The organization of the 2014 football world cup by Brazil is an opportunity to recall how the level of natural radioactivity can change from a country to another. Brazil is with Iran and India one of the 3 countries where the level of natural radioactivity is the highest. In Brazil the average value for natural radioactivity is about 10 mSv/year but you can find spots on the Brazilian 'planalto' where natural radioactivity ranges from 10 to a few tens of mSv/year. The mean value of natural radioactivity at the world scale is about 2.5 mSv/year. The value of 10 mSv/year is the radiation threshold that may trigger the evacuation of the local population in case of a nuclear accident in France. These various figures show that radiation dose limits are very low and should not be considered as representative of actual health hazards. (A.C.)
This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....
Junge, Astrid; Dvořák, Jiri
Background FIFA has surveyed match injuries in its tournaments since 1998. Aim To analyse the incidence and characteristics of match injuries incurred during the 2014 FIFA World Cup in comparison to previous FIFA World Cups. Methods The chief physicians of the participating teams reported all newly incurred injuries of their players after the match on a standardised report form. 124 (97%) forms were returned. Results A total of 104 injuries were reported, equivalent to an incidence of 1.68 injuries per match (95% CI 1.36 to 2.00). 64 (63.4%) injuries were caused by contact with another player. Thigh (26; 25%) and head (19; 18%) were the most frequently injured body parts. The most frequent diagnosis was thigh strain (n=18). Five concussions and three fractures to the head were reported. While most thigh strains (15/17; 88.2%) occurred without contact, almost all head injuries (18/19; 94.7%) were caused by contact. 0.97 injuries per match (95% CI 0.72 to 1.22) were expected to result in absence from training or match. Eight injuries were classified as severe. The incidence of match injuries in the 2014 FIFA World Cup was significantly lower than the average of the four preceding FIFA World Cups, both for all injuries (2.34; 95% CI 2.15 to 2.53) and time-loss injuries (1.51; 95% CI 1.37 to 1.65). Conclusions The overall incidence of injury during the FIFA World Cups decreased from 2002 to 2014 by 37%. A detailed analysis of the injury mechanism is recommended to further improve prevention strategies. PMID:25878077
Mattick, A P
Throughout the Football World Cup Finals of France 1998, patients attended our inner city Accident and Emergency department with a variety of conditions related to the event. Analysis was made on the total of 151 patients who attended with World Cup related presentations during this five-week period. The majority were young men involved in alcohol related trauma. The workload of the department was only substantially affected after one match, that of the opening game between Brazil and Scotland.
Full Text Available The Football World Cup tournament ranks amongst the largest international sports events, captivating vast live and television audiences. A key characteristic of football can be seen in its community-building function. Football provides opportunities for identification, strengthening local and national bonds. But does this also apply to the still vague category of Europe? Does the televised coverage of the Football World Cup hold the potential to foster a European identity? This paper employs a quantitative content analysis of the German and British live-commentaries of the 2010 World Cup matches between European and non-European teams. It analyzes and compares the description and evaluation of European and non-European participants. TV-commentaries have proven an ability to influence the audiences´ perception of the match. It is therefore assumed that the commentaries contribute to a feeling of European identity and unity – if they make the European category salient. The analysis reveals some differences in the portrayal of European and non-European participants with the commentators paying more attention to participants from European countries. Whereas the evaluation of the European and non-European teams differs, the evaluation of the individual football players is well-balanced. In regard to the analyzed criteria, British and German commentaries tend to be very similar.
Louzada,Francisco; Suzuki,Adriano K.; Salasar,Luis E.B.; Ara,Anderson; Leite,José G.
ABSTRACT In this paper we propose a simulation-based method for predicting the 2010 and 2014Football World Cup. Adopting a bayesian perspective, we modeled the number of goals of two opposing teams as a Poisson distribution whose mean is proportional to the relative technical level of opponents. FIFA ratings were taken as the measure of technical level of teams and experts' opinions about scores of matches were taken to construct prior distribution of parameters. Just before each round, tourn...
Mattick, A P; Mehta, R; Hanrahan, H; O'Donnell, J J
Throughout the Football World Cup Finals of 2002, 47 patients attended the Emergency department with a variety of conditions related to the event. The majority were minor trauma victims such as assaults or falls and in over half the presentations alcohol was a factor. Thirty-eight of these patients attended within 24 hours of an Ireland match. The overall impact on the Emergency Department was limited. Introduction Ireland's participation in the Football World Cup Finals of 2002 led to intense media coverage and huge public interest. The Finals were held in South Korea and Japan. Many travelled to watch the Irish team but the vast majority of supporters had to be content with watching the televised coverage of the event. To illustrate this, on Irish terrestrial television alone, an estimated 1,714,000 people watched the televised Ireland v Spain match. This represents 53% of the population of Ireland.
Saito, Carlos Hiroo
The Brazilian Ministry of Sports organized a system of volunteers to receive the visitors during the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Football World Cup. The instructional material to capacitate these volunteers focused on environment and sustainability issues and it was developed in an integrative systemic framework…
Full Text Available The staging of the 2006 Federation of International Football Association (FIFA World Cup brought together a wide ranging coalition of interests in fuelling a moral panic around sex trafficking in Europe. This coalition of diverse groups aimed to protect innocent third world women and prevent organized crime networks from luring them into the sex industry. In this article we will argue that as a result of increased attention prior to the World Cup 'protective measures' imposed by nation-states and the international community to prevent "disastrous human right abuses" (Crouse, 2006 have seriously undermined women's human rights, especially in relation to migration and mobility. We survey media sources in the lead up to the World Cup to identify the nature of the coalition seeking to protect women considered to be vulnerable to trafficking and the discourses relied upon that have served to undermine women's agency and diverse experiences of increased border and mobility controls. We conclude that measures introduced around the 2006 World Cup in relation to sex trafficking did not end with its final whistle.
Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin
Background The incidence and characteristics of football injuries during matches in top-level international tournaments are well documented, but training injuries and illnesses during this period have rarely been studied. Aim To analyse the incidence and characteristics of injuries and illnesses incurred during the 2010 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup. Methods The chief physicians of the 32 finalist teams reported daily all newly incurred injuries and illnesses of their players on a standardised medical report form. Results Out of 229 injuries reported, 82 match and 58 training injuries were expected to result in time loss, equivalent to an incidence of 40.1 match and 4.4 training injuries per 1000 h. Contact with another player was the most frequent cause of match (65%) and of training (40%) injuries. The most frequent diagnoses were thigh strain and ankle sprain. 99 illnesses of 89 (12%) players were reported. Illnesses were mainly infections of the respiratory or the digestive system. Most illnesses did not result in absence from training or match. The incidence of time-loss illnesses was 3.0 per 1000 player days. Conclusion The incidence of match injuries during the 2010 FIFA World Cup was significantly lower than in the three proceeding World Cups. This might be a result of more regard to injury prevention, less foul play and stricter refereeing. Tackling skills and fair play need to be improved to prevent contact injuries in training and matches. Prevention of illness should focus on reducing the risk of infections by considering the common modes of transmission and environmental conditions. PMID:21257668
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this paper we propose a simulation-based method for predicting the 2010 and 2014Football World Cup. Adopting a bayesian perspective, we modeled the number of goals of two opposing teams as a Poisson distribution whose mean is proportional to the relative technical level of opponents. FIFA ratings were taken as the measure of technical level of teams and experts' opinions about scores of matches were taken to construct prior distribution of parameters. Just before each round, tournament simulations were performed in order to estimate probabilities of events of main interest for audience and bettors such as qualifying to the knockout stage, reaching semi-finals, reaching the final match, winningthe tournament, among others.
Duk, Oh Sang; Min, Kim Sung; Kawczyński, Adam; Chmura, Paweł; Mroczek, Dariusz; Chmura, Jan
The aim of the study was to characterize selected indices of endurance and speed of the Korea Republic team with reference to the four best teams during the World Cup of 2010. Five hundred and ninety-nine football players from thirty-two teams participated in the study. All teams played in the 2010 World Cup in South Africa. For the assessment of the players' motor activity during matches common kinematic test results were recorded using the Castrol Performance Index. The following variables were analysed: total distance covered by the team, distance covered by individual players, maximum running speed and average match running speed for the team and individual players, as well as with division with regard to playing position: defenders, midfielders, strikers. In comparison to the four best teams at the football World Cup of 2010, the Korea Republic players achieved the highest running speed (p≤0.05), and similar levels of covered distance and average match running speed.
Teammates celebrate their victory and bring home the trophy. During this year's World Cup, it seems unlikely that there could exist a team that everyone would unanimously cheer for...at least, at CERN. Yet, the CERN FC team made up of various nationalities (Austrian, Belgian, English, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, Swiss,) won this year's Association Genevoise de Football Corporatif (AGFC) Championship, a championship for companies in Geneva. In 2002 the CERN Football team was re-formed and entered in the AGFC after a number of years in the wilderness. The team quickly progressed from Division D as a result of three successive promotions and competed in League A (the top flight) for the first time in 2005. CERN FC history was made two weeks ago. Having qualified for the end-of-season playoffs by finishing second in its regular season group, on Thursday 15 June the team qualified for the AGFC Division A Championship final by beating the Geneva Police 2-0 in the semi-final at Stade M...
Hawkins, R D; Fuller, C W
To assess the risks to footballers' health and safety during competitive international matches, with identification of the most common causes of injury. Videos of 44 of the 52 matches played during the 1994 World Cup finals staged in the USA were analysed. During each match, several relevant variables were recorded, including the number of fouls, injuries, treatments, times of incidents, identity of players treated or injured, and the injury mechanism. Additional information on players' injuries was obtained from the extensive media coverage of the event. Only 29% of injuries resulted from foul play, whereas 71% of injuries to players occurred where no foul play was adjudged by the referee to have taken place (P football matches were not found to be associated with foul play, as judged by the referees. However, in those cases where injuries occurred without a foul being committed, almost 50% involved player to player contact. This gives some cause for concern and is worth further investigation.
Yasser Sadek Nassar
Conclusions: Professional football playing in young males results in significant changes compared to their control of sedentary nonathletic medical students of similar age. Clinical parameters showed a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure SBP and heart rate HR, ECG parameters showed significant increase in RR interval and QTc interval, and Echocardiographic parameters showed a significant increase in Left atrium diameter LA, Septal wall in diastole SWD, and ejection fraction EF. One year of professional football playing in young males causes a continuing significant increase in ECG parameters QTc, RR interval, and echocardiographic parameters SWD, LA, Right ventricle dimension RV, Posterior wall in diastole PWD and decrease in Left ventricular end systolic diameter LVESD compared to themselves one year earlier. The international concern of Sudden cardiac death among professional young athletes may be attributed to Structural heart changes and ECG abnormalities acquired with professional training.
Full Text Available Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.
Aboa-Eboulé, Corine; Béjot, Yannick; Cottenet, Jonathan; Khellaf, Mehni; Jacquin, Agnès; Durier, Jérôme; Rouaud, Olivier; Hervieu-Begue, Marie; Osseby, Guy-Victor; Giroud, Maurice; Quantin, Catherine
Acute stress may trigger vascular events. We aimed to investigate whether important football competitions involving the French football team increased the occurrence of stroke. We retrospectively retrieved data of fatal and nonfatal stroke during 4 World Football Cups (1986, 1998, 2002, and 2006) and 4 European Championships (1992, 1996, 2000, and 2004), based on data from the population-based Stroke Registry of Dijon, France. One period of exposure was analyzed: the period of competition extended to 15 days before and after the competitions. The number of strokes was compared between exposed and unexposed corresponding periods of preceding and following years using Poisson regression. A total of 175 strokes were observed during the exposed periods compared with 192 and 217 strokes in the unexposed preceding and following periods. Multivariate regression analyses showed an overall 30% significant decrease in stroke numbers between periods of competition and unexposed periods of following year (risk ratio (RR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6; P = .029) but not with that of preceding year (RR = 1.1; 95% CI = .9-1.3; P = .367). This was mostly explained by a 40% decrease in stroke numbers during European Championships, compared with the unexposed following periods (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-1.9; P = .044) in stratified analyses by football competitions. Watching European football competitions had a positive impact in the city of Dijon with a decrease of stroke numbers. European championship is possibly associated with higher television audience and long-lasting euphoria although other factors may be involved. Further studies using nationwide data are recommended to validate these findings. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Afsaneh; Farahani, Tayyebeh Farmahini; Sani, Parvane Sadat Vafaei; Lewin, Terry J; Carter, Gregory L
Social influences on suicidal behaviors may be important but are less frequently studied than the influences of mental illness, physical illness, and demographic variables. Major international sporting events may have an impact on suicidal behaviors at the national and local level, an effect possibly mediated by gender and age. We examined the association of hospital-treated deliberate self-poisoning episodes (by gender and by age) in Tehran: before, during, and after the 2014 FIFA World Cup held in Brazil, in which the Iranian national team participated and was eliminated after the pool games. We used a time series analysis within an autoregressive integrated moving average model and found a significant increase in hospital-treated deliberate self-poisoning during the 4-week period of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil in females but a nonsignificant increase in males. A significant increase was also seen in the youngest age group (12-20 years), but not in the two older age groups. If the effects of nonsuccess at major international sporting events could be shown to have a potential harmful effect on aggregate local or national rates of suicidal behaviors, the possibility of preventative interventions and preemptive additional service provision could be planned in advance of these events. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.
From May 31 to June 30 the biggest single-sport event in the world, the 2002 FIFA World Cup (tm), will be taking place in Asia. South Korea and Japan are acting as hosts for the event which is being held in Asia for the first time. This true-color image of the southern Korean peninsula and southern Japan was acquired on May 25, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Thirty-two nations are represented at this year's Finals including the 1998 champion France, European powers England and Italy, tournament favorite Argentina, and the United States. The finals are the culmination of a 2-year qualifying process which started with 132 nations competing in regional qualification tournaments. In the round-robin first round of the World Cup, the U.S. team will be competing against teams from Portugal, Poland, and South Korea. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC
Full Text Available Goal of this research is to study Factor of Time of Scoring Goal in South Africa World Cup 2010 and its relationship with successful results for teams participating in this tournament. Research method is descriptive-analytical and its information was collected observationally and with a VCD, a 32-inch television set and datasheet. Statistical population and sample were considered equal to each other (N=n and included study of 64 competitions held during tournament. Information was analyzed with SPSS.18 software and indices of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics tests such as binomial and chi square were analyzed. Results showed that there was significant difference between two halves of competitions in terms of the number of scored goals. Increase of attack in the second 45 min led to more goals for teams. No significant difference was found between the scored goals and every 15 min and teams competed with opponents until the final minutes of competition. There was significant difference between positive results for the teams which scored the first goal and the teams which scored the first goal had more chance of victory. On the other hand, all teams which were ahead of the opponent in one goal in the final 30 min won at the end (P≤0/05.
Luís G. Monteiro
Full Text Available This paper presents results of one-year monitoring of AC side electrical parameters and the characterization of local solar radiation at the biggest rooftop PV Power Plant, with an installed capacity of 1.42 MWp, mounted at Mineirão Football Stadium in Brazil. This stadium is one of the sport facilities that hosted 2014 FIFA World Cup and Rio 2016 Summer Olympics Games in the country. Results showed how it is important to study and characterize the solar resource in the region of interest, based on historic data, to provide the understanding of solar radiation and thus project PV power plants with better performance. Furthermore, AC electrical data show the behavior of active, reactive and apparent powers and the influence of the PV system on the power factor at the local grid utility connection point. Finally, PV power plant performance data (as annual final yield, performance ratio and capacity factor are also presented and compared with data from PVsyst software simulations. The results over the monitoring period were good considering the specificities of the stadium
Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Grimm, Katharina; Kirkendall, Donald
Objective To continue the injury surveillance of FIFA‐sponsored football tournaments and report on other medical aspects of the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Design Prospective epidemiological injury surveillance and descriptive summary of additional medical aspects. Setting Major international football tournament. Participants National team players, doctors and referees at the 2006 FIFA World Cup Germany. Main outcome measures Injury type, location and rate. Results 145 injuries were reported for the 64 matches of the 2006 FIFA World Cup Germany—an overall injury rate of 68.7 per 1000 match hours (95% CI 57.5 to 79.9) or 2.3 injuries per match, in comparison with 2.7 injuries per match in the 2002 FIFA World Cup (p = NS). Physical examinations before participation uncovered no hidden cardiovascular problems. Once the tournament started, no referees were unable to complete their duties. There were no positive doping tests. Conclusions The injury rate for this World Cup was below that of 2002, but consistent with the overall injury rate per match since data collection began in 1998. There continues to be no evidence of systematic doping in international football. PMID:17510228
Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa o discurso midiático relativo à Copa do Mundo no Brasil. Em uma revisão crítica acerca da constituição social dos "meios de comunicação de massa", discuto o processo pelo qual a mídia atua na sociedade, a partir da noção de "mediação". A partir de dados sobre a audiência e foco temático na televisão brasileira durante a Copa do Mundo de 1998, analiso o papel desempenhado pela mídia na construção social do interesse pela Copa do Mundo no Brasil. Sem pretender negar a legitimidade do interesse social pelo futebol no Brasil, destaco, entretanto, a participação da mídia neste processo.This paper examines the media discourse on the World Cup in Brazil. In a critical review of the social formation of the "mass media", it discusses the way in which the media operates in society, through the concept of "mediation". Considering the data on the audience and the thematic focus on Brazilian television during the World Cup of 1998, the article analyzes the role of media in the development of the interest for the World Cup in Brazil. Without denying the legitimacy of the social concern for football in Brazil, the author emphasizes the participation of the media in this process.
Francisco Xavier Freire Rodrigues
Full Text Available The theme of this work is the preparation for reception of the World Cup 2014 in Cuiabá/ MT. This is a study about the preparations for the Capital of Mato Grosso to stagematches of the World Cup Football 2014. The research objectives are: (a investigatethe process of preparing the city of Cuiabá / MT to hold World Cup matches in 2014and (b verify and analyze the perceptions of the population cuiabana about the benefitsof the mega event (World Cup . We use techniques such as: literature review, deskresearch, interviews, photographs, among, others.
Groot, L.F.M.; Ferwerda, J.
The market for soccer jerseys is a multibillion market dominated by Adidas, Nike and Puma. This paper investigates whether jersey sponsorship has a non-arbitrary effect on the outcomes of World Cup knockout matches. The results show that in the knockout stages of the last four World Cup tournaments,
Keller, Dagmar I; Bizzini, Mario; Feddermann, Nina; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri
Precompetition screening was implemented for male referees during the 2010 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Word Cup. In contrast, female football referees have been neglected in this respect although they experience similar physical work loads compared to male referees. The standardised football-specific pre-competition medical assessment (PCMA) was performed in 51 referees and assistant referees selected for the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. Family history for sudden cardiac death (SCD) was positive in four referees (7.8%), but cardiac examinations did not reveal any pathological findings. Training-unrelated ECG changes were identified in three referees (5.9%), all without correlates in echocardiography or clinical examination. Most common echocardiography findings (66.6%, n=34) were asymptomatic tricuspid and mitral regurgitations. During the present screening, no elite female referee was identified being at risk for SCD, and no referee had to be excluded from participating in the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup.
This study appraises the post-event perceptions and experiences of African immigrant residents, with respect to the 2010 FIFA World Cup hosted in South Africa. ... event has benefited African citizens in terms of job creation, accelerated the development of African football, increased tourism and investment opportunities in ...
Elite runners took to the streets of Geneva for the last leg of the Orienteering World Cup, from 8-10 October. The Geneva finals were hosted by the CERN Orienteering Club and concluded months of competitions held across 5 countries. Women's World-Cup winner, Simone Niggli (centre). © Ilknur Colak The final events of the Orienteering World Cup took place in the Old Town of Geneva and Saint-Cergue, with runners following routes prepared by the CERN Orienteering Club. Orienteering is a sport of navigation, using only a compass, map and your sense of direction. The objective is to get to all the points on the map as quickly as possible, choosing your own paths as you run. This was the CERN club’s first successful participation in the World Cup, cementing its reputation as a fixture in the international orienteering world. Orienteering is not your typical Swiss pastime. Developed in Scandinavia, the sport has been gaining popularity internationally. “...
Baume, Norbert; Jan, Nicolas; Emery, Caroline; Mandanis, Béatrice; Schweizer, Carine; Giraud, Sylvain; Leuenberger, Nicolas; Marclay, François; Nicoli, Raul; Perrenoud, Laurent; Robinson, Neil; Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial
The FIFA has implemented an important antidoping programme for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. To perform the analyses before and during the World Cup with biological monitoring of blood and urine samples. All qualified players from the 32 teams participating in the World Cup were tested out-of-competition. During the World Cup, 2-8 players per match were tested. Over 1000 samples were collected in total and analysed in the WADA accredited Laboratory of Lausanne. The quality of the analyses was at the required level as described in the WADA technical documents. The urinary steroid profiles of the players were stable and consistent with previously published papers on football players. During the competition, amphetamine was detected in a sample collected on a player who had a therapeutic use exemption for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The blood passport data showed no significant difference in haemoglobin values between out-of-competition and postmatch samples. Logistical issues linked to biological samples collection, and the overseas shipment during the World Cup did not impair the quality of the analyses, especially when used as the biological passport of football players. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Rui Sousa Mendes,
Full Text Available Match analysis has been using in football case to identify properties and patterns of teams (Sarmento et al., 2014. From the regular notational analysis until the most recent computational tactical metrics, a lot of different outcomes can be possible to extract from a single match (Clemente, Couceiro, Martins, & Mendes, 2015. In the specific case of football, the cooperation among team-members is one of the main factors that contribute for a better performance (Grund, 2012. Thus, to analyse such cooperation the Social Network Analysis have been used to identify how team-members are connected and if there are cooperation tendencies inside the team (Clemente et al., 2015. The prominent players have been also analysed in order to identify the central players in the team (Clemente, Couceiro, Martins, & Mendes, 2014.Objectives: Therefore, using the social network analysis approach the aim of this study was to analyse the centrality levels of Portuguese positional roles during the FIFA World Cup 2014 and to identify the prominent tactical positions that determined the moments with ball.
Alexander M. Belostotsky
Full Text Available The article presents structural safety analysis of the three-dimensional long-span systems “ground base – reinforced concrete foundation structures and stands - metal structures of the coating and facades” of football stadiums for the 2018 World Cup in Russia with basic and special combinations of loads and formulation problems of future in-vestigations.
Securing South Africa during the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Legacy implications for post-event safety and security. EC Perry, A Chunderduth, C Potgieter. Abstract. The trepidation over crime and safety concerns emerged as one of the main issues in relation to South Africa's hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup, prominent in the ...
Already two weeks since the CERN football team, representing the Dave Underhill XI in the annual match with the Geneva Scottish Football Club, made a late, late rally to win the Jean Pierre Fillettaz Trophy. They started well with some good passing movements, but the Scots were also playing well and began to take control towards the end of the first half. Then, following a series of poor finishing and good goalkeeping by the CERN keeper, they finally found the back of the net, and the lads in white trooped off for well-earned oranges and water, just 1-0 down at half time. The second half was again evenly matched, but while we were not making the goal chances the Scots were squandering theirs. THEN with just 10 minutes to go a sudden resurgence of energy and aggression, the CERNites made the chances which counted, and in the space 5 minutes turned the score around and were happy to hear the final whistle and celebrate a famous 2-1 victory. Victory and commiserations were celebrated in the "Club Ho...
Ohmann, Susanne; Jones, Ian; Wilkes, Keith
All major sporting events result in a variety of impacts upon the host community. To date, the majority of existing studies have focused upon the wider economic impacts, with few empirical studies of the social impacts upon local residents. This paper explores the perceived impacts of the 2006 Football World Cup upon residents of one of the host\\ud cities–Munich. Using a multi-stage sampling technique, 180 Munich residents were randomly selected. Of these, 132 agreed to participate in face-to...
Michael HB Raditya
Full Text Available We Are One atau “Ole Ola” merupakan lagu resmi dari gelaran World Cup. Setiap World Cupmempunyai lagu resminya ditiap gelarannya. Dalam keberlangsungannya, setiap lagu world cupmembutuhkan pertimbangan dalam pembentukannya. Aspek-aspek seperti budaya, sosial, politikdan lainya menjadi alasan penting dalam pembentukannya. Pembentukan Ole Ola didasarkan padaproses hibriditas budaya lokal dan global. Perpaduan samba dan hip hop menjadi variant dalampembentukannya. Perpaduan tersebut membentuk identitas untuk lagu itu sendiri, dan untuk gelaranworld cup. Eksistensi dari lagu sehingga makin terasa karena perpaduan yang membentuk identitas.Terlebih lagu tersebut tercipta tidak hanya karena gelaran, tetapi mempunyai fungsi dan guna untukmasyarakat. Musik sebagai media dalam mengkonstruksi pesan atas kepentingan. Musik membentukidentitas, dan mempunyai eksistensi dalam keberlangsungannya. Musik tidak lagi hanya berfungsisebagai musik saja, tetapi musik mempunyai peran dalam pembentukan identitas dan menjamineksistensi. Music as a form of Existance in the World Cup Performance. We are one or Ole Ola is the officialsong of the world cup performance. Every world cup has its official song in each event. In its development ofexistance, every song in world cup needs requires of consideration for creating process. Aspects such as cultural,social, politics and others become the important reason for creation. The creating proses of Ole Ola song isbased on the local and global cultural hybridity. The combination of samba and hip hop is a primary varianton creating process. The combination creates an identity for the song itself, and for world cup identity. Theexistance of Ole Ola is stronger because the combination may create the new identity. Moreover, the songcreated is not only for the event, but also has a function and purpose to society. Music is as a medium inconstructing the messages of interest. Music creates an identity, and has an existance in its
Social media strategies and practices continue to be integrated across various athletic sports, particularly futbol. One of the recent global athletic events that occurred where social media played an important role was the 2014 Fédération Internationale de Football Association World Cup in Brazil. While social media brings forth great opportunities for teams to engage with fans and share real-time updates, it also allows active fans to voice concerns around particular issues like player safe...
Shoaf, Kimberley; Osorio de Castro, Claudia G S; Miranda, Elaine Silva
Regardless of the capacity of the health care system of the host nation, mass gatherings require special planning and preparedness efforts within the health system. Brazil will host the 2014 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup and the 2016 Olympics. This paper represents the first results from Project "Prepara Brasil," which is investigating the preparedness of the health sector and pharmaceutical services for these events. Hypothesis/Problem This study was designed to identify the efforts engaged in to prepare the health sector in Brazil for the FIFA World Cup 2014 event, as well as the 2016 Summer Olympics. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives of both the municipality and hospital sectors in each of the 12 host cities where matches will be played. A semi-structured key informant interview guide was developed, with sections for each type of participant. One of each municipality's reference hospitals was identified and seven additional general hospitals were randomly selected from all of the inpatient facilities in each municipality. The interviewers were instructed to contact a reference hospital, and two of the other hospitals, in the jurisdiction for participation in the study. Questions were asked about plans for mass-gathering events, the interaction between hospitals and government officials in preparation for the World Cup, and their perceptions of their surge capacity to meet the potential demands generated by the presence of the World Cup events in their municipalities. In all, 11 representatives of the sampled reference hospitals, and 24 representatives of other general private and public hospitals in the municipalities, were interviewed. Most of the hospitals had some interaction with government officials in preparation for the World Cup 2014. Approximately one-third (34%) received training activities from the government. Fifty-four percent (54%) of hospitals had no specific plans for communicating
Kiratidis, Adrian L.; Leinweber, Derek B.
Drag and lift coefficients of recent FIFA world cup balls are examined. We fit a novel functional form to drag coefficient curves and in the absence of empirical data provide estimates of lift coefficient behaviour via a consideration of the physics of the boundary layer. Differences in both these coefficients for recent balls, which result from surface texture modification, can significantly alter trajectories. Numerical simulations are used to quantify the effect these changes have on the flight paths of various balls. Altitude and temperature variations at recent world cup events are also discussed. We conclude by quantifying the influence these variations have on the three most recent world cup balls, the Brazuca, the Jabulani and the Teamgeist. While our paper presents findings of interest to the professional sports scientist, it remains accessible to students at the undergraduate level.
Tzanelli, R; Korstanje, M; Clayton, A
The World cup transcends the interests of culture and nations worldwide. Every 4 years, delegations from the four corners of the world compete for a month. The mass tourist demand an event of this caliber generates prompts policy makers and tourism scholars to devote considerable time in planning in detail the infrastructure and service industry for the benefit of incomers. Unfortunately, in areas of the world plagued by political instability, some groups may use the media events to communica...
Flørenes, T W; Bere, T; Nordsletten, L; Heir, S; Bahr, R
Limited knowledge exists on injuries among professional alpine skiers. To describe the risk of injury and the injury pattern among competitive World Cup alpine skiers during the competitive season. Retrospective interviews were performed with all World Cup athletes from 10 nations at the end of the 2006-7 and 2007-8 winter seasons, and all acute injuries occurring during the 4.5-month competitive season were recorded. If the athlete was not present, their coaches or medical personnel were interviewed. A total of 191 acute injuries were recorded among 521 World Cup alpine skiers. As many as 86 injuries (45%) occurred during World Cup/World Ski Championship competitions, corresponding to an injury rate of 9.8 injuries per 1000 runs (95% CI 7.8 to 11.9). The injury rate was found to increase with increasing speed (slalom 4.9 injuries per 1000 runs, 95% CI 2.5 to 7.4--giant slalom 9.2, 5.1 to 13.3--super-G 11.0, 5.2 to 16.8--downhill 17.2, 11.6 to 22.7). The most frequently injured body part was the knee, with 68 injuries (36%), and 37 of these were severe. The overall injury rate was higher in males than in females, but not for knee injuries. The risk of injury among World Cup athletes in alpine skiing is even higher than previously reported. The knee is the most commonly injured body part and with many severe injuries. Injury rate increased with a higher speed and was higher among males than in females.
Feddersen, Arne; Maennig, Wolfgang
Using the case of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, this study is the first to test the employment effects of a mega-sporting event on the basis of data that combines both regional and sectoral data. It is also the first study of sporting events to use a semi-parametric test method. Earlier studies...
Flørenes, T W; Nordsletten, L; Heir, S; Bahr, R
There is little information available on injuries to World Cup skiers and snowboarders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the injury risk to World Cup athletes in alpine skiing, freestyle skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping, Nordic combined and cross country skiing. We performed retrospective interviews with the International Ski Federation (FIS) World Cup athletes from selected nations during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 winter seasons and recorded all acute injuries occurring during the seasons. We interviewed 2121 athletes and recorded 705 injuries. There were 520 (72%) time-loss injuries and 196 (28%) severe injuries (absence >28 days). In freestyle skiing, alpine skiing and snowboarding, there were 27.6, 29.8 and 37.8 time-loss and 14.4, 11.3 and 13.8 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In Nordic combined, ski jumping and cross country skiing, there were 15.8, 13.6 and 6.3 time-loss and 3.3, 5.6 and 0.7 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In conclusion about 1/3 of the World Cup alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes sustain a time-loss injury each season, while the risk is low in the Nordic disciplines. A particular concern was the high proportion of severe injuries observed among alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes, which is in contrast to most other sports. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
South Africa hosted its first mega event (the FIFA World Cup) from 11th June to 11th July, 2010. Given the scope of the event and the opportunities it provided, the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) embarked on the 2010 National Volunteer Programme together with other greening initiatives/ ...
Research on sport tourism, mega sport events and the impacts thereof, especially in developing countries, have, in the past, tended to have been overlooked. This article investigates 2010 FIFA World Cup initiatives conducted in the Eden District Municipality (EDM), Western Cape, South Africa, which is situated between the ...
Lucena, Rebecca Luna; Steinke, Ercília Torres; Pacheco, Christina; Vieira, Lucas Lima; Betancour, Maribel Olaya; Steinke, Valdir Adilson
The main objective of this research was to analyze the climate data for the host cities of the soccer World Cup held in Brazil in June and July 2014. A great deal of criticism was expressed about the Brazilian climate in the national and international press and media in the run-up to the competition, suggesting that the air temperature and relative air humidity would be the main adversaries of the soccer teams, especially those from Europe, during the competition. An analysis of the weather was done at the places and times of each of the 64 matches held. A human thermal comfort index was calculated (discomfort index (DI)) for each of the matches in order to discover the real climatic conditions in the host cities during the 2014 World Cup and their potential influence on the teams and human comfort in general. During the 2014 World Cup, only two matches were played at temperatures above 30 °C, representing a negligible percentage of the total number of matches. The air temperature for over half the matches (53%) was 20-25 °C. The results showed the air temperature and relative humidity data analyzed here both individually and in the form of an index indicate that the World Cup held in Brazil in 2014 did not put any of the players at risk due to extreme heat.
This paper reports on a study into the relationship between media exposure and sponsor recall relating to an international event, namely the Cricket World Cup 2003 (CWC 2003). The application of sponsorship as a communication construct and recall as a media vehicle effect is investigated. Recall has been widely ...
Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Kemp, Simon P T; Raftery, Martin
To determine the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained during the Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2015 together with the inciting events leading to the injuries. A prospective, whole population study. 639 international rugby players representing 20 countries. The study protocol followed the definitions and procedures recommended in the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; output measures included players' age (years), stature (cm), body mass (kg) and playing position, and the group-level incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours), mean and median severity (days-absence), location (%), type (%) and inciting event (%) for match and training injuries. Incidence of injury was 90.1 match injuries/1000 player-match-hours (backs: 100.4; forwards: 81.1) and 1.0 training injuries/1000 player-training-hours (backs: 0.9; forwards: 1.2). The mean severity of injuries was 29.8 days-absence (backs: 30.4; forwards: 29.1) during matches and 14.4 days-absence (backs: 6.3; forwards: 19.8) during training. During matches, head/face (22.0%), knee (16.2%), muscle-strain (23.1%) and ligament-sprain (23.1%) and, during training, lower limb (80.0%) and muscle-strain (60.0%) injuries were the most common locations and types of injury. Being-tackled (24.7%) was the most common inciting event for injury during matches and rugby-skills-contact activities (70.0%) the most common during training. While the incidence, nature and inciting events associated with match injuries at RWC 2015 were similar to those reported previously for RWCs 2007 and 2011, there were increasing trends in the mean severity and total days-absence through injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the potential economic value of the 2010 Soccer World Cup for South Africa. Problem investigated: The Soccer World Cup (SWC is regarded as the largest sporting event to be hosted and South Africa is investing billions of Rand in the hosting thereof. Based on this the question that comes to mind is, what is the potential economic value of such an event? Previous research attempts to determine the economic value were limited in their focus on what should be included when economic modelling of events is conducted. Most of these studies were done by consultants on behalf of various government departments and consequently, the results of these attempts are criticised for their over-inflating and overestimations by various other researchers. Methodology: The literature review identified many aspects that need to be taken into account when modelling the economic impact of such an event together with aspects identified in the literature review. Lessons from the 2002 Korea/Japan and 2006 Germany Soccer World Cups were used as premise for our estimations. In this article, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE modelling is used to estimate the potential economic value. Findings: The results showed that the 2010 Soccer World Cup would in all probability have positive impacts on the economy of the country in terms of GDP growth and employment, with possible negative effects that include higher inflation and net export losses. Value of research: The value of this research lies in the approach that was followed firstly, by introducing lessons learned from previous World Cups as well as aspects not taken into consideration previously in economic modelling and secondly, by using CGE modelling in determining the economic value. Conclusion: The hosting of the 2010 Soccer World Cup is a major achievement not only for South Africa, but also for the rest of Africa, especially from a marketing point of view. From an
Massad, Eduardo; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Ximenes, Raphael; Amaku, Marcos; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Silva, Jarbas Barbosa da; Struchiner, Claudio José; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento
Brazil will host the FIFA World Cup™, the biggest single-event competition in the world, from June 12-July 13 2014 in 12 cities. This event will draw an estimated 600,000 international visitors. Brazil is endemic for dengue. Hence, attendees of the 2014 event are theoretically at risk for dengue. We calculated the risk of dengue acquisition to non-immune international travellers to Brazil, depending on the football match schedules, considering locations and dates of such matches for June and July 2014. We estimated the average per-capita risk and expected number of dengue cases for each host-city and each game schedule chosen based on reported dengue cases to the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the period between 2010-2013. On the average, the expected number of cases among the 600,000 foreigner tourists during the World Cup is 33, varying from 3-59. Such risk estimates will not only benefit individual travellers for adequate pre-travel preparations, but also provide valuable information for public health professionals and policy makers worldwide. Furthermore, estimates of dengue cases in international travellers during the World Cup can help to anticipate the theoretical risk for exportation of dengue into currently non-infected areas.
Himmelreich, H; Pralle, H; Vogt, L; Banzer, W
This study investigated the incidence and frequency of injuries in mountainbike sports among competitive and recreational athletes. In a retrospective study design mountain-bike athletes were interviewed by means of a standardized questionnaire with regard to sports injuries and damages within the previous two years. The evaluation of time relative injury-rate was carried out under consideration of class and competition discipline. 75 % of the distributed questionnaires returned completed by 106 World-Cup (39 female symbol 67 male symbol, 23.1 y) and 134 recreational athletes (17 female symbol 117 male symbol, 27.4 y). Approximately 80 % of the World-Cup and about 50 % of the recreational athletes reported about at least one severe injury. World-Cup downhill athletes (1.08 injuries/ 1000 h) show a more than doubled time-related injury-rate in comparison with Cross-Country athletes (0.39 injuries/ 1000 h). Injuries of the lower (47 vs. 35 %) and upper extremity (40 vs. 41 %) show comparable prevalence for competitive and recreational cyclists. In the group of recreational athletes open wounds dominate, competitive athletes demonstrate a significant higher fracture-rate (p athletes head injuries stand out (n = 40). Although World-Cup participation does not result in essential injury-increase, the downhill discipline is characterized by a higher injury risk. Presumably in view of the performance orientation, there is a higher degree of risk readiness. Despite the riding performance and the obligatory safety equipment a remarkable number of bone and head injuries results.
Ritter, Ana Carolina; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar
Foodborne diseases are typically caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with micro-organisms or their toxins, resulting in gastrointestinal disorders and in some severe cases hospitalization and death. In Brazil, foodborne illnesses are caused mainly by Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The most important contributing factors for outbreaks are exposure of foods to unsuitable temperatures, inadequate food preparation and contamination of raw material or water used to prepare food. Recently, aiming to prevent foodborne illnesses during the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Brazil has developed a risk-based evaluation tool able to assess and grade Brazilian food services in cities that will host football matches. This tool has been used by the Brazilian sanitary surveillance officers during the inspection of facilities where food services. This is considered an innovative preventative sanitary action because it was created based on scientific information, statistical calculation and on risks of foodborne diseases occurrence. In this mini-review we summarize general data, control measures and how travellers can prevent foodborne illness in Brazil during the 2014 FIFA World Cup.
Borges, Daniel Guilherme Suzuki; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Schmidt, André; Pazin-Filho, Antonio
Acute coronary syndromes are the major cause of death in Brazil and in the world. External stimuli, known also as triggers, such as emotional state and activity, may generate physiopathological changes that can trigger acute coronary syndromes. Among the studied triggers, the impact of stressful events, such as soccer championships, are controversial in literature and there is no effective data on the Brazilian population. To evaluate the acute effects of environmental stress induced by soccer games of the World Soccer Cup on increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Brazil. Public data were obtained from the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde), regarding hospital admissions that had the International Code Disease of acute coronary syndromes from May to August, in 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2010 (155,992 admissions). Analysis was restricted to patients older than 35 years and admitted by clinical specialties. The incidence of myocardial infarction, angina and mortality were compared among days without World Cup soccer games (Group I: 144,166; 61.7 ± 12.3; 59.4% males); on days when there were no Brazil's soccer team matches (Group II: 9,768; 61.8 ± 12.3; 60.0% males); and days when there were Brazil's soccer team matches (Group III; 2,058; 61.6 ± 12.6; 57.8% males). Logistic regression was used to adjust to age, gender, population density and number of medical assistance units. The incidence of myocardial infarction increased during the period of World Cup soccer games (1.09; 95%CI = 1.05-1.15) and days when there were Brazil's matches (1.16; 95%CI = 1.06-1.27). There was no impact on mortality during the Cup (1.00; CI 95% = 0.93-1.08) and Brazil's matches (1.04; 95%CI = 0.93-1.22). World Cup soccer games and, specially, Brazil's matches have an impact on the incidence of myocardial infarction, but not on in-hospital mortality.
Hafner, Mathias; Neunzig, Alexander R.
This paper deals with EU-Directive 89/552/EEC "Television Without Frontiers", which enables each EU-country to set up a list of major events that are not allowed to be transmitted in Pay-TV. We analyze this kind of regulation using instruments of game-theory and monopoly-theory. We compare the market results of the EU-Regulation with two alternative arrangements, namely with a general ban of Pay-TV and with a 'laisser-faire'-solution. Our model shows that a selective ban may be welfare-superi...
Özgür Dirim Özkan
Full Text Available Introduction: Generally, in Balkans, particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, football fandom is very much associated with the fact of ethnic tension. Football is often used as a metaphor for warfare, while in turn, during the Yugoslav Wars, ironically football terminology was used to metaphorise the significance of ethnic slaughtering. In fact, it is very commonly uttered that the starting flame of the Yugoslav Wars was sparkled in Zagreb Maksimir Stadium in May 13, 1990 after a match between Red Star Belgrade and Dinamo Zagreb. During the Yugoslav Wars, fan groups acted as recruitment agencies for organizing paramilitary groups who were convicted for organizing war crimes. This was the case in Bosnia as well. Although almost two decades have passed since the war in Bosnia, the effects of ethnic nationalism in football fandom is still inevitable. Recently, national football team of Bosnia succeeded to participate in the 2014 World Cup, which will be organized in Brazil, causing euphoria in the country. However, it is a controversial issue whether if all the ethnic groups, namely Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs respectively did attend the celebrations. In other words, it is a question mark if they perceive Bosnian National Football as their “national” team. In this sense, this paper aims to discuss the perception of this success by different ethnic groups relying on interviews with different fan groups in the country. Methods: The presentation will rely on two basic resources:  An ethnographic study which was conducted in Bosnia in 2007/2008 as a part of PhD dissertation titled Football Fandom as a Factor Behind Formation of Cultural Differences: A Case Study on FK Sarajevo and FK Zeljeznicar Football Fans and ongoing observations of the presenter on Bosnian football since then.  Deep interviews with leading football fan groups of different clubs with different ethnic backgrounds like Velež Mostar, Čelik Zenica, Sloboda Tuzla
Bizzini, M; Junge, A; Bahr, R; Helsen, W; Dvorak, J
There is a considerable amount of scientific literature on football, but few studies have focused on referees, despite their key role in this sport. Existing studies focus on the physiological demands and training of referees. To analyse injuries and musculoskeletal complaints in referees and assistant referees selected for the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Retrospective survey and prospective study. During the preparation camps for the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, all 123 referees pre-selected for the tournament completed a questionnaire on injuries and musculoskeletal complaints. During the tournament, the characteristics and consequences of all injuries and complaints incurred by the 63 officiating referees were documented. More than 40% of the referees reported having incurred an injury and more than 60% having had musculoskeletal complaints during their career. About 20% of the group reported having suffered from musculoskeletal complaints in the last match. During the World Cup, 14 referees (22%) incurred an injury and more than 30% had musculoskeletal complaints. This prospectively collected data showed an incidence of 20.8 injuries per 1000 match hours (95% CI: 4.17 to 37.4). The most common acute injuries were hamstring strains, calf strains, and ankle sprains, while the most frequent locations of complaints were the low back, hamstring and knee. Considering the injury profile, the prevalence of associated musculoskeletal complaints, and the high physiological demands of refereeing, it appears that injury prevention programmes should be developed and integrated into the fitness training routine of the referee.
