knowledge or investigation, no sufficient safe and effective contraceptives were developed till now. In the present investigation, the effect of 100% methanol extract of Opuntia dillenii phylloclade on reproduction in male rats was studied. A first group (I) received vehicle alone to serve as control. The second group (II) was further divided into treated and recovery groups, and the plant extract at 50 mg kg body weight(-1) was administered orally for 30 days. Biochemical, haematological and histopathological analyses were carried out to reveal the effects on reproductive organs in the male rats. The weights of reproductive organs were recorded. It was found that the number of fertile males, number of inseminated females, number of litters delivered and testosterone levels were reduced significantly. Epididymal sperm count and motility were also significantly decreased. Biochemical parameters support the antifertility activity of O. dillenii i.e. decreases in protein, glycogen content and elevation in cholesterol level. Testes and sperm morphology were altered significantly. Haematological parameters have not shown any significant changes. It is concluded that 100% methanol extract of O. dillenii possesses antifertility effects on male reproduction without change in general physiology.

  1. Protective effect of polysaccharides from Opuntia dillenii Haw. fruits on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Han, Yu-Lu; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yin, Yan-Yan

    2015-06-25

    In this study, a novel water-soluble polysaccharide fraction with molecular weight of 6479.1kDa was isolated from the fruits of Opuntia dillenii Haw., which consisted of rhamnose, xylose, mannose and glucose in the molar ratio of 14.99:1.14:1.00:6.47. The protective effect of O. dillenii Haw. fruits polysaccharide (ODFP) against oxidative damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats was investigated. The results showed that oral administration of ODFP significantly decreased food intake, water intake, urine production, organ weights and blood glucose level, and increased body weight in STZ-induced diabetic rats. ODFP also significantly increased the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT, and decreased malondialdehyde level in serum, liver, kidney, and pancreas in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Moreover, histopathological examination showed that ODFP could markedly improve the structure integrity of pancreatic islet tissue in STZ-induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that ODFP have hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties and can protect rats from STZ-induced oxidative damage.

  2. Optimum extraction of polysaccharides from Opuntia dillenii and evaluation of its antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Chen, Huaguo; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Junzeng

    2013-09-12

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction of crude polysaccharides from Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gaw) Haw. A three-level, four-variable Box-Behnken design was employed to obtain the best possible combination of extraction temperature (80-90 °C), extraction time (50-70 min), number of extraction cycle (1-3 times), and ratio of water to raw material (8:1-12:1, v/w) for maximum yield of crude polysaccharide. Besides, the antioxidant capacity of crude polysaccharide was evaluated by DPPH assay. The results showed that optimized extraction conditions were extraction temperature 85 °C, extraction time 63.7 min, extraction 2 times and ratio of water to raw material 11.14:1. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 27.36 ± 0.21%, which is well in close agreement with the value (27.44%) predicted by RSM model. Pharmacological test showed that O. dillenii crude polysaccharides had a good antioxidant activity.

  3. Antidiabetic effect of a newly identified component of Opuntia dillenii polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L Y; Lan, Q J; Huang, Z C; Ouyang, L J; Zeng, F H

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the most effective hypoglycemic component of polysaccharides from Opuntia dillenii Haw. by preliminary screening and to specifically study the antidiabetic effects of O. dillenii polysaccharide (ODP)-Ia in mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Three kinds of ODPs - ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, and ODP-II' - were isolated by using an ultrasonic extraction method and diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sepharose fast-flow column chromatography. The mice were administered ODPs for 3 weeks. Gavage administration of ODP-Ia significantly decreased (P<0.05) their intake of food and water; the fasting levels of blood glucose (BG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), and malondialdehyde (MDA); and the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase). In contrast, it significantly increased (P<0.05) the body weights, hepatic glycogen (HG) levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in diabetic mice. However, ODP-Ia did not significantly increase insulin levels in the mice with STZ-induced diabetes. We propose that ODP-Ia exerts its antihyperglycemic effect by protecting the liver from peroxidation damage and by maintaining tissue function, thereby improving the sensitivity and response of target cells in diabetic mice to insulin.

  4. Analgesic Potential of Opuntia dillenii and Its Compounds Opuntiol and Opuntioside Against Pain Models in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheema Siddiqui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia dillenii (Nagphana traditionally used against inflammation and also possess analgesic effect. Thus in the present study analgesic properties of O. dillenii cladode methanol extract, its fractions obtained via vacuum liquid chromatography along with isolated α-pyrones, opuntiol and its glucoside, opuntioside were analyzed. The acetic acid-induced writhes were reduced by O. dillenii test agents with opuntioside being most effective (IC 50 26 ± 0.9 mg/kg and equipotent to diclofenac and β-sitosterol. Consistently, it also elicited most potent effect (IC 50: 28 ± 1.1 and 24 ± 1.2 mg/kg during early and late phases of formalin-induced paw licking, producing effect similar to diclofenac and indomethacin. It was also most effective in hot plate test. Naloxone (opioid antagonist reversed the analgesic effects of extract and fractions but failed to antagonize the opuntiol and opuntioside analgesic effects. In conclusion, edible O. dillenii extract, its fractions, opuntiol and opuntioside reduced peripheral and centrally mediated pain via opioid dependent and independent systems. Among them opuntioside emerged as most effective analgesic possibly due to the presence of glucose moiety at position 7 of its α-pyrone ring. This is the first report of opuntiol and opuntioside analgesic effect which may serve as lead compounds in designing of new analgesics.

  5. THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF CACTI (Opuntia ficus indica-LEGUME MIXED SILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GUSHA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of making silage using dry browse legume hay (Acacia angustissima, Leucaena leucocephala, Calliandra callothrysus and Macroptilium Atropurpureum mixed with fresh cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica for winter supplementation of veld grass was evaluated using the proximate, tannins and the pH analyses. Chemical analysis revealed that N values were significantly increased (P<0.05. The N levels were 3.72, 4.5, 4.05, and 2.5% DM for A. angustissima, L. leucocephala, C. callothrysus and M. atropurpureum respectively, which were higher when compared to silage made from cereals. The NDF and ADF values were slightly higher than those reported in literature for cereal silages. The DM level of cactus –browse silage was very good (41%DM considering that cactus normally have less than 10% DM. The silage pH was within the reported range, ranging from 3.97 to 4.11 on a pH meter. This was a good indicator of silage quality considering that low pH inhibit undesirable microbial activities. The tannins levels were lower in the silages but significantly different (P<0.05 between browse legume species. Ensiling lowered the tannin levels in the silage compared to the individual browse legume tannin levels. This study concluded that purely on compositional laboratory analysis, the legumes and cactus can be used to make silage which can be used by farmers during dry season.

  6. The normal distribution as appropriate model of developmental instability in Opuntia cacti flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, P; Van Dongen, S

    2009-06-01

    Developmental instability (DI) as measured by fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been proposed to reflect fitness and stress. Furthermore, the associated developmental buffering may reduce morphological variation, conceal the expression of genetic variation and as such play an important role in evolutionary biology. However, observed associations between FA and various forms of stress and quality appear very heterogeneous. Presently it is difficult to interpret the biological relevance of this heterogeneity because little is known about the link between FA and the underlying process of DI, casting doubt whether DI can be viewed as an individual property and how closely FA reflects the underlying process of DI. Therefore, studies that explicitly test the validity of assumptions of the proposed theoretical models and estimate between-individual variations in DI are needed. We present data on Opuntia cacti floral traits confirming that the normal distribution can be viewed as an appropriate approximation of the distribution of DI and that the concept of hypothetical repeatability can provide useful insights into the interpretation of patterns in FA as a measure of DI. Furthermore, we detected significant between-individual variation in DI. Measuring petals from several flowers within individual plants allowed making inference of individual DI.

  7. Opuntia ficus indica's effect on heart-rate variability in high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Laurent; Fouillot, Jean-Pierre; Nicolet, Gerard; Midol, Alain

    2008-04-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) has many physiological effects, but a relationship between OFI and heart-rate variability (HRV) has never been established. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a diet supplement of OFI on HRV in athletes. The first day, heart rate (HR) was measured at rest in supine (SU) and standing (ST) positions to analyze HRV in 10 athletes, followed by a randomized assignment to an OFI (5) or placebo (5) group. The next day, the athletes repeated the HRV test. One month later the crossover protocol was applied. In OFI, the high-frequency-activity HF(SU) (1,773 +/- 2,927 vs. 5,856 +/- 8,326 ms(2), p < .05), HF(ST) (295 +/- 313 vs. 560 +/- 515 ms(2), p < .05), and low-frequency LF(SU) (1,621 +/- 1,795 vs. 6,029 +/- 9,007 ms(2), p < .01) increased. HR(SU) (66 +/- 13 vs. 57 +/- 11 beats/min, p < .01) and HR(ST) (87 +/- 11 vs. 76 +/- 9 beats/min, p < .01) decreased. A diet supplement of OFI increases HF and LF activities and decreases HR.

  8. Protective effect of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladode extract upon nickel-induced toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hfaiedh, Najla; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Zourgui, Lazhar; Croute, Françoise

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the protective effects of regular ingestion of juice from the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes against nickel chloride toxicity. Rats were given either normal tap water or water containing 25% of cactus juice for one month. Then, rats of each group were injected daily, for 10 days, with either NiCl(2) solution (4mg (30micromol)/kg body weight) or with the same volume of saline solution (300mM NaCl). Significant increases of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase activities and of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were observed in blood of nickel-treated rats. In the liver, nickel chloride was found to induce an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidant enzymes activities. Superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activity was found to be increased whereas glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were decreased. These changes did not occur in animals previously given cactus juice, demonstrating a protective effect of this vegetal extract.

  9. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  10. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors.

  11. Pectin from Opuntia ficus indica: Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and preliminary characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsih, Khalef; Giacomazza, Daniela; Dahmoune, Farid; Mangione, Maria Rosalia; Bulone, Donatella; San Biagio, Pier Luigi; Passantino, Rosa; Costa, Maria Assunta; Guarrasi, Valeria; Madani, Khodir

    2017-04-15

    Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of water-soluble pectin (WSP) from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes was performed using Response Surface Methodology. The effect of extraction time (X1), microwave power (X2), pH (X3) and solid-to-liquid ratio (X4) on the extraction yield was examined. The optimum conditions of MAE were as follows: X1=2.15min; X2=517W; X3=2.26 and X4=2g/30.6mL. The maximum obtained yield of pectin extraction was 12.57%. Total carbohydrate content of WSP is about 95.5% including 34.4% of Galacturonic acid. Pectin-related proteins represent only the 0.66% of WSP mass. HPSEC and light scattering analyses reveal that WSP is mostly constituted of high molecular pectin and FTIR measurements show that the microwave treatment does not alter the chemical structure of WSP, in which Galacturonic acid content and yield are 34.4% and 4.33%, respectively. Overall, application of MAE can give rise to high quality pectin.

  12. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as feedstock for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuloyo, Olukayode O; du Preez, James C; García-Aparicio, Maria del Prado; Kilian, Stephanus G; Steyn, Laurinda; Görgens, Johann

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production using an enzymatic hydrolysate of pretreated cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) as carbohydrate feedstock was investigated, including a comprehensive chemical analysis of the cladode biomass and the effects of limited aeration on the fermentation profiles and sugar utilization. The low xylose and negligible mannose content of the cladode biomass used in this study suggested that the hemicellulose structure of the O. ficus-indica cladode was atypical of hardwood or softwood hemicelluloses. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation procedures using Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40 and 35 °C, respectively, gave similar ethanol yields under non-aerated conditions. In oxygen-limited cultures K. marxianus exhibited almost double the ethanol productivity compared to non-aerated cultures, although after sugar depletion utilization of the produced ethanol was evident. Ethanol concentrations of up to 19.5 and 20.6 g l(-1) were obtained with K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae, respectively, representing 66 and 70 % of the theoretical yield on total sugars in the hydrolysate. Because of the low xylan content of the cladode biomass, a yeast capable of xylose fermentation might not be a prerequisite for ethanol production. K. marxianus, therefore, has potential as an alternative to S. cerevisiae for bioethanol production. However, the relatively low concentration of fermentable sugars in the O. ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate presents a technical constraint for commercial exploitation.