Full Text Available Purpose: optimization of elite female biathlons’ training, considering modern structure of international competitions. Material: we analyzed materials of three recent IBU Congresses and more than 3300 protocols of competitions of World cup stages, world championships, winter Olympic Games (women, sport seasons from 2005 to 2015. Results: it was found that, when preparing for winter Olympic Games 63.9% of sportsmen - prize winners missed 13.6% of stages of World Cup, when preparing for world championships 47.2% of prize-winners missed 9.5% of stages. Before the main start of the season in Europe prize winners missed in conditions of plain: 42.1% - 7.9% of World Cup stages; in midlands conditions 61.9% - 13.9%; in competitions with preliminary trans-meridian travel 54.2% of prize-winners missed 13.1% of stages. Conclusions: most of medals are won at world championships and Olympic Games by sportswomen, who are in top-10 of World Cup. The World Cup calendar of events forces sportsmen to miss some stages of World Cup, when they prepare to main start of season. Attitude of world biathlon leaders to missing of World Cup stages before main start of season depends on main character of main start of season. With it main condition for taking decision about missing of World Cup stages is rank of competitions and geographical characteristics of places of competitions.
Full Text Available The number of businesses whose activities are based on immaterial assets is growing very rapidly, which demands new ways of evaluating the economic relevance of intangible assets. The aim of this study is precisely to examine the Basketball World Cup 2006 -a particular experience within the industry of spectacle - through applying a novel methodology. The analysis of this sport event is an interesting exercise in itself, since it allows achieving important lessons and conclusions. Yet, the scope of this paper is broader, including another major goal. Effectively, the present study illustrates the potential capacity that ESIrg methodology has for evaluating intangible assets of different types and character (that must not necessary be linked to the sport industry.
Socio-economic impacts of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. ... Literature on the impacts of mega events on tourism is available but limited in number in terms of the impacts of mega events on local residents. This study analyses the post ... Keywords: Mega events, economic impacts, social impacts, World Cup, local community.
the patient presentation data for spectators attending the opening ceremony and all the 2003 Cricket World Cup matches played in South Africa in order to provide organ- isers with the basis of a sound medical care plan for mass gatherings of a similar nature. Methods. During the 2003 Cricket World Cup, data were.
Morimura, Naoto; Katsumi, Atsushi; Koido, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Katsuhiko; Fuse, Akira; Asai, Yasfumi; Ishii, Noboru; Ishihara, Toru; Fujii, Chiho; Sugiyama, Mitsugi; Henmi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro
Past history of mass casualties related to international football games brought the importance of practical planning, preparedness, simulation training, and analysis of potential patient presentations to the forefront of emergency research. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare established the Health Research Team (HRT-MHLW) for the 2002 FIFA World Cup game (FIFAWC). The HRT-MHLW collected patient data related to the games and analyzed the related factors regarding patient presentations. A total of 1661 patients presented for evaluation and care from all 32 games in Japan. The patient presentation rate per 1000 spectators per game was 1.21 and the transport-to-hospital rate was 0.05. The step-wise regression analysis identified that the patient presentations rate increased where access was difficult. As the number of total spectators increased, the patient presentation rate decreased. (p < 0.0001, r = 0.823, r2 = 0.677). In order to develop mass-gathering medical-care plans in accordance with the types and sizes of mass gatherings, it is necessary to collect data and examine risk factors for patient presentations for a variety of events.
Liu, Hongyou; Gomez, Miguel-Ángel; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Sampaio, Jaime
Identifying match statistics that strongly contribute to winning in football matches is a very important step towards a more predictive and prescriptive performance analysis. The current study aimed to determine relationships between 24 match statistics and the match outcome (win, loss and draw) in all games and close games of the group stage of FIFA World Cup (2014, Brazil) by employing the generalised linear model. The cumulative logistic regression was run in the model taking the value of each match statistic as independent variable to predict the logarithm of the odds of winning. Relationships were assessed as effects of a two-standard-deviation increase in the value of each variable on the change in the probability of a team winning a match. Non-clinical magnitude-based inferences were employed and were evaluated by using the smallest worthwhile change. Results showed that for all the games, nine match statistics had clearly positive effects on the probability of winning (Shot, Shot on Target, Shot from Counter Attack, Shot from Inside Area, Ball Possession, Short Pass, Average Pass Streak, Aerial Advantage and Tackle), four had clearly negative effects (Shot Blocked, Cross, Dribble and Red Card), other 12 statistics had either trivial or unclear effects. While for the close games, the effects of Aerial Advantage and Yellow Card turned to trivial and clearly negative, respectively. Information from the tactical modelling can provide a more thorough and objective match understanding to coaches and performance analysts for evaluating post-match performances and for scouting upcoming oppositions.
Torjussen, J; Bahr, R
Although snowboarding is already established as an Olympic sport, it is still a developing sport, with new disciplines, more demanding snow installations, and spectacular tricks. A recent study on subjects at Norwegian national elite level showed that injury risk is high and that injuries among competitive snowboarders differ from those seen in recreational snowboarders, with fewer wrist injuries and more knee and back injuries. To describe the incidence and type of injuries among female and male snowboarders at international elite level. At the last race of the Fédération Internationale de Ski Snowboard World Cup, acute injuries resulting in missed participation and overuse injuries influencing performance, were recorded during a retrospective interview (91% response rate). The registration period was from April 2002 (end of season) until March 2003. Exposure was recorded as the number of runs in all disciplines, and the incidence was calculated as number of injuries per 1000 runs. The 258 athletes interviewed reported 3193 competition days (n = 46 879 runs) in all disciplines. In total, 135 acute injuries were recorded; 62 (46%) during competition in the official disciplines. Of the 135 acute injuries, the most common injury locations were knee (n = 24; 18%), shoulder (n = 18; 13%), back (n = 17; 13%), and wrist (n = 11; 8%). The overall incidence during competition was 1.3 (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.7) injuries per 1000 runs; 2.3 (0.9 to 3.8) for big air (n = 10), 1.9 (1.1 to 2.8) for halfpipe (n = 21), 2.1 (1.2 to 3.0) for snowboard cross (n = 20), 0.6 (0.2 to 1.0) for parallel giant slalom (n = 8), and 0.3 (0.0 to 0.7) for parallel slalom (n = 3). The severity of injuries was graded based on time loss (27% lost >21 days) and score on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) (38% AIS 1, 61% AIS 2 and 1% AIS 3). There were 122 overuse injuries, 38 (31%) of these to the knee. The injury risk for big air, snowboard cross, and halfpipe disciplines is high, while
With the planning and preparation for effective and efficient medical service provision during the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa, the collaboration between the disciplines of sports and emergency medicine has resulted in the dawning of the subspecialty of football emergency medicine. Sports physicians and related ...
Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard
and Italian national team football cultures were examined. The basis of the analysis was both document and video analysis. The documents were mostly research studies and popular books on the national football cultures, while the video analysis included all matches including Italy and Brazil from the World Cup...... in 2010 and 2014. The cultural analysis showed some coherence between the national football cultures and the national teams, which suggested a national dialect with the language of the game. Each national dialect seemed to be based on different basic assumptions and to some extent specific symbolic...
Full Text Available Qatar will realize its decades-long drive to host a mega sporting event when, in 2022, the opening ceremony of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA World Cup commences. By that time, the Qatari government will have invested at least $200 billion in real estate and development projects, employing anywhere between 500,000 and 1.5 million foreign workers to do so. The scale of these preparations is staggering — and not necessarily positive. Between 2010 and 2013, more than 1,200 labor migrants working in Qatar’s construction sector died, with another 4,000 deaths projected by the start of the event. Foreign workers are subject to conditions of forced labor, human trafficking, and indefinite detention. Advocacy groups cite deplorable living and working conditions, coupled with lax legal protections for workers, as the main culprits. Absent significant improvements in worker welfare, Qatar’s World Cup will be remembered as a human rights tragedy.This article examines whether it is possible for Qatar’s World Cup to forge a different legacy, as an agent of change on behalf of worker welfare reform. In examining the issue, the article takes a two-fold approach. First, it locates the policy problem of worker welfare abuses in the context of the migration life cycle. The migration life cycle represents the range of activities that mediate the relationship between an individual migrant and the labor migration system — from the time the migrant first considers working overseas to his employment abroad to his eventual return to the home country. An understanding of worker welfare abuses in Qatar does not begin or end with reports of migrant deaths. A much broader pattern of abuse exists that, if ignored, will undermine effective policy responses.Second, the article frames worker welfare as a matter that lies at the intersection of business and human rights. Mega events are large-scale, internationally recognized activities
and shooting but each of the football codes has its own unique skills. From Ronaldhinho's "elastico" (stretching an opponent one way and pass him on the other at top speed to Zidane's "roulette" (360-degree turn at high-speed to dribble past an opponent watching the game is more exciting than any other entertainment on the planet. The average number of viewers that watched the 2002 World Cup final exceeded 1.3 billion; the Superbowl final later this month and the Rugby Union World Cup in September 2007 will be watched live worldwide. Isn't there a passion involved; a passion that expands from the suburbs of Rio de Janeiro to the ivory league of the rich? Scientists cannot control all the variables involved but may measure the social, psychological and physical strength of the players. Still a trainer armed with information may go through the challenge with small and/or no losses.The profound beauty of football in any of its codes lies in the fact that football requires power, accuracy and coordination. Unlimited options are assessed, decisions are taken and action is conducted in less than seconds during the course of every game whether it is played in a street or in a stadium that holds hundred thousands. This is not only done by "the black antelopes" of Angola but also by children of age five to veteran adult players of 75 years. The scale of association football, for example, is evident in more than 200 nations; Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA has 207 members as of 2006 whereas United Nations has 191 members: Involvement of a natural instinct!Preventing injuries by training is equally important as the Brazilian samba, the German and Japanese efficiency, the Italian defence and the English fast players. Social and psychological aspects are apparent at world cups, whether soccer, rugby league or rugby union. Besides those who stock their food and beverage at home throughout the month of games, many others can easily find a seat in their
Sklett, Vegard Haukø
Purpose – The present study investigated the relationship between psychological factors (self-efficacy, flow, positive- and negative affect, worry) and ski jumping performance, as well as the influential functions these psychological factors have on ski jumping performance. Method – World Cup ski jumpers (N = 40) responded to four questionnaires in the middle of the World Cup season, reporting their subjective experience during a competitive setting. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) (Bandura...
Full Text Available The analysis of physical, technical-tactical and other activities related to the structure of football game has become, with the development of modern technology, an essential aspect of preparing the team for achieving favorable results. With the advent of software packages for analysis, it has become possible to quantify, in a very accessible way, the performance of individuals in a game, as well as the effect of the whole team. The problem treated in this study is the impact of specific technical-tactical elements on the successful implementation of attacks in the football game. The focus of this paper is split into two thematic areas. The first is establishing the determinants of the efficiency of shots on goal in the World Cup in South Africa in 2010. The second thematic unit is linked to the comparative analysis of the determinants of efficiency of shots on goal between the winning and losing teams in the aforementioned championship. The task of this paper is to determine which of the observed variables represent a successful predictor of efficiency in the realization phase of attack. This experimental research of transversal character was conducted on a sample of 16 teams at the aforementioned championship. All data collected through the research were analyzed using the descriptive and comparative statistics, upon which valid conclusions based on the results were extracted.
Stott, C; Hutchison, P; Drury, J
During the 1998 Football World Cup Finals in France, English supporters were, once again, involved in major incidents of collective 'disorder'. Explanations for these incidents concentrated on the conflictual norms held by 'hooligans'. In contrast, Scottish supporters attending the tournament displayed norms of non-violence, explained by the popular press in terms of the absence of 'hooligans'. This study challenges this tendency to explain the presence or absence of 'disorder' in the context of football solely in terms of the presence or absence of 'hooligan' fans. Using data obtained from an ethnographic study of both Scottish and English supporters attending the tournament (N = 121), we examine the processes through which ordinarily 'peaceful' supporters would or would not become involved in collective conflict. In line with the Elaborated Social Identity Model (ESIM) of crowd behaviour, the analysis highlights the role of the intergroup context. Where out-group activity was understood as illegitimate in in-group terms, in-group members redefined their identity such that violent action toward out-group members came to be understood as legitimate. By contrast, where there was no out-group hostility, in-group members defined themselves through an explicit contrast with the 'hooligan' supporters of rival teams. This analysis represents an advance on previous studies of crowd behaviour by demonstrating how the ESIM can account for not only the presence, but also the absence, of collective 'disorder'.
Steenstrup, Sophie Elspeth; Mok, Kam-Ming; McIntosh, Andrew S; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron
Prior to the 2013/2014 season, the International Ski Federation (FIS) increased the helmet testing speed from 5.4 to 6.8 m/s for alpine downhill, super-G and giant slalom. Whether this increased testing speed reflects head impact velocities in real head injury situations on snow is unclear. We therefore investigated the injury mechanisms and gross head impact biomechanics in seven real head injury situations among World Cup (WC) alpine skiers. We analysed nine head impacts from seven head injury videos from the FIS Injury Surveillance System, throughout nine WC seasons (2006-2015) in detail. We used commercial video-based motion analysis software to estimate head impact kinematics in two dimensions, including directly preimpact and postimpact, from broadcast video. The sagittal plane angular movement of the head was also measured using angle measurement software. In seven of nine head impacts, the estimated normal to slope preimpact velocity was higher than the current FIS helmet rule of 6.8 m/s (mean 8.1 (±SD 0.6) m/s, range 1.9±0.8 to 12.1±0.4 m/s). The nine head impacts had a mean normal to slope velocity change of 9.3±1.0 m/s, range 5.2±1.1 to 13.5±1.3 m/s. There was a large change in sagittal plane angular velocity (mean 43.3±2.9 rad/s (range 21.2±1.5 to 64.2±3.0 rad/s)) during impact. The estimated normal to slope preimpact velocity was higher than the current FIS helmet rule of 6.8 m/s in seven of nine head impacts. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
This study examined the phenomenon of symmetrical skills in goal shot technique in female football players, of nine video recorded matches. The recording was taken during the 2nd Under 19 female football World Cup in 2004 and the 6th European female Championships of female seniors in 2005. The study comprised ...
South Africa's hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup saw a large number of public demonstrations, strikes and other forms of civic campaigning. World Cup activism was both preceded and followed by extensive and intensifying public unrest and industrial action that in the period before the tournament, threatened to derail the event. This paper assesses the motivations, forms and implications of the activism during South Africa's staging of the FIFA finals and interprets them against the larger context of shifting state-society relations in the country. There are two purposes to the analysis. First, to explore the underlying internal social forces that gave shape to the protests at the time, and the possible influence of the exogenous politics of mega-event social mobilization. Second, the implications and outcomes of these dynamics for longer term socio-political processes in the country are considered. The activism displayed many of the features of the politics of contestation of sport mega-events today. Importantly, however, the activism stemmed from a particular systemic dynamic and reflected changing relations in the post-apartheid political community. Therefore, while the World Cup was used as a strategic opportunity by many advocacy groups, it was one that rather fleetingly and ambivalently presented an additional platform to such groups in an otherwise on-going set of political battles. Rather than a strong case study of sport's transformative capacity, the civic campaigning during South Africa's World Cup demonstrates the way a sport mega-event can be used as a strategic entry point by civil society groups in their engagement with the state, although this can occur with greater or lesser success. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.
Keays, Glenn; Friedman, Debbie; Beaudin, Marianne; Gagnon, Isabelle
The 'trickle-down effect', or how major sports events have a positive impact on sports participation, has been the subject of many studies, but none produced conclusive results. We took a different approach and rather than look at sports participation, we used injuries as a proxy and see if injuries increased, or remained the same, after the International Federation of Association Football World Cup. Using a retrospective cohort design, we looked at the injuries suffered by males and females (13-16 years old) while playing team sports in Montreal, that occurred in May to July, from 1999 to 2014. Information reported by the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting Prevention Program (CHIRPP) was limited to the two CHIRPP centres in Montreal: the Montreal Children's Hospital and Hopital Sainte-Justine. In females, no significant trends were noticed. In males who played non-organised soccer, the percent changes between FIFA World Cup (WC) (June) and pre-FIFA WC (May) was always highest during FIFA WC years: 17.2% more injuries in years when FIFA WC was held compared to 1.3% less injuries during non-FIFA WC years. In non-organised soccer, male players suffered less strains/sprains (11.9% vs. 30.1%; P = 0.015), suffered more severe injuries (59.7% vs. 43.1%; P = 0.049) and more of their injuries were the results of direct contact with another player (26.8% vs. 13.3%; P = 0.028) during FIFA WC. FIFA WC seems to have an impact on the injuries of teenage boys when playing non-organised soccer. The impact was short-lived, only lasting during the FIFA WC event. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Both developing and developed countries are attracted to hosting mega sport events. The FIFA World Cup is regarded as a prestigious event and for the first time in its history Africa hosted the 2010 tournament in South Africa. There are considerable debates pertaining to the capability of developing countries to host mega ...
As South Africa is a small open economy, which relies heavily on foreign investment and trade, this study investigates the economic impact of 2010 FIFA World Cup and the interrelationship between tourism and trade by focusing on 1) retail trade, 2) tourism and 3) economic legacy of the event. Using monthly data obtained ...
Rasdal, Vegard; Fudel, Ronny; Kocbach, Jan; Moen, Frode; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind
Nordic combined (NC) is an Olympic winter-sport performed as a ski jumping (SJ) event followed by a cross-country (XC) pursuit race employing the skating style. To elucidate the associations between sport-specific laboratory capacities and SJ, XC skiing, and overall NC performance in a world-cup NC event. Twelve international world-cup NC athletes from 8 nations performed laboratory testing one day prior to participating in a world-cup NC event. Squat jumps and SJ imitations (IMIT) were performed on a three-dimensional force plate, whereas XC skiing-specific physiological characteristics were obtained from roller ski skating tests on a treadmill and an all-out double poling (DP) test. Finally, body composition was measured. Laboratory capacities were correlated against performance in SJ, 10-km XC skiing, and overall NC in the world-cup event. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the best suited laboratory variables for predicting performance. Vertical IMIT velocity together with body-mass provided the best prediction for SJ performance (r2 = 0.70, pjump capacity while minimizing body-mass within the BMI limit set by FIS should be considered in the seasonal training of NC athletes.
This paper determines whether the substantial investments into the stadiums' infrastructure are justified by the utilisation of the stadiums after the 2010 FIFA World Cup event. A utilisation rate and a stadium usage index were used to analyse the utilisation benefits derived from the stadiums. Generally, the results suggest ...
Objective. To determine the frequency and nature of injuries sustained by the 416 players from 16 countries participating in the 1995 Rugby World Cup played in South Africa in May/June 1995. Methods. The study was a prospective analysis of all injuries requiring medical attention during that competition. Data were ...
.... 3. Privacy Act Anyone can search the electronic form of comments received into any of our dockets by..., 2012 and the event would occur before the rulemaking process would be completed. Because of the dangers... events. D. Discussion of the Interim Rule During the first two days of the America's Cup World Series...
Abstract. This paper provides an ex-post analysis of the utilisation of the stadiums that were built for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The South African government invested approximately US$1.57 billion and US$523 million into the development of new stadiums and upgrades to existing stadiums, respectively. This paper.
Rumpf, Michael C; Silva, Joao R; Hertzog, Maxime; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Nassis, George
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the technical and physical performance parameters that distinguish between teams winning and losing matches in the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil. Data were derived from the FIFA website and from live-statistics provided during each game of the world cup. Twelve physical (such as total distance covered in meters (TD), TD in distinct locomotor categories: low-intensity running (LIR; 14 km/h)) and 21 technical parameters (total passes, short-, medium- and long-distance passes, total pass completion rate, dangerous attacks, attacking attempts, delivery in penalty area, ball possession, goals, goals from set-pieces, goals per shot on goal, defending saves, shots, shots on goal, shot accuracy, set-pieces, crosses, corners, clearances, yellow cards) were analyzed. Forty-two games in which a winner and consequently a loser were presented after 90 minutes of game time were investigated with independent t-tests. A binary-logistic regression was utilized to investigate whether the significant variables predicted success of the winning teams. The winning teams scored significantly (PTechnical performance related to goal scoring parameters play a decisive role in World Cup games. Furthermore, scoring efficacy from open-play as well as from set-pieces are crucial to win matches in a World Cup tournament. At this level, physical performance was not the factor to discriminate between winners and losers.
van der Meij, L.; Almela, M.; Hidalgo, V.; Villada, C.; IJzerman, H.; van Lange, P.A.M.; Salvador, A.
This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50) watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at
The hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup was anticipated to bring major contributions (social, economic and environmental) to the country. Expectations were high ... in their area. Specific attention should be paid to these aspects when considering future mega event bids such as the Olympic and Commonwealth Games.
The craft industry derives major benefits from the growth in the number of tourists visiting South Africa (SA). The recent sport mega event, the FIFA World Cup TM, created market access and business growth opportunities for the craft businesses since more international tourists visited the country in year 2010 than before.
The South African government promised that the hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup would improve the lives of all South Africans. Therefore, the planning of future mega and large-scale events must focus on ensuring that rural communities benefit directly. This will require linkages with economic activities that can create ...
Objective. To determine the frequency and nature of injuries sustained by the 416 players from 16 countries participating in the 1995 Rugby World Cup played in South. Africa in May/June 1995. Methods. The study was a prospective analysis of all injuries requiring medical attention during that competition. Data were ...
Full Text Available Social media strategies and practices continue to be integrated across various athletic sports, particularly futbol. One of the recent global athletic events that occurred where social media played an important role was the 2014 Fédération Internationale de Football Association World Cup in Brazil. While social media brings forth great opportunities for teams to engage with fans and share real-time updates, it also allows active fans to voice concerns around particular issues like player safety i.e. concussions, which could lead to a crisis situation. This particular incident in question involved futbol player Christoph Kramer, who suffered a blow to the head that left him slumped over during the Germany versus Argentina championship match. Fans are linking the lack of concern for player safety to the FIFA brand, making an outcry for protocol to be adapted to tackle the growing issue surrounding players who have suffered from concussions. The FIFA organization waited until September 9, 2014 to address the public and provide a plan for future occurrences of this kind. Based on the theoretical framework of Coombs’ Situational Crisis Communication Theory, the FIFA commission did not properly assessing the crisis at hand and actually implemented the denial posture of crisis response instead of taking proactive actions to address this situation with their stakeholders.
Vaso, Martin; Weber, Alexis; Tscholl, Philippe M; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri
Objective To examine the use of medication of top-level male players during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil. Design Retrospective survey. Participants/information 736 top level players. Setting The teams’ physicians disclosed a list of the medications used by each player within 72 h before each match of the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil. Outcome measures Average number of medications used per player per match or during the tournament; average number and percentage of players using at least one medication per match or during the tournament. Results 67.0% of all players took various types of medication during the tournament. The most used medications during the tournament were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), by 54.2% of all players, followed by analgaesics (12.6%); β-2 agonists were only used by 0.5%. On average, 0.8 medications per player were used before each match. More players were reported taking medications during the knockout round than during the qualification round (0.36±0.48 vs 0.49±0.50, p<0.001). Players from the South American and Asian Confederations took twice as many medications per match as players from the African Confederation (1.17±1.55 and 1.01±1.26 vs 0.48±0.69, both p<0.001). Conclusions There was high use of NSAIDs during the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Although the intake of NSAIDs per match (0.35±0.46 vs 0.31±0.48, p<0.01) in the 2014 FIFA World Cup decreased compared to the 2010 FIFA World Cup, the average use was still higher than in the 2006 FIFA World Cup, and the average number of all used medications per player remained the same level as 4 years prior, with all its implications for the player's health. More efforts need to be undertaken worldwide in order to reduce the administration of medications in sports, through continuous education for players, starting from a young age, as well as for doctors and paramedics. PMID:26359283
Supej, Matej; Hébert-Losier, Kim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer
Numerous environmental factors can affect alpine-ski-racing performance, including the steepness of the slope. However, little research has focused on this factor. Accordingly, the authors' aim was to determine the impact of the steepness of the slope on the biomechanics of World Cup slalom ski racers. The authors collected 3-dimensional kinematic data during a World Cup race from 10 male slalom skiers throughout turns performed on a relatively flat (19.8°) and steep (25.2°) slope under otherwise similar course conditions. Kinematic data revealed differences between the 2 slopes regarding the turn radii of the skis and center of gravity, velocity, acceleration, and differential specific mechanical energy (all P skiing variables. The findings suggest that specific considerations during training and preparation would benefit the race performance of slalom skiers on courses involving sections of varying steepness.
Leal Neto, Onicio; Dimech, George Santiago; Libel, Marlo; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Cesse, Eduarda; Smolinski, Mark; Oliveira, Wanderson; Albuquerque, Jones
The 2005 International Health Regulations (IHRs) established parameters for event assessments and notifications that may constitute public health emergencies of international concern. These requirements and parameters opened up space for the use of nonofficial mechanisms (such as websites, blogs, and social networks) and technological improvements of communication that can streamline the detection, monitoring, and response to health problems, and thus reduce damage caused by these problems. Specifically, the revised IHR created space for participatory surveillance to function, in addition to the traditional surveillance mechanisms of detection, monitoring, and response. Participatory surveillance is based on crowdsourcing methods that collect information from society and then return the collective knowledge gained from that information back to society. The spread of digital social networks and wiki-style knowledge platforms has created a very favorable environment for this model of production and social control of information. The aim of this study was to describe the use of a participatory surveillance app, Healthy Cup, for the early detection of acute disease outbreaks during the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup 2014. Our focus was on three specific syndromes (respiratory, diarrheal, and rash) related to six diseases that were considered important in a mass gathering context (influenza, measles, rubella, cholera, acute diarrhea, and dengue fever). From May 12 to July 13, 2014, users from anywhere in the world were able to download the Healthy Cup app and record their health condition, reporting whether they were good, very good, ill, or very ill. For users that reported being ill or very ill, a screen with a list of 10 symptoms was displayed. Participatory surveillance allows for the real-time identification of aggregates of symptoms that indicate possible cases of infectious diseases. From May 12 through July 13, 2014, there
A notational analysis provides opportunities to analyze the intrinsic characteristics of the teams in order to improve the quality of the training and quality of the opponent’s observation. The main objective of this work was to analyze the performance parameters and characterize the most successful teams on FIFA World Cup 2010, in order to describe the most relevant parameters that can improve the efficacy of the teams. Analyzes of variance among groups of teams were made in order to charact...
AHMAD SHAHID, Shakeel; PERVEEN, Kauser
This research paper will discussed the effectiveness of cricket on both nations as cricket is very popular sport in this region particularly in India and Pakistan. The history of Cricket series between India and Pakistan from 1987 to 2007 cricket world cup will also be analyzed that how cricket was effective during these periods to release the tension of both countries. This study conveyed that the power of Cricket proved a peaceful solution of every circumstance between India and Pakistan ca...
Full Text Available Nordic combined (NC is an Olympic winter-sport performed as a ski jumping (SJ event followed by a cross-country (XC pursuit race employing the skating style.To elucidate the associations between sport-specific laboratory capacities and SJ, XC skiing, and overall NC performance in a world-cup NC event.Twelve international world-cup NC athletes from 8 nations performed laboratory testing one day prior to participating in a world-cup NC event. Squat jumps and SJ imitations (IMIT were performed on a three-dimensional force plate, whereas XC skiing-specific physiological characteristics were obtained from roller ski skating tests on a treadmill and an all-out double poling (DP test. Finally, body composition was measured. Laboratory capacities were correlated against performance in SJ, 10-km XC skiing, and overall NC in the world-cup event. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the best suited laboratory variables for predicting performance.Vertical IMIT velocity together with body-mass provided the best prediction for SJ performance (r2 = 0.70, p<0.01, while body-mass-normalized [Formula: see text] and DP power provided the best prediction for XC performance (r2 = 0.68, p<0.05. Body-mass-normalized [Formula: see text] was the only significant correlate with overall NC performance (r2 = 0.43, p<0.05 in this competition.Overall, the concurrent development of [Formula: see text], upper-body power, and SJ-specific vertical jump capacity while minimizing body-mass within the BMI limit set by FIS should be considered in the seasonal training of NC athletes.
Flørenes, T W; Nordsletten, L; Heir, S; Bahr, R
No long-term injury surveillance programs exist for competitive skiing or snowboarding. The objective of this study was, therefore, to compare different methods to record injuries among World Cup athletes in alpine, freestyle, and cross-country skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping and Nordic combined. Information regarding injuries sustained during the 2006-2007 winter season was recorded through three separate and independent systems: prospective injury reports by technical delegates (TD) from the International Ski Federation, prospective medical team registration by selected teams, and retrospective athlete interviews at the end of the season. A total of 100 unique injuries to 602 World Cup athletes were identified from any of the three recording methods. Of these, 91% were registered through the athlete interviews, 47% by the medical team registration and 27% by the TD reports. Only 20 injuries (20%) were captured by all three methods. A total of 64 time-loss injuries were registered. The interviews captured 60 (94%), the medical team registration 39 (61%), and the TD reports 23 (36%) time-loss injuries, while 18 (28%) were registered by all three systems. Retrospective interviews with athletes/coaches regarding injuries during the last 6 months gave the most complete picture of injuries to World Cup skiers and snowboarders. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for the formulation of a sport tourism event policy for the island of Barbados. Although some research has been conducted on the residents’ perceptions of major sporting events including the Olympic Games, smaller but globally significant events such as the Golf World Cup have received little attention from researchers. Less attention has been given to sport events in the Caribbean. This dearth in knowledge has inspired the direction of this study, which is, to explore the stakeholder perceptions of the Golf World Cup which was hosted in Barbados in December 2006. The data collection process adopted included semi-structured interviews with the Barbados tourism private sector. The 65 participants in this study highlighted a diversity of mainly congruent views. Private sector participants contend that the Golf World Cup was socially exclusive and perpetuated social divisions rather than ameliorated them. Many stakeholders felt that the event was culturally alienating and highlighted the failure of the organisers to undertake stakeholder consultations. The findings in this study can make a worthwhile contribution to the marketing, management and design of future events and the direction of policy formulation for sport events on the island of Barbados and the wider Caribbean.
Juan Antonio Simón
Full Text Available Este artículo pretende aprovechar el treinta aniversario del Mundial de Fútbol de España, para analizar algunos aspectos fundamentales de la organización de este evento deportivo. En pleno proceso de transición política y bajo la influencia de una fuerte crisis económica, la sociedad española se enfrentará al reto de organizar el primer Mundial con la participación de 24 selecciones. A nivel internacional, los diferentes gobiernos y las instituciones políticas y deportivas trataron de utilizar el Mundial como símbolo de un nuevo país democrático y moderno. Este texto examina aspectos íntimamente relacionados con su organización, como las fuentes de financiación, la reforma de la infraestructura de RTVE, la elección de las sedes y la remodelación de los estadios, así como la explotación comercial y publicitaria de España-82.-------------------------------------------------------------This article aims to use the thirtieth anniversary of the FIFA World Cup in Spain, to analyze some fundamental aspects of the organization of this sporting event. During the process of political transition and under the influence of a deep economic crisis, the Spanish society will face the challenge of organizing the first World Cup with the participation of 24 national football teams. At the international level, the different governments and the political and sports institutions tried to use the World Cup as a symbol of a new democratic and modern country. This text studies some aspects closely related to their organization, the funding sources, the reform of the RTVE infrastructure, the choice of venues and the renovation of the stadiums, as well as commercial and advertising exploitation of Spain-82.
Title: Organising of sports event - ISF Youth World Cup 2009 Objectives: The objective of the diploma thesis is to analyse the problems of organising sports events. For these purposes I have chosen ISF Youth World Cup of softball. On the basis of reached information I will find out failures and mistakes made during organising and I will suggest their solutions. Methods: For reaching the objectives of this thesis I have chosen interviewing, informal interview, method of case study and also SWO...
Eunil Park; Sang Jib Kwon; Angel P. del Pobil
After the 2002 FIFA World Cup in South Korea and Japan, the local governments of South Korea were left in charge of several large-scale soccer stadiums. Although these governments have made significant efforts toward creating profits from the stadiums, it is proving to be too difficult for several administrations to cover their full operational, maintenance, and conservation costs. In order to overcome this problem, one of the governments, Seogwipo City, which owns Jeju World Cup Stadium (JWC...
Masukume, Gwinyai; Grech, Victor
Positive psychological phenomena such as increased feelings of belonging linked to hosting the FIFA World Cup were observed in France 1998 and South Africa 2010. Approximately nine months after South Africa hosted the 2010 World Cup the sex ratio at birth increased significantly. Given the similarity of positive psychological phenomena between the two countries, this study sought to determine if the sex ratio at birth increased in France circa nine months after the 1998 World Cup. Anonymized publicly available live birth data from 1994 to 2004 inclusive was obtained from the Insee (Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes/Économiques - National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies). For statistical analysis, chi-squared tests were used. The sex ratio at birth for March and April 1999 did not differ significantly from that of the rest of same period from 1996 to 2000 (p=0.558), there was also no significant difference for February and March 1999. The sex ratio at birth did not increase in France after it hosted the 1998 World Cup. Possible reasons why the sex ratio at birth did not increase as it did in South Africa include a higher French prevalence of modern contraceptive use and a different kind/level of excitement for the World Cup in France since it has previously hosted large international sports tournaments. The influence of the World Cup on the sex ratio at birth depends on the context of a specific country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Noel, Jonathan K; Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine; Feulner, Melissa; Vendrame, Alan; Monteiro, Maristela
To identify the nature of visual alcohol references in alcohol advertisements during televised broadcasts of the 2014 FIFA World Cup Tournament matches and to evaluate cross-national differences according to alcohol marketing policy restrictiveness. Content analysis using the Delphi method and identification of in-game sponsorships. Television broadcasts of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Finland, France, Mexico, Spain and the United States. Eighty-seven alcohol advertisements; 20 matches. Quantitative rating scales, combined with the Delphi rating technique, were used to determine compliance of the alcohol advertisements with the International Alliance for Responsible Drinking's (IARD) Guiding Principles. Recordings of five matches from four countries were also used to identify the number of in- and out-of-game alcohol brand appearances. A total of 86.2% of all unique alcohol advertisements contained at least one violation of IARD's Guiding Principles, with violation rates ranging from 72.7% (Mexico) to 100% (Brazil). Countries with the least restrictive marketing policies had a higher prevalence of violations in guidelines designed to protect minors. There were 2.76 in-game alcohol brand appearances and 0.83 out-of-game alcohol brand appearances per minute. Brand appearances did not differ across countries or according to a country's marketing policy restrictiveness. Self-regulation and statutory policies were ineffective at limiting alcohol advertising during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Tournament television broadcasts. Most advertisements contained content that violated the self-regulation codes, and there were high levels of within-broadcast brand appearances. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Fowler, Peter M; McCall, Alan; Jones, Mark; Duffield, Rob
Describe the effects of eastward long-haul transmeridian air travel on subjective jet-lag, sleep and wellness in professional football (soccer) players prior to the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. Single cohort involving twenty-two male professional football players representing a national football team. Data was collected from players prior to and following international travel from Sydney, Australia to Vitoria, Brazil. In total there were three flights, 19-h and 14,695km of travel east across 11 time-zones. Training load and wellness measures were obtained in the week prior to and following travel, whilst sleep and jet-lag measures were collected on the day prior to travel (Pre), the day of arrival and for five days following travel (Post 1-5). Compared to Pre, perceived jet-lag was significantly increased on Post 1 to 4, with significantly greater levels on Post 1 compared to Post 5 (p<0.05). Self-reported sleep duration during travel was 5.9 (4.8-7.0) h, which was significantly lower than all other nights (p˂0.01), except for the night of arrival, where time in bed and sleep duration were significantly reduced compared to Post 1-4 (p˂0.01). Lastly, compared to the week prior to travel, mean wellness was significantly reduced during the week following travel (p˂0.01). Self-reported sleep disruption during and following eastward long-haul transmeridian air travel, together with exacerbated jet-lag symptoms may result in reduced player wellness. Consequently, player preparedness for subsequent training and competition may be impeded, though physical performance data is lacking. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In limited overs cricket, efficiency plays a significant role in team success. Batsmen especially are under pressure to score quickly rather than in large quantities because only 50 overs are available per innings. This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA and stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA to assess the efficiency with which players at the 2011 Cricket World Cup converted inputs (balls faced or bowled into performance outputs. The effect that non-discretionary variables like the cricketing resources available to a player have on his efficiency is controlled for, allowing for a fairer assessment across players from different countries.
Carlos Eduardo Dias Munaier Lages
Full Text Available The announced impacts and legacies of the World Cup in the city of Belo Horizonte were investigated. Methodologically, this was a qualitative study, in which 6 managers were interviewed as a method of collecting data. It was concluded that there is a relationship of subordination between the event's logic and capital market's dynamics. This limitates any social gains which may be obtained. The managers only see the mega event as a 'business' and an opportunity of anticipating decisions and governmental support, to increase the flow of tourists and to promote the image of the city.
Bakken, Arnhild; Bere, Tone; Bahr, Roald; Kristianslund, Eirik; Nordsletten, Lars
Snowboard cross (SBX) became an official Olympic sport in 2006. This discipline includes manoeuvring several obstacles while competing in heats. It is common for the riders to collide, making this sport both exciting and at risk of injuries. Although a recent study from the 2010 Olympic Games has shown that the injury risk was high, little is known about the injury mechanisms. To qualitatively describe the injury situation and mechanism of injuries in World Cup Snowboard Cross. Descriptive video analysis. Nineteen video recordings of SBX injuries reported through the International Ski Federation Injury Surveillance System for four World Cup seasons (2006 to 2010) were obtained. Five experts in the field of sports medicine, snowboard and biomechanics performed analyses of each case to describe the injury mechanism in detail (riding situation and rider behaviour). Injuries occurred at jumping (n=13), bank turning (n=5) or rollers (n=1). The primary cause of the injuries was a technical error at take-off resulting in a too high jump and subsequent flat-landing. The rider was then unable to recover leading to fall at the time of injury. Injuries at bank turn was characterised by a pattern where the rider in a balanced position lost control due to unintentional contact with another rider. Jumping appeared to be the most challenging obstacle in SBX, where a technical error at take-off was the primary cause of the injuries. The second most common inciting event was unintentional board contact between riders at bank turning.
Bere, T; Flørenes, T W; Krosshaug, T; Haugen, P; Svandal, I; Nordsletten, L; Bahr, R
We have limited insight into how injuries occur in professional ski racing. The aim of this study was to describe the injury situations in World Cup alpine skiing. Injuries reported through the International Ski Federation Injury Surveillance System for three consecutive World Cup seasons (2006-2009) were obtained on video. In total, 69 injuries and 124 runs of matched controls were analysed by five experts to evaluate the skiing situation, skier behavior, as well as piste-related factors. A chi-square test (95% CI, P ≤ 0.05) was used to examine whether there was a difference between course sections regarding where the injury situation occurred. The skier was most frequently turning (n = 55) or landing from a jump (n = 13) at the time of injury. Most of the injuries to the head and upper body (96%) resulted from crashes, while the majority of knee injuries (83%) occurred while the skier was still skiing. Gate contact contributed to 30% of the injuries, while 9% occurred at contact with safety nets/material. Almost half of the injuries (46%) occurred in the final fourth of the course. A particular concern was the high contribution of inappropriate gate contact and the high-energy impacts to the body when crashing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Antônio Carlos Estender
Full Text Available The 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics have stimulated competition for investments in the infrastructure for the transportation of passengers, and they have demanded the integration of all modals of the Brazilian transport sector. Why is the transportation sector considered fundamental for the economy success and for mega-events as the World Cup and the Olympics? Objective: Capacity of the country in attracting investments, modernization of all transportation hubs and for the logistics. For reorganization of urban and inter-urban mobility, the country counts with one principal player, the BNDES (Brazilian Development Bank. For the comprehensive time period between the years of 2010-2016, it has an investment perspective in logistics that can practically come close to the R$ 130 Billion (Brazilian Real, of this sum 43% comes from funds of the BNDES, 37% comes from the private sector and approximately 20% from public agencies. Dividing by transportation modals and applied in consolidated projects, sea port sector requirements will take roughly R$ 15 Billion (14% of the total sum; the railroad sector will have approximately the equivalent of R$ 56 Billion (52% of the total sum; the air transport project (TAV will take 31 billion (29% and the road sector with about 36 billion (34%. In summary, the direct participation of the BNDES in projects that integrate planning and actions of the public agencies for the resolution of the structural problems in urban centers is a determining factor for the growth of the country.
A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team is greeted by NASA Astronaut Scott E. Parazynski (left) upon her arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station as her teammates look on. The team is at KSC to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93 scheduled for liftoff at 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five- day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.
Members of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team were greeted upon their arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station by Astronauts (right) Steven W. Lindsey, Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper and Scott E. Parzynski. The team are here to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93, scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.
Members of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team are greeted by NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin as they disembark from a plane at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. They arrived with First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93 scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five- day mission is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe.
Juma, A H
The V World Youth Championship for FIFA Cup was held for the first time in Saudi Arabia from 16-2-89 till 3-3-89. Sports injuries at this competitions was reported from the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia with eight matches taking place at different days. Out of 176 soccer players from group C (Brazil, Germany DR, Mali and USA) who participated in this competition, only six were injured and 7 injuries were noted with an incidence of 3.98% (n = 7/176). Lower limb injuries predominated (ankle sprain: 28.57%; tibia fracture: 14.29%), whereas head, facial, radius and rib injuries had equal rates (14.29%). Also, fractures predominated (42.86%) due to the aggressive attitudes. Concussion (14.29%) and cut wound (14.29%) were less common. High skills, good physical fitness, compliance of rules and regulations, strict surveillance of violence and misbehaviour by the FIFA cup organizing team and allied offices led to the well performance, safer environment and low incidence of sports injuries.
Delva, Wim; Richter, Marlise; De Koker, Petra; Chersich, Matthew; Temmerman, Marleen
In the months leading up to the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, international media postulated that at least 40,000 foreign sex workers would enter South Africa, and that an increased HIV incidence would follow. To strengthen the evidence base of future HIV prevention and sexual health programmes during international sporting events, we monitored the supply and demand of female sex work in the weeks before, during and after the 2010 FIFA World Cup. We conducted three telephonic surveys of female sex workers advertising online and in local newspapers, in the last week of May, June and July 2010. The overall response rate was 73.4% (718/978). The number of sex workers advertising online was 5.9% higher during the World Cup than before. The client turnover rate did not change significantly during (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 1.05; 95%CI: 0.90-1.23) or after (aRR = 1.06; 95%CI: 0.91-1.24) the World Cup. The fraction of non-South African sex workers declined during (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.32-0.79) and after (aOR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37-0.86) the World Cup. Relatively more clients were foreign during the World Cup among sex workers advertising in the newspapers (aOR = 2.74; 95%CI: 1.37-5.48) but not among those advertising online (aOR = 1.06; 95%CI: 0.60-1.90). Self-reported condom use was high (99.0%) at baseline, and did not change during (aOR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.16-7.30) or after (aOR = 1.13; 95% CI: 0.16-8.10) the Word Cup. Our findings do not provide evidence for mass-immigration of foreign sex workers advertising online and in local newspapers, nor a spike in sex work or risk of HIV transmission in this subpopulation of sex workers during the World Cup. Public health programmes focusing on sex work and HIV prevention during international sporting events should be based on evidence, not media-driven sensationalism that further heightens discrimination against sex workers and increases their vulnerability.
Full Text Available In the months leading up to the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, international media postulated that at least 40,000 foreign sex workers would enter South Africa, and that an increased HIV incidence would follow. To strengthen the evidence base of future HIV prevention and sexual health programmes during international sporting events, we monitored the supply and demand of female sex work in the weeks before, during and after the 2010 FIFA World Cup.We conducted three telephonic surveys of female sex workers advertising online and in local newspapers, in the last week of May, June and July 2010. The overall response rate was 73.4% (718/978. The number of sex workers advertising online was 5.9% higher during the World Cup than before. The client turnover rate did not change significantly during (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 1.05; 95%CI: 0.90-1.23 or after (aRR = 1.06; 95%CI: 0.91-1.24 the World Cup. The fraction of non-South African sex workers declined during (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.32-0.79 and after (aOR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37-0.86 the World Cup. Relatively more clients were foreign during the World Cup among sex workers advertising in the newspapers (aOR = 2.74; 95%CI: 1.37-5.48 but not among those advertising online (aOR = 1.06; 95%CI: 0.60-1.90. Self-reported condom use was high (99.0% at baseline, and did not change during (aOR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.16-7.30 or after (aOR = 1.13; 95% CI: 0.16-8.10 the Word Cup.Our findings do not provide evidence for mass-immigration of foreign sex workers advertising online and in local newspapers, nor a spike in sex work or risk of HIV transmission in this subpopulation of sex workers during the World Cup. Public health programmes focusing on sex work and HIV prevention during international sporting events should be based on evidence, not media-driven sensationalism that further heightens discrimination against sex workers and increases their vulnerability.