  13. Antioxidant and antiulcerogenic activities of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis root extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaiedh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Sakly, Mohsen; Zourgui, Lazhar; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2010-12-01

    Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis methanolic root extract (ORE) was investigated for phenolic and flavonoids contents, in vitro evaluated for DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and in vivo tested for its gastro-protective ability against 80% ethanol induced ulcer in rats. Phytochemical test of ORE were positive for phenolic and flavonoid contents. DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of ORE showed an EC(50) of 118.65±2.51 μg/ml and 300 μg/ml respectively. In vivo the pre-treatment of rats with ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg doses of ORE significantly (p<0.05) reduced the 80% ethanol induced-ulcer lesion, with a rate of 82.68%, 49.21%, 83.13%, and 92.59% respectively, and prevented the depletion of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total glutathione (GSH), and inhibited the increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat stomach tissues when compared with ethanol group. Also pre-treatment with ORE marked a dose-dependent attenuation of histopathology changes induced by ethanol. Phenolic and flavonoids wealth, radical scavenging activity, and reducing power, have been implicated for antiulcer property of ORE.

  14. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds.

  15. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos; Allen, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.

  16. Extraction, characterization and gelling behavior enhancement of pectins from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsih, Khalef; Delattre, Cédric; Pierre, Guillaume; Michaud, Philippe; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Dahmoune, Farid; Madani, Khodir

    2016-01-01

    Total Pectins Fraction (TPF) was extracted at room temperature from dried cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica. TPF is constituted of three pectic fractions WSP, CSP and ASP, which are made up of 66.6%, 44.3% and 81.1% (w/w) of galacturonic acid, respectively. The antioxidant ability of TPF increased with the concentration increasing. It scavenged hydroxyl radical by 90% and chelated 90% of ferrous ions at 5 g/L. FTIR study was carried out. Strong characteristic absorption peaks at 1,618 cm(-1) assigned to the vibration of COO(-) group of galacturonic acid. In the fingerprint region, we noticed three well-defined peaks at 1054, 1085, and 1,154 cm(-1) characteristic of pectic polysaccharides. TPF are non-gelling pectins. The co-crosslinking of TPF with carrageenan was carried out and the gelling behavior was successfully improved. Thermo-sensitive hydrogel was obtained with 82% of TPF and 18% of carrageenan (w/w).

  17. Extraction and characterization of three polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Nadia; Kriaa, Mouna; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-11-01

    The chemical extraction and the characterization of polysaccharides from mucilage (MC), pectin (PC) and total pectic mucilage fraction (TFC) of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant activities was investigated. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups corresponding to polysaccharides. Uronic acid and the total sugar contents of PC were higher than those of TFC and MC whereas ash content of MC was considerably more important. In addition, the findings showed that all the samples had little protein content and low average molecular weight compared to the results mentioned in literature. Furthermore, MC reached not only the highest water (WHC) and oil holding (OHC) capacities (7.81g/g and 1.34g/g, respectively) but also the highest antioxidant properties (DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities, β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity and reducing power). However, PC had the strongest emulsifying and foaming properties. As for TFC, it had low WHC, OHC and emulsifying properties whereas it had higher foaming properties than MC and greater antioxidant properties compared to PC. These outcomes can encourage the use of PC as a surfactant and MC and TFC as natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Depolymerization of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica: Antioxidant and antiglycated activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouch, Mohamed Aymen; Hafsa, Jawhar; Rihouey, Christophe; Le Cerf, Didier; Majdoub, Hatem

    2015-08-01

    The extraction, purification and degradation of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes, as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiglycated activities in vitro were investigated. The optimization of the extraction showed that extraction by ultrasound at 40 °C presented the best carbohydrates yield. The degradation of the extracted polysaccharides was achieved by free radical depolymerization with H2O2 in the presence of copper(II) acetate for various reaction times. Sugar contents were determined by colorimetric assays. The macromolecular characteristics of the different isolated and degraded carbohydrates were carried by size exclusion chromatography (SEC/MALS/VD/DRI). These experiments showed that all samples are polysaccharides, which are probably pectins and that molecular weight (Mw) has decreased from 6,800,000 to 14,000 g/mol after 3 h of depolymerization without changing the structure. Preliminary antioxidant and antiglycated tests indicated that degraded polysaccharides for 2 and 3 h showed even better antioxidant and antiglycated activities.

  19. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars.

  20. Potential of Opuntia ficus-indica for air pollution biomonitoring: a lead isotopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Benoit, Mathieu; Munoz, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) is a long-domesticated cactus that is widespread throughout arid and semiarid regions. Ofi is grown for both its fruits and edible cladodes, which are flattened photosynthetic stems. Young cladodes develop from mother cladodes, thus forming series of cladodes of different ages. Therefore, successive cladodes may hold some potential for biomonitoring over several years the local atmospheric pollution. In this study, cladodes, roots, dust deposited onto the cladodes, and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of three heavily polluted sites, i.e., a fertilizer industry, the road side of a highway, and mine tailings. The lead content was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used to characterize the cladode surfaces and the nature of dust deposit, and the lead isotopes were analyzed to identify the origin of Pb. The results show that (i) Ofi readily bioaccumulates Pb, (ii) the lead isotopic composition of cladodes evidences a foliar pathway of lead into Ofi and identifies the relative contributions of local Pb sources, and (iii) an evolution of air quality is recorded with successive cladodes, which makes Ofi a potential biomonitor to be used in environmental and health studies.

  1. Detection of Phytoplasma on Indian Fig (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill in Mexico Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gaspar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Indian fig (a species of prickly pear cactus, has been known as Nopal, comprises an approximate area of 100,000 ha, in plantations used for human consumption. “Pyramids” Indian fig area located in the northeastern State of Mexico has been an important Indian-fig area in the country, with 15810 ha, where a phytoplasma has been consistently present in symptomatic plant. Approach: An unknown symptomatology in the Indian fig (prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill was analyzed through grafting and a nested-PCR reaction and graft on healthy plants grown in a greenhouse. Results: The symptoms found, deforming, buds proliferation, thickening and heart-shaping in cladodes, with arrested plant growth and deep yellowing of cladodes, were all attributed to the presence of a phytoplasma given the amplification of a 1200 pb fragment of the 16S rRNA gene using primers R16 F2/R2 and R16F2n/R2 and 80% of phytoplasma transmission efficiency of successful grafts. Conclusion: Although the symptoms observed did not completely match those described for this organism in the region, a 1200 pb fragment was amplified and PCR products restriction analysis leading us to assume that the phytoplasma corresponds to subgroup 16Srll, previously reported for other crops in others world regions.

  2. Extraction, stability, and separation of betalains from Opuntia joconostle cv. using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Noe; Jaime-Fonseca, Monica R; San Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Zepeda, L Gerardo

    2013-12-11

    Betalains were extracted and analyzed from Opuntia joconostle (the prickly pear known as xoconostle in Mexico). For the extraction, two solvent systems were used, methanol/water and ethanol/water. A three-variable Box-Behnken statistical design was used for extraction: solvent concentration (0-80%, v/v), temperature (5-30 °C), and treatment time (10-30 min). The extraction and stability of betalains from xoconostle were studied using response surface methodology (RSM). Techniques such as UV-vis, column chromatography, and HPLC were employed for the separation and analysis of the main pigments present in the extracts. Maximum pigment concentration (92 mg/100 g of fruit) was obtained at a temperature of 15 °C and a time of 10 min for methanol/water (20:80), whereas maximum stability of the pigment was observed at pH 5 and a temperature of 25 °C. HPLC chromatograms showed the main betalains of the xoconostle characterized were betalain, betanidin, and isobetalain.

  3. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar as Biosorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Icela Beltrán-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the use of a natural adsorbent like nopal (Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar for removing cadmium from aqueous solutions with low concentrations of this metal. Two treatments were applied to the cladodes: a dehydration to get dehydrated nopal (DHN and heating up to 90°C to obtain a thermally treated nopal (TN. After examining the effect of various pH values (2–7, the capacity of each biosorbent was examined in batch sorption tests at different dosages (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 3000 mg L−1. The results indicated that adsorption of cadmium to biomass of DHN and TN was highly dependent on pH and biosorbent dosage. The best removal of cadmium (53.3%, corresponding to qe of 0.155 mg g−1 was obtained at pH 4.0 by using the TN sorbent. Infrared and Raman spectra confirmed that cadmium removal occurred via adsorption to –OH functional groups.

  4. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  5. Volatile constituents and polyphenol composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jihane OUMATOU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the extraction and the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and total phenolic compounds of three Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill., species from Morocco, namely Dellahia, Aissa and Shoul. The VOCs were extracted with Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME associated to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant compounds in extracts were determined by liquid- Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS. The study allowed the identification of forty-six compounds for the VOCs. The most abundant compounds in the three varieties (Dellahia, Aissa and Shoul were 2-hexanal and n-hexanol with a percentage of 10.6%, 10.9% and 44.0% for the first compound and 10.3 %, 59.0%, 18.7% for the second, successively. The extraction of phenolic compounds permitted the identification and quantification of 15 fractions of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Caffeic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid with 16.0 and 10.8 mg/100g of plant material respectively for Dellahia and Aissa. For flavoinoids composition, isorhamnetin was the major compound. It accounted respectively for 40.5% and 43.2% for Dellahia and Aissa. We can conclude that cactus pear fruits are a good source of natural antioxidants and the major compounds responsible of flavor in the studied varieties are 2-hexanal and n-hexanol.

  6. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Antunes-Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, and interleukin- (IL- 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7±5.0%, resp. without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4±5.7% equating the indomethacin effects (69.5±5.3%. Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  7. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.

  8. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.; Martínez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR) at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7 ± 5.0%, resp.) without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4 ± 5.7%) equating the indomethacin effects (69.5 ± 5.3%). Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient. PMID:25821823

  9. Moisture Diffusivity and Shrinkage of Fruit and Cladode of Opuntia ficus-indica during Infrared Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Touil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drying behaviour of prickly pear cladodes and fruits was studied with an Infrared dryer. The volume shrinkage for Opuntia ficus-indica products is calculated and a linear relation was established to describe the experimental variation of shrinkage of the product versus its moisture content. Effective diffusion coefficient of moisture transfer was determined using the Fick law at three drying temperatures (40, 50, and 60°C. Shrinkage was also included into the diffusion model for the determination of the effective diffusion coefficient. The obtained results of the effective moisture diffusivity, for the cladode and the fruit, were evaluated in the range of 1.77 × 10−10–5.07 × 10−10 m2/s and 2.53 × 10−10–7.6 × 10−10 m2/s, respectively. The values of the activation energies for cladode and fruit were estimated to be 45.39 and 47.79 kJ/mol, respectively. However, these values of moisture diffusivity were estimated independently of the evolution of moisture content during drying process. Therefore, a correlation (full quadratic equation for moisture diffusivity as a function of moisture content and temperature was developed. The parameters are obtained by a multilinear regression method. This equation was found satisfactory to describe the diffusivity evolution function of moisture content and temperature with correlation coefficients of 91.5 and 95%.

  10. Dry matter accumulation and seasonal partitioning in mature Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. fruiting trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Liguori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to understand the allocation of biomass into different canopy and root components and to measure the stem area index and its partitioning by cladode functionality (age, for fruiting Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI Gialla trees, spaced 6x5 m apart and trained to a globe. The net primary productivity (NPP, calculated taking into account dry weight gain for above-ground vegetative components of OFI trees was 3.6 t C ha–1. Including the fruit component and 1st flush current-year cladodes, NPP of above-ground components becomes 12 t ha–1, equivalent to 5.4 t C ha–1. Current-year cladodes were the highest C sink (49% of total annual C fixed in the canopy, secondary growth accounted for 22% of C fixation and the fruit component for 29%. This study demonstrated that OFI trees, grown in a commercial fruit orchard, couple high productivity, in terms of fruit yield and harvest index, with relevant C fixed in the canopy.