Full Text Available Purpose: to carry out the analysis of renditions of national teams on wrestling on the World Cup of 2016. Material & Methods: the analysis of 328 fights of highly skilled wrestlers is carried out. Results: it is determined that the advantage of the strongest wrestlers consists in successful and stable use of technical-tactical actions near other factors during a duel meet and ability to impose to the rival the style of conducting a fight. Conclusions: it is established that the offensive actions prevail as a part of the competitive technique, the fight is conducted constantly at high speed, and the techniques are carried out after the previous preparation, and in case the sportsmen is sure that the technique will be executed.
Steenstrup, Sophie Elspeth; Bakken, Arnhild; Bere, Tone; Patton, Declan Alexander; Bahr, Roald
Head injuries represent a concern in skiing and snowboarding, with traumatic brain injuries being the most common cause of death. To describe the mechanisms of head and face injuries among World Cup alpine and freestyle skiers and snowboarders. We performed a qualitative analysis of videos obtained of head and face injuries reported through the International Ski Federation Injury Surveillance System during 10 World Cup seasons (2006-2016). We analysed 57 head impact injury videos (alpine n=29, snowboard n=13, freestyle n=15), first independently and subsequently in a consensus meeting. During the crash sequence, most athletes (84%) impacted the snow with the skis or board first, followed by the upper or lower extremities, buttocks/pelvis, back and, finally, the head. Alpine skiers had sideways (45%) and backwards pitching falls (35%), with impacts to the rear (38%) and side (35%) of the helmet. Freestyle skiers and snowboarders had backwards pitching falls (snowboard 77%, freestyle 53%), mainly with impacts to the rear of the helmet (snowboard 69%, freestyle 40%). There were three helmet ejections among alpine skiers (10% of cases), and 41% of alpine skiing injuries occurred due to inappropriate gate contact prior to falling. Athletes had one (47%) or two (28%) head impacts, and the first impact was the most severe (71%). Head impacts were mainly on snow (83%) on a downward slope (63%). This study has identified several characteristics of the mechanisms of head injuries, which may be addressed to reduce risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Introduction. Having possession of the ball makes it possible for the players of a team to undertake a greater number of actions that can help the team win the match. The aim of the current study was to determine the number and completion rate of passes made from different distances in relation to percentage ball possession and the outcome of the match in the group stage of the FIFA World Cup held in Brazil in 2014. Material and methods. The study included 32 teams who participated in the final tournament. The performance of 266 players (682 observations who played 48 matches in the group stage was examined. Only players who took part in the entire match were included in the research, and goal-keepers were excluded. The data used in the study, which had been recorded by means of the Castrol Performance Index system, were obtained from the FIFA official website. The total number of passes and the percentage of completed passes were analysed, which were classified as short, medium, and long, in relation to the team’s percentage possession of the ball (over and below 50% and the outcome of the match (win, loss, or draw. Results. Out of the three types of passes which were examined in the study, teams playing in the World Cup in Brazil most often made medium passes. The number of these passes was the highest in matches won. These matches were also characterised by a significantly higher percentage of completed long passes. Conclusions. Players from teams who were in possession of the ball more than 50% of the time performed a higher number of all types of passes, regardless of the outcome of the match. The completion rate for these players was significantly higher only for short and medium passes.
Stan Du Plessis; Wolfgang Maennig
Without a doubt, the 2010 World Cup of soccer in South Africa was a great experience for both soccer fans, who enjoyed a safe and efficiently-run tournament, and their South African hosts. The sporting and social spectacle was broadcast around the world and focused unprecedented media attention on South Africa. Despite the manifest success of the tournament, its short-term effects on international tourism, which are the nucleus of all other short-term positive effects on economic variables su...
2017 dissertation for Master of Law in International Law and Financial Markets. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. Corruption in sports today affects virtually every nook and cranny of society going by various articles, news reports and observations daily. It is sad to learn that significant amount of money is exchanged not just between individuals but between corporations and organisations including notable world sporting bodies such as FIFA across ...
Members of the U.S. World Cup Soccer Team pose with Astronauts Scott Parazynski, Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, Steven W. Lindsey, and Nancy Jane Currie and NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin after the team's arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. The team arrived with First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS- 93. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.
Dimech, George Santiago; Libel, Marlo; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Cesse, Eduarda; Smolinski, Mark; Oliveira, Wanderson; Albuquerque, Jones
Background The 2005 International Health Regulations (IHRs) established parameters for event assessments and notifications that may constitute public health emergencies of international concern. These requirements and parameters opened up space for the use of nonofficial mechanisms (such as websites, blogs, and social networks) and technological improvements of communication that can streamline the detection, monitoring, and response to health problems, and thus reduce damage caused by these problems. Specifically, the revised IHR created space for participatory surveillance to function, in addition to the traditional surveillance mechanisms of detection, monitoring, and response. Participatory surveillance is based on crowdsourcing methods that collect information from society and then return the collective knowledge gained from that information back to society. The spread of digital social networks and wiki-style knowledge platforms has created a very favorable environment for this model of production and social control of information. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the use of a participatory surveillance app, Healthy Cup, for the early detection of acute disease outbreaks during the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup 2014. Our focus was on three specific syndromes (respiratory, diarrheal, and rash) related to six diseases that were considered important in a mass gathering context (influenza, measles, rubella, cholera, acute diarrhea, and dengue fever). Methods From May 12 to July 13, 2014, users from anywhere in the world were able to download the Healthy Cup app and record their health condition, reporting whether they were good, very good, ill, or very ill. For users that reported being ill or very ill, a screen with a list of 10 symptoms was displayed. Participatory surveillance allows for the real-time identification of aggregates of symptoms that indicate possible cases of infectious diseases. Results From
Gaines, Joanna; Sotir, Mark J; Cunningham, Timothy J; Harvey, Kira A; Lee, C Virginia; Stoney, Rhett J; Gershman, Mark D; Brunette, Gary W; Kozarsky, Phyllis E
Travelers from around the globe will attend the 2014 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup and the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Brazil. Travelers to these mass gathering events may be exposed to a range of health risks, including a variety of infectious diseases. Most travelers who become ill will present to their primary care physicians, and thus it is important that clinicians are aware of the risks their patients encountered. To highlight health and safety concerns for people traveling to these events in Brazil so that health care practitioners can better prepare travelers before they travel and more effectively diagnose and treat travelers after they return. We reviewed both peer-reviewed and gray literature to identify health outcomes associated with travel to Brazil and mass gatherings. Thirteen specific infectious diseases are described in terms of signs, symptoms, and treatment. Relevant safety and security concerns are also discussed. Travelers to Brazil for mass gathering events face unique health risks associated with their travel. Travelers should consult a health care practitioner 4 to 6 weeks before travel to Brazil and seek up-to-date information regarding their specific itineraries. For the most up-to-date information, health care practitioners can visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Travelers' Health website (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel) or review CDC's Yellow Book online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/yellowbook-home-2014).
Solar energy is still a niche market in the world's fifth biggest state. According to present plants, the country intends rather to rely on hydroelectric power, bioenergy and wind power. Now, solar football stadiums for the 2014 World Cup are to get politicians and investors interested in photovoltaic conversion. They are sponsored by the KfW Entwicklungsbank and GIZ.
Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Raftery, Martin
To determine the incidence, nature and causes of concussions sustained during men's elite professional Rugby-7s and Rugby-15s. A prospective cohort study recording injuries classified as a time-loss concussion. Players competing in the following tournaments: Rugby 15s-English Premiership (2007/2008 to 2010/2011), Rugby World Cup (2007, 2011), Pacific Nations Cup (2012, 2013), Junior World Championship (2008, 2010-2013), Junior World Rugby Trophy (2008, 2010-2013); Rugby 7s-Sevens World Series (2008/2009, 2010/2011 to 2012/2013). The study was implemented according to the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; the main outcome measures included the number, incidence (number of concussions/1000 player-match-hours), mean and median severity (days absence) and cause of concussion. The incidence of concussion in Rugby-7s was significantly higher than that in Rugby-15s (risk ratio=1.84; pRugby-7s than Rugby-15s (mean-Rugby-7s: 19.2, Rugby-15s: 10.1; median-Rugby 7s: 20, Rugby-15s: 7; pRugby-7s and collisions (43.6%) in Rugby-15s. Significantly more (risk ratio=1.49; p=0.004) concussed players were removed immediately from the game in Rugby-7s (69.7%) compared to Rugby-15s (46.7%). Six actions were identified to improve the management of concussion in rugby: implement a pitch-side concussion assessment protocol; improve compliance with return-to-play protocols; work with referees to review the nature and consequences of collisions; improve players' tackle technique; investigate the forces involved in tackles and collisions; and evaluate reasons for the higher incidence of concussions in Rugby-7s. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Leander van der Meij
Full Text Available This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50 watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at home and also participated in a control condition. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that testosterone and cortisol levels were higher when watching the match than on a control day. However, neither testosterone nor cortisol levels increased after the victory of the Spanish team. Moreover, the increase in testosterone secretion was not related to participants' sex, age or soccer fandom, but the increase in total cortisol secretion during the match was higher among men than among women and among fans that were younger. Also, increases in cortisol secretion were greater to the degree that people were a stronger fan of soccer. Level of fandom further appeared to account for the sex effect, but not for the age effect. Generally, the testosterone data from this study are in line with the challenge hypothesis, as testosterone levels of watchers increased to prepare their organism to defend or enhance their social status. The cortisol data from this study are in line with social self-preservation theory, as higher cortisol secretion among young and greater soccer fans suggests that especially they perceived that a negative outcome of the match would threaten their own social esteem.
Elaine Silva Miranda
Full Text Available Planning for mass gatherings involves health system preparedness based on an understanding of natural and technological hazards identified through prior risk assessment. We present the expected hazards reported by health administrators of the host cities for the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil and discuss the hazards considering minimal available public hospital beds in the 12 cities at the time of the event. Four different groups of respondents were interviewed: pharmaceutical service administrators and overall health administrators at both the municipal and hospital levels. The hospital bed occupancy rate was calculated, based on the Brazilian Health Informatics Department (DATASUS. The number of surplus beds was calculated using parameters from the literature regarding surge and mass casualty needs and number of unoccupied beds. In all groups, physical injuries ranked first, followed by emerging and endemic diseases. Baseline occupancy rates were high (95%CI: 0.93-2.19 in all 12 cities. Total shortage, considering all the cities, ranged from -47,670 (for surges to -60,569 beds (for mass casualties. The study can contribute to discussions on mass-gathering preparedness.
van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Ijzerman, Hans; van Lange, Paul A M; Salvador, Alicia
This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50) watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at home and also participated in a control condition. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that testosterone and cortisol levels were higher when watching the match than on a control day. However, neither testosterone nor cortisol levels increased after the victory of the Spanish team. Moreover, the increase in testosterone secretion was not related to participants' sex, age or soccer fandom, but the increase in total cortisol secretion during the match was higher among men than among women and among fans that were younger. Also, increases in cortisol secretion were greater to the degree that people were a stronger fan of soccer. Level of fandom further appeared to account for the sex effect, but not for the age effect. Generally, the testosterone data from this study are in line with the challenge hypothesis, as testosterone levels of watchers increased to prepare their organism to defend or enhance their social status. The cortisol data from this study are in line with social self-preservation theory, as higher cortisol secretion among young and greater soccer fans suggests that especially they perceived that a negative outcome of the match would threaten their own social esteem.
This paper adopts a methodology of asymmetrical analyses to investigate the relevant importance of spectator sport attributes in terms of their non-linear associations with the benefits that fans experience while watching sports. Questionnaires tapping 16 attributes (e.g., teamwork, sportsmanship, level of competition) and 16 benefits (e.g., good mood, exciting experience, support for my favorite team) were distributed to a sample of fans at the outdoor broadcast of the 2010 World Cup final game at the National Stadium in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 427 participants rated the importance and benefit of each attribute experienced from watching the game. Attributes were categorized as core, exciting, or hybrid attributes. The star player was the core attribute; rivalry, popularity, and coach were the exciting attributes; and the other 12 attributes were hybrid. Two-dimensional space analyses showed that attributes "sportsmanship, teamwork, and supporting a team" were both explicitly and implicitly important attributes. The methodology of asymmetrical analyses can help managers prioritize the focus of attributes and allocate resources effectively.
Marcos Vinicius Cardoso
Full Text Available Legacies – structures that are built for events and which remain after the same - are one of the major positive aspects paraded by mega sporting events organizers. This study´s purpose is to analyze the current situation of legacies promised by the many governmental instances for the city of São Paulo - host city of Fifa´s 2014 World Cup – and prospect which legacies will become effective in the city. Preliminary assessments may raise construction concerns, alert the public to keep an eye on undertaken obligations and encourage official actions (Mangan, 2008, p. 1,871. Data was obtained from National Audit Court (TCU reports, Ministry and United Nations documents, in addition to testimonials and information gathered from some of Brazil´s major press media. Data analysis was conducted by classifying legacies according to tangible and intangible legacy concepts (Kaplanidou and Karadakis, 2010 followed by an analysis of promised legacies versus current status during the period of analysis. Finally, discussions as to most probable to come about legacies were presented. Results indicate that a portion of promised legacies stand a fair chance of achievement. On the other hand, other projects lag behind schedule or have been cancelled. Preliminary surveys suggest full completion of promised legacies is not possible, there has been an overuse of public resources as opposed to that planned, and provide indicatives as to the investment´s high opportunity cost.
Miranda, Elaine Silva; Shoaf, Kimberley; Silva, Raulino Sabino da; Freitas, Carolina Figueiredo; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa
Planning for mass gatherings involves health system preparedness based on an understanding of natural and technological hazards identified through prior risk assessment. We present the expected hazards reported by health administrators of the host cities for the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil and discuss the hazards considering minimal available public hospital beds in the 12 cities at the time of the event. Four different groups of respondents were interviewed: pharmaceutical service administrators and overall health administrators at both the municipal and hospital levels. The hospital bed occupancy rate was calculated, based on the Brazilian Health Informatics Department (DATASUS). The number of surplus beds was calculated using parameters from the literature regarding surge and mass casualty needs and number of unoccupied beds. In all groups, physical injuries ranked first, followed by emerging and endemic diseases. Baseline occupancy rates were high (95%CI: 0.93-2.19) in all 12 cities. Total shortage, considering all the cities, ranged from -47,670 (for surges) to -60,569 beds (for mass casualties). The study can contribute to discussions on mass-gathering preparedness.
Research purpose: The objective of this study was to analyse and describe the psychological experiences of South Africans before the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted the study from the systems psychodynamic and positive psychology perspectives. The study comprised a qualitative, explorative and social phenomenological study. The researchers conducted interviews with a wide range of their colleagues and clients. Main findings: The results seemed to indicate that South Africans had had a number of positive and negative experiences before the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Practical/managerial implications: The researchers presented the findings as a number of systems psychodynamic and positive psychology themes. Contribution/value-add: This study presents original research that contributes valuable new knowledge to the positive psychology and systems psychodynamic perspectives.
Victor Amorim Andrade-Souza
Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to verify the date of birth is a decisive factor for the success of players selected by the coaches to participate in the FIFA U-17 World Cup Emirates 2013. The players' date of birth were classified into four quartiles of three months each (Q1 to Q4. In the qualifying round, 46.5% of the selected players born in Q1, while 12.5% in Q4. This significantly different distribution occurred until the semi-finals. However, in the final match, there were no significant differences between Q1 and Q4. A similar relative age effect also occurred when analyzed only players who actually participated to the matches. Interestingly, despite there was birth date effect on performance in all World Cup stages except in the final, other issues should take into consideration for a team became champion.
Isabel Colucci Coelho
Full Text Available Fifa's World Cup gathers the majority of Brazilian population under the condition of supporters, even before television broadcasting started in the country. During the event, people participate not only of a sportive experience, but also of a mediatic phenomenon. Around the competition there are several kind of narratives: vainglorious, publicity, news and even politics. The advent of participatory resources the internet has made possible the direct measurement of the public response to these messages. This article analyzes how was the impact of images on the World Cup in the social network Twitter, the nature of the content and the origin of these media: creation of the public, remixes, advertising productions or traditional media. This analysis will be performed from the ten most shared images on the social network during the championship, identified from the methodology developed by LABIC / UFES.
Gilgien, Matthias; Crivelli, Philip; Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich
Copyright: © 2015 Gilgien et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. World Cup (WC) alpine ski racing consists of four main competition disciplines (slalom, giant slalom, super-G and downhill), each with specific course and terrain characteristics. The International Ski Federati...
Sherry, E; O'May, Fiona
Objective\\ud \\ud To explore the role of the relationship between sport and social capital in negotiating improved social outcomes for homeless individuals with mental illness and/or substance abuse issues.\\ud \\ud Method\\ud \\ud A qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with 27 participants of the Melbourne 2008 Homeless World Cup (eight from Scotland and 19 from Australia). Interview questions focussed on the participants’ interest of and participation in sport; factors influencing ...
The evolution of the scoring performance of Rugby Union players is investigated over the seven rugby world cups (RWC) that took place from 1987 to 2011, and a specific attention is given to how they may have been impacted by the switch from amateurism to professionalism that occurred in 1995. The distribution of the points scored by individual players, Ps, ranked in order of performance were well described by the simplified canonical law Ps∝(, where r is the rank, and ϕ and α are the parameters of the distribution. The parameter α did not significantly change from 1987 to 2007 (α=0.92±0.03), indicating a negligible effect of professionalism on players’ scoring performance. In contrast, the parameter ϕ significantly increased from ϕ=1.32 for 1987 RWC, ϕ=2.30 for 1999 to 2003 RWC and ϕ=5.60 for 2007 RWC, suggesting a progressive decrease in the relative performance of the best players. Finally, the sharp decreases observed in both α(α=0.38) and ϕ(ϕ=0.70) in the 2011 RWC indicate a more even distribution of the performance of individuals among scorers, compared to the more heterogeneous distributions observed from 1987 to 2007, and suggest a sharp increase in the level of competition leading to an increase in the average quality of players and a decrease in the relative skills of the top players. Note that neither α nor ϕ significantly correlate with traditional performance indicators such as the number of points scored by the best players, the number of games played by the best players, the number of points scored by the team of the best players or the total number of points scored over each RWC. This indicates that the dynamics of the scoring performance of Rugby Union players is influenced by hidden processes hitherto inaccessible through standard performance metrics; this suggests that players’ scoring performance is connected to ubiquitous phenomena such as anomalous diffusion.
Wallace, Jarryd Luke; Norton, Kevin Ian
There are relatively few performance analysis studies on field sports investigating how they evolve from a structural or tactical viewpoint. Field sports like soccer involve complex, non-linear dynamical systems yet consistent patterns of play are recognisable over time and among different sports. This study on soccer trends helps build a framework of potential causative mechanisms for these patterns. Retrospective correlational study. Broadcast footage of World Cup finals between 1966 and 2010 was used to assess patterns of play and stop periods, type and duration of game stoppages, ball speed, player density (congestion) and passing rates. This involved computer-based ball tracking and other notational analyses. These results were analysed using linear regression to track changes across time. Almost every variable assessed changed significantly over time. Play duration decreased while stoppage duration increased, both affecting the work: recovery ratios. Ball (game) speed increased by 15% over the 44-year period. Play structure changed towards a higher player density with a 35% greater passing rate. Increases in soccer ball speed and player density show similarities with other field sports and suggest common evolutionary pressures may be driving play structures. The increased intensity of play is paralleled by longer stoppage breaks which allow greater player recovery and subsequently more intense play. Defensive strategies dominate over time as demonstrated by increased player density and congestion. The long-term pattern formations demonstrate successful coordinated states within team structures are predictable and may have universal causative mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Major, D H; Steenstrup, S E; Bere, T; Bahr, R; Nordsletten, L
There is limited knowledge on the injury rate and injury pattern in the different disciplines among elite snowboarders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the injury rate and injury pattern among the different International Ski Federation (Fédération Internationale de Ski, FIS) World Cup (WC) snowboard disciplines. We conducted retrospective interviews with FIS WC snowboard athletes at the end of each season in the period 2007-2012, to register all acute injuries sustained during training or competition during the competitive season requiring attention by medical personnel. To calculate the exposure, we obtained information from result lists from the FIS competition database for all WC competitions for each of the interviewed athletes. We registered a total of 574 injuries among 1432 athletes, accounting for an overall injury rate of 40.1 injuries/100 athlete/season. A total of 171 injuries occurred during the FIS WC competitions, corresponding to 6.4 injuries/1000 runs. During competition, injury risk was highest in snowboard cross with 11.9/1000 runs, followed by 6.3 in halfpipe, 3.6 in big air and 2.8 in parallel giant slalom/parallel slalom (PGS/PSL). Snowboard cross also had the highest risk of severe injuries (>28 days absence). No differences in injury risk were detected between male and female snowboarders. The most commonly injured body part was the knee (17.8%), followed by the shoulder/clavicle (13.4%) and head/face (13.2%). The risk of knee injury (the most common injury type) and head injury was significantly higher in snowboard cross and halfpipe compared to PGS/PSL. The risk of injuries was higher in snowboard cross than in halfpipe, big air and PGS/PSL. The most commonly injured body part was the knee. Prevention of snowboard injuries among elite snowboarders should focus on knee injuries, severe injuries and snowboard cross athletes.
Nassis, George P; Brito, Joao; Dvorak, Jiri; Chalabi, Hakim; Racinais, Sebastien
Objective The 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil included 64 matches in temperate to tropical environmental conditions. We analysed performance data in relation to the environmental conditions to identify potential association. Methods Wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) parameters were obtained at the centre of the field 1 h before the start of play. Environmental stress was estimated (low, moderate and high) for each match using WBGT and relative humidity. Various physical and technical performance indices were recorded during each match (average of both teams). Results Over the 64 matches, 28 were played under low, 20 under moderate and 16 under high environmental stress. There was no difference in actual playing time (p=0.517), total distance covered (p=0.491), number of goals scored (p=0.485) and number of cards (p=0.618) between the matches played under different environmental stress categories. The number of sprints was lower in high than in moderate or low environmental stress (−10%, p<0.05) but peak speed was unaffected. The distance covered at high intensity was also lower under high (24.8±2.8 m/min/player) than low environmental stress (26.9±2.3 m/min/player, p=0.02). Number of passes was not different but the rate of successful passes was higher under high (76.8±4.4%) than low (73.6±10.8%) environmental stress (p=0.031). Conclusions Top-level players seem to modulate their activity pattern during matches in a hot and humid environment (ie, less high-intensity but more low-intensity running and successful passes) to preserve the global match characteristics (ie, similar actual playing time, total distance covered, peak running speed and goals scored). PMID:25690408
Johansen, Melissa Woll; Steenstrup, Sophie E; Bere, Tone; Bahr, Roald; Nordsletten, Lars
There are limited data on injuries in World Cup (WC) telemark skiing. To describe the injury incidence and injury pattern seen among WC telemark skiers during the competitive season. We interviewed all WC athletes (or their coach, if the athlete was not present) at the end of five winter seasons from 2008 until 2013. All acute injuries occurring in the competitive season that required the attention of medical personnel were registered. Exposure was calculated based on the official International Ski Federation (FIS) results database. 149 acute injuries were registered during 565 WC skier seasons. The absolute injury incidence was 26.4 injuries per 100 athletes per season (95% CI 22.1 to 30.6), higher for females than males (risk ratio (RR) 1.49, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.08). During the FIS WC competitions, 69 injuries were registered, corresponding to a relative incidence of 8.2 injuries per 1000 runs (95% CI 6.3 to 10.1). The most frequently injured body part was the knee (21%) followed by the hand-finger-thumb (20%), ankle (13%) and shoulder/clavicle (13%). The absolute risk of knee and shoulder/clavicle injuries was higher for females versus males (RR for knee injuries 2.72, 95% CI 1.35 to 5.51; RR for shoulder/clavicle injuries 2.55, 95% CI 1.06 to 6.14). No differences were detected in the injury incidence between disciplines. Female telemark skiers are at 1.5 times greater risk of injury than male skiers. The most commonly injured body part was the knee. The risk of knee and shoulder/clavicle injuries was higher for female athletes than for male athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Lowe, Rachel; Barcellos, Christovam; Coelho, Caio A S; Bailey, Trevor C; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Graham, Richard; Jupp, Tim; Ramalho, Walter Massa; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Stephenson, David B; Rodó, Xavier
With more than a million spectators expected to travel among 12 different cities in Brazil during the football World Cup, June 12-July 13, 2014, the risk of the mosquito-transmitted disease dengue fever is a concern. We addressed the potential for a dengue epidemic during the tournament, using a probabilistic forecast of dengue risk for the 553 microregions of Brazil, with risk level warnings for the 12 cities where matches will be played. We obtained real-time seasonal climate forecasts from several international sources (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts [ECMWF], Met Office, Meteo-France and Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos [CPTEC]) and the observed dengue epidemiological situation in Brazil at the forecast issue date as provided by the Ministry of Health. Using this information we devised a spatiotemporal hierarchical Bayesian modelling framework that enabled dengue warnings to be made 3 months ahead. By assessing the past performance of the forecasting system using observed dengue incidence rates for June, 2000-2013, we identified optimum trigger alert thresholds for scenarios of medium-risk and high-risk of dengue. Our forecasts for June, 2014, showed that dengue risk was likely to be low in the host cities Brasília, Cuiabá, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, and São Paulo. The risk was medium in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, and Manaus. High-risk alerts were triggered for the northeastern cities of Recife (p(high)=19%), Fortaleza (p(high)=46%), and Natal (p(high)=48%). For these high-risk areas, particularly Natal, the forecasting system did well for previous years (in June, 2000-13). This timely dengue early warning permits the Ministry of Health and local authorities to implement appropriate, city-specific mitigation and control actions ahead of the World Cup. European Commission's Seventh Framework Research Programme projects DENFREE, EUPORIAS, and SPECS; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnol
Cemal Ersin SİLİK
Full Text Available The main objective of the study is to determine the organization quality perception of foreign spectators who visited Turkey for FIFA (Federation Inter nationale de Football Association Under - 20 World Cup Organization in 2013. The matches are performed in seven cities (İstanbul, Bursa, Antalya, Kayseri, Gaziantep, Trabzon, Rize and the population of the study is foreign spectators in İstanbul and Bursa due to the population, number of games played and the capacity of stadiums in the cities. Perception of organization quality scale which developed by Shonk (2006 is used to collect data from the population and surveyed men (f=74, woman (26 total of 100 foreign spectators who come to Turkey to watch World Cup matches. Foreign spectators participated in research are asked to evaluate the perceived quality about access quality, accommodation quality, venue quality and contest quality and asked to evaluate s atisfaction levels of organization, intent to return and quality of sport tourism. The t test and one - way analysis of variance (ANOVA is used to determine differences between foreign spectators‟ individual characteristics with perceptions of quality of or ganization. In addition, simple correlation analysis is conducted to determine level and direction relationship between foreign spectators‟ satisfaction levels of organization, perceptions of quality of sport tourism and intent to return. According to anal ysis, there are not any significant differences with perception of quality of organization between individual characteristics (age and gender. However, there are a significant relationship between spectators‟ satisfaction levels of organization with venue quality (r=.200; p=.046 and contest quality (r=.394; p=.000. There is not any significant relationship between access quality and accommodation quality with participants‟ satisfaction levels of organization and there is not also any relationship between sport tourism quality and
(English) This disetation describes progress of football as a sport in the first half of the 20th century, including his position in society during both World Wars Keywords: football competition, number of fans and their culture, football in World Wars, women football, football clubs, organisation of football, football and the media
Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity
Bangsbo, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri
Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a healthpromoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised...... in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence...... linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men....
Bere, Tone; Flørenes, Tonje Wåle; Krosshaug, Tron; Koga, Hideyuki; Nordsletten, Lars; Irving, Christopher; Muller, Erich; Reid, Robert Cortas; Senner, Veit; Bahr, Roald
There is limited insight into the mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in alpine skiing, particularly among professional ski racers. This study was undertaken to qualitatively describe the mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in World Cup alpine skiing. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty cases of anterior cruciate ligament injuries reported through the International Ski Federation Injury Surveillance System for 3 consecutive World Cup seasons (2006-2009) were obtained on video. Seven international experts in the field of skiing biomechanics and sports medicine related to alpine skiing performed visual analyses of each case to describe the injury mechanisms in detail (skiing situation, skier behavior, biomechanical characteristics). Three main categories of injury mechanisms were identified: slip-catch, landing back-weighted, and dynamic snowplow. The slip-catch mechanism accounted for half of the cases (n = 10), and all these injuries occurred during turning, without or before falling. The skier lost pressure on the outer ski, and while extending the outer knee to regain grip, the inside edge of the outer ski caught abruptly in the snow, forcing the knee into internal rotation and valgus. The same loading pattern was observed for the dynamic snowplow (n = 3). The landing back-weighted category included cases (n = 4) where the skier was out of balance backward in flight after a jump and landed on the ski tails with nearly extended knees. The suggested loading mechanism was a combination of tibiofemoral compression, boot-induced anterior drawer, and quadriceps anterior drawer. Based on this video analysis of 20 injury situations, the main mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament injury in World Cup alpine skiing appeared to be a slip-catch situation where the outer ski catches the inside edge, forcing the outer knee into internal rotation and valgus. A similar loading pattern was observed for the dynamic snowplow. Injury prevention
Luchsinger, Harri; Kocbach, Jan; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind
Biathlon is an Olympic sport combining cross-country skiing with the skating technique and rifle shooting. The sprint (7.5 km for women and 10 km for men) includes 2 shootings between 3 laps of skiing. The aims of the current study were to compare biathletes of different performance levels and sex on total race time and performance-determining factors of sprint races in the biathlon World Cup. The top-10 performers (G1-10) and results in ranks 21-30 (G21-30) in 47 sprint races during the 2011-12 to 2015-16 World Cup seasons were compared regarding total race time, course time, shooting time, range time, shooting performance (rate of hits), and penalty time. G21-30 men and women were on average 3-5% behind G1-10 in total race time, in which course time accounted for 59-65% of the overall performance difference, followed by 31-35% explained by penalty time. The remainder (ie, 4-6%) was explained by differences in shooting time and range time. The G1-10 women exhibited on average 12% slower speeds than the G1-10 men, and course time accounted for 93% of the total time difference of 13% between sexes. The average total hit rates were 92-93% among the G1-10 and 85% among the G21-30 in both sexes. In total, men shot on average 6 s faster than women. Course time is the most differentiating factor for overall biathlon performance between performance levels and sex in World Cup races. No sex difference in shooting performance was found.
Manoel Montanha Soares
Full Text Available This article seeks to address the complex reality that meddles in the production of an imaginary citizen about the construction of mega sporting events in which Brazil will host. We explore the relationship that the ruling class establishes with the government, their vested interests and promiscuous with public money. For sale a discourse of participation and democracy toasted festivities by "popular" World Cup and the Olympic Games. Thus, an analysis of the scenario literature that permeates the building of this scale events, concomitantly with the stance of civil society and public opinion on the promise of social legacies.
Santos, Marcos Antonio Pereira dos; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; Ribeiro, Sergio Luiz Galan; Santos, Azenildo Moura
Brazil will soon host two major sporting events: the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Given the importance of antidoping control during these competitions, it is important that the scientific community receive a status update on antidoping control in Brazil. In this brief communication, the authors present the status of antidoping control in Brazil from an historical perspective, both the benefits and difficulties to be faced by antidoping control during these events, and the legacy resulting from the efficacy of the drug testing performed during these competitions.
Ana Lúcia Nunes de Sousa
Full Text Available This article aims to analyse media activist practices – developed in the context of the FIFA World Cup protests, in 2014 – and their possible consequences for journalistic practice. At present, in Rio de Janeiro, various groups have emerged, using cameras and cyberspace as political tools. As a result, their network became an extension of the public square. Through participant observation, semi-structured interviews, digital methods and a video database created between June and July of 2014, the characteristics of this type of activism are presented, examining the activists' relationship with cyberspace, their production routine and how these practices influenced contemporary journalism. Video activists created productive routines influenced by journalism but rejected some of the professional practices used in the field. However, video activism, as a media phenomenon, was capable of instigating changes in the journalistic practice and formats. Este artigo pretende analisar as práticas mediáticas ativistas – desenvolvidas no contexto das manifestações durante o Mundial de Futebol da FIFA, em 2014 - e suas possíveis consequências para as práticas jornalísticas. Naquele momento surgiram diversos grupos que utilizavam a câmera e o ciberespaço como ferramenta de luta política. A rede se transformou em uma extensão da praça pública. Através da observação participante, entrevistas semi-estruturadas, métodos digitais e uma base de datos de videos produzidos entre junho e julho de 2014, apresentamos as principais características deste tipo de ativismo, abordando suas relações com o ciberespaço, sua metodologia de trabalho e como estas práticas influenciaram o jornalismo contemporâneo. Os video ativistas criaram rotinas produtivas influenciadas pelo jornalismo, mas se afastaram de muitas das práticas profissionais utilizadas no campo. Entretanto, o vídeo ativismo, como fenômeno midiático, também foi capaz de inserir
OLIVEIRA ,W. M. O.
Full Text Available In large sporting events like the World Cup in 2014, there is an imminent demand for information systems that are able to deliver to the user, useful information such as the location of games, conferences, training or a particular physical structure for their accommodation and feeding, besides showing the best routes to these places. However, the huge volume of information, concerning the events and to the own infrastructure of the World Cup host cities, hamper the search for information that is directly related to a determined user in particular. The Spatial Data Infrastructures aimed at ensuring greater access, availability and exchange of geographic information. This approach, together with the mapping of ontological concepts of the environment where the user is, allow us to provide information relevant to their context. This paper presents a proposed union between these two approaches in order to offer the user an infrastructure that not only consider the simple input of a query, but also be able to refine it and even anticipate information, respecting their environment, interest, individuality and that uses your geographic knowledge as a source of new information.
Full Text Available After the 2002 FIFA World Cup in South Korea and Japan, the local governments of South Korea were left in charge of several large-scale soccer stadiums. Although these governments have made significant efforts toward creating profits from the stadiums, it is proving to be too difficult for several administrations to cover their full operational, maintenance, and conservation costs. In order to overcome this problem, one of the governments, Seogwipo City, which owns Jeju World Cup Stadium (JWCS, is attempting to provide an independent renewable electricity generation system for the operation of the stadium. The current study therefore examines potential configurations of an independent renewable electricity generation system for JWCS, using HOMER software. The simulation results yield three optimal system configurations with a renewable fraction of 1.00 and relatively low values for the cost of energy ($0.405, $0.546, and $0.692 per kWh. Through the examination of these three possible optimal configurations, the implications and limitations of the current study are presented.
A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team poses with Astronauts (from left) Steven W. Lindsey, Nancy Jane Currie and Laurel B. Clark. The team arrived at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station with First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.
A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team is greeted by NASA Astronaut Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper (left) upon her arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.
Tiago Fernandes Maranhao
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.
Waldén, M; Hägglund, M; Bengtsson, H; Ekstrand, J
The high injury rate among men's professional football players is well-known. Therefore, the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) launched an injury study already in 2001. This study, the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study (ECIS), currently includes data from a total of 51 clubs from 18 European countries with more than 14,000 registered injuries. With the 21 st World Cup (WC) in Russia just around the corner, we have from our study identified a higher match injury rate and a higher proportion of severe injuries in the European Championships compared to the preceding club competitive seasons. Moreover, we have also recently showed that the muscle injury rate is higher when players are given a recovery window of five days or less between two matches. Considering the congested match schedule of the upcoming WC, it is therefore likely that injuries and fatigue once again will be a topic of discussion this summer.
Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity
Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter
Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men. PMID:25878072
Full Text Available The current research examined the effects of soccer match results on spectators’ subjective well-being. Across the group stage of the soccer World Cup 2014, German-speaking participants indicated their well-being three times per day through a smartphone-based science app. In line with proposed hypotheses, comparisons of data taken after the three matches of the German national team showed robust effects, revealing that well-being was higher among spectators than non-spectators, with effects increasing as a function of goal difference. Moreover, this gain in well-being was only found in spectators supporting the German soccer team, allowing us to rule out a general emotional contagion effect affecting all spectators. Although soccer results are associated with national identity and pride, their effects on subjective well-being were short-lived and only affected supporters.
da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro; Thiengo, Carlos Rogério; Gimenes, Samuel Valencia; Bradley, Paul S
This study examined the effect of high- (HPBPT) and low-percentage ball possession (LPBPT) on physical and technical indicators during 2014 FIFA World Cup matches. This would enable a regression model to be constructed to further understand the impact of different ball possession (BP) strategies on match performance. Data were collected from 346 international soccer players using a multiple-camera computerised tracking system. Although players in HPBPT covered lower distances (P 0.05) at medium and high speeds. Players in LPBPT covered more distance without BP but less with BP than HPBPT (P technical indicators highlighted the importance of distances covered (total, with and without BP), time spent in the attacking third and successful short passes during matches. In practical terms, high or low BP does not influence the activity patterns of international matches although HPBPT spend more time in offensive areas of the pitch.
Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the performance of national teams in Greco-Roman wrestling at the World Cup in 2015. Material and Methods: the analysis of 118 wrestlers highly Greco-Roman style. Results: 10 basic technical actions that is most more often used by wrestlers. Analysis of competitive activity wrestlers Greco-Roman style on the KW-2015 showed that more technical actions carried out in the front – 199 receptions than on the ground – 135 receptions. Wrestlers have a high-end high efficiency performance of reception throughout the bout. Conclusions: it was found that in the competitive technology dominated the offensive, the fight is ongoing at a fast pace, techniques are performed after prior training and if the athlete is confident that the reception will be executed.
The 1998 edition of the soccer world cup took place in ten different stadiums in France and several related sites. This short paper gives a general overview of the infrastructures developed for this occasion in the domains of telecommunications, power supply (substations, protection systems, computerized control systems..), and computer systems. (J.S.)
de Nooij, M.; van den Berg, M.; Koopmans, C.
Many countries compete fiercely for the right to host mega-events like the World Cup. Proponents of hosting mega-events claim that yields economic gains. Many available studies focus on partial effects of hosting or concern ex post analyses. The authors utilize the existing literature to perform a
Wilson, Mary E.; Chen, Lin H.; Han, Pauline V.; Keystone, Jay S.; Cramer, Jakob P.; Segurado, Aluisio; Hale, DeVon; Jensenius, Mogens; Schwartz, Eli; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Leder, Karin; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Anand, Rahul; Gelman, Stephanie S.; Kain, Kevin; Boggild, Andrea; Perret, Cecilia; Valdivieso, Francisca; Loutan, Louis; Chappuis, François; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Weber, Rainer; Steffen, Robert; Caumes, Eric; Pérignon, Alice; Libman, Michael D.; Ward, Brian; Maclean, J. Dick; Grobusch, Martin C.; Goorhuis, Abram; de Vries, Peter; Gadroen, Kartini; Mockenhaupt, Frank; Harms, Gunder; Parola, Philippe; Simon, Fabrice; Delmont, Jean; Carosi, Giampiero; Castelli, Francesco; Connor, Bradley A.; Kozarsky, Phyllis E.; Wu, Henry; Fairley, Jessica; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Using, Johan; Fröberg, Gabrielle; Askling, Helena Hervius; Bronner, Ulf; Haulman, N. Jean; Roesel, David; Jong, Elaine C.; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Perez Molina, Jose Antonio; Torresi, Joseph; Brown, Graham; Licitra, Carmelo; Crespo, Antonio; McCarthy, Anne; Field, Vanessa; Cahill, John D.; McKinley, George; van Genderen, Perry J.; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Stauffer, William M.; Walker, Patricia F.; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Mizunno, Yasutaka; Shaw, Marc; Hern, Annemarie; Vincelette, Jean; Freedman, David O.; Anderson, Susan; Hynes, Noreen; Sack, R. Bradley; McKenzie, Robin; Nutman, Thomas B.; Klion, Amy D.; Rapp, Christophe; Aoun, Olivier; Doyle, Patrick; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Valdez, Luis M.; Siu, Hugo; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Kurai, Hanako; Sagara, Hiroko; Lalloo, David G.; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Gurtman, Alejandra; McLellan, Susan; Barnett, Elizabeth D.; Hagmann, Stefan; Henry, Michael; Miller, Andy O.; Mendelson, Marc; Vincent, Peter; Lynch, Michael W.; Hoang Phu, Phi Truong; Anderson, Nicole; Batchelor, Trish; Meisch, Dominique; Yates, Johnnie; Ansdell, Vernon; Pandey, Prativa; Pradhan, Rashila; Murphy, Holly; Basto, Filipe; Abreu, Candida; Orduna, Tomas; Watson, Ashley; Forde, Andrea M.; Koeck, Thomas; Buzzolini, Tonia; Mills, Deborah; Quarry, Doug; Kenafake, John; Douglas, Annette; Streeton, Catherine; Matchett, Libby; Foong, Leopold; Haditsch, Martin; Kollaritsch, Herwig; van Gompel, Alfons; van Laethem, Yves; Callens, Steven; Alves, Jesse; Rocha, Jaime; Mayhew, W. James; Meatherall, Bonnie; Vaughan, Stephen; Devraj-kizuk, Rozemin; Siemens, Rick; Cherniwchan, Darin P.; Mistry, Dinesh; MacDonald, Susan C.; Plourde, Pierre; Owsianik, Walter D. J.; Baran, Greg; Dixon, Heather; McKee, Ryan; Lingley, Mike; Gamble, Kenneth; Whitsitt, Paul; Geduld, Jennifer; Kazemi, Mojdeh; Teitelbaum, Peter; Abdulla, Aly; Schell, Lisa; Wittes, Robert C.; Cyr, Lynne; Hii, John H.; Lam, Ray; Husain, Aisha; Cooke, Ray; Billick, Kendall; Boisvert, Caroline; Lavoie, Nancy; Dumontet, Christine; Lavoie, Helene; Diener, Tania; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Nikolic, Nebojsa; Buhl, Mads; Petersen, Eskild; Magnussen, Pascal; Larson, Carsten Schade; Kantele, Anu; Siikamäki, Heli; Rummukainen, Maija; Bouchaud, Olivier; Mechain, Matthieu; Rouen, Jean-Philippe Leroy; Steiner, Florian; Zanger, Philipp; D'Almeida, Richard; Gerolymatos, Konstantinos G.; Pavli, Androula; Cheng, Michael; Simon, John; Wong, Chun Kwan Bonnie; Felkai, Peter; Collins, Simon; Borenstein, Annette; Odolini, Silvia; Foti, Fabio; Kimura, Mikio; Kurosu, Joe; Takeshita, Nozomi; Koga, Toshihiro; Sakai, Makoto Nomura; Nesbitt, Sidney; Vrij-Mazee, Henriette; Partridge, Yvonne; Ingram, Joan H.; Visser, Jenny; Celis-Salinas, Juan Carlos; de lou Saulog, Vienne; Varandas, Luis; Fonseca, Ana Gloria; Pombal, Rui; Florescu, Simin-Aysel; Popescu, Corneliu Petru; Erovichenkov, Alexander; Dobrodenkova, Silvia; Kotar, Tadeja; Perez-Arellano, Jose-Luis; Rombo, Lars; Meurling, Staffan; Luchinger, Pierre-Andre; Poumerol, Gilles; Balestra, Stefano; Gerber, Frédéric; Landry, Pierre; Gammeter, Hans; Schmid, Sabine; Smit, Ype; Kedward, Mary; Thomas, Michael J. G.; Ellis, Michael; Bryceson, Anthony; Miller, Alastair R. O.; Dawood, Richard; Zuckerman, Jane; Cave, William; Ross, Jonathan; Townend, Michael; Kassianos, George; Genasi, Fiona; Harris, Scott; Klecka, Eileen; Krotzer, Steven S.; Dover, Arthur; Wai, San A.; Tran, Lawrence Delano; Grassman, Lynn; Jacobson, Susan; Fink, Rhona; Sommer, Stephen; Goad, Jeffery; Johnson, Richard O.; Lehrhoff, Howard; Petrie, Arezou; Petrie, Louis; Spees, David N.; Nguyen, Philippe T.; Habis, Joseph; Barry, Michele; Harte, Jonathan; Sperry, Corydon; Hammer, John; Nash, Esther; Dardick, Kenneth; Smith, Kathy; Beaulieu, Nicholas; Leshem, Eyal; Phillips, Barbara; Goodale, Richard; Allen, James E.; Lee, Jenny; Roque, David; Trauscht, Ann; Jones, Jeffrey G.; Mclellan, Susan L. F.; Seybolt, Lorna; Sauri, Michael; Riddle, Forrest; Hamer, David; Ooi, Winnie; Butler, Edward P.; Bank, Laurie M.; Bacaner, Nina; Zents, James H.; Anglim, Anne; King, Todd; Galle, Rosanne; Natarajan, Usha; Barnish, Michael; Olmstead, Francine; Bunnell, Lynne; Chapnick, Edward; Neumann, Karl; Wittner, Murray; Acosta, Alberto M.; Johnson, Susan; Kalish, Scott; Narula, Rajiv; Oran, Bruce; Primas, Ronald A.; Wynne, Susan; Lee, Richard V.; Ritz, Howard; Brieff, David; Leach, Richard P.; Blair, Donald C.; Hall, John; Hall, Suzanne; Rhodes, Charles W.; Siraj, Dawd; Mawhorter, Steven D.; Czachor, John S.; Mull, Jeffrey; Daya, Mohamud; Gardner, Amy; Knouse, Mark C.; Sfedu, Emil; Urevick, Patricia; Neuburger, Ken; Hall, Jeffrey; Stocks, Steven; Benson, Lowell Scott; Magill, Alan J.; Smith, Robert L.; Lambe, Mary; Galka, Terence J.