  11. Drying of prickly pear cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus indica) in a forced convection tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, R.; de Ita, A.; Vaca, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, DePt. de Energia, Area de Termofluidos, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, Del. Azcapotzalco, C.P. 02200, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this work we evaluated the kinetics of drying of Opuntia's cladodes observing two conditions: complete cladode with the protective cuticle of the intact product and with reduced cuticle (partially removed), using a drying tunnel with forced flow. The temperature of the air was set at 35, 45, and 60 C with velocities of 1.5 and 3.0 m/s. The conditions of the environment were controlled and maintained at 22 C and 30% of relative humidity. The results show that the drying time was considerably reduced when approximately 30% of the cuticle that protects the product was removed. Additionally, the temperature had greater influence than the velocity of the air. The numerical model that best describes the behavior of the drying process is the double logarithmic one, with the imposed restrictions of r close to the unit, the lowest possible {chi}{sup 2} and the RSEM tending to zero. The characteristic drying function of the product resulted in a third-grade exponential curve, where r and SD were the corresponding selection criteria. (author)

  12. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds. PMID:26078966

  13. Application of Opuntia ficus-indica in bioremediation of wastewaters. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-15

    Heavy metal ion, pesticide and dye wastewaters cause severe ecological contamination with conventional treatment methods proving inadequate, unsuccessful or expensive to apply. Several biomaterials have recently been explored for the biosorption and biocoagulation-flocculation of pollutants from wastewaters. In the past 10 years, there has been an extensive research output on the use of biological materials such as agricultural wastes, chitosan, Moringa Oleifera, Eichhornia crassipes, bacteria, algae, Cactus plants etc. in environmental remediation. The present paper reviews the scattered information about the green technology involving Opuntia ficus-indica derived biomaterials in wastewater decontamination. Its characterization, physicochemical compositions, its application in biosorption and flocculation of dyes, pesticides and metallic species focussing on equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic properties are reviewed. The main results obtained in the depollution of a variety of contaminated wastewaters using cladodes, fruit pulp and peels mucilage and electrolytes show very high and promising pollutant maximum sorption capacities and removal percentages in the range -125.4-1000 mg/g and 0.31-2251.56 mg/g for the biosorption of dyes and metallic species respectively and removal % ranges of 50-98.7%, 11-93.62% and 17-100% for turbidity, chemical oxygen demand and heavy metals respectively by coagulation-flocculation process. The biomaterials proved to be efficient in pollutant removal that there is need to explore the scaling up of the study from the laboratory scale to community pilot plants and eventually to industrial levels.

  14. Characterization of atomized extract of Opuntia ficusindica (L. Mill. and assessment of its pharmaceutical potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Maria Pereira Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the many traditional uses of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. and the widespread employment of dry extracts in herbal medicine and phytocosmetics, the aim of this study is to characterize an atomized extract of O. ficus-indica cladodes, as well as to analyze its phytochemical composition and assay the total phenol content. In addition, the antioxidant, antimicrobial and photoprotective activities of the extract and its capacity to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase were assessed, with a view to its pharmaceutical use. The physicochemical characterization was performed by pharmacopoeial tests, thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Phytochemicals were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and total phenols by spectroscopy in the visible region. Antioxidant activity was detected by the method of free radical (DPPH● scavenging and antimicrobial activity by the agar diffusion method, while inhibition of tyrosinase was estimated by the diphenolase activity assay and photoprotective activity by a spectrophotometric method. The pharmacopeial tests, IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis enabled the atomized extract to be characterized. Concerning the potential for pharmaceutical use, it was found that, under the study conditions, the extract did not show any antioxidant, antimicrobial or photoprotective activity. However, it did show a modest tyrosinase inhibitory capacity. The originality of the proposed research on O. ficus-indica in the pharmaceutical field should be emphasized, as it opens new prospects for the study of a species that is so abundant and adapted to Brazilian semi-arid regions.

  15. Topical anti-inflammatory effects of isorhamnetin glycosides isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Martínez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR) at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7 ± 5.0%, resp.) without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4 ± 5.7%) equating the indomethacin effects (69.5 ± 5.3%). Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  16. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SEED DEVELOPMENT IN A HAWAIIAN PALM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic diversity of palms (Arecaceae) is threatened and ex situ conservation efforts are hampered by a poor understanding of their seed biology and storage behavior. Pritchardia remota is fan palm endemic to Hawaii (subtribe Corypheae). Flowering of P. remota occurs mostly during the dry seas...

  17. Improving environmental sustainability of Thai palm oil production in 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit; Hein, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil production has increased in Thailand with considerable environmental impacts. The aim of this study is to analyse possibilities to examine how the environmental sustainability of Thai palm oil production can be improved in the coming decades. To this end, we integrated a sectoral and a l

  18. Functional palm oil-based margarine by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    Palm stearin, palm kernel and fish oils were blended to a various composition ratios and enzymatically interesterified by Lipozyme TL IM lipase (Thermomyces lanuginosa) using a continuous packed bed reactor. The ratio of the oils ranged from 60-90%, 10-40% and 0-10% respectively. The enzyme was a...

  19. OIL PALM FIBERS AS PAPERMAKING MATERIAL: POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the physical and chemical characteristics of fibers from the stem, fronds, and empty fruit bunches of oil palm tree in relation to their papermaking properties. Challenges regarding the use of this nonwood material for papermaking are raised, and possible solutions to them are given. A vision for the complete utilization of oil palm biomass is also outlined.

  20. Cell Wall Diversity in Forage Maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, A.F.; Noordam-Boot, C.M.M.; Dolstra, Oene; Weijde, van der Tim; Combes, Eliette; Dufour, Philippe; Vlaswinkel, Louis; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies are ideal platforms for assessing the extent of genetic diversity, inferring the genetic architecture, and evaluating complex trait interrelations for cell wall compositional and bioconversion traits relevant to bioenergy applications. Through the characterization of a forage maiz

  1. Investigating Optimal Foraging Theory in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Siegfried; Grilliot, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal foraging theory is a principle that is often presented in the community ecology section of biology textbooks, but also can be demonstrated in the laboratory. We introduce a lab activity that uses an interactive strategy to teach high school and/or college students about this ecological concept. The activity is ideal because it engages…

  2. The Dynamics of Infant Visual Foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Steven S.; Guckenheimer, John; Masnick, Amy M.; Bacher, Leigh F.

    2004-01-01

    Human infants actively forage for visual information from the moment of birth onward. Although we know a great deal about how stimulus characteristics influence looking behavior in the first few postnatal weeks, we know much less about the intrinsic dynamics of the behavior. Here we show that a simple stochastic dynamical system acts…

  3. Balancing organization and flexibility in foraging dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabone, Michaelangelo; Ermentrout, Bard; Doiron, Brent

    2010-10-07

    Proper pattern organization and reorganization are central problems facing many biological networks which thrive in fluctuating environments. However, in many cases the mechanisms that organize system activity oppose those that support behavioral flexibility. Thus, a balance between pattern organization and pattern flexibility is critically important for overall biological fitness. We study this balance in the foraging strategies of ant colonies exploiting food in dynamic environments. We present discrete time and space simulations of colony activity that uses a pheromone-based recruitment strategy biasing foraging towards a food source. After food relocation, the pheromone must evaporate sufficiently before foraging can shift colony attention to a new food source. The amount of food consumed within the dynamic environment depends non-monotonically on the pheromone evaporation time constant-with maximal consumption occurring at a time constant which balances trail formation and trail flexibility. A deterministic, 'mean field' model of pheromone and foragers on trails mimics our colony simulations. This reduced framework captures the essence of the flexibility-organization balance, and relates optimal pheromone evaporation to the timescale of the dynamic environment. We expect that the principles exposed in our study will generalize and motivate novel analysis across a broad range systems biology.

  4. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  5. New Initiatives for Management of Red Palm Weevil Threats to Historical Arabian Date Palms *

    KAUST Repository

    Mukhtar, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil (RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of infested plants, injection and spraying of biochemical and chemical pesticide treatments in heavily infested and newly infested areas, and the use of pheromone/ kairomone traps for monitoring and reduction of RPW populations has been only partially successful in controlling its spread. New methods are needed to help manage the RPW populations. At a workshop in Riyadh in March 2010, plans were recommended to 1) devise and test new biological, chemical, and biotechnological methods to manage RPW in farms and urban palms; 2) compare the economic and logistic feasibility of acoustic and other detection methods against RPW larvae; and 3) develop biosensor indicators of RPW infestation in date palms. If these initiatives are successful, they will be of great assistance to landscape and orchard managers dealing with such a challenging pest of a highly valuable tree.

  6. Bioactive Compounds of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD from Several Palm Oil Refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the characteristics of Palm Fatty Acids Distillates (PFADs from several palm oil refineries. It was aimed to know the potency of PFAD as bioactive compounds source, including vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols, phytosterols, squalene and possibly co-enzyme Q10 and polycosanol. Sampling was conducted at 6 palm oil refineries. The results showed that PFAD was dominated by free fatty acids of 85-95% with low oxidation level indicated by peroxide value of 1-10 meq/kg and anisidin value of 6-31. Bioactive compounds found were vitamin E 60-200 ppm, phytosterols 400-7500 ppm and squalene 400-2800 ppm, meanwhile polycosanol and co-enzyme Q10 were not found. Vitamin E was dominated by tocotrienols and γ tocotrienol was the major vitamin E, followed by α and δ tocotrienols. Phytosterols in PFADs from several palm oil refineries had variety in quantity and composition. Generally it was dominated by &beta sitosterol, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol

  7. Responses of late-lactation cows to forage substitutes in low-forage diets supplemented with by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to drought-induced shortages of forage and increased corn and soy prices, a study was conducted to evaluate lactation response of dairy cows to lower-forage diets supplemented with forage substitutes and with byproduct feeds entirely substituted for corn grain and soybean feeds. The desi...

  8. Palm harvest impacts in north-western South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor thousands of useful plants that are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understood. Palms are the most useful group of plants...... in tropical American forests. This paper introduces a cross-disciplinary study of the effects of harvesting palm products from the tropical forests in north-western South America. The size of the resource is estimated through palm community studies in the different forest formations that determines the number...... for subsistence purposes Quantitative ethno-botanical research in different forest types have identified thousands of different ways of using palms for food, construction, tool-making, etc. Although most palms are used by the person harvesting them, many are sold on local markets as fruits, fiber, tools...

  9. Palm Power Free-Piston Stirling Engine Control Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, Douglas E.; Holliday, Ezekiel

    2007-01-01

    A prototype 35We, JP-8 fueled, soldier-wearable power system for the DARPA Palm Power program has been developed and tested by Sunpower. A hermetically-sealed 42We Sunpower Free-Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) with integral linear alternator is the prime mover for this system. To maximize system efficiency over a broad range of output power, a non-dissipative, highly efficient electronic control system which modulates engine output power by varying piston stroke and converts the AC output voltage of the FPSE into 28Vdc for the Palm Power end user, has been designed and demonstrated as an integral component of the Palm Power system. This paper reviews the current status and progress made in developing the control electronics for the Palm Power system, in addition to describing the operation and demonstrated performance of the engine controller in the context of the current JP-8 fueled Palm Power system.

  10. From foraging to autonoetic consciousness: The primal self as a consequence of embodied prospective foraging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas T.HILLS; Stephen BUTTERFILL

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to adapt to resource distributions by modulating the frequency of exploratory and exploitative behaviors is common across metazoans and is arguably a principal selective force in the evolution of cognition.Here we (1) review recent work investigating behavioral and biological commonalities between external foraging in space and internal foraging over environmcnts specified by cognitive representations,and (2) explore the implications of these commonalities for understanding the origins of the self.Behavioural commonalities include the capacity for what is known as area-restricted search in the ecological literature:this is search focussed around locations where resources have been found in the past,but moving away from locations where few resources are found,and capable of producing movement patterns mimicking Lévy flights.Area-restricted search shares a neural basis across metazoans,and these biological commonalities in vertebrates suggest an evolutionary homology between external and internal foraging.Internal foraging,and in particular a form we call embodied prospective foraging,makes available additional capacities for prediction based on search through a cognitive representation of the external environment,and allows predictions about outcomes of possible future actions.We demonstrate that cognitive systems that use embodied prospective foraging require a primitive sense of self,needed to distinguish actual from simulated action.This relationship has implications for understanding the evolution of autonoetic consciousness and self-awareness [Current Zoology 61 (2):368-381,2015].

  11. Perching but not foraging networks predict the spread of novel foraging skills in starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogert, Neeltje J; Nightingale, Glenna F; Hoppitt, William; Laland, Kevin N

    2014-11-01

    The directed social learning hypothesis suggests that information does not spread evenly through animal groups, but rather individual characteristics and patterns of physical proximity guide the social transmission of information along specific pathways. Network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) allows researchers to test whether information spreads following a social network. However, the explanatory power of different social networks has rarely been compared, and current models do not easily accommodate random effects (e.g. allowing for individuals within groups to correlate in their asocial solving rates). We tested whether the spread of two novel foraging skills through captive starling groups was affected by individual- and group-level random and fixed effects (i.e. sex, age, body condition, dominance rank and demonstrator status) and perching or foraging networks. We extended NBDA to include random effects and conducted model discrimination in a Bayesian context. We found that social learning increased the rate at which birds acquired the novel foraging task solutions by 6.67 times, and acquiring one of the two novel foraging task solutions facilitated the asocial acquisition of the other. Surprisingly, the spread of task solutions followed the perching rather than the foraging social network. Upon acquiring a task solution, foraging performance was facilitated by the presence of group mates. Our results highlight the importance of considering more than one social network when predicting the spread of information through animal groups. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild.

  12. IDENTIFICACION DE HONGOS ASOCIADOS A LA MANCHA NEGRA DEL NOPAL (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) Y SU SENSIBILIDAD AL QUITOSANO.

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Flores, Rosalba

    2013-01-01

    México es el productor más importante de nopal verdura (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) del mundo. El estado de Morelos tiene la segunda posición en el país. La mancha negra de los cladodios es la enfermedad fúngica más importante. Sin embargo, existen pocas investigaciones acerca de hongos fitopatógenos asociados a esta enfermedad. Adicionalmente, no existen productos químicos autorizados para su control. El quitosano es un polímero biodegradable y no tóxico con propiedades antifúngicas. Este com...

  13. Estudios farmacológicos y toxicológicos de un extracto acuoso de frutos de Opuntia Dillenii Haw

    OpenAIRE

    Loro Ferrer, Juan Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Programa de Farmacología Experimental y Clínica [ES]El presente trabajo estudia los efectos farmacológicos de un extracto acuoso parcialmente purificado con Sephadez G25 (EAPP) obtenido de los frutos de Opuntia Dillenii Haw. Se realizaron los siguientes estudios farmacológicos: tes de irwin, toxicidad aguda (DL50), estudios de analgesia, estudio de la actividad antiinflamatoria, estudio de la coordinación motora, estudio del tránsito intestinal, estudio bioqu&ia...

  14. CONTENIDO DE PIGMENTOS, OTROS COMPUESTOS Y CAPACIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE EN 12 CULTIVARES DE TUNA (Opuntia spp.) DE MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Inés Figueroa-Cares; María T. Martínez-Damián; Enrique Rodríguez-Pérez; María T. Colinas-León; Salvador Valle-Guadarrama; Sweetia Ramírez-Ramírez; Clemente Gallegos-Vázquez

    2010-01-01

    La tuna (Opuntia spp.) es un recurso fitogenético de México de alto valor nutritivo cuyos cultivares nativos no habían sido caracterizados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el contenido de algunos compuestos químicos y el potencial antioxidante en 12 cultivares de tuna: Cristalina, Mansa y Vaquera (O. albicarpa), Amarilla Diamante (O. ficus-indica) y Mango (O. albicarpa), Amarilla Montesa y Pico Chulo (O. megacantha), Pabellón (O. ficus-indica), Rosa de Castilla y Torreoja (O. megacan...

  15. First record of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Opuntia ficus-indica in Milpa Alta, Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Pérez, Martín; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Brailovsky, Harry; Ramírez-Alarcón, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years a species of Hesperolabops has become a problem as a pest of nopalitos, Opuntia ficus-indica, in Milpa Alta, in the south of Mexico City, which is the most important production region of this vegetable in the country. A survey of Hesperolabops in Milpa Alta has resulted in the first report of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter. This occurrence should be monitored and considered in future studies in order to avoid misidentification of Hesperolabops spp. Kirkaldy native populations there, and to avoid the confusion of the damage that may be caused on O. ficus-indica.

  16. Riparian reserves within oil palm plantations conserve logged forest leaf litter ant communities and maintain associated scavenging rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Claudia L; Lewis, Owen T; Chung, Arthur Y C; Fayle, Tom M

    2015-02-01

    The expansion of oil palm plantations at the expense of tropical forests is causing declines in many species and altering ecosystem functions. Maintaining forest-dependent species and processes in these landscapes may therefore limit the negative impacts of this economically important industry. Protecting riparian vegetation may be one such opportunity; forest buffer strips are commonly protected for hydrological reasons, but can also conserve functionally important taxa and the processes they support.We surveyed leaf litter ant communities within oil palm-dominated landscapes in Sabah, Malaysia, using protein baits. As the scavenging activity of ants influences important ecological characteristics such as nutrient cycling and soil structure, we quantified species-specific rates of bait removal to examine how this process may change across land uses and establish which changes in community structure underlie observed shifts in activity.Riparian reserves had similar ant species richness, community composition and scavenging rates to nearby continuous logged forest. Reserve width and vegetation structure did not affect ant species richness significantly. However, the number of foraging individuals decreased with increasing reserve width, and scavenging rate increased with vegetation complexity.Oil palm ant communities were characterized by significantly lower species richness than logged forest and riparian reserves and also by altered community composition and reduced scavenging rates.Reduced scavenging activity in oil palm was not explained by a reduction in ant species richness, nor by replacement of forest ant species by those with lower per species scavenging rates. There was also no significant effect of land use on the scavenging activity of the forest species that persisted in oil palm. Rather, changes in scavenging activity were best explained by a reduction in the mean rate of bait removal per individual ant across all species in the community.Synthesis and

  17. Predicting fresh fruit bunch yield of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilnond, C.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop the simulation model for predicting fresh fruit bunch (FFB yield of oil palm through multiple linear regression analysis. Two experiments were conducted at the oil palm plantation of Agricultural and Technology College, Krabi province. Six-year-old Tenera hybrid palms were used for the experiments. These palms were planted in Tha-sae soil series (Typic Paleudults; Fine loamy mixedwith spacing of 9x9x9 m. In the first experiment, 151 Tenera palms were selected and marked randomly throughout an area of plantation about 16 ha. For each selected palm, FFB yield and yield component characters (FFB number and bunch weight were recorded at every harvesting time for four consecutive years (June 1993 to May 1997. The results showed that the FFB number and bunch weight could be used to predict the FFB oil palm yield. In the second experiment, nine plots of Tenera hybrid palms were arranged. The plot size was 0.48 ha and had twenty palms per plot for data collection for three consecutive years (January 1994 to December 1996. These data included leaf nutrient (N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the 17th frond, the fresh fruit bunch (FFB yield and the amount of rainfall. The results showed that N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the leaves, the amount of rainfall and FFB yield in the previous year, together with the N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the leaves (in the predicting year could be used to predict the FFB oil palm yield.

  18. Collective action in a smallholder oil palm production system in Indonesia: The key to sustainable and inclusive smallholder palm oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Idsert; Slingerland, Maja; Giller, Ken E.; Bijman, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Indonesian smallholder oil palm generally yield much less than corporate plantations. We analysed a smallholder oil palm production system in West Sumatra which outperformed its nucleus estate plantation, consistently producing yields far above the national average for over 25 years. Its

  19. DNA polymorphism among Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis populations from oil palm, using a repeated and dispersed sequence "Palm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyna, I; Renard, J L; Brygoo, Y

    1996-07-31

    A worldwide collection, of 76 F. oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis isolates (Foe), and of 21 F. oxysporum isolates from the soil of several palm grove was analysed by RFLP. As a probe, we used a random DNA fragment (probe 46) from a genomic library of a Foe isolate. This probe contains two different types of sequence, one being repeated and dispersed in the genome "Palm", the other being a single-copy sequence. All F. oxysporum isolates from the palm-grove soils were non-pathogenic to oil palm. They all had a simple restriction pattern with one band homologous to the single-copy sequence of probe 46. All Foe isolates were pathogenic to oil palm and they all had complex patterns due to hybridization with "Palm". This repetitive sequence reveals that Foe isolates are distinct from the other F. oxysporum palm-grove soils isolates. The sequence can reliably discriminate pathogenic from non-pathogenic oil palm isolates. Based on DNA fingerprint similarities, Foe populations were divided into ten groups consisting of isolates with the same geographic origin. Isolates from Brazil and Ecuador were an exception to that rule as they had the same restriction pattern as a few isolates from the Ivory Coast, suggesting they may originated from Africa.

  20. Neuroprotective Effects of Palm vitamin E Tocotrienols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Kah Hay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell and animal studies have convincingly shown the tocotrienols to be neuro protective. However, many compounds have been proven neuro protective in pre-clinical studies but none succeeded in human trials. Such failures can be attributed to the use of a wrong study model, example acute ischemic stroke. Stroke has a short treatment time window of about 4.5 hours and hence the difficulty of giving the compound within this time period. Furthermore, disruption of blood flow to the affected areas will limit the administered agent from reaching the target tissues. Therefore, the compound should best be given before the stroke event, like in the animal studies. Considering the above, the present study was conducted to investigate the neuro protective effects of palm vitamin E tocotrienols using human volunteers with white matter lesions (WMLs. WMLs are associated with ischemic small blood vessel disease of the brain leading to bundles of nerve fibers degenerating. The lesions are self-progressive and can be quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In the present study, 121 volunteers with WMLs were randomized 200mg palm tocotrienols twice daily or placebo and imaged at baseline, after 1 year and 2 years of supplementation. Changes in the volume of WMLs from baseline were then determined. Results obtained showed that the mean WML volume of the treated group remained essentially unchanged after 2 years, whereas the placebo group showed a mark progression. The change in the mean WML volume of the 2 groups was significantly different (p<0.05 after 2 years. Hence, the present study provided clinical evidence that palm vitamin E tocotrienols are neuro protective and may help to minimize tissue injury of the brain during a stroke event, thus making a difference in the stroke outcome when taken as a supplement.

  1. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  2. The fate of populations of Euterpe oleracea harvested for palm heart in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, M.I.; Galeano, G.; Bernal, R.; Zuidema, P.

    2014-01-01

    Palm heart is an important non-timber forest product obtained from various palm species in tropical forests. We studied the effect of four decades of palm heart extraction from the clonal palm Euterpe oleracea at the southern Pacific coast of Colombia. We monitored populations that had been subject

  3. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenario

  4. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored

  5. The fate of populations of Euterpe oleracea harvested for palm heart in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, M.I.; Galeano, G.; Bernal, R.; Zuidema, P.

    2014-01-01

    Palm heart is an important non-timber forest product obtained from various palm species in tropical forests. We studied the effect of four decades of palm heart extraction from the clonal palm Euterpe oleracea at the southern Pacific coast of Colombia. We monitored populations that had been subject

  6. Valorization of palm oil (mill) residues. Identifyin and solving the challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2013-01-01

    This report explains in brief how the palm oil production system is set-up and how by-products of palm oil extraction (Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Mesocarp Fibre, Shells and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)) are generated in the Palm oil Mill and what the composition of each stream is. Then the options ar

  7. Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan D. Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Foraging activity may be limited by temperature, humidity, radiation, wind, and other abiotic factors, all of which can affect energy costs during foraging. Ectatomma vizottoi's biology has only recently been studied, and no detailed information is available on its foraging patterns or diet in the field. For this reason, and because foraging activity is an important part of the ecological success of social insects, the present study aimed to investigate E. vizottoi's foraging strategies and dietary habits. First, we determined how abiotic factors constrained E. vizottoi's foraging patterns in the field by monitoring the foraging activity of 16 colonies on eight different days across two seasons. Second, we characterized E. vizottoi's diet by monitoring another set of 26 colonies during peak foraging activity. Our results show that E. vizottoi has foraging strategies that are similar to those of congeneric species. In spite of having a low efficiency index, colonies adopted strategies that allowed them to successfully obtain food resources while avoiding adverse conditions. These strategies included preying on other ant species, a foraging tactic that could arise if a wide variety of food items are not available in the environment or if E. vizottoi simply prefers, regardless of resource availability, to prey on other invertebrates and especially on other ant species.