Background. Brazil will host the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games, events that are expected to attract hundreds of thousands of international travelers. Travelers to Brazil will encounter locally endemic infections as well as mass event-specific risks. Methods. We
Balyan, Melih; Vural, Faik
Futsal, which can be defined as a new sports branch compared to football, has some shortcomings in comparison with football as well according to the studies carried out. Studies have rather focused on the movement characteristics of futsal players during the game and the physiological effects of games. On the other hand, there are only a limited…
Background Important unanswered questions remain on the impact of international sporting events on the sex industry. Speculation about increased demand and supply of sex work often generates significant attention, but also additional funding for HIV programmes. This study assessed whether changes occurred in the demand and supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa. Methods Trained sex worker interviewers conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews among consenting female sex workers during May-September 2010. Using bivariate analyses we compared supply, demand, sexual risk-taking, and police and health services contact pre-World Cup, to levels during the World Cup and after the event. Results No increases were detected in indicators of sex work supply, including the proportion of sex workers newly arrived in the city ( 92.4% in all phases). Health-care utilisation decreased non-significantly from the pre- to during World Cup period (62.4% to 57.0%; P = 0.075). Across all periods, about thirty percent of participants had interacted with police in the preceding month, two thirds of whom had negative interactions. Conclusions Contrary to public opinion, no major increases were detected in the demand or supply of paid sex during the World Cup. Although the study design employed was unable to select population-based samples, these findings do not support the public concern and media speculation prior to the event, but rather signal a missed opportunity for public health action. Given the media attention on sex work, future sporting events offer strategic opportunities to implement services for sex workers and their clients, especially as health service utilisation might decrease in this period. PMID:22967260
Daniel Guilherme Suzuki Borges
state and activity, may generate physiopathological changes that can trigger acute coronary syndromes. Among the studied triggers, the impact of stressful events, such as soccer championships, are controversial in literature and there is no effective data on the Brazilian population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acute effects of environmental stress induced by soccer games of the World Soccer Cup on increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Brazil. METHODS: Public data were obtained from the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, regarding hospital admissions that had the International Code Disease of acute coronary syndromes from May to August, in 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2010 (155,992 admissions. Analysis was restricted to patients older than 35 years and admitted by clinical specialties. The incidence of myocardial infarction, angina and mortality were compared among days without World Cup soccer games (Group I: 144,166; 61.7 ± 12.3; 59.4% males; on days when there were no Brazil's soccer team matches (Group II: 9,768; 61.8±12.3; 60.0% males; and days when there were Brazil's soccer team matches (Group III; 2,058; 61.6±12.6; 57.8% males. Logistic regression was used to adjust to age, gender, population density and number of medical assistance units. RESULTS: The incidence of myocardial infarction increased during the period of World Cup soccer games (1.09; 95%CI = 1.05-1.15 and days when there were Brazil's matches (1.16; 95%CI = 1.06-1.27. There was no impact on mortality during the Cup (1.00; CI95% = 0.93-1.08 and Brazil's matches (1.04; 95%CI = 0.93-1.22. CONCLUSION: World Cup soccer games and, specially, Brazil's matches have an impact on the incidence of myocardial infarction, but not on in-hospital mortality.
The online sport phenomenon and fantasy sport, in particular, has gained unprecedented popularity in many countries, including South Africa. The primary purpose of the study was to identify the motives behind fantasy football consumption among university students. The secondary objective of this study was to establish ...
Giulianotti, Richard; Robertson, Roland
This paper provides a sociological model of the key transnational political and economic forces that are shaping the 'global football field'. The model draws upon, and significantly extends, the theory of the 'global field' developed previously by Robertson. The model features four quadrants, each of which contains a dominant operating principle, an 'elemental reference point', and an 'elemental theme'. The quadrants contain, first, neo-liberalism, associated with the individual and elite football clubs; second, neo-mercantilism, associated with nation-states and national football systems; third, international relations, associated with international governing bodies; and fourth, global civil society, associated with diverse institutions that pursue human development and/or social justice. We examine some of the interactions and tensions between the major institutional and ideological forces across the four quadrants. We conclude by examining how the weakest quadrant, featuring global civil society, may gain greater prominence within football. In broad terms, we argue that our four-fold model may be utilized to map and to examine other substantive research fields with reference to globalization. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.
Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Amesberger, Günter; Blake, Ollie M; Müller, Erich
There is limited knowledge about key injury risk factors in alpine ski racing, particularly for World Cup (WC) athletes. This study was undertaken to compile and explore perceived intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for severe injuries in WC alpine ski racing. Qualitative study. Interviews were conducted with 61 expert stakeholders of the WC ski racing community. Experts' statements were collected, paraphrased and loaded into a database with inductively derived risk factor categories (Risk Factor Analysis). At the end of the interviews, experts were asked to name those risk factors they believed to have a high potential impact on injury risk and to rank them according to their priority of impact (Risk Factor Rating). In total, 32 perceived risk factors categories were derived from the interviews within the basic categories Athlete, Course, Equipment and Snow. Regarding their perceived impact on injury risk, the experts' top five categories were: system ski, binding, plate and boot; changing snow conditions; physical aspects of the athletes; speed and course setting aspects and speed in general. Severe injuries in WC alpine ski racing can have various causes. This study compiled a list of perceived intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors and explored those factors with the highest believed impact on injury risk. Hence, by using more detailed hypotheses derived from this explorative study, further studies should verify the plausibility of these factors as true risk factors for severe injuries in WC alpine ski racing.
Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Amesberger, Günter; Blake, Ollie M; Müller, Erich
Background There is limited knowledge about key injury risk factors in alpine ski racing, particularly for World Cup (WC) athletes. Objective This study was undertaken to compile and explore perceived intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for severe injuries in WC alpine ski racing. Methods Qualitative study. Interviews were conducted with 61 expert stakeholders of the WC ski racing community. Experts’ statements were collected, paraphrased and loaded into a database with inductively derived risk factor categories (Risk Factor Analysis). At the end of the interviews, experts were asked to name those risk factors they believed to have a high potential impact on injury risk and to rank them according to their priority of impact (Risk Factor Rating). Results In total, 32 perceived risk factors categories were derived from the interviews within the basic categories Athlete, Course, Equipment and Snow. Regarding their perceived impact on injury risk, the experts’ top five categories were: system ski, binding, plate and boot; changing snow conditions; physical aspects of the athletes; speed and course setting aspects and speed in general. Conclusions Severe injuries in WC alpine ski racing can have various causes. This study compiled a list of perceived intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors and explored those factors with the highest believed impact on injury risk. Hence, by using more detailed hypotheses derived from this explorative study, further studies should verify the plausibility of these factors as true risk factors for severe injuries in WC alpine ski racing. PMID:22872684
Golby, Jim; Sheard, Michael; Lavallee, David
This study examined the relations between demographic characteristics of rugby players and selected aspects of psychological performance in rugby league football. Mental toughness was assessed using Psychological Performance Inventory and Hardiness on the Personal Views Survey III-R. Participants (N=70) were international rugby league footballers representing four teams (Wales, France, Ireland, England) in the 2000 Rugby League World Cup. Participants completed the questionnaires in training camp. Welsh-nationality players had a significantly higher mean score on two of the hardiness subscales. Hardiness measures displayed the greatest and most frequently statistically significant differences. The findings concur with previous work indicating superior hardiness is related to improved performance in sports.
Marco Caliendo; Dubravko Radic
In this paper we investigate how the expulsion of a player influences the out-come of a football match. Common sense implies a negative impact for the affected team. However, an old football myth suggests that such an expulsion might also be beneficial since it increases the team spirit as well as the efforts of the affected team. We make use of a unique dataset containing all games played in a World Cup Championship between 1930 and 2002 and follow a twofold econometric strategy: We start wi...
Matzarakis, Andreas; Fröhlich, Dominik
The effect of weather on sport events is not well studied. It requires special attention if the event is taking place at a time and place with extreme weather situations. For the world soccer championship in Qatar (Doha 2022), human biometeorological analysis has been performed in order to identify the time of the year that is most suitable in terms of thermal comfort for visitors attending the event. The analysis is based on thermal indices like Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The results show that this kind of event may be not appropriate for visitors, if it is placed during months with extreme conditions. For Doha, this is the period from May to September, when conditions during a large majority of hours of the day cause strong heat stress for the visitors. A more appropriate time would be the months November to February, when thermally comfortable conditions are much more frequent. The methods applied here can quantify the thermal conditions and show limitations and possibilities for specific events and locations.
Chmura, Paweł; Konefał, Marek; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Kosowski, Jakub; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan
The present study attempts to assess changes in soccer players' physical activity profiles under the simultaneous influence of the different combinations of ambient temperature and relative humidity characterising matches of the 2014 FIFA World Cup hosted by Brazil. The study material consisted of observations of 340 players representing 32 national teams taking part in the tournament. The measured indices included total distances covered; distances covered with low, moderate, or high intensity; numbers of sprints performed, and peak running speeds achieved. The analysis was carried out using FIFA official match data from the Castrol Performance Index system. Ultimately, consideration was given to a combination of three air temperature ranges, i.e. below 22 °C, 22-28 °C, and above 28 °C; and two relative humidity ranges below 60 % and above 60 %. The greatest average distance recorded (10.54 ± 0.91 km) covered by players at an air temperature below 22 °C and a relative humidity below 60 %, while the shortest (9.83 ± 1.08 km) characterised the same air temperature range, but conditions of relative humidity above 60 % (p ≤ 0.001). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences (p ≤ 0.001) in numbers of sprints performed by players, depending on whether the air temperature range was below 22 °C (40.48 ± 11.17) or above 28 °C (30.72 ± 9.40), but only where the relative humidity was at the same time below 60 %. Results presented indicate that the conditions most comfortable for physical activity on the part of players occur at 22 °C, and with relative humidity under 60 %.
Full Text Available World Cup (WC alpine ski racing consists of four main competition disciplines (slalom, giant slalom, super-G and downhill, each with specific course and terrain characteristics. The International Ski Federation (FIS has regulated course length, altitude drop from start to finish and course setting in order to specify the characteristics of the respective competition disciplines and to control performance and injury-related aspects. However to date, no detailed data on course setting and its adaptation to terrain is available. It is also unknown how course and terrain characteristics influence skier speed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterize course setting, terrain geomorphology and their relationship to speed in male WC giant slalom, super-G and downhill. The study revealed that terrain was flatter in downhill compared to the other disciplines. In all disciplines, variability in horizontal gate distance (gate offset was larger than in gate distance (linear distance from gate to gate. In giant slalom the horizontal gate distance increased with terrain inclination, while super-G and downhill did not show such a connection. In giant slalom and super-G, there was a slight trend towards shorter gate distances as the steepness of the terrain increased. Gates were usually set close to terrain transitions in all three disciplines. Downhill had a larger proportion of extreme terrain inclination changes along the skier trajectory per unit time skiing than the other disciplines. Skier speed decreased with increasing steepness of terrain in all disciplines except for downhill. In steep terrain, speed was found to be controllable by increased horizontal gate distances in giant slalom and by shorter gate distances in giant slalom and super-G. Across the disciplines skier speed was largely explained by course setting and terrain inclination in a multiple linear model.
Chmura, Paweł; Konefał, Marek; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Kosowski, Jakub; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan
The present study attempts to assess changes in soccer players' physical activity profiles under the simultaneous influence of the different combinations of ambient temperature and relative humidity characterising matches of the 2014 FIFA World Cup hosted by Brazil. The study material consisted of observations of 340 players representing 32 national teams taking part in the tournament. The measured indices included total distances covered; distances covered with low, moderate, or high intensity; numbers of sprints performed, and peak running speeds achieved. The analysis was carried out using FIFA official match data from the Castrol Performance Index system. Ultimately, consideration was given to a combination of three air temperature ranges, i.e. below 22 °C, 22-28 °C, and above 28 °C; and two relative humidity ranges below 60 % and above 60 %. The greatest average distance recorded (10.54 ± 0.91 km) covered by players at an air temperature below 22 °C and a relative humidity below 60 %, while the shortest (9.83 ± 1.08 km) characterised the same air temperature range, but conditions of relative humidity above 60 % ( p ≤ 0.001). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences ( p ≤ 0.001) in numbers of sprints performed by players, depending on whether the air temperature range was below 22 °C (40.48 ± 11.17) or above 28 °C (30.72 ± 9.40), but only where the relative humidity was at the same time below 60 %. Results presented indicate that the conditions most comfortable for physical activity on the part of players occur at 22 °C, and with relative humidity under 60 %.
Gilgien, Matthias; Crivelli, Philip; Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich
World Cup (WC) alpine ski racing consists of four main competition disciplines (slalom, giant slalom, super-G and downhill), each with specific course and terrain characteristics. The International Ski Federation (FIS) has regulated course length, altitude drop from start to finish and course setting in order to specify the characteristics of the respective competition disciplines and to control performance and injury-related aspects. However to date, no detailed data on course setting and its adaptation to terrain is available. It is also unknown how course and terrain characteristics influence skier speed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterize course setting, terrain geomorphology and their relationship to speed in male WC giant slalom, super-G and downhill. The study revealed that terrain was flatter in downhill compared to the other disciplines. In all disciplines, variability in horizontal gate distance (gate offset) was larger than in gate distance (linear distance from gate to gate). In giant slalom the horizontal gate distance increased with terrain inclination, while super-G and downhill did not show such a connection. In giant slalom and super-G, there was a slight trend towards shorter gate distances as the steepness of the terrain increased. Gates were usually set close to terrain transitions in all three disciplines. Downhill had a larger proportion of extreme terrain inclination changes along the skier trajectory per unit time skiing than the other disciplines. Skier speed decreased with increasing steepness of terrain in all disciplines except for downhill. In steep terrain, speed was found to be controllable by increased horizontal gate distances in giant slalom and by shorter gate distances in giant slalom and super-G. Across the disciplines skier speed was largely explained by course setting and terrain inclination in a multiple linear model.
Waquet, Arnaud; Vincent, Joris
The First World War is traditionally considered in history as a temporary halt for cultural and sporting activities. If the Olympic Games and the Tour de France were actually cancelled, football and rugby were in fact stimulated by the circumstances of war. Indeed, the gathering of allied nations behind the Western Front emerged as the main factor in the development of these two sports. Reading the sporting press and military archives shows that international sporting exchanges were stimulated during the Great War. To be specific, France benefited from the golden opportunity provided by the presence of the masters of the game to strengthen its practices and affirm its status as a sporting nation. Inter-allied sporting exchanges were primarily characterised by informal encounters between military selections. Then, following the recognition of these sports by the military authorities, the number of exchanges increased. At the end of 1917, the official status acquired by sport within the military forces created the conditions for the structuring of the French sporting elite. From that point, we can witness the birth of the first French military rugby and football teams, as they demonstrate, through their good performances during the demobilisation period, the progressive build-up of the international dimension of French sport during the war years.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass gatherings require a decision from public health authorities on how to monitor infectious diseases during the event. The appropriate level of enhanced surveillance depends on parameters like the scale of the event (duration, spatial distribution, season, participants’ origin, amount of public attention, and baseline disease activity in the host country. For the FIFA Men’s World Cup 2006, Germany implemented enhanced surveillance. As the scale of the FIFA Women’s World Cup (June 26 – July 17, 2011 was estimated to be substantially smaller in size, visitors and duration, it was not feasible to simply adopt the previously implemented measures. Our aim was therefore to develop a strategy to tailor an event-specific enhanced surveillance for this smaller-scale mass gathering. Methods Based on the enhanced surveillance measures during the Men’s Cup, we conducted a needs assessment with the district health authorities in the 9 host cities in March 2011. Specific measures with a majority consent were implemented. After the event, we surveyed the 9 district and their corresponding 7 state health authorities to evaluate the implemented measures. Results All 9 district health authorities participated in the pre-event needs assessment. The majority of sites consented to moving from weekly to daily (Monday-Friday notification reporting of routine infectious diseases, receiving regular feedback on those notification reports and summaries of national/international World Cup-relevant epidemiological incidents, e.g. outbreaks in countries of participating teams. In addition, we decided to implement twice-weekly reports of “unusual events” at district and state level. This enhanced system would commence on the first day and continue to one day following the tournament. No World Cup-related infectious disease outbreaks were reported during this time period. Eight of 9 district and 6 of 8 state health authorities participated
Steenstrup, Sophie E; Bere, Tone; Bahr, Roald
Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death for skiers and snowboarders. Fatal head injuries have also occurred at the International Ski Federation (FIS) World Cup (WC) level. We therefore wanted to describe the risk of head injuries across disciplines and sex among WC skiers and snowboarders. We conducted retrospective interviews with FIS WC athletes at the end of seven consecutive seasons (2006-2013) to register injuries sustained during the competitive season. Head injuries were classified as 'head/face' injuries and did not include neck or cervical spine injuries. To calculate the exposure, we extracted data from the official FIS website for all WC competitions for each of the athletes interviewed. A total of 2080 injuries were reported during seven WC seasons. Of these, 245 (11.8%) were head/face injuries. Of the 245 head/face injuries reported, nervous system injuries/concussions were the most common (81.6%) and 58 of these were severe (23.7%). The injury incidence per 1000 competition runs was higher in freestyle (1.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.4) than in alpine skiing (0.9, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.2; risk ratio (RR) 2.05, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.46) and snowboard (1.0, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.3; RR 1.85, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.99). Women had a higher injury incidence (5.8, 95% CI 4.8 to 6.9) versus men (3.9, 95% CI 3.2 to 4.6; RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.90) throughout the season (per 100 athletes). The majority of head/face injuries were nervous system injuries/concussions and one in four injuries was severe. Freestyle skiers had the highest overall head injury incidence. Across all disciplines, the injury incidence was higher in women than in men.
Steenstrup, Sophie E; Mok, Kam-Ming; McIntosh, Andrew S; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron
Prior to the 2013-2014 season, the International Ski Federation (FIS) increased the helmet testing speed from a minimum requirement of 5.4 to 6.8 m/s for alpine downhill, super-G and giant slalom and for freestyle ski cross, but not for the other freestyle disciplines or snowboarding. Whether this increased testing speed reflects impact velocities in real head injury situations on snow is unclear. We therefore investigated the injury mechanisms and gross head impact biomechanics in four real head injury situations among World Cup (WC) snowboard and freestyle athletes and compared these with helmet homologation laboratory test requirements. The helmets in the four cases complied with at least European Standards (EN) 1077 (Class B) or American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F2040. We analysed four head injury videos from the FIS Injury Surveillance System throughout eight WC seasons (2006-2014) in detail. We used motion analysis software to digitize the helmet's trajectory and estimated the head's kinematics in two dimensions, including directly preimpact and postimpact. All four impacts were to the occiput. In the four cases, the normal-to-slope preimpact velocity ranged from 7.0(±SD 0.2) m/s to 10.5±0.5 m/s and the normal-to-slope velocity change ranged from 8.4±0.6 m/s to 11.7±0.7 m/s. The sagittal plane helmet angular velocity estimates indicated a large change in angular velocity (25.0±2.9 rad/s to 49.1±0.3 rad/s). The estimated normal-to-slope preimpact velocity was higher than the current strictest helmet testing rule of 6.8 m/s in all four cases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Chen, B; Li, M-Y; Liu, P-D; Guo, Y; Chen, Z-L
To know the research progress of cupping therapy all over the world, the authors analyze the research of cupping therapy in recent 5 years. It indicates that cupping therapy can be applied to extensive curable disease, but has poor clinical evidence. Some improvements in the mechanism research of cupping therapy have been made, but it needs further research. The adverse events of cupping therapy attract attention. The standardization of cupping therapy has emerged. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available The present article draws upon ethnographic research undertaken in the principal sexual commercial zones of the city of Rio de Janeiro and in the institutions and agencies responsible for combating sexual exploitation in Rio during the 2012-2014 period, as well as the analysis of media stories, to explain how and why carioca authorities have not been able to discover and repress the sex crimes they claim exist on a massive scale. We seek to show what effects the moral panic over child sexual exploitation during the 2015 World Cup has had in transforming security in Rio de Janeiro.
Shakhraman'yan Andrey Mikhaylovich
Full Text Available The authors describe the experience in application of information modeling technologies for buildings and structures on the example of design and construction of the objects SOCHI-2014 and stadiums of FIFA World Cup 2017. According to the regulatory documents in 2014 in Sochi the automated monitoring systems of the strain state of bearing structures and engineering systems were in-stalled in all the Olympic ice stadiums and in the Central Olympic Stadium. The systems were controlled by software package SODIS Building. The main possibilities of SODIS Building are enumerated in the article.
Rudd, Lynn L.
Adolescents use literacies in order to build identities in a variety of figured worlds. Some identities become more powerful than others as adolescents attempt to understand and successfully utilize the valuations and literacies of the diverse figured worlds in which they participate. The goals of this study were to describe the figured worlds of…
Igor José Siquieri Savenhago
Full Text Available The first broadcast of a World Cup footballon television, to Brazil was in 1970, via Embratel. Before that, the people followed the games of the Brazilian team on the radio. Gradually, the owners of television networks realized that football could generate good financial results, with the exposing of advertisements during the broadcasts, similar to what was already done on the radio. Thus, the television, focused on the growth of audience and number of advertisers, covered football with a language of entertainment. The narration of the matches, in which the figure of the narrator is more like that of an entertainer, and improvement of the transmission technologies that improve the image quality every day, take away from football the characteristic of being just a sport to occupy the place of an entertainment. In this context, the sport becomes an article of purchase and sale. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how this entertainment language was made up on Brazilian television, based on the broadcast sports, especially football, and like the television, which represented a technological leapin the country over the radio, assumed of the sport, country’s most popular as a commodity, interfering with the dynamics of Brazilian society. Finally, an attempt to understand how the researches that allow a technological development change behaviors and vice versa, that is, how the demands of society lead to a race to develop new technologies.
Diego César Terra de Andrade
Full Text Available The scientific studies about soccer game have gained attention in the academia. The subject can be approached from different perspectives: passion and social fact, which can be understood and studied within the area of knowledge of the social sciences and business area, specifically involving the business field. The aim of this study was to verify through a bibliometric study how soccer has been studied in the world in recent years. The results showed that, quantitatively, the sport has been most studied through approaches of Social Sciences of Business. However, the diversity of subjects verified in researches does not allow to fully understand either subject, within these broad areas, has being addressed with more emphasis over the period under review.
Jun 13, 2011 ... Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in ...
Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...
Background Sports mega-events have expanded in size, popularity and cost. Fuelled by media speculation and moral panics, myths proliferate about the increase in trafficking into forced prostitution as well as sex work in the run-up to such events. This qualitative enquiry explores the perceptions of male, female and transgender sex workers of the 2010 Soccer World Cup held in South Africa, and the impact it had on their work and private lives. Methods A multi-method study design was employed. Data consisted of 14 Focus Group Discussions, 53 sex worker diaries, and responses to two questions in surveys with 1059 male, female and transgender sex workers in three cities. Results Overall, a minority of participants noted changes to the sex sector due to the World Cup and nothing emerged on the feared increases in trafficking into forced prostitution. Participants who observed changes in their work mainly described differences, both positive and negative, in working conditions, income and client relations, as well as police harassment. The accounts of changes were heterogeneous - often conflicting in the same research site and across sites. Conclusions No major shifts occurred in sex work during the World Cup, and only a few inconsequential changes were noted. Sports mega-events provide strategic opportunities to expand health and human rights programmes to sex workers. The 2010 World Cup missed that opportunity. PMID:24915943
Richter, Marlise L; Scorgie, Fiona; Chersich, Matthew F; Luchters, Stanley
Sports mega-events have expanded in size, popularity and cost. Fuelled by media speculation and moral panics, myths proliferate about the increase in trafficking into forced prostitution as well as sex work in the run-up to such events. This qualitative enquiry explores the perceptions of male, female and transgender sex workers of the 2010 Soccer World Cup held in South Africa, and the impact it had on their work and private lives. A multi-method study design was employed. Data consisted of 14 Focus Group Discussions, 53 sex worker diaries, and responses to two questions in surveys with 1059 male, female and transgender sex workers in three cities. Overall, a minority of participants noted changes to the sex sector due to the World Cup and nothing emerged on the feared increases in trafficking into forced prostitution. Participants who observed changes in their work mainly described differences, both positive and negative, in working conditions, income and client relations, as well as police harassment. The accounts of changes were heterogeneous - often conflicting in the same research site and across sites. No major shifts occurred in sex work during the World Cup, and only a few inconsequential changes were noted. Sports mega-events provide strategic opportunities to expand health and human rights programmes to sex workers. The 2010 World Cup missed that opportunity.
Aguiar, Maíra; Rocha, Filipe; Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques; Mateus, Luis; Stollenwerk, Nico
More than 600,000 football fans, coming from all over the world, were expected to visit Brazil during the FIFA World Cup 2014. International travel can become a public health problem when the visitors start to become sick, needing medical intervention and eventually hospitalization. The occurrence of dengue fever infections in Brazil is persistent and has been increasing since the 1980s, and the health authorities were expected to take preventive measures and to warn the visitors about the risks during the tournament period. Before the World Cup started, studies have been published stating that dengue could be a significant problem in some of the Brazilian cities hosting the games. These conclusions were taken after a brief observation of the available data, analyzing its mean and standard deviation only, or based on seasonal climate forecasts, causing alarm for the world cup in Brazil. Here, with a more careful data analysis, we show that the seasonality of the disease plays a major role in dengue transmission. The density of dengue cases in Brazil is residual during winter in the Southern hemisphere (mid June to mid September) and the fans of football were not likely to get dengue during the tournament period.
M. Phil. (Sport Management) Youth football development has developed into an important, integral part of professional football world-wide. Countries such as Spain, Brazil and the Netherlands have proven that an investment in youth football development has resulted in them becoming the world’s best football playing countries as ranked by International Football Association (FIFA). The investment in youth football development by these countries has resulted in sustained football success. The ...
Salzmann, Gian M.; Preiss, Stefan; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Harder, Laurent P.; Maier, Dirk; Dvorák, Jirí
Football is currently the most popular sporting activity in the world. Multiple reports have shown that a high incidence of osteoarthritis is found in football players. Evidence clearly shows that traumatic injury significantly predisposes players for such pathophysiology. Injuries are frequent in amateur as well as professional football players, with knee and ankle accounting for the most severe injuries. Many professional athletes lose playing time due to injuries and many are forced into early retirement. Posttraumatic osteoarthritis is a common finding among ex-football players with numbers well above the normal population. Today’s surgical techniques are advanced and capable of restoring the joint to a certain extent. However, a restitution ad integrum is reached only in very rare cases. Professional football players that return to play after serious injuries perform their extremely strenuous activity on morphologically compromised joints. Incomplete rehabilitation and pressure to return to play after an injurious event clearly put the athlete at an even higher risk for joint degeneration. Prevention strategies, improved surgical management, strict rehabilitation, as well as future aspects such as early suppression of inflammation, personalized medicine, and predictive genomics DNA profiling are needed to reduce incidence and improve the health perspectives of football players. PMID:28345409
Gallego, Viviana; Berberian, Griselda; Lloveras, Susana; Verbanaz, Sergio; Chaves, Tania S S; Orduna, Tomas; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J
The next FIFA World Cup will be held in Brazil in June-July 2014. Around 600,000 international visitors and participants (as well over 3 million domestic travelers) are expected. This event will take place in twelve cities. This event poses specific challenges, given its size and the diversity of attendees, including the potential for the transmission of imported or endemic communicable diseases, especially those that have an increased transmission rate as a result of close human proximity, eg, seasonal influenza, measles but also tropical endemic diseases. In anticipation of increased travel, a panel of experts from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI) developed the current recommendations regarding the epidemiology and risks of the main communicable diseases in the major potential destinations, recommended immunizations and other preventives measures to be used as a basis for advice for travelers and travel medicine practitioners. Mosquito-borne infections also pose a challenge. Dengue poses a significant risk in all states, including the host cities. Vaccination against yellow fever is recommended except for travelers who will only visit coastal areas. Travelers visiting high-risk areas for malaria (Amazon) should be assessed regarding the need for chemoprophylaxis. Chikunguya fever may be a threat for Brazil, given the presence of Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, and the possibility of travelers bringing the virus with them when attending the event. Advice on the correct timing and use of repellents and other personal protection measures is key to preventing these vector-borne infections. Other important recommendations for travelers should focus on preventing water and food-borne diseases such as hepatitis A, typhoid fever, giardiasis and traveler's diarrhea. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should be also mentioned and the use of condoms advocated. This review addresses pre-travel, preventive strategies to reduce the risk of acquiring
Full Text Available Introduction. Sport events have become a popular tool for the marketing of tourist destinations. In this regard, it has to be kept in mind that the effects events can generate for destinations largely depend on the motivation of the attendees. Building on this insight, the aim of this paper is to compare the motivational structures of two types of visitors (primary purpose event visitors and casual visitors to the German island of Sylt during a Windsurf World Cup. This event-destination combination was chosen because it represents the tendency for popular tourist resorts to use small-scale sport events in their marketing efforts. Material and methods. The research was conducted using an a priori segmentation of event attendees as casual visitors and primary purpose event visitors that is based on a well-established theoretical background. Results. The results revealed that both visitor groups were mainly motivated by cheering for the surfers and indulging in vicarious achievement. Furthermore, both showed some interest in learning more about the destination. Interestingly, many other motives that had been identified in (sport tourism research did not seem to be very relevant for the respondents. Conclusion. Event marketers should heavily emphasise the opportunity to watch and closely relate to the surfers. Thus, including internationally popular athletes - if they are also popular in Germany - as well as local heroes in the event seems to be reasonable.
Gilgien, Matthias; Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Crivelli, Philip; Müller, Erich
In alpine ski racing, there is limited information about skiers' mechanical characteristics and their relation to injury risk, in particular for World Cup (WC) competitions. Hence, current findings from epidemiological and qualitative research cannot be linked to skiers' mechanics. This study was undertaken to investigate whether recently reported differences in numbers of injuries per 1000 runs for competition disciplines can be explained by differences in the skiers' mechanics. During seven giant slalom, four super-G and five downhill WC competitions, mechanical characteristics of a forerunner were captured using differential global navigation satellite technology and a precise terrain surface model. Finally, the discipline-specific skiers' mechanics were compared with the respective number of injuries per hour skiing. While the number of injuries per hour skiing was approximately equal for all disciplines, kinetic energy, impulse, run time, turn radius and turn speed were significantly different and increased from giant slalom to super-G and downhill. Turn ground reaction forces were largest for giant slalom, followed by super-G and downhill. The number of jumps was doubled from super-G to downhill. Associating the number of injuries per hour in WC skiing with skiers' mechanical characteristics, injuries in super-G and downhill seem to be related to increased speed and jumps, while injuries in giant slalom may be related to high loads in turning. The reported differences in the number of injuries per 1000 runs might be explained by a bias in total exposure time per run and thus potentially by emerged fatigue.
André Mendes Capraro
Full Text Available Tendo em vista o conciso vínculo entre economia e esporte, a imagem dos atletas de alto rendimento é uma referência para venda de marcas e produtos por meio de campanhas publicitárias. Dotados de talento e carisma, tais atletas exercem fascínio nos telespectadores. A mitificação do atleta é criada e sustentada pela mídia visando principalmente movimentar o mercado esportivo. Assim, a publicidade aumenta significativamente a venda/compra de produtos, tornando o espetáculo do futebol uma indústria que transforma hábitos e culturas. Este artigo visa analisar como tal processo ocorreu durante o período de realização da Copa do Mundo da Alemanha (2006.Knowing the concise bond between economy and sport, the image of players is a reference for selling brands and products through advertising campaigns. Endowed with charisma and talent, these athletes exert allure on the viewers. The act of turning the athlete into a myth is something created and supported by the media, which aims mainly to put the sports market into motion. Thus, the advertising increases significantly the sale/purchase of products, turning the soccer's spectacle into an industry that transforms habits and cultures. This article intends to analyze how this process occurred during the World Cup in Germany (2006.
In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…
each face a regular pentagon or a regular hexagon and with at least one hexagonal face. This article is in two parts. In this first part, we will prove that a football exists and is unique and in the second, we identify its group of symmetries. (We will incidentally do similar things for the platonic solids to some of whkh the football ...
Spaaij, R.; Testa, A.; Hughson, J.; Moore, K.; Spaaij, R.; Maguire, J.
Introduction Hooliganism has been among the most popular topics in football studies for decades. To some observers, the issue is well and truly over-researched (Moorhouse, 2000) and has ‘unreasonably biased research into football, so that issues such as the administration of the game and its
Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity.
Bangsbo, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter
Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Cao, Huijuan; Li, Xun; Liu, Jianping
BACKGROUND: Since 1950, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) cupping therapy has been applied as a formal modality in hospitals throughout China and elsewhere in the world. Based on a previous systematic literature review of clinical studies on cupping therapy, this study presents a thorough review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy. METHOD: Six databases were searched for articles published through 2010. RCTs on cupping therapy for vari...
Andityas Soares de Moura Costa Matos
Full Text Available RESUMEN. Este trabajo presenta la situación de excepción económica creada en Brasil al hilo de la realización de los llamados “grandes eventos”, en particular la Copa del Mundo de 2014, que ha registrado la suspensión de diversos derechos y garantías fundamentales del derecho brasileño con objeto de garantizar la explotación económica monopólica del evento por la FIFA. El marco teórico del artículo se basa en la Teoría Pura del Derecho de Kelsen, que al ejemplificar una teoría del derecho de la normalidad, en la que la excepción no tiene espacio, sirve perfectamente de contra-paradigma para analizar el escenario político-legal autoritario que se ha introducido en Brasil, el cual se aborda brevemente a través del análisis de parte de la legislación de excepción que actúa como garante de la Copa del Mundo.. ABSTRACT. This article intends to analyze the situation of economic exception established in Brazil for the accomplishment of the so-called “mega events”, specially the 2014 World Cup, when many rights and guarantees foreseen in the Brazilian legal system were suspended with the purpose of guaranteeing FIFA’s monopolistic economic exploitation at the event. The work’s theoretical framework has its basis in Kelsen’s Pure Theory of Law, which, as an example of a legal theory of normality, where the exception has no room, perfectly suits as an inverted paradigm for the authoritarian political-legal scenario established in Brazil, the latter being briefly presented through the analysis of part of the exceptional legislation approved to ensure the World Cup. RESUMO. O presente artigo pretende analisar a situação de exceção econômica instaurada no Brasil para a realização dos chamados “megaeventos”, em especial a Copa do Mundo de 2014, quando diversos direitos e garantias fundamentais do ordenamento jurídico brasileiro foram suspensos com o objetivo de garantir a exploração econômica monopolística do
Haaland, Bjørnar; Steenstrup, Sophie E; Bere, Tone; Bahr, Roald; Nordsletten, Lars
New regulations for ski equipment were implemented prior to the 2012/2013 season in the International Ski Federation (FIS) Alpine World Cup (WC). To investigate the effect of the new ski regulations on the rate and pattern of injuries by comparing data before (2006-2012) and after the implementation (2012-2015). Injuries were recorded on the basis of the FIS Injury Surveillance System (FIS ISS) through retrospective interviews at the end of each of the nine WC seasons. All acute injuries that required medical attention were registered. Exposure was calculated on the basis of the official result lists. The absolute injury rate (injuries/100 athletes/season) was lower in the three seasons after the new ski regulations compared with the six seasons before (risk ratio (RR) 0.74, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.87). This was also the case for the relative injury rate (injuries/1000 runs) (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.98). These changes were evident for male skiers, not for female skiers. There was a lower absolute injury rate for upper body injuries (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.77), while no difference was found for lower extremity injuries (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.01). We found a lower rate of injuries in the three seasons after the new ski regulation compared with the six seasons before. However, the ability to draw conclusions on the effects of the equipment change in subgroups of sex, discipline or body part is restricted by the limited statistical power. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Gagnepain, Philippe; Ascari, Guido
The authors analyze the financial situation of the Spanish football industry. They first argue that a relevant analysis of the industry's financial results relies on a careful description of how historical and cultural factors have influenced its organization. Moreover, they stress the important relationship between the industry and television. The authors suggest that the situation of the Spanish football industry suffers from some structural weaknesses in its accounts. However, the situatio...
Cheng, M; Kung, R; Hannah, M; Wilansky, D; Shime, J
To determine whether the menses cup is well tolerated by menstruating women. Prospective descriptive clinical study. Normal human volunteers in an academic research environment. Fifty-one menstruating women recruited between June to December 1991. Each participant was provided with two menses cups and an instruction sheet. Baseline information, including age, occupation, martial status, parity, description of menstrual flow, and current method used to cope with menstrual flow was collected. Subjects were asked to describe their experience with the cup at 1-, 2-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. The proportion of women who found the cup acceptable. The cup was used by 51 subjects for a total of 159 cycles. Overall, 23 women (45%) found the cup an acceptable method for coping with menses. Among 29 (57%) women who used the cup for two or more cycles, 62% found it acceptable. The menses cup may be an acceptable method for some women for coping with menstrual flow.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 1950, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM cupping therapy has been applied as a formal modality in hospitals throughout China and elsewhere in the world. Based on a previous systematic literature review of clinical studies on cupping therapy, this study presents a thorough review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy. METHOD: Six databases were searched for articles published through 2010. RCTs on cupping therapy for various diseases were included. Studies on cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments versus non-TCM therapies were excluded. RESULTS: 135 RCTs published from 1992 through 2010 were identified. The studies were generally of low methodological quality. Diseases for which cupping therapy was commonly applied were herpes zoster, facial paralysis (Bell palsy, cough and dyspnea, acne, lumbar disc herniation, and cervical spondylosis. Wet cupping was used in most trials, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, and flash cupping. Meta-analysis showed cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments was significantly superior to other treatments alone in increasing the number of cured patients with herpes zoster, facial paralysis, acne, and cervical spondylosis. No serious adverse effects were reported in the trials. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous RCTs on cupping therapy have been conducted and published during the past decades. This review showed that cupping has potential effect in the treatment of herpes zoster and other specific conditions. However, further rigorously designed trials on its use for other conditions are warranted.
Cao, Huijuan; Li, Xun; Liu, Jianping
Since 1950, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) cupping therapy has been applied as a formal modality in hospitals throughout China and elsewhere in the world. Based on a previous systematic literature review of clinical studies on cupping therapy, this study presents a thorough review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy. Six databases were searched for articles published through 2010. RCTs on cupping therapy for various diseases were included. Studies on cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments versus non-TCM therapies were excluded. 135 RCTs published from 1992 through 2010 were identified. The studies were generally of low methodological quality. Diseases for which cupping therapy was commonly applied were herpes zoster, facial paralysis (Bell palsy), cough and dyspnea, acne, lumbar disc herniation, and cervical spondylosis. Wet cupping was used in most trials, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, and flash cupping. Meta-analysis showed cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments was significantly superior to other treatments alone in increasing the number of cured patients with herpes zoster, facial paralysis, acne, and cervical spondylosis. No serious adverse effects were reported in the trials. Numerous RCTs on cupping therapy have been conducted and published during the past decades. This review showed that cupping has potential effect in the treatment of herpes zoster and other specific conditions. However, further rigorously designed trials on its use for other conditions are warranted.
Ewen, Janine Elizabeth
This article considers the public health implications that were predicted by sex workers a year prior to the FIFA World Cup 2014, with considerations towards the Olympic Games in 2016. Primary research conducted in 2013 in Brazil's second largest city, Rio de Janeiro, gave sex workers and civil society organizations the opportunity to voice concerns of the everyday disadvantages faced by those involved in the sex industry, with emphasis on what could cause further detriments from acting as a double draw international sporting host. This research largely took place through invitation at the 2013 Rio State Conference on HIV/AIDS, Equality and Human Rights. Mixed methods research - pre-arrival questionnaires and interviews led by a semi-structured interview guide - was deemed suitable for the primary research collection. The use of the research software NVivo allowed data to be categorised into key themes to form the basis of this research article. Working with a Portuguese translator, case studies of transsexual sex workers and civil society organizations were developed. Police violence was the main re-occurring theme expressed as a continued fear, alongside the added increase of security measures that the games would bring, to reduce organized crime, and through the Pacification programme. The majority of sex workers and organizations believed that there was no support from the Brazilian government to continue to provide services of high demand, including social care and legal assistance. Sex workers also felt prejudice in receiving HIV/AIDS treatment from government-led health services. A desirable outcome for the sex worker community would be for the government to consider the following: recommendations devised for further health and well being support; an act or law of non-violence against them; and recommendations to decimalize the sex industry. The Brazilian government has received global recognition for its response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, however the
Kos, John J.
A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries
International audience; Football Manager is one of the most popular sports management video games. For twenty years now, it has been a best seller in all the countries of the world where football is culturally important. Its purpose is to simulate a manager's career with an emphasis on data analysis and number crunching, especially the football match scenario and the football players' quantified characteristics. The claimed realism of the game is therefore based, among other things, on the re...
Altungul, Oguzhan; Karahüseyinoglu, M. Fatih
It is the area that surrounds the broad masses of football, which includes the economic and social dimensions of the whole world. The reason why soccer is so influential is the question of the amount of football that is interested in football. The reason why soccer is so influential is the question of the amount of football that is interested in…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Football (soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football, and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson, controlling for age and gender. Results The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%. Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the “illusion of control.” Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Billieux, Joël; Bizzini, Lucio; Monney, Grégoire; Fresard, Emmanuelle; Thorens, Gabriel; Bondolfi, Guido; El-Guebaly, Nady; Zullino, Daniele; Khan, Riaz
Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of "illusion of control." The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football), and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson), controlling for age and gender. The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%). Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the "illusion of control." Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.
Brus, Anne Birgitte; Trangbæk, Else
In 1970 the Danish Football club Boldklubben Femina (BK Femina) became unofficial world champions. The success of BK Femina women's football team was not a coincidence and should be placed in the context of a ten-year struggle to have football accepted as a sport for women in Denmark. This essay...... examines three consecutive periods in Danish women's football: the establishment of women's football in Denmark before 1970; the time of women's admission to the Danish Football Association (DBU) in 1970–72; and finally, the development of women's football in the DBU from 1972 to 2002....
Full Text Available Contemporary football represents a highly commodified spectacle, a segment of the entertainment industry where huge amounts of money change hands, and the popularity of football competitions - whether national or international - is a global phenomenon, which billions of people take part in. Only thirty years ago, however, the situation was very different. In Western Europe, and especially Great Britain, football was mostly associated with hooliganism, and the audiences at the run-down stadiums were dwindling in numbers. On the other hand, in Eastern Europe before the fall of the Berlin wall football was at its peak, only to fall from grace and onto the European periphery in the 90’s, where it is, by and large, still situated. This dramatic transformation which turned football into “entertainment for rich people” did not occur by accident, it has deep roots in the history of the sport, but also in the wider socio-economic transformations within the context of which this segment of pop culture exists. In this paper I will offer a look at the social and economic conditions in which football developed with the aim of establishing a framework for understanding the changes which occurred within the sport and within the society, with a special focus on the connection between football and the rise of nationalism in the former Yugoslavia, but also wider social processes linked to the descent of Serbia into the so-called process of “transition”, or the acceptance of parliamentary democracy and capitalism as bases of social order. It is my intention to, through the analysis of sociohistorical elements which influenced the development and transformation of the game of football, indicate the wider frame of possibilities for the analysis of contemporary events through the prism of this segment of pop-culture.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026
Diogo Thimoteo Da Cunha
Full Text Available In 2014, Brazil hosted one of the most popular sport competitions in the world, the FIFA World Cup. Concerned about the intense migration of tourists, the Brazilian government decided to deploy a food safety strategy based on inspection scores and a grading system applied to food services. The present study aimed to evaluate the results of the food safety strategy deployed during the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. To assess food safety, an evaluation instrument was applied twice in 1927 food service establishments from 26 cities before the start of the competition. This instrument generated a food safety score for each establishment that ranged from 0.0 (no flaws observed to 2565.95, with four possible grades: A (0.0 to 13.2; B (13.3 to 502.6; C (502.7 to 1152.2; and pending (more than 1152.3. Each food service received a stamp with the grade of the second evaluation. After the end of the World Cup, a study was conducted with different groups of the public to evaluate the acceptance of the strategy. To this end, 221 consumers, 998 food service owners or managers, 150 health surveillance auditors and 27 health surveillance coordinators were enrolled. These participants completed a survey with positive and negative responses about the inspection score system through a 5-point Likert scale. A reduction in violation scores from 393.1 to 224.4 (p <0.001 was observed between the first and second evaluation cycles. Of the food services evaluated, 38.7% received the A stamp, 41.4% the B stamp and 13.9% the C stamp. All positive responses on system reliability presented a mean of 4.0 or more, indicating that the public believed this strategy is reliable for communicating risks and promoting food safety. The strategy showed positive results regarding food safety and public acceptance. The deployed strategy promoted improvements in the food safety of food services. The implementation of a permanent policy may be well accepted by the public and may greatly
da Cunha, Diogo T; Saccol, Ana L de Freitas; Tondo, Eduardo C; de Oliveira, Ana B A; Ginani, Veronica C; Araújo, Carolina V; Lima, Thalita A S; de Castro, Angela K F; Stedefeldt, Elke
In 2014, Brazil hosted one of the most popular sport competitions in the world, the FIFA World Cup. Concerned about the intense migration of tourists, the Brazilian government decided to deploy a food safety strategy based on inspection scores and a grading system applied to food services. The present study aimed to evaluate the results of the food safety strategy deployed during the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. To assess food safety, an evaluation instrument was applied twice in 1927 food service establishments from 26 cities before the start of the competition. This instrument generated a food safety score for each establishment that ranged from 0.0 (no flaws observed) to 2565.95, with four possible grades: A (0.0-13.2); B (13.3-502.6); C (502.7-1152.2); and pending (more than 1152.3). Each food service received a stamp with the grade of the second evaluation. After the end of the World Cup, a study was conducted with different groups of the public to evaluate the acceptance of the strategy. To this end, 221 consumers, 998 food service owners or managers, 150 health surveillance auditors, and 27 health surveillance coordinators were enrolled. These participants completed a survey with positive and negative responses about the inspection score system through a 5-point Likert scale. A reduction in violation scores from 393.1 to 224.4 (p food services evaluated, 38.7% received the A stamp, 41.4% the B stamp, and 13.9% the C stamp. All positive responses on "system reliability" presented a mean of 4.0 or more, indicating that the public believed this strategy is reliable for communicating risks and promoting food safety. The strategy showed positive results regarding food safety and public acceptance. The deployed strategy promoted improvements in the food safety of food services. The implementation of a permanent policy may be well accepted by the public and may greatly contribute to a reduction in foodborne diseases (FBDs).
Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Ali, Gazzaffi Ibrahim; Abushanab, Tamer Shaban; El-Olemy, Ahmed Tawfik; Alqaed, Meshari Saleh; El-Subai, Ibrahim S; Al-Bedah, Abdullah M N
Cupping (Hijama in Arabic) is an ancient, holistic method for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Though the exact origin of cupping therapy is a matter of controversy, its use has been documented in early Egyptian and Chinese medical practices. Diverse human civilizations have contributed to the historical development and continuation of cupping therapy. This narrative review describes the history of cupping, historical definitions, cupping instruments and uses of cupping therapy. Electronic searches of relevant databases (PubMed, Google Scholar and OvidSP) were conducted using keywords and Boolean operators. Manual searches and references of published articles and books were also conducted. A number of articles (N = 625) were retained for extensive review, and finally 83 articles were included in this paper. The historical descriptions of cupping therapy were found in ancient human civilizations of the Eastern and Western world. There were inconsistent data concerning the origin of cupping, definitions, instruments, procedures, definite advancements and research in Hijama over centuries. Cupping therapy fell out of favor in 17th and mid-18th centuries but recovered popularity in modern medicine. Currently, cupping therapy is used for health promotion, prophylaxis and treatment of a variety of diseases around the world. Cupping therapy with a good safety profile has a checkered history and is a well-recognized traditional method for managing medical conditions. Currently, the scope of cupping therapy is expanding, and a growing body of research is providing additional evidence-based data for the further advancement of cupping therapy in the treatment of a variety of diseases.
Møller, Peter Mindegaard
A brief story of Danish football has been attempted, describing new patterns of time and location. The examples that have been chosen aim to show that football, as body culture, must be understood in connection with societal changes. Yet what do we learn by analysing these tendencies? Football...... of European sports culture. Such writing reduces football to a different concept: "soccer", that is, a hierarchical and competitive sport. This soccer paradigm does not recognise the diversity and pluralism of football as it exists today and as it has always existed. Football is a multiplicity...... of configurations, including not just elite and professional soccer, but also a game of the people, "grassroots football"....
Raúl Fustes Ross
Full Text Available The football is the most universal phenomenon, in evidence of it, the IFFA, the governing organization for this sport, has more countries than UNO and unit to Vatican, are considered among the most powerful organizations in the World and the more social members brings together. Its most negative part is the player’s professionalism, them received fabulous payments by her clubs; this clubs considered them like a goods from to transfer –buy –sell. These foot ball players signed the most lucrative contract; they forget the social spirit of this sport activity and at her community or nation.
A 20-year-old woman attended a genitourinary clinic with a retained vaginal Mooncup that she had inserted the night before. A Mooncup is one type of menstrual cup. On speculum examination the device was visualized high in the vagina and the cervix appeared firmly lodged within it. The physician experienced difficulty in retrieving the cup despite following product instructions. This case highlights a new adverse event with an increasingly used sanitation product. It is important that clinicians are familiar with the cup, its removal process and are able to counsel patients with retained devices on future correct placement.
Dietzen, C J; Topping, B R
Rugby union football continues to gain in popularity in the United States. Both men's and women's clubs have been established at several colleges and universities. There has been substantial growth in the number of high school rugby football clubs in recent years. With the increase in numbers of young participants in this sport, it is important that great efforts be mounted to attempt to control the injury rates and severity of injuries in rugby football. Players and coaches must be knowledgeable of the rules of the game, and referees must strictly enforce these rules. Physicians and dentists should be involved in educating parents, coaches, players, and school officials about the inherent risks of injury and the means for injury prevention. Medical personnel must also be instrumental in educating players about alcohol abuse/addiction. Rugby players should be encouraged to use the limited protective gear that is allowed: wraps, tape, joint sleeves, scrum caps, and facial grease to prevent lacerations. Mouthguards are strongly recommended at any level of play and should be mandated. The use of helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads has been suggested by some authors. Such rule changes could actually increase injury rates and severity, because this equipment could be used as weapons as they are in American football. It is recommended that rugby clubs purchase or build equipment to practice scrummage skills. Coaches should be experienced and attend clinics or complete video courses on medical emergencies and safe techniques of the game. Injury frequency and severity can be decreased by adequate preseason training and conditioning, proper tackling and falling techniques, strengthening of neck muscles, and allowing only experienced, fit athletes to play in the front row. Medical surveillance must be improved at matches and, ideally, at practice sessions. At present, it is common for no emergency medical personnel or physicians to be present at matches in the United
Full Text Available The outcome of football games, as well as matches of most other popular team sports, depends on a combination of the skills of players and coaches and a number of external factors which, due to their complex nature, are presumably best viewed as random. Such parameters include the unpredictabilities of playing the ball, the players' shape of the day or environmental conditions such as the weather and the behavior of the audience. Under such circumstances, it appears worthwhile to analyze football score data with the toolbox of mathematical statistics in order to separate deterministic from stochastic effects and see what impact the cooperative and social nature of the "agents" of the system has on the resulting stochastic observables. Considering the probability distributions of scored goals for the home and away teams, it turns out that especially the tails of the distributions are not well described by the Poissonian or binomial model resulting from the assumption of uncorrelated random events. On the contrary, some more specific probability densities such as those discussed in the context of extreme-value statistics or the so-called negative binomial distribution fit these data rather well. There seemed to be no good argument to date, however, why the simplest Poissonian model fails and, instead, the latter distributions should be observed. To fill this gap, we introduced a number of microscopic models for the scoring behavior, resulting in a Bernoulli random process with a simple component of self-affirmation. These models allow us to represent the observed probability distributions surprisingly well, and the phenomenological distributions used earlier can be understood as special cases within this framework. We analyzed historical football score data from many leagues in Europe as well as from international tournaments, including data from all past tournaments of the "FIFA World Cup" series, and found the proposed models to be applicable in
Full Text Available Although far behind association football, futsal is the second most played variant of football in the world. Both sports have comparable global expansion strategies; but with different roots and outcomes. Futsal, which originated in South America, has experienced a more limited geographic expansion. Its recent integration into the FIFA is progressively changing its geographic presence. Consequently, futsal has become an increasingly global sport.
Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila Susanne
a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF), with a specific focus on organisational issues. In doing so, we would like to contribute to the discussion of how to organise sports as a means for promoting health within sporting organisations. The theoretical framework...... in a Danish context. Key words: Football Fitness, Health, Sports clubs, Sports Organisations, Path dependency......Studies reveal a shift in the role of sport in society in general; we are experiencing greater political focus on sport due to the health-related outcomes of participation and the linkage between sport and health is clearer than ever. Relatively new findings conclude that recreational football...
Andrews, Donald S.
College football became a popular spectator sport after World War II with the return of veterans to college. Financial help was provided by the G. I. Bill, which led to older, more experienced students playing football. This article explores how the G. I. Bill helped make college football the popular sport it is today. (DF)
Jacobs, P H; Elsinghorst, T A
Endometrial cups in horses are outgrowths appearing in the uterine wall of the pregnant horn between approximately 38 days and 150 of gestation. The cups are structures which vary in shape from oval to irregular and have distinct raised edges, showing an ulcer-like form. The maximum measurements are approximately 5 X 2.5 X 2.5 cm. Microscopic examination shows that they consist of large epithelioid decidual-like cells having large nucleoli. Pregnant Mare Endometrium Gonadotrophin (PMEG) is produced in the endometrial cups. PMEG may be regarded as a precursor of Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG), which can be detected in the blood of mares. The exact function of PMSG is still obscure; some possible functions are suggested in the present paper. After approximately 70 days of gestation, regression starts. The regression of the cups is an immunological process in which the cellular branch of the immunological system plays an important role. Humoral immunity plays a more protective role in the process of regression, probably as a result of the production of 'blocking' antibodies.
What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.
Eduardo Carreño Lara
Full Text Available Por más de cuarenta años, el fútbol fue considerado en Sudáfrica un importante escenario en la lucha por la libertad. Así, el movimiento anti-apartheid obtuvo simbólicos y cruciales logros en este campo cuando la federación local fue suspendida por la Federación Internacional de Fútbol Asociado (FIFA de todas las competencias internacionales hasta 1992. Ya en democracia, el fútbol -como otras disciplinas deportivas- ha sido considerado una instancia de encuentro y reconciliación en una sociedad marcada por clivajes raciales, por lo cual la adjudicación de la Copa Mundial de la FIFA fue aclamada por los sudafricanos y por todo el continente africano como una gran victoria que hacía crecer las expectativas en torno a los beneficios de este evento para mejorar la calidad de vida de millones de personas. El objetivo principal de este artículo es analizar las motivaciones políticas, económicas y sociales tras la organización de la Copa Mundial de la FIFA Sudáfrica 2010. Es un estudio explicativo sustentado en la revisión de fuentes secundarias e información oficial entregada por el gobierno de Sudáfrica tendiente a estimar las implicancias diplomáticas de un evento que claramente sobrepasó lo netamente deportivo.For over forty years, the soccer was considered in South Africa an important scenario in the struggle for freedom, obtaining the anti-Apartheid movement symbolic, but crucial achievements in this sphere when the local federation was suspended by FIFA from all international competitions until 1992. Once democracy, the soccer -like other sports- has been considered an instance of encounter and reconciliation in a society marked by racial cleavages, thus awarding the FIFA World Cup was hailed by the South Africa's people and the African continent as a great victory that raised expectations about the benefits of this event to improve the quality of life for millions of people. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to
Kordi, Ramin; Chitsaz, Alireza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Reza; Ghadimi, Mahmoodreza
Background: Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. Hypothesis: The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Demographic data for 74 referees, including 30 main referees and 44 assistant referees, were collected at the beginning of the season. To record injuries and refereeing time, weekly contact was made by a physician. Results: In total, 102 injuries were reported by referees during the football season. The incidence rates of injuries among referees during training and matches were 4.6 and 19.6 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. Muscular and tendon injuries were found to be the most common type of injury, and the most common site of injury was the lower leg followed by the hip and groin. Conclusion: The results of this study are consistent with similar prospective studies evaluating injuries to referees over the course of a short-term tournament. Clinical Relevance: These findings provide a base for suggesting possible preventive recommendations in future studies. PMID:24427414
Thünenkötter, Thomas; Schmied, Christian; Dvorak, Jiri; Kindermann, Wilfried
Competitive sport can serve as a trigger for sudden cardiac death (SCD). The majority of athletes who die suddenly have previously unsuspected structural heart disease. Medical evaluation before competition offers the potential to identify cardiovascular abnormalities in asymptomatic athletes. Consensus on the ideal screening programme has not been reached. So, a cardiovascular pre-competition screening of elite football players was developed and implemented prior to the 2006 FIFA World Cup Germany to detect SCD risk factors. Medical history, physical examination, 12-lead resting- and exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography results of the players were recorded on a standardised form by the team physicians and submitted after the final match for retrospective evaluation by two blinded independent cardiologic reviewers. Response rate was 82% (605 of 736 players). Completeness and quality of the recordings and examination methods differed amongst teams. In 25 players (4.8%), the examining physicians evaluated the resting ECG as pathological. Suspicious echocardiographic findings demanding further investigations to rule out serious cardiovascular disease existed in 1% of the players. Cardiovascular pre-competition screening proved feasible in international elite football teams, but turned out to be vital to ensure high quality of data, particularly with regard to stress testing and echocardiography. The screening concept was revised mainly to improve completeness and quality of data acquisition. Resting ECG and echocardiography were retained, but it is questionable if exercise testing should be included in this context.
Vallerand, Robert J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Philippe, Frederick L; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Carbonneau, Noémie; Bonneville, Arielle; Lagacé-Labonté, Camille; Maliha, Gabrielle
The purpose of the present research was to test the applicability of the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) to being a sport (football) fan. Three studies provided support for this dualistic conceptualization of passion. Study 1 showed that harmonious passion was positively associated with adaptive behaviours (e.g. celebrate the team's victory), whereas obsessive passion was positively associated with maladaptive behaviours (e.g. risking losing one's job to go to a game). Study 2 used a short Passion Scale and showed that harmonious passion was positively related to the positive affective life of fans during the 2006 FIFA World Cup, psychological health (self-esteem and life satisfaction), and public displays of adaptive behaviours (e.g. celebrate the team's victory into the streets), whereas obsessive passion was predictive of maladaptive affective life (e.g. hating opposing teams' fans) and behaviours (e.g. mocking opposing teams' fans). Finally, Study 3 examined the role of obsessive passion as a predictor of partner's conflict that in turn undermined partner's relationship satisfaction. Overall, the present results provided support for the Dualistic Model of Passion. The conceptual and applied implications of the findings are discussed.
category of senior elite players. In the U-19 and U-21 age categories, statistical significance has not been confirmed. Based on this research results it may be recommended to use the advantage of relative age effect for the selection of players of the particular age category in the particular competition (such as e.g. the European Championship qualification, the European Championship final tournament qualification, or the World Cup qualification in the U-16, U-17, U-18 age categories.
Anderson Ribeiro Oliva
Full Text Available The text aims to propose a reflection on the discourses produced on the participation of intercultural athletes – of African or Antillean origin – in the French football team in recent years. Starting from the theoretical frameworks linked to African and postcolonial studies, and the result of a larger investigation, the intention of this essay is to examine how French society – with its population sets and complex hybrids – promotes, interprets and rejects, from the images and ideas circulating on African / Antilleans immigrants and their descendants, the understanding of their identities and intercultural and multicultural relations generated by postcolonial diasporas. From the listed assumptions selected for an initial reflection reports in the European press about the performance of athletes in intercultural French team after the World Cup in South Africa in 2010.
Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila Susanne
Studies reveal a shift in the role of sport in society in general; we are experiencing greater political focus on sport due to the health-related outcomes of participation and the linkage between sport and health is clearer than ever. Relatively new findings conclude that recreational football...... organised as small-sided games is highly beneficial for enhancing overall fitness. In addition, studies indicate that team sports such as football may have an advantage over individual sports when it comes to personal development and the development of social capital. The aim of this paper is to explore...... a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF), with a specific focus on organisational issues. In doing so, we would like to contribute to the discussion of how to organise sports as a means for promoting health within sporting organisations. The theoretical framework...
Møller, Peter Mindegaard
A brief story of Danish football has been attempted, describing new patterns of time and location. The examples that have been chosen aim to show that football, as body culture, must be understood in connection with societal changes. Yet what do we learn by analysing these tendencies? Football......, even though widely homogenous on aglobal level, is still practiced in particular ways in different countries, following different co-ordinates of time, place and organization. This is important to remember when, in political discussions about sport, the case of soccer is used to describe the essentials...... of European sports culture. Such writing reduces football to a different concept: "soccer", that is, a hierarchical and competitive sport. This soccer paradigm does not recognise the diversity and pluralism of football as it exists today and as it has always existed. Football is a multiplicity...
Bachelor thesis si about footballer on labour market and main aim is to determine his wage determinants, mainly his performance as its main determinant. In teoretical part I describe structure of market on which footbalist supplies his labour. After that I describe superstar effect, moral hazard, education influence and efficiency wage on the market with football players. In practical part I analyse determinants of footballer wage with regresion analysis on datas from english Premier League f...
Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten
A field calibration method and results are described along with the experience gained with the method. The cup anemometers to be calibrated are mounted in a row on a 10-m high rig and calibrated in the free wind against a reference cup anemometer. The method has been reported  to improve...... the statistical bias on the data relative to calibrations carried out in a wind tunnel. The methodology is sufficiently accurate for calibration of cup anemometers used for wind resource assessments and provides a simple, reliable and cost-effective solution to cup anemometer calibration, especially suited...
This study examined the role of football addiction and extraversion in football depression. Two hundred (200) undergraduates of the University of Nigeria, Nsuka participated in the study. Three scales were used for data collection and they included: Football Depression Scale (FDS), Football Addiction Scale (FAS) and the ...
This dissertation contains four chapters, all with a different topic that is of interest from a sports economic perspective. More specifically, from the economic perspective of professional football. Football is the most popular sport within Europe and the data that is used in the analyses stems
Full Text Available Anthropological interest in football has been on the rise since the beginning of the century, which can be attested to by the rising number of studies, papers, collective publications and scientific conferences on the topic. Seeing as anthropology is no longer the study of the culturally bizarre and exotic, it is clear that the first anthropological studies of football as a cultural phenomenon are linked to those environments in which football figures as an important cultural trait, which is the reason why this sub discipline thrived in Europe or in places where football was treated as an esoteric phenomenon and where there as a longer tradition of anthropological study of native cultures. From the first analogies between the game of football and its rules with rituals of so called primitive cultures, the anthropological study of football developed into a relatively encompassing approach which includes interest in all the actors who establish the game as a public, cultural good – players, experts, supporters, journalists, organizers etc. – as well as its various cultural manifestations, in the form of a tool for the construction of identity and cultural symbol, a leisure activity with ties to economy, to a specific apotheosis of the concepts of globalization and commodification of culture. Anthropological studies of football are present in Serbia as well, and their subject matter corresponds to the role and position held by football, as a cultural artefact, in Serbian society and other countries in the region.
Li, Jianping; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Jianmei; Xu, Xinchun; Niu, Yanxia; Cai, Jun
To compare the differences in the characteristic medicinal cupping therapy between the traditional cupping device and the innovated cupping device. Fifty patients of neck and low back pain were selected. The self-comparison was adopted. The cupping therapy was applied to the acupoints located on the left or right side with the traditional cupping device and the innovated cupping device. The cupping sites were centered at bilateral Quyuan (SI 13) and Dachangshu (BL 25). The cups were retained for 10 min. The traditional cupping device was the glass with smooth border, 100mL. The innovated cupping device was the vacuum-sucking cup. The operative time, medicinal leakage, comfort and cupping marks were observed for the two different cupping devices. The operative time with the innovated medicinal cupping device was shorter obviously compared with the traditional one at Quyuan (SI 13) and Dachangshu (BL 25, both Pcupping device was remarkably improved as compared with the traditional one at the two acupoints (both Pcupping operation (both P>0. 05). The cupping marks with the innovated medicinal cupping device were much deeper than those with the traditional one after cupping therapy. The innovated cupping device is more convenent and comfortable in operation during the characteristic medicinal cupping therapy.
Drust, B; Green, M
The scientific study of football has its origins in the early research completed in the 1970's. Since these early efforts the available scientific knowledge base related to football has developed substantially. The ability of this scientific information to influence practice in the day-to-day activity of football organisations, especially elite teams, has been largely taken for granted. The close examination of this impact can lead to more uncertainty regarding the usefulness of the scientific data to the sport. Few articles are available that have attempted to critique the link between science and football practice. As such, the aims of this article are 2-fold; (i) to examine the historical background to "science and football" and to analyse the influence of sports science research on the current practice of coaches and practitioners within the sport and (ii) to identify potential ways to increase the influence of scientific research on practice in the "real world".
Gu, Xingui; Chen, Zelin; Chen, Bo; Fan, Yihua; Chen, Xianghong
Blistering cupping is special as eliminating wind and dampness as well as removing phlegm and blood stasis, and it achieves effects through suction. In this paper we reviewed relevant literature combined with clinical experience so as to summarize its operation attention through exploring the origin, mechanism and application. We divide the progress into the blistering period, the phlegm-stasis-eliminating period, and the escharosis period according to the changes of bubble and the things pulled out. Blistering cupping creates ways to eliminate concrete unhealthy influences through smoothing meridians and collaterals, such as phlegm and retained fluid, dampness and blood stasis. Thus chronic diseases are relieved. Also,we propose the rules of "blistering acupoints being related to disease location as well as the nature of acupoints and diseases". The therapy has been used to treat diseases of respiratory system, osteoarticular, skin and subcutaneous tissue, mental and behavioral disorders, and tumor, among which the effects of intractable diseases of respiratory and osteoarticular systems are definite. It deserves to be further explored and promoted.
Acosta, Roberto J.; Darby, William G.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Breen, Daniel P.
The cup cylindrical waveguide antenna (CCWA) is a short backfire microwave antenna capable of simultaneously supporting the transmission or reception of two distinct signals having opposite circular polarizations. Short backfire antennas are widely used in mobile/satellite communications, tracking, telemetry, and wireless local area networks because of their compactness and excellent radiation characteristics. A typical prior short backfire antenna contains a half-wavelength dipole excitation element for linear polarization or crossed half-wavelength dipole elements for circular polarization. In order to achieve simultaneous dual circular polarization, it would be necessary to integrate, into the antenna feed structure, a network of hybrid components, which would introduce significant losses. The CCWA embodies an alternate approach that entails relatively low losses and affords the additional advantage of compactness. The CCWA includes a circular cylindrical cup, a circular disk subreflector, and a circular waveguide that serves as the excitation element. The components that make it possible to obtain simultaneous dual circular polarization are integrated into the circular waveguide. These components are a sixpost polarizer and an orthomode transducer (OMT) with two orthogonal coaxial ports. The overall length of the OMT and polarizer (for the nominal middle design frequency of 2.25 GHz) is about 11 in. (approximately equal to 28 cm), whereas the length of a commercially available OMT and polarizer for the same frequency is about 32 in. (approximately equal to 81 cm).
the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet...... sociological theories. The objective is, first, to develop new knowledge and understanding about the impact of football on gendered identity construction and negotiation – in both the performance and the consumption of football – and how these female fans contribute to a European dialogue, the gender......-specific experience and acting out of fandom, and the intersection between gender and national/European identity. The second objective is to study the role of gender in football and fan cultures with regard to gender-specific patterns of cross-cultural communication and identification. The third objective...
American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available Although many British historians claim that English football in the post–World War II period was substantially the passion of working-class men, oral history accounts also reveal a largely hidden history of active female sports fans, women who keenly followed football. These female fans often faced opposition from fellow supporters and from other women. In many ways, academic research on sports fandom has worked to omit serious discussion of the role of women. Taken from a wider project aimed at making more visible the historical experiences of female spectators in sport in Britain, this paper draws on interviews with 16 older female fans of the Leicester City football club based in the East Midlands in England. It explores their experiences in the so-called golden age of the game with regard to the football stadium, styles of female support, and relationships with and perceptions of football players. Via oral history research, the paper offers a wider context for understanding the sporting experiences of female fans. But it also analyzes and explicates the meaning of sport in the lives of female fans during a period when football players were paradoxically glamorous and unobtainable local figures, but also, in some contexts, still accessible, ordinary members of local communities.
Kordi, Ramin; Chitsaz, Alireza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Reza; Ghadimi, Mahmoodreza
Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup. Prospective cohort study. Demographic data for 74 referees, including 30 main referees and 44 assistant referees, were collected at the beginning of the season. To record injuries and refereeing time, weekly contact was made by a physician. In total, 102 injuries were reported by referees during the football season. The incidence rates of injuries among referees during training and matches were 4.6 and 19.6 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. Muscular and tendon injuries were found to be the most common type of injury, and the most common site of injury was the lower leg followed by the hip and groin. The results of this study are consistent with similar prospective studies evaluating injuries to referees over the course of a short-term tournament. These findings provide a base for suggesting possible preventive recommendations in future studies.
Busch, N. E.; Kristensen, Leif
Statistical considerations are applied to a general equation of motion for cup anemometers in a turbulent wind. It is shown that the relative overspeeding ΔS/S can be expressed as ΔS/S = Ih2 · Js(l0/Λs) + cIw2, where Is and Iw are the horizontal and the vertical turbulence intensifies, respectively....... The function Js depends on the shape of the spectrum of horizontal turbulent energy, l0 is the distance constant for the anemometer, and Λs is a characteristic length scale of the horizontal turbulence. The constant c is of order unity. If Λs is suitably chosen as the scale of the energy-containing eddies...
, a label which most of ... disidentify with football through being called 'gay'. This paper focuses on the playground space as a learning site, where ...... London: Trentham Books. Francis, D. (2012). Teacher positioning on the teaching of sexual ...
Johansen, Stine Liv
Media and mediatization must be seen as a prerequisite for children’s play today. Children’s fan cultures cover a wide range of topics; yet, football is a field with specific explanatory power due to its structural and cultural specificities. In this chapter, football is seen as a specific play...... practice, carried out both physically and through engagements with a diverse range of traditional and new media. The chapter draws on empirical fieldwork among Danish children aged 8 to 13, describing football kids as active users of media, active play practitioners, and active performers of identity...... projects in relation to friends and family. For these children, football as a mediatized play practice is their point of departure, forming the grounds of their everyday practices....
What is intriguing about women’s football as a cultural phenomenon is that unlike men’s football the finances and media interest for the game are sparse. Nevertheless we have found that migration of female football players is growing steadily and women’s football is becoming global in nature....... The question is then what drives this globalization process? According to our study of women’s football migration into Scandinavia, one of the centers of women’s football, transnational networks play a crucial role in mobilizing global migratory moves. Using the concept of friends-of-friends networks from Bale...
Insolvency is an endemic problem in the world of European football. This paper uses a unique database of financial accounts for English football clubs between 1974 and 2010 to examine the causes of insolvency. Two alternative hypotheses are considered- “irrational exuberance”, meaning that owners attempt to achieve a significant improvement in league position which is not affordable, leading to financial crisis. This view seems widely espoused and seems to lie behind initiatives such as UEFA’...
Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio
The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup.
Wiss, D A
A case of metaphyseal cupping of bone that probably occurred as the result of an impaired blood supply to the leg of an infant is reported. Avascularity and premature closure of the central segment of the growth plate is the proposed pathogenesis. The blood supply, growth and development of the ends of growing bones are discussed and the radiographie features of metaphyseal cupping are described. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Chougle, Aslam; Batty, Phil D.; Hodgkinson, John P.
Football is currently the most popular sport in the world. The competitive nature of the sport makes it prone to injuries with the estimated frequency being 10 to 35 per 1000 playing hours (Dvorak and Junge, 2000). The aim of this study was to identify the injury patterns and rehabilitation periods with specific injuries in a premiership football club. Player injuries were retrospectively analysed from a local database (Microsoft Access 2000) at the Blackburn Rovers Football Club, UK from ...
Salzmann, Gian M.; Preiss, Stefan; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Harder, Laurent P.; Maier, Dirk; Dvorák, Jirí
Football is currently the most popular sporting activity in the world. Multiple reports have shown that a high incidence of osteoarthritis is found in football players. Evidence clearly shows that traumatic injury significantly predisposes players for such pathophysiology. Injuries are frequent in amateur as well as professional football players, with knee and ankle accounting for the most severe injuries. Many professional athletes lose playing time due to injuries and many are forced into e...
Bridgett, Rhianna; Klose, Petra; Duffield, Rob; Mydock, Suni; Lauche, Romy
Despite the recent re-emergence of the process of cupping by athletes, supporting evidence for its efficacy and safety remains scarce. This systematic review aims to summarize the evidence of clinical trials on cupping for athletes. SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, AMED, and CNKI databases were searched from their inception to December 10, 2016. Randomized controlled trials on cupping therapy with no restriction regarding the technique, or cointerventions, were included, if they measured the effects of cupping compared with any other intervention on health and performance outcomes in professionals, semi-professionals, and leisure athletes. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool were conducted independently by two pairs of reviewers. Eleven trials with n = 498 participants from China, the United States, Greece, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates were included, reporting effects on different populations, including soccer, football, and handball players, swimmers, gymnasts, and track and field athletes of both amateur and professional nature. Cupping was applied between 1 and 20 times, in daily or weekly intervals, alone or in combination with, for example, acupuncture. Outcomes varied greatly from symptom intensity, recovery measures, functional measures, serum markers, and experimental outcomes. Cupping was reported as beneficial for perceptions of pain and disability, increased range of motion, and reductions in creatine kinase when compared to mostly untreated control groups. The majority of trials had an unclear or high risk of bias. None of the studies reported safety. No explicit recommendation for or against the use of cupping for athletes can be made. More studies are necessary for conclusive judgment on the efficacy and safety of cupping in athletes.
Full Text Available In this paper attention is given to the mutual synergy between sports, commercials and alcohol. Therefore, we approach the research topic specified in the title with regards to the cultural history of football and beer, the functioning of the commercial industry within consumer culture and the structural practices of consuming football and beer trough which, at specific places and in special occasions, masculinity is performed. This research relies primarily on discourse analysis of football-beer commercials. For the purpose of enriching the insights gained by this method, a semi-structured interview was conducted with a market expert specialized in branding and an autoethnographic approach is present. The central part of the study is based on a corpus of advertisements that were broadcast on national television programs in the last ten years and that have emerged as part of a market designed advertising campaigns for major breweries during the World and European football championships. For the most of them, the common denominator is putting football fans in the forefront, whether in stadiums, bars, town squares or at home. Also, in most cases, they exclusively present male protagonists during their leisure time, united by their passion for football and beer, as well as their desire for relaxed socialization and fun. Apart from gender, the national context is essential, since these commercials usually visually, audibly and textually refer to the national football team of Croatia.
Ottesen, Laila; Bennike, Søren
are received and adapted in the Danish sports organizations and associations. The Danish Football Association has launched a new concept called "Football Fitness" with a focus on the health dimension of football, both of physiological, psychological and social nature, rather than a focus on the competition...... opportunity to access the knowledge of how the concept “football fitness” is organized, implemented and adapted in the participating clubs. This knowledge will be of great importance in relation to welfare policy, where the project can contribute with knowledge of possible changes to the Danish voluntary...... methods for the gathering and analysis of data. Key words: Football Fitness, Health promotion, Implementation, Sports clubs, Sports Organizations....
Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. Despite being the most popular sport in the United States, most American football game analysis is still done manually. Line of scrimmage and offensive team formation recognition are two statistics that must be tagged by American Football coaches when watching and evaluating past play video clips, a process which takesmanyman hours per week. These two statistics are the building blocks for more high-level analysis such as play strategy inference and automatic statistic generation. In this chapter, we propose a novel framework where given an American football play clip, we automatically identify the video frame in which the offensive team lines in formation (formation frame), the line of scrimmage for that play, and the type of player formation the offensive team takes on. The proposed framework achieves 95% accuracy in detecting the formation frame, 98% accuracy in detecting the line of scrimmage, and up to 67%accuracy in classifying the offensive team’s formation. To validate our framework, we compiled a large dataset comprising more than 800 play-clips of standard and high definition resolution from real-world football games. This dataset will be made publicly available for future comparison.
Football is the most popular sport in the world, played by over 400 million men and women. In addition to the wide range of sport-specific technical and tactical skills needed, several physical components have been shown to be necessary to perform at a high level. The present PhD thesis is based...... on four articles that focus on physical testing and training for elite and sub-elite football players.The first article (Study I) aims to identify and establish aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female football players with the use of laboratory tests, and to examine whether...... systematic differences between the playing positions can be detected. Lately, field tests have become more frequently used in football than the laboratory tests used in Study I. Study II therefore aims to assess the validity of one of them, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2). Along...
Andrew Christenson; Pei Cao; Jiong Tang
Football is one of the most popular sports in the world. It is played by a diverse set of people, from little kids to professional athletes, who possess a large range of physical abilities and skill. One of the most important pieces of equipment is the football itself. This paper examines the physics behind the optimal football pressure as a function of ball speed, touch and force of kick, considering the vibration and dynamics of the football as it is kicked. It was observed that the pressur...
Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard
users embedded in different collective social institutions such as national cultures that affect their choices in game-playing situations. Thus, the actions of Italian, English and Brazilian players become different dialects within the same language system. These dialects are expressed in actions...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...... levels (Schein, 2004) in which each player and his actions can be considered an artefact - a concrete symbol in motion embedded in espoused values and basic assumptions. Therefore, the actions of each dialect are strongly connected to the underlying understanding of football. By document and video...
Football has long time been considered as a genuine masculine domain. However, in the current football culture, the dualism of masculinity and femaleness is in progress. More and more women consume football which is in many countries considered the most popular sport, not only in Scandinavia where...... the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet......, the combination ‘women and football’ is still adhered to certain scepticism. Objective The overall objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to contribute to the body of knowledge associated with the distinct aspects of women’s football, female fandom and gender identities in European football drawing upon various...
Ahmed T. El-Olemy; Abdullah M. Al-Bedah; Ahmed H. Almosilhi; Jawaher A. Almusailhi; Asim A. Hussein; Mohamed Khalil; Tamer S. Aboushanab; Ibrahim M. Elsubai; Meshari S. Alqaed; Gazzaffi I. M. Ali; Sulaiman Al-Eidi; Naseem A. Qureshi
Background: Cupping therapy (Al-Hijamah) is a traditional therapy, supported and practised by people around the world since ancient times. Cupping therapy related to complementary and alternative medicine is associated with controversial, false beliefs and misconceptions. Objective: This study aimed at exploring controversial beliefs and conceptions about cupping therapy among healthcare professionals, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 2...
News Almost dry but never dull: ASE 2014 EuroPhysicsFun shows physics to Europe Institute of Physics for Africa (IOPfA) South Sudan Report October 2013 Celebrating the centenary of x-ray diffraction The Niels Bohr Institute—an EPS Historical Site Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education (NFSUN) 2014: inquiry-based science education in technology-rich environments Physics World Cup 2013
Almost dry but never dull: ASE 2014 EuroPhysicsFun shows physics to Europe Institute of Physics for Africa (IOPfA) South Sudan Report October 2013 Celebrating the centenary of x-ray diffraction The Niels Bohr Institute—an EPS Historical Site Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education (NFSUN) 2014: inquiry-based science education in technology-rich environments Physics World Cup 2013
and cool downs before and after training and matches, respectively. As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and rehabilitation are essential; especially in the prevention of re-injury. Unfortunately, youth football is often disadvantaged with inadequate or unavailable sports medicine personnel and treatment ...
Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Jong-In; Kong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Dong-Hyo; Shin, Byung-Cheul
The aims of this study were to develop a sham cupping device and to validate its use as a placebo control for healthy volunteers. A sham cupping device was developed by establishing a small hole to reduce the negative pressure after suction such that inner pressure could not be maintained in the cup. We enrolled 34 healthy participants to evaluate the validity of the sham cupping device as a placebo control. The participants were informed that they would receive either real or sham cupping and were asked which treatment they thought they had received. Other sensations and adverse events related to cupping therapy were investigated. 17 patients received real cupping therapy and 17 received sham cupping. The two groups felt similar sensations. There was a tendency for subjects to feel that real cupping created a stronger sensation than sham cupping (48.9±21.4 vs 33.3±20.3 on a 100mm visual analogue scale). There were only mild to moderate adverse events observed in both groups. We developed a new sham cupping device that seems to provide a credible control for real cupping therapy by producing little or no negative pressure. This conclusion was supported by a pilot study, but more rigorous research is warranted regarding the use of this device.
Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.
In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…
Wood, Susan; Harrison, Lesley K; Kucharska, Jo
Male professional footballers (soccer) represent an at-risk population of developing mental health difficulties and not accessing professional support. One in four current footballers report mental health difficulties. Higher prevalence is reported after retirement. This qualitative study aimed to provide in-depth insight into male professional footballers' lived experiences of mental health difficulties and help-seeking. Seven participants were interviewed. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. One superordinate theme emerged; 'Survival'. This related to survival in the professional football world, of mental health difficulties and after transition into the 'real world'. Six subordinate themes are explored alongside literature pertaining to male mental health, identity, injury, transition, and emotional development. Shame, stigma, fear and level of mental health literacy (knowledge of mental health and support) were barriers to help-seeking. Support for professional footballers' mental wellbeing requires improvement. Recommendations are made for future research, mental health education and support.
Roșca Vlad I.
Full Text Available After the fall of communist regimes, Central and Eastern European states have been encouraged to Europeanise by aligning to Western standards. Even if politics and economy have been primarily concerned, football has often allowed easier and faster contact to occidental cultures than other facets of the civic society did. From a football club perspective, being Europeanized involves the abilities to establish a constant presence in continental cups, as well as to raise performances to higher, international standards. The game itself has strongly Europeanised over the years, with UEFA transforming its two continental inter-club competitions into iconic brands, ‘pluralizing’ fan attention between domestic leagues and international cups, with the latter ones enjoying increased awareness. While some UEFA member associations have properly mastered the process of Europeanisation, others saw their teams struggle to perform in Europe, which led to the creation of a cleavage between ‘elitist’ and ‘periphery’ countries. Results of Romanian teams in European competitions have fluctuated over the past and a half decade. The purpose of this research is to find out how far Europeanised Romanian football can be currently considered. The research question asks what is the current European dimension of Romanian club football? UEFA Country Coefficients are used as input data for computing statistical observations such as means and standard deviations, which are then compared with a three-levelled center-periphery model designed by Maguire (2001. Results indicate that Romanian football is still far away from the continental ‘center’ status it pretends to have. The Discussions section addresses some of the reasons for this distance. The article tries to fill in a research gap as most Europeanisation studies so far have focused on the hardcore concepts of economics, politics, or law, but rather few on social and cultural alignments, such as football
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the evidence for or against the effectiveness of cupping as a treatment option for pain. Fourteen databases were searched. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs testing cupping in patients with pain of any origin were considered. Trials using cupping with or without drawing blood were included, while trials comparing cupping with other treatments of unproven efficacy were excluded. Trials with cupping as concomitant treatment together with other treatments of unproven efficacy were excluded. Trials were also excluded if pain was not a central symptom of the condition. The selection of studies, data extraction and validation were performed independently by three reviewers. Seven RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested significant pain reduction for cupping in low back pain compared with usual care (P < .01 and analgesia (P < .001. Another two RCTs also showed positive effects of cupping in cancer pain (P < .05 and trigeminal neuralgia (P < .01 compared with anticancer drugs and analgesics, respectively. Two RCTs reported favorable effects of cupping on pain in brachialgia compared with usual care (P = .03 or heat pad (P < .001. The other RCT failed to show superior effects of cupping on pain in herpes zoster compared with anti-viral medication (P = .065. Currently there are few RCTs testing the effectiveness of cupping in the management of pain. Most of the existing trials are of poor quality. Therefore, more rigorous studies are required before the effectiveness of cupping for the treatment of pain can be determined.
the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet...... The researcher reviewed relevant primary and secondary literature relating to women’s football, female football consumption and identity dynamics in a European perspective. Between March and August 2013, 31 semi-structured interviews with Danish women aged between 24 and 60 years were conducted following...
Womble, Melissa N; Collins, Michael W
Major advancements in sport-related concussion (SRC) management have been made across time to improve the safety of contact sports, including football. Nevertheless, these advances are often overlooked due to concerns regarding the potential long-term effects of SRC. Although further research is needed, it is critical that current efforts are focused on better understanding SRC in order to recognize and change ongoing factors leading to prolonged recoveries, increased risk for injury, and potentially long-term effects. To reduce risk for these outcomes, future focus must be placed on increased education efforts, immediate reporting of injury, prevention techniques, targeted treatment, and the development of multidisciplinary treatment teams nationwide. Finally, with the progress in understanding concussion, it is important to remain vigilant of additional advances that will help to further improve the safety of contact sports, including football.
Mehta, Piyush; Dhapte, Vividha
Since ancient times, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué) have played an important role in human health and welfare. Many therapeutic approaches in healthcare outside the realm of conventional medicine persist in various parts of the world. There is considerable scientific and commercial potential in CAM, which needs to be explored precisely. Cupping therapy ( bá guàn liáo fǎ), one of the CAM, is practiced across the world. This therapy is believed to act by correcting imbalances in the internal bio field, such as by restoring the flow of "Qi (qì)". Cupping involves applying a heated cup to generate a partial vacuum that mobilizes the blood flow and promotes effective healing. This review outlines various tools and techniques of cupping therapy.
Spaaij, R.; Mastrogiannakis, D.; Dorville, C.