  8. Scavenger: Transparent Development of Efficient Cyber Foraging Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø

    2010-01-01

    Cyber foraging is a pervasive computing technique where small mobile devices offload resource intensive tasks to stronger computing machinery in the vicinity. This paper presents Scavenger-a new cyber foraging system supporting easy development of mobile cyber foraging applications, while still...... delivering efficient, mobile use of remote computing resources through the use of a custom built mobile code execution environment and a new dual-profiling scheduler. One of the main difficulties within cyber foraging is that it is very challenging for application programmers to develop cyber foraging...... enabled applications. An application using cyber foraging is working with mobile, distributed and, possibly, parallel computing; fields within computer science known to be hard for programmers to grasp. In this paper it is shown by example, how a highly distributed, parallel, cyber foraging enabled...

  9. Summertime blues: August foraging leaves honey bees empty-handed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillon, Margaret J; Fensome, Katherine A; Quah, Shaun Kl; Schürch, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A successful honey bee forager tells her nestmates the location of good nectar and pollen with the waggle dance, a symbolic language that communicates a distance and direction. Because bees are adept at scouting out profitable forage and are very sensitive to energetic reward, we can use the distance that bees communicate via waggle dances as a proxy for forage availability, where the further the bees fly, the less forage can be found locally. Previously we demonstrated that bees fly furthest in the summer compared with spring or autumn to bring back forage that is not necessarily of better quality. Here we show that August is also the month when significantly more foragers return with empty crops (P = 7.63e-06). This provides additional support that summer may represent a seasonal foraging challenge for honey bees.

  10. Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the potential benefits to human health there is an increased interest in producing milk containing lower-saturated fatty acid (SFA) and higher unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations, including cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used in two experiments according to a completely randomized block design, with 21-day periods to examine the effects of incremental replacement of prilled palm fat (PALM) with sunflower oil (SFO) in high-concentrate diets containing 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of supplemental fat (Experiment 1) or increases in the forage-to-concentrate (F : C) ratio from 39 : 61 to 48 : 52 of diets containing 30 g/kg DM of SFO (Experiment 2) on milk production, digestibility and milk FA composition. Replacing PALM with SFO had no effect on DM intake, but tended to increase organic matter digestibility, yields of milk, protein and lactose, and decreased linearly milk fat content. Substituting SFO for PALM decreased linearly milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and cis-9 16:1, and increased linearly 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-18:1 (��4 to 16), 18:2 and CLA concentrations. Increases in the F : C ratio of diets containing SFO had no effect on intake, yields of milk, milk protein or milk lactose, lowered milk protein content in a quadratic manner, and increased linearly NDF digestion and milk fat secretion. Replacing concentrates with forages in diets containing SFO increased milk fat 4:0 to 10:0 concentrations in a linear or quadratic manner, decreased linearly cis-9 16:1, trans-6 to -10 18:1, 18:2n-6, trans-7, cis-9 CLA, trans-9, cis-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, without altering milk fat 14:0 to 16:0, trans-11 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 CLA or 18:3n-3 concentrations. In conclusion, replacing prilled palm fat on with SFO in high-concentrate diets had no adverse effects on intake or milk production, other than decreasing milk fat content, but lowered milk fat medium-chain SFA and increased

  11. The regulation of ant colony foraging activity without spatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Balaji; Dektar, Katherine N; Gordon, Deborah M

    2012-01-01

    Many dynamical networks, such as the ones that produce the collective behavior of social insects, operate without any central control, instead arising from local interactions among individuals. A well-studied example is the formation of recruitment trails in ant colonies, but many ant species do not use pheromone trails. We present a model of the regulation of foraging by harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus) colonies. This species forages for scattered seeds that one ant can retrieve on its own, so there is no need for spatial information such as pheromone trails that lead ants to specific locations. Previous work shows that colony foraging activity, the rate at which ants go out to search individually for seeds, is regulated in response to current food availability throughout the colony's foraging area. Ants use the rate of brief antennal contacts inside the nest between foragers returning with food and outgoing foragers available to leave the nest on the next foraging trip. Here we present a feedback-based algorithm that captures the main features of data from field experiments in which the rate of returning foragers was manipulated. The algorithm draws on our finding that the distribution of intervals between successive ants returning to the nest is a Poisson process. We fitted the parameter that estimates the effect of each returning forager on the rate at which outgoing foragers leave the nest. We found that correlations between observed rates of returning foragers and simulated rates of outgoing foragers, using our model, were similar to those in the data. Our simple stochastic model shows how the regulation of ant colony foraging can operate without spatial information, describing a process at the level of individual ants that predicts the overall foraging activity of the colony.

  12. Efecto del Almacenamiento a Diferentes Temperaturas sobre la Calidad de Tuna Roja (Opuntia ficus indica (L. Miller Effect of the Storage at Different Temperatures on the Quality of Red Prickle Pear (Opuntia ficus indica (L. Miller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E Ochoa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el efecto del almacenamiento a diferentes temperaturas sobre la calidad de tuna roja (Opuntia ficus indica (L. Miller, variedad San Martín. El fruto se almacenó a 4±1, 9±2 y 28±2°C para determinar su vida útil. Se realizó semanalmente la caracterización fisicoquímica, enzimática, antioxidante y microbiológica durante el almacenamiento, hasta observar características no aptas para el consumo. Se observó que el tiempo y la temperatura de almacenamiento son factores que afectan de manera significativa (P0,05 a las diferentes temperaturas de almacenamiento. Sin embargo, la actividad antioxidante presentó un aumento significativo con el tiempo.The effect of the storage at different temperatures on the quality of red prickle pear (Opuntia ficus indica (L. Miller San Martín variety. The fruit was stored at 4±1, 9±2, and 28±2°C for determining its shelf life. Once a week, physicochemical, enzymatic, antioxidant and microbiological characteristics were evaluated until fruit showed no edible characteristics. Time and storage temperature were the two parameters that significantly affected (p0.05 during storage time. However, antioxidant capacity presented a significant increase with time.

  13. An Investigation of Sustainable Power Generation from Oil Palm Biomass: A Case Study in Sarawak

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin Aghamohammadi; Stacy Simai Reginald; Ahmad Shamiri; Ali Akbar Zinatizadeh; Li Ping Wong; Nik Meriam Binti Nik Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia, with 22% of the nation's oil palm plantation area, making it the second largest contributor to palm biomass production. Despite the enormous amount of palm biomass in the state, the use of biomass as fuel for power generation remains low. This study is designed to investigate the sustainability of power generation from palm biomass specifically in Sarawak by conducting a survey among the palm oil mill developers. To conduct this investigation, several...

  14. A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine L.Y. Man

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including palm oil, palm kernel oil, palm kernel cake, oleo-chemicals and finished products, equivalent to RM 49.59 billion of export revenue. However, cost of production for Crude Palm Oil (CPO varies in a big gap. Therefore, it is essential to identify the major cost influencing factors in the production of CPO. Approach: The study system started with collection of Fresh Fruits Bunches (FFB from oil palm plantation to the production of CPO at palm oil mills. Two palm oil mills of different production capacity were chosen for this study. Statistical analysis was done to identify the major cost influencing factors of production cost for CPO. Results: The production cost of CPO for small scale palm oil mills preferably lied between RM 45 to RM 50 per metric tons while large scale palm oil mills lied below RM 45 per metric tons. Conclusion: Palm oil mills with higher production capacity were efficient in producing CPO than lower production capacity palm oil mills. Thus, the production cost of CPO was lower compared to that of small scale palm oil mills.

  15. Two-step procedures in Palm theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Nieuwenhuis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Random time changes (RTCs are right-continuous and non-decreasing random functions passing the zero-level at 0. The behavior of such systems can be studied from a randomly chosen time-point and from a randomly chosen level. From the first point of view, the probability characteristics are described by the time-stationary distribution P. From the second point of view, the detailed Palm distribution (DPD is the ruling probability mechanism. The main topic of the present paper is a relationship between P and its DPD. Under P, the origin falls in a continuous part of the graph. Under the DPD, there are two typical situations: the origin lies in a jump-part of the extended graph or it lies in a continuous part. These observations lead to two conditional DPDs. We derive two-step procedures, which bridge the gaps between the several distributions. One step concerns the application of a shift, the second is just a change of measure arranged by a weight-function. The procedures are used to derive local characterization results for the distributions of Palm type. We also consider simulation applications. For instance, a procedure is mentioned to generate a simulation of the RTC as seen from a randomly chosen level in a jump-part when starting with simulations from a randomly chosen time-point. The point process with batch-arrivals is often used as an application.

  16. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011. In addition, between 2002 and 2009, there were 2,7 million tons of red oil (FEDEPAL, 2010. It is determined that for each unit of energy consumed, 4.82 units of energy are contained in the red oil. The energy used in making pesticides for cultivation, consumed in transportation, refining, and post harvest is excluded because this other energy would drastically reduce the absolute data of the indicator, which is already inefficient for the high energy consumption it requires to generate the energy contained in the oil. On the other hand, agroecology has proven to be more efficient in the generation of energy per unit of invested energy (Altieri et. al., 2010; Moore, 2004.

  17. Towards a global historical biogeography of Palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas; Baker, William J.; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Sepulchre, Pierre; Franc, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Four mechanisms are at work for deciphering historical biogeography of plants : speciation, extinction, migration, and drift (a sort of neutral speciation). The first three mechanisms are under selection pressure of the environment, mainly the climate and connectivity of land masses. Hence, an accurate history of climate and connectivity or non connectivity between landmasses, as well as orogenesis processes, can shed new light on the most likely speciation events and migration routes driven by paleogeography and paleoclimatology. Currently, some models exist (like DIVA) to infer the most parsimonious history (in the number of migration events) knowing the speciation history given by phylogenies (extinction are mostly unknown), in a given setting of climate and landmass connectivity. In a previous project, we have built in collaboration with LSCE a series of paleogeographic and paleoclimatic maps since the Early Cretaceous. We have developed a program, called Aran, which enables to extend DIVA to a time series of varying paleoclimatic and paleogeogarphic conditions. We apply these new methods and data to unravel the biogeographic history of palms (Arecaceae), a pantropical family of 182 genera and >2600 species whose divergence is dated in Late Cretaceous (100 My). Based on a robust dated molecular phylogeny, novel paleoclimatic and paleogeographic maps, we will generate an updated biogeographic history of Arecaceae inferred from the most parsimonious history using Aran. We will discuss the results, and put them in context with what is known and needed to provide a global biogeographic history of tropical palms.

  18. Molecular defense response of oil palm to Ganoderma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C-L; Tan, Y-C

    2015-06-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm roots is due to the invasion of fungal mycelia of Ganoderma species which spreads to the bole of the stem. In addition to root contact, BSR can also spread by airborne basidiospores. These fungi are able to break down cell wall components including lignin. BSR not only decreases oil yield, it also causes the stands to collapse thus causing severe economic loss to the oil palm industry. The transmission and mode of action of Ganoderma, its interactions with oil palm as a hemibiotroph, and the molecular defence responses of oil palm to the infection of Ganoderma boninense in BSR are reviewed, based on the transcript profiles of infected oil palms. The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed.

  19. Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wing-Keong

    2002-01-01

    One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products.

  20. Chemical and physical defense traits in two sexual forms of Opuntia robusta in Central Eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; León Solano, Héctor Javier; Solache Rámos, Lupita Tzenyatze; Mendoza Reyes, Citlalli Hypatia; Oro Cerro, María del Carmen; Mariezcurrena Berasain, María Dolores; Rivas Manzano, Irma Victoria; Manjarrez, Javier; Villareal Benitez, José Luis; Czarnoleski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Sexually dimorphic plants provide an excellent opportunity for examining the differences in the extent of their defense against herbivores because they exhibit sex-related differences in reproductive investment. Such differences enable comparison of the sex with high reproduction expenses with the sex that expends less. The more costly sex is usually also better defended against herbivores. Generally, females are considered more valuable than hermaphrodites in terms of fitness; however, hermaphrodites are more valuable if they can produce seed by autonomous selfing, provided that the inbreeding depression is low and pollen is limited. We studied a gynodioecious population of Opuntia robusta from Central-Eastern Mexico, which has been reported to be trioecious, dioecious, or hermaphrodite, and addressed the following questions: 1) Is the hermaphrodite's reproductive output higher than the female's, and are hermaphrodites thus better defended? 2) Are plant tissues differentially defended? 3) Do trade-offs exist among different physical defense traits? and 4) among physical and chemical defense traits? We found that 1) hermaphrodites had a higher seed output and more spines per areola than females and that their spines contained less moisture. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained more total phenolic compounds (TPCs) than female ones. In addition, 2) hermaphrodite reproductive cladodes bore more spines than female cladodes, and 3) and 4) we found a negative relationship between spine number per areola and areola number per cladode and a positive relationship between spine number per areola per plant and TPC concentration per plant. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained a higher concentration of TPCs than female cladodes, and parental cladodes contained fewer TPCs than both reproductive and empty cladodes.

  1. Ameliorative effect of Opuntia ficus indica juice on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis fruit juice (OFIj) on reversing oxidative damages induced by chronic ethanol intake in rat erythrocytes. OFIj was firstly analyzed with HPLC for phenolic and flavonoids content. Secondly, 40 adult male Wistar rats were equally divided into five groups and treated for 90 days as follows: control (C), ethanol-only 3 g/kg body weight (b.w) (E), low dose of OFIj 2 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Ldj+E), high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Hdj+E), and only a high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100g b.w (Hdj). HPLC analysis indicated high concentrations of phenolic acids and flavonoids in OFIj. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Changes in the erythrocyte's antioxidant ability were accompanied by enhanced oxidative modification of lipids (increase of malondialdeyde level) and proteins (increase in carbonyl groups). Interestingly, pre-administration of either 2 ml/100 g b.w or 4 ml/100 g b.w of OFIj to ethanol-intoxicated rats significantly reversed decreases in enzymatic as well as non enzymatic antioxidants parameters in erythrocytes. Also, the administration of OFIj significantly protected lipids and proteins against ethanol-induced oxidative modifications in rat erythrocytes. The beneficial effect of OFIj can result from the inhibition of ethanol-induced free radicals chain reactions in rat erythrocytes or from the enhancement of the endogenous antioxidants activities.

  2. Growth and predicted productivity of Opuntia ficus-indica for current and elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Garcia de Cortazar, V. (Univ. de Chile, Santiago (Chile))

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., a prickly pear cactus cultivated worldwide for its fruits and stem segments, can have an annual dry weight productivity exceeding that of many crops. Using a recent introduced environmental productivity index (EPI), the influences of water status, temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on its productivity can be predicted. This investigation calculated the water index, the temperature index, and the PAR index, whose product equals EPI, for 169 sites distributed approximately uniformly across the contiguous USA for present climatic conditions as well as for those associated with an elevated CO{sub 2} concentration of 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on growth of O. ficus-indica was directly measured, and low temperature limitations on productivity were considered. The dry weight gain of O. ficus-indica during 6 mo in an environmental growth chamber was 23% greater at 650 compared with 350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2} and increased as the duration of the wet period increased. For closely spaced plants that lead to a high productivity per unit ground area, EPI averaged about 0.10, except in desert regions where the water index lowered EPI, in the far North or South and at high elevations where the temperature index lowered EPI, and in the Northeast and Northwest where the PAR index lowered EPI. The predicted annual dry weight productivity for O. ficus-indica was 12.8 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under current conditions, and 16.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under those associated with 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}.

  3. Water Relations, Diurnal Acidity Changes, and Productivity of a Cultivated Cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Edmundo; Badilla, Ignacio; Nobel, Park S.

    1983-01-01

    Physiological responses of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) were studied on a commercial plantation in central Chile. Young cladodes (flattened stems) and flower buds exhibited daytime stomatal opening, whereas mature cladodes and fruit exhibited the nocturnal stomatal opening characteristic of CAM plants. Severe water stress suppressed the nocturnal stomatal opening by mature cladodes, but their high water vapor conductance occurring near dawn was not affected. Nocturnal acidity increases were not as sensitive to water stress as was the nocturnal stomatal opening. The magnitude of the nocturnal acidity increases depended on the total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), being 90% PAR-saturated at 27 moles per square meter per day for a mean nighttime air temperature of 5°C and at 20 moles per square meter per day for 18°C. Inasmuch as the PAR received on unshaded vertical surfaces averaged about 21 moles per square meter per day, nocturnal acidity increases by the cladodes were on the verge of being PAR-limited in the field. The net assimilation rate, which was positive throughout the year, annually averaged 3.4 grams per square meter per day for 1.0- and 2.0-year-old plants. Plants that were 5.4 years old had 7.2 square meters of cladode surface area (both sides) and an annual dry weight productivity of 13 megagrams (metric tons) per hectare per year when their ground cover was 32%. This substantial productivity for a CAM plant was accompanied by the highest nocturnal acidity increase so far observed in the field, 0.78 mole H+ per square meter. PMID:16663084

  4. Biomechanics and anatomy of cladode junctions for two Opuntia (Cactaceae) species and their hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobich, E G; Nobel, P S

    2001-03-01

    Hybridization between the introduced arborescent Opuntia ficus-indica and the native shrubby O. littoralis has led to populations, referred to as O. "occidentalis," which form thickets that can dominate hillsides of chaparral and that can survive fires. Because the thickets apparently develop via vegetative reproduction, O. "occidentalis" was hypothesized to have a greater ability than its parent species to reproduce vegetatively due to weaker cladode junctions. Of the three taxa, the junctions for O. "occidentalis" had the least amount of wood, despite having cladode masses and junction cross-sectional areas similar to those of O. littoralis. The cladodes of O. "occidentalis" resisted deflection about their junctions the least and their junctions required the least amount of applied mass and the smallest bending moment to fail mechanically. The junction wood for all three taxa consisted mostly of parenchyma, with lesser amounts of cells with thickened secondary cell walls, indicating that some junction strength depended on hydrostatic pressure, especially for terminal junctions. Libriform fibers, which contribute to support and resist bending moments, were about 80% less frequent in the sub-subterminal junctions of O. "occidentalis" than in O. ficus-indica and O. littoralis. Vascular tracheids, which probably reduced shear among cells in the wood, were 90% less frequent in the terminal and sub-subterminal junction wood of O. "occidentalis" compared to O. littoralis. Thus wood characteristics can account for the weaker junctions of O. "occidentalis" compared to those of O. ficus-indica and O. littoralis, which apparently increases the ability of the hybrid to reproduce vegetatively.

  5. The ecology of the yeast flora in necroticOpuntia cacti and of associatedDrosophila in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J S; East, P D; Phaff, H J; Miranda, M

    1984-12-01

    A survey was made of the yeast communities isolated from necrotic tissue of 4 species of prickly-pear cacti (Opuntia stricta, O. tomentosa, O. monacantha, andO. streptacantha) which have colonized in Australia. Yeast communities were sampled from a number of localities and at different times. Cactus specific yeasts accounted for 80% of the total isolates, and the 3 most common species contributed 63% of the total. Comparisons of the species compositions of the yeast communities indicated that the differences among communities were greater betweenOpuntia species than between different localities within a single cactus species, and also that differences between years were greater than average differences between localities within years. Multivariate statistical tests of association between yeast community and physical features of rots indicated that temperature, pH, and age of rot all exerted some influence on the structure of the yeast community. Similar analyses involvingDrosophila species inhabiting these cactus rots suggested the existence of complex associations betweenDrosophila community, yeast community, and physical and chemical attributes of the cactus necroses.

  6. Betalain profile, phenolic content, and color characterization of different parts and varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Chaalal, Makhlouf; Louaileche, Hayette; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-08-20

    Three different varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica (R, red; Y, yellow; RY, red-yellow) have been considered in this study. Attention was focused on differential tristimulus colorimetry and on the analysis of individual betalains (HPLC-DAD-ESI-ToF-MS) and phenolic content, scarcely previously reported in these kinds of samples. The importance of this research stems from the elucidation of the parts and varieties of cactus pear more optimal for use as natural colorants and sources of phenolics and betalains. Thus, the RY pulp was appropriate to obtain colorants with high color intensity (C*(ab) = 66.5), whereas the whole Y fruit and R pulp reached powerful and stable yellow and red colors, respectively (C*(ab)/h(ab), 57.1/84.7 and 61.1°/81.8°). This choice was also based on the visually appreciable differences (ΔE*(ab) > 5) among samples, mainly quantitative (%Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C). In addition, seeds of all Opuntia varieties showed significantly (p < 0.05) similar phenolic content (around 23.3 mg/g) and color characteristics.

  7. Hydrolytic activity and ultrastructural changes in fruit skins from two prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) varieties during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-López, Armando; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Cárabez-Trejo, Alfonso; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2002-03-13

    The activity of four cell wall hydrolases, pectinmethylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), cellulase, and beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal), was measured in fruit skins of two prickly pear varieties, Naranjona and Charola, during storage at 18 degrees C and 85-95% relative humidity (RH). In Naranjona (Opuntia ficus indica), of short postharvest life (ca. 2 weeks), PG, cellulase, and beta-Gal increased their activity more than twice, whereas PME activity tended to increase only slightly during storage. In Charola (Opuntia sp.), of long postharvest life (ca. 2 months), only beta-Gal increased its activity (77%), showing a high PG activity from the beginning of storage. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed middle lamella dissolution at the end of storage for both varieties. Naranjona showed a higher cell wall enzymatic activity than Charola, in agreement with their storability differences. Our results suggest that PG and cellulase in Naranjona and PG and beta-Gal in Charola are the main enzymes responsible for cell wall hydrolytic and ultrastructural changes in skins of stored prickly pears.

  8. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Power, Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Betacyanins of the Peel and Pulp of Three Tunisian Opuntia Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Yeddes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms and Opuntia stricta have been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic compound (TPC and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. The results showed that O. stricta fruits present the best antioxidant activities than the two forms of O. ficus indica, while the TPC was more important in O. ficus indica than in the O. stricta fruits. The peels have higher flavonoids than pulp, and the thornless variety has more flavonoid than the spiny. The RP-HPLC and ESI-MS analysis detected two classes of phenolic compounds and betalain pigments. Isorhamnetin derivatives are the dominant flavonol glycoside identified in O. ficus indica (spiny: 65.25 μg·g−1; thornless: 77.03 μg·g−1 and O. stricta peels (19.22 μg·g−1.

  9. The evolutionary history of Drosophila buzzatii. XXXIII. Are Opuntia hosts a selective factor for the inversion polymorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanara, J J; Hasson, E; Rodríguez, C; Santos, M; Fontdevila, A

    1996-11-01

    Previous work has shown fitness differences among chromosomal arrangements by means of selection component analysis in two Drosophila buzzatii natural populations, one of which is native to Argentina and the other a colonized population from Carboneras, Spain. Founder effects or niche shifts were proposed to explain the differences observed in the pattern of pleiotropic effects of inversions on fitness components. In this paper, we address the possible role of niche shifts by determining whether differential attraction to, oviposition on, or utilization of the rotting cladodes of two different Opuntia species (O. quimilo and O. ficus-indica) occurred among individuals carrying different second chromosome karyotypes in a natural Argentinian population. Through the analysis of more than 2500 individuals comprising five different life cycle stages associated with the necroses of these two cactus species, we found that the distributions of inversion frequencies in samples of adult flies, third instar larvae and emerging adults collected on both Opuntia species were not significantly different. Likewise, no evidence of differential oviposition was observed. These findings suggest that niche shifts cannot, solely, account for the changes observed in the Carboneras population. In addition, the selection component analysis did not reveal any significant relationship between chromosomal arrangements and the fitness components tested. These results suggest either that fitness differences might be too small to be detected or that the assumptions of the model concerning the mode of selection may not be tenable in the studied population.