An advanced security assemblage is now at the permanent disposal of authorities in their quest to pre-empt and manage risk at football matches. This chapter proposes the ‘football stadia-as-laboratories’ metaphor as an analytical lens through which to examine the security and risk management
Moon, Suk-Ho; Han, Hyun-Ho; Rhie, Jong-Won
Cupping therapy is an alternative medical procedure that has been widely performed in Asian countries to relieve pain. It is known that there is no complication to this therapy, so many non-health care professionals have performed this procedure. However, there have been few reports on complications, such as iron deficiency anemia, hemorrhagic bullae, kelloids, vasovagal syncope, and foreign body reactions. Masses associated with panniculitis induced by cupping are extremely rare, and they require a unique approach.A 56-year-old woman presented with a 10-month history of multiple masses in the posterior neck and right shoulder areas. The patient repeatedly attempted cupping therapy by herself, and multiple palpable masses developed in the posterior neck and right shoulder area where cupping therapy had been performed. The masses were enlarged by repeated cupping, and they decreased in size when cupping was stopped. Among all lesions, the 2 masses with tenderness were surgically excised. The remaining masses resolved after cupping therapy was ceased. When a patient with subcutaneous mass has a history of cupping or trace of cupping marks, panniculitis induced by cupping should be suspected. The lesion seems to spontaneously resolve unless they are repeatedly stimulated. However, surgical resection is considered in patients with infections or severe tenderness as a complication.
Rokosz, Francis M.
The history of football is traced as it evolved from the English game of rugby. The game as it is known today was conceived only after a long series of changes. Three prominent reasons for the change were: to make football more interesting to the spectator; to balance the competition between offense and defense; and to modify the dangerous…
Withnall, C; Shewchenko, N; Wonnacott, M; Dvorak, J; Scott, D
Objectives: Commercial headgear is currently being used by football players of all ages and skill levels to provide protection from heading and direct impact. The clinical and biomechanical effectiveness of the headgear in attenuating these types of impact is not well defined or understood. This study was conducted to determine whether football headgear has an effect on head impact responses.
On any fall weekend across the United States, football reigns as the nation's favorite sport. Thousands of high school teams, the pride of communities from coast to coast, compete under the lights on Friday nights. Saturdays feature the tradition and pageantry of college football. Sundays belong to the 32 professional teams that play in the major…
Cláudio Vicente di Gioia F. Silva
Full Text Available World sport has been seen as a growing industry, generating revenues of roughly US$ 1 trillion a year. Playing a major role in this industry, football (soccer is accountable for an annual turnover of approximately US$ 250 billion – Brazil’s share being approximately 1% of that amount. The growing marketing and globalization of football has brought up new topics such as: the risks associated with competitiveness; the need for professional management; creating corporate teams; sports strategies and marketing; accounting; accountability.This paper aims at: i understanding the risks associated with the competitiveness of football leagues; ii comparing the competitive balance in the five largest European football markets (Germany, Spain, France, England and Italy in relation with Brazilian football and; iii interpreting these results in view of the literature concerning sports administration.
Anto J. BENÍTEZ
Full Text Available The International Federation Football Association (FIFA takes over the most homogeneous developing of football as a sport across the world. Even so, players, coaches, audiences and different latitudes stages, shape very different competitions. Sport viewers, using the Media globalization possibilities, are able to distinguish different ways of showing football matches on screen. Forty years ago, Image scholars wondered whether it was possible to recognize signs of style in directing sports, and specifically in the case of football, confronting German and British broadcasting practices. Updating the same objectives, some representative matches of the saudi arabian, spanish and english league have been chosen from the 2013-14 and 2014-15 seasons, and have been compared shot by shot. Despite the development of technologies and techniques, the conclusions of researchers like those of Brien R. Williams are still operative, and it is possible to detect some differences that make explicit and distinct points of view about football.
Gouttebarge, V; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K
In common with elite athletes from other sport disciplines, severe or recurrent injuries in professional footballers are considered to be major physical and psychosocial stressors, which may predispose to mental health problems during and after their career. To determine the prevalence of mental health problems and psychosocial difficulties in current and former professional footballers, and to explore the association between psychosocial stressors and the health conditions studied. Based on validated scales, a paper and electronic questionnaire was developed for current and former professional footballers and distributed by the World Footballers' Union (FIFPro) and players' unions in six countries. Prevalence was calculated and cross-sectional analyses were conducted. The response rate was 29% with 253 responses available for analysis. The prevalence of mental health complaints ranged from 5% (burnout) to 26% (anxiety/depression) in 149 current players and from 16% (burnout) to 39% (anxiety/depression) in 104 former footballers. The prevalence of psychosocial problems ranged from 3% (low self-esteem) to 26% (adverse nutrition behaviour) in current players and from 5% (low self-esteem) to 42% (adverse nutrition behaviour) in former footballers. In both current and former players, mental health problems were significantly associated with low social support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1) and recent life events (OR = 1.4-1.6). In former players, previous surgery was significantly associated with smoking (OR = 1.9). The prevalence of mental health problems and/or psychosocial difficulties in current and former professional footballers was found to be high. The presence of mental health problems was associated with low social support and recent life events. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Miró, O; Sánchez, M; Borrás, A; Millá, J
To know the influence of televised football on the use of emergency department (ED). We assessed the number, demographic characteristics and acuity of patients attended during the broadcast of football matches played by FC Barcelona during Champions' League (n = 12), and they were compared with days without televised football (n = 12). Televised football was associated with a decrease in visits to ED (-18%; p = 0.002). Such a decrease was observed for all ED units, but only for traumatology unit reached statistical significance (-28%; p = 0.006). Decay of ED visits were mainly due to a decrease of low-acuity consults (-30%; p = 0.04). There is a significant decrease on ED use associated with televised football.
Bengtsson, Martin; Wallström, Johan
The game of football has transformed from just being a game into a huge economic market attracting investors from all over the world. As clubs spend more and more money on player acquisitions, player registrations (considered intangible assets) now represent a significant part of the total assets of major European football clubs. Due to this, treatment of player registrations has become a significant accounting issue. The purpose is to analyze and compare from the perspective of an investor, ...
Full Text Available Robots are widely used as a vehicle to spark interest in science and technology in learners. A number of initiatives focus on this issue, for instance, the Roberta Initiative, the FIRST Lego League, the World Robot Olympiad and RoboCup Junior. Robotic competitions are valuable not only for school learners but also for university students, as the RoboCup initiative shows. Besides technical skills, the students get some project exposure and experience what it means to finish their tasks on time. But qualifying students for future high-tech areas should not only be for students from developed countries. In this article, we present our experiences with research and education in robotics within the RoboCup initiative, in Germany and South Africa; we report on our experiences with trying to get the RoboCup initiative in South Africa going. RoboCup has a huge support base of academic institutions in Germany; this is not the case in South Africa. We present our ‘north–south’ collaboration initiatives in RoboCup between Germany and South Africa and discuss some of the reasons why we think it is harder to run RoboCup in South Africa.
Emerich, M; Braeunig, M; Clement, H W; Lüdtke, R; Huber, R
Cupping worldwide has been part of traditional medicine systems and is in the western world used as CAM therapy mainly for treating pain syndromes. The mode of action is up to now unclear. In order to investigate its mechanism we measured in parallel metabolic changes in the tissue under the cupping glass and pressure pain thresholds. In 12 volunteers (6 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic neck pain) a microdialysis system was implanted subcutaneously on both sides (left and right) above the trapezius muscle. After baseline measures cupping was performed at one randomly selected side (left or right), the other side served as control. Every 20 min during baseline measures and for 280 min after cupping, microdialysis probes for detection of lactate, pyruvate, glucose and glycerin were taken. In addition, pain thresholds were measured before and after cupping with algometry. Cupping resulted in a strong increase of lactate (beginning 160 min after cupping until the end of the measurements) and the lactate/pyruvate ratio, indicating an anaerobe metabolism in the surrounding tissue. Baseline pain thresholds were non-significantly lower in neck pain patients compared to healthy controls and slightly increased immediately after cupping (ppain patients). After 280 min no more significant changes of pain thresholds were detected. Cupping induces >280 min lasting anaerobe metabolism in the subcutaneous tissue and increases immediate pressure pain thresholds in some areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
We address the problem of modeling and classifying American Football offense teams’ plays in video, a challenging example of group activity analysis. Automatic play classification will allow coaches to infer patterns and tendencies of opponents more ef- ficiently, resulting in better strategy planning in a game. We define a football play as a unique combination of player trajectories. To this end, we develop a framework that uses player trajectories as inputs to MedLDA, a supervised topic model. The joint maximiza- tion of both likelihood and inter-class margins of MedLDA in learning the topics allows us to learn semantically meaningful play type templates, as well as, classify different play types with 70% average accuracy. Furthermore, this method is extended to analyze individual player roles in classifying each play type. We validate our method on a large dataset comprising 271 play clips from real-world football games, which will be made publicly available for future comparisons.
Evaluation of a real world intervention using professional football players to promote a healthy diet and physical activity in children and adolescents from a lower socio-economic background: a controlled pretest-posttest design
Background The increasing rates of obesity among children and adolescents, especially in those from lower socio-economic backgrounds, emphasise the need for interventions promoting a healthy diet and physical activity. The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the ‘Health Scores!’ program, which combined professional football player role models with a school-based program to promote a healthy diet and physical activity to socially vulnerable children and adolescents. Methods The intervention was implemented in two settings: professional football clubs and schools. Socially vulnerable children and adolescents (n = 165 intervention group, n = 440 control group, aged 10-14 year) provided self-reported data on dietary habits and physical activity before and after the four-month intervention. Intervention effects were evaluated using repeated measures analysis of variance. In addition, a process evaluation was conducted. Results No intervention effects were found for several dietary behaviours, including consumption of breakfast, fruit, soft drinks or sweet and savoury snacks. Positive intervention effects were found for self-efficacy for having a daily breakfast (p sports participation no significant intervention effect was found. In total, 92 pupils completed the process evaluation, the feedback was largely positive. Conclusions The ‘Health Scores!’ intervention was successful in increasing psychosocial correlates of a healthy diet and PA. The use of professional football players as a credible source for health promotion was appealing to socially vulnerable children and adolescents. PMID:24886227
This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....
This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....
Kristensen, L.; Jensen, G.; Hansen, A.
An outdoor calibration facility for cup anemometers, where the signals from 10 anemometers of which at least one is a reference can be can be recorded simultaneously, has been established. The results are discussed with special emphasis on the statisticalsignificance of the calibration expressions....... It is concluded that the method has the advantage that many anemometers can be calibrated accurately with a minimum of work and cost. The obvious disadvantage is that the calibration of a set of anemometersmay take more than one month in order to have wind speeds covering a sufficiently large magnitude range...
Full Text Available There is incerasing emphasis on clubs to detect players and nurture and guide them throught the talent identification proces. More over, different factors may contribute to performance prediction at different ages. Thus any such model would need to be agespecific (Reilly et al, 2000. The aim of this paper was to determine essential principles of proces talent identification and determine antropometric, physiological and psychological profile and football-specifc skills that could be used for talent identification in players aged 10-12 years.
Kilinc, M.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.; Kurioka, K.; Wood, S.; D'Argent, N.; Martin, D.; McHugh, I.; Tapper, N.; McGuire, D.
Natural forests store vast amounts of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Given the significance of natural forests, there is a lack of carbon accounting of primary forests that are undisturbed by human activities. One reason for this lack of interest stems from ecological orthodoxy that suggests that primary forests should be close to dynamic equilibrium, in that Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) approaches zero. However, recent results from the northern hemisphere and tropics, using eddy covariance flux towers, indicate that primary forests are a greater sink than first thought. The role of evergreen primary forests in Australian carbon balance studies remain uncertain and hence may function differently to their deciduous counterparts in the Northern Hemisphere. In order to address the lack of baseline carbon accounts, an undisturbed, 300 year old Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) ecosystem, located in the Central Highlands of Victoria (Australia) was selected as a permanent study site to investigate carbon and water budgets over diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles. Mountain Ash trees are the world's tallest angiosperms (flowering plants), and one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the biosphere, with an estimated 1900 tC ha-1. A 110 m tall micrometeorological tower that includes eddy covariance instrumentation was installed in August 2005. An independent biometric approach quantifying the annual net gain or loss of carbon was also made within close proximity to the flux tower. Analysis of NEP in 2006 suggests that the ecosystem acted as a carbon sink of 2.5 tC ha-1 yr-1. Woody and soil biomass increment for the same year was estimated to be 2.8 tC ha-1yr-1, in which nearly half of the biomass production was partitioned into the aboveground woody tissue. These results indicate that temperate primary forests act as carbon sinks, and are able to maintain their carbon sink status due to their uneven stand
Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter
is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under...... the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Menstrual cup. 884.5400 Section 884.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5400 Menstrual cup. (a) Identification. A menstrual...
Kim, Kun ho
The International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide tournament that evaluates a high-school student's ability to solve various physics conundrums that have not been fully resolved in the past. The research presented here is my solution to the cup drum problem. The physics behind a cup drum has never been explored or modelled. A cup drum is a musical instrument that can generate different frequencies and amplitudes depending on the location of a cup held upside-down over, on or under a water surface. The tapping sound of a cup drum can be divided into two components: standing waves and plate vibration. By individually researching the nature of these two sounds, I arrived at conclusions that could accurately predict the frequencies in most cases. When the drum is very close to the surface, qualitative explanations are given. In addition, I examined the trend of the tapping sound amplitude at various distances and qualitatively explained the experimental results. (paper)
Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Imanol; Aguado, Maite
The calibration results (the transfer function) of an anemometer equipped with several cup rotors were analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic forces measured on the isolated cups in a wind tunnel. The correlation was based on a Fourier analysis of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force. Three different cup shapes were studied: typical conical cups, elliptical cups and porous cups (conical-truncated shape). Results indicated a good correlation between the anemometer factor, K, and the ratio between the first two coefficients in the Fourier series decomposition of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force. (paper)
Outlines the methods of using football in teaching French in the American classroom by using French Canadian newspapers and other visual media available in the United States, in addition to specific language activities. (LG)
Brown, Matthew D; Lanci, Gloria
Football is central to Brazilian society, its way of imagining itself and its positionin the world. Existing accounts of the origins of football in Brazil in the latenineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries tend towards mono-causalexplanations, highlighting the role of British pioneers and Brazilianenthusiasm for the game. This article argues for a multi-causal explanation,using a mixed methodology of archival research in Brazil and the UK,combined with spatial analysis through the developme...
Cláudio Vicente di Gioia F. Silva; Walter Gassenferth; Giovanna Lamastra Pacheco; Maria Augusta Soares Machado
World sport has been seen as a growing industry, generating revenues of roughly US$ 1 trillion a year. Playing a major role in this industry, football (soccer) is accountable for an annual turnover of approximately US$ 250 billion – Brazil’s share being approximately 1% of that amount. The growing marketing and globalization of football has brought up new topics such as: the risks associated with competitiveness; the need for professional management; creating corporate teams; sports strategi...
Grygorowicz, Monika; Michałowska, Martyna; Jurga, Paulina; Piontek, Tomasz; Jakubowska, Honorata; Kotwicki, Tomasz
Female football is becoming an increasingly popular women's team sports discipline around the world. The Women's Football Committee in Polish Football Association (WFC_PFA) has developed a long-term strategic plan to popularize the discipline across the country and enhance girls' participation. On one hand, it is postulated to increase the number of female footballers, and on the other hand it is crucial to decrease the number of girls quitting football prematurely. To find the reasons for sports career termination among female football players. cross-sectional with retrospective information about reasons of career termination. On-line questionnaire was filled out by on-line access. Ninety-three former female footballers. factors leading to career termination. Participants completed the on-line questionnaire. The analysis was performed referring to two groups: "injury group" - in which the injury was the main reason for quitting football, and "other group" - in which the female player stopped playing football due to all other factors. Thirty percent of former Polish female football players terminated their career due to a long-term treatment for an injury. Over 27 percent (27.7%) females had ended their careers because they were not able to reconcile sports with work/studying. Over 10 percent (10.8%) of former football players reported that becoming a wife and/or mother was the reason for career termination. Losing motivation and interest in sport was reported by 9.2%(n=6) of present study participants who decided to terminate the career due to non-injury reasons. The results clearly show that more effort is needed to support female football players, especially after an injury, so that they do not quit the sport voluntarily.
Full Text Available According to current trends in the analysis of new social movements, protests are related to economic issues or social inequalities, particularly those of a religious or ethnic nature which, in turn, produce new communications directed at the political system. The present study aims to determine the relationship between football and the social movements that occurred in Brazil in June 2013, as well as investigate the responses of the political system to these social grievances, centered primarily on the juridification of these social spheres. Thus, it focuses on how the legal and political systems absorb these communications into their self-referential logic. To that end, the methodology used is based on the structural functionalism of Niklas Luhmann and his theory of autopoietic social systems. The results demonstrate that both systems – political and legal – were significantly influenced by football, specifically by the substantial investments allocated to hosting the 2014 World Cup in Brazil which, when contrasted with the low return of public services in the country, reveal the root causes of June 2013. Según las tendencias actuales en el análisis de los nuevos movimientos sociales, las protestas están relacionadas con cuestiones económicas o desigualdades sociales, en particular las de carácter religioso o étnico que, a su vez, producen nuevas comunicaciones dirigidas al sistema político. Este estudio pretende determinar la relación entre el fútbol y los movimientos sociales que se produjeron en Brasil en junio de 2013, así como investigar las respuestas del sistema político a estas demandas sociales, centradas principalmente en la juridificación de estas esferas sociales. Por lo tanto, se centra en cómo los sistemas legales y políticos absorben estas comunicaciones en su lógica autorreferencial. Para ello, la metodología empleada se basa en el funcionalismo estructural de Niklas Luhmann y su teoría de los sistemas
Rose, Chantelle M.; Adams, Jacqueline M.; Hinchey, Elizabeth K.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Patterson, Mark R.
Pressure increases rapidly with depth in a water body. Ocean and Great Lakes scientists often use this physical feature of water as the basis of a fun pastime performed aboard research vessels around the world: the shrinking of polystyrene cups. Depending on the depth to which the cups are deployed, the results can be quite striking! Capitalizing…
Moore, John W.
Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more
Paige, Roderick R.
This booklet is designed to make available research findings about football with interpretations for practical application. Chapter 1, "Physical Characteristics of Football Athletes," includes a table comparing the height and weight of National Football League players and All-Star players. Somatotyping and body composition are discussed. In…
Kazmierczak, P.M.; Nikolaou, K.; Graser, A.; Reiser, M.F.; Cyran, C.C.; Rominger, A.
Imaging plays an essential role in the therapeutic management of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) patients for localizing the primary tumor, for the identification of tumor entities for which a dedicated therapy regimen is available and for the characterization of clinicopathological subentities that direct the subsequent diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Modalities include conventional x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound as well as positron emission tomography (PET)-CT and MRI-PET. In whole body imaging CT has a high sensitivity for tumor entities which frequently present as a metastasized cancer illness. According to the current literature CT is diagnostic in 86% of patients with pancreatic carcinoma, in 36% of patients with colon carcinoma and in 74% of patients with lung carcinoma. Additionally a meta-analysis showed that for patients with squamous cell carcinoma and cervical lymph node metastases a positive diagnosis was possible in 22% of the cases using CT, in 36% using MRI and in 28-57% using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT ( 18 F-FDG PET-CT). In addition, MRI plays an important role in the localization of primary occult tumors (e.g. breast and prostate) because of its high soft tissue contrast and options for functional imaging. At the beginning of the diagnostic algorithm stands the search for a possible primary tumor and CT of the neck, thorax and abdomen is most frequently used for whole body staging. Subsequent organ-specific imaging examinations follow, e.g. mammography in women with axillary lymphadenopathy. For histological and immunohistochemical characterization of tumor tissue, imaging is also applied to identify the most accessible and representative tumor manifestation for biopsy. Tumor biopsy may be guided by CT, MRI or ultrasound and MRI also plays a central role in the localization of primary occult tumors because of superior soft tissue contrast and options for functional imaging (perfusion
Compared to security surveillance and military applications, where automated action analysis is prevalent, the sports domain is extremely under-served. Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. American football is the most popular sport in the United States, however most game analysis is still done manually. Line of scrimmage and offensive team formation recognition are two statistics that must be tagged by American Football coaches when watching and evaluating past play video clips, a process which takes many man hours per week. These two statistics are also the building blocks for more high-level analysis such as play strategy inference and automatic statistic generation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework where given an American football play clip, we automatically identify the video frame in which the offensive team lines in formation (formation frame), the line of scrimmage for that play, and the type of player formation the offensive team takes on. The proposed framework achieves 95% accuracy in detecting the formation frame, 98% accuracy in detecting the line of scrimmage, and up to 67% accuracy in classifying the offensive team\\'s formation. To validate our framework, we compiled a large dataset comprising more than 800 play-clips of standard and high definition resolution from real-world football games. This dataset will be made publicly available for future comparison. © 2013 IEEE.
Xiao Fan Liu
Full Text Available Professional association football is a game of talent. The success of a professional club hinges largely on its ability of assembling the best team. Building on a dataset of player transfer records among more than 400 clubs in 24 world-wide top class leagues from 2011 to 2015, this study aims to relate a club's success to its activities in the player transfer market from a network perspective. We confirm that modern professional football is indeed a money game, in which larger investment spent on the acquisition of talented players generally yields better team performance. However, further investigation shows that professional football clubs can actually play different strategies in surviving or even excelling this game, and the success of strategies is strongly associated to their network properties in the football player transfer network.
Liu, Xiao Fan; Liu, Yu-Liang; Lu, Xin-Hang; Wang, Qi-Xuan; Wang, Tong-Xing
Professional association football is a game of talent. The success of a professional club hinges largely on its ability of assembling the best team. Building on a dataset of player transfer records among more than 400 clubs in 24 world-wide top class leagues from 2011 to 2015, this study aims to relate a club's success to its activities in the player transfer market from a network perspective. We confirm that modern professional football is indeed a money game, in which larger investment spent on the acquisition of talented players generally yields better team performance. However, further investigation shows that professional football clubs can actually play different strategies in surviving or even excelling this game, and the success of strategies is strongly associated to their network properties in the football player transfer network.
Luiz Carlos Couto de Albuquerque Moraes
Full Text Available The Relative Age Effect, which consists in the advantage obtained by an athlete born closer to the beginning of the year selection, is shown as an important variable for the development of talent, particularly due to maturational aspects. The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of the birth dates of the soccer players participating in the Under 17 World Championship, and verify the differences in their height. In order to do so, data referring to 1479 athletes registered in the last three competitions (2007, 2009 and 2011 was collected from the official FIFA site. Subsequently, the corresponding data was divided into birth date quartiles and also zone position of the field. For the comparison of proportional representativeness of each birth date quartile, it was used the chi-squared test with Bonferroni correction. The ANOVA factorial 2x2 was applied to compare the heights by birth date quartile and by zone position of the field. A Spearman correlation analysis was also used to verify the association between the variables. Differences were found in the distribution of birth date quartiles, with a predominance of athletes born in the first and second quartiles; and in the height of the athletes, having athletes who were born in the first and second quartiles a higher average height. It was concluded that the relative age effect is a factor that may influence the selection of soccer players and that influences the height (a maturational variable.
Equy, V?ronique; David-Tchouda, Sandra; Dreyfus, Michel; Riethmuller, Didier; Vendittelli, Fran?oise; Cabaud, Victoire; Langer, Bruno; Margier, Jennifer; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Schaal, Jean-Patrick
Background Assisted vaginal delivery by vacuum extraction is frequent. Metallic resterilizible metallic vacuum cups have been routinely used in France. In the last few years a new disposable semi-soft vacuum extraction cup, the iCup, has been introduced. Our objective was to compare maternal and new-born outcomes between this disposable cup and the commonly used Drapier-Faure metallic cup. Methods This was a multicenter prospective randomized controlled open clinical trial performed in the ma...
... Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard announces the availability of the 2012 program calendar for the on-water activities associated with the ``2012 America's Cup World Series... availability is effective on August 3, 2012. ADDRESSES: Documents indicated in this preamble as being available...
Lee, Wellington K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morris, Tyler Jake [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chu, Andrew Chun-An [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Russ, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Emerson-Lewis, Michelle
The ThunderBird Cup v2.0 (TBC2) program falls under the Minority Serving Institution Pipeline Program (MSIPP) that aims to establish a world-class workforce development, education and research program that combines the strengths of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and national laboratories to create a K-20 pipeline of students to participate in cybersecurity and related fields.
Lee, Wellington K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morris, Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chu, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilmore, Katrina [Paine College, Augusta, GA (United States); Russ, Joshua [Voorhees College, Denmark, SC (United States); Carter, Aliyah [Norfolk State Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
The ThunderBird Cup v3.0 (TBC3) program falls under the Minority Serving Institution Pipeline Program (MSIPP) that aims to establish a world-class workforce development, education and research program that combines the strengths of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and national laboratories to create a K-20 pipeline of students to participate in cybersecurity and related fields.
Full Text Available Background: Lower limbs nerves are exposed to mechanical injuries in the football players and the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of football on the lower leg nerves. Materials and Methods: Nerve conduction studies were done on 35 male college students (20 football players, 15 non active during 2006 to 2007 in the Shiraz rehabilitation faculty. Standard nerve conduction techniques using to evaluate dominant and non dominant lower limb nerves. Results: The motor latency of deep peroneal and tibial nerves of dominant leg of football players and sensory latency of superficial peroneal, tibial and compound nerve action potential of tibial nerve of both leg in football players were significantly prolonged (p<0.05. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of tibial and common peroneal in football players were significant delayed (p<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that football is sport with high contact and it causes sub-clinical neuropathies due to nerve entrapment.
Lamplot, Joseph D; Matava, Matthew J
Quadriceps and hamstring injuries occur frequently in football and are generally treated conservatively. While return to competition following hamstring strains is relatively quick, a high rate of injury recurrence highlights the importance of targeted rehabilitation and conditioning. This review describes the clinical manifestations of thigh-related soft-tissue injuries seen in football players. Two of these-muscle strains and contusions-are relatively common, while a third condition-the Morel-Lavallée lesion-is a rare, yet relevant injury.
... production increases during a meal and helps neutralize acid production and rinse food particles from the mouth.) If your child is thirsty between meals, offer water in the cup. Do not let your child carry the training cup around, or get into the habit of ...
Klempner, Samuel J; Costa, Daniel B; Wu, Peggy A; Ariyabuddhiphongs, Kim D
This study reports on the safety of the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practice of cupping in a patient undergoing concomitant therapy with bevacizumab for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and raises awareness of the need for improved communication between CAM practitioners and oncologists during the care of patients with cancer. The practice of cupping generates local hyperemia, disrupts superficial vasculature in the dermis, and leads to cutaneous lesions including circular erythema, edema, and subsequently ecchymosis. There are no data on the safety of cupping in patients being treated with bevacizumab. This is a single-institution case report. The setting for this study was a tertiary-care academic medical center. A patient with advanced NSCLC received four cycles of carboplatin AUC 6, paclitaxel 200 mg/m(2), and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg, and was continued on every-3-week maintenance bevacizumab 15 mg/kg. The patient underwent glass dry cupping during cycle six of maintenance bevacizumab treatment without overt cutaneous adverse events or bleeding. The patient did not realize he should have communicated his cupping plans or recent bevacizumab treatment with his providers.
Morgan, A F D
This paper details the work done on the design of the Faraday cups for the Diamond injector. Faraday cups are a basic charge capture device which can be used as reference points for current measurement calibration. Diamond has Faraday cups in positions covering the complete energy range of the injector from the electron gun to the booster synchrotron extraction. Specifically there are cups at 90 keV, 4 MeV, 100 MeV and 3 GeV. An initial design decision was made to make the designs passive to increase reliability and reduce complexity. The 90 keV and 4 MeV cups were modified from an existing design using analytical formulae and MathCAD, while the high energy 100 MeV and 3 GeV designs were done using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code and MatLAB. The EGSnrc led designs achieved a theoretical electron capture of around 99%, allowing them to be used with reasonable certainty as calibration references. Due to the modest 5Hz repetition rate, power loading of the structures is minimal and active cooling is not required for...
Most professional European football clubs are well-structured businesses. Therefore, the financial performance of investments in players becomes crucial. In this paper, after the problem is discussed and formalized, an optimization model with the objective of maximizing the expected value...
Junghagen, Sven; Lillo, Gonzalo Leal
The aim of this paper is to conceptually illustrate the tension between commercialisation and club authenticity, which is a potential consequence of stadium relocation. There is a commercial pressure for relocating a football club to new and more modern facilities, but also a pressure from...
Full Text Available The Role of Islamic Treatment Method “Cupping Therapy” to Decrease Blood Glucose Levels. Cupping therapy has long been used by most Muslims and it has occupied as prominent position among therapeutic approaches.The proof of medical modern research lately have been supports expediency therapy which recommended by the prophet. Nowdays,many medical experts who know the benefits of cupping therapy in treating diseases. Diabetes melitus is a disease that is directly related to blood glucose levels. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF in 2013, there were 382 million people suffer from diabetes melitus worldwide and Indonesia as seventh ranks in the world. This study aims to determine the effect of cupping therapy on blood glucose levels in patients of Klinik Sehat dr. Abdurrahmân Medan in 2014. The Study used pre-experimental method with one group pre-test and post-test without a control group and sample took by randomization with a sample of 32 people. Based on the Wilcoxon test with á = 0.05 obtained p-value = 0.021 that means there were a significant differences in mean blood glucose levels before and after cupping therapy (p-value < á.
Podberesky, Daniel J; Unsell, Bryan J; Anton, Christopher G
It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population.
Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G.; Unsell, Bryan J.
It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)
Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Unsell, Bryan J. [Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States)
It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)
Full Text Available Football is one of the most popular sports in the world. It is played by a diverse set of people, from little kids to professional athletes, who possess a large range of physical abilities and skill. One of the most important pieces of equipment is the football itself. This paper examines the physics behind the optimal football pressure as a function of ball speed, touch and force of kick, considering the vibration and dynamics of the football as it is kicked. It was observed that the pressure of a football plays a significant role in the dynamic interaction between the ball and foot. A low-order nonlinear lumped mass dynamic model of kicking foot and ball with mass, stiffness and damping was proposed and equations of motion were derived. Simulations were conducted and the optimal football pressure between 0.138 bar (2 psi and 0.965 bar (14 psi was proposed considering a multi-objective DIRECT optimization.
Yanci, Javier; Castillo, Daniel; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Urbán, Tomás; Reina, Raúl
The aim of this study was to determine and to compare the external match load (ML), according to sport class (FT) of footballers with cerebral palsy (CP) during the International Federation of CP Football (IFCPF) World Championships Qualification Tournament. Forty-two international male footballers with CP participated in the data collection. The footballers with CP were classified according to their FT in three groups (i.e. FT5/6, FT7, and FT8). External ML (i.e. total distance covered, distance covered at different speeds, accelerations, decelerations, player load, peak metabolic power and changes of directions) were collected for both halves during official matches with Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. The results of this study showed that players with lower impairment (FT8) covered more distance (ES = .30-.60) at high-intensity running (HIR: 13.0-18.0 km·h -1 ) and sprinting (SPR: > 18.0 km·h -1 ), and performed more (ES = .29-1.08) accelerations, decelerations and CODs at high intensity in matches than other players (i.e. FT5/6 and FT7 groups). Because high-intensity actions are relevant to football performance, and there are differences due to players' impairments, the IFCPF classification protocols should include high-intensity actions during the technical assessment as part of the procedures for determining the sport class of football players with CP.
Bács Éva Bába Ms
Full Text Available Professional football has been going through a period of unprecedented economic growth since the ’90s. Football ventures are increasingly becoming medium-sized companies. There have also been organizational changes, reflected in changes in the legal forms of professional football clubs, and in the use of modern controlling, planning, risk and financial management. Important questions remain unanswered with regard to the financing of football clubs, such as the impact of risks or the market value of capital costs. In addition to liquidity and the above, the acceptance of the determinational dependence of certain capital funds on sports results and the development of a strategy suitable for the optimal target system are also important requirements. In this article, we would like to present the answers football companies have given to the challenges they have been facing which affect their organisational system. In the light of international comparison, we examine the status of Hungarian football, which was once world famous and enjoyed better times in the past.
A typical embodiment has an end fitting for a nuclear reactor fuel element that is joined to the control rod guide tubes by means of a nut plate assembly. The nut plate assembly has an array of nuts, each engaging the respective threaded end of the control rod guide tubes. The nuts, moreover, are retained on the plate during handling and before fuel element assembly by means of hollow cylindrical locking cups that are brazed to the plate and loosely circumscribe the individual enclosed nuts. After the nuts are threaded onto the respective guide tube ends, the locking cups are partially deformed to prevent one or more of the nuts from working loose during reactor operation. The locking cups also prevent loose or broken end fitting parts from becoming entrained in the reactor coolant
Full Text Available The entry in an informational society which is developing day by day has increased the importance of economics on the professional sports market. The ways of economy and sport have aways met, but they were never so interdependent as in our days. In order to resist on the market, but especially in order to be competitive and to obtain sporting succes, a modern football club must consider managerial practices which to permit a good economic development. Manchester United is one of the most diversified football clubs in the world, earning income from various markets, such as the gambling, clothing, hospitality and alimentation or entertainment markets. The research presents some of the diversification forms Manchester United has used in order to grow its financial incomes.
Thomas, Grant; Good, Jessica J; Gross, Alexi R
The present study tested real-world racial stereotype use in the context of college athletic recruiting. Stereotype confirmation suggests that observers use stereotypes as hypotheses and interpret relevant evidence in a biased way that confirms their stereotypes. Shifting standards suggest that the evaluative standard to which we hold a target changes as a function of their group membership. We examined whether stereotype confirmation and shifting standards effects would be seen in college football coaches during recruiting. College football coaches evaluated a Black or White player on several attributes and made both zero- and non-zero-sum allocations. Results suggested that coaches used the evidence presented to develop biased subjective evaluations of the players based on race while still maintaining equivalent objective evaluations. Coaches also allocated greater overall resources to the Black recruit than the White recruit.
De Fiore, Luca
There is a rising interest for clinical cases in medicine. Actually, they don't necessarily conflict with the evidence-based medicine approach; rather, as several authors made clear, EBM-oriented case reports and clinical trials could be complementary. Cases and case series could even represent the first line of evidence and they are extremely valuable in discovering new pathologies and monitoring unexpected drug effects. They also play a relevant role in continuing medical education. The new section of Recenti Progressi in Medicina is edited by a prominent Italian research Institute (Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, CNR). It focuses on a single case, guiding the physicians' decision-making from differential diagnosis to the treatment options.
Thomas, Bruce J; Ho, Garry W K; Yu, Timothy J; Henne, Michelle I
Providing care to football players often involves recognizing and treating nonorthopedic conditions. We report on common ophthalmologic, dental, and dermatologic conditions seen by the football team physician.
Christensen, Mette Krogh; Kahr Sørensen, Jan
Introduction The national football and sports elite unions in Denmark urge young football talents to complete upper secondary education while they are building football careers. The football culture has a magnetic attraction on young football players. Yet, attempting a professional career...... in football involves great mental and physical strains that profoundly affect the future lives of the young talents. Aims The study aimed to examine young (aged 15-19) male football players´ subjective experience and biographic memories of life as a football talent. An emphasis was placed on daily life...
Koch, Matthias; Zellner, Johannes; Berner, Arne; Grechenig, Stephan; Krutsch, Volker; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter; Krutsch, Werner
Scientific studies on injury characteristics are rather common in professional football but not in amateur football despite the thousands of amateur football tournaments taking place worldwide each year. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preparation and injury patterns of players of two different football skill levels who participated in an international amateur football tournament. In a prospective cohort study, an international amateur football tournament of medical doctors in 2011 was analysed with regard to training and warm-up preparation, the level of football played before the tournament and injury data during the tournament by means of standardised injury definitions and data samples for football. Amateur players of registered football clubs had higher training exposure before the tournament (p football players showed a significantly higher overall injury incidence (p injuries (p injuries and complaints was the lower extremities. Orthopaedic and trauma surgeons had the lowest overall injury incidence and anaesthetists the highest (p = 0.049) during the tournament. For the first time, this study presents detailed information on the injury incidence and injury patterns of an amateur football tournament. Less-trained recreational players sustained significantly more injuries than better-trained amateur players, probably due to the lack of sufficient preparation before the tournament. Preventive strategies against overuse and traumatic injuries of recreational football players should start with regular training and warm-up programmes in preparation for a tournament.
Arslan, Müzeyyen; Yeşilçam, Nesibe; Aydin, Duygu; Yüksel, Ramazan; Dane, Senol
A recent study showed that cupping had therapeutic effects in rats with myocardial infarction and cardiac arrhythmias. The current studyaimed to investigate the possible useful effects of cupping therapy on cardiac rhythm in terms of heart rate variability (HRV). Forty healthy participants were included. Classic wet cupping therapy was applied on five points of the back. Recording electrocardiography (to determine HRV) was applied 1 hour before and 1 hour after cupping therapy. All HRV parameters increased after cupping therapy compared with before cupping therapy in healthy persons. These results indicate for the first time in humans that cupping might be cardioprotective. In this study, cupping therapy restored sympathovagal imbalances by stimulating the peripheral nervous system.
Sortland, O.; Tysvaer, A.T.
Thirty-three former football players from the National Football Team of Norway were examined by cerebral computer tomography (CT). The CT studies, evaluated for brain atrophy, visually and by linear measurements compared two different normal materials. One third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy. It is concluded that the atrophy probably was caused by repeated small head injuries during the football play, mainly in connection with heading the ball. (orig.)
Shaban , Tamer; Ravalia , Munir
The Cupping Therapy mechanism of action is not clear. Cupping may increase local blood circulation, and may have an immunomodulation effect. Local and systemic effects of Cupping Therapy were reported. Genetic expression is a physiological process that regulates body functions. Genetic modulation is a reported acupuncture effect. In this article, the authors suggest genetic modulation theory as one of the possible mechanisms of action of cupping therapy.
The double-wall paper cup is an everyday object that can be used in the laboratory to study heat transfer. The experiment described here has been done by physics students aged 12-13 years; it can also be used in a different context to prompt debate about environmental issues.
... agents during prophylaxis (cleaning). The dental handpiece spins the rubber cup holding the polishing agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I (general... regulation in part 820 of this chapter, with the exception of § 820.180, with respect to general requirements...
Mitchell, Jonathan; Vandeperre, Luc; Dvorak, Rob; Kosior, Ed; Tarverdi, Karnik; Cheeseman, Christopher
The majority of disposable cups are made from paper plastic laminates (PPL) which consist of high quality cellulose fibre with a thin internal polyethylene coating. There are limited recycling options for PPLs and this has contributed to disposable cups becoming a high profile, problematic waste. In this work disposable cups have been shredded to form PPL flakes and these have been used to reinforce polypropylene to form novel paper plastic composites (PPCs). The PPL flakes and polypropylene were mixed, extruded, pelletised and injection moulded at low temperatures to prevent degradation of the cellulose fibres. The level of PPL flake addition and the use of a maleated polyolefin coupling agent to enhance interfacial adhesion have been investigated. Samples have been characterised using tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis. Use of a coupling agent allows composites containing 40 wt.% of PPL flakes to increase tensile strength of PP by 50% to 30 MPa. The Young modulus also increases from 1 to 2.5 GPa and the work to fracture increases by a factor of 5. The work demonstrates that PPL disposable cups have potential to be beneficially reused as reinforcement in novel polypropylene composites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Friis Pedersen, T.; Busche, P.
Errors associated with the measurement of wind speed are the major sources of uncertainties in power performance testing of wind turbines. Field comparisons of well-calibrated anemometers show significant and not acceptable difference. The European CLASSCUP project posed the objectives to quantify the errors associated with the use of cup anemometers, and to develop a classification system for quantification of systematic errors of cup anemometers. This classification system has now been implemented in the IEC 61400-12-1 standard on power performance measurements in annex I and J. The classification of cup anemometers requires general external climatic operational ranges to be applied for the analysis of systematic errors. A Class A category classification is connected to reasonably flat sites, and another Class B category is connected to complex terrain, General classification indices are the result of assessment of systematic deviations. The present report focuses on methods that can be applied for assessment of such systematic deviations. A new alternative method for torque coefficient measurements at inclined flow have been developed, which have then been applied and compared to the existing methods developed in the CLASSCUP project and earlier. A number of approaches including the use of two cup anemometer models, two methods of torque coefficient measurement, two angular response measurements, and inclusion and exclusion of influence of friction have been implemented in the classification process in order to assess the robustness of methods. The results of the analysis are presented as classification indices, which are compared and discussed. (au)
Full Text Available Since ancient times, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; 補充與替代醫學 bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué have played an important role in human health and welfare. Many therapeutic approaches in healthcare outside the realm of conventional medicine persist in various parts of the world. There is considerable scientific and commercial potential in CAM, which needs to be explored precisely. Cupping therapy (拔罐療法 bá guàn liáo fǎ, one of the CAM, is practiced across the world. This therapy is believed to act by correcting imbalances in the internal bio field, such as by restoring the flow of “Qi (氣qì”. Cupping involves applying a heated cup to generate a partial vacuum that mobilizes the blood flow and promotes effective healing. This review outlines various tools and techniques of cupping therapy.
The America\\'s Cup is the pinnacle event in sailing and it is the oldest sports trophy in the world. The trophy was originally awarded in 1851 for a race around the Isle of Wight, which was won by the schooner ﾑAmericaﾒ. It was subsequently renamed after the yacht and was donated to the New York Yacht Club under the terms of the Deed of Gift, which made the Cup available for perpetual international competition. The 35th America\\'s Cup will be held in May / June 2017 in Bermuda. The races will be sailed in 50-ft foiling catamarans. Instead of a main sail the boats feature a rigid wing. These boats are capable of sailing 3 times the wind speed, with top speeds reaching 45 knots. The lecture describes the technological and human endeavor to develop and prepare the boat and the crew. Developing an America\\'s Cup boat is a multidisciplinary effort. Excellence is required in such different fields as aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structural analysis, advanced composite engineering and building, design of mechanical control systems, hydraulics, electronics and flight control, to name the most important ones. Since automatic control systems (autopilots) are forbidden in the America\\'s Cup rules there is a strong two-way feedback between sailing practicalities and the technological choices being made. Combine this with the management of a very tight build schedule for hulls, beams, foils, rudders and the wing and you get an idea what it means to prepare for the America\\'s Cup.
Friis Pedersen, Troels; Paulsen, Uwe Schmidt
The paper proposes a classification procedure for cup-anemometers based on similar principles as for power converters. A range of operational parameters are established within which the response of the cup-anemometer is evaluated. The characteristics of real cup-anemometers are fitted...... to a realistic 3D cup-anemometer model. Afterwards, the model is used to calculate the response under the range of operational conditions which are set up for the classification. Responses are compared to the normal linear calibration relationship, derived from Wind tunnel calibrations. Results of the 3D cup-anemometer...
McGregor, J C; Rae, A; Melvin, W D
A prospective study over a three year period (1995-8) of footballers' injuries in first team players was undertaken in a similar fashion to a previous study (1990-3). During the present study the Club had a major cup success and appeared to have a younger squad with less major injury and subsequent time out of action. As a result of the earlier paper it would appear that some lessons and observations may have been put into action and helped produce a more consistent standard for the club. Increasing recognition of the need to reduce and monitor the levels and types of injuries seems now to be established.
Football is arguably the world's most popular and globalised sport, and it has been implicated in the continuing efforts in social science disciplines to understand current globalisation processes. Electronic colonialism, the metonym for the dominance of global mediascape by transnational media
Splash cup plants disperse their seeds with the help of raindrops. The seeds sit in a small (mm-scale) conical cup and are ejected upon drop impact. The seeds are ejected at velocities up to five times the impact speed of the raindrop, and are dispersed up to 1 m away from the parent plant, which is only a few cm high. Previous work investigating the mechanism of this remarkable dispersal predicted an optimum cup opening angle of around 40°, which matched reasonably well with experiments performed with 3D-printed splash cup models. Those experiments were done with off-center drop impacts on initially empty cups with no seeds. We discuss similar experiments for cups that are not initially empty, but rather contain seed mimics, water, or both seeds and water. For some of these realistic initial states results are strikingly different from empty cups. Connections to theory will also be discussed.
(cardiovascular conditioning, plyometric work, sport-specific drills, strength training and flexibility exercises to improve speed and agility) on the occurrence of football injuries in 42 out of 300 female high school players were investigated during 1 year of competitive football.28 Significantly fewer players in the intervention ...