  10. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase expression in activated microglia and peroxynitrite scavenging activity by Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming Hong; Kim, Jae Yeon; Yoon, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Tae Hee; Jin, Changbae; Kwak, Wie-Jong; Han, Chang-Kyun; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2006-09-01

    Activated microglia by neuronal injury or inflammatory stimulation overproduce nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion, resulting in neurodegenerative diseases. The toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-), the reaction product of NO and superoxide anion further contributes to oxidative neurotoxicity. A butanol fraction obtained from 50% ethanol extracts of Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten (Cactaceae) stem (SK OFB901) and its hydrolysis product (SK OFB901H) inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated microglia in a dose dependent manner (IC50 15.9, 4.2 microg/mL, respectively). They also suppressed the expression of protein and mRNA of iNOS in LPS-activated microglial cells at higher than 30 microg/mL as observed by western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiment. They also inhibited the degradation of I-kappaB-alpha in activated microglia. Moreover, they showed strong activity of peroxynitrite scavenging in a cell free bioassay system. These results imply that Opuntia ficus indica may have neuroprotective activity through the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells and peroxynitrite scavenging activity.

  11. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Power, Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Betacyanins of the Peel and Pulp of Three Tunisian Opuntia Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila K; Guyot, Sylvain; Sotin, Hélène; Ayadi, Malika T

    2013-04-19

    The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms) and Opuntia stricta have been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that O. stricta fruits present the best antioxidant activities than the two forms of O. ficus indica, while the TPC was more important in O. ficus indica than in the O. stricta fruits. The peels have higher flavonoids than pulp, and the thornless variety has more flavonoid than the spiny. The RP-HPLC and ESI-MS analysis detected two classes of phenolic compounds and betalain pigments. Isorhamnetin derivatives are the dominant flavonol glycoside identified in O. ficus indica (spiny: 65.25 μg·g(-1); thornless: 77.03 μg·g(-1)) and O. stricta peels (19.22 μg·g(-1)).

  12. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among Tunisian cactus species (Opuntia) as revealed by random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendhifi Zarroug, M; Baraket, G; Zourgui, L; Souid, S; Salhi Hannachi, A

    2015-02-13

    Opuntia ficus indica is one of the most economically important species in the Cactaceae family. Increased interest in this crop stems from its potential contribution to agricultural diversification, application in the exploitation of marginal lands, and utility as additional income sources for farmers. In Tunisia, O. ficus indica has been affected by drastic genetic erosion resulting from biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, it is imperative to identify and preserve this germplasm. In this study, we focused on the use of random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms to assess genetic diversity among 25 representatives of Tunisian Opuntia species maintained in the collection of the National Institute of Agronomic Research of Tunisia. Seventy-two DNA markers were screened to discriminate accessions using 16 successful primer combinations. The high percentage of polymorphic band (100%), the resolving power value (5.68), the polymorphic information content (0.94), and the marker index (7.2) demonstrated the efficiency of the primers tested. Therefore, appropriate cluster analysis used in this study illustrated a divergence among the cultivars studied and exhibited continuous variation that occurred independently of geographic origin. O. ficus indica accessions did not cluster separately from the other cactus pear species, indicating that their current taxonomical classifications are not well aligned with their genetic variability or locality of origin.

  13. Comparative study of antioxidant power, polyphenols, flavonoids and betacyanins of peel and pulp of three Tunisian Opuntia forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Trabelsi Ayadi, Malika

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms) and Opuntia stricta has been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The Total Phenolic Compound (TPC) and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that O. stricta fruits present the best antioxidant activities than the two forms of O. ficus indica while the TPC was more important in O. ficus indica than in the O. stricta fruits. The peels have higher flavonoids than pulps and the thornless has more flavonoid than the spiny. The RP-HPLC and ESI-MS analysis detected two classes of phenolic compounds and betalain pigments. Isorhamnetin derivatives are the dominant flavonol glycoside identified in O. ficus indica (spiny: 65.25 μg g(-1); thornless: 77.03 μg g(-1)) and O. stricta peels (19.22 μg g(-1)).

  14. 米邦塔仙人掌提汁新工艺的研究%Studies on New Extraction Technology of Juice from Opuntia Milpa Alta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤锋; 包珍; 李明; 黄乐平

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨一种可食用米邦塔仙人掌汁液提取的新工艺.[方法I利用渗透压胀破细胞壁使汁液流出原理,通过单因素试验和正交试验优化了米邦塔仙人掌汁液提取的工艺条件.[结果]米邦塔仙人掌汁液提取的最优工艺条件:仙人掌与蔗糖的比例为4:1(V:V),提汁时间为12 h,切片厚度为4 mm.在该条件下,仙人掌原汁得率可达84.90%.[结论]为研究米邦塔仙人掌的加工生产提供了理论依据.%[ Objective] The aim was to study the new extraction technology of juice from Opuntia Milpa Alta. [ Method ] According to the principle of osmotic pressure breaking cell wall to make juice flow out, technology conditons of juice from Opuntia Milpa Alta were optimized by single-factor test experiment and orthogonal test. [ Result ] The optimal extraction technology of juice from Opuntia Milpa Alta were as follows: the proportion of Opuntia Milpa Alta and sucrose was 4:1 ( V: V); the extraction time was 12 h; the section thickness was 4 mm. Under above conditions of extraction technology, the juice rate of cacus could reach 84.90%. [ Conclusion] The research provides theoretical basis for studies on the processing production of Opuntia Milpa Alta.

  15. The hidden carbon liability of Indonesian palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    This report highlights the urgent need for global palm oil consumers and investors to support Unilever's call for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance in Indonesia. This report focuses on Unilever, which shares major institutional investors with other leading corporations including Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft. Not only do these corporations share investors, they also share growing carbon liability within their raw material supply chains through the expansion in the palm oil sector in Indonesia. Unilever has recognised the global problems associated with palm oil expansion and the need for drastic reform to this sector. Unilever has taken a bold move in calling for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance. While Unilever's position is strengthened by its status as the largest palm oil consumer in the world, this report shows how, unless companies like Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft support its call for a halt to deforestation, the palm oil industry will continue to present a massive carbon liability over the coming years. This report uses Unilever's palm oil supply chains as a case study to help quantify the carbon liability and collateral risks associated with the Indonesian palm oil sector. It shows how, by buying palm oil from suppliers who account for more than one-third of Indonesia's palm oil production, Unilever and its competitors are increasing their potential carbon liability and thus leaving investors exposed to potentially significant levels of hidden risk, compromising long-term financial and brand stability.

  16. Uncovering the complexity of ant foraging trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grüter, Christoph; Jones, Sam M; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2012-01-01

    The common garden ant Lasius niger use both trail pheromones and memory of past visits to navigate to and from food sources. In a recent paper we demonstrated a synergistic effect between route memory and trail pheromones: the presence of trail pheromones results in experienced ants walking straighter and faster. We also found that experienced ants leaving a pheromone trail deposit less pheromone. Here we focus on another finding of the experiment: the presence of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which are used as home range markers by ants, also affects pheromone deposition behavior. When walking on a trail on which CHCs are present but trail pheromones are not, experienced foragers deposit less pheromone on the outward journey than on the return journey. The regulatory mechanisms ants use during foraging and recruitment behavior is subtle and complex, affected by multiple interacting factors such as route memory, travel direction and the presence trail pheromone and home-range markings.

  17. Adaptive Levy walks in foraging fallow deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Focardi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lévy flights are random walks, the step lengths of which come from probability distributions with heavy power-law tails, such that clusters of short steps are connected by rare long steps. Lévy walks maximise search efficiency of mobile foragers. Recently, several studies raised some concerns about the reliability of the statistical analysis used in previous analyses. Further, it is unclear whether Lévy walks represent adaptive strategies or emergent properties determined by the interaction between foragers and resource distribution. Thus two fundamental questions still need to be addressed: the presence of Lévy walks in the wild and whether or not they represent a form of adaptive behaviour. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 235 paths of solitary and clustered (i.e. foraging in group fallow deer (Dama dama, exploiting the same pasture. We used maximum likelihood estimation for discriminating between a power-tailed distribution and the exponential alternative and rank/frequency plots to discriminate between Lévy walks and composite Brownian walks. We showed that solitary deer perform Lévy searches, while clustered animals did not adopt that strategy. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our demonstration of the presence of Lévy walks is, at our knowledge, the first available which adopts up-to-date statistical methodologies in a terrestrial mammal. Comparing solitary and clustered deer, we concluded that the Lévy walks of solitary deer represent an adaptation maximising encounter rates with forage resources and not an epiphenomenon induced by a peculiar food distribution.

  18. Spatiotemporal resource distribution and foraging strategies of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanan, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of food resources in space and time is likely to be an important factor governing the type of foraging strategy used by ants. However, no previous systematic attempt has been made to determine whether spatiotemporal resource distribution is in fact correlated with foraging strategy across the ants. In this analysis, I present data compiled from the literature on the foraging strategy and food resource use of 402 species of ants from across the phylogenetic tree. By categorizing the distribution of resources reported in these studies in terms of size relative to colony size, spatial distribution relative to colony foraging range, frequency of occurrence in time relative to worker life span, and depletability (i.e., whether the colony can cause a change in resource frequency), I demonstrate that different foraging strategies are indeed associated with specific spatiotemporal resource attributes. The general patterns I describe here can therefore be used as a framework to inform predictions in future studies of ant foraging behavior. No differences were found between resources collected via short-term recruitment strategies (group recruitment, short-term trails, and volatile recruitment), whereas different resource distributions were associated with solitary foraging, trunk trails, long-term trail networks, group raiding, and raiding. In many cases, ant species use a combination of different foraging strategies to collect diverse resources. It is useful to consider these foraging strategies not as separate options but as modular parts of the total foraging effort of a colony. PMID:25525497

  19. Spatiotemporal resource distribution and foraging strategies of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanan, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of food resources in space and time is likely to be an important factor governing the type of foraging strategy used by ants. However, no previous systematic attempt has been made to determine whether spatiotemporal resource distribution is in fact correlated with foraging strategy across the ants. In this analysis, I present data compiled from the literature on the foraging strategy and food resource use of 402 species of ants from across the phylogenetic tree. By categorizing the distribution of resources reported in these studies in terms of size relative to colony size, spatial distribution relative to colony foraging range, frequency of occurrence in time relative to worker life span, and depletability (i.e., whether the colony can cause a change in resource frequency), I demonstrate that different foraging strategies are indeed associated with specific spatiotemporal resource attributes. The general patterns I describe here can therefore be used as a framework to inform predictions in future studies of ant foraging behavior. No differences were found between resources collected via short-term recruitment strategies (group recruitment, short-term trails, and volatile recruitment), whereas different resource distributions were associated with solitary foraging, trunk trails, long-term trail networks, group raiding, and raiding. In many cases, ant species use a combination of different foraging strategies to collect diverse resources. It is useful to consider these foraging strategies not as separate options but as modular parts of the total foraging effort of a colony.

  20. Effect of interactions between harvester ants on forager decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D Davidson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Harvester ant colonies adjust their foraging activity to day-to-day changes in food availability and hour-to-hour changes in environmental conditions. This collective behavior is regulated through interactions, in the form of brief antennal contacts, between outgoing foragers and returning foragers with food. Here we consider how an ant, waiting in the entrance chamber just inside the nest entrance, uses its accumulated experience of interactions to decide whether to leave the nest to forage. Using videos of field observations, we tracked the interactions and foraging decisions of ants in the entrance chamber. Outgoing foragers tended to interact with returning foragers at higher rates than ants that returned to the deeper nest and did not forage. To provide a mechanistic framework for interpreting these results, we develop a decision model in which ants make decisions based upon a noisy accumulation of individual contacts with returning foragers. The model can reproduce core trends and realistic distributions for individual ant interaction statistics, and suggests possible mechanisms by which foraging activity may be regulated at an individual ant level.

  1. Recycled palm oil spoilage: Correlation between physicochemical properties and oleophilicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Ili Afiqa Ab; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Jurid, Lailatul Syema

    2016-11-01

    Palm oil is widely used for domestic and commercial frying due to its techno-economic advantages as compared to other vegetable oils. However, if the oil is used beyond its recommended usage cycle, it might lead to oil spoilage. Therefore this study focuses on the comprehensive analysis of chemical and physical properties of recycled palm oil. Recycled palm oil was prepared by frying potato strips up to 4 batches; 5 cycles for each batch) was carried out with potato (g)-to-oil (ml) ratio of 3/20 prior to physico-chemical analysis (moisture content, color measurement, viscosity, density and iodine value. From 5 tests used to indicate physico-chemical properties of recycled palm oil, only color measurement, viscosity and IV shows results accordingly to theories. Whereas moisture content and density were not comply to theories. With increasing frying times, recycled palm oil color has been darker due to chemical reaction that occurs during frying. The trend line illustrates that with increasing frying times, recycled palm oil lightness decreases. It also means that its color has been darker. Meanwhile, b* rate increase indicating that recycled palm oil show tendency towards green color. Whereas, a* rate decreased, showing low tendency towards red color. Viscosity and moisture content increase with frying cycle. This situation occurred might be due to formation of hydrolysis products which are volatile while frying process. But the remaining non-volatile compounds among the hydrolysis products might also accumulate in palm oil and thus affect the total oil/fat chemical changes. Meanwhile the density of palm oil was quite constant at 0.15 g/cm3 except for cycle 2 with 0.17 g/cm3. The result obtained from this experiment were comply with previous study that stated frying batch number is a significant variable (a = 0.05) affecting the density of oil only after 20 frying batch. The contact angle of recycled palm oil on PHBV thin film was more than 90 °. Hence it shows

  2. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.;

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm......, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge - Palms - Western Amazon...

  3. Transesterification of Palm Oil for the Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalizani Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil is known as an important source of edible oil with significant values of renewable energy. Depletion of petroleum had captured much attention on producing biodiesel from the palm oil. Approach: The most concerning methods for the production of biodiesel were discussed, namely transesterification (alkali and acid, enzymetic approach and supercritical alcohol. Results: The results showed the vis-a-vis of the methods for possible consideration of research. Conclusion: Concerning the importance of this vegetable oil, the contribution of palm oil towards diminution of fossil fuel, possible methods for the production of biodiesel and the opportunity for the futures is very much important.

  4. Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on oil palm residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwised, A.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to use oil palm residues to cultivate the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most important mushrooms cultivated worldwide. Spawn was prepared on sorghum seeds and inoculated on substrate in plastic bags. Oil palm fronds were cut and used to grow Pleurotus ostreatus. The first fructification occurred 20 days after waterring. The biological efficiency reached at 28.6%. When sawdust of para rubber logs was added to the cut oil palm fronds at the rate of 1:1 (vol : vol., the biological efficiency reached at 39.3%.Supplementary material at the rate of 5% was also added into the combination of cut oil palm frond and sawdust. The result showed that rice bran, corn meal or oil palm-kernel meal give yields between 142.2-165.0 g/bag (B.E. = 42.8-49.6, which were not statistically different. Oil palm pericarp waste was also used as main substrate for P. ostreatus cultivation. The average yield obtained during 40 days havesting period was 112.6 g/bag (B.E. = 64.3%. Addition of sawdust or rice bran into pericarp waste decreased the yield of the basidiocarps. Palm-kernel meal at the rate of 5-20% was used as a supplement material. Addition of 20% palmkernel meal into sawdust supported higher yield. The biological efficiency reached 55.8%. From the above results, four formulae of the substrate were prepared. Treatment of oil palm pericarp waste + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca(OH2 supported higher yield of the basidiocarps. The average yield obtained from 950 g of substrate was 190.2 g during 60 days havesting (B.E. = 57.2%. Using 6% palm-kernel substitute 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal supported the same yield (B.E. = 56.2% Using sawdust as the main substrate, the yield achieved was less than that obtained with oil palm pericarp waste. The average yield from treatment of sawdust + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca (OH2 was 154.0 g/bag (B.E. = 46.3% while treatment of sawdust + 6% palm-kernel meal + 0

  5. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Hoskins

    Full Text Available Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search. For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a

  6. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch.

  7. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  8. Salt preferences of honey bee water foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pierre W; Nieh, James C

    2016-03-01

    The importance of dietary salt may explain why bees are often observed collecting brackish water, a habit that may expose them to harmful xenobiotics. However, the individual salt preferences of water-collecting bees were not known. We measured the proboscis extension reflex (PER) response of Apis mellifera water foragers to 0-10% w/w solutions of Na, Mg and K, ions that provide essential nutrients. We also tested phosphate, which can deter foraging. Bees exhibited significant preferences, with the most PER responses for 1.5-3% Na and 1.5% Mg. However, K and phosphate were largely aversive and elicited PER responses only for the lowest concentrations, suggesting a way to deter bees from visiting contaminated water. We then analyzed the salt content of water sources that bees collected in urban and semi-urban environments. Bees collected water with a wide range of salt concentrations, but most collected water sources had relatively low salt concentrations, with the exception of seawater and swimming pools, which had >0.6% Na. The high levels of PER responsiveness elicited by 1.5-3% Na may explain why bees are willing to collect such salty water. Interestingly, bees exhibited high individual variation in salt preferences: individual identity accounted for 32% of variation in PER responses. Salt specialization may therefore occur in water foragers.

  9. BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN FORAGE GRASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Łukowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was estimation of bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd in forage grasses from the area of Podlasie Province based on the bioaccumulation factor. In the soil samples the pH, organic carbon content and CEC were determined. Determination of heavy metals contents in plant and soil material was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Soils were characterized mainly by acidic reaction, high cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content. The content of heavy metals in studied forage grasses did not exceed the polish regulations related to plant usage for feeding purposes, except the lead content in seven samples. Coefficients of variation for particular heavy metals content in studied forage grasses were as follows: Pb - 37%, Ni - 63%, Cu - 30%, Zn - 34%, Cd - 48%. The highest bioaccumulation factor was found for nickel and grass from the village Remieńkiń (11.54, while the lowest for cadmium and grass from the village Jemieliste (0.04.

  10. Polydomy enhances foraging performance in ant colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeymeyt, N; Joye, P; Keller, L

    2017-04-26

    Collective foraging confers benefits in terms of reduced predation risk and access to social information, but it heightens local competition when resources are limited. In social insects, resource limitation has been suggested as a possible cause for the typical decrease in per capita productivity observed with increasing colony size, a phenomenon known as Michener's paradox. Polydomy (distribution of a colony's brood and workers across multiple nests) is believed to help circumvent this paradox through its positive effect on foraging efficiency, but there is still little supporting evidence for this hypothesis. Here, we show experimentally that polydomy enhances the foraging performance of food-deprived Temnothorax nylanderi ant colonies via several mechanisms. First, polydomy influences task allocation within colonies, resulting in faster retrieval of protein resources. Second, communication between sister nests reduces search times for far away resources. Third, colonies move queens, brood and workers across available nest sites in response to spatial heterogeneities in protein and carbohydrate resources. This suggests that polydomy represents a flexible mechanism for space occupancy, helping ant colonies adjust to the environment. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiew Wei Puah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG such as methane and carbon dioxide emissions by avoiding the formation of liquid biomass in the form of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. The attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA shows the improved milling process contributes to significant reduction of GHG emission from palm oil mills as compared to the process of capturing biogas from POME. The palm based food source contains phytonutrients, namely carotenoids, tocols (tocopherol and tocotrienols and water soluble polyphenols.

  12. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ngoot-Chin Ting; Noorhariza Mohd Zaki; Rozana Rosli; Eng-Ti Leslie Low; Maizura Ithnin; Suan-Choo Cheah; Soon-Guan Tan; Rajinder Singh

    2010-08-01

    This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification.

  13. Perbandingan Hasil Analisis Beberapa Parameter Mutu Pada Crude Palm Olein Yang Diperoleh Dari Pencampuran Cpo Dan Rbd Palm Olein Terhadap Teoretis

    OpenAIRE

    Alfian, Zul

    2010-01-01

    Telah dilakukan analisis crude palm olein yang diperoleh dari pencampuran crude palm oil dan RBD palm olein. Hasil analisisnya telah dibandingkan dengan hasil teoretisnya. Analisis crude palm olein tersebut didasarkan pada parameter-parameter kadar asam lemak bebas (ALB), kadar air, kadar pengotor. Hasil perbandingan menyimpulkan bahwa hasil analisis yang dilakukan untuk kadar asam lemak bebas: 1,02%, kadar air: 0,056%, kadar pengotor: 0,012%. Sedangkan hasil teoretis untuk kadar asam lemak...

  14. Utilization of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Binder in Lightweight Oil Palm Shell Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Yong Jing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally fly ash (FA has been used to replace cement as binder in the geopolymer concrete. The utilization of palm oil industrial waste materials known as palm oil fuel ash (POFA and oil palm shell (OPS that are abundantly available in South East Asia as binder and coarse aggregate in geopolymer concrete would give an added advantage in both the environmental and economic aspects. The mechanical properties of the OPS geopolymer concrete (OPSGC through the use of POFA, FA, and OPS are investigated and reported. A total of ten OPSGC mixtures were prepared with varying percentages of POFA and FA such as 0, 10, 20, 40, and 100%. The specimens prepared with two alkaline solution to binder (AK/B ratios of 0.35 and 0.55 were oven cured at 65°C for 48 hours. The experimental results showed that the highest compressive strength of 30 MPa was obtained for the mix with 20% replacement of FA by POFA and AK/B ratio of 0.55, which underwent oven curing. Further, the mix of up to 20% POFA (with AK/B ratio of 0.55 can be categorized as structural lightweight concrete. An increase of the POFA content beyond 20% decreases the mechanical properties, and hence this mix is recommended to be used.

  15. Palm Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Palm Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  16. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Palm Oil with Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the isothermal crystallization kinetics of palm oil with additives by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. The induction time of nucleation and crystallization are obtained by simulating the crystal process using the Gompertz model. The equilibrium melting temperature is obtained via the Hoffman-Weeks methods. The Gibbs free energy of nucleation was calculated by using the Fisher-Turnbull equation and the equilibrium melting temperature. The results indicate that the span 85 has an inhibition effect on nucleation and crystallization kinetics of palm oil. The span 85 can raise the equilibrium melting temperature of palm oil. The span 85 can obviously delay the induction time of nucleation and crystallization at 0.01 and 0.1% level. Although span 85 at 0.05% concentration level also can delay the induction time, it exhibits an effect of promoting nucleation. However, the crystal is uncomplicated in the system containing additives compared to the pure palm oil.

  17. Assembly and phylogenetic structure of Neotropical palm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Balslev, Henrik

    Diversity, composition and dynamics of Neotropical palm communities are receiving an increasing amount of attention due to their economic importance, but also because their high species richness and functional diversity render them valuable model systems for overall forest biodiversity. However...

  18. Bioconversion of palm kernel meal for aquaculture: Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... countries where so much agro-industry by-products exist such as palm kernel meal, .... as basic ingredients for margarine production, confectionery, animal ..... Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

  19. PALM-COEIN Nomenclature for Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneris, Angela

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 30% of women will experience abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) during their life time. Previous terms defining AUB have been confusing and imprecisely applied. As a consequence, both clinical management and research on this common problem have been negatively impacted. In 2011, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Menstrual Disorders Group (FMDG) published PALM-COEIN, a new classification system for abnormal bleeding in the reproductive years. Terms such as menorrhagia, menometrorrhagia, metrorrhagia, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, polymenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and uterine hemorrhage are no longer recommended. The PALM-COEIN system was developed to standardize nomenclature to describe the etiology and severity of AUB. A brief description of the PALM-COEIN nomenclature is presented as well as treatment options for each etiology. Clinicians will frequently encounter women with AUB and should report findings utilizing the PALM-COEIN system.

  20. Bioethanol production from date palm fruit waste fermentation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioethanol production from date palm fruit waste fermentation using solar energy. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced ... It is eco-friendly, moderately costly and cleaner than other gasses. Actually, due to ...