... turn, has significant relationships self-confidence, task orientation and ego orientation. In future research, a longitudinal study would be particularly useful to observe the model changes from one phase of footballers or any other sports performance by applying the model. Keywords: psychological strength; football players; ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Sport for people with disabilities has interested scientists for a long time. However, there is a scarcity of research on the subject of amputee football – football adapted to individuals after amputations. The aim of the study was to describe this sport and to review research carried out in this field so far.
Martin, Stephen L.
This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…
It has been inferred that to some extent some football terminologies tend to be cross-linguistic, stemming from the fact that many languages borrow football vocabulary from English. Thus within the field of football, the influence of English is significant. Football in Tanzania dates back to the 1920s and is becoming more and ...
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of injuries in amateur football players during a University Sport South Africa Football tournament and the factors associated with these injuries. A prospective study design to describe football injuries during the University Sport South Africa Football Championships was ...
Full Text Available Football is the most popular sport in the world. Like any contact sport it is susceptible to various kinds of injuries. It is referred the link between methodology of training and the prevention of overuse injuries in youth as it relates to maladaptive sport programs. There is an increasing awareness to growth related conditions and the relation of musculoskeletal development and the onset of youth related conditions. This article examines one specific injury sustained by children and adolescents who play football, Osgood Schlatter disease, and the main mechanisms whereby such injury occur. The aethology is complex and the risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.
The Danish Football Association (DFA) has launched a football-based activity for health called Football Fitness. It is targeting adults playing in voluntary organised, non-profit and municipally subsidised football clubs, and is hugely popular among women. But what is the concept? Dr. Søren Benni...
Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gottschall, Julia
In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models...... are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted...... in the measurement of wind turbine power performance, wind resource assessment and for providing purposeful in-field comparisons between different sensors, e.g. lidar anemometers. With the proposed method, direction dependent errors can be extracted and the mast flow distortion effect on the wind measurements...
Title: Research of football popularity in the Czech republic Objectives: The aim is to determine the public attitude to football, and public opinion on the football competitions. I own contribution will be recommendations for the Football Asocciation of the Czech republic, clubs and media, that could help increase interest in football. Methods: For questioning the Czech public a method of the German marketing agency UFA Sports Hamburg was used and adjusted for Czech conditions. A method of el...
Asim Ali Khan
Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy at a clinical setting for knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted. Cupping was performed on 0-6 th day; 9-11 th day and 14 th day, i.e., 11 sittings follow-up to determine longer term carryover of treatment effects utilizing both objective and subjective assessment. The assessment was performed before and after treatment spreading over a period of 15 days. The results of this study shows significant and better results in the overall management of knee osteoarthritis, particularly in relieving pain, edema, stiffness and disability. The efficacy of treatment with cupping therapy in relieving signs and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis is comparable to that of acetaminophen 650 mg thrice a day orally, in terms of analgesia, anti-inflammatory and resolution of edema with minimal and temporary side-effects like echymosis and blister formation while as control drug has greater side-effects particularly on upper gastrointestinal tract. It is recommended that further studies are conducted with a larger study samples and of longer duration.
Khan, Asim Ali; Jahangir, Umar; Urooj, Shaista
The study aimed to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy at a clinical setting for knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted. Cupping was performed on 0-6(th) day; 9-11(th) day and 14(th) day, i.e., 11 sittings follow-up to determine longer term carryover of treatment effects utilizing both objective and subjective assessment. The assessment was performed before and after treatment spreading over a period of 15 days. The results of this study shows significant and better results in the overall management of knee osteoarthritis, particularly in relieving pain, edema, stiffness and disability. The efficacy of treatment with cupping therapy in relieving signs and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis is comparable to that of acetaminophen 650 mg thrice a day orally, in terms of analgesia, anti-inflammatory and resolution of edema with minimal and temporary side-effects like echymosis and blister formation while as control drug has greater side-effects particularly on upper gastrointestinal tract. It is recommended that further studies are conducted with a larger study samples and of longer duration.
Full Text Available The study of the collaboration, coordination and negotiation among different agents in a multi-agent system (MAS has always been the most challenging yet popular in the research of distributed artificial intelligence. In this paper, we will suggest for RoboCup simulation, a typical MAS, a general decision-making model, rather than define a different algorithm for each tactic (e.g. ball handling, pass, shoot and interception, etc. in soccer games as most RoboCup simulation teams did. The general decision-making model is based on two critical factors in soccer games: the vertical distance to the goal line and the visual angle for the goalpost. We have used these two parameters to formalize the defensive and offensive decisions in RoboCup simulation and the results mentioned above had been applied in NOVAURO®, original name is UJDB, a RoboCup simulation team of Jiangsu University, whose decision-making model, compared with that of Tsinghua University, the world champion team in 2001, is a universal model and easier to be implemented.
Born, D-P; Hoppe, M W; Lindner, N; Freiwald, J; Holmberg, H-C; Sperlich, B
Football is played worldwide and players often have to cope with hot and cold temperatures as well as high altitude conditions. The upcoming and past world championships in Brazil, Qatar and South Africa illustrate the necessity for behavioural strategies and adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. When playing football in the heat or cold, special clothing, hydration and nutritional and acclimatisation strategies are vital for high-level performance. When playing at high altitude, the reduced oxygen partial pressure impairs endurance performance and alters the technical and tactical requirements. Special high-altitude adaptation and preparation strategies are essential for football teams based at sea-level in order to perform well and compete successfully. Therefore, the aim of the underlying review is: 1) to highlight the difficulties and needs of football teams competing in extreme environmental conditions, 2) to summarise the thermoregulatory, physiological, neuronal and psychological mechanism, and 3) to provide recommendations for coping with extreme environmental conditions in order to perform at a high level when playing football in the heat, cold and at high altitude. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Cui, Shuai; Cui, Jin
Cupping therapy of Chinese medicine is able to relieve a variety of diseases or clinical conditions, which results from the comprehensive effects of multiple types of stimulation exerted onto the regional acupoint areas. Among the stimuli, the negative pressure from cupping is one of the main factors inducing therapeutic effects. In the present paper, the authors review development of researches on the underlying mechanism of therapeutic effects of cupping-negative pressure from 1) the factor of intra-cup negative pressure; 2) influence of intra-cup negative pressure on cup-blackspot formation; 3) influence of cupping on regional blood vessels and blood flow; 4) effect of cupping on regional ultrastructure of the capillary in the raw-surface tissue; 5) effect of cupping-negative pressure on regional endothelial cells; and 6) biological effects of negative pressure drainage. Generally, cupping induced negative pressure can dilate local blood vessels to improve microcirculation, promote capillary endothelial cells repair, accelerate granulation and angiogenesis, etc., in the regional tissues, normalizing the patients' functional state at last.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the potentials innovation in football industry. Data were collected from 10 national and international referees, assistant referees and referees’ supervisors in Iran. In this study, technological innovations are identified that assist better refereeing performances. The analysis revealed a significant relationship between using new technologies and referees ‘performance. The results indicate that elite referees, assistant referees and supervisors agreed to use new technological innovations during the game. According to their comments, this kind of technology causes the referees’ performance development.
Eppich, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kips, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lindvall, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
The CUP-2 uranium ore concentrate (UOC) standard reference material, a powder, was produced at the Blind River uranium refinery of Eldorado Resources Ltd. in Canada in 1986. This material was produced as part of a joint effort by the Canadian Certified Reference Materials Project and the Canadian Uranium Producers Metallurgical Committee to develop a certified reference material for uranium concentration and the concentration of several impurity constituents. This standard was developed to satisfy the requirements of the UOC mining and milling industry, and was characterized with this purpose in mind. To produce CUP-2, approximately 25 kg of UOC derived from the Blind River uranium refinery was blended, homogenized, and assessed for homogeneity by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The homogenized material was then packaged into bottles, containing 50 g of material each, and distributed for analysis to laboratories in 1986. The CUP-2 UOC standard was characterized by an interlaboratory analysis program involving eight member laboratories, six commercial laboratories, and three additional volunteer laboratories. Each laboratory provided five replicate results on up to 17 analytes, including total uranium concentration, and moisture content. The selection of analytical technique was left to each participating laboratory. Uranium was reported on an “as-received” basis; all other analytes (besides moisture content) were reported on a “dry-weight” basis. A bottle of 25g of CUP-2 UOC standard as described above was purchased by LLNL and characterized by the LLNL Nuclear Forensics Group. Non-destructive and destructive analytical techniques were applied to the UOC sample. Information obtained from short-term techniques such as photography, gamma spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy were used to guide the performance of longer-term techniques such as ICP-MS. Some techniques, such as XRF and ICP-MS, provided complementary types of data. The results
Liu, Zhidan; Chen, Chunlan; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Chuang; Li, Zunyuan; Liang, Wei; Lin, Yufang
Cupping therapy has a long history in traditional medicine especially in Asian countries. It was controversial whether cupping induced blisters are beneficial to healing effects, and the formation and content in the blisters remain unexplored. We aimed to identify and compare the molecular components of the blister fluid from the cupping therapy and the scalds to explore the necessary of inducing cupping induced blisters. Fluid sample of blisters from fifteen patients receiving cupping therapy (Cupping group) and scald burns (Scald group) were collected in this study. Proteins from the blisters were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-gel) and further analyzed by mass spectrometry. In addition, the changes in particular proteins were confirmed by Western blotting. The protein components are significantly different between blister from cupping therapy and scalds. The immune responses, oxidative stress and metabolic related proteins (Ig lambda-2 chain C regions, Ig gamma-1 chain C region, hemopexin, prdx2, calmodulin, succinyl-CoA ligase and tetranectin) were increased, whereas the hemoglobin subunit beta was decreased in the Cupping group compared with the Scald group. Cupping induced blisters contain several proteins which relate to the activation of certain immune pathways including anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, tissue repairing and metabolic regulation. This proteomic analysis may indicate a significant clue to the mechanism study of cupping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Engard, Derek J; Sandfort, Delvin R; Gotshall, Robert W; Brazile, William J
Personal noise exposure samples were collected from five workers at a large-sized college football stadium and five workers at a medium-sized college football stadium in northern Colorado during three home football games, for a total of 30 personal noise exposures. In addition, personal noise exposure samples were collected from five fans at a National Football League (NFL) stadium, and from two fans at each of the college stadiums during three home football games, for a total of 27 personal noise exposure samples. None of the workers' noise doses were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 90 dBA. However, 11 of 28 (39%) workers' noise doses exceeded the OSHA action level of 85 dBA that would require enrollment in a hearing conservation program. Following ACGIH® recommendations for noise exposure limits, 27 of 28 (96%) workers would be considered overexposed. In addition, 24 of 25 fans (96%) were also overexposed according to ACGIH and World Health Organization recommendations. At the 95% confidence level, workers' and fans' noise exposures were not significantly different between the three stadiums. However, there was significant noise level variability between the games in each individual stadium (e.g., 82 dbA vs. 87 dbA mean worker OSHA noise exposure for two games at the large-sized college stadium, p=0.001). Given the personal sampling results for the stadium workers, the investigators believe that stadium management at these two universities should implement a hearing conservation program and provide hearing protection. Management should include a warning of possible loud-noise exposure during any sporting events held at the stadiums in fan guides, pamphlets, websites, or other appropriate communication tools. This information should include the health effects of loud noise exposure, namely, noise-induced hearing loss, the information should also be specifically targeted to parents of young children
Friis Pedersen, Troels
classification system. A classification method for cup anemometers has been developed, which proposes general external operational ranges to be used. Anormal category range connected to ideal sites of the IEC power performance standard was made, and another extended category range for complex terrain...... the objectives to quantify the errors associated with the use of cup anemometers, and to determine the requirements for an optimum design of a cup anemometer, and to develop a classification system forquantification of systematic errors of cup anemometers. The present report describes this proposed...... was proposed. General classification indices were proposed for all types of cup anemometers. As a resultof the classification, the cup anemometer will be assigned to a certain class: 0.5, 1, 2, 3 or 5 with corresponding intrinsic errors (%) as a vector instrument (3D) or as a horizontal instrument (2D...
Tagil, Suleyman Murat; Celik, Huseyin Tugrul; Ciftci, Sefa; Kazanci, Fatmanur Hacievliyagil; Arslan, Muzeyyen; Erdamar, Nazan; Kesik, Yunus; Erdamar, Husamettin; Dane, Senol
Wet-cupping therapy is one of the oldest known medical techniques. Although it is widely used in various conditions such as acute\\chronic inflammation, infectious diseases, and immune system disorders, its mechanism of action is not fully known. In this study, we investigated the oxidative status as the first step to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of wet cupping. Wet cupping therapy is implemented to 31 healthy volunteers. Venous blood samples and Wet cupping blood samples were taken concurrently. Serum nitricoxide, malondialdehyde levels and activity of superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase were measured spectrophotometrically. Wet cupping blood had higher activity of myeloperoxidase, lower activity of superoxide dismutase, higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitricoxide compared to the venous blood. Wet cupping removes oxidants and decreases oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Almaiman, Amer A
Wet cupping (Al-hijamah) is a therapeutic technique practiced worldwide as a part of the Unani system of medicine. It involves bloodletting from acupoints on a patient's skin to produce a therapeutic outcome. A thorough review of research articles on wet cupping with relevance to proteomics field that are indexed by Google Scholar, PubMed, and/or Science Direct databases was performed. Eight original research articles were summarized in this paper. Overall, wet cupping did not have a significant effect on C-reactive protein, Hsp-27, sister chromatid exchanges, and cell replication index. In contrast, wet cupping was found to produce higher oxygen saturation, eliminate lactate from subcutaneous tissues, remove blood containing higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and produce higher activity of myeloperoxidase. The proteomic effects of wet cupping therapy have not been adequately investigated. Thus, future studies on wet cupping that use systemic and sound protocols to avoid bias should be conducted.
Vender, Reid; Vender, Ronald
Cupping therapy is a traditional Chinese medicine used to heal psoriasis. The Koebner phenomenon is the occurrence of psoriatic lesions at the site of cutaneous injury. To describe the first case of biopsy-proven cupping-induced localized psoriasis, an example of the Koebner phenomenon. The histopathology of the lesions is described. A brief review of the literature regarding cupping therapy and its efficacy are discussed. A 45-year-old Asian male presented himself to the dermatology clinic for further treatment of his psoriasis. Four unusually circular plaques on the lower back were discovered. Pathologic diagnosis revealed an early lesion of psoriasis. on further inquiry, the patient admitted to undergoing a recent "cupping" procedure in an attempt to cure his condition. The efficacy of cupping therapy is controversial, and psoriatic patients may develop localized psoriasis through koebnerization as a result of cupping therapy rather than achieve desirable therapeutic benefits. © 2014 Canadian Dermatology Association.
Peterson, Andrew R.; Kruse, Adam J.; Meester, Scott M.; Olson, Tyler S.; Riedle, Benjamin N.; Slayman, Tyler G.; Domeyer, Todd J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Smoot, M. Kyle
Background: There are approximately 2.8 million youth football players between the ages of 7 and 14 years in the United States. Rates of injury in this population are poorly described. Recent studies have reported injury rates between 2.3% and 30.4% per season and between 8.5 and 43 per 1000 exposures. Hypothesis: Youth flag football has a lower injury rate than youth tackle football. The concussion rates in flag football are lower than in tackle football. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Three large youth (grades 2-7) football leagues with a total of 3794 players were enrolled. Research personnel partnered with the leagues to provide electronic attendance and injury reporting systems. Researchers had access to deidentified player data and injury information. Injury rates for both the tackle and flag leagues were calculated and compared using Poisson regression with a log link. The probability an injury was severe and an injury resulted in a concussion were modeled using logistic regression. For these 2 responses, best subset model selection was performed, and the model with the minimum Akaike information criterion value was chosen as best. Kaplan-Meier curves were examined to compare time loss due to injury for various subgroups of the population. Finally, time loss was modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: A total of 46,416 exposures and 128 injuries were reported. The mean age at injury was 10.64 years. The hazard ratio for tackle football (compared with flag football) was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.80; P = .0065). The rate of severe injuries per exposure for tackle football was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.33-3.4; P = .93) times that of the flag league. The rate for concussions in tackle football per exposure was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.16-1.7; P = .27) times that of the flag league. Conclusion: Injury is more likely to occur in youth flag football than in youth tackle football. Severe injuries and concussions were not significantly
Slack, Liam A.
The overall purpose of this Ph.D. thesis was to identify factors underpinning football\\ud officiating excellence. As a result, this thesis provided an in-depth study into\\ud understanding Mental Toughness (MT) and its development within elite football\\ud referees. A secondary purpose was to use the findings of the series of studies contained\\ud herein, to bridge the gap between theory and applied practice by providing\\ud recommendations for football officiating National Governing Bodies (NGBs...
Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John
An estimated 1.6 million to 3.8 million sports-related concussions occur each year in the United States, and many are related to football. This has generated much discussion in the media on the perceived safety of the sport. In the current study, researchers asked 230 individuals various questions about attitudes toward safety in football. Approximately 92.6% of participants indicated they would allow their child to play football; these participants were more likely to be female (χ(2) = 5.23, p > .05), were slightly younger (t= -2.52, p football, and future studies are needed to clarify factors that inform this opinion.
"A carne mais barata do mercado é a carne negra: uma reflexão sobre o "design" das camisas da Puma na Copa do Mundo de Futebol/2010 "The cheapest flesh in the market is the black one": body, soccer and advertising Puma uniforms in the 2010 soccer world cup
Victor Andrade de Melo
2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa: the layout of the uniforms offered for three African´s teams - Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana. In order to do it, we have established a comparison with the models of shirts fabricated by the company to other national teams (Switzerland, Uruguay and Italy, taking into account the fact that this sort of merchandising may increase or not some stereotypes that are usually associated with black people in advertising campaigns.
Hakan Katirci; Ferruh Uztug
Nowadays football game is subjected to open market norm and rules like any commercial sector in all over the world. The sport clubs which arenâ€™t have economic and executive orderly arrangement canâ€™t transfer their assets to future in football world. In this context, sport clubs must execute methods which have achievement in contemporary business administration and corporate governance. The aim of this study is to investigate application methods of corporate communication approach as a cor...
Wigger, Patrick; Pepper, Rachel
Splash cup plants are plants that utilize a small, mm-sized cup filled with seeds as a method of seed dispersal. The cup uses kinetic energy of an incident raindrop in order to project the seeds away from the plant up to 1 meter. The dispersal distance is important to ensure the offspring are not clustered too tightly to the parent plant. It has previously been found that a cup angle of 40 degrees to the horizontal is optimal for maximum dispersal of water from cups with no seeds. In this study we examine if the 40 degree cup is optimal for cups containing seeds with varying densities. We released uniform water drops above 5.0 mm 3D printed models of splash cups, using 1.0 mm plastic and glass microspheres of varying densities to simulate seeds. We observed the dispersal characteristics of each bead type by measuring the final seed locations after each splash, and by recording high speed video to determine the angle and velocity of the seeds as they exited the cup.
Dahlberg, J.-Å.; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Busche, P.
of assessment of systematic deviations. The present report focuses on methods that can beapplied for assessment of such systematic deviations. A new alternative method for torque coefficient measurements at inclined flow have been developed, which have then been applied and compared to the existing methods...... developed in the CLASSCUP projectand earlier. A number of approaches including the use of two cup anemometer models, two methods of torque coefficient measurement, two angular response measurements, and inclusion and exclusion of influence of friction have been implemented in theclassification process...
Tentative football televising agreements between the National Collegiate Athletics Association and four television broadcasting companies, unconfirmed by contract pending a Supreme Court antitrust ruling concerning network and cable television companies, are outlined. (MSE)
Data on football injuries acquired from surveillance sources and in-depth investigations are presented. Results of the study are summarized by descriptions of the accident sequence, diagnosis of the injury, and specific equipment involved in the injury. (JD)
Full Text Available Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA, and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a control system by marketing activity of football clubs of Iraq is defined. Positive and negative factors which define management efficiency marketing of football clubs are revealed.
Wang, Yun-Ting; Qi, Yong; Tang, Fu-Yong; Li, Fei-Meng; Li, Qi-Huo; Xu, Chang-Peng; Xie, Guo-Ping; Sun, Hong-Tao
LBP is one of the most common symptoms with high prevalence throughout the world. Conflicting conclusions exist in RCTs on cupping for LBP. To assess the effects and safety of cupping for the patients with LBP. Pubmed, Cochrane Library databases, and Embase database were electronically researched. RCTs reporting the cupping for the patients with LBP were included. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager software (version 5.3, Nordic Cochrane Centre). The primary outcome was VAS scores. The secondary outcomes included ODI scores, MPPI scores and complications. Six RCTs were included in this synthesized analysis. The results showed that cupping therapy was superior to the control management with respect to VAS scores (SMD: -0.73, [95% CI: -1.42 to -0.04]; P= 0.04), and ODI scores (SMD: -3.64, [95% CI: -5.85 to -1.42]; P= 0.001). There was no statistical significant difference as regard to MPPI scores. No serious adverse event was reported in the included studies. Cupping therapy can significantly decrease the VAS scores and ODI scores for patients with LBP compared to the control management. High heterogeneity and risk of bias existing in studies limit the authenticity of the findings.
Florian Pfeffel; Christoph A. Kexel; Peter Kexel; Maria Ratz
The parallel usage of different media channels has increased recently owing to technological advances. Second Screen describes the use of a second device by television viewers to consume further content which is related to the program they are watching. This study analysed the characteristics of football spectators regarding their media consumption in relation to Second Screen usage while watching a football match on TV. The existing literature on Second Screen usage is still very limited, es...
Dr. M S Nagarajan
Full Text Available Background: Football is the world's most popular sport. There are over 240 million registered players worldwide and many more recreational footballers. The knee is a complex joint with many components making it vulnerable to a variety of injuries. The study has investigated the effect of knee proprioception error on injured and uninjured male professional footballers. Methods: This was a cross sectional comparative study with hundred and six (106 male professional footballers were selected for the study as per the selection criteria. Hundred and eighteen injured and ninety four uninjured knee samples were analysed for this study. Photographic analysis method was used to evaluate proprioception error at inner, middle and outer range of knee joint. Proprioception error of knee joint was measured at inner range, middle range and outer range for injured and uninjured groups. Data analysis found that there is significant difference in proprioception error between the groups. Result: Comparative study was performed using independent t’ test for proprioception error between knee injured and uninjured groups. P<0.05 were considered as significant difference in effect for this study. The means of knee injured and uninjured groups were 6.08 and 5.55 respectively with t’ value 2.21 and degree of freedom 634. The study found that proprioception error has significant difference in effect on knee injury, with P< 0.03*. Conclusion: The study concluded that proprioception error was varied between knee injured and uninjured groups. Proprioception error of knee joint was more among injured male professional footballers compared to the uninjured footballers.
Full Text Available Purpose: The problem of identifying the most important determinants of the market value of football players is quite well described in the literature. There are many works that try to identify these factors. Some of them are focused on variables to make a set complete and others are on models and methods. The aim of this article is to present the variables influencing the valuation and to build an econometric model valuing footballers playing on the forward position, taking into consideration the assumptions of the econometric modelling. Such an approach indicates managers as other sources for obtaining information. Methodology: Econometric models were used to verify the hypothesis formulated in this research. The database was created on the basis of variables presented on the website www.transfermarkt. de that presents the values of the most valuable football players in the world playing on the forward position. The Gretl program was used in the research. Findings: The literature review showed that there are many independent variables having an impact on the value of the player. There are also many different models used to valuate footballers’ performance rights. The results of estimation of models in the research indicated that such factors as Canadian classification points adjusted the market value of the team and dummy variables describing “goodwill” (only for the best players had an impact on the market value of footballers’ performance rights. Limitations/implications: Information about different factors having an impact on football players’ market value could support the investment decision process of football managers. Originality/value: The results were part of a study concerning economics of sport, particularly processes of management of football clubs and valuation of intangible assets.
Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke
Abstract Yamashita, D, Asakura, M, Ito, Y, Yamada, S, and Yamada, Y. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2455–2461, 2017—This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level nonprofessional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top-level and middle-level players in Japan to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. A total of 168 American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into 1 of the 3 position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and nonselected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the 3 position groups. Compared with nonselected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and nonselected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance. PMID:28052052
Yamashita, Daichi; Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke
Yamashita, D, Asakura, M, Ito, Y, Yamada, S, and Yamada, Y. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2455-2461, 2017-This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level nonprofessional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top-level and middle-level players in Japan to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. A total of 168 American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into 1 of the 3 position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and nonselected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the 3 position groups. Compared with nonselected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and nonselected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance.
Equy, Véronique; David-Tchouda, Sandra; Dreyfus, Michel; Riethmuller, Didier; Vendittelli, Françoise; Cabaud, Victoire; Langer, Bruno; Margier, Jennifer; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Schaal, Jean-Patrick
Assisted vaginal delivery by vacuum extraction is frequent. Metallic resterilizible metallic vacuum cups have been routinely used in France. In the last few years a new disposable semi-soft vacuum extraction cup, the iCup, has been introduced. Our objective was to compare maternal and new-born outcomes between this disposable cup and the commonly used Drapier-Faure metallic cup. This was a multicenter prospective randomized controlled open clinical trial performed in the maternity units of five university hospitals and one community hospital in France from October 2009 to February 2013. We included consecutive eligible women with a singleton gestation of at least 37 weeks who required vacuum assisted delivery. Women were randomized to vacuum extraction using the iCup or usual Drapier-Faure metallic cup. The primary outcome was a composite criterion including both the risk of cup dysfunction and the most frequent maternal and neonatal harms: the use of other instruments after attempted vacuum extraction, caesarean section after attempted vacuum extraction, three detachments of the cup, caput succedaneum, cephalohaematoma, episiotomy and perineal tears. 335 women were randomized to the disposable cup and 333 to extraction using the metallic cup. There was no significant difference between the two groups for the primary outcome. However, failed instrumental delivery was more frequent in the disposable cup group, mainly due to detachment: 35.6 % vs 7.1 %, p < 0.0001. Conversely, perineal tears were more frequent in the metallic cup group, especially third or fourth grade perineal tears: 1.7 % versus 5.0 %, p = 0.003. There were no significant differences between the two groups concerning post-partum haemorrhage, transfer to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or serious adverse events. While the disposable cup had more detachments and extraction failures than the standard metallic cup, this innovative disposable device had the advantage of fewer perineal
Almutawa, M; Scott, M; George, K P; Drust, B
To compare the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained by Saudi National Team footballers during match-play and training on natural grass and 3rd generation (3G) artificial turf. Injury data was collected on all Saudi National Team players competing at the Gulf Cup (Yemen December 2010: 3G) and the Asian Cup (Qatar January 2011; grass). A total of 49 players were studied (mean ± SD; Age 27 ± 4 yr; body mass 71.4 ± 6.7 kg; height 176.8 ± 6.3 cm; professional playing experience 9 ± 3 yr) of which 31 competed at the Gulf Cup, 32 at the Asian Cup (14 at both). A prospective cohort design was used to investigate the incidence, nature and severity of injuries sustained with data collected using a standardised injury questionnaire. All data were collected by the team physiotherapist with the definition of injury set at any injury that required player and clinician contact. Injury and exposure data were collected and reported for games, training and all football activity. A total of 82 injuries [incidence - 56.1 per 1000 h total game and training exposure] were recorded at the Asian Cup (grass) and 72 injuries [incidence - 37.9 per 1000 h total game and training exposure] were recorded at the Gulf Cup (3G). Incidence data for training, game and all football exposure injury rates were higher when playing on grass. The vast majority of injuries on both surfaces were very minor that, whilst requiring medical attention, did not result in loss of match/training exposure. Injuries that resulted in 1-3 days absence from training or game play had similar incidence rates (Grass: 7.4 vs. 3G: 7.4 injuries per 1000 h exposure). More severe injuries were less frequent but with a higher incidence when playing on grass. Lower limb injuries were the most common in both tournaments with a higher incidence on grass (Grass: 14.2 vs. 3G: 7.9 injuries per 1000 h exposure). Muscle injuries were the most frequent of all injuries with similar incidence rates on
A break in the structural integrity of the palate leading to oro nasal communication is called palatal fistula, which may be due to a genetic defect such as cleft lip and palate, an infection such as osteomyelitis or traumainduced by wearing a maxillary complete denture with a suction cup. A suction cup because of its ...
Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Elkhamary, Sahar M; Asghar, Nasira; Bosley, Thomas M
To assess the frequency and significance of optic disk cupping after methanol poisoning. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 50 consecutive patients with methanol poisoning, including visual acuity, pupillary reaction, and optic disk features such as the presence and degree of cupping. All patients were examined in the chronic phase after optic nerve damage. Optic disk cupping ≥0.8 c/d was present in at least one eye of 22 of these 50 patients (43/100 eyes). Severity of cupping was statistically symmetric in the two eyes, and increasing severity of cupping was correlated with worse visual acuity (p=0.007) and increasing visual field loss. Degree of cupping was significantly correlated with increasing patient age but not with putaminal necrosis. Optic disk cupping after methanol poisoning may be more common than previously recognised. Cupping in this setting may reflect toxicity of methanol metabolites to axons and glial cells in the prelaminar, laminar and retrolaminar regions, and seems to be important as a marker for worse optic nerve damage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Ligterink, D.J.; Moes, H.
A wear number is defined for ball cup bearings and for journal bearings where the cup and the cylindrical bearing are made of soft material. This dimensionless wear number provides a relation between the following five quantities: the radius of the ball or the length of the journal bearing in
Stihsen, Christoph; Pabinger, Christof; Radl, Roman; Rehak, Peter
The Duraloc cup is a frequently used metal-backed, porous-coated, hemispherical, press-fit acetabular component. Published data on loosening rates are contradictory. In this study we investigated migration patterns with computer-assisted Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse (EBRA) of 67 Duraloc 100 cups. Cup migration and clinical scores were analysed over a 5-year follow-up period. Median total migration of the Duraloc 100 cup was 1.21 mm at 5 years. Seventy-five percent of implants were radiologically stable at 2 years and 90% at 4 years. One cup loosened aseptically at 60 months, requiring revision. Cup diameters ≥54 mm migrated significantly more than cups <54 mm in diameter (p = 0.029 at 4 years). There was a significant correlation between high polyethylene wear and further migrating cups within the first post-operative year (p = 0.035 at 12 months). Our analysis revealed significantly higher wear in males (p = 0.029 at 4 years). Radiological loosening at two years could be calculated using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, and 1.2 mm as an adequate threshold value (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 89%). PMID:17609953
Calogero Roaul Aiello
Full Text Available In the senile population, regular physical activity and reduction of a sedentary lifestyle lead to a series of positive effects. Such as, increased independence in daily activities and personal care, higher self-esteem, a better quality of life, a higher life expectancy and a decrease in mortality. Moreover, physical, psychological, and cognitive functions can also improve. With regards to this notion, the Walking Football (WF activity was started in England; a sport designed for the needs population segment, who, due to overweight and other typical diseases of old age, has a limited mobility and can only play sports with lowmoderate cardiovascular effort. WF is a new sport mainly created for people over 50, i.e. the population diagnosed with chronic degenerative diseases, and the actual increase of obesity gradually cause to abstain from a regular physical activity. The game is played 7 vs. 7 and all players must only walk; running is considered a foul. To avoid sudden movements and reduce the risk of injury, the ball must be always kept on the ground, and slide tackles and an aggressive behavior are prohibited. This sport, a slow variation of football, is considered a low risk sport activity for the low incidence of traumatic events and can be practiced safely because the cardiovascular effort is minimum. WF comes directly from football, which is considered the most popular sport in the world. It is also associated with positive social and motivational factors that may facilitate compliance to the sport, which help maintain a physically active lifestyle. WF is still not widespread in Italy, and our hope is that it can become, in a short time, a reference for the sports designed for the elderly.
Full Text Available Football is very popular game all over the world and in SCG as well.Every year in Yugoslavia girls and women are from 7 to 40 years take part in the game of football as a sport as well as a sort of recreation. Technically and tactically this game more and more resembles the male football. The process of training is close to the very edge of female abilities, so we have dynamic game full of duel, long shots and spectacular goals.The aim of this research is to confirm differences of developing characteristics and functional abilities female football players and women who don't train any sport actively.The research encircled 20 female football players members of football club Masinac (winner of 2003 competition. The control group consisted of 20 female students who didn't go in for any sport actively.The results show that the average height of female football players is 166.85 ± 5.47 cm and average height of control group is 166.11 ± 5.6 cm. Relative values of maximal oxygen up take is 63.14 ± 8.11 ml/min/kg and 55.43 ± 7.25 for control group. This result show that bought group have aerobic abilities higher than one of average women (30-40 ml/min/kg.
Bengtson, Bradley P; Glicksman, Caroline A
There are many challenges in developing a standardized bra cup system, the most significant being that bra cup sizes are a continuum. Women's breasts occur as a fluid range of shapes, sizes, and volumes. Patients have specific expectations regarding bra cup size, and failure to achieve expectations remains the leading cause of patient dissatisfaction. Implant selection that determines eventual bra cup size is critical in patient education and management of patient expectations; however, this is not achievable until all speak the same bra cup language. Patient and surgeon perceptions may never be exact, but it is important to establish guidelines and standards to bridge this gap. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An analysis of cup-anemometer dynamics has been carried out in order to determine whether the mean-wind velocity can have a negative bias. This would be contrary to the general belief that cup anemometers always overspeed. Compared to prior analyses, the effect of a possible nonlinearity of the c......An analysis of cup-anemometer dynamics has been carried out in order to determine whether the mean-wind velocity can have a negative bias. This would be contrary to the general belief that cup anemometers always overspeed. Compared to prior analyses, the effect of a possible nonlinearity...... of the calibration function is included. The conclusion is that neither longitudinal nor lateral velocity fluctuations can contribute significantly to a negative bias. However, if a cup anemometer has an angular response that falls below the ideal cosine response, there will, as demonstrated in the concluding...
Mohr, Magni; Nybo, Lars; Grantham, Justin
To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play.......To examine the impact of hot ambient conditions on physical performance and physiological responses during football match-play....
The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1984
A chronology of television in college football is presented from the first televised college football game (a University of Pennsylvania game) to the Supreme Court ruling declaring that the National Collegiate Athletic Association contracts violate antitrust law. (MLW)
Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Sonntag, Albrecht; Ranc, David
Football Research in an Enlarged Europe (FREE). This is the third of three policy briefs based on findings from the FREE project. It summarises results from the project's research stream on the feminisation of football....
Sport and physical activity for children is widely recommended to support a healthy lifestyle. Football is the most popular sport worldwide. Given its popularity, football is an excellent setting to fulfil sufficient physical activity levels. Football can induce considerable beneficial health effects. However, injuries may be an unfortunate consequence of participating in sport. In light of the large number of players football injuries relate to a public health issue. Therefore, the applicati...
Fitzharris, N; Jones, G; Jones, A; Francis, P
Objectives Football has the highest sports participation (10.6%) in Ireland ahead of its Gaelic counterpart (3.9%). Research into injury incidence and patterns in Irish football is non-existent. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective injury audit of league of Ireland (semi-professional) footballers during the 2014 season (8 months; 28 games). Methods A total of 140 semi-professional league of Ireland footballers were prospectively followed between March and November 2014. Data was...
Fitzharris, Nigel; Jones, Gareth; Jones, Ashley; Francis, Peter
Objectives Football has the highest sports participation (10.6%) in Ireland ahead of its Gaelic counterpart (3.9%). Research into injury incidence and patterns in Irish football is non-existent. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective injury audit of League of Ireland (semiprofessional) footballers during the 2014 season (8 months, 28 games). Methods A total of 140 semiprofessional League of Ireland footballers were prospectively followed between March and November 2014. Data were ...
Since the 1990s organized groups have begun to appear in the Czech Republic called „football hooligans”. These groups have drawn the attention of the media, security forces, officials of the Czech Republic Football Association, and the broader public. This text focuses on selected topics associated with the phenomenon of football hooliganism. After a brief history of football hooliganism abroad, especially in England, it will describe the current status of this phenomenon in...
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of adolescent female football players transitioning from disadvantaged communities to the South African Football Association's Female Football Academy at the TuksSport High School. This was done through collage-based (i.e., visual story) storytelling (i.e., verbal ...
Burt, David J.
This paper examines the modern cultural fascination with the game of football and with football players as this concern is reflected in the modern (post-1960) novel. The analysis is based on 31 novels, or portions of novels, which treat the topic of football as a cultural metaphor at the high school, college, and professional levels. Inspecting…
Background. Exposure to competitive football is increasing among male youth football players in Nigeria. However, medical support to abate the impact of injuries appears inadequate and there is limited literature to show whether youth football players are knowledgeable about, and practise effective measures for injury ...
Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester
Uses a true-to-life story of accusations made against a college football team to illustrate ideal gas laws. Students are asked to decide whether helium-filled footballs would increase punt distances and how to determine whether a football contained air or helium. (WRM)
van der Burg, Tsjalle
In Football business Tsjalle van der Burg shows how the economics of football have developed and been corrupted. In a series of engaging stories he uncovers the mysteries of football finance. Van der Burg explains why if the 2013 English Premiership champions, Manchester United, had played their
Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...
Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.
Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…
Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui
High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…
Downward, Paul; Jones, Marc
Data were collected on the number of first yellow cards awarded during 857 games, over six seasons (1996 - 2002), played in the Football Association (FA) Cup. Overall, a significantly higher number of yellow cards were awarded against the away team, while a non-linear relationship between crowd size and yellow cards was observed. In general, the probability of a yellow card being awarded against the home team decreased as crowd size increased, but was attenuated for the largest crowd sizes. Crowd size may be related to the probability of the home team receiving a yellow card in two potential ways. Crowd noise may be a decision-making heuristic whereby the likelihood that an incident is a foul is increased when accompanied by crowd noise. Alternatively, referees may seek to appease the crowd and are more likely to do so as crowd size increases. The present findings have implications for the training of match officials and for coaches and players as they prepare to play away from home.
Coffee beverages are so popular all over the world that there is hardly any need to describe them. But underlying this seemingly commonplace beverage there is a whole realm worth serious scientific study. The complexity of the raw seed matrix, made even more intricate when roasted, requires a deep understanding of its chemical nature. While coffee is not consumed for nutritional purposes, it is appreciated for its taste appeal along with its stimulating effects on mental and physical activity. The attention to quality is of paramount importance to both of these aspects to supply the customers with a pleasant and wholesome product. The chemical approach to the sensory sphere has seen the development of increasingly sophisticated analytical methods where the parts per billion of volatile aromas are not the ultimate frontier of detection limits. In spite of the progress of instrumental techniques, the cup-testing approach still remains the final assessment tool to obtain the approval for choosing the right plant and for conveying the product to the market. This is even truer when espresso, the fashionable type of coffee brewing methods, is considered.
Football is the most popular sport in the world. Like any contact sport it is susceptible to various kinds of injuries. It is referred the link between methodology of training and the prevention of overuse injuries in youth as it relates to maladaptive sport programs. There is an increasing awareness to growth related conditions and the relation of musculoskeletal development and the onset of youth related conditions. This article examines one specific injury sustained by children and adolesc...
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the differences among the top football players of the two Montenegrin club FC Sutjeska and FC Mladost in the morphological characteristics and body composition. A sample of 40 examinees was divided into two sub-samples. The first sub-sample of the examinees consisted of 23 players of FC Sutjeska of the average age 21.69±4.30, the champions of the Cup of Montenegro in the season 2016/17, while the other sub-sample consisted of 17 players of FC Mladost of the average age of 24.59±4.66, the vice champions of the Montenegrin Championship in the season 2016/17. Football players were tested immediately after the end of the competition season 2016/17. Morphological characteristics in the body composition were evaluated by a battery of 11 variables: body height, body weight, body mass index, fat percentage, muscle mass, bone mass, waist size, triceps skin set, biceps skin set, back skin set and abdominal skin set. The standard central and dispersive parameters of all variables were calculated. The significance of the differences between the players of the top two football clubs in the morphological characteristics and variables for assessing body composition was determined by a t-test for independent samples. It was found that the football players of the two mentioned clubs have statistically significant differences by the two variables that estimate the amount of fat percentage and the amount of subcutaneous fat tissue on the back in a favor of FC Sutjeska.
Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard
Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage.
Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J
All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit.
Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A.; Coughlin, Michael J.; Anderson, Robert B.
Background: Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Conclusion: Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces. PMID:28151702
Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A; Coughlin, Michael J; Anderson, Robert B
Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Clinical review. Level 5. The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces.
Kristensen, L.; Frost Hansen, O.
The theory for cup-anemometer dynamics is presented in some detail and two methods of obtaining the distance constant lo are discussed. The first method is based on wind tunnel measurements: with a constant wind speed the cup anemometer is released from alocked position of the rotor...... and the increasing rotation rate recorded. It is concluded that the rapid increase in rotation rate makes the method very inaccurate. The second method consists of an analysis of turbulent, atmospheric of wind speed asmeasured by the cup anemometer and a fast-responding sonic anemometer with a spatial eddy...
Alves, Pedro César Fonseca Gonçalves
O trabalho desenvolvido nesta dissertação tem como tema o desenvolvimento de um agente inteligente com coordenação e comunicação no ambiente RoboCup Rescue. No RoboCup Rescue existem seis tipos de agentes, no entanto nesta tese só dois agentes foram desenvolvidos, especificamente o tipo de agentes Ambulâncias e Centros de Ambulâncias. O tipo de agente Ambulância é o elemento responsável pelo salvamento de civis na cidade virtual que constitui o ambiente RoboCup Rescue. Para cumprir essa ta...
Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W
American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes.
Full Text Available In this paper I argue that football plays a questionable role in promoting two potentially problematic activities, namely drinking alcohol and gambling. Gambling and alcohol companies sponsor clubs and competitions and also pay to advertise their products at the stadia and during television coverage. Consequently millions of fans, including children, are exposed to the marketing of these restricted products. The latter are exposed despite regulations that prohibit such advertising and promotion in other contexts. The promotion of these activities to children and to adults increases levels of consumption which in turn increases the number of problem drinkers and gamblers in society. High-profile footballers play a further role in normalising drinking and gambling. They are role models whose actions influence others. Their excessive drinking and gambling activities provide poor examples for football fans, young and old.
Krutsch, Werner; Voss, Andreas; Gerling, Stephan; Grechenig, Stephan; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter
Sufficient first aid equipment is essential to treat injuries on football fields. Deficits in first aid on field are still present in youth football. Injury pattern in youth football over one season and first aid equipment in youth football were analyzed, retrospectively. PRICE and ABC procedure served as basic principles in emergency management to assess the need for first aid equipment on field. Considering financial limits and adapted on youth football injuries, sufficient first aid equipment for youth football was configured. 84% of 73 participating youth football teams had their own first aid kit, but the majority of them were insufficiently equipped. Team coaches were in 60% of all youth teams responsible for using first aid equipment. The injury evaluation presented 922 injuries to 1,778 youth players over one season. Frequently presented types of injury were contusions and sprains of the lower extremity. Based on the analyzed injury data in youth football, first aid equipment with 90 € is sufficient for 100% of all occurred youth football injuries. Current first aid equipment in youth football is insufficient. Scientific-based first aid equipment with 90 € is adequate to serve all injuries. Football coaches need education in first aid management.
Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important human pathogen, is estimated to be responsible for ∼10% of nosocomial infections worldwide. The pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa starts from its colonization in the damaged tissue or medical devices (e.g. catheters, prothesis and implanted heart valve etc. facilitated by several extracellular adhesive factors including fimbrial pili. Several clusters containing fimbrial genes have been previously identified on the P. aeruginosa chromosome and named cup. The assembly of the CupB pili is thought to be coordinated by two chaperones, CupB2 and CupB4. However, due to the lack of structural and biochemical data, their chaperone activities remain speculative. In this study, we report the 2.5 Å crystal structure of P. aeruginosa CupB2. Based on the structure, we further tested the binding specificity of CupB2 and CupB4 towards CupB1 (the presumed major pilus subunit and CupB6 (the putative adhesin using limited trypsin digestion and strep-tactin pull-down assay. The structural and biochemical data suggest that CupB2 and CupB4 might play different, but not redundant, roles in CupB secretion. CupB2 is likely to be the chaperone of CupB1, and CupB4 could be the chaperone of CupB4:CupB5:CupB6, in which the interaction of CupB4 and CupB6 might be mediated via CupB5.
Ramon Pereira Souza
Full Text Available Introduction: Football 5-a-side is a sport played by blind athletes that takes part in the Paralympic Games since 2004. The Brazilian national team is currently considered the best team in the world in this sport. Objective: To analyze the variations of intensity of effort (average per position and group average made by blind athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side national team during six matches simulations. Methods: The sample on this research is the intentional type, made with eight blind male players, ages ranging from 21 to 30 years old (23.8 ± 3.3, all of them part of the Brazilian Football 5-a-side National team, which played in the 2012 Paralympics Games in England. In was evaluated the VO2máx and the heart rate during six simulations of official matches. Results: The intensity of effort of the blind athletes of the Brazilian Football 5-a-side National Team is intermittent and remains 52.5 % of the total time of a match (50 minutes with an intensity of effort between the zone 2 (between threshold ventilation and respiratory compensation point and the zone 3 (above the respiratory compensation point averaging 89.8 % of the HR max. Conclusion: The intensity of effort is greater than the Football of 11 and, that in the Futsal players.
Kim, Jong-In; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kang, Jung Won; Kim, Kun Hyung; Choi, Jun-Yong; Kang, Kyung-Won; Kim, Ae-Ran; Shin, Mi-Suk; Jung, So-Young; Choi, Sun-mi
Persistent non-specific low back pain (PNSLBP) is one of the most frequently experienced types of back pain around the world. Wet-cupping is a common intervention for various pain conditions, especially in Korea. In this context, we conducted a pilot study to determine the effectiveness and safety of wet-cupping treatment for PNSLBP. We recruited 32 participants (21 in the wet-cupping group and 11 in the waiting-list group) who had been having PNSLBP for at least 3 months. The participants were recruited at the clinical research centre of the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Korea. Eligible participants were randomly allocated to wet-cupping and waiting-list groups. Following the practice of traditional Korean medicine, the treatment group was provided with wet-cupping treatment at two acupuncture points among the BL23, BL24 and BL25 6 times within 2 weeks. Usual care, including providing brochures for exercise, general advice for PNSLBP and acetaminophen, was allowed in both groups. Separate assessors participated in the outcome assessment. We used the 0 to 100 numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain, the McGill Pain Questionnaire for pain intensity (PPI) and the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ), and we assessed acetaminophen use and safety issues. The results showed that the NRS score for pain decreased (-16.0 [95% CI: -24.4 to -7.7] in the wet-cupping group and -9.1 [-18.1 to -0.1] in the waiting-list group), but there was no statistical difference between the groups (p = 0.52). However, the PPI scores showed significant differences between the two groups (-1.2 [-1.6 to -0.8] for the wet-cupping group and -0.2 [-0.8 to 0.4] for the waiting-list group, p cupping group during 4 weeks (p = 0.09). The ODQ score did not show significant differences between the two groups (-5.60 [-8.90 to -2.30] in the wet-cupping group and -1.8 [-5.8 to 2.2] in the waiting-list group, p = 0.14). There was no report of adverse events due to wet-cupping. This pilot study may
Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus
European professional football clubs go out of business even though they operate chronically on the edge of financial collapse? The paper argues that the paradox can be explained by the fact that professional football clubs operate within soft budget constraints in a way which is similar to the role...... of large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...
Football has surpassed the status of being a social phenomenon at a national and international scale for a long time, as it is the new “religion of the 21st century” which brings together game practitioners under its scope regardless of religion, skin colour, geographical area, culture, philosophy, gender, age which has been proven by the number of members in more than 200 FIFA member national federations. As stated in the FIFA status, “each FIFA member shall organize football games by the La...
Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen
Abstract This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players...... weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short......-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status....
Kseniya A. Andreeva
championship 3 the increase of competitiveness of the Russian national team in international tournaments 4 the increase of investments into youth football but has caused the increase of both Russian and foreign footballersrsquo salaries. Scientific novelty applying the economic approach to the transfer market analysis allowed to obtain scientific conclusions about the influence of the limit and to substantiate the main argumentative reasons used in the public discussion. Practical significance the main conclusions of the article can be used in making decisions about correcting the limit for legionaries on the eve of hosting the World Cup in Russia.
Marraccini, M.; Bak-Kristensen, K.; Horn, A.; Fifield, E.; Hansen, S. O.
The paper presents and discusses the calibration results of cup anemometers under different levels of small-scale turbulence. Small-scale turbulence is known to govern the curvature of shear layers around structures and is not related to the traditional under and over speeding of cup anemometers originating from large-scale turbulence components. The paper has shown that the small-scale turbulence has a significant effect on the calibration results obtained for cup anemometers. At 10m/s the rotational speed seems to change by approx. 0.5% due to different simulations of the small-scale turbulence. The work which this paper is based on, is part of the TrueWind research project, aiming to increase accuracy of mast top-mounted cup anemometer measurements.
MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W
Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.
Vouillamoz, Marc; Thom, Caroline; Grisdale, Richard; Saugy, Martial; Giraud, Sylvain; Robinson, Neil; Gmeiner, Günter; Geisendorfer, Thomas
Big sports events like the 2008 European Football Championship are a challenge for anti-doping activities, particularly when the sports event is hosted by two different countries and there are two laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. This challenges the logistics of sample collection as well as the chemical analyses, which must be carried out timeously. The following paper discusses the handling of whereabouts information for each athlete and the therapeutic use exemption system, experiences in sample collection and transportation of blood and urine samples, and the results of the chemical analysis in two different accredited laboratories. An overview of the analytical results of blood profiling and growth hormone testing in comparison with the distribution of the normal population is also presented. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cornelia Ionescu Luca; Cristina Secan
Football players, during the game, find themselves in both static and dynamic positions. Movement may be accomplished through walking, marching, running and jumping. While walking, the step may be simple, if referred to a single leg or double when talking about both legs. The simple steps have different phases for the bare-foot, the impact phase, supported foot and oscillating shank-bone and propulsion. Football shoes for walking make contact with the support surface through cleats. The back...
McCarthy, Peter W; Hume, Phillip J; Heusch, Andrew I; Lark, Sally D
While there have been investigations into the reduced neck injury rate of wearing protective helmets, there is little information on its effects on normal kinaesthetic neck function. This study aims to quantify the kinaesthetic and movement effects of the American football helmet. Fifteen British Collegiate American football players (mean age 22.2, SD 1.9; BMI kg.m(2) 26.3, SD 3.7) were age and size matched to 11 non-American football playing university students (mean age 22.5, SD 3.6; BMI 24.3, SD 3.3 kg.m(2)). Both groups had their active cervical range of motion and head repositioning accuracy measured during neck flexion/extension using a modified cervical range of motion device and a similarly modified football helmet. Wearing helmets significantly reduced active cervical range of motion in extension in both groups (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001 Controls and American Footballers respectively). While both groups had similar repositioning when not wearing a helmet (flexion P = 0.99; extension P = 0.52), when wearing helmets, American football players appeared to be more accurate in relation to cervical kinaesthetic repositioning (ANOVA: P = 0.077: flexion effect size =0.84; extension effect size =0.38). Wearing American football helmets significantly reduces the active cervical range of motion in extension, along with a change in the neutral head position. American footballers have a greater accuracy in repositioning their head from flexion (potentially enhanced proprioception) when wearing a helmet. This finding might allow development of a simple objective test to help discern presence of minor concussive or cervical musculoskeletal injury on or off the field.
Recent years have seen the publication of a number of books written by former football hooligans in which they describe their violent activities during the 1960s through to the 1980s when British football hooliganism was at its peak. This essay reviews the background to the auto/biographical ‘hoolie‐lit’ publishing genre and considers the value of these accounts when researching hooliganism, together with an exploration of their themes and common trends. The essay sifts and sorts through thes...
José Pablo Chiappe
Full Text Available This study assessed optic disc size and cupping, using a commercially available ophthalmoscope, in order to show norms of these values for clinical practice. Subjects were office-workers referred from their respective workplaces for a routine medical examination, which included eye examination. The optic disc size was classified as small, medium or large, for having a diameter 1.5 times (respectively the diameter of the ophthalmoscope's selected light spot on the posterior pole. The cupping was classified as the ratio of the vertical cupping diameter and the vertical disc diameter on a relative decimal scale from 0.0 to 1.0.This study included 184 subjects with a mean age of 40.5 ± 9.5 years; 149 (81% were males. Their mean ocular pressure was 12.4 ± 1.5 mmHg (range 10-17 mmHg. There was a high correlation between optic disc sizes and cupping in the right and left eyes (Pearson Correlation r = 0.866, p < 0.001; therefore, for simplicity only the data for right eyes are presented. According to our definition, the optic discs in these eyes comprised 27 (14.7% small, 141 (76.6% medium and 16 (8.7% large. The small optic discs were rarely cupped, and the large optic discs were always cupped. Optic disc cupping greater than 0.7 was rarely found and should be suspect of glaucoma. Clinical doctors should be aware of this and refer those subjects with abnormal cupping to the specialist.
Title: Management and marketing ofsporting events: Nike Premier Cup project Points of thesis: Publish the Nike Premier Cup promotion campaign project and point out improvement possibilities for upcoming years based on analysis ofpast and present state. Methods: Data will be obtained by interview, observation, description analysis and SWOT analysis Results: Promotion campaign, improvement possibilities, final day schedule Keywords: SWOT analysis, promotion, management, marketing, Nike Premier ...
Russell, Tyrel; Walsh, Toby
In sports competitions, teams can manipulate the result by, for instance, throwing games. We show that we can decide how to manipulate round robin and cup competitions, two of the most popular types of sporting competitions in polynomial time. In addition, we show that finding the minimal number of games that need to be thrown to manipulate the result can also be determined in polynomial time. Finally, we show that there are several different variations of standard cup competitions where mani...
Kristensen, L.; Frost Hansen, O.
The theory for cup-anemometer dynamics is presented in some detail and two methods of obtaining the distance constant lo are discussed. The first method is based on wind tunnel measurements: with a constant wind speed the cup anemometer is released from alocked position of the rotor and the increasing rotation rate recorded. It is concluded that the rapid increase in rotation rate makes the method very inaccurate. The second method consists of an analysis of turbulent, atmospheric of wind spe...
Amer A. Almaiman
Full Text Available Wet cupping (Al-hijamah is a therapeutic technique practiced worldwide as a part of the Unani system of medicine. It involves bloodletting from acupoints on a patient’s skin to produce a therapeutic outcome. A thorough review of research articles on wet cupping with relevance to proteomics field that are indexed by Google Scholar, PubMed, and/or Science Direct databases was performed. Eight original research articles were summarized in this paper. Overall, wet cupping did not have a significant effect on C-reactive protein, Hsp-27, sister chromatid exchanges, and cell replication index. In contrast, wet cupping was found to produce higher oxygen saturation, eliminate lactate from subcutaneous tissues, remove blood containing higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and produce higher activity of myeloperoxidase. The proteomic effects of wet cupping therapy have not been adequately investigated. Thus, future studies on wet cupping that use systemic and sound protocols to avoid bias should be conducted.
Dr. Josephine Dzahene-Quarshie
Dzahene-Quarshie: Swahili Football Language. 40 refa arbitrator/ referee referee mwamuzi decision maker referee benchi la ufundi bench of technical technical bench nahodha captain captain. Table 4: Standard Technical Expressions. Swahili labels. Literal Translations. English Equivalent msaada wa kifundi assistance ...
Faude, O; Kerper, O; Multhaupt, M; Winter, C; Beziel, K; Junge, A; Meyer, T
The present study aimed at analyzing the efficacy of a 6-month football training program compared with a standard exercise program on health and fitness parameters in overweight children. The study design was a 6-month, two-arm, parallel-group randomized trial. Twenty-two overweight children were randomly assigned to two groups (age=10.8+/-1.2 years, height=1.56+/-0.08 m, weight= 65.1+/-11.4 kg). One group conducted a football training program, and the other group an established standard sports program. Both interventions took place three times per week from mid-May to mid-November. Before, after 3 months and after the training period, comprehensive testing was conducted: anthropometric characteristics, cycling ergometry, psychometric monitoring as well as several motor ability tests. Maximal performance capacity increased and submaximal heart rate during cycling ergometry decreased significantly. Several motor skills as well as self-esteem also improved considerably. Body composition and other psychometric variables remained nearly unchanged. No relevant differences were observed between both exercise programs. It can be concluded that a 6-month football training is as efficacious in improving the physical capacity, health-related fitness parameters and self-esteem of overweight children as a standard exercise program. These results provide further evidence that playing football has significant health effects.
ABSTRACT. This study aimed to verify the network of contacts resulting from the collective behaviour of professional football teams through the centroid method and networks as well, thereby providing detailed information about the match to coaches and sport analysts. For this purpose, 999 collective attacking actions from ...
National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc., Greenville, NC.
This series of newsletters and fact sheets provides information on the incidence of sport-related injuries in scholastic sports. The following topics are addressed: (1) how the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) measures the number and severity of injuries; (2) facts about NATA; (3) injuries to high school football players; (4)…
Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986
Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)
Cogill, Julie; Parr, Alan
In this article, the authors visited with the Arsenal Double Club Coordinator, Scott an amateur footballer, and a career teacher who is able to bring his considerable experience and administrative skill to the project. The authors were delighted to realise that they were talking to a teacher committed to what is first and foremost an educational…
Full Text Available It is an exercise that every professional can use to see what the value of the manager is, "whether or not you're a manager," and the professional football coach without borders, boundaries of countries or cultures-in which we were born and professional culture in which we live and we want to live now and in the future.
We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints
McCluskey, John Michael
American college football features an enormous amount of music woven into the fabric of the event, with selections accompanying approximately two-thirds of a game's plays. Musical selections are controlled by a number of forces, including audio and video technicians, university marketing departments, financial sponsors, and wind bands. These blend…
Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B.
This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a…
Buell, Jackie L; Calland, Doug; Hanks, Fiona; Johnston, Bruce; Pester, Benjamin; Sweeney, Robert; Thorne, Robert
Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of symptoms associated with abdominal obesity that demonstrates a high risk for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. To evaluate football linemen in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I, II, and III schools for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria as well as to document other related biomarkers. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Three university locations on the first full day of football camp in early morning. Of 76 football linemen, 70 were able to provide blood samples. Height, mass, blood pressure, upper-body skinfolds, and waist circumference were measured at various stations. Two small venous samples of blood were collected and analyzed in a hospital laboratory for fasting insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and glycosylated hemoglobin. The last station was a verbal family history for cardiovascular disease and diabetes; also, athletes filled out a nutrition attitudes questionnaire. Of the 70 athletes, 34 were identified as having metabolic syndrome according to measures of blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. The mean total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for the group was 4.95, with 32 participants displaying values higher than 5.0. Twelve volunteers had total cholesterol levels greater than 200 mmol/L, 15 had high levels of C-reactive protein, and 9 had slightly elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin. Although athletes might be assumed to be protected from risks of cardiovascular disease, we found a high incidence of metabolic syndrome and other associated adverse biomarkers for heart disease in collegiate football linemen. Early screening, awareness, and intervention may have favorable effects on the overall health outcomes of football linemen.
Serra, Pedro M.; McAlinden, Colm; Barrett, Brendan T.
Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9%) and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4%) were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS) and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV) questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62%) of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR) and level (international/national) of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of pfootball officials were similar to published normative values for young, adult populations and similar between R and AR. Clinically-measured vision did not differ according to officiating level. Visual acuity measured with and without a pinhole disc indicated that around one quarter of participants may be capable of better vision when officiating, as evidenced by better acuity (≥1 line of letters) using the pinhole. Amongst the clinical visual tests we used, we did not find evidence for above-average performance in elite-level football officials. Although the impact of uncorrected mild to moderate refractive error upon officiating performance is unknown, with a greater uptake of eye examinations, visual
Baptista, António Manuel Gonçalves; Serra, Pedro M; McAlinden, Colm; Barrett, Brendan T
Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9%) and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4%) were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS) and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV) questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62%) of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR) and level (international/national) of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of pfootball officials were similar to published normative values for young, adult populations and similar between R and AR. Clinically-measured vision did not differ according to officiating level. Visual acuity measured with and without a pinhole disc indicated that around one quarter of participants may be capable of better vision when officiating, as evidenced by better acuity (≥1 line of letters) using the pinhole. Amongst the clinical visual tests we used, we did not find evidence for above-average performance in elite-level football officials. Although the impact of uncorrected mild to moderate refractive error upon officiating performance is unknown, with a greater uptake of eye examinations, visual
Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aimed to explore the metabololipidome in mice upon cupping treatment. Methods: A nude mouse model mimicking the cupping treatment in humans was established by administrating four cupping sets on the back skin for 15 minutes. UPLC-MS/ MS was performed to determine the PUFA metabolome in mice skin and blood before and after cupping treatment. The significantly changed lipids were administered in macrophages to assess the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α by ELISA. Results: The anti-inflammatory lipids, e.g. PGE1, 5,6-EET, 14,15-EET, 10S,17S-DiHDoHE, 17R-RvD1, RvD5 and 14S-HDoHE were significantly increased while pro-inflammatory lipids, e.g. 12-HETE and TXB2 were deceased in the skin or plasma post cupping treatment. Cupping treatment reversed the LPS-stimulated IL-6 and TNF-α expression in mouse peritoneal exudates. Moreover, 5,6-EET, PGE1 decreased the level of TNF-α, while 5,6-EET, 5,6-DHET downregulated IL-6 production in macrophages. Importantly, 14,15-EET and 14S-HDoHE inhibited both IL-6 and TNF-α induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. 17-RvD1, RvD5 and PGE1 significantly reduced the LPS-initiated TNF-α, while TXB2 and 12-HETE further upregulated the LPS-enhanced IL-6 and TNF-α expression in macrophages. Conclusion: Our results reveal the identities of anti-inflammatory versus pro-inflammatory metabolipidome and suggest the potential therapeutic mechanism of cupping treatment.
Shaffie, E.; Hanif, W. M. M. Wan; Arshad, A. K.; Hashim, W.
Rutting is the most common pavement distress in pavement structures which occurs mainly due to several factors such as increasing of traffic volume, climatic conditions and also due to construction design errors. This failure reduced the service life of the pavement, reduced driver safety and increase cost of maintenance. Polymer Modified Binder has been observed for a long time in improving asphalt pavement performance. Research shows that the use of polymer in bituminous mix not only improve the resistance to rutting but also increase the life span of the pavement. This research evaluates the physical properties and rutting performance of dense graded Superpave-designed HMA mix. Two different types of dense graded Superpave HMA mix were developed consists of unmodified binder mix (UMB) and cup lumps rubber (liquid form) modified binder mix (CLMB). Natural rubber polymer modified binder was prepared from addition of 8 percent of cup lumps into binder. Results showed that all the mixes passed the Superpave volumetric properties criteria which indicate that these mixtures were good with respect to durability and flexibility. Furthermore, rutting results from APA rutting test was determined to evaluate the performance of these mixtures. The rutting result of CLMB demonstrates better resistance to rutting than those prepared using UMB mix. Addition of cup lumps rubber in asphalt mixture was found to be significant, where the cup lumps rubber has certainly improves the binder properties and enhanced its rutting resistance due to greater elasticity offered by the cup lumps rubber particles. It shows that the use of cup lumps rubber can significantly reduce the rut depth of asphalt mixture by 41% compared to the minimum rut depth obtained for the UMB mix. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cup lumps rubber is suitable to be used as a modifier to modified binder in order to enhance the properties of the binder and thus improves the performance of asphalt mixes.
Rozenfeld, Evgeni; Kalichman, Leonid
Cupping is an ancient technique used in treating pain and various disorders. Different techniques have been developed over time, however, applying a cup to create suction over a painful area, is common to all. Dry or fire cupping, used on the intact skin, leaves bluish circular hematomas. Recently, interest in cupping has re-emerged and subsequently, several studies have begun to investigate the mechanisms of cupping therapy. Mechanically, cupping increases blood circulation, whereas physiologically it activates the immune system and stimulates the mechanosensitive fibers, thus leading to a reduction in pain. There is initial scientific evidence that dry cupping is able to reduce musculoskeletal pain. Since cupping is an inexpensive, noninvasive and low-risk (if performed by a trained practitioner) therapeutic modality, we believe that it should be included in the arsenal of musculoskeletal medicine. It is essential to perform additional studies clarifying the biological mechanism and clinical effects of cupping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lowe, Duane T
Cupping therapy is a traditional therapy that has been employed worldwide for thousands of years. Despite a lack of quality clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of cupping therapy, its long history and widespread use throughout the world suggests the commonly claimed health benefits should not be completely discounted as without merit. The goal of this paper is to present the research detailing what is known concerning the effects of suction on skin and underlying tissue, and the reaction of the body to that stimulus. Understanding the literature on the physiological effects of this mechanical force may help elaborate an explanation for the advertised local and systemic effects of cupping therapy. Negative pressure causes stretching of the skin and underlying tissue and dilation of the capillaries. This stimulates an increase in tissue blood flow, eventually leading to capillary rupture and ecchymosis. Macrophages phagocytize the erythrocytes in the extravascular space which stimulates the production of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) to metabolize the heme. Heme catalysis results in the production of carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin(BV)/bilirubin(BR) and iron. HO-1, BV, BR, and CO has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and neuromodulatory effects in animal and human systems. These substances also stimulate a shift of macrophages to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. There is evidence that the effects are both local and systemic. Besides the mechanical effect of cupping increasing the local blood flow and stretching underlying tissue, activation of the HO-1 system could account for many of cupping therapy's claimed local and systemic health benefits. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available In the introduction the author presents some reflections, interpretations and misconceptions about football. The main emphasis is on the irrelevant contextualization(s. Two key questions are highlighted: on the one hand, the connection between football and its installation into the vast social and political context – because of its global dimensions football can be viewed as an important structural component in the global capitalist system. On the other hand, the article tries to draw the (perilous distinction between the understanding of »football« (in its broadest definition and »the game of football« (concerning its philosophy and complexity. From that point of view the author focuses on a certain aspect in the game of football where relations between players are based on relatively equal roles – this concept is the origin of representing the idea and potential of different forms of association and integration between individuals, collectives and communities.
Engh, Mari Haugaa
From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girls....... This Focus draws on academic research, media reports and interviews with national team players to highlight the struggles and victories of South African women footballers over the last 40 years. Despite numerous challenges and setbacks, womenB football has experienced immense growth over the past 15 years....... Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....
Full Text Available Football is probably the world’s most popular game, with a huge number of fans. There are numerous ways in which football fans express dedication to their club and the feelings they have for their team, for example, wearing certain colours, waving banners and flags, and singing. Football anthems are nothing new for football fans, and many clubs have a long-established tradition of them. In this paper, I will address and compare the language in some popular British and Slovene football anthems, and attempt to explain its contribution to the creation of fan identity, to the fans’ sense of belonging, unity, and motivation. The linguistic analysis identities the linguistic resources used in football anthems to express attitudes, form bonds and create identities.
Engh, Mari Haugaa; Agergaard, Sine; Maguire, Joseph
This article examines Scandinavian constructions and readings of potential football migrants from the African continent by providing an investigation of the dynamics and narratives surrounding African football teams’ participation in three youth football tournaments. Drawing on Elias and Scotson...... in Scandinavian women’s football. Ethnographic observations were conducted at three Scandinavian youth football tournaments, and interviews were conducted with tournament organizers and representatives from participating women’s clubs/teams. The data suggest that a particular representation of self, on the part...... of the tournament organizers, as being providers of ‘development’ and gender equity programmes to African teams, is fundamental in maintaining the established-outsider power relations between Scandinavian and African football teams....
characteristics or aerobic capacitymeasures across the football player positions in female elite football players when we apply traditional laboratory tests (i.e. VO2max and anaerobic threshold). We speculate whether this may be caused by the parameters not being sufficiently sensitive to differentiate between...... on four articles that focus on physical testing and training for elite and sub-elite football players.The first article (Study I) aims to identify and establish aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female football players with the use of laboratory tests, and to examine whether...... laboratory tests of physical fitness of football players are not suitable to detect physical differences between elite female football players in different playing positions. This indicates that they are not sufficiently related to the relevant physical parameters of each playing position (i.e. low...
Rothenberg, Paul; Grau, Luis; Kaplan, Lee; Baraga, Michael G
Football has the highest injury rate amongst popular American sports. Of those injuries that end seasons or careers, the knee is the most common culprit. This is of particular concern because knee injuries are most common in football. This article reviews 4 of the most common knee injuries in American football, with emphasis on epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. The injuries reviewed are tears of the anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, medial patellofemoral ligament, and posterior cruciate ligament.
Abstract: This thesis is based on data stemming from fieldwork conducted during the spring of 2007, in a professional football club in Lisbon, Portugal. I am interested in how migrant players from the former colonies are included in the local football community. This thesis thus explores the inclusion and exclusion mechanisms of Portuguese football. The ethnographic approach led me to an exploration of local manifestations of global migration processes. Foreign players are making their ma...
Adam J Woods
Full Text Available In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, & Football Official made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls (F (2, 48 = 10.4, p < .001, with Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases.
Title: The club development of american football in the Czech Republic In the first part of this thesis American football is introduced, explaining basic game principles and describing the game so that the reader can imagine what the sport is all about. The second part then focuses on examining the emergence of particular American football clubs in the Czech Republic. The whole period is divided into several stages, with a strong focus on finding a common denominator of individual events. The...
Woods, Adam J; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matt; Chatterjee, Anjan
In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F (2,48) = 10.4, p Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases.
PANAGIOTIS E. DIMITROPOULOS
The year 1979 was a cornerstone for the football in Greece, since it practically meant the transformation of the sport’s organization from amateurism to professionalism, establishing new rules and conditions to the management of football clubs. The increased popularity of this sport and the evolutions that took place in Europe and worldwide, forced the Greek government to establish a legislative framework for the successful management of football clubs. These interventions lead to changes in ...
This research explores globalisation and Indonesian football. Understanding that football around the globe has transformed rapidly in the past few decades, with the rise of mega clubs, global competition, rising income, TV coverage, and Internet, the research considers what these changes mean for Persib, a legendary football club in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, as well as for their fanatic supporters known as bobotoh, particularly Viking – the largest group of Persib fans. It analyses the d...
Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.
Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, Pfootball athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (−0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829
Full Text Available Introduction: In this research the authors used a questionnaire of 8 questions of closed type, and 2 questions of open type. The basic aim of the research is to understand what young football players feel about their coach, team-mates and football as a sports game. Methods: The research involved 54 male football players who have active trainings in football clubs FC “2 korrik” in Prishtina. They are at the age between 14 and 16 and have active training experience of 2 years at least. After explaining the point of the research to the respondents, the inquiry that was of an anonymous type began. Answers to the questions in the questionnaire are presented basic statistic indexes: central and dominant value. Opinions of the respondents are represented through frequencies by chi-square test. Results: The results of the answers are represented in 2 tables and for better exposition they are presented in 8 graphics. The received answers indicate that it is the positive feeling that prevails among the football players with regard to their coach, team-mates and the football game. Particularly interesting answers are given to the two questions of open type. Discussion: On the base of the obtained answers, the results of this research show that the inquired football players have a positive opinion about the coach – his regularity, professional work and proper treatment of the players. Their opinion is positive towards their team-mates as well (coming on time for training, collaboration and friendship. In addition, the football players have a positive attitude towards football – desire for training, contests and expectation for a high success. References: Creswell JW (2009. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Method Approaches. Sage. Miller TI, Miller KM (2000. Ankete za gra¬đa¬ne: Kako anketirati građane, kako se služiti anketama i što one znače. ICMA, Wash¬ing¬ton. Murphy-Black T (2000. Questionnaire. The Research Process
Ge, Weiqing; Leson, Chelsea; Vukovic, Corey
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dry cupping on pain and function of patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine subjects (age 15 to 59 years old, 20 females and 9 males), randomly assigned into the two groups (dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy groups), participated in this study. The research design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatments were provided to the subjects twice a week for 4 weeks. Outcome measurements included the Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS) (at rest, first in the morning, and with activities), the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), as well as the pressure pain threshold. [Results]The data indicated that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function significantly in the population tested, as all the 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) did not include 0 except for the pressure pain threshold. There was no significant difference between the dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation groups in all the outcome measurements. [Conclusion] These results support that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function in the population tested.
Broyer, Risa M; Monfort, Elena; Wilhelm, James E
The proper regulation of the localization, translation, and stability of maternally deposited transcripts is essential for embryonic development in many organisms. These different forms of regulation are mediated by the various protein subunits of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that assemble on maternal mRNAs. However, while many of the subunits that regulate the localization and translation of maternal transcripts have been identified, relatively little is known about how maternal mRNAs are stockpiled and stored in a stable form to support early development. One of the best characterized regulators of maternal transcripts is Cup - a broadly conserved component of the maternal RNP complex that in Drosophila acts as a translational repressor of the localized message oskar. In this study, we have found that loss of cup disrupts the localization of both the oskar mRNA and its associated proteins to the posterior pole of the developing oocyte. This defect is not due to a failure to specify the oocyte or to disruption of RNP transport. Rather, the localization defects are due to a drop in oskar mRNA levels in cup mutant egg chambers. Thus, in addition to its role in regulating oskar mRNA translation, Cup also plays a critical role in controlling the stability of the oskar transcript. This suggests that Cup is ideally positioned to coordinate the translational control function of the maternal RNP complex with its role in storing maternal transcripts in a stable form. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Friis Pedersen, T.; Schmidt Paulsen, U. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)
The present classification of cup-anemometers is based on a procedure for classification of operational characteristics of cup-anemometers that was proposed at the EWEC `97 conference in Dublin 1997. Three definitions of wind speed are considered. The average longitudinal wind speed (ID), the average horizontal wind speed (2D) and the average vector wind speed (3D). The classification is provided in these terms, and additionally, the turbulence intensities, which are defined from the same wind speed definitions. The commercial cup-anemometers have all been calibrated in wind tunnel for the normal calibrations and angular characteristics. Friction was measured by blywheel testing, where the surrounding temperatures were varied over a wide range. The characteristics of the cup-anemometers have been fitted to the heuristic dynamic model, and the response has been calculated in time domain for prescribed ranges of external operational conditions. The results are presented in ranges of maximum deviations of `measured` average wind speed. For each definition of wind speed and turbulence intensity, the cup-anemometers are ranked according to the most precise instrument. Finally, the most important systematic error sources are commented. (au)
Tramacere, F; Follador, M; Pugno, N M; Mazzolai, B
Octopus suckers are able to attach to all nonporous surfaces and generate a very strong attachment force. The well-known attachment features of this animal result from the softness of the sucker tissues and the surface morphology of the portion of the sucker that is in contact with objects or substrates. Unlike artificial suction cups, octopus suckers are characterized by a series of radial grooves that increase the area subjected to pressure reduction during attachment. In this study, we constructed artificial suction cups with different surface geometries and tested their attachment performances using a pull-off setup. First, smooth suction cups were obtained for casting; then, sucker surfaces were engraved with a laser cutter. As expected, for all the tested cases, the engraving treatment enhanced the attachment performance of the elastomeric suction cups compared with that of the smooth versions. Moreover, the results indicated that the surface geometry with the best attachment performance was the geometry most similar to octopus sucker morphology. The results obtained in this work can be utilized to design artificial suction cups with higher wet attachment performance.
Follador, M; Tramacere, F; Mazzolai, B
Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms.
Follador, M; Tramacere, F; Mazzolai, B
Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms. (paper)
Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol
In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world's governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker's foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key PointsShin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries.Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.
Fitzharris, Nigel; Jones, Gareth; Jones, Ashley; Francis, Peter
Football has the highest sports participation (10.6%) in Ireland ahead of its Gaelic counterpart (3.9%). Research into injury incidence and patterns in Irish football is non-existent. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective injury audit of League of Ireland (semiprofessional) footballers during the 2014 season (8 months, 28 games). A total of 140 semiprofessional League of Ireland footballers were prospectively followed between March and November 2014. Data were collected in accordance with the international consensus on football injury epidemiology. The injury rate was 9.2/1000 hour exposure to football (95% CI 6.2 to 12.9, pinjury during a match compared with training (23.1 (95% CI 15.2 to 31.3) vs 4.8 (95% CI 2.2 to 7.7)/1000 hours, pInjuries were most common during non-contact activity (54.6%), mainly running (30.9%), and occurred almost three times more often in the second half (56% vs 21%, pinjury types, and the thigh region was injured most often (28.3%). The prevalence of injury in League of Ireland football is similar to that of European professional football, although the incidence of injury is higher. The incidence of injury is in line with that of Dutch amateur football.
Cláudio Vicente Di Gioia Ferreira Silva; Luiz Alberto Nascimento Campos Filho
Football as a business is a chance of socio economic leverage. Football organizations need to become modern since the Brazilian society is unhappy with the quality of service provide and clubs, mostly emerged on debts, end up devaluating their brands associated with an inefficient administration. In 1998, a new factor came to influence this scenario: it was sanctioned the Law no. 9.615, know as “Lei Pelé”, which extinguished the pass of football players. Before that, football clubs have as th...
Sanz-Andrés, Ángel; Pindado, Santiago; Sorribes-Palmer, Félix
The calibration coefficients of two commercial anemometers equipped with different rotors were studied. The rotor cups had the same conical shape, while the size and distance to the rotation axis varied. The analysis was based on the 2-cup positions analytical model, derived using perturbation methods to include second-order effects such as pressure distribution along the rotating cups and friction. The comparison with the experimental data indicates a nonuniform distribution of aerodynamic forces on the rotating cups, with higher forces closer to the rotating axis. The 2-cup analytical model is proven to be accurate enough to study the effect of complex forces on cup anemometer performance.
Killowe, C; Mkandawire, NC
A study was conducted among football players and team doctors in the football super league in Malawi to determine the level of knowledge, skills and attitude in sports medicine. One hundred football players and thirteen team doctors were involved in the study. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect data in an interview format. Among the players 37% had completed tertiary education and 60% had finished secondary school education. Most players had poor knowledge on prevention of injur...
Full Text Available Head injuries are very common in children. All over the world, the most common mechanism is fall. These injuries are more prevalent in developing countries due to lack of education, poverty, lack of standard and scientific ways to child upbringing. Penetrating injuries in pediatric patients is extremely uncommon and usually occur due to sharp objects like knife, screw driver, drills, nails. We are reporting a rare case of a child with penetrating head injury due to tea cup, very commonly used crockery in every house hold. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has ever been reported in world literature. Our case also emphasized the need for educating people about child care.
Many people around the world will remember 2014 as the year Brazil hosted the football World Cup. But for Brazil's science communities, the decisions made by the new government could leave scars much deeper than the semi-final defeat.
Ling, Helen; Morris, Huw R; Neal, James W; Lees, Andrew J; Hardy, John; Holton, Janice L; Revesz, Tamas; Williams, David D R
In retired professional association football (soccer) players with a past history of repetitive head impacts, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a potential neurodegenerative cause of dementia and motor impairments. From 1980 to 2010, 14 retired footballers with dementia were followed up regularly until death. Their clinical data, playing career, and concussion history were prospectively collected. Next-of-kin provided consent for six to have post-mortem brain examination. Of the 14 male participants, 13 were professional and 1 was a committed amateur. All were skilled headers of the ball and had played football for an average of 26 years. Concussion rate was limited in six cases to one episode each during their careers. All cases developed progressive cognitive impairment with an average age at onset of 63.6 years and disease duration of 10 years. Neuropathological examination revealed septal abnormalities in all six post-mortem cases, supportive of a history of chronic repetitive head impacts. Four cases had pathologically confirmed CTE; concomitant pathologies included Alzheimer's disease (N = 6), TDP-43 (N = 6), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (N = 5), hippocampal sclerosis (N = 2), corticobasal degeneration (N = 1), dementia with Lewy bodies (N = 1), and vascular pathology (N = 1); and all would have contributed synergistically to the clinical manifestations. The pathological diagnosis of CTE was established in four individuals according to the latest consensus diagnostic criteria. This finding is probably related to their past prolonged exposure to repetitive head impacts from head-to-player collisions and heading the ball thousands of time throughout their careers. Alzheimer's disease and TDP-43 pathologies are common concomitant findings in CTE, both of which are increasingly considered as part of the CTE pathological entity in older individuals. Association football is the most popular sport in the world and the potential link between
Xiong, Zilan; Graves, David B.
A novel plasma treatment method/plasma source called cupping-assisted plasma treatment/source for skin disinfection is introduced. The idea combines ancient Chinese ‘cupping’ technology with plasma sources to generate active plasma inside an isolated, pressure-controlled chamber attached to the skin. Advantages of lower pressure include reducing the threshold voltage for plasma ignition and improving the spatial uniformity of the plasma treatment. In addition, with reduced pressure inside the cup, skin pore permeability might be increased and it improves attachment of the plasma device to the skin. Moreover, at a given pressure, plasma-generated active species are restricted inside the cup, raising local reactive species concentration and enhancing the measured surface disinfection rate. A surface micro-discharge (SMD) device is used as an example of a working plasma source. We report discharge characteristics and disinfection efficiency as a function of pressure and applied voltage.
Olson, David; Sikka, Robby S; Labounty, Abby; Christensen, Trent
Professional football is one of the most popular sports in the United States. There is a common constellation of injuries that are seen frequently. Much attention has been focused on concussions and their long-term outcomes in this population. Other common causes of morbidity include cervical spine injuries, knee injuries including anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous injuries, ankle sprains, and medical issues including cardiac and sickle trait. Several recent studies have focused on hip impingement and hamstring injuries, among others, as sources of missed playing time as well. This review describes some of the frequently seen injuries and medical issues in professional football players. Proper management of both medical disease and on-field injuries can reduce morbidity and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury.
In his analysis of football hooliganism, Anthony King claims to reveal the historical, conceptual scheme young, male supporters draw upon. This 'masculine vision', he states, is similar to that held by the Freikorps. Both groups are said to adhere to modernist notions of masculinity, sexuality and nationhood, reinforced by rituals which maintain boundaries between these 'proper' males and deviant 'others'. Occasionally, football hooligans breach these boundaries in acts of postmodern transgression. King also claims that fans link sex and violence in their imaginations. In this response I examine King's critique of his fellow theorists; challenge his 'Freikorps-Fans' analogy; demonstrate the problem he has in establishing the sex-violence link and question the relevance of his concept of postmodernity.
Love, Jessica; Walker, Abby
Can the topic of a conversation, when heavily associated with a particular dialect region, influence how a speaker realizes a linguistic variable? We interviewed fans of English Premier League soccer at a pub in Columbus, Ohio. Nine speakers of British English and eleven speakers of American English were interviewed about their favorite American football and English soccer teams. We present evidence that the soccer fans in this speech community produce variants more consistent with Standard American English when talking about American football than English soccer. Specifically, speakers were overall more /r/-ful (F3 values were lower in rhotic environments) when talking about their favorite American football team. Numeric trends in the data also suggest that exposure to both American and British English, being a fan of both sports, and task may mediate these effects.
Joel R. Bock
Full Text Available Turnovers in the National Football League (NFL occur whenever a team loses possession of the ball due to a fumble, or an interception. Turnovers disrupt momentum of the offensive team, and represent lost opportunities to advance downfield and score. Teams with a positive differential turnover margin in a given game win 70 % of the time. Turnovers are statistically rare events, occurring apparently randomly. These characteristics make them difficult to predict. This investigation advances the hypothesis that turnovers are predictable in NFL football. Machine learning models are developed to learn the concept: At any point within a football game, what is the likelihood that a turnover will be observed on the next play from scrimmage? NFL play-by-play data for 32 teams spanning seven full seasons were used to train the models. Results presented suggest evidence to support the working hypothesis. Under certain conditions, both fumbles and interceptions can be anticipated at low false discovery rates (less than 15 % . When a turnover is predicted on the impending play from scrimmage, a high degree of confidence is associated with that prediction. The ability to anticipate catastrophic in-game events may lead to their management and control, ultimately improving the performance of individual athletes and their teams. This investigation contributes to the sports science literature by demonstrating the predictability of in-game events often considered to be essentially random in their occurrence. To the author’s knowledge, direct prediction of turnovers has not previously appeared in the literature, which has focused on retrospective statistical analyses of turnover margin in football games.
We aimed to identify any pattern of injuries that impacted on the long-term physical wellbeing o f players, sustained by Senior County Gaelic-football players during their playing career and the impact of those injuries on their quality of life. A questionnaire was sent to different Donegal-Panels looking for injuries and surgical procedures undergone in playing and post-playing career including chronic joint and musculoskeletal problems.
Alton, Timothy B; Patel, Amit M; Lee, Michael J; Chapman, Jens R
Cervical spondylolysis (CS) is a rare condition and is even more uncommon in pediatric patients. It is characterized by a disruption of the articular mass at the junction of the superior and inferior facet joints and often is diagnosed incidentally. The C6 level is most commonly involved, and the cause of CS remains unknown. There are no recommendations in the literature regarding activity modification in patients with CS and no discussion as to risks of participation in American football or other contact sports. To report a case of C6 bilateral cervical spondylolysis with bicuspid spinous process and to discuss radiographic/clinical findings and issues related to participation in contact sports and minimizing the risk of spinal cord injury. Case report with 6 months clinical/radiographic follow-up Radiographic description, clinical findings, and current review of the literature. A pediatric patient presented with a bilateral C6 cervical spondylolysis and bicuspid spinous process after an American football-related minor cervical spine trauma. Findings on radiographs indicated that the spondylolysis appeared to be chronic in nature, without evidence of instability. The patient and his family were educated on ways to decrease the risk of spinal cord injury with contact sports, after which the patient was allowed to participate fully in sports without restrictions or adverse events. Pediatric cervical spondylolysis is a rare condition, the cause of which remains debated. Although there is theoretical risk, more than 1.5 million youth participate in American football annually, and there have been no reported cases of significant spinal cord injury in patients with CS from football or other contact sports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marker, L B; Klareskov, B
Posterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint is uncommon, accounting for less than 0.1% of all dislocations. Since 1824 a little more than 100 cases have been reported, and the majority in the past 20 years. A review of published reports suggests that this injury is seen particularly in co...... in connection with American football. A typical case is described. The importance of this injury is that there is often a delay in diagnosis with potentially serious complications....
Silvia M Bello
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of human braincases as drinking cups and containers has extensive historic and ethnographic documentation, but archaeological examples are extremely rare. In the Upper Palaeolithic of western Europe, cut-marked and broken human bones are widespread in the Magdalenian (∼15 to 12,000 years BP and skull-cup preparation is an element of this tradition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the post-mortem processing of human heads at the Upper Palaeolithic site of Gough's Cave (Somerset, England and identify a range of modifications associated with the production of skull-cups. New analyses of human remains from Gough's Cave demonstrate the skilled post-mortem manipulation of human bodies. Results of the research suggest the processing of cadavers for the consumption of body tissues (bone marrow, accompanied by meticulous shaping of cranial vaults. The distribution of cut-marks and percussion features indicates that the skulls were scrupulously 'cleaned' of any soft tissues, and subsequently modified by controlled removal of the facial region and breakage of the cranial base along a sub-horizontal plane. The vaults were also 'retouched', possibly to make the broken edges more regular. This manipulation suggests the shaping of skulls to produce skull-cups. CONCLUSIONS: Three skull-cups have been identified amongst the human bones from Gough's Cave. New ultrafiltered radiocarbon determinations provide direct dates of about 14,700 cal BP, making these the oldest directly dated skull-cups and the only examples known from the British Isles.
Friis Pedersen, Troels
The characteristics of the RISØ P2546 cup anemometer were investigated in detail by wind tunnel and laboratory tests. The characteristics include accredited calibration, tilt response measurements for tilt angles between -40° to 40°, gust responsemeasurements at 8m/s and turbulence intensities...... of 10%, 16% and 23%, step response measurements at step wind speeds 3,7, 8, 11,9 and 15,2m/s, measurement of torque characteristics at 8m/s, rotor inertia measurements and measurements of friction ofbearings at temperatures -20°C to 40°C. Characteristics were fitted to a time domain cup anemometer model